Science.gov

Sample records for legacy management lm

  1. Digitizing the Administrative Records of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (Em) and Office of Legacy Management (LM) Ohio Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Williams, K.; Walpole, S.; McKinney, R.

    2007-07-01

    As former weapons sites close and are transitioned to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM), continued public involvement is essential for the successful turnover of long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities. During the environmental remediation process, public participation was a key factor in cleanup completion. The same level of commitment to encourage active public participation is true for the LTS and M activities at the LM sites, such as the Miamisburg Closure Project and the Fernald Closure Project. Community members participate in the transition and the decision-making processes for LTS and M as they did for the selection of response actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup process. [1] A key part of the post-closure activities for the Ohio Sites transitioning to LM from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) is the preservation of site history and stakeholder involvement in the LTS and M activities that will continue during post-closure. In meeting the regulatory requirements of providing the CERCLA Administrative Record Reading Room for public access and to ensure that appropriate records are retrievable and available for all stakeholders, a decision was made to digitize the Miamisburg Closure Project and the Fernald Closure Project Administrative Records. This decision was, in part, based on the information and lessons learned from the digitization of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) CERCLA Administrative Records (AR). The Ohio Sites effort was expanded to include the Living History Project from the Fernald Closure Project. In most cases, the CERCLA AR maintained by EM closure sites and transitioned to LM will provide adequate baselines for identifying and capturing the information required by LM for post-closure stewardship of the sites. The AR established under Section 113(k) [2] of CERCLA serves two primary

  2. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  3. Ten Years of Legacy Management: U.S. DOE Office of Legacy Management Accomplishments - 13246

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Tony; Miller, Judith

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to provide a long-term, sustainable solution to environmental impacts that remain from nuclear weapons production during World War II and the Cold War. The production activities created adverse environmental conditions at over 100 sites. When LM was established on December 15, 2003, it became responsible for 33 sites where active environmental remediation was complete. Currently, LM is responsible for long-term surveillance and maintenance of environmental remedies, promotion of beneficial reuse of land and buildings, and management of records and information at 89 sites in 29 states and Puerto Rico. LM is also responsible for meeting contractual obligations associated with former contractor workers' pensions and post-retirement benefits. Effectively addressing this environmental and human legacy will continue to require a focused and well-managed effort. (authors)

  4. Office of Legacy Management. Information and Records Management. Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    2004-03-01

    The Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. LM will work with each site using an integrated team approach to ensure a successful transition. Part of this process will include transition of Government records and information. The Office of Legacy Management Information and Records Management Transition Guidance focuses on LM’s goal to preserve and protect legacy records and information. This guidance document establishes a framework for the transfer of records management responsibilities for sites transferring to LM. It describes the requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for the efficient and cost-effective transfer of custody, ownership, and management of records and other information products from the transfer site to LM. Records management practices are critical to the functions of Federal agencies because records provide information about, or evidence of, the organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other activities. Therefore, the information generated by an agency is created, maintained, and dispositioned through records management processes that ensure the appropriate preservation and retrieval of essential information. Because of their intrinsic value, best practices to preserve information and records should be utilized when records are transferred from one organization to another. As the transfer program completes cleanup activities at closure sites, a transitional process will facilitate the transparent shift in the management of site records activities to LM. The roles and responsibilities of the transfer site and/or program and LM described in this document are a necessary foundation for cooperation and coordination and are essential to the successful transition of records and

  5. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management Program Update, April-June 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    Welcome to the April-June 2009 issue of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Program Update. This publication is designed to provide a status of activities within LM. The Legacy Management goals are: (1) Protect human health and the environment through effective and efficient long-term surveillance and maintenance - This goal highlights DOE's responsibility to ensure long-term protection of people, the environment, and the integrity of engineered remedies and monitoring systems. (2) Preserve, protect, and make accessible legacy records and information - This goal recognizes LM's commitment to successfully manage records, information, and archives of legacy sites under its authority. (3) Support an effective and efficient work force structured to accomplish Departmental missions and assure continuity of contractor worker pension and medical benefits - This goal recognizes DOE's commitment to its contracted work force and the consistent management of pension and health benefits. As sites continue to close, DOE faces the challenges of managing pension plan and health benefits liability. (4) Manage legacy land and assets, emphasizing protective real and personal property reuse and disposition - This goal recognizes a DOE need for local collaborative management of legacy assets, including coordinating land use planning, personal property disposition to community reuse organizations, and protecting heritage resources (natural, cultural, and historical). (5) Improve program effectiveness through sound management - This goal recognizes that LM's goals cannot be attained efficiently unless the federal and contractor work force is motivated to meet requirements and work toward continuous performance improvement.

  6. Overview of Science and Technology Improvements at Office of Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, S.; Bartlett, T.; Boylan, J.; Carpenter, C.; Miller, D.; Kothari, V.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) supports science and technology (S and T) initiatives to more effectively manage LM sites, help protect human health and the environment, and reduce long-term costs of site maintenance and remediation by ensuring that sound engineering and scientific principles are used. Through the use of telemetry, LM's SOARS (System Operation and Analysis of Remote Sites) project provides project scientists and engineers with timely information needed to evaluate, maintain, and optimize remediation systems, while limiting the amount of required travel. This paper presents three recent S and T activities focused on enhancing remediation of ground water at LM sites. (authors)

  7. Cesium legacy safety project management work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J.S.

    1998-04-21

    This Management Work Plan (MWP) describes the process flow, quality assurance controls, and the Environment, Safety, and Health requirements of the Cesium Legacy Safety Project. This MWP provides an overview of the project goals and methods for repackaging the non-conforming Type W overpacks and packaging the CsCl powder and pellets. This MWP is not intended to apply to other activities associated with the CsCl Legacy Safety Program (i.e., clean out of South Cell).

  8. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brain B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management's Tribal Interactions - 12513

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, April; Shafer, David; Elmer, John

    2012-07-01

    Effective government-to-government interactions with tribal nations and maintaining stakeholder relations with members of tribes are increasingly important to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). As of October 2011, LM was responsible for long-term surveillance and maintenance of 87 sites and facilities in the continental U.S. and Puerto Rico, including some sites on tribal lands. The sites on tribal lands can affect natural resources that are managed or used by tribes, or the sites can potentially affect areas of cultural significance to tribal nations in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Tribes are separate sovereign governments recognized in the U.S. Constitution and are significant stakeholders for LM sites. The tribes are individual nations with diverse histories, cultures, customs, religions, and laws. LM has regular communication with the affected tribes to inform members of issues, to allow the tribe to participate in decision making, to provide technical reviews, and to ensure tribal concerns are addressed. Four LM sites are in the Navajo Nation. Three of those sites contain uranium mill tailings disposal cells regulated under long-term surveillance and maintenance programs that require monitoring and annual inspections. The fourth site was remediated but still has a groundwater plume that LM is responsible for. DOE and LM have worked with the Navajo Nation for almost 30 years on technical issues and to ensure tribal concerns are addressed. (authors)

  10. Office of Legacy Management Decision Tree for Solar Photovoltaic Projects - 13317

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, John; Butherus, Michael; Barr, Deborah L.

    2013-07-01

    To support consideration of renewable energy power development as a land reuse option, the DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) established a partnership to conduct an assessment of wind and solar renewable energy resources on LM lands. From a solar capacity perspective, the larger sites in the western United States present opportunities for constructing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects. A detailed analysis and preliminary plan was developed for three large sites in New Mexico, assessing the costs, the conceptual layout of a PV system, and the electric utility interconnection process. As a result of the study, a 1,214-hectare (3,000-acre) site near Grants, New Mexico, was chosen for further study. The state incentives, utility connection process, and transmission line capacity were key factors in assessing the feasibility of the project. LM's Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site was also chosen for consideration because the uranium mill tailings disposal cell is on a hillside facing south, transmission lines cross the property, and the community was very supportive of the project. LM worked with the regulators to demonstrate that the disposal cell's long-term performance would not be impacted by the installation of a PV solar system. A number of LM-unique issues were resolved in making the site available for a private party to lease a portion of the site for a solar PV project. A lease was awarded in September 2012. Using a solar decision tree that was developed and launched by the EPA and NREL, LM has modified and expanded the decision tree structure to address the unique aspects and challenges faced by LM on its multiple sites. The LM solar decision tree covers factors such as land ownership, usable acreage, financial viability of the project, stakeholder involvement, and transmission line capacity. As additional sites are transferred to LM in the future, the decision tree will assist in determining whether a solar

  11. Managing a project's legacy: implications for organizations and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Majchrzak, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Organizations that rely on projects to implement their products must find effective mechanisms for propagating lessons learned on one project throughout the organization. A broad view of what constitutes a project's 'legacy' is presented that includes not just the design products and leftover parts, but new processes, relationships, technology, skills, planning data, and performance metrics. Based on research evaluating knowledge reuse in innovative contexts, this paper presents an approach to project legacy management that focuses on collecting and using legacy knowledge to promote organizational learning and effective reuse, while addressing factors of post-project responsibility, information obsolescence, and the importance of ancillary contextual information. .

  12. Managing a project's legacy: implications for organizations and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Majchrzak, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Organizations that rely on projects to implement their products must find effective mechanisms for propagating lessons learned on one project throughout the organization. A broad view of what constitutes a project's 'legacy' is presented that includes not just the design products and leftover parts, but new processes, relationships, technology, skills, planning data, and performance metrics. Based on research evaluating knowledge reuse in innovative contexts, this paper presents an approach to project legacy management that focuses on collecting and using legacy knowledge to promote organizational learning and effective reuse, while addressing factors of post-project responsibility, information obsolescence, and the importance of ancillary contextual information. .

  13. Legacy Management CERCLA Sites. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Donna L.

    2007-05-03

    S.M. Stoller Corporation is the contractor for the Technical Assistance Contract (TAC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) operations. Stoller employs a management system that applies to all programs, projects, and business management systems funded through DOE-LM task orders. The management system incorporates the philosophy, policies, and requirements of health and safety, environmental compliance, and quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of project planning and implementation. Health and safety requirements are documented in the Health and Safety Manual (STO 2), the Radiological Control Manual (STO 3), the Integrated Safety Management System Description (STO 10), and the Drilling Health and Safety Requirements (STO 14). Environmental compliance policy and requirements are documented in the Environmental Management Program Implementation Manual (STO 11). The QA Program is documented in the Quality Assurance Manual (STO 1). The QA Manual (STO 1) implements the specific requirements and philosophy of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance. This manual also includes the requirements of other standards that are regularly imposed by customers, regulators, or other DOE orders. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 830, “Quality Assurance Requirements,” ANSI/ASQC E4-2004, “Quality Systems for Environmental Data and Technology Programs – Requirements with Guidance for Use,” and ISO 14001-2004, “Environmental Management Systems,” have been included. These standards are similar in content. The intent of the QA Manual (STO 1) is to provide a QA management system that incorporates the requirements and philosophy of DOE and other customers within the QA Manual. Criterion 1, “Quality Assurance Program,” identifies the fundamental requirements for establishing and implementing the QA management system; QA Instruction (QAI) 1.1, “QA Program Implementation,” identifies the TAC organizations that have responsibility for

  14. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Management Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Nitschke, Robert Leon

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: • Risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other end states) • Risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities • Comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs • Ranking of programs or activities by risk • Ranking of wastes/materials by risk • Evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress • Integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

  15. Managing and Documenting Legacy Scientific Workflows.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ruben; Chomilier, Jacques; Lacroix, Zoé

    2015-10-06

    Scientific legacy workflows are often developed over many years, poorly documented and implemented with scripting languages. In the context of our cross-disciplinary projects we face the problem of maintaining such scientific workflows. This paper presents the Workflow Instrumentation for Structure Extraction (WISE) method used to process several ad-hoc legacy workflows written in Python and automatically produce their workflow structural skeleton. Unlike many existing methods, WISE does not assume input workflows to be preprocessed in a known workflow formalism. It is also able to identify and analyze calls to external tools. We present the method and report its results on several scientific workflows.

  16. Design Science Research toward Designing/Prototyping a Repeatable Model for Testing Location Management (LM) Algorithms for Wireless Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to develop a model that provides repeatable Location Management (LM) testing using a network simulation tool, QualNet version 5.1 (2011). The model will provide current and future protocol developers a framework to simulate stable protocol environments for development. This study used the Design Science…

  17. Design Science Research toward Designing/Prototyping a Repeatable Model for Testing Location Management (LM) Algorithms for Wireless Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to develop a model that provides repeatable Location Management (LM) testing using a network simulation tool, QualNet version 5.1 (2011). The model will provide current and future protocol developers a framework to simulate stable protocol environments for development. This study used the Design Science…

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Legacy Uranium Mine Site Reclamation - Lessons Learned - 12384

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, Laura E.; Cotter, Ed

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management is responsible for administering the DOE Uranium Leasing Program (ULP) and its 31 uranium lease tracts located in the Uravan Mineral Belt of southwestern Colorado (see Figure 1). In addition to administering the ULP for the last six decades, DOE has also undertaken the significant task of reclaiming a large number of abandoned uranium (legacy) mine sites and associated features located throughout the Uravan Mineral Belt. In 1995, DOE initiated a 3-year reconnaissance program to locate and delineate (through extensive on-the-ground mapping) the legacy mine sites and associated features contained within the historically defined boundaries of its uranium lease tracts. During that same time frame, DOE recognized the lack of regulations pertaining to the reclamation of legacy mine sites and contacted the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) concerning the reclamation of legacy mine sites. In November 1995, The BLM Colorado State Office formally issued the United States Department of the Interior, Colorado Bureau of Land Management, Closure/Reclamation Guidelines, Abandoned Uranium Mine Sites as a supplement to its Solid Minerals Reclamation Handbook (H-3042-1). Over the next five-and-one-half years, DOE reclaimed the 161 legacy mine sites that had been identified on DOE withdrawn lands. By the late 1990's, the various BLM field offices in southwestern Colorado began to recognize DOE's experience and expertise in reclaiming legacy mine sites. During the ensuing 8 years, BLM funded DOE (through a series of task orders) to perform reclamation activities at 182 BLM mine sites. To date, DOE has reclaimed 372 separate and distinct legacy mine sites. During this process, DOE has learned many lessons and is willing to share those lessons with others in the reclamation industry because there are still many legacy mine sites not yet reclaimed. DOE currently administers 31 lease tracts (11,017 ha) that collectively

  19. Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-24

    This plan incorporates U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) standard operating procedures (SOPs) into environmental monitoring activities and will be implemented at all sites managed by LM. This document provides detailed procedures for the field sampling teams so that samples are collected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Site-specific plans (e.g., long-term surveillance and maintenance plans, environmental monitoring plans) document background information and establish the basis for sampling and monitoring activities. Information will be included in site-specific tabbed sections to this plan, which identify sample locations, sample frequencies, types of samples, field measurements, and associated analytes for each site. Additionally, within each tabbed section, program directives will be included, when developed, to establish additional site-specific requirements to modify or clarify requirements in this plan as they apply to the corresponding site. A flowchart detailing project tasks required to accomplish routine sampling is displayed in Figure 1. LM environmental procedures are contained in the Environmental Procedures Catalog (LMS/PRO/S04325), which incorporates American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), DOE, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance. Specific procedures used for groundwater and surface water monitoring are included in Appendix A. If other environmental media are monitored, SOPs used for air, soil/sediment, and biota monitoring can be found in the site-specific tabbed sections in Appendix D or in site-specific documents. The procedures in the Environmental Procedures Catalog are intended as general guidance and require additional detail from planning documents in order to be complete; the following sections fulfill that function and specify additional procedural requirements to form SOPs. Routine revision of this Sampling and Analysis Plan will be conducted annually at the

  20. Transformation of legacy network management system to service oriented architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyan, Jithesh; Shenoy, Krishnananda

    2007-09-01

    Service providers today are facing the challenge of operating and maintaining multiple networks, based on multiple technologies. Network Management System (NMS) solutions are being used to manage these networks. However the NMS is tightly coupled with Element or the Core network components. Hence there are multiple NMS solutions for heterogeneous networks. Current network management solutions are targeted at a variety of independent networks. The wide spread popularity of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a clear indication that all of these independent networks will be integrated into a single IP-based infrastructure referred to as Next Generation Networks (NGN) in the near future. The services, network architectures and traffic pattern in NGN will dramatically differ from the current networks. The heterogeneity and complexity in NGN including concepts like Fixed Mobile Convergence will bring a number of challenges to network management. The high degree of complexity accompanying the network element technology necessitates network management systems (NMS) which can utilize this technology to provide more service interfaces while hiding the inherent complexity. As operators begin to add new networks and expand existing networks to support new technologies and products, the necessity of scalable, flexible and functionally rich NMS systems arises. Another important factor influencing NMS architecture is mergers and acquisitions among the key vendors. Ease of integration is a key impediment in the traditional hierarchical NMS architecture. These requirements trigger the need for an architectural framework that will address the NGNM (Next Generation Network Management) issues seamlessly. This paper presents a unique perspective of bringing service orientated architecture (SOA) to legacy network management systems (NMS). It advocates a staged approach in transforming a legacy NMS to SOA. The architecture at each stage is detailed along with the technical advantages and

  1. Domain management OSSs: bridging the gap between legacy and standards-based network management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, Todd A.

    1996-11-01

    The rapid change in the telecommunications environment is forcing carriers to re-assess not only their service offering, but also their network management philosophy. The competitive carrier environment has taken away the luxury of throwing technology at a problem by using legacy and proprietary systems and architectures. A more flexible management environment is necessary to effectively gain, and maintain operating margins in the new market era. Competitive forces are driving change which gives carriers more choices than those that are available in legacy and standards-based solutions alone. However, creating an operational support system (OSS) with this gap between legacy and standards has become as dynamic as the services which it supports. A philosophy which helps to integrate the legacy and standards systems is domain management. Domain management relates to a specific service or market 'domain,'and its associated operational support requirements. It supports a companies definition of its business model, which drives the definition of each domain. It also attempts to maximize current investment while injecting new technology available in a practical approach. The following paragraphs offer an overview of legacy systems, standards-based philosophy, and the potential of domain management to help bridge the gap between the two types of systems.

  2. Historical legacies, information and contemporary water science and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, Daniel J.; Arrigo, Jennifer A.S.; Green, Mark B.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years). However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1) How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2) Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America) provide a suitable restoration target? and (3) How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  3. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  4. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  5. Legacy system retirement plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.E.

    1998-09-29

    The implementation of the Business Management System (BMS) will replace a number of systems currently in use at Hanford. These systems will be retired when the replacement is complete and the data from the old systems adequately stored and/or converted to the new system. The replacement is due to a number of factors: (1) Year 2000 conversion: Most of the systems being retired are not year 2000 compliant. Estimates on making these systems compliant approach the costs of replacing with the enterprise system. (2) Many redundant custom-made systems: Maintenance costs on the aging custom developed systems is high. The systems also have overlapping functionality. Replacement with an enterprise system is expected to lower the maintenance costs. (3) Shift inefficient/complex work processes to commercial standards: Many business practices have been developed in isolation from competitive pressures and without a good business foundation. Replacement of the systems allows an opportunity to upgrade the business practices to conform to a market driven approach. (4) Questionable legacy data: Significant amount of data contained within the legacy systems is of questionable origin and value. Replacement of the systems allows for a new beginning with a clean slate and stronger data validation rules. A number of the systems being retired depend on hardware and software technologies that are no longer adequately supported in the market place. The IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, HNF-PRO-2778, and the Data Systems Review Board (DSRB) define a system retirement process which involves the removal of an existing system from active support or use either by: ceasing its operation or support; or replacing it with a new system; or replacing it with an upgraded version of the existing system. It is important to note, that activities associated with the recovery of the system, once archived, relates to the ability for authorized personnel to gain access to the data and

  6. CSM/LM Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a)Identify the types and uses of the various lighting components: Interior (CM, LM), Exterior (CSM, LM); b) Explain the purpose and locations of electroluminescent (EL) and radioluminescent (RL)lighting techniques; c) Understand the use of various D&C lighting components; and d) Understand in-flight anomalies.

  7. Hemiboreal forest: natural disturbances and the importance of ecosystem legacies to management

    Treesearch

    Kalev Jogiste; Henn Korjus; John Stanturf; Lee E. Frelich; Endijs Baders; Janis Donis; Aris Jansons; Ahto Kangur; Kajar Koster; Diana Laarmann; Tiit Maaten; Vitas Marozas; Marek Metslaid; Kristi Nigul; Olga Polyachenko; Tiit Randveer; Floortje Vodde

    2017-01-01

    The condition of forest ecosystems depends on the temporal and spatial pattern of management interventions and natural disturbances. Remnants of previous conditions persisting after disturbances, or ecosystem legacies, collectively comprise ecosystem memory. Ecosystem memory in turn contributes to resilience and possibilities of ecosystem reorganization...

  8. Legacy systems: managing evolution through integration in a distributed and object-oriented computing environment.

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, D.; Sauquet, D.; Fofol, I.; Tanguy, L.; Jean, F. C.; Degoulet, P.

    1995-01-01

    Legacy systems are crucial for organizations since they support key functionalities. But they become obsolete with aging and the apparition of new techniques. Managing their evolution is a key issue in software engineering. This paper presents a strategy that has been developed at Broussais University Hospital in Paris to make a legacy system devoted to the management of health care units evolve towards a new up-to-date software. A two-phase evolution pathway is described. The first phase consists in separating the interface from the data storage and application control and in using a communication channel between the individualized components. The second phase proposes to use an object-oriented DBMS in place of the homegrown system. An application example for the management of hypertensive patients is described. PMID:8563252

  9. Effects of Management Legacies on Stream Fish and Aquatic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, Michael C.; Schultz, Randall D.

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  10. LM6000 update program

    SciTech Connect

    Westerkamp, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    In October 1992, the first LM6000 industrial gas turbine entered commercial service. Two years later, a new dry low emission combustion system went into operation in Ghent, Belgium, followed shortly by the two units at Orange Cogen in Bartow, Florida. Additional planned modifications to achieve even lower emission levels and further improve the thermodynamic performance of this equipment are planned for late 1997. This paper presents the current status of the LM6000 program, including reliability and availability trends, and describes the product development program GE is currently implementing on the LM6000. The design changes required to increase the output and efficiency, as well as improve emissions capability, are discussed in some detail. The impact that these improvements have on project economics is also reviewed.

  11. The Legacy Ecosystem Management Framework: From Theory to Application in the Detention Pond Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J; Stevenson, M; Vogt, K A

    2002-02-01

    The Detention Pond is a constructed and lined storm water treatment basin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that serves multiple stakeholder objectives and programmatic goals. This paper examines the process and outcome involved in the development of a new management plan for the Detention Pond. The plan was created using a new ecosystem management tool, the Legacy Framework. This stakeholder-driven conceptual framework provides an interdisciplinary methodology for determining ecosystem health, appropriate management strategies, and sensitive indicators. The conceptual framework, the Detention Ponds project, and the use of the framework in the context of the project, are described and evaluated, and evaluative criteria for this and other ecosystem management frameworks are offered. The project benefited in several ways from use of the Legacy Framework, although refinements to the framework are suggested. The stakeholder process created a context and environment in which team members became receptive to using an ecosystem management approach to evaluate and support management alternatives previously not considered. This allowed for the unanimous agreement to pursue support from upper management and organizational funding to implement a progressive management strategy. The greatly improved stakeholder relations resulted in upper management support for the project.

  12. Legacy effects of grassland management on soil carbon to depth.

    PubMed

    Ward, Susan E; Smart, Simon M; Quirk, Helen; Tallowin, Jerry R B; Mortimer, Simon R; Shiel, Robert S; Wilby, Andrew; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    The importance of managing land to optimize carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation is widely recognized, with grasslands being identified as having the potential to sequester additional carbon. However, most soil carbon inventories only consider surface soils, and most large-scale surveys group ecosystems into broad habitats without considering management intensity. Consequently, little is known about the quantity of deep soil carbon and its sensitivity to management. From a nationwide survey of grassland soils to 1 m depth, we show that carbon in grassland soils is vulnerable to management and that these management effects can be detected to considerable depth down the soil profile, albeit at decreasing significance with depth. Carbon concentrations in soil decreased as management intensity increased, but greatest soil carbon stocks (accounting for bulk density differences), were at intermediate levels of management. Our study also highlights the considerable amounts of carbon in subsurface soil below 30 cm, which is missed by standard carbon inventories. We estimate grassland soil carbon in Great Britain to be 2097 Tg C to a depth of 1 m, with ~60% of this carbon being below 30 cm. Total stocks of soil carbon (t ha(-1) ) to 1 m depth were 10.7% greater at intermediate relative to intensive management, which equates to 10.1 t ha(-1) in surface soils (0-30 cm), and 13.7 t ha(-1) in soils from 30 to 100 cm depth. Our findings highlight the existence of substantial carbon stocks at depth in grassland soils that are sensitive to management. This is of high relevance globally, given the extent of land cover and large stocks of carbon held in temperate managed grasslands. Our findings have implications for the future management of grasslands for carbon storage and climate mitigation, and for global carbon models which do not currently account for changes in soil carbon to depth with management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Antarctic Data Management as Part of the IPY Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, T.

    2006-12-01

    The Antarctic Treaty states that "scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available". Antarctica includes the Southern Ocean. In support of this, National Antarctic Data Centres (NADC) are being established to catalogue data sets and to provide information on data sets to scientists and others with interest in Antarctic science. The Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM) was established by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP). JCADM comprises representatives of the National Antarctic Data Centres. Currently 30 nations around the world are represented in JCADM. JCADM is responsible for the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), the internationally accessible, web-based, searchable record of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data set descriptions. The AMD is directly integrated into the international Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) to help further merge Antarctic science into global science. The AMD is a resource for scientists to advertise the data they have collected and to search for data they may need. JCADM is the Antarctic component of the IPY Data Infrastructure, which is presently being developed. This presentation will give an overview of the organization of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data management with sections on the organizational structure of JCADM, contents of the Antarctic Master Directory, relationships to the SCAR Scientific Research Programmes (SRP) and IPY, international embedding and connections with discipline-based peer organizations like the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange Committee (IODE). It will focus primarily on the role that an existing infrastructure as JCADM, may play in the development of the IPY Data Infrastructure and will provide considerations for IPY data management, based on the experiences in Antarctic and oceanographic data management.

  14. MANAGING HANFORD'S LEGACY NO-PATH-FORWARD WASTES TO DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    WEST LD

    2011-01-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. This vision will protect the Columbia River, reduce the Site footprint, and reduce Site mortgage costs. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W&FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 m{sup 3} of waste was defined as 'no-path-forward waste.' The majority of these wastes are suspect transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes which are currently stored in the low-level Burial Grounds (LLBG), or stored above ground in the Central Waste Complex (CWC). A portion of the waste will be generated during ongoing and future site cleanup activities. The DOE-RL and CHPRC have collaborated to identify and deliver safe, cost-effective disposition paths for 90% ({approx}8,000 m{sup 3}) of these problematic wastes. These paths include accelerated disposition through expanded use of offsite treatment capabilities. Disposal paths were selected that minimize the need to develop new technologies, minimize the need for new, on-site capabilities, and accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  15. Management of landfill leachate: The legacy of European Union Directives.

    PubMed

    Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Morrison, L; Hynes, S; Norton, D; Clifford, E

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachate is the product of water that has percolated through waste deposits and contains various pollutants, which necessitate effective treatment before it can be released into the environment. In the last 30years, there have been significant changes in landfill management practices in response to European Union (EU) Directives, which have led to changes in leachate composition, volumes produced and treatability. In this study, historic landfill data, combined with leachate characterisation data, were used to determine the impacts of EU Directives on landfill leachate management, composition and treatability. Inhibitory compounds including ammonium (NH4-N), cyanide, chromium, nickel and zinc, were present in young leachate at levels that may inhibit ammonium oxidising bacteria, while arsenic, copper and silver were present in young and intermediate age leachate at concentrations above inhibitory thresholds. In addition, the results of this study show that while young landfills produce less than 50% of total leachate by volume in the Republic of Ireland, they account for 70% of total annual leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) load and approximately 80% of total 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N loads. These results show that there has been a decrease in the volume of leachate produced per tonne of waste landfilled since enactment of the Landfill Directive, with a trend towards increased leachate strength (particularly COD and BOD5) during the initial five years of landfill operation. These changes may be attributed to changes in landfill management practices following the implementation of the Landfill Directive. However, this study did not demonstrate the impact of decreasing inputs of biodegradable municipal waste on leachate composition. Increasingly stringent wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) emission limit values represent a significant threat to the sustainability of co-treatment of leachate with municipal wastewater. In addition

  16. Managing Toxicological Risks: The Legacy of Shuttle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Space toxicology greatly matured as a result of research and operations associated with the Shuttle. Materials offgassing had been a manageable concern since the Apollo days, but we learned to pay careful attention to compounds that could escape containment, to combustion events, to toxic propellants, to overuse of utility compounds, and to microbial and human metabolites. We also learned that flying real-time hardware to monitor air pollutants was a pathway with unanticipated speed bumps. Each new orbiter was tested for any excess offgassing products that could pollute the air during flight. In the late 1990s toxicologists and safety experts developed a 5-level toxicity rating system to guide containment of toxic compounds. This system is now in use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Several combustion events during Shuttle Mir and also during Shuttle free-flight impelled toxicologists to identify hardware capable of monitoring toxic products; however, rapid adaptation of the hardware for the unique conditions of spaceflight caused unexpected missteps. Current and planned combustion analyzers would be useful to commercial partners that wish to manage the risk of health effects from thermal events. Propellants received special attention during the Shuttle program because of the possibility of bringing them into the habitable volume on extravehicular activity suits. Monitors for the airlocks were developed to mitigate this risk. Utility materials, such as lubricants, posed limited toxicological problems because water was not recovered. One clearly documented case of microbial metabolites polluting the Shuttle atmosphere was noted, and this has implications for commercial flights and control of microbes. Finally, carbon dioxide, the major human metabolite, episodically presented air quality problems aboard Shuttle, especially when nominal air flows were obstructed. Commercial vehicles must maintain robust air circulation given the anticipated high density

  17. The ecological side of an ethnobotanical coin: legacies in historically managed trees.

    PubMed

    Ross, Nanci J; Stevens, M Henry H; Rupiper, Andrew W; Harkreader, Ian; Leben, Laura A

    2014-10-01

    • A growing body of literature now documents how ancient human management of the landscape echoes through to extant environments in eastern North America. Plant domestication is a major theme in the study of human-nature interactions. Long-term ecological impacts of human selection may last for centuries after management ends, yet little work has focused on legacies in the evolution of historically used trees. Ecological data will be valuable in teasing apart myriad variables that confound questions of land-use legacies. We discuss the potential for legacies of ancient human selection and present a preliminary case study for the approach of integrating ecological and historical data for Diospyros virginiana, the American persimmon.• Herbarium samples of D. virginiana (28 male and 40 female) from across the species range provided specimen localities for edaphic analysis. Soil and environmental data were analyzed using nonparametric ordination, Wilcoxon summed rank test, and permutational MANOVA.• Edaphic data demonstrated substantial variation among sites, but revealed no significant differences between sexes. Permutational MANOVA showed no difference in environmental preferences for the tested variables between male and female trees (R(2) < 0.01, P = 0.8).• Extending our understanding of landscape history to the long-term impacts of artificial selection at the species or population level would be valuable in both theoretical and applied botanical research. Multidisciplinary approaches integrating ecological data will be essential for investigation of the evolutionary implications of historical human selection in economic species and the potential for adaptive flexibility in reproductive systems of long-lived perennials. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. Integrated and adaptive management of water resources: Tensions, legacies, and the next best thing

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.; Johns, Owen R.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Nelson, Donald

    2011-02-01

    Integrated water resources management (IWRM) and adaptive management (AM) are two institutional and management paradigms designed to address shortcomings within water systems governance – the limits of hierarchical water institutional arrangements in the case of IWRM and the challenge of making water management decisions under uncertainty in the case of AM. Recently, there has been a trend to merge these paradigms to address the growing complexity of stressors shaping water management, such as globalization and climate change. However, because many of these joint approaches have received little empirical attention, questions remain about how they might work (or not) in practice. Here, we explore a few of these issues using empirical research carried out in Brazil. We focus on highlighting the potentially negative interactions, tensions, and tradeoffs between different institutions/mechanisms perceived as desirable as research and practice attempt to make water systems management simultaneously integrated and adaptive. Our examples pertain mainly on the use of techno-scientific knowledge in water management and governance in Brazil’s IWRM model and how it relates to participation, democracy, deliberation, diversity, and adaptability. We show that a legacy of technical and hierarchical management has shaped the integration of management, and subsequently, the degree to which management might also be adaptive. While integrated systems may be more legitimate and accountable than top-down command and control ones, the mechanisms of IWRM may be at odds with the flexible, experimental, and self-organizing nature of AM.

  19. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    This report on evaporite mineralization was completed as an Ancillary Work Plan for the Applied Studies and Technology program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). This study reviews all LM sites under Title I and Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and one Decontamination and Decommissioning site to provide (1) a summary of which sites have evaporite deposits, (2) any available quantitative geochemical and mineralogical analyses, and (3) references to relevant reports. In this study, “evaporite” refers to any secondary mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. This includes efflorescent salt crusts, where this term refers to a migration of dissolved constituents to the surface with a resulting salt crust, where “salt” can refer to any secondary precipitate, regardless of constituents. The potential for the formation of evaporites at LM sites has been identified, and may have relevance to plume persistence issues. Evaporite deposits have the potential to concentrate and store contaminants at LM sites that could later be re-released. These deposits can also provide a temporary storage mechanism for carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salts along with uranium and other contaminants of concern (COCs). Identification of sites with evaporites will be used in a new technical task plan (TTP), Persistent Secondary Contaminant Sources (PeSCS), for any proposed additional sampling and analyses. This additional study is currently under development and will focus on determining if the dissolution of evaporites has the potential to hinder natural flushing strategies and impact plume persistence. This report provides an initial literature review on evaporites followed by details for each site with identified evaporites. The final summary includes a table listing of all relevant LM sites regardless of evaporite identification.

  20. Managing the Nuclear Legacy in the United Kingdom: Strategies and Progress in the Formation of a Liabilities Management Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.; Meyers, B.

    2003-02-25

    This presentation describes the status of recent initiatives undertaken by the United Kingdom Government to address the long-standing problems confronting it with regards to discharge of public sector civil nuclear liabilities. It describes the enabling steps taken thus far in the creation of a Liabilities Management Unit (LMU) to prepare the ground for this important work, with specific reference to some of the more technically challenging problems which must be resolved in order to make progress towards cleaning up the UK's nuclear legacy facilities and waste materials. Finally, it addresses some of the approaches proposed by the LMU as it seeks to establish a robust, permanent entity to meet the challenges.

  1. Information Management System Supporting a Multiple Property Survey Program with Legacy Radioactive Contamination.

    PubMed

    Stager, Ron; Chambers, Douglas; Wiatzka, Gerd; Dupre, Monica; Callough, Micah; Benson, John; Santiago, Erwin; van Veen, Walter

    2017-04-01

    The Port Hope Area Initiative is a project mandated and funded by the Government of Canada to remediate properties with legacy low-level radioactive waste contamination in the Town of Port Hope, Ontario. The management and use of large amounts of data from surveys of some 4800 properties is a significant task critical to the success of the project. A large amount of information is generated through the surveys, including scheduling individual field visits to the properties, capture of field data laboratory sample tracking, QA/QC, property report generation and project management reporting. Web-mapping tools were used to track and display temporal progress of various tasks and facilitated consideration of spatial associations of contamination levels. The IM system facilitated the management and integrity of the large amounts of information collected, evaluation of spatial associations, automated report reproduction and consistent application and traceable execution for this project.x. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ecological legacies of Indigenous fire management in high-latitude coastal temperate rainforests, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, K.; Lertzman, K. P.; Starzomski, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic burning is considered to have little impact on coastal temperate rainforest fire regimes in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of North America, yet few long-term fire histories have been reconstructed in these forests. We use a multidisciplinary approach to reconstruct the ecological impact, scale, and legacies of historic fire regime variability in high-latitude coastal temperate rainforests located in British Columbia, Canada. We map seven centuries of fire activity with fire scars and records of stand establishment, and examine patterns in the distribution and composition of vegetation to assess whether fire was historically used as a tool for resource management. We conduct a paired study of 20 former Indigenous habitation and control sites across a 100 km2 island group to relate historic fire activity with long-term patterns of human land use and contemporary lightning strike densities. Fires were significantly associated with the locations of former Indigenous habitation sites, low and mixed in severity, and likely intentionally used to influence the composition and structure of vegetation, thus increasing the productivity of culturally important plants such as western redcedar, berry-producing shrubs, and bracken fern. Centuries of repeated anthropogenic burning have resulted in a mosaic of vegetation types in different stages of succession. These data are directly relevant to the management of contemporary forests as they do not support the widespread contention that old growth coastal temperate rainforests in this region are pristine landscapes where fire is rare, but more likely the result of long-term human land use practices.

  3. Chemical characterization of sediment "Legacy P" in watershed streams - implications for P loading under land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transfer of dissolved phosphorus (P) in runoff water via streams is regulated mainly by both stream sediment P adsorption and precipitation processes. The adsorption capacity of stream sediments acting as a P sink was a great benefit to preserving water quality in downstream lakes in the past, as it minimized the effects of surplus P loading from watershed streams. However, with long-term continued P loading the capacity of the sediments to store P has diminished, and eventually converted stream sediments from P sinks to sources of dissolved P. This accumulation of 'legacy P' in stream sediments has become the major source of dissolved P and risk to downstream water quality. Agricultural best management practices (BMP) for P typically attempt to minimize the transfer of P from farmland. However, because of the limitation in sediment P adsorption capacity, adoption of BMPs, such as reduction of external P loading, may not result in an immediate improvement in water quality. The goal of the research is to chemically characterize the P forms contributing to legacy P in stream sediments located in the watershed connecting to Cook's Bay, one of three basins of Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada. This watershed receives the largest amount of external P loading and has the highest rate of sediment build-up, both of which are attributed to agriculture. Water samples were collected monthly at six study sites from October 2015 for analysis of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total P, dissolved reactive P, particulate P, total N, NH4-N, NO3-N, TOC and other elements including Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, S, Na, K and Zn. Sediment core samples were collected in November 2015 and will continue to be collected in March, July and October 2016. Various forms of P in five vertical sections were characterized by sequential fractionation and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. Pore water, sediment texture and clay identification were performed. The concentration of total P in water samples

  4. Biological Resources Program Development Task Area. (Legacy Resource Management Program Summary Report)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    San Nicholas Island Point Mugu, CA Ecology of feral cats San Clements, CA Table 10 FY92 Legacy Demonstration Projects Investigating the Use of GIS...FY92 Legacy Demonstration Projects Investigating Biodiversity on DoD Lands ......................... 42 W’PIC QUALITY INSPECTED a Assession "?or DTIC...utiliza- tion of Federal resources, and environmentalists commonly question the justifi- cation and impacts of commercial and military activities on

  5. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2013-07-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several species of biocontrol

  6. INFLIGHT - APOLLO 16 (LM LAUNCH)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-04-23

    S72-35613 (22 April 1972) --- The Apollo 16 Lunar Module (LM) "Orion" in early lunar liftoff phase is featured in this lunar scene at the Descartes landing site. The still picture is a reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). While astronauts John W. Young, commander; and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot; descended in the Apollo 16 LM to explore the Descartes highlands landing site on the moon, astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Casper" in lunar orbit.

  7. Leadership Legacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent obituaries and testimonials to Coretta Scott King and Wendy Wasserstein are reminders of the leadership legacies of these women. About Coretta Scott King (1927-2006), Burch in "The Miami Herald" (February 1, 2006) stated "Coretta Scott King built a legacy from pain and progress, first as the wife who stood tall next to a man bent on…

  8. Leadership Legacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent obituaries and testimonials to Coretta Scott King and Wendy Wasserstein are reminders of the leadership legacies of these women. About Coretta Scott King (1927-2006), Burch in "The Miami Herald" (February 1, 2006) stated "Coretta Scott King built a legacy from pain and progress, first as the wife who stood tall next to a man bent on…

  9. Evaluating the sale of a nonprofit health system to a for-profit hospital management company: the Legacy Experience.

    PubMed Central

    King, J G; Avery, J E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce and develop a decision model that can be used by the leadership of nonprofit healthcare organizations to assist them in evaluating whether selling to a for-profit organization is in their community's best interest. STUDY SETTING/DATA SOURCES: A case study of the planning process and decision model that Legacy Health System used to evaluate whether to sell to a for-profit hospital management company and use the proceeds of the sale to establish a community health foundation. Data sources included financial statements of benchmark organizations, internal company records, and numerous existing studies. STUDY DESIGN: The development of the multivariate model was based on insight gathered through a review of the current literature regarding the conversion of nonprofit healthcare organizations. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: The effect that conversion from nonprofit to for-profit status would have on each variable was estimated based on assumptions drawn from the current literature and on an analysis of Legacy and for-profit hospital company data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results of the decision model calculations indicate that the sale of Legacy to a for-profit firm and the subsequent creation of a community foundation would have a negative effect on the local community. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the decision model enabled senior management and trustees to systematically address the conversion question and to conclude that continuing to operate as a nonprofit organization would provide the most benefit to the local community. The model will prove useful to organizations that decide to sell to a for-profit organization as well as those that choose to continue nonprofit operations. For those that decide to sell, the model will assist in minimizing any potential negative effect that conversion may have on the community. The model will help those who choose not to sell to develop a better understanding of the organization's value to the community

  10. INFLIGHT - APOLLO 16 (LM LAUNCH)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-04-23

    S72-35614 (23 April 1972) --- The Apollo 16 Lunar Module "Orion" ascent stage makes its liftoff from the lunar surface in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). Remotely controlled from NASA's Mission Control Center (MCC) in Houston, the LRV-mounted camera made it possible for persons on Earth to watch the LM's launch from the moon. Liftoff occurred at 175:44 ground elapsed time, 7:26 p.m. (CST), April 23, 1972. The "Orion" ascent stage, with astronauts John W. Young and Charles M. Duke Jr. aboard, returned from the lunar surface to rejoin the Command and Service Modules (CSM) orbiting the moon. Astronaut Thomas K. (Ken) Mattingly II remained with the CSM in lunar orbit while Young and Duke descended in the LM to explore the Descartes landing site. The LM descent stage is used as a launching platform and remains behind on the moon.

  11. International Collaboration in Data Management for Scientific Ocean Drilling: Preserving Legacy Data While Implementing New Requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, F. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP: 2003-2013 initial phase) is the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP: 1968-1983) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP: 1985-2003). These earlier scientific drilling programs amassed collections of sediment and rock cores (over 300 kilometers stored in four repositories) and data organized in distributed databases and in print or electronic publications. International members of the IODP have established, through memoranda, the right to have access to: (1) all data, samples, scientific and technical results, all engineering plans, data or other information produced under contract to the program; and, (2) all data from geophysical and other site surveys performed in support of the program which are used for drilling planning. The challenge that faces the individual platform operators and management of IODP is to find the right balance and appropriate synergies among the needs, expectations and requirements of stakeholders. The evolving model for IODP database services consists of the management and integration of data collected onboard the various IODP platforms (including downhole logging and syn-cruise site survey information), legacy data from DSDP and ODP, data derived from post-cruise research and publications, and other IODP-relevant information types, to form a common, program-wide IODP information system (e.g., IODP Portal) which will be accessible to both researchers and the public. The JANUS relational database of ODP was introduced in 1997 and the bulk of ODP shipboard data has been migrated into this system, which is comprised of a relational data model consisting of over 450 tables. The JANUS database includes paleontological, lithostratigraphic, chemical, physical, sedimentological, and geophysical data from a global distribution of sites. For ODP Legs 100 through 210, and including IODP Expeditions 301 through 308, JANUS has been used to store data from 233,835 meters of core recovered, which are

  12. Sediment Yield From First Order Streams in Managed Redwood Forests: Effects of Recent Harvests and Legacy Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, H.; O'Connor, M.; McDavitt, W.

    2003-12-01

    apparent treatment effect on sediment yield may be influenced by the fact that the HCP treatment sites have experienced only one or two post-harvest winters, while the pre-HCP treatment sites experienced relatively severe winters over a longer post-harvest period. In addition, the fact that the control sites tended to have higher sediment yield than the HCP treatment sites suggests that legacy effects of management may also be an important factor.

  13. Legacies in urban stormwater management and the effect on gully formation in a Piedmont region of the US Mid Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, L.; Wehner, C. E.; Santangelo, T.; Soroka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces in urban areas lead to increased stormwater runoff and produce flashier hydrology which can lead to stream bank erosion and increased sediment delivery to downstream ecosystems. Since the early 1990s the EPA has enforced stormwater regulation and nowadays, practices must be implemented that minimize water quality impacts. However, legacies of stormwater management in pre-regulated areas could be an important factor in the degradation of water quality. From a larger watershed perspective there is therefore a disconnect between investments in newly developed areas where water quality deterioration is perhaps minor vs. minimal investments in pre-regulation areas where water quality deterioration is perhaps major. In this study we examine such legacies in urban stormwater management and the effect on gully formation, with the objective to identify hotspots of water quality degradation and optimal locations for reducing water quality impacts. Our research primarily focuses on older developments (pre-1990s) in the Piedmont region of the Christina River basin (CRB), a tributary of the Delaware River. Many of the streams in the CRB have impaired water quality. We used a combination of methodological approaches, including historical surveys (aerial imagery, land-use maps, stormwater design reports), field observations (WQ sampling, topographic surveys), hydrological modeling, and geospatial analysis. We developed a simple GIS-based model that predicts susceptibility for gully erosion. The model calculates runoff (using Curve Number method), performs hydrologic routing, and based on topographic indices it estimates gully susceptibility for stream reaches draining urban developments. Our results show that the gully susceptibility model produces accurate predictions, including the location of deeply incised gullies. Through geospatial analysis we also identify benefits of structural stormwater control measures and BMPs, and the role of spatial variable land

  14. Developing a Critical Dialog for Educational Technology: Understanding the Nature of Technology and the Legacy of Scientific Management in Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizelle, Thomas Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the legacy of scientific management and the dominance of one-dimensional thinking in the field of educational technology. Through this analysis, I demonstrate that the ways practitioners and policymakers frame educational technology, assess its effectiveness, and make judgments about its potential, often exclude…

  15. Developing a Critical Dialog for Educational Technology: Understanding the Nature of Technology and the Legacy of Scientific Management in Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizelle, Thomas Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the legacy of scientific management and the dominance of one-dimensional thinking in the field of educational technology. Through this analysis, I demonstrate that the ways practitioners and policymakers frame educational technology, assess its effectiveness, and make judgments about its potential, often exclude…

  16. Legacy phosphorus accumulation and management in the global context: insights from long-term analysis of major river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, S. M.; Burt, T. P.; Chan, N. I.; Elser, J. J.; Haygarth, P. M.; Howden, N. J. K.; Jarvie, H. P.; Peterson, H. M.; Shen, J.; Worrall, F.; Sharpley, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is closely linked to major societal concerns including food security and water quality, and human activities strongly control the modern global P cycle. Current knowledge of the P cycle includes many insights about relatively short-term processes, but a long-term and landscape-level view may be needed to understand P status and optimize P management towards P sustainability. We reconstructed long-term (>40 years) P mass balances and rates of P accumulation in three major river basins where excess P pollution is demanding improvements in P management at local, national, and international levels. We focus on: Maumee River Basin, a major source of agricultural P to Lake Erie, the southernmost and shallowest of the Laurentian Great Lakes; Thames River Basin, where fluxes of effluent P from the London, England metropolitan area have declined following improvements in wastewater treatment; Yangtze (Changjiang) River Basin, the largest in China, which is undergoing rapid economic development. The Maumee and Thames are intensively monitored, and show long-term declines in basin P inputs that represent a step towards P sustainability. However, river P outputs have been slower to decline, consistent with the hypothesis that legacy P is mobilizing from soils or from within the river network. Published data on the Yangtze indicate the P flux from land to water has clearly increased with industrialization and population growth. Historical trajectories of P accumulation and depletion in major river basins are providing new understanding about the long-term impacts of P management, including watershed P legacies and response times, that may inform future policy towards local, national, and global P sustainability.

  17. Virtualization of Legacy Instrumentation Control Computers for Improved Reliability, Operational Life, and Management.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan E

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories tend to be amenable environments for long-term reliable operation of scientific measurement equipment. Indeed, it is not uncommon to find equipment 5, 10, or even 20+ years old still being routinely used in labs. Unfortunately, the Achilles heel for many of these devices is the control/data acquisition computer. Often these computers run older operating systems (e.g., Windows XP) and, while they might only use standard network, USB or serial ports, they require proprietary software to be installed. Even if the original installation disks can be found, it is a burdensome process to reinstall and is fraught with "gotchas" that can derail the process-lost license keys, incompatible hardware, forgotten configuration settings, etc. If you have running legacy instrumentation, the computer is the ticking time bomb waiting to put a halt to your operation.In this chapter, I describe how to virtualize your currently running control computer. This virtualized computer "image" is easy to maintain, easy to back up and easy to redeploy. I have used this multiple times in my own lab to greatly improve the robustness of my legacy devices.After completing the steps in this chapter, you will have your original control computer as well as a virtual instance of that computer with all the software installed ready to control your hardware should your original computer ever be decommissioned.

  18. Management of Legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel Wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: The Challenges and Innovative Solutions Implemented - 13301

    SciTech Connect

    Schruder, Kristan; Goodwin, Derek

    2013-07-01

    AECL's Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) Project was initiated in 2004 to retrieve, transfer, and stabilize an identified inventory of degraded research reactor fuel that had been emplaced within in-ground 'Tile Hole' structures in Chalk River Laboratories' Waste Management Area in the 1950's and 60's. Ongoing monitoring of the legacy fuel storage conditions had identified that moisture present in the storage structures had contributed to corrosion of both the fuel and the storage containers. This prompted the initiation of the FPS Project which has as its objective to design, construct, and commission equipment and systems that would allow for the ongoing safe storage of this fuel until a final long-term management, or disposition, pathway was available. The FPS Project provides systems and technologies to retrieve and transfer the fuel from the Waste Management Area to a new facility that will repackage, dry, safely store and monitor the fuel for a period of 50 years. All equipment and the new storage facility are designed and constructed to meet the requirements for Class 1 Nuclear Facilities in Canada. (authors)

  19. Contaminated land and groundwater management at Sellafield, a large operational site with significant legacy and contaminated land challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Phil; Eilbeck, Katherine

    2007-07-01

    Sellafield is a former Royal Ordnance Factory used since the 1940's for the production and reprocessing of fissile materials. Leaks and spills from these plants and their associated waste facilities has led to radioactive contaminated ground legacy of up to 20 million m{sup 3}. Consideration of land contamination at Sellafield began in 1976, following discovery of a major leak from a waste storage silo. Over the past three decades there has been a programme of environmental monitoring and several phases of characterization. The latest phase of characterization is a pounds 10 million contract to develop second generation conceptual and numeric models. The Site Licence Company that operates the site has been subject to structural changes due to reorganizations within the British nuclear industry. There has also been a change in emphasis to place an increased importance on accelerated decommissioning. To address these challenges a new contaminated land team and contaminated land and groundwater management plan have been established. Setting and measuring performance against challenging objectives is important. The management plan has to be cognizant of the long timescales (ca. 80 years) for final remediation. Data review, collation, acquisition, analysis, and storage is critical for success. It is equally important to seize opportunities for early environmental gains. It is possible to accelerate the development and delivery of a contaminated land and groundwater management plan by using international experts. (authors)

  20. Site Management Guide (Blue Book)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (Department) Office of Legacy Management (LM), established in 2003, manages the Department’s postclosure responsibilities and ensures the future protection of human health and the environment. During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Since 1989, the Department has taken an aggressive accelerated cleanup approach to reduce risks and cut costs. At most Departmental sites undergoing cleanup, some residual hazards will remain at the time cleanup is completed due to financial and technical impracticality. However, the Department still has an obligation to protect human health and the environment after cleanup is completed. LM fulfills DOE’s postclosure obligation by providing long-term management of postcleanup sites which do not have continuing missions. LM is also responsible for sites under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Currently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for site surveys and remediation at FUSRAP sites. Once remediation is completed, LM becomes responsible for long-term management. LM also has responsibility for uranium processing sites addressed by Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). UMTRCA Title II sites are sites that were commercially owned and are regulated under a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license. For license termination, the owner must conduct an NRC-approved cleanup of any on-site radioactive waste remaining from former uranium ore-processing operations. The site owner must also provide full funding for inspections and, if necessary, ongoing maintenance. Once site

  1. Improving our legacy: Incorporation of adaptive management into state wildlife action plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a mounting concern, but despite numerous attempts there are few large scale conservation efforts that have proven successful in reversing current declines. Given the challenge of biodiversity conservation, there is a need to develop strategic conservation plans that address species declines even with the inherent uncertainty in managing multiple species in complex environments. In 2002, the State Wildlife Grant program was initiated to fulfill this need, and while not explicitly outlined by Congress follows the fundamental premise of adaptive management, 'Learning by doing'. When action is necessary, but basic biological information and an understanding of appropriate management strategies are lacking, adaptive management enables managers to be proactive in spite of uncertainty. However, regardless of the strengths of adaptive management, the development of an effective adaptive management framework is challenging. In a review of 53 State Wildlife Action Plans, I found a keen awareness by planners that adaptive management was an effective method for addressing biodiversity conservation, but the development and incorporation of explicit adaptive management approaches within each plan remained elusive. Only ???25% of the plans included a framework for how adaptive management would be implemented at the project level within their state. There was, however, considerable support across plans for further development and implementation of adaptive management. By furthering the incorporation of adaptive management principles in conservation plans and explicitly outlining the decision making process, states will be poised to meet the pending challenges to biodiversity conservation. ?? 2010 .

  2. Improving our legacy: incorporation of adaptive management into state wildlife action plans.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Joseph J

    2011-05-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a mounting concern, but despite numerous attempts there are few large scale conservation efforts that have proven successful in reversing current declines. Given the challenge of biodiversity conservation, there is a need to develop strategic conservation plans that address species declines even with the inherent uncertainty in managing multiple species in complex environments. In 2002, the State Wildlife Grant program was initiated to fulfill this need, and while not explicitly outlined by Congress follows the fundamental premise of adaptive management, 'Learning by doing'. When action is necessary, but basic biological information and an understanding of appropriate management strategies are lacking, adaptive management enables managers to be proactive in spite of uncertainty. However, regardless of the strengths of adaptive management, the development of an effective adaptive management framework is challenging. In a review of 53 State Wildlife Action Plans, I found a keen awareness by planners that adaptive management was an effective method for addressing biodiversity conservation, but the development and incorporation of explicit adaptive management approaches within each plan remained elusive. Only ~25% of the plans included a framework for how adaptive management would be implemented at the project level within their state. There was, however, considerable support across plans for further development and implementation of adaptive management. By furthering the incorporation of adaptive management principles in conservation plans and explicitly outlining the decision making process, states will be poised to meet the pending challenges to biodiversity conservation.

  3. Management Strategies for Reversing Declines in Landbirds of Conservation Concern on Military Installations: Analysis of MAPS Data from Military installations Outside of the Legacy-Funded Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-15

    regionally listed (as of December, 2002) by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as “ Birds of Conservation Concern.” However, the MAPS program has collected...Figures 1 and 2), their periods of operation, and a brief species-specific report for a) birds of management concern as defined under the Legacy...USFWS Birds of Conservation Concern (2002) publication. However, combined with station 15539 a total of nine species are effectively monitored

  4. Life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems for alternative legacy scenarios of the London Olympic Park

    SciTech Connect

    Parkes, Olga Lettieri, Paola Bogle, I. David L.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Application of LCA in planning integrated waste management systems. • Environmental valuation of 3 legacy scenarios for the Olympic Park. • Hot-spot analysis highlights the importance of energy and materials recovery. • Most environmental savings are achieved through materials recycling. • Sensitivity analysis shows importance of waste composition and recycling rates. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 10 integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) for 3 potential post-event site design scenarios of the London Olympic Park. The aim of the LCA study is to evaluate direct and indirect emissions resulting from various treatment options of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually generated on site together with avoided emissions resulting from energy, materials and nutrients recovery. IWMSs are modelled using GaBi v6.0 Product Sustainability software and results are presented based on the CML (v.Nov-10) characterisation method. The results show that IWMSs with advanced thermal treatment (ATT) and incineration with energy recovery have the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP) than IWMSs where landfill is the primary waste treatment process. This is due to higher direct emissions and lower avoided emissions from the landfill process compared to the emissions from the thermal treatment processes. LCA results demonstrate that significant environmental savings are achieved through substitution of virgin materials with recycled ones. The results of the sensitivity analysis carried out for IWMS 1 shows that increasing recycling rate by 5%, 10% and 15% compared to the baseline scenario can reduce GWP by 8%, 17% and 25% respectively. Sensitivity analysis also shows how changes in waste composition affect the overall result of the system. The outcomes of such assessments provide decision-makers with fundamental information regarding the environmental impacts of different waste treatment options necessary for

  5. An enhanced adaptive management approach for remediation of legacy mercury in the South River.

    PubMed

    Foran, Christy M; Baker, Kelsie M; Grosso, Nancy R; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties about future conditions and the effects of chosen actions, as well as increasing resource scarcity, have been driving forces in the utilization of adaptive management strategies. However, many applications of adaptive management have been criticized for a number of shortcomings, including a limited ability to learn from actions and a lack of consideration of stakeholder objectives. To address these criticisms, we supplement existing adaptive management approaches with a decision-analytical approach that first informs the initial selection of management alternatives and then allows for periodic re-evaluation or phased implementation of management alternatives based on monitoring information and incorporation of stakeholder values. We describe the application of this enhanced adaptive management (EAM) framework to compare remedial alternatives for mercury in the South River, based on an understanding of the loading and behavior of mercury in the South River near Waynesboro, VA. The outcomes show that the ranking of remedial alternatives is influenced by uncertainty in the mercury loading model, by the relative importance placed on different criteria, and by cost estimates. The process itself demonstrates that a decision model can link project performance criteria, decision-maker preferences, environmental models, and short- and long-term monitoring information with management choices to help shape a remediation approach that provides useful information for adaptive, incremental implementation.

  6. An Enhanced Adaptive Management Approach for Remediation of Legacy Mercury in the South River

    PubMed Central

    Foran, Christy M.; Baker, Kelsie M.; Grosso, Nancy R.; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties about future conditions and the effects of chosen actions, as well as increasing resource scarcity, have been driving forces in the utilization of adaptive management strategies. However, many applications of adaptive management have been criticized for a number of shortcomings, including a limited ability to learn from actions and a lack of consideration of stakeholder objectives. To address these criticisms, we supplement existing adaptive management approaches with a decision-analytical approach that first informs the initial selection of management alternatives and then allows for periodic re-evaluation or phased implementation of management alternatives based on monitoring information and incorporation of stakeholder values. We describe the application of this enhanced adaptive management (EAM) framework to compare remedial alternatives for mercury in the South River, based on an understanding of the loading and behavior of mercury in the South River near Waynesboro, VA. The outcomes show that the ranking of remedial alternatives is influenced by uncertainty in the mercury loading model, by the relative importance placed on different criteria, and by cost estimates. The process itself demonstrates that a decision model can link project performance criteria, decision-maker preferences, environmental models, and short- and long-term monitoring information with management choices to help shape a remediation approach that provides useful information for adaptive, incremental implementation. PMID:25665032

  7. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  8. Darwin's legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin was no theoretical physicist, and I am no biologist. Yet, as a theoretical physicist, I have found much to think about in Darwin's legacy - and in that of his fellow naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. Darwin's style of science is not usually thought of as theoretical and certainly not mathematical: he was a careful observer of nature, kept copious notes, contributed to zoological collections; and eventually from his vast repertoire of observation deduced the idea of natural selection as the origin of species. The value of theorizing is often dismissed in the biological sciences as less important than observation; and Darwin was the master observer.

  9. Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kamp, Susan; Dayvault, Jalena

    2016-05-01

    This report documents the efforts and analyses conducted for the Applied Studies and Technology (AS&T) Ancillary Work Plan (AWP) project titled Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Sample Laboratory Analyses from Selected LM Groundwater Monitoring Wells. This effort entailed compiling an inventory of nearly 500 previous well redevelopment events at 16 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) sites, searching the literature for impacts of well redevelopment on groundwater sample quality, and—the focus of this report—evaluating the impacts of well redevelopment on field measurements and sample analytical results. Study Catalyst Monitoring well redevelopment, the surging or high-volume pumping of a well to loosen and remove accumulated sediment and biological build-up from a well, is considered an element of monitoring well maintenance that is implemented periodically during the lifetime of the well to mitigate its gradual deterioration. Well redevelopment has been conducted fairly routinely at a few LM sites in the western United States (e.g., the Grand Junction office site and the Gunnison processing site in Colorado), but at most other sites in this region it is not a routine practice. Also, until recently (2014–2015), there had been no specific criteria for implementing well redevelopment, and documentation of redevelopment events has been inconsistent. A catalyst for this evaluation was the self-identification of these inconsistencies by the Legacy Management Support contractor. As a result, in early 2015 Environmental Monitoring Operations (EMO) staff began collecting and documenting additional field measurements during well redevelopment events. In late 2015, AS&T staff undertook an independent internal evaluation of EMO's well redevelopment records and corresponding pre- and post-well-redevelopment groundwater analytical results. Study Findings Although literature discussions parallel the prevailing industry

  10. Effects of forest management legacies on spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Louis-Etienne Robert; Daniel Kneeshaw; Brian R. Sturtevant

    2012-01-01

    The "silvicultural hypothesis" of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) dynamics postulates that increasing severity of spruce budworm outbreaks over the last century resulted from forest conditions created by past management activities. Yet, definitive tests of the hypothesis remain elusive. We examined spruce budworm outbreak...

  11. Engineered passive bioreactive barriers: risk-managing the legacy of industrial soil and groundwater pollution.

    PubMed

    Kalin, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are a technology that is one decade old, with most full-scale applications based on abiotic mechanisms. Though there is extensive literature on engineered bioreactors, natural biodegradation potential, and in situ remediation, it is only recently that engineered passive bioreactive barrier technology is being considered at the commercial scale to manage contaminated soil and groundwater risks. Recent full-scale studies are providing the scientific confidence in our understanding of coupled microbial (and genetic), hydrogeologic, and geochemical processes in this approach and have highlighted the need to further integrate engineering and science tools.

  12. Information Support for Environmental Management, Legacy Data Capture, and Data Assessment, Volume II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    WSMR DATA U CIERM/TEC L- 1 PSL-94/74 ISEM Final Report, Volume II PSL-94174 L-2 WHITE SANDS HISSIL K ANGE Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Area 4 Area 5 White Sands...Lake Lucero, NE * Foster Lake Area 4: WSMR. South * Bear Peak * Bennett Mountain * Lake Lucero, SE * Tres Hermanos , SW * Tres Hermanos , SE * Organ...Remarks 53 EDAC/UNM NM ESIC August 23, 1994 Tres Hermanos SE Agency Bureau of Land Management, Denver Agency NASA, Ames Latitude 323000N Latitude

  13. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clive; Burns, Philip; Wakerley, Malcolm; Watson, Isabelle; Cook, Marianne; Moloney, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11,000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10(14) Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of pound sterling 7.14 million, nearly pound sterling 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources.

  14. LM2500+ Brush Seal Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haaser, Fred G.

    2006-01-01

    The LM2500+ industrial aeroderivative gas turbine, a 25% enhanced power derivative of the LM2500 gas turbine, recently completed its development test program during the period 5/96 - 10/96. Early in the engine program a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) process was used to determine customer needs for this project.The feedback obtained from the QFD process showed without doubt that gas turbine customers now emphasize product reliability and availability at the top of their needs. One area of development on the LM2500+ was to investigate the use of a brush seal as a means to reduce undesirable turbine cooling leakages within the turbine mid frame in order to enhance part life. This presentation presents a case study on the factors that went into evaluating a brush seal during engine test, test results, and the ultimate decision not to implement the brush seal for cost and other reasons.

  15. Hazards Associated with Legacy Nitrate Salt Waste Drums Managed under the Container Isolation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-07

    At present, there are 29 drums of nitrate waste salts (oxidizers with potentially acidic liquid bearing RCRA characteristics D001 and D002) that are awaiting processing, specifically to eliminate these characteristics and to allow for ultimate disposition at WIPP. As a result of the Feb. 14th, 2014 drum breach at WIPP, and the subsequent identification of the breached drum as a product ofLANL TRU waste disposition on May 15th, 2014, these 29 containers were moved into the Perrnacon in Dome 231 at TA-54 Area G, as part of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved container isolation plan. The plan is designed to mitigate hazards associated with the nitrate salt bearing waste stream. The purpose of this document is to articulate the hazards associated with un-remediated nitrate salts while in storage at LANL. These hazards are distinctly different from the Swheat-remediated nitrate salt bearing drums, and this document is intended to support the request to remove the un-remediated drums from management under the container isolation plan. Plans to remediate and/or treat both of these waste types are being developed separately, and are beyond the scope of this document.

  16. Legacy STORET Level 5 | STORET Legacy Data Center | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  17. Legacy STORET Level 2b | STORET Legacy Data Center | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  18. Legacy STORET Level 2a | STORET Legacy Data Center | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  19. Legacy STORET Level 1 | STORET Legacy Data Center | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  20. Legacies in Urban Stormwater Management: A Case Study of a Gully Network in Northern Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, C. E.; Claessens, L.; Santangelo, T.; Soroka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Increased stormwater runoff from urban surfaces could lead to erosion and gully formation in areas of steep topographic relief. To reduce these impacts, stormwater management practices are currently required through federal and state stormwater regulations. Before 1990, stormwater was not regulated and would often be directly routed into adjacent lands. Particularly in areas of steep terrain, this would potentially induce erosion and gully formation. This study reports on a wide-scale examination of gully formation from urban stormwater, using a model that examines the increase of runoff from impervious cover and the potential for gully formation. Here we report on a case study for an area on the University of Delaware campus. The area is located in the Piedmont region and drains into the White Clay Creek, a National Wild and Scenic River. Pre-regulation development in this area has led to the formation of a series of gullies with distinct morphological characteristics. This study examines in detail the reach-scale and contributing area controls on gully formation. We conducted a GIS analysis of the local hydrologic network, determined peak flow of each gully, developed a gully susceptibility model that we compared with the site characteristics, and sampled the sediment concentrations of the gully flow during storm events. We also characterized historical land use data and performed field observations for our analysis. We found that the development changed the hydrology of the site, altering the contributing areas of each gully. In addition, field observations revealed distinct rates of incision across gullies as well as along different sections of each gully. We also found that the gullies are still actively eroding, contributing large sediment loads to the downstream White Clay Creek. Our research provides a better understanding of the local and regional factors governing erosion and gully formation. The model that we created will help to identify sites that

  1. An Enhanced Monitoring Network at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Work performed under U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management contract #DE-AM01-07LM00060

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, R.; Findlay, R.; Kautsky, M.

    2009-12-01

    On January 19, 1968 the Atomic Energy Commission detonated a 200-1000 kt nuclear device at a depth of 975 meters at CNTA, approximately 100 miles north of the Nevada Test Site. Details of the detonation remain classified, including the specific yield and the size of the resultant cavity. Therefore, using the rough, generic relationships between yield and cavity size, yield and depth of burial, and cancelling out yield, leads to an estimated cavity radius of 100 meters for this detonation in the volcanic section. A collapse chimney subsequently formed that extended several hundred meters above the detonation into the overlying alluvium. The detonation reactivated several faults at the site and created a 2 km2 graben at the surface. The radionuclides in the detonation zone are a potential source of groundwater contamination. The most permeable unit near the detonation zone through which transport might occur is believed to be a densely welded tuff unit (DWT) below the detonation level. A three-well monitoring network was designed using a numerical model, and data were collected from the wells for comparison with model predictions. The head data from the wells were not in agreement with those predicted by the model, and the model was not validated. In a positive finding for radionuclide containment, aquifer test results from the new wells indicate that the DWT is less permeable than previously expected and suggest that the contaminant boundary developed from the model is likely conservative for predicting transport within the volcanic section. The overlying alluvial aquifer is not believed to be a migration pathway for significant quantities of radionuclides, though it is the most likely pathway to potential receptors in that it is the primary groundwater source in the area. To enhance the CNTA monitoring network, two new alluvial wells were installed in 2009, downgradient (east-southeast and south-southeast) of the detonation. The dual-completion alluvial wells were designed to not only monitor for radionuclides but also to determine if a southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a flow barrier. A seismic survey was conducted to optimally locate the wells with respect to the fault. The survey imaged the water table and showed offsets of the water table reflector at numerous faults; some of the faults were known and others had not been previously recognized. Water levels from the new alluvial wells and piezometers compare well with existing well data and support the conjecture that the southeast-bounding graben fault is a flow barrier. Over the last five years, a monitoring network at CNTA has been developed that monitors both the most likely migration pathway and the most likely pathway to potential receptors. The site investigation processes discussed here have also identified factors that affect groundwater flow at the site, and the methods employed can be used in similar hydrogeologic environments.

  2. Sediment Yield From First-Order Streams in Managed Redwood Forests: Effects of Recent Harvests and Legacy Management Practices

    Treesearch

    M.D. O' Connor; C.H. Perry; W. McDavitt

    2007-01-01

    According to the State of California, most of North Coast’s watersheds are impaired by sediment. This study quantified sediment yield from watersheds under different management conditions. Temporary sedimentation basins were installed in 30 randomly chosen first-order streams in two watersheds in Humboldt County, California. Most treatment sites were clearcuts, but two...

  3. INFLIGHT - APOLLO XVI (LUNAR MODULE [LM] LAUNCH)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-04-23

    S72-35612 (22 April 1972) --- The Apollo 16 Lunar Module (LM) "Orion" dominates the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). Astronauts John W. Young, commander; and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot; descended in the Apollo 16 LM to explore the Descartes highlands landing site on the moon. Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Casper" in lunar orbit. Note U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA).

  4. Plaque - Apollo XII (Lunar Module [LM])

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-09-30

    S69-53326 (November 1969) --- Close-up view of a replica of the plaque which the Apollo 12 astronauts will leave on the moon in commemoration of their flight. The plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of the Apollo 12 Lunar Module (LM). Apollo 12 will be the United States' second lunar landing mission.

  5. Renewed Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Mary Harding

    2002-01-01

    Describes the building design of Maggie L. Walker Governor's School in Richmond, Virginia, including the educational context, design goals, and architects and construction manager. Also provides the floor plan and photographs. (EV)

  6. The Best of LM_Net Select, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbury, Peter; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Walker, Michelle

    LM_NET, the most successful educational listserv in the world has approximately 15,000 subscribed members from every state in the United States and from over 65 countries. LM_NET covers a wide range of interests, all related to library and information work in education, and interactions on LM_NET result in in-depth treatments of the major…

  7. Resurrecting Legacy Code Using Ontosoft Knowledge-Sharing and Digital Object Management to Revitalize and Reproduce Software for Groundwater Management Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, N.; Gentle, J.; Pierce, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Software code developed for research is often used for a relatively short period of time before it is abandoned, lost, or becomes outdated. This unintentional abandonment of code is a valid problem in the 21st century scientific process, hindering widespread reusability and increasing the effort needed to develop research software. Potentially important assets, these legacy codes may be resurrected and documented digitally for long-term reuse, often with modest effort. Furthermore, the revived code may be openly accessible in a public repository for researchers to reuse or improve. For this study, the research team has begun to revive the codebase for Groundwater Decision Support System (GWDSS), originally developed for participatory decision making to aid urban planning and groundwater management, though it may serve multiple use cases beyond those originally envisioned. GWDSS was designed as a java-based wrapper with loosely federated commercial and open source components. If successfully revitalized, GWDSS will be useful for both practical applications as a teaching tool and case study for groundwater management, as well as informing theoretical research. Using the knowledge-sharing approaches documented by the NSF-funded Ontosoft project, digital documentation of GWDSS is underway, from conception to development, deployment, characterization, integration, composition, and dissemination through open source communities and geosciences modeling frameworks. Information assets, documentation, and examples are shared using open platforms for data sharing and assigned digital object identifiers. Two instances of GWDSS version 3.0 are being created: 1) a virtual machine instance for the original case study to serve as a live demonstration of the decision support tool, assuring the original version is usable, and 2) an open version of the codebase, executable installation files, and developer guide available via an open repository, assuring the source for the

  8. Ranger's Legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    With its Landsat satellites, development of sensors, and advancement of processing techniques, NASA provided the initial technology base for another Earth-benefit application of image processing, Earth resources survey by means of remote sensing. Since each object has its own unique "signature," it is possible to distinguish among surface features and to generate computer-processed imagery identifying specific features of importance to resource managers. This capability, commercialized by Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., offers practical application in such areas as agricultural crop forecasting, rangeland and forest management, land use planning, mineral and petroleum exploration, map making, water quality evaluation and disaster assessment. Major users of the technology have been federal, state, and local governments, but it is making its way into commercial operations, for example, resource exploration companies looking for oil, gas and mineral sources, and timber production firms seeking more efficient treeland management. Supporting both government and private users is a small industry composed of companies producing the processing hardware software. As is the case in the medical application, many of these companies are direct offspring of NASA's work.

  9. 77 FR 60714 - Information Collection Activities: Legacy Data Verification Process (LDVP); Submitted for Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Legacy Data Verification Process (LDVP); Submitted for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request ACTION... the paperwork requirements for the Notice to Lessees (NTL) on the Legacy Data Verification...

  10. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  11. An Effective Waste Management Process for Segregation and Disposal of Legacy Mixed Waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, Anne K.; Meyer, Dann; Rellergert, Carla A.; Schriner, Joseph A.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well- defined, properly characterized, and precisely inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried through this process. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this paper is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal.

  12. Legacy sample disposition project. Volume 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, R.N.; Shifty, K.L.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the legacy sample disposition project at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), which assessed Site-wide facilities/areas to locate legacy samples and owner organizations and then characterized and dispositioned these samples. This project resulted from an Idaho Department of Environmental Quality inspection of selected areas of the INEEL in January 1996, which identified some samples at the Test Reactor Area and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant that had not been characterized and dispositioned according to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The objective of the project was to manage legacy samples in accordance with all applicable environmental and safety requirements. A systems engineering approach was used throughout the project, which included collecting the legacy sample information and developing a system for amending and retrieving the information. All legacy samples were dispositioned by the end of 1997. Closure of the legacy sample issue was achieved through these actions.

  13. Individual legacy trees influence vertebrate wildlife diversity in commercial forests

    Treesearch

    M.J. Mazurek; William J. Zielinski

    2007-01-01

    Old-growth forests provide important structural habitat elements for many species of wildlife. These forests, however, are rare where lands are managed for timber. In commercial forests, large and old trees sometimes exist only as widely-dispersed residual or legacy trees. Legacy trees are old trees that have been spared during harvest or have survived stand-replacing...

  14. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Decai

    2010-10-31

    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramica and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package

  15. Laser mask repair system LM700A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Atsushi; Yoshino, Yoichi; Morishige, Yukio; Watanabe, Syuichi; Kyusho, Yukio; Haneda, Tsutoma; Ohmiya, Makoto

    2001-09-01

    High throughput laser mask repair system satisfying the accuracy demanded for 0.5micrometers pattern rule reticles has been newly developed. The named Laser Mask Repair LM700A has the following versatile features: *Opaque defect repair capability of 0.5micrometers L&S patterns with high repair accuracy of 45nm (3(sigma) ) *Low Quartz damage and high transmission at the repair site, especially for MoSi KrF-HT mask, and applicable to MoSi ArF-HT mask, by newly developed pico-second solid state UV pulse laser *0.1micrometers defect detectability by high resolution UV Optics *Through pellicle repair capability by newly developed long working distance UV objective lens *Auto-edge positioning function for various patterns By utilizing a pico-second UV pulse laser, very high quality laser zapping can be obtained. This paper presents the configuration and the evaluated results for mask repair performance in MoSi KrF-HT and ArF-HT masks.

  16. A Strategy and Case Study Example for Designing and Implementing Environmental Long-Term Monitoring at Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Roelof J. Versteeg; Mark Ankeny; Gail Heath; Alex Richardson

    2004-04-01

    Environmental monitoring objectives of site owners, regulators, consultants, and scientists typically share the common elements of (1) cost management, (2) risk management, and (3) information management (Figure 1). Many site owners focus on minimizing monitoring costs while regulators typically focus on risk and regulatory compliance. Scientists and consultants typically provide information management in the form of spreadsheets with extracted information provided in reports to other users. This common piecemeal approach upon individual focus on elements of the monitoring objectives, rather than the common objective of minimizing cost and risk using site information, results in missed opportunities for cost savings, environmental protection, and improved understanding of site performance.

  17. A legacy of divergent fishery management regimes and the resilience of rainbow and cutthroat trout populations in Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Kennedy, Philip R.; Baker, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    As a means to increase visitation, early fisheries management in the National Park Service (NPS) promoted sport harvest and hatchery supplementation. Today, NPS management objectives focus on the preservation of native fish. We summarized management regimes of Olympic National Park's Lake Crescent, which included decades of liberal sport harvest and hatchery releases of 14.3 million salmonids. Notably, nonnative species failed to persist in the lake. Complementary analyses of annual redd counts (1989–2012) and genetics data delineated three sympatric trout (one rainbow; two cutthroat) populations that exhibited distinct spatial and temporal spawning patterns, variable emergence timings, and genetic distinctiveness. Allacustrine rainbow trout spawned in the lake outlet from January to May. Cutthroat trout spawned in the major inlet tributary (Barnes Creek) from February to June and in the outlet river (Lyre) from September to March, an unusual timing for coastal cutthroat trout. Redd counts for each species were initially low (rainbow = mean 89; range 37–159; cutthroat = mean 93; range 18–180), and significantly increased for rainbow trout (mean 306; range 254–352) after implementation of catch-and-release regulations. Rainbow and cutthroat trout reached maximum sizes of 10.4 kg and 5.4 kg, respectively, and are among the largest throughout their native ranges. Morphometric analyses revealed interspecific differences but no intraspecific differences between the two cutthroat populations. Genetic analyses identified three distinct populations and low levels (9–17%) of interspecific hybridization. Lake Crescent rainbow trout were genetically divergent from 24 nearby Oncorhynchus mykiss populations, and represented a unique evolutionary legacy worthy of protection. The indigenous and geographically isolated Lake Crescent trout populations were resilient to overharvest and potential interactions with introduced fish species.

  18. Virginia Woolf's "The Legacy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the character Gilbert Clandon from Virginia Woolf's "The Legacy" illustrates one of Woolf's underlying beliefs about fiction--that it should not present reality as absolute and neatly packageable, but rather as subjectively experienced by individuals. (EL)

  19. A complex legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  20. CERES FSW Legacy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-24

    CERES FSW Legacy Level 3:  Spatially (1°x1° lat/lon regional, ... Description : Monthly Gridded Radiative Fluxes and Clouds (FSW): Regional averages of instantaneous footprint computed fluxes [TOA, ...

  1. The Lep Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, R.

    2005-04-01

    In this lecture we shall summarize the scientific legacy of LEP, in particular in connection with the Standard Model of Particle Physics; we shall also discuss some historical and sociological aspects of the experimentation at LEP.

  2. Virginia Woolf's "The Legacy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the character Gilbert Clandon from Virginia Woolf's "The Legacy" illustrates one of Woolf's underlying beliefs about fiction--that it should not present reality as absolute and neatly packageable, but rather as subjectively experienced by individuals. (EL)

  3. Reciprocal Benefits, Legacy and Risk: Applying Ellinger and Bostrom's Model of Line Manager Role Identity as Facilitators of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul; Evans, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the beliefs held by managers about their roles as facilitators of learning with their employees in a public utilities organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on Ellinger and Bostrom's (2002) study on managers' beliefs on their role as facilitators of learning in…

  4. Reciprocal Benefits, Legacy and Risk: Applying Ellinger and Bostrom's Model of Line Manager Role Identity as Facilitators of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul; Evans, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the beliefs held by managers about their roles as facilitators of learning with their employees in a public utilities organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on Ellinger and Bostrom's (2002) study on managers' beliefs on their role as facilitators of learning in…

  5. Apollo 9 Mission image - View of the Lunar Module (LM) 3 and Service Module (SM) LM Adapter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-03

    View of the Lunar Module (LM) 3 and Service Module (SM) LM Adapter. Film magazine was A,film type was SO-368 Ektachrome with 0.460 - 0.710 micrometers film / filter transmittance response and haze filter, 80mm lens.

  6. Secondary Activity Category | STORET Legacy Data Center ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  7. Contacts | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  8. STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-03-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  9. Organizations - US EPA Headquarters | STORET Legacy Data ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  10. Organizations | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  11. Glossary | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2014-06-06

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  12. Help | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-07-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  13. Glossary | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-02-14

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  14. Purpose | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  15. Legacy2Drupal - Conversion of an existing oceanographic relational database to a semantically enabled Drupal content management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Work, T.; Allen, J.; Groman, R. C.; Fox, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Content Management Systems (CMSs) provide powerful features that can be of use to oceanographic (and other geo-science) data managers. However, in many instances, geo-science data management offices have previously designed customized schemas for their metadata. The WHOI Ocean Informatics initiative and the NSF funded Biological Chemical and Biological Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) have jointly sponsored a project to port an existing, relational database containing oceanographic metadata, along with an existing interface coded in Cold Fusion middleware, to a Drupal6 Content Management System. The goal was to translate all the existing database tables, input forms, website reports, and other features present in the existing system to employ Drupal CMS features. The replacement features include Drupal content types, CCK node-reference fields, themes, RDB, SPARQL, workflow, and a number of other supporting modules. Strategic use of some Drupal6 CMS features enables three separate but complementary interfaces that provide access to oceanographic research metadata via the MySQL database: 1) a Drupal6-powered front-end; 2) a standard SQL port (used to provide a Mapserver interface to the metadata and data; and 3) a SPARQL port (feeding a new faceted search capability being developed). Future plans include the creation of science ontologies, by scientist/technologist teams, that will drive semantically-enabled faceted search capabilities planned for the site. Incorporation of semantic technologies included in the future Drupal 7 core release is also anticipated. Using a public domain CMS as opposed to proprietary middleware, and taking advantage of the many features of Drupal 6 that are designed to support semantically-enabled interfaces will help prepare the BCO-DMO database for interoperability with other ecosystem databases.

  16. Community Involvement as an Effective Institutional Control at the Weldon Spring Site, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Deyo, Y.E.; Pauling, T.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) was conducted for the purpose of remediating a portion of a former trinitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene production plant that was operational from 1941 to 1945 and a former uranium refinery that was operational from 1957 to 1966. Surface remediation activities concluded in 2001 with the completion of a 45-acre (.18 square kilometer) on-site engineered disposal facility. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities at the site were officially transferred to the DOE Office of Legacy Management in 2003. The Weldon Spring Site is located within the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area (population 3 million). DOE's close relationship with surrounding land owners created a need for innovative solutions to long-term surveillance and maintenance issues at the site. Through a Secretarial proclamation, a plan was established for development of a comprehensive public involvement and education program. This program would act as an institutional control to communicate the historical legacy of the site and would make information available about contamination present at the site to guide people in making decisions about appropriate site activities. In August 2002, the Weldon Spring Site Interpretive Center opened to the public with exhibits about the history of the area, the remediation work that was completed, and a site information repository that is available to visitors. In addition, the Hamburg Trail for hiking and biking was constructed as a joint DOE/MDC effort. The 8-mile trail travels through both DOE and MDC property; a series of historical markers posted along its length to communicate the history of the area and the remediation work that was done as part of WSSRAP activities. A ramp and viewing platform with informational plaques were constructed on the disposal cell to provide an additional mechanism for public education. With a basic marketing program, site visitor-ship has

  17. What is Local Mode (LM)? Global Mode (GM)? Calibration Mode?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... also at 275 meters, over a spatial area of approximately 300 kilometers downtrack by 360 kilometers crosstrack. LM acquisition can be ... from camera Df to camera Da over targets approximately 300 km in length Calibration Implemented ...

  18. Life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems for alternative legacy scenarios of the London Olympic Park.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Olga; Lettieri, Paola; Bogle, I David L

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 10 integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) for 3 potential post-event site design scenarios of the London Olympic Park. The aim of the LCA study is to evaluate direct and indirect emissions resulting from various treatment options of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually generated on site together with avoided emissions resulting from energy, materials and nutrients recovery. IWMSs are modelled using GaBi v6.0 Product Sustainability software and results are presented based on the CML (v.Nov-10) characterisation method. The results show that IWMSs with advanced thermal treatment (ATT) and incineration with energy recovery have the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP) than IWMSs where landfill is the primary waste treatment process. This is due to higher direct emissions and lower avoided emissions from the landfill process compared to the emissions from the thermal treatment processes. LCA results demonstrate that significant environmental savings are achieved through substitution of virgin materials with recycled ones. The results of the sensitivity analysis carried out for IWMS 1 shows that increasing recycling rate by 5%, 10% and 15% compared to the baseline scenario can reduce GWP by 8%, 17% and 25% respectively. Sensitivity analysis also shows how changes in waste composition affect the overall result of the system. The outcomes of such assessments provide decision-makers with fundamental information regarding the environmental impacts of different waste treatment options necessary for sustainable waste management planning.

  19. The contested Jacksonian legacy.

    PubMed

    Jacyna, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    John Hughlings Jackson has since the early twentieth century occupied the position of the doyen of British neurology. Among those who knew him personally and claimed allegiance to his legacy were the leading neurological practitioners, Henry Head (1861-1940) and Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson (1878-1937). In terms of their professional profiles and attitudes Head and Kinnier Wilson had much in common. They however interpreted the Jacksonian legacy in divergent ways that illustrate how the content and import of Jackson's views were subject to interpretation and to contestation among those who claimed to be his disciples.

  20. Understanding legacy liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ossi, G.J.

    2005-08-01

    Among the most immediate issues facing operations with a workforce represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) are the so-called 'legacy liabilities'. Legacy liabilities fall under two categories: retiree health care and pension. The retiree health benefit obligations fall into two categories; statutory - those created under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 and contractual - the 1993 Employer Benefit Plan and the Individual Employer Plans. The pension liabilities are more straightforward; there are three different retirement plans in the NBCWA; the UMWA 1950 Pension Plan, the UMWA 1974 Pension Plan and the UMWA Cash Deferred Savings Plan of 1988.

  1. Apollo Operations Handbook Lunar Module (LM 11 and Subsequent) Vol. 2 Operational Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Operations Handbook (AOH) is the primary means of documenting LM descriptions and procedures. The AOH is published in two separately bound volumes. This information is useful in support of program management, engineering, test, flight simulation, and real time flight support efforts. This volume contains crew operational procedures: normal, backup, abort, malfunction, and emergency. These procedures define the sequence of actions necessary for safe and efficient subsystem operation.

  2. Tree-Rings Mirror Management Legacy: Dramatic Response of Standard Oaks to Past Coppicing in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter; Mazůrek, Petr; Riedl, Vladan; Müllerová, Jana; Kopecký, Martin; Doležal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Background Coppicing was one of the most important forest management systems in Europe documented in prehistory as well as in the Middle Ages. However, coppicing was gradually abandoned by the mid-20th century, which has altered the ecosystem structure, diversity and function of coppice woods. Methodology/Principal Findings Our aim was to disentangle factors shaping the historical growth dynamics of oak standards (i.e. mature trees growing through several coppice cycles) in a former coppice-with-standards in Central Europe. Specifically, we tried to detect historical coppicing events from tree-rings of oak standards, to link coppicing events with the recruitment of mature oaks, and to determine the effects of neighbouring trees on the stem increment of oak standards. Large peaks in radial growth found for the periods 1895–1899 and 1935–1939 matched with historical records of coppice harvests. After coppicing, the number of newly recruited oak standards markedly grew in comparison with the preceding or following periods. The last significant recruitment of oak standards was after the 1930s following the last regular coppicing event. The diameter increment of oak standards from 1953 to 2003 was negatively correlated with competition indices, suggesting that neighbouring trees (mainly resprouting coppiced Tilia platyphyllos) partly suppressed the growth of oak standards. Our results showed that improved light conditions following historical coppicing events caused significant increase in pulses of radial growth and most probably maintained oak recruitment. Conclusions/Significance Our historical perspective carries important implications for oak management in Central Europe and elsewhere. Relatively intense cutting creating open canopy woodlands, either as in the coppicing system or in the form of selective cutting, is needed to achieve significant radial growth in mature oaks. It is also critical for the successful regeneration and long-term maintenance of oak

  3. The Urban Policy Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Highlights a comparison of a 30-year legacy of urban policy making with 25 years of policy making on environmental problems to demonstrate how weak policy development has been in dealing with the urban crisis. Several principles designed to guide future urban policies are discussed. (GR)

  4. Science: The Islamic Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunde, Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In the wake of the first space voyage and in-flight experiments by a Muslim astronaut, this document focuses upon the story of Islamic science through the ages. It is intended to demonstrate the resurgence of scientific research and technological development in the Muslim world. The booklet contains chapters on: (1) science: the Islamic legacy;…

  5. Securing Your Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeau, Edward

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a former college president, reflects on his career and the challenges of retirement. He shares his experience from career preparation to on-the-job training to succession planning. The author stresses that the decisions college presidents make define the legacies they leave.

  6. The Legacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2012-01-01

    This article is the first in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." It focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged technology engineering education profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize them and…

  7. The Legacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2012-01-01

    This article is the first in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." It focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged technology engineering education profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize them and…

  8. Science: The Islamic Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunde, Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In the wake of the first space voyage and in-flight experiments by a Muslim astronaut, this document focuses upon the story of Islamic science through the ages. It is intended to demonstrate the resurgence of scientific research and technological development in the Muslim world. The booklet contains chapters on: (1) science: the Islamic legacy;…

  9. Does L/M cone opponency disappear in human periphery?

    PubMed

    Mullen, Kathy T; Sakurai, Masato; Chu, William

    2005-01-01

    We have assessed the optimal cone contrast sensitivity across eccentricity in human vision of the two cone-opponent mechanisms [L/M or red-green, and S/(L + M) or blue-yellow] and the luminance mechanism. We have used a novel stimulus, termed a 'sinring', that is a radially modulated sine-wave arc, Gaussian enveloped in both angular and radial directions. This stimulus overcomes the problem inherent in Gabor stimuli of confounding stimulus spatial frequency, size, and eccentricity and so allows contrast sensitivity to be tracked accurately into the periphery. Our results show that L/M cone opponency declines steeply across the human periphery and becomes behaviourally absent by 25-30 deg (in the nasal field). This result suggests that any L/M cone-opponent neurons found in primate peripheral retina beyond this limit are unlikely to be significant for colour contrast detection measured behaviourally.

  10. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  11. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  12. Intermediate Macroeconomics without the IS-LM Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerapana, Akila

    2003-01-01

    States that the IS-LM model is the primary model of economic fluctuations taught in undergraduate macroeconomics. Argues that the aggregate demand-price adjustment (AD-PA) model is superior for teaching about economic fluctuations. Compares the IS-LS model with the AD-AP model using two current issues in macroeconomics. (JEH)

  13. [Unipacs: A-LM German, Units 3-29].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Bend High Schools, WI.

    These instructional materials, designed for use with the "A-LM" German language course, permit teachers to individualize instruction. Basic objectives are outlined concerning basic dialogues, vocabulary, supplementary materials, reading, grammar, recombination materials, and creative conversation. A student checklist serves as a guide for the…

  14. [Unipacs: A-LM French, Units 2-26].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Bend High Schools, WI.

    These instructional materials, designed for use with the "A-LM" French language course permit teachers to individualize instruction. Basic objectives are outlined concerning basic dialogues, vocabulary, supplementary materials, and conversation stimulus. A student checklist serves as a guide for the student, indicating required work in the…

  15. "A-LM German": How to Make it Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmetz, Dieter

    1978-01-01

    The A-LM German materials are analyzed in terms of their weakness and positive features, and suggestions for their use and adaptation are presented. It is argued that: the basic dialogue is almost unusable; the structure drills are repetitive and often not challenging; the taped arrangement of the listening exercises is awkward; the dialogue…

  16. [Unipacs: A-LM Spanish, Units 7-42].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Bend High Schools, WI.

    These instructional materials, designed for use with the "A-LM" Spanish language course, permit teachers to individualize instruction. Basic objectives are outlined and a student checklist of required activities for each unit is included. Worksheets and unit tests are also provided. (RL)

  17. Intermediate Macroeconomics without the IS-LM Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerapana, Akila

    2003-01-01

    States that the IS-LM model is the primary model of economic fluctuations taught in undergraduate macroeconomics. Argues that the aggregate demand-price adjustment (AD-PA) model is superior for teaching about economic fluctuations. Compares the IS-LS model with the AD-AP model using two current issues in macroeconomics. (JEH)

  18. The DECam Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Robert D.; Burleigh, Kaylan; Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Levi, Michael; Myers, Adam D.; Lang, Dustin; Moustakas, John; Patej, Anna; Valdes, Francisco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Huanyuan, Shan; Nord, Brian; Olsen, Knut A.; Delubac, Timothée; Saha, Abi; James, David; Walker, Alistair R.; DECaLS Team

    2016-06-01

    The DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) is conducting a 3-band imaging survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) extragalactic footprint as part of the Legacy Survey, which is associated with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) redshift survey. The Legacy Survey covers 14000 square degrees in the g, r, and z bands and is being executed on the Blanco 4-m, Mayall 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. For DECaLS, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) will image the footprint overlapping SDSS in the region -20 < Dec < +30 deg, to depths of g=24.7, r=23.9, z=23.0 and will eventually cover a total of 7500 square degrees. The survey began in 2014 and will run through Spring 2017. Images and catalogs were introduced in Public Data Release 2 (DR2), which occurred in January 2016. The algorithm "Tractor" applies multi-wavelength forced photometry to DECam and WISE data to produce galaxy (and star) magnitudes (as well as shape and other information) for the catalogs. In total, the optical data in DR2 cover a disjoint footprint in 2078, 2141 and 5322 square degrees in g, r, and z bands, respectively; 1807 square degrees has been observed in all three optical filters. There are approximately 260 million unique sources in DR2 spread over 97,554 0.25 x 0.25 square degree bricks.The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 30+ million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these DECam data, the MOSAIC camera on the Mayall 4-meter, and the 90Prime camera on the Bok telescope.

  19. The Legacy Project: Franklin Owens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.; Owens, Franklin

    2017-01-01

    This is the ninth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged our profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these leaders and…

  20. Legacy retention versus thinning: influences on small mammals.

    Treesearch

    S.M. Wilson; A.B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Management strategies for promoting late-seral attributes in second-growth forest need evaluation for their efficacy in maintaining biodiversity, including complete forest-floor, small-mammal communities. Two common strategies in the Pacific Northwest are (1) management with thinnings to promote large trees with developed understories and (2) retention of legacies,...

  1. Liverpool Bay project. LM6000 gas turbines go offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Liverpool Bay - comprising the North coast of Wales and the North West coast of England - has become one of the few sites for oil and natural gas extraction in the Irish Sea. Hamilton Oil Company Ltd, together with three UK partners, is now engaged in setting up the Liverpool Bay project. Power supply for the whole offshore project will be on the 8500 t Douglas production platform deck, using two LM6000 gas turbine generating sets. During normal operation, one unit providing 42 MW nominal power will be kept in service with the second in standby. Should the power demand exceed the capacity of one set, additional power can be supplied by the one-megawatt diesel generators installed on the accommodation platform, or by putting the second LM6000 unit into service. The main power loads will be four compressor sets, also installed on the Douglas production platform deck, including two for gas injection and two for gas compression. 5 figs.

  2. The Legacies Left Us by Database Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcinko, Randall

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the three components of legacy in the information industry: data, systems, and human factors. Discusses psychological legacy data; data conversions; characteristics of legacy systems for the information industry; database producers; standards; evaluating legacy from a financial perspective; financial considerations for database…

  3. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Soer, Wouter

    2012-12-21

    An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor

  4. Problems with integrating legacy systems.

    PubMed Central

    van Mulligen, E. M.; Cornet, R.; Timmers, T.

    1995-01-01

    The economic and organizational impact of imposing state-of-the-art technology to the large number of proprietary legacy systems operational in most hospitals requires integrated clinical professional workstations to provide flexible encapsulation mechanisms for these systems rather than reengineering these systems to this new technology. In this paper the implications of different input/output and translation models of legacy systems for their integration into a clinical workstation is described. Examples of legacy systems that have been integrated in the HERMES clinical workstation are presented as examples of the range of difficulties one might encounter. The features that an integrated workstation should offer for integrating a broad range of legacy systems are also addressed in this paper. PMID:8563389

  5. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.

    2002-02-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

  6. Apollo 16, LM-11 ascent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    The duty cycle for the LM-11 APS consisted of two firings, an ascent stage liftoff from the lunar surface, and the terminal phase initiation (TPI) burn. APS performance for the first firing was evaluated and found to be satisfactory. No propulsion data were received from the second APS burn; however, all indications were that the burn was nominal. Engine ignition for the APS lunar liftoff burn occured at the Apollo elapsed time (AET) of 175:31:47.9 (hours:minutes:seconds). Burn duration was 427.7 seconds.

  7. Transfer and Transition: Interagency Coordination for Managing Public Lands at UMTRCA Title II Sites in Wyoming – 16614

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, David S.; Vanek, Tim; Ribeiro, Tracy; Bahrke, Cheri

    2016-03-06

    By the end of fiscal year 2025, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is anticipating adding 17 sites remediated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) to the current inventory of 90 sites that it manages. Among the new sites are ones where federal public lands occur within the proposed long-term care boundary, the boundary determined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and LM as necessary to maintain site protectiveness for the entombed uranium mill tailings and residual groundwater contamination. For these sites, public land withdrawals for land and minerals will need to be established. LM’s primary mission at UMTRCA sites is to protect the public and the environment from exposure to contamination at the sites. For the sites with public lands or federally controlled minerals that will be transferring to LM, the Office will apply to the Department of the Interior (DOI) Bureau of Land Management (BLM) for new, public land and mineral withdrawals. At most current LM UMTRCA sites that involved public lands and minerals, DOI granted DOE “full administrative jurisdiction” and permanent withdrawals. Hence, these withdrawals are, permanently, no longer subject to public land, mining, and mineral-leasing laws and regulations. LM is coordinating with DOI/BLM in Wyoming to permanently withdraw full and partial jurisdiction at future UMTRCA Title II sites in that state. This approach would allow LM to fully administer surface lands and minerals, where necessary, and DOI and LM to administer surface lands and leasable minerals where it would not jeopardize sites’ radiological safety and long-term public and environmental protection. This “shared-jurisdiction approach” will meet LM’s strategic goal of protecting human health and the environment but also allow BLM to fulfill their mission to “manage and conserve the lands under the mandate of multiple-use and sustained yield.” In addition, LM

  8. Step 1 - Select a Hydrologic Unit Region | STORET Legacy ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-03-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  9. New STORET Station Type | STORET Legacy Data Center ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  10. Sample Media Analysis Type | STORET Legacy Data Center ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  11. Organizations - S | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  12. Organizations - R | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  13. Effluent Statistic | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  14. Organizations - P | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  15. Organizations - C | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  16. Organizations - V | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  17. Organizations - G | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  18. Organizations - A | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  19. Organizations - K | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  20. Organizations - W | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  1. Create a Query | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-05-22

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  2. Composite Statistic | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  3. Composite Method | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  4. Organizations - D | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  5. Organizations - N | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  6. Primary Activity Category | STORET Legacy Data Center | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  7. Reference Tables | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2010-01-14

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  8. Organizations - T | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  9. STORET Result Remark | STORET Legacy Data Center | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  10. Parameter Group | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  11. Organizations - O | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  12. Organizations - E | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  13. Select Organizations | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-05-17

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  14. Step 1 - Select a State or Territory | STORET Legacy Data ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-03-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  15. Advanced Query Input | STORET Legacy Data Center | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-03-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  16. Organizations - H | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  17. Organizations - B | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  18. Organizations - L | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  19. Create a Query | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-03-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  20. Organizations - F| STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  1. Reporting Units | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  2. Organizations - I | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  3. Organizations - U | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  4. Organizations - M | STORET Legacy Data Center | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007-05-16

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains two data management systems containing water quality information for the nation's waters: the Legacy Data Center (LDC), and STORET. The LDC is a static, archived database and STORET is an operational system actively being populated with water quality data.

  5. The Planck Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupac, X.; Arviset, C.; Fernandez Barreiro, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Tauber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Planck Collaboration has released in 2015 their second major dataset through the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA). It includes cosmological, Extragalactic and Galactic science data in temperature (intensity) and polarization. Full-sky maps are provided with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity, together with a large number of ancillary maps, catalogues (generic, SZ clusters and Galactic cold clumps), time-ordered data and other information. The extensive cosmological likelihood package allows cosmologists to fully explore the plausible parameters of the Universe. A new web-based PLA user interface is made public since Dec. 2014, allowing easier and faster access to all Planck data, and replacing the previous Java-based software. Numerous additional improvements to the PLA are also being developed through the so-called PLA Added-Value Interface, making use of an external contract with the Planetek Hellas and Expert Analytics software companies. This will allow users to process time-ordered data into sky maps, separate astrophysical components in existing maps, simulate the microwave and infrared sky through the Planck Sky Model, and use a number of other functionalities.

  6. LM-research opportunities and activities at Beer-Sheva

    SciTech Connect

    Lesin, S.

    1996-06-01

    Energy conversion concepts based on liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) technology was intensively investigated at the Center for MHD Studies (CMHDS), in the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. LMMHD energy conversion systems operate in a closed cycle as follows: heat intended for conversion into electricity is added to a liquid metal contained in a closed loop of pipes. The liquid metal is mixed with vapor or gas introduced from outside so that a two-phase mixture is formed. The gaseous phase performs a thermodynamic cycle, converting a certain amount of heat into mechanical energy of the liquid metal. This energy is converted into electrical power as the metal flows across a magnetic field in the MHD channel. Those systems where the expanding thermodynamic fluid performs work against gravitational forces (natural circulation loops) and using heavy liquid metals are named ETGAR systems. A number of different heavy-metal facilities have been specially constructed and tested with fluid combinations of mercury and steam, mercury and nitrogen, mercury and freon, lead-bismuth and steam, and lead and steam. Since the experimental investigation of such flows is a very difficult task and all the known measurment methods are incomplete and not fully reliable, a variety of experimental approaches have been developed. In most experiments, instantaneous pressure distribution along the height of the upcomer were measured and the average void fraction was calculated numerically using the one-dimensional equation for the two-phase flow. The research carried out at the CMHDS led to significant improvements in the characterization of the two-phase phenomena expected in the riser of ETGAR systems. One of the most important outcomes is the development of a new empirical correlation which enables the reliable prediction of the velocity ratio between the LM and the steam (slip), the friction factor, as well as of the steam void fraction distribution along the riser.

  7. Characterization of LmTxLP11 and LmVP1.1 transcripts and genomic organizations: alternative splicing contributing to the diversity of scorpion venom peptides.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yibao; Zhao, Ruiming; Li, Songryong; Fan, Shaozhong; Wu, Yingliang; Liu, Hui; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin

    2009-01-01

    Scorpion venoms are rich resources of bioactive peptides with extreme variability. Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the diversity of scorpion venom peptides. However, alternative splicing, which plays a major role in the generation of proteomic and functional diversity in metazoan organisms, hasn't been reported in genes coding for scorpion venom peptides. In the EST analysis of venom peptide transcripts from scorpion Lychas mucronatus, we reported an alternative splicing event. Transcripts of LmTxLP11 and LmVP1.1 share identical 5' region. LmVP1.1 is a novel type of scorpion venom peptides constrained by one disulfide bridge, whereas LmTxLP11 is an extended version of LmVP1.1. By transcript alignment with its genomic sequence, it is found that both transcripts are generated from a single gene by alternative poly A site and terminal exon. The gene encoding LmTxLP11 and LmVP1.1 is the first one harboring three introns ever reported from scorpion venoms. This work demonstrates for the first time that alternative splicing is involved in regulating the diversity of scorpion venom peptides.

  8. Assessment of the water and energy budget simulation of three land surface models: CLM4.5, CoLM2014, and CoLM2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Lu, H.; Wen, X.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface model (LSM), which simulates energy, water and momentum exchanges between land and atmosphere, is an important component of Earth System Models (ESM). As shown in CMIP5, different ESMs usually use different LSMs and represent various land surface status. In order to select a land surface model which could be embedded into the ESM developed in Tsinghua University, we firstly evaluate the performance of three LSMs: Community Land Model (CLM4.5) and two different versions of Common Land Model (CoLM2005 and CoLM2014). All of three models were driven by CRUNCEP data and simulation results from 1980 to 2010 were used in this study. Diagnostic data provided by NCAR, global latent and sensible heat flux map estimated by Jung, net radiation from SRB, and in situ observation collected from FluxNet were used as reference data. Two variables, surface runoff and snow depth, were used for evaluating the model performance in water budget simulation, while three variables including net radiation, sensible heat, and latent heat were used for assessing energy budget simulation. For 30 years averaged runoff, global average value of Colm2014 is 0.44mm/day and close to the diagnostic value of 0.75 mm/day, while that of Colm2005 is 0.44mm/day and that of CLM is 0.20mm/day. For snow depth simulation, three models all have overestimation in the Northern Hemisphere and underestimation in the Southern Hemisphere compare to diagnostic data. For 30 years energy budget simulation, at global scale, CoLM2005 performs best in latent heat estimation, CoLM2014 performs best in sensible heat simulation, and CoLM2005 and CoLM2014 make similar performance in net radiation estimation but is still better than CLM. At regional and local scale, comparing to the four years average of flux tower observation, RMSE of CoLM2005 is the smallest for latent heat (9.717 W/m2) , and for sensible heat simulation, RMSE of CoLM2005 (13.048 W/m2) is slightly greater than CLM(10.767 W/m2) but still better

  9. LM potencies: one of the hidden treasures of the sixth edition of the Organon.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, L

    1999-07-01

    50 millesimal (LM) potencies have great advantages for all patients, not just those who are hypersensitive because of their great power to heal without major aggravations. Before discussing their advantages this paper describes what LM potencies are, and how they are administered, then addresses two questions: why do we want to avoid aggravations if most homeopaths look for aggravation to know if the remedy is working? And if LM potencies are indeed superior, why are they still relatively unknown and unused?

  10. Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM Modular Generator sets

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.

    1994-12-31

    Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM modular generator sets are outlined. The following topics are discussed: GE LM gas turbine history, operating experience, maintenance, gas turbine spare engines, modular gas turbine generator sets, typical LM2500 cogeneration plant and STIG cycle plant, factory packaging concept, gas turbine/generator package, performance, comparison, competitive capital cost, phased construction, comparison of revenue requirements, capacity evaluation, heat rate evaluation, fuel evaluation, startup, and dispatch flexibility without maintenance penalty.

  11. Multifunctional Self-Adhesive Fibrous Layered Matrix (FiLM) for Tissue Glues and Therapeutic Carriers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ye-Eun; Im, Byung Gee; Kim, Jung-Suk; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2017-01-09

    Tissue adhesives, which inherently serve as wound sealants or as hemostatic agents, can be further augmented to acquire crucial functions as scaffolds, thereby accelerating wound healing or elevating the efficacy of tissue regeneration. Herein, multifunctional adherent fibrous matrices, acting as self-adhesive scaffolds capable of cell/gene delivery, were devised by coaxially electrospinning poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Wrapping the building block PCL fibers with the adherent PVP layers formed film-like fibrous matrices that could rapidly adhere to wet biological surfaces, referred to as fibrous layered matrix (FiLM) adhesives. The inclusion of ionic salts (i.e., dopamine hydrochloride) in the sheath layers generated spontaneously multilayered fibrous adhesives, whose partial layers could be manually peeled off, termed derivative FiLM (d-FiLM). In the context of scaffolds/tissue adhesives, both FiLM and d-FiLM demonstrated almost identical characteristics (i.e., sticky, mechanical, and performances as cell/gene carriers). Importantly, the single FiLM-process can yield multiple sets of d-FiLM by investing the same processing time, materials, and labor required to form a single conventional adhesive fibrous mat, thereby highlighting the economic aspects of the process. The FiLM/d-FiLM offer highly impacting contributions to many biomedical applications, especially in fields that require urgent aids (e.g., endoscopic surgeries, implantation in wet environments, severe wounds).

  12. View form Lunar Module of surface of the moon near where LM touched down

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-07-20

    AS11-37-5458 (20 July 1969) --- This excellent view from the right-hand window of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) shows the surface of the moon in the vicinity of where the LM touched down. Numerous small rocks and craters can be seen between the LM and the lunar horizon. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the LM to the lunar surface.

  13. [Multiphasic character of the kinetics of cytochrome P-450 destruction in microsomal LM2- and LM4-forms in the reaction with cumene hydroperoxide].

    PubMed

    Akhrem, A A; Eremin, A N; Usanov, S A; Metelitsa, D I

    1980-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 destruction kinetics by cumene hydroperoxide has been studied in LM2 and LM4 microsomal and purified forms. Three destruction phases of cytochrome P-450 were shown to be observed irrespective of the source and integration degree, cytochrome P-450 pseudomonomolecular consumption rate constants being dependent in a complex way upon the cumene hydroperoxide initial concentration. The radical character of cytochrome P-450 destruction was proved by experiments with 1-naphtol. The mechanism of radicals formation is discussed.

  14. A conceptual cross-scale approach for linking empirical discharge measurements and regional groundwater models with application to legacy nitrogen transport and coastal nitrogen management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, J. R.; Helton, A. M.; Starn, J. J.; Briggs, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Despite years of management, seasonal hypoxia from excess nitrogen (N) is a pervasive problem in many coastal waters. Current approaches to managing coastal eutrophication in the United States (USA) focus on surface runoff and river transport of nutrients, and often assume that groundwater N is at steady state. This is not necessarily the case, as terrestrial N inputs are affected by changing land use and nutrient management practices. Furthermore, approximately 70% of surface water in the USA is derived from groundwater and there is widespread N contamination in many of our nation's aquifers. Nitrogen export via groundwater discharge to streams during baseflow may be the reason many impaired coastal systems show little improvement. There is a critical need to develop approaches that consider the effects of groundwater transport on N loading to surface waters. Aquifer transport times, which can be decades or even centuries longer than surface water transport times, introduce lags between changes in terrestrial management and reductions in coastal loads. Ignoring these lags can lead to overly ambitious and unrealistic load reduction goals, or incorrect conclusions regarding the effectiveness of management strategies. Additionally, regional groundwater models typically have a coarse resolution that makes it difficult to incorporate fine-scale processes that drive N transformations, such as groundwater-surface water exchange across steep redox gradients at stream bed interfaces. Despite this challenge, representing these important fine-scale processes well is essential to modeling groundwater transport of N across regional scales and to making informed management decisions. We present 1) a conceptual approach to linking regional models and fine-scale empirical measurements, and 2) preliminary groundwater flow and transport model results for the Housatonic and Farmington Rivers in Connecticut, USA. Our cross-scale approach utilizes thermal infrared imaging and vertical

  15. Analysis of humoral immune responses to LM1 ganglioside in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yajuan; Chen, Zi-Wei; Siegel, Allan; Koshy, Ranie; Ramirez, Cristhian; Raabe, Timothy D; Devries, George H; Ilyas, Amjad A

    2012-05-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune-mediated disease triggered by a preceding infection. A substantial body of evidence implicates antibodies to various gangliosides in subtypes of GBS. A significant proportion of patients with acute demyelinating subset of GBS have IgG antibodies against peripheral nervous system myelin specific neolactogangliosides such as LM1 and Hex-LM1. Although anti-neolactoganglioside antibodies in GBS were described more than two decades ago, their pathogenic role in neuropathy remains unknown due to the lack of suitable experimental models. In this study, we immunized ten guinea pigs with purified LM1 ganglioside mixed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Control guinea pigs were injected with KLH emulsified in CFA only. The animals were bled every four week intervals. The animals were boosted 3 times every four weeks. Experiments were terminated four months after initial immunization. Nine of 10 guinea pigs immunized with LM1 exhibited antibody responses to LM1. Anti-LM1 IgG titers in nine guinea pigs ranged from 1:400 to 1:12,800 at 16-weeks after initial immunization. Anti-LM1 antibodies were predominantly of IgG2 subclass. One guinea pig with the highest levels of IgG antibodies exhibited mild signs of neuropathy. There was no evidence of demyelination or inflammation in the sciatic nerves of LM1-immunized guinea pigs. Anti-LM1 antibodies bound to rat sciatic nerve myelin and to isolated rat Schwann cells. In summary, our findings suggest that relatively high levels of anti-LM1 IgG antibodies can be induced in guinea pigs and that LM1 is localized in peripheral nerve myelin and in Schwann cells. Further studies are needed to determine the pathogenic potential of anti-neolactoganglioside antibodies in neuropathy.

  16. LM cell growth and membrane lipid adaptation to sterol structure.

    PubMed

    Rujanavech, C; Silbert, D F

    1986-06-05

    Using a sterol auxotroph of the LM cell mouse fibroblast, we demonstrate that relatively few cholesterol analogues can substitute for cholesterol as a growth factor. The auxotroph grows normally on desmosterol and trans-22-dehydrocholesterol and at reduced rates on dihydrocholesterol, campesterol, and 22,23-dihydrobrassicasterol. It does not grow with beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol, or cis-22-dehydrocholesterol when the sterol is present as sole supplement but does grow at normal rates when the analogue is supplied with suboptimal amounts of cholesterol. Two contrasting types of membrane lipid changes are observed in cells grown on cholesterol analogues. In cells grown with dihydrocholesterol, a marked increase in desaturation and elongation of fatty acids is noted. Conversely, when cells are grown with cis-22-dehydrocholesterol, desaturation and elongation of fatty acids are severely curtailed. Cells grown on alkyl sterols respond like cells grown on cis-22-dehydrocholesterol but in a less pronounced fashion. The effects of sterol substitution in mammalian cells versus in lower eukaryotes are compared, and an explanation for the secondary changes in fatty acid composition in terms of phospholipid phase behavior is suggested.

  17. The contribution of LM to the neuroscience of movement vision

    PubMed Central

    Zihl, Josef; Heywood, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of early and sporadic reports in the 19th century of impairments of motion vision following brain damage was largely unrecognized. In the absence of satisfactory post-mortem evidence, impairments were interpreted as the consequence of a more general disturbance resulting from brain damage, the location and extent of which was unknown. Moreover, evidence that movement constituted a special visual perception and may be selectively spared was similarly dismissed. Such skepticism derived from a reluctance to acknowledge that the neural substrates of visual perception may not be confined to primary visual cortex. This view did not persist. First, it was realized that visual movement perception does not depend simply on the analysis of spatial displacements and temporal intervals, but represents a specific visual movement sensation. Second persuasive evidence for functional specialization in extrastriate cortex, and notably the discovery of cortical area V5/MT, suggested a separate region specialized for motion processing. Shortly thereafter the remarkable case of patient LM was published, providing compelling evidence for a selective and specific loss of movement vision. The case is reviewed here, along with an assessment of its contribution to visual neuroscience. PMID:25741251

  18. Fluid Management Plan Central Nevada Test Area Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing at sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. Responsibility for environmental restoration of the sites that constitute the Offsites Project was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to the DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) on October 1, 2006. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support subsurface investigations at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996). The subsurface CAU 443 is associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted at UC-1 and is located approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada.

  19. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Latest Fad or Lasting Legacy? Policy Briefs of the Education Policy Studies Laboratory. No. 93-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi

    This policy brief examines the fundamental principles that undergird the current Total Quality Management (TQM) movement, describes application examples and discusses application problems particular to higher education. An opening section reviews the basic premises of TQM and differentiates between two perspectives on the approach: the first see…

  20. LM-3: A High-resolution Lake Michigan Mass Balance Water Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a user’s manual that describes the high-resolution mass balance model known as LM3. LM3 has been applied to Lake Michigan to describe the transport and fate of atrazine, PCB congeners, and chloride in that system. The model has also been used to model eutrophicat...

  1. LM-3: A High-resolution Lake Michigan Mass Balance Water Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a user’s manual that describes the high-resolution mass balance model known as LM3. LM3 has been applied to Lake Michigan to describe the transport and fate of atrazine, PCB congeners, and chloride in that system. The model has also been used to model eutrophicat...

  2. Peter Waterman and his scientific legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Kahnert, Michael; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peter C. Waterman, a giant figure in the theory of electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic wave scattering, passed away on 3 June, 2012. In view of his fundamental contributions, which to a large degree have guided the progress of these disciplines over the past five decades and affected profoundly the multifaceted research published in the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT), we felt that it would be appropriate to solicit papers for a special issue of JQSRT commemorating Peter Waterman's scientific legacy. This initiative was endorsed by the JQSRT management and has resulted in a representative collection of high-quality papers which have undergone the same peer scrutiny as any paper submitted to JQSRT.

  3. Peter Waterman and his scientific legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Kahnert, Michael; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peter C. Waterman, a giant figure in the theory of electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic wave scattering, passed away on 3 June, 2012. In view of his fundamental contributions, which to a large degree have guided the progress of these disciplines over the past five decades and affected profoundly the multifaceted research published in the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT), we felt that it would be appropriate to solicit papers for a special issue of JQSRT commemorating Peter Waterman's scientific legacy. This initiative was endorsed by the JQSRT management and has resulted in a representative collection of high-quality papers which have undergone the same peer scrutiny as any paper submitted to JQSRT.

  4. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, Molly S.; Tumlinson, Jason; Fox, Andrew; Aloisi, Alessandra; Ayres, Thomas R.; Danforth, Charles; Fleming, Scott W.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Keeney, Brian A.; Oliveira, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    With no future space ultraviolet instruments currently planned, the data from the UV spectrographs aboard the Hubble Space Telescope have a legacy value beyond their initial science goals. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive will provide to the community new science-grade combined spectra for all publicly available data obtained by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These data will be packaged into "smart archives" according to target type and scientific themes to facilitate the construction of archival samples for common science uses. A new "quick look" capability will make the data easy for users to quickly access, assess the quality of, and download for archival science starting in Cycle 24, with the first generation of these products for the FUV modes of COS available online via MAST in early 2016.

  5. Legacies of the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The Manhattan Project of World War II mobilized thousands of people, including many of the nation's leading physicists, and extensive material resources to design, develop, and manufacture the world's first nuclear weapons. It also established sprawling new facilities for the production of fissionable fuels - notably at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. It left a set of powerful legacies in the context of the Cold War - endowing scientists with conscience-taxing responsibilities in the nuclear arms race; promoting enormous patronage of academic research by defense and defense-related federal agencies, notably the Office of Naval Research and the Atomic Energy Commission; and turning its wartime facilities into major national laboratories that advanced the fields of high-energy and nuclear physics and stimulated local industrial economies but that in some cases, notably at Hanford, severely polluted the surrounding environment with radioactive waste and disrupted the livelihoods of native peoples. ``Legacies of the Manhattan Project''

  6. Human Spaceflight The Kennedy Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Musician Herbie Hancock plays a piece on the piano during a program commemorating Human Spaceflight and the Kennedy Legacy, Wednesday, May 25, 2011, in the concert hall at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. The event marked the 50th Anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs in which he stated "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth". Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. Human Spaceflight The Kennedy Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Actress June Lockhart delivers remarks during a program entitled Human Spaceflight: The Kennedy Legacy, Wednesday, May 25, 2011, in the concert hall at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. The event marked the 50th Anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs in which he stated "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth". Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. Human Spaceflight The Kennedy Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Emil de Cou conducts the Space Philharmonic during a program entitled Human Spaceflight: The Kennedy Legacy, Wednesday, May 25, 2011, in the concert hall at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. The event marked the 50th Anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs in which he stated "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth". Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decyk, Viktor; Norton, Charles

    2003-01-01

    An incremental approach to modernization of scientific software written in the Fortran 77 computing language has been developed. This approach makes it possible to preserve the investment in legacy Fortran software while augmenting the software with modern capabilities to satisfy expanded requirements. This approach could be advantageous (1) in situations in which major rewriting of application programs is undesirable or impossible, or (2) as a means of transition to major rewriting.

  10. Portraying disease: Sorolla's Sad Legacy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Pérez-Espejo, Miguel Angel; Galarza, Marcelo

    2012-07-01

    In 1899, the Spanish painter Joaquín Sorolla represented, in a large canvas, a group of children probably with sequels of poliomyelitis bathing at Valencia's beach. The title of this painting was Sad Legacy. This work contributed to the international diffusion of Sorolla's artistic creation. We briefly report some facts regarding the painter and his work referring to those portraits of children and especially of sick children.

  11. Aging, climate change, and legacy thinking.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Howard; Fried, Linda; Moody, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Climate change is a complex, long-term public health challenge. Older people are especially susceptible to certain climate change impacts, such as heat waves. We suggest that older people may be a resource for addressing climate change because of their concern for legacy--for leaving behind values, attitudes, and an intact world to their children and grandchildren. We review the theoretical basis for "legacy thinking" among older people. We offer suggestions for research on this phenomenon, and for action to strengthen the sense of legacy. At a time when older populations are growing, understanding and promoting legacy thinking may offer an important strategy for addressing climate change.

  12. Catchment Legacies and Time Lags: A Parsimonious Watershed Model to Predict the Effects of Legacy Storage on Nitrogen Export

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Kimberly J.; Basu, Nandita B.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy) and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy). The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures. PMID:25985290

  13. Catchment legacies and time lags: a parsimonious watershed model to predict the effects of legacy storage on nitrogen export.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Kimberly J; Basu, Nandita B

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy) and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy). The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures.

  14. A fleet leader experience with dry low emissions aeroderivative gas turbines (LM6000PB and PD)

    SciTech Connect

    Vandesteene, J.L.; De Witte, M.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1995, the world's first LM6000 dry low emissions (DLE) aeroderivative gas turbine supplied by GE M and I was successfully started up at Gent power plant. In November 1997, the world's first uprated LM6000, also equipped with the DLE combustion system, began commercial operation at Geel cogeneration facility. TEE handled the engineering, procurement, construction and commissioning of these projects as well as for several other repowering and cogeneration facilities based on high efficiency DLE aeroderivative gas turbines. By mid 1998, seven LM6000 DLE and one LM2500 DLE will be in commercial operation at several cogeneration and power plants in Belgium. The results of three years of experience with the LM engines are presented: the reasons why the LM engines were selected, the history of the different units, the maintenance organization, the fleet fired hours and availability, and the main technical issues like DLE combustor, LPT5 failures. The conclusion is that after having experienced several serious problems, the LM6000 and the DLE combustion system have matured and now seem sufficiently reliable. The actual performance data of the uprated engine are significantly better than initially expected.

  15. [Pharmacological study of mequitazine (LM-209) (III). Action on the central nervous system (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fujimura, H; Tsurumi, K; Yanagihara, M; Hiramatsu, Y; Tamura, Y; Shimizu, Y; Hojo, M; Yoshida, Y; Serizawa, I

    1981-10-01

    The action of an anti-histaminic agent, Mequitazine (LM-209) on the central nervous system was investigated. We found that LM-209 did not affect the spontaneous and co-operative movement in mice, did not induce muscle relaxation, analgesic effects or anti-convulsant effect in micr or hypothermic effects in rats. The anti-oxotremorine effect of LM-209 in mice was about 10 times more potent than clemastine fumarate (CL) and the same as promethazine. The activity and duration of the action were also superior to diethazine and orphenadrine used as an anti-Parkinson drug. LM-209 prolonged by 50% the hypnotic time induced by hexobarbital at 50 mg/kg (p.o.) in mice, while CL prolonged 50 and 100% it at 25 and 50 mg/kg (p.o.) respectively. In the EEG of rabbits, LM-209 produced a resting pattern, inhibited the arousal responses and recruiting responses and the effect was the same as CL and less potent than promethazine. From these results, the activity of LM-209 on the central nervous system (except for the anti-oxotremorine effect) seems to be the same as or somewhat less potent than CL. Therefore LM-209 should be an effective and anti-histaminic agent for clinical application.

  16. Nitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzman, Julie N.; Kaye, Jason P.

    2017-05-01

    While eutrophication is often attributed to contemporary nutrient pollution, there is growing evidence that past practices, like the accumulation of legacy sediment behind historic milldams, are also important. Given their prevalence, there is a critical need to understand how N flows through, and is retained in, legacy sediments to improve predictions and management of N transport from uplands to streams in the context of climatic variability and land-use change. Our goal was to determine how nitrate (NO3-) is cycled through the soil of a legacy-sediment-strewn stream before and after soil drying. We extracted 10.16 cm radius intact soil columns that extended 30 cm into each of the three significant soil horizons at Big Spring Run (BSR) in Lancaster, Pennsylvania: surface legacy sediment characterized by a newly developing mineral A horizon soil, mid-layer legacy sediment consisting of mineral B horizon soil and a dark, organic-rich, buried relict A horizon soil. Columns were first preincubated at field capacity and then isotopically labeled nitrate (15NO3-) was added and allowed to drain to estimate retention. The columns were then air-dried and subsequently rewet with N-free water and allowed to drain to quantify the drought-induced loss of 15NO3- from the different horizons. We found the highest initial 15N retention in the mid-layer legacy sediment (17 ± 4 %) and buried relict A soil (14 ± 3 %) horizons, with significantly lower retention in the surface legacy sediment (6 ± 1 %) horizon. As expected, rewetting dry soil resulted in 15N losses in all horizons, with the greatest losses in the buried relict A horizon soil, followed by the mid-layer legacy sediment and surface legacy sediment horizons. The 15N remaining in the soil following the post-drought leaching was highest in the mid-layer legacy sediment, intermediate in the surface legacy sediment, and lowest in the buried relict A horizon soil. Fluctuations in the water table at BSR which affect

  17. Possibilities and testing of CPRNG in block cipher mode of operation PM-DC-LM

    SciTech Connect

    Zacek, Petr; Jasek, Roman; Malanik, David

    2016-06-08

    This paper discusses the chaotic pseudo-random number generator (CPRNG), which is used in block cipher mode of operation called PM-DC-LM. PM-DC-LM is one of possible subversions of general PM mode. In this paper is not discussed the design of PM-DC-LM, but only CPRNG as a part of it because designing is written in other papers. Possibilities, how to change or to improve CPRNG are mentioned. The final part is devoted for a little testing of CPRNG and some testing data are shown.

  18. The Legacy Project--Ralph Bohn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2013-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on their profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. This is the third in a series of articles entitled The Legacy Project, which focuses on…

  19. The Legacy Project: Lee H. Smalley, DTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2015-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. This is the seventh in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project," which…

  20. Designing a Leadership Legacy (L2) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierke, Kerry K.

    2015-01-01

    What does it mean to leave a "leadership legacy" in the organizations and communities in which we are involved? This mixed-methods research project will explore the stories of successful individuals who have left a leadership legacy. Specifically in this article, the preliminary research will share various components of a model to create…

  1. Philosophical Remarks on Nelson Mandela's Education Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on Nelson Mandela's (Madiba, the clan name of Mandela) education legacy. I argue that Madiba's education legacy is constituted by three interrelated aspects: firstly, an education for non-violence guided by deliberation, compassion and reconciliation; secondly, education as responsibility towards the Other; and thirdly,…

  2. The Legacy Project: Donald P. Lauda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2016-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the teaching profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged…

  3. The Legacy Project: Lee H. Smalley, DTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2015-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. This is the seventh in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project," which…

  4. The Legacy Project: M. James Bensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2015-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have the responsibility to continue to build upon. This is the sixth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project" that…

  5. The Legacy Project: Donald P. Lauda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2016-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the teaching profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged…

  6. Northeastern Area Forest Legacy Program Yearbook 2006

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Area; State and Private Forestry

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Legacy Program protects important forestlands by purchasing conservation easements or fee titles from willing landowners whose lands are threatened with conversion to nonforest uses. Forest Legacy properties offer recreational opportunities, watershed protection, timber resources, wildlife habitat, and protection from development. NA-IN-02-07

  7. Northeastern Area Forest Legacy Program Yearbook 2008

    Treesearch

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) is to protect environmentally important forest areas that are threatened by conversion to nonforest uses. The Forest Legacy Program is a partnership between participating States and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These two entities work together to identify important forest lands and...

  8. Philosophical Remarks on Nelson Mandela's Education Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on Nelson Mandela's (Madiba, the clan name of Mandela) education legacy. I argue that Madiba's education legacy is constituted by three interrelated aspects: firstly, an education for non-violence guided by deliberation, compassion and reconciliation; secondly, education as responsibility towards the Other; and thirdly,…

  9. Human Spaceflight The Kennedy Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Jean Kennedy Smith, sister of John F. Kennedy, delivers remarks during a program entitled Human Spaceflight: The Kennedy Legacy as Emil de Cou, conductor of the Space Philharmonic, right, looks on, Wednesday, May 25, 2011, in the concert hall at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. The event marked the 50th Anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs in which he stated "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth". Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  10. Human Spaceflight The Kennedy Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Astronauts Scott Altman, left, and Leland Melvin speak of their fallen comrades during a program commemorating Human Spaceflight and the Kennedy Legacy, Wednesday, May 25, 2011, in the concert hall at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. The event marked the 50th Anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs in which he stated "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth". Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  11. Human Spaceflight The Kennedy Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Musician Herbie Hancock delivers remarks as members of the Space Philharmonic look on during a program commemorating Human Spaceflight and the Kennedy Legacy, Wednesday, May 25, 2011, in the concert hall at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. The event marked the 50th Anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs in which he stated "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth". Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  12. Human Spaceflight The Kennedy Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Actress June Lockhart livens up the audience after donning a NASA cap during a program entitled Human Spaceflight: The Kennedy Legacy, Wednesday, May 25, 2011, in the concert hall at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. The event marked the 50th Anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs in which he stated "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth". Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  13. Human Spaceflight The Kennedy Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Astronauts Scott Altman, left, and Leland Melvin speak of their fallen comrades as Emil de Cou, right, looks on during a program commemorating Human Spaceflight and the Kennedy Legacy, Wednesday, May 25, 2011, in the concert hall at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. The event marked the 50th Anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs in which he stated "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth". Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  14. Human Spaceflight The Kennedy Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Deputy Administrator Lori Garver delivers remarks as Emil de Cou, right, looks on during a program commemorating Human Spaceflight and the Kennedy Legacy, Wednesday, May 25, 2011, in the concert hall at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. The event marked the 50th Anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs in which he stated "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth". Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  15. Human Spaceflight The Kennedy Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, right, smiles after introducing musical guest Herbie Hancock, left, as members of the Space Philharmonic look on during a program commemorating Human Spaceflight and the Kennedy Legacy, Wednesday, May 25, 2011, in the concert hall at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. The event marked the 50th Anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs in which he stated "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth". Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  16. LM6000s the answer to Western Mining`s energy strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Fludder, S.; Smith, N.

    1996-11-01

    Western Mining Corporation Ltd of Australia installed Stewart & Stevenson power generation packages with GE LM6000 gas turbines to reduce energy costs. The four LM6000 gas turbine-generator sets were sold by Stewart & Stevenson International, Inc of Houston, Texas, USA, and the LM6000 gas turbines were manufactured by GE Marine & Industrial Engines, Evendale, Ohio. These applications mark the first sale of Stewart & Stevenson gas turbine-generator packages in Australia, and one of the first uses of the LM6000 on this continent. WMC uses the equipment for cogeneration at three of the sites, with a percentage of the gas turbine exhaust energy used in the ore drying process or for low-grade steam production. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 77 FR 28401 - Information Collection Activities: Legacy Data Verification Process (LDVP); Submitted for Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Legacy Data Verification Process (LDVP); Submitted for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request ACTION... comments on a collection of information that we will submit to the Office of Management and Budget...

  18. Gluco-oligosaccharides synthesized by glucosyltransferases from constitutive mutants of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain Lm 28.

    PubMed

    Iliev, I; Vassileva, T; Ignatova, C; Ivanova, I; Haertlé, T; Monsan, P; Chobert, J-M

    2008-01-01

    To find different types of glucosyltransferases (GTFs) produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain Lm 28 and its mutant forms, and to check the effectiveness of gluco-oligosaccharide synthesis using maltose as the acceptor. Constitutive mutants were obtained after chemical mutagenesis by ethyl methane sulfonate. Lm M281 produced more active GTFs than that obtained by the parental strain cultivated on sucrose. GTF from Lm M286 produced a resistant glucan, based on endo-dextranase and amyloglucosidase hydrolysis. The extracellular enzymes from Lm M286 catalyse acceptor reactions and transfer the glucose unit from sucrose to maltose to produce gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS). By increasing the sucrose/maltose ratio, it was possible to catalyse the synthesis of oligosaccharides of increasing degree of polymerization (DP). Different types of GTFs (dextransucrase, alternansucrase and levansucrase) were produced from new constitutive mutants of Leuc. mesenteroides. GTFs from Lm M286 can catalyse the acceptor reaction in the presence of maltose, leading to the synthesis of branched oligosaccharides. Conditions were optimized to synthesize GOS by using GTFs from Lm M286, with the aim of producing maximum quantities of branched-chain oligosaccharides with DP 3-5. This would allow the use of the latter as prebiotics.

  19. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, M.; Tumlinson, J.; Fox, A.; Aloisi, A.; Fleming, S.; Jedrzejewski, R.; Oliveira, C.; Ayres, T.; Danforth, C.; Keeney, B.; Jenkins, E.

    2017-04-01

    With no future space ultraviolet instruments currently planned, the data from the UV spectrographs aboard the Hubble Space Telescope have a legacy value beyond their initial science goals. The goal of the Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive(HSLA) is to provide to the community new science-grade combined spectra for all publicly available data obtained by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS)and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These data are packaged into "smart archives" according to target type and scientific themes to facilitate the construction of archival samples for common science uses. A new "quick look" capability makes the data easy for users to quickly access, assess the quality of,and download for archival science. The first generation of these products for the far-ultraviolet (FUV) modes of COS was made available online via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) in early 2016 and updated in early 2017; future releases will include COS/NUV and STIS/UV data.

  20. Geographic Information System Tools for Management of US DOE Sites - 13489

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Cliff; Pilz, Elaine; Pawel, Steve

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) uses a variety of GIS tools to support long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities at DOE closure sites. These geo-spatial applications provide access to data both for external public viewing and for internal analysis and decision making. LM uses a custom geo-spatial application called geo-spatial Environmental Mapping System (GEMS) that draws validated information from a database of 4.6 million analytical results and 232,000 water level measurements for 58 LTS and M sites. These data were collected from transferred sites over a period of 40 years. The database is used to capture and store historical environmental information such as analytical chemistry data, groundwater depths and elevations, well logs, well construction data, geo-referenced boundaries, site physical features, and sampling locations from LTS and M sites. Stakeholders, regulators, and project personnel can use this Web-based application and data to display information in several forms, such as a tabular report, a graph, and a geo-spatial display, or the data can be labeled or highlighted in a map view. Institutional controls, with their LTS and M requirements and documentation, have recently been incorporated into a prototype GEMS Web page for the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site. LM uses multiple internal GIS viewers to help ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. For example, at the Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site, LM uses a GIS application to display real property interests on authoritative maps. Another project is used to facilitate discussions at stakeholder meetings for the Rocky Flats site's Original Landfill. The Uranium Leasing Program uses multiple interactive maps that assist in ongoing monitoring and the oversight of lease-holders' activities. (authors)

  1. The Decontamination and Characterization Challenges of Legacy Material

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D. IV, Rohrer, S.; Brown, J.

    2003-02-26

    The legacy project at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) was an opportunity to work with decades worth of research. LRRI was founded in 1963 to provide inhalation research using radioactive nuclides. Over the next 35 years, scientists at the institute researched the effects of radioactivity on the lungs and the effects of inhaled radiation on the body. There were two outcomes of the research. First, the studies provided valuable information regarding radiation safety and the prevention of the inhalation of radioactive material. Second, the studies created a large amount of legacy waste that is now being cleaned up. Overall, the legacy materials project at LRRI was an interesting challenge. It provided opportunities to the team of LRRI and SEC to engineer solutions to remove and release material. It involved unique ALARA engineering to minimize dose exposure to the project team. And finally, it provided an opportunity to minimize low-level radioactive waste. This paper will expand on the waste management challenges and lessons learned.

  2. Completing HST's Local Volume Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalcanton, Julianne

    2007-07-01

    Nearby galaxies offer one of the few laboratories within which stellar populations can be tied to multi-wavelength observations. They are thus essential for calibrating and interpreting key astrophysical observables, such as broad-band luminosities, durations and energy input from starbursts, and timescales of UV, H-alpha, and FIR emission. The study of stellar populations in nearby galaxies requires high-resolution observations with HST, but HST's legacy for this limited set of galaxies remains incomplete.As a first attempt to establish this legacy, The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury {ANGST} began observations in late 2006. ANGST was designed to carry out a uniform multi-color survey of a volume-limited sample of 70 nearby galaxies that could be used for systematic studies of resolved stellar populations. The resulting data provide nuanced constraints on the processes which govern star formation and galaxy evolution, for a well-defined population of galaxies. All photometry for the survey has been publicly released.However, the failure of ACS 4.5 months after ANGST began taking data led to a drastic reduction in the planned survey. The loss is two-fold. First, the goals of completeness and uniformity were greatly compromised, impacting global comparison studies. Second, the variety of observed star formation histories was reduced. Given that we have never found two galaxies with identical star formation histories, and fully sampling the population allows us to catch those few systems whose star formation rates and metallicities place the strongest constraints on key astrophysical processes.Here we propose WFPC2 observations of all remaining galaxies within the Local Volume {D<3.5Mpc} for which current HST observations are insufficient for meaningful stellar population studies. We will use these observations for research on the star formation histories of individual galaxies and the Local Volume, detailed calibrations of star formation rate indicators, and the

  3. Aging, Climate Change, and Legacy Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Linda; Moody, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is a complex, long-term public health challenge. Older people are especially susceptible to certain climate change impacts, such as heat waves. We suggest that older people may be a resource for addressing climate change because of their concern for legacy—for leaving behind values, attitudes, and an intact world to their children and grandchildren. We review the theoretical basis for “legacy thinking” among older people. We offer suggestions for research on this phenomenon, and for action to strengthen the sense of legacy. At a time when older populations are growing, understanding and promoting legacy thinking may offer an important strategy for addressing climate change. PMID:22698047

  4. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The Spitzer Local Volume Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, Robert; Lee, J. C.; Engelbracht, C.; Begum, A.; Block, M.; Calzetti, D.; Dalcanton, J.; Dale, D.; Funes, J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gordon, K.; Johnson, B.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E.; van Zee, L.; Walter, F.; Weisz, D.; Williams, B.; Wu, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The Local Volume Legacy (LVL) is a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, aimed at obtaining IRAC and MIPS imaging for a complete sample of 258 galaxies within 11 Mpc. Our observations probe the spatially- resolved star formation, dust, and red stellar populations of galaxies that have been drawn from a statistically robust local sample, in which a full diversity of galaxy properties such as luminosities, surface brightnesses, metallicities are represented. Our sample includes: (i) a complete volume-limited galaxy sample within 3.5 Mpc, and (ii) an unbiased sample of S-Irr galaxies within an 11 Mpc sphere. LVL will produce a multi-wavelength census of the Galactic neighborhood, extending to the faintest limits of the galactic luminosity function and exploiting the highest spatial resolution and absolute depth achievable with Spitzer. Our ancillary dataset includes H-alpha and UV imaging from the GALEX 11HUGS and NGS surveys, stellar population mapping from the HST ANGST Treasury survey, HI mapping with the VLA and GMRT, and optical broad-band imaging and spectroscopy. By homogeneously filling in critical gaps in the current Spitzer coverage of the Local Volume, and providing SED coverage from the UV to the FIR, LVL will supply an enduring homogeneous core dataset on the Galactic neighborhood for the astronomical community. Science issues to be addressed include: constraining the physical mechanisms underlying dust heating and understanding correlations between FIR emission, dust content and global galaxy properties; establishing the primary factors which influence PAH emission and evaluating the robustness of PAH emission as a SFR indicator, particularly at low metallicities and high specific SFRs; probing the temporal variation of star formation as a function of global properties, with special focus on dwarf galaxies. This poster will highlight the scientific goals and design of the survey, and present early results from the imaging campaign.

  6. The Local Volume Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Calzetti, D.; Dale, D. A.; Gordon, K. D.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Skillman, E.; Begum, A.; Funes, J. G.; Gil de Paz, A.; Johnson, B.; Sakai, S.; van Zee, L.; Walter, F.; Weisz, D.; Williams, B.; Wu, Y.; Block, M.

    2008-10-01

    We introduce the Local Volume Legacy (LVL), a Spitzer Cycle 4 IRAC and MIPS Legacy survey of a complete sample of 258 galaxies within 11 Mpc. The broad goal of LVL is to provide critical insight into two of the primary processes that shape the growth of galaxies: star formation and its interaction with the interstellar medium. This goal will be achieved by investigating the spatially-resolved star formation, dust, and red stellar populations of galaxies that have been drawn from a statistically robust local sample, in which the full diversity of galaxy properties (e.g., luminosities, surface brightnesses, metallicities) are represented. Our tiered sample includes: (1) all known galaxies inside a sub-volume bounded by 3.5 Mpc, and (2) an unbiased sample of S-Irr galaxies within the larger, and more representative, 11 Mpc sphere. LVL will produce a multi-wavelength census of the Galactic neighborhood, extending to the faintest limits of the galactic luminosity function and exploiting the highest spatial resolution and absolute depth achievable with Spitzer. Our rich suite of ancillary data includes Hα and UV imaging from the GALEX 11HUGS and NGS surveys, stellar population mapping from the HST ANGST Treasury survey, H I mapping with the VLA and GMRT, optical broad-band imaging and spectroscopy. LVL will homogeneously fill in critical gaps in the current Spitzer coverage of the LV, provide SED coverage from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared, and thus supply the community with a core archival dataset on the Galactic neighborhood.

  7. Barrenness vanquished: the legacy of Lesley Brown.

    PubMed

    Adashi, Eli Y; Jones, Howard W

    2013-06-01

    Prior to 1978, the therapeutic offerings available to couples afflicted with infertility were painfully limited. Indeed, there was precious little one could offer Lesley and John Brown in their desperation. Anovulatory infertility was managed with ovulation induction using Clomiphene Citrate and Human Menopausal Gonadotropins. Anatomic infertility was addressed by increasingly sophisticated if marginally effective microsurgical approaches. The therapy of male infertility, still in its infancy, was commonly handled through cervical or intrauterine insemination including the use of donor sperm. The road traveled by Mrs. Brown radically altered this hope-limited landscape. A trailblazer to the millions who followed, Mrs. Brown played a key role in the abolition of the scourge of infertility. In this communication we trace in some detail the singular story of Mrs. Lesley Brown and the all-important legacy thereof. In doing so, we wish to pay tribute to this remarkable individual and her contributions to one of the most compelling scientific and medical breakthroughs of the 20th century.

  8. CALIPSO Lidar Level 3 Legacy Data Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-04

    ... software, and do not represent the most current product maturity. The newer versions now available contain numerous updates, ... and bug fixes. As such, use of these legacy dataset for research and publication purposes is highly discouraged.  ...

  9. Interfacing with Legacy using Remote Method Invocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Scott M.

    1998-01-01

    The assignment described was enough to make a neophyte Java developer bolt for the door: provide a remote method for use by an applet which invokes a native method that wraps a function in an existing legacy library. The purpose of the remote method is to return an instance of a class object whose contents reflect the data structure returned by the legacy function. While embroiled in implementation, I would have spent the time wading through their JNI use group archive as well, but I couldn't seem to locate one. Subsequently, I made the decision to try to document my findings in order to assist others. Before we start on the class design, let's look at what the existing legacy code does. The C function to be called, Get-Legacy-Data, consists of two steps: an ASII file is read from the local disk and its contents are parsed into a Legacy_Type structure whose address is passed as an argument by the caller. The legacy code was compiled into a shared object library, legacy. so, using the IRIX 6.2 compiler and then loaded onto the Web server, a Silicon Graphics Indy station loaded with the IRIX 6.4 operating system. As far as the class design is concerned, the first thing required is a class to act as a template for the data structure returned by the legacy function. This class, JLegacy, declares a series of public instance variables which correspond to the members of Legacy_Type and provides a parameterless constructor. This constructor is never called, not even by the native method which allocates the object for return to the remote method. Next, the remote interface declaration for the remote object must be defined. In order for JLegacyRO to implement getJLegacy, JLegacyRO must interface with the existing legacy code through a native method, getn. getn is declared in the JLegacyRO class but implemented in C, just like the legacy code. getn returns a JLegacy instance and is declared static since its implementation is the same for all instances of the JLegacyRO class.

  10. Passive Safety of the STAR-LM HLMC Natural Convection Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, James J.; Petkov, Plamen V.

    2002-07-01

    The STAR-LM 300 to 400 MWt class modular, factory fabricated, fully transportable, proliferation resistant, autonomous, reactor system achieves passive safety by taking advantage of the intrinsic benefits of inert lead-bismuth eutectic heavy liquid metal coolant, 100+% natural circulation heat transport, a fast neutron spectrum core utilizing high thermal conductivity transuranic nitride fuel, redundant passive air cooling of the outside of the guard/containment vessel driven by natural circulation, and seismic isolation where required by site conditions. Postulated loss-of-heat sink without scram, overcooling without scram, and unprotected transient overpower accidents are analyzed for the 300 MWt STAR-LM design using a coupled thermal hydraulics-neutron kinetics plant dynamics analysis computer code. In all cases, STAR-LM is calculated to exhibit passive safety with peak cladding and coolant temperatures remaining within the existing database for lead-bismuth eutectic coolant and ferritic steel core materials. (authors)

  11. Constraints of energy conditions and DK instability criterion on f(R, Lm) gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Zhao, Yue-Yue; Jin, Yong-Yi; Lin, Liang-Liang; Lu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xue

    2014-06-01

    Some properties of f(R, Lm) gravity are studied in this paper. Concretely, the energy conditions and the Dolgov-Kawasaki (DK) instability criterion in f(R, Lm) gravity are obtained, which are quite general and can degenerate to the ones in General Relativity (GR) and pure f(R) gravity with non-coupling and non-minimal coupling as well as in [J. Wang and K. Liao, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 215016 (2012)] as special cases. Furthermore, in order to get some insight on the meaning of the energy conditions and the DK instability criterion, we apply them to the concrete type of f(R, Lm) gravity models and the corresponding constraints on the models are given.

  12. Pathogenesis and phylogenetic analyses of canine distemper virus strain 007Lm, a new isolate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lan, N T; Yamaguchi, R; Furuya, Y; Inomata, A; Ngamkala, S; Naganobu, K; Kai, K; Mochizuki, M; Kobayashi, Y; Uchida, K; Tateyama, S

    2005-10-31

    The pathogenesis of a new isolate of canine distemper virus (CDV), strain 007Lm, was investigated from lymph node tissue by using Vero cells that express canine signalling lymphocyte activation molecules with a tag (Vero-DST) in dogs. Two CDV sero-negative Beagle dogs were inoculated intranasally and intraconjunctively with a virus suspension. Both infected dogs showed clinical signs of severe bloody diarrhea, conjunctivitis, ocular discharge, nasal discharge and coughing, lymphopenia, fever and weight loss. Titers of CDV-IgM and CDV-IgG in the blood were measured. CDV was detected by using reverse transcriptase-PCR and was recovered in swabs from one dog from 9 days and from the other dogs from 10 days after inoculation. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of H and P genes showed that nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these genes of strain 007Lm after isolation in Vero-DST cells are identical to those of the original virus from fresh tissue and that strain 007Lm joins to the Asia 2 group cluster of CDV strains that is distinct from other clusters. These results indicate that (1) CDV strain 007Lm isolated in Vero-DST cells is virulent, (2) nucleotide and amino acid sequences of H and P genes of strain 007Lm do not change after isolation in Vero-DST cells compared with the original virus from fresh tissue and (3) strain 007Lm isolated from a vaccinated dog belongs to a cluster far from the vaccine strains in the phylogenetic trees of H and P genes.

  13. GE LM6000, development of the first 40% thermal efficiency gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    General Electric has launched development of a new generation aeroderivative gas turbine, the LM6000. This 40MW-class machine, targeted for 1992 field service introduction, combines GE Aircraft Engines; latest engine technology together with a new method of aeroderivative load coupling to achieve two gas turbine firsts: The first simple cycle industrial gas turbine to achieve an iso base-rated thermal efficiency in excess of 40% (LHV). The first simple cycle, aeroderivative gas turbine to be competitive on a first cost basis with all other gas turbines in its size class. This paper describes the LM6000 concept, basic engine, expected performance and development program for this revolutionary gas turbine.

  14. The legacy and continuity of forest disturbance, succession, and species at the MOFEP sites

    Treesearch

    Richard Guyette; John M. Kabrick

    2002-01-01

    Information about the scale, frequency, and legacy of disturbance regimes and their relation to the distribution of forest species is sparse in Ozark ecosystems. Knowledge of these relationships is valuable for understanding present-day forest ecosystem species composition and structure and for predicting how Missouri's forests will respond to management. Here, we...

  15. The Legacy of Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, Judith; Bridges, John; Sims, Mark; Clemmet, Jim; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Beagle 2 lander spun off from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft on 19 December 2003 and headed off towards Isidis Planitia on Mars. The scheduled landing of the 60 kg lander was 6 days later on Christmas morning, 25 December. It is universally known that no signal was received from the lander and its fate remained unknown. What is not questioned is the impact that the mission, and not least its charismatic leaders headed by the late Professor Colin Pillinger, had on the general public of the UK, Europe and worldwide. More than a decade after Beagle 2 was last seen, we review the legacy of the mission on the public perception of the value of space exploration, economically, commercially and cultural, and look forward to an expanding programme. The spin off from Beagle 2 science and technology into terrestrial applications will be addressed as will the ongoing career destinations of many of the original team; both supporting the significance that the mission had on determining the future pathway of space science and exploration in Europe and beyond. The ongoing search for evidence that Beagle 2 did in fact land as planned on Mars will be addressed and images from Mars orbiting spacecraft assessed.

  16. Evaluation of Teaching the IS-LM Model through a Simulation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pablo-Romero, Maria del Populo; Pozo-Barajas, Rafael; Gomez-Calero, Maria de la Palma

    2012-01-01

    The IS-ML model is a basic tool used in the teaching of short-term macroeconomics. Teaching is essentially done through the use of graphs. However, the way these graphs are traditionally taught does not allow the learner to easily visualise changes in the curves. The IS-LM simulation program overcomes difficulties encountered in understanding the…

  17. French I Supplementary Reader (For A-LM One, 1961, Units 9-14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Linda; Booth, Alice

    Supplementary readings intended for use with the 1961 edition of the "A-LM" French 1 course are compiled in this text. They are specifically designed to accompany Units 9-14. It is suggested that the recombination narratives enable students to become more capable of independent reading. (RL)

  18. Textbook Treatments of the Financial Market in the IS-LM Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; Lowenstein, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Criticizes the beginning of period version of the IS-LM model found in most textbooks. Argues that this model fails to capture the effects of the issuance of financial assets to finance current investment spending by firms and current deficit spending by the government. Recommends an end-of- period model. (MJP)

  19. A Pedagogical Note on the Open Economy IS-LM Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Argues the diagrammatic IS-LM Model, despite its limitations, remains an important pedagogical tool for the presentation of intermediate macroeconomic theory. Proposes a modification that focuses more explicitly on stock portfolio equilibrium and will be more revealing to students. (BSR)

  20. Identification of Gifted Children: A Comparison of the Stanford Binet 4th Edition and Form LM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluever, Raymond C.; Green, Kathy E.

    This study compared the performance of 51 gifted Caucasian children on the Stanford Binet LM and the Stanford Binet Fourth Edition (SB4) to determine whether significantly different scores would be obtained. The 33 male and 18 female subjects were from middle and upper-middle class families in a western urban area. Their developmental histories,…

  1. Prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in ready-to-eat foods (RTE) at retail.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although significant efforts have been taken to control Lm in Ready-to-eat (RTE)foods over the last decade, a well-designed survey is needed to determine whether changes occur in the “true” prevalence and levels of the pathogen and to provide current data to assess the relative ranking of higher ris...

  2. Evaluation of Teaching the IS-LM Model through a Simulation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pablo-Romero, Maria del Populo; Pozo-Barajas, Rafael; Gomez-Calero, Maria de la Palma

    2012-01-01

    The IS-ML model is a basic tool used in the teaching of short-term macroeconomics. Teaching is essentially done through the use of graphs. However, the way these graphs are traditionally taught does not allow the learner to easily visualise changes in the curves. The IS-LM simulation program overcomes difficulties encountered in understanding the…

  3. Recombination Narratives to Accompany "A-LM French One," First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Dorothy

    Supplementary recombination narratives intended for use with the 1961 edition of the text "A-LM French One" are designed to help students learn to manipulate basic textual materials. The sample narratives correlate with Units 4-14 of the text. The teacher is urged to make use of the overhead projector when using the narratives for the…

  4. Apollo 15 Lunar Module (LM) View - Liftoff - Moon - TV Monitor - Mission Control Center (MCC) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-02

    View of a photograph of the television (TV) monitor in the MCC showing a picture being transmitted from the color TV camera mounted on the parked Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) at the Hadley-Apennine Landing Site showing the liftoff of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module (LM) Ascent Stage from the Lunar surface. MSC, Houston, TX

  5. Recombination Narratives to Accompany "A-LM French One," First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Dorothy

    Supplementary recombination narratives intended for use with the 1961 edition of the text "A-LM French One" are designed to help students learn to manipulate basic textual materials. The sample narratives correlate with Units 4-14 of the text. The teacher is urged to make use of the overhead projector when using the narratives for the…

  6. The energy transfer between the ports of an implemented gyrator using LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier.

    PubMed

    Tatai, Ildiko; Zaharie, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    In this paper a gyrator implementation using a LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier is analyzed. It was first verified under PSpice simulation and experimentally the antireciprocity of this gyrator, i.e., its properties. This type of gyrator can be used for controlling the energy transfer from one port to the other by modifying the bias currents of the operational transconductance amplifier.

  7. The energy transfer between the ports of an implemented gyrator using LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatai, Ildiko; Zaharie, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    In this paper a gyrator implementation using a LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier is analyzed. It was first verified under PSpice simulation and experimentally the antireciprocity of this gyrator, i.e., its properties. This type of gyrator can be used for controlling the energy transfer from one port to the other by modifying the bias currents of the operational transconductance amplifier.

  8. The Case for the Stanford-Binet L-M as a Supplemental Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Linda Kreger; Kearney, Katheryn

    1992-01-01

    The Stanford-Binet IV is compared to the original version and criticized for having less power to measure the high end of intelligence and for having norms that discriminate against gifted students. Strengths of the Stanford-Binet L-M are pointed out, and use of both scales for different purposes is recommended. (JDD)

  9. Expression patterns of LmAP2L1 and LmAP2L2 encoding two-APETALA2 domain proteins during somatic embryogenesis and germination of hybrid larch (Larix x marschlinsii).

    PubMed

    Guillaumot, Damien; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne; Germot, Agnès; Meytraud, Fanny; Gastinel, Louis; Riou-Khamlichi, Catherine

    2008-06-16

    Two APETALA2 domain transcription factors were characterized first in angiosperms, and, recently, in several gymnosperms. These proteins are involved in several processes, from flowering to embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We extrapolated this result to hybrid larch (Larixxmarschlinsii Coaz) resulting from a cross between European (Larix decidua) and Japanese (Larix kaempferi) larches. Somatic embryogenesis is well described and controlled for this Pinaceae. We characterized two-AP2 domain genes: LmAP2L1 and LmAP2L2. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that LmAP2L1 and LmAP2L2 were orthologous to Norway spruce PaAP2L1 and PaAP2L2 and that L1 forms appeared to be specific to Pinaceae. RT-PCR analysis showed that larch APETALA2 was differentially expressed during late somatic embryogenesis and during the first steps of germination. Whereas LmAP2L2 was constitutively expressed during this process, LmAP2L1 expression appeared only during late somatic embryogenesis, when embryos were able to germinate. Further, LmAP2L1 appeared to be the preferentially expressed form during embryo germination. Thus, LmAP2L1 seems to be a valuable molecular marker for hybrid larch late somatic embryogenesis and could play a role during post-embryonic development.

  10. Research on Web-based Scientific Computing Legacy Application Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cui, Bin-Ge

    With the development of Internet technology, A legion of scientific computing legacy programs with rich domain knowledge and expertise were distributed across various disciplines. As the program implementations or interfaces and so on, scientific computing legacy programs can not be shared through the Internet. This paper proposes a method of packaging scientific computing legacy programs into DLL(Dynamic Link Library), and packaging them into Web services through the C# reflection, making the scientific computing legacy programs successfully share on the Internet.

  11. Comparison of New and Legacy TATBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Willey, T M; Mitchell, A R; DePiero, S C

    2007-11-08

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzenes (TATBs) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives. Pressed pellets of the new explosives were less dense. Recrystallization from sulfolane improved the density and thermal stability of both new TATBs, though the morphology of the recrystallized TATB was nearly hexagonal platelets.

  12. Comparison of New and Legacy TATBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Mark D.; Willey, Trevor; Mitchell, Alexander; Depiero, Sabrina

    2009-09-02

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small-scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives and the densities of pressed pellets were lower. Recrystallization of both new TATBs from sulfolane produced nearly hexagonal platelets with improved density and thermal stability.

  13. The IS-LM Model: Is There a Connection between Slopes and the Effectiveness of Fiscal and Monetary Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Offers instructors a presentation of the IS (investment saving)-LM (liquidity preference-money supply) model, suggesting that a number of benefits emerge if the instructor focuses on what determines the size of both the horizontal and vertical distances between the IS curves and between the LM curves. (CMK)

  14. Identification of Gifted Children: A Comparison of the Scores on Stanford-Binet 4th Edition and Form LM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluever, Raymond C.; Green, Kathy E.

    1990-01-01

    Composite scores for 51 gifted children (ages 3-12) on the Stanford-Binet LM were found to be significantly higher than scores on the Stanford-Binet 4th Edition. Correlations between the LM total and 4th Edition area scores were significant. Results suggest that the 4th Edition composite score cut-off value for assessing giftedness may require…

  15. The IS-LM Model: Is There a Connection between Slopes and the Effectiveness of Fiscal and Monetary Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Offers instructors a presentation of the IS (investment saving)-LM (liquidity preference-money supply) model, suggesting that a number of benefits emerge if the instructor focuses on what determines the size of both the horizontal and vertical distances between the IS curves and between the LM curves. (CMK)

  16. HIGH RESOLUTION MODELLING OF PCB CONGENERS IN LAKE MICHIGAN USING THE LAKE MICHIGAN (LM3) CONTAMINANT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Level 3 (LM3) Model is a numerical model of Lake Michigan used to predict the fate and transport of 54 PCB congeners. The LM3 model segments Lake Michigan horizontally with a 5 x 5 km grid and vertically with 19 sigma layers for a total of 44,042 water column se...

  17. HIGH RESOLUTION MODELLING OF PCB CONGENERS IN LAKE MICHIGAN USING THE LAKE MICHIGAN (LM3) CONTAMINANT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Level 3 (LM3) Model is a numerical model of Lake Michigan used to predict the fate and transport of 54 PCB congeners. The LM3 model segments Lake Michigan horizontally with a 5 x 5 km grid and vertically with 19 sigma layers for a total of 44,042 water column se...

  18. ultraLM and miniLM: Locator tools for smart tracking of fluorescent cells in correlative light and electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brama, Elisabeth; Peddie, Christopher J.; Wilkes, Gary; Gu, Yan; Collinson, Lucy M.; Jones, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    In-resin fluorescence (IRF) protocols preserve fluorescent proteins in resin-embedded cells and tissues for correlative light and electron microscopy, aiding interpretation of macromolecular function within the complex cellular landscape. Dual-contrast IRF samples can be imaged in separate fluorescence and electron microscopes, or in dual-modality integrated microscopes for high resolution correlation of fluorophore to organelle. IRF samples also offer a unique opportunity to automate correlative imaging workflows. Here we present two new locator tools for finding and following fluorescent cells in IRF blocks, enabling future automation of correlative imaging. The ultraLM is a fluorescence microscope that integrates with an ultramicrotome, which enables ‘smart collection’ of ultrathin sections containing fluorescent cells or tissues for subsequent transmission electron microscopy or array tomography. The miniLM is a fluorescence microscope that integrates with serial block face scanning electron microscopes, which enables ‘smart tracking’ of fluorescent structures during automated serial electron image acquisition from large cell and tissue volumes. PMID:28090593

  19. Nonprofit, payload process improvement through lean management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Melissa

    Organizations that are successful and competitive long-term have learned to efficiently utilize their resources, such as money, people, facilities, and time. Over the last half-century, there have been a variety of theories and techniques put forth on how to do this. One recent theory applied in the aerospace industry is Lean Management (LM), which emphasizes a customer focus and a rigorous elimination of activities that do not add value from the customer's perspective. LM has not, until now, been evaluated for small, nonprofit, one-off production organizations (NOPOs). Previous research on LM focused on for-profit companies and large-scale production organizations, producing relatively similar products repetitively (e.g. automobiles, commercial satellites, aircraft, and launch vehicles). One-off production organizations typically create one-of-a-kind products. The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of LM to a NOPO. LM will improve resource utilization and thereby competitiveness, as well as exploring a new area of knowledge and research. The research methodology consists of conducting case studies, formal and informal interviews, observation and analysis in order to assess whether and how LM may be beneficial. The research focuses on one particular NOPO, BioServe Space Technologies (BST): a nonprofit, payload development organization. Additional NOPOs were interviewed in order to draw more generalized conclusions about LM benefits. The research demonstrates that LM is applicable to NOPOs, thus providing a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness. Results from this research are guidelines for payload development organizations to implement LM, and highlighting potential LM weaknesses. A major conclusion is that LM needs some minor modifications to be applicable and useful to NOPOs, particularly in terms of value stream mapping. The LM implementation roadmap developed for NOPOs introduces customized metrics, as well as including standard

  20. Catchment Legacies and Trajectories: Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, N. B.; Loukinova, N. V.

    2012-04-01

    decades have accumulated legacy nutrient stores that will sustain stream nitrate concentrations decades after the cessation of fertilizer application. Here, we have used a travel time-based approach to evaluate the hydrologic legacy and a stochastic carbon nitrogen cycling model to evaluate the biogeochemical legacy. Preliminary results indicate a strong dependence of the spatial allocation of the management practice on the benefits realized, both in terms of reductions in concentrations as well as lag times. A random correlation between implementation of management practices and watershed travel times has been found to result in an interesting linear relationship between the concentration reduction and the percent watershed undergoing land use changes, while power function relationships have emerged for cases of positive and negative correlations.

  1. LM-research opportunities and activities at the Latvian Academy of Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Lielausis, O.

    1996-06-01

    In this presentation selected examples will be considered characterizing the breadth of their interests in LM applications. So, InGaSn eutectic was used as a modeling liquid for investigation of MHD effects typical to some LM-blanket configurations. LM coatings proposed for the protection of divertor plates were considered too. Experiments were performed on a superconducting magnet providing a 5.6 T magnetic field in a 30 liters bore. In a large vacuum chamber (12 m{sup 3}; 6.65 10{sup {minus}4} Pa) lithium cooling system for high temperature reactors was examined. Electromagnetic pumps and flowmeters able to work at lithium temperatures up to 960{degrees}C were tested. A Na loop, where two mounted in line electromagnetic pumps are delivering a 25 atm. pressure. The main Na loop equipped with em. pumps is based on a d=10 cm tubing. LM devices were installed in the Latvian 500 MW nuclear research reactor IRT-5000 too. First, a equipped with conductive e.m. pumps loop, where InGaSn serves as a {gamma}-carrier from activity generator (placed close to the core) to two outer 20 Mrad/h irradiators. Second, a LM system for rector control, where contained in InGaSn indium is used for neutron absorption and reactivity control. A closed cylindrical LM container was installed in the core instead of a traditional control rod. The container is divided in two chambers by means of elastic membranes. The one chamber contains InGaSn, the second GaSn (without In). By means of e.m. pumps the proportion between InGaSn and GaSn in the active zone can be changed ensuring a possibility to control the amount of introduced in the core absorbing material. Long term tests of the system were performed on a zero-power assembly. But for a shorter time the system was inserted in the core of the acting main reactor too and the efficiency of the control was confirmed.

  2. Legacy Sediments in U.S. River Environments: Atrazine and Aggradation to Zinc and Zoobenthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Legacy sediments are those that are altered by human activities. Alterations include (i) human-caused aggradation (and subsequent erosion), such as sediment accumulating upstream from relict or contemporary dams, (ii) human-caused lack of continuing deposition that results in changing moisture and nutrient levels within existing sediments, such as on floodplains that no longer receive lateral or vertical accretion deposits because of levees, bank stabilization, and other channel engineering, and (iii) human-generated contaminants such as PCBs and pesticides that adsorb to fine sediment. Existing estimates of human alterations of river systems suggest that legacy sediments are ubiquitous. Only an estimated 2% of river miles in the United States are not affected by flow regulation that alters sediment transport, for example, and less than half of major river basins around the world are minimally altered by flow regulation. Combined with extensive but poorly documented reduction in floodplain sedimentation, as well as sediment contamination by diverse synthetic compounds, excess nutrients, and heavy metals, these national and global estimates suggest that legacy sediments now likely constitute a very abundant type of fluvial sediment. Because legacy sediments can alter river form and function for decades to centuries after the cessation of the human activity that created the legacy sediments, river management and restoration must be informed by accurate knowledge of the distribution and characteristics of legacy sediments. Geomorphologists can contribute understanding of sediment dynamics, including: the magnitude, frequency, and duration of flows that mobilize sediments with adsorbed contaminants; sites where erosion and deposition are most likely to occur under specified flow and sediment supply; residence time of sediments; and the influence of surface and subsurface water fluxes on sediment stability and geochemistry.

  3. Identification and mapping stripe rust resistance gene YrLM168a using extreme individuals and recessive phenotype class in a complicate genetic background.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junyan; Chen, Guoyue; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Yaxi; Jiang, Qiantao; Li, Wei; Pu, Zhien; Lan, Xiujin; Dai, Shoufen; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Youliang

    2015-12-01

    The identification and characterization of resistance genes effective against stripe rust of wheat is beneficial for modern wheat breeding programs. Molecular markers to such genes facilitate their deployment. The variety Milan has resistance that is effective against the predominant stripe rust races in the Sichuan region. Two resistant and two susceptible F8 lines from a cross between Milan and the susceptible variety Chuannong 16 were used to investigate inheritance of the Milan resistance. Three F2 populations were developed from crosses between the resistant lines and their susceptible sibling lines (LM168a × LM168c, LM168c × LM168a, LM168b × LM168d) and used for genetic analysis and molecular mapping of the genes for resistance. The stripe rust resistance in LM168a and LM168b was conferred by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated as YrLM168a. Forty-five extreme susceptible plants from the F2 families of LM168d × LM168b were genotyped with 836 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to map YrLM168a. YrLM168a was mapped in chromosome 6BL. The nearest flanking markers Xwmc756 and Xbarc146 were 4.6 and 4.6 cM away from the gene at both sides, respectively. The amplification results of twenty extreme resistant (IT 0) and susceptible (IT 4) F2 plants of LM168c × LM168a and LM168a × LM168c with marker Xwmc756 further validated the mapping results. The study suggested that extreme individuals and recessive phenotype class can be successfully used for mapping genes, which should be efficient and reliable. In addition, the flanking markers near YrLM168a should be helpful in marker-assisted breeding.

  4. Scientific Data as the Core Legacy of IPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The interdisciplinary breadth of the International Polar Year is unprecedented. The IPY has explicit objectives to link researchers across different fields to address questions and issues lying beyond the scope of individual disciplines and to strengthen international coordination of research and enhance international collaboration and cooperation. The IPY Data Policy and Management Subcommittee have developed a policy to help meet these objectives and an international collaboration of investigators and data managers, the IPY Data and Information Service, are working to make IPY data widely available. I will present an overview of the primary data management considerations for IPY and how diverse organizations are making IPY and related data available. Centralized discovery mechanisms for widely distributed data plus targeted access mechanisms for specific disciplines will be presented. These range from near real time access to satellite remote sensing data and GCM output to fair and appropriate access to traditional knowledge of the Arctic. These mechanisms reflect significant advancement in polar data management, but they belie the major challenges that remain. These challenges include fostering a culture change in science that puts greater value on data publication and open data access as well as developing sustained systems and business models for the long-term preservation of IPY data. This will be crucial to ensuring the legacy of IPY, a major objective of IPY sponsors, ICSU and WMO. New efforts to ensure this legacy include the development of the WMO Information System, the Sustained Arctic Observing Network, and the Global Earth Observing System of Systems; the reform of ICSU's World Data Center System; and the results of the Electronic Geophysical Year.

  5. A Learning Model for L/M Specificity in Ganglion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2016-01-01

    An unsupervised learning model for developing LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level would support the research indicating LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level (Reid and Shapley, 2002). Removing the contributions to the surround from cells of the same cone type improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatic signals. The unsupervised learning model used is Hebbian associative learning, which strengthens the surround input connections according to the correlation of the output with the input. Since the surround units of the same cone type as the center are redundant with the center, their weights end up disappearing. This process can be thought of as a general mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells in the nervous system.

  6. Advantages of air conditioning and supercharging an LM6000 gas turbine inlet

    SciTech Connect

    Kolp, D.A.; Flye, W.M.; Guidotti, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    Of all the external factors affecting a gas turbine, inlet pressure and temperature have the greatest impact on performance. The effect of inlet temperature variations is especially pronounced in the new generation of high-efficiency gas turbines typified by the 40 MW GE LM6000. A reduction of 50 F (28 C) in inlet temperature can result in a 30 percent increase in power and a 4.5 percent improvement in heat rate. An elevation increase to 5,000 ft (1,524 m) above sea level decreases turbine output 17 percent; conversely supercharging can increase output more than 20 percent. This paper addresses various means of heating, cooling and supercharging LM6000 inlet air. An economic model is developed and sample cases are cited to illustrate the optimization of gas turbine inlet systems, taking into account site conditions, incremental equipment cost and subsequent performance enhancement.

  7. LM-CMA: An Alternative to L-BFGS for Large-Scale Black Box Optimization.

    PubMed

    Loshchilov, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Limited-memory BFGS (L-BFGS; Liu and Nocedal, 1989 ) is often considered to be the method of choice for continuous optimization when first- or second-order information is available. However, the use of L-BFGS can be complicated in a black box scenario where gradient information is not available and therefore should be numerically estimated. The accuracy of this estimation, obtained by finite difference methods, is often problem-dependent and may lead to premature convergence of the algorithm. This article demonstrates an alternative to L-BFGS, the limited memory covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (LM-CMA) proposed by Loshchilov ( 2014 ). LM-CMA is a stochastic derivative-free algorithm for numerical optimization of nonlinear, nonconvex optimization problems. Inspired by L-BFGS, LM-CMA samples candidate solutions according to a covariance matrix reproduced from m direction vectors selected during the optimization process. The decomposition of the covariance matrix into Cholesky factors allows reducing the memory complexity to [Formula: see text], where n is the number of decision variables. The time complexity of sampling one candidate solution is also [Formula: see text] but scales as only about 25 scalar-vector multiplications in practice. The algorithm has an important property of invariance with respect to strictly increasing transformations of the objective function; such transformations do not compromise its ability to approach the optimum. LM-CMA outperforms the original CMA-ES and its large-scale versions on nonseparable ill-conditioned problems with a factor increasing with problem dimension. Invariance properties of the algorithm do not prevent it from demonstrating a comparable performance to L-BFGS on nontrivial large-scale smooth and nonsmooth optimization problems.

  8. The Study of CoLM (Common Land Model) over Gobi Desert Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Xiao, Tiangui; Jia, La; Du, Jun; Wen, Xiaohang

    2017-04-01

    By using the observation data, e.g. energy fluxes, temperature, soil temperature, at Dunhuang Gobi station in northwest China during Land-Atmosphere Interaction Experiment. The simulation capability of the Common Land Model (CoLM) was evaluated. Furthermore, the new value of albedo in gobi surface at Dunhuang, and empirical relation of the surface thermal exchange coefficient calculated by observation data, were used to improve the capability of CoLM. The main conclusions are as follows: 1. Daily variation trend of the sensible heat and net radiation flux were estimated well in unmodified CoLM experiment, but the extreme value of energy flux were different from observation data, especially at midday. The model overestimates the sensible heat and underestimates the net radiation. 2. The albedo of gobi in model is 0.32, and it is higher than 0.26, which is calculated by observation data. Using the new value we conducted the simulation, and the net radiation is closer to observation, but the surface temperature and sensible heat were not meeting our expectation. 3. As the new empirical relationship of the surface thermal exchange coefficient was used to modify the thermal aerodynamic impedance, the simulated soil surface temperature was significantly closer to the observed data. Meanwhile, the simulated surface sensible heat and the net radiation fluxes were also improved. The energy flux can be simulated reasonable in the modified CoLM model over gobi land surface. Key words: land surface model, numerical simulation, parameterization scheme Acknowledgements This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China Fund Project (91337215, 41575066), National Key Basic Research Program (2013CB733206), Special Fund for Meteorological Research in the Public Interest (GYHY201406015), Risk Assessment System of Significant Climate Events in Tibet (14H046), and the Scientific Research Foundation of CUIT (CRF201606).

  9. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Lise Anne Marie; Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-04-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future.

  10. Transforming Legacy Systems to Obtain Information Superiority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    is imperative that innovative technologies be developed to enable legacy weapon systems to exploit the information revolution, achieve information ... dominance , and meet the required operational tempo. This paper presents an embedded-system architecture, open system middleware services, and a software

  11. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  12. The Legacy of 1789: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkaldy, James

    1990-01-01

    Honoring the French Revolution's bicentennial, examines its legacy for modern France. Contends that 1789's imprint appears in France's centralized bureaucracy, strong political divisions (conservative-liberal-socialist), church-state separation, and tendency for government to argue ends justify means. Maintains the Revolution also spawned…

  13. The Legacy of 1789: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkaldy, James

    1990-01-01

    Honoring the French Revolution's bicentennial, examines its legacy for modern France. Contends that 1789's imprint appears in France's centralized bureaucracy, strong political divisions (conservative-liberal-socialist), church-state separation, and tendency for government to argue ends justify means. Maintains the Revolution also spawned…

  14. The "Communicative" Legacy in Language Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the phenomenon of communicative language testing as it emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s as a reaction against tests constructed of multiple choice items and the perceived overemphasis of reliability. Traces the legacy of the communicative movement from its first formulation, through present conundrums, to tomorrow's research…

  15. Hannelore Wass: Professional Influences and Legacies.

    PubMed

    Corr, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the professional influence of Dr. Hannelore Wass on the author's introduction to and work in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. At the same time, it also offers comments on her broader influence on and legacies left to others who work in this field.

  16. The Next Generation: Our Legacy, Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this "Seventeenth Delphine Hanna Commemorative Lecture," Boyce draws on the legacy of Delphine Hanna's work in science-based curriculum to address the need for today's educators to balance both professional mission and disciplinary knowledge. In the mid 1960s, Franklin Henry proposed the notion that the foundation of physical…

  17. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning

    PubMed Central

    Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-01-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  18. When Legacies Are a College's Lifeblood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2007-01-01

    Every other summer, Sewanee: the University of the South invites a handful of prospective students to take an exclusive tour of its campus and surroundings, in Tennessee. This special treatment is reserved for "legacy" students. Sewanee, like many other small private colleges, aggressively recruits prospective students whose parents, grandparents,…

  19. The Next Generation: Our Legacy, Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this "Seventeenth Delphine Hanna Commemorative Lecture," Boyce draws on the legacy of Delphine Hanna's work in science-based curriculum to address the need for today's educators to balance both professional mission and disciplinary knowledge. In the mid 1960s, Franklin Henry proposed the notion that the foundation of physical…

  20. Burns B. Crookston: Life and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Burns B. Crookston was a man ahead of his times. He left a legacy to the student affairs profession that inspired the practice of student development education. His writings described a role for higher education in training students to become active citizens by learning about leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution in democratic…

  1. Burns B. Crookston: Life and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Burns B. Crookston was a man ahead of his times. He left a legacy to the student affairs profession that inspired the practice of student development education. His writings described a role for higher education in training students to become active citizens by learning about leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution in democratic…

  2. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Wife of former astronaut and Senator John Glenn, Annie Glenn, is recognized during an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the university's Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Sen. John Glenn gives remarks at an event celebrating his legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    A NASA Tweetup attendee captures images of Sen. John Glenn at an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    NASA Glenn Research Center Director Ray Lugo talks at an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Dr. Ronald M. Berkman, CSU President gives remarks at an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Sen. John Glenn listens to a question at a NASA Tweetup event celebrating Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    A NASA Tweetup attendee frames a picture of Sen. John Glenn at an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Sen. John Glenn gives remarks at an event celebrating his legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Chris Lynch)

  10. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    NASA Glenn Research Center Director Ray Lugo welcomes guest to an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden gives remarks at an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    NASA Tweetup attendees listen to Sen. John Glenn at an event celebrating Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Sen. John Glenn answers questions at a NASA Tweetup event celebrating Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Sen. John Glenn is seen on a monitor as he gives remarks at an event celebrating his legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. The Armenian Genocide: Context and Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adalian, Rouben

    1991-01-01

    Traces the Armenian experience between 1915 and 1918 when the Muslim Turks carried out a policy to eliminate the Christian-Armenian minority. Focuses on the distinction between massacres and genocide; the use of technology in facilitating mass murder; and the legacy of genocide. Includes maps and photographs. (NL)

  16. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  17. Legacy: Challenging Lessons in Civics and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Julia P., Ed.

    This is a collection of lesson plans on civic education designed for all levels of gifted students and written by teachers from across the U.S. The 25 teachers submitting lessons to the compilation are a part of the LEGACY (Linking Educators and the Gifted with Attorneys for Civics: Yes!) project. The lessons involve students in the study of the…

  18. Enduring Legacy? Charles Tilly and Durable Inequality.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kim

    2010-12-01

    This article assesses Charles Tilly's Durable Inequality and traces its influence. In writing Durable Inequality, Tilly sought to shift the research agenda of stratification scholars. But the book's initial impact was disappointing. In recent years, however, its influence has grown, suggesting a more enduring legacy.

  19. Weaving the Web into legacy information systems.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, R.; Nathanson, L.; Safran, C.; Sands, D. Z.

    2000-01-01

    For many years, client-server systems were developed as the backbone of clinical computing in leading hospitals around the country. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center now faces the challenge of bridging the technology gap between such systems and the Internet. While developing Web interfaces to legacy clinical systems gives a taste of the future, it is clear that complete institutional migration to the Web is not imminent. Asking clinicians to utilize two different systems, Web-based and legacy, in the interim phase is just one of the difficulties in such transition. This paper describes "Mbridge", a solution that allows legacy system users to exploit the benefits of the Internet in a fashion that does not interfere with their workflow and is both simple and affordable to implement. The service allows clinicians to work on the legacy platform while context-sensitive clinical content is streamed to the browser without their intervention. Using the system, we can gradually expose clinicians to new Web-based applications and resources without forcing them to operate two computing environments simultaneously. The service achieves these goals by means of linkage and coordination rather than by code-translation, data exchange or replication. PMID:11079988

  20. Bisphenol A Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Reduces the Motile Potential of Murine LM8 Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kidani, Teruki; Yasuda, Rie; Miyawaki, Joji; Oshima, Yusuke; Miura, Hiromasa; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on the proliferation and motility potential of murine LM8 osteosarcoma cells. LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with or without 80 μM BPA. The effect of BPA on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation study. Ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) to visualize cell morphology. Cell motility was assayed using inserts with uncoated membranes in invasion chambers. Expression of cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) was determined by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. BPA reduced the DNA content of cultures and the number of BrdU-positive cells. BPA induced a change in morphology from cuboidal with multiple filopodia on the cell surface to spindle-shaped with a smooth cell surface. BPA-treated cells expressed less CDC42 and were less motile than untreated cells. BPA inhibited DNA replication and cell proliferation. BPA inhibited filopodia formation and motile potential by inhibiting CDC42 expression in LM8 cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative Proteogenomics and the Reconstruction of the Metabolic Pathway in Lactobacillus mucosae LM1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae is a natural resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and a potential probiotic bacterium. To understand the global protein expression profile and metabolic features of L. mucosae LM1 in the early stationary phase, the QExactiveTM Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer was used. Characterization of the intracellular proteome identified 842 proteins, accounting for approximately 35% of the 2,404 protein-coding sequences in the complete genome of L. mucosae LM1. Proteome quantification using QExactiveTM Orbitrap MS detected 19 highly abundant proteins (> 1.0% of the intracellular proteome), including CysK (cysteine synthase, 5.41%) and EF-Tu (elongation factor Tu, 4.91%), which are involved in cell survival against environmental stresses. Metabolic pathway annotation of LM1 proteome using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database showed that half of the proteins expressed are important for basic metabolic and biosynthetic processes, and the other half might be structurally important or involved in basic cellular processes. In addition, glycogen biosynthesis was activated in the early stationary phase, which is important for energy storage and maintenance. The proteogenomic data presented in this study provide a suitable reference to understand the protein expression pattern of lactobacilli in standard conditions. PMID:26761899

  2. Asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases (CrtLm) from non-photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Picataggio, S; Rouvière, P E; Cheng, Q

    2004-03-01

    Carotenoids have important functions in photosynthesis, nutrition, and protection against oxidative damage. Some natural carotenoids are asymmetrical molecules that are difficult to produce chemically. Biological production of carotenoids using specific enzymes is a potential alternative to extraction from natural sources. Here we report the isolation of lycopene beta-cyclases that selectively cyclize only one end of lycopene or neurosporene. The crtLm genes encoding the asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases were isolated from non-photosynthetic bacteria that produced monocyclic carotenoids. Co-expression of these crtLm genes with the crtEIB genes from Pantoea stewartii (responsible for lycopene synthesis) resulted in the production of monocyclic gamma-carotene in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric cyclization activity of CrtLm could be inhibited by the lycopene beta-cyclase inhibitor 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that bacterial CrtL-type lycopene beta-cyclases might represent an evolutionary link between the common bacterial CrtY-type of lycopene beta-cyclases and plant lycopene beta- and epsilon-cyclases. These lycopene beta-cyclases may be used for efficient production of high-value asymmetrically cyclized carotenoids.

  3. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  4. Project Management Plan (PMP) for Work Management Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    SHIPLER, C.E.

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide a project plan for Work Management Implementation by the River Protection Project (RPP). Work Management is an information initiative to implement industry best practices by replacing some Tank Farm legacy system

  5. Identification of LmUAP1 as a 20-hydroxyecdysone response gene in the chitin biosynthesis pathway from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Ya-Wen; Li, Da-Qi; Li, Sheng; Ma, En-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Zhen

    2016-10-03

    In Locusta migratoria, we found that two chitin biosynthesis genes, UDP N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase gene LmUAP1 and chitin synthase gene LmCHS1, are expressed mainly in the integument and are responsible for cuticle formation. However, whether these genes are regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is still largely unclear. Here, we showed the developmental expression pattern of LmUAP1, LmCHS1 and the corresponding 20E titer during the last instar nymph stage of locust. RNA interference (RNAi) directed toward a common region of the two isoforms of LmEcR (LmEcRcom) reduced the expression level of LmUAP1, while there was no difference in the expression of LmCHS1. Meantime, injection of 20E in vivo induced the expression of LmUAP1 but not LmCHS1. Further, we found injection-based RNAi of LmEcRcom resulted in 100% mortality. The locusts failed to molt with no apolysis, and maintained in the nymph stage until death. In conclusion, our preliminary results indicated that LmUAP1 in the chitin biosynthesis pathway is a 20E late-response gene and LmEcR plays an essential role in locust growth and development, which could be a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

  6. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  7. The Mayall z-band Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David R.; Blum, Robert D.; Allen, Lori; Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Lang, Dustin; Moustakas, John; Meisner, Aaron M.; Valdes, Francisco; Patej, Anna; Myers, Adam D.; Sprayberry, David; Saha, Abi; Olsen, Knut A.; Safonova, Sasha; Yang, Qian; Burleigh, Kaylan J.; MzLS Team

    2016-06-01

    The Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS) is conducting a deep z-band imaging survey covering 5000 square degrees in the north Galactic cap as part of the Legacy Survey, which is associated with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) redshift survey. The Legacy Survey covers 14000 square degrees in the g, r, and z bands and is being executed on the Blanco 4-m, Mayall 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. The MzLS footprint will be observed in the g and r bands using the Bok 2.3-m telescope also on Kitt Peak. The Beijing Arizona Sky Survey (BASS) is being conducted by a parallel team from Beijing and the University of Arizona. MzLS will cover the sky north of declination 30 degrees and reach a depth of z=23.0. The survey began in January 2016 and will run through June 2017 comprising approximately 230 nights on the Mayall telescope. The data are being obtained with an upgraded Mosaic camera that deploys with newred-sensitive CCDs from Lawrence Berkeley Lab (LBL) whose throughput is in excess of 80% at 8000 to approximately 9800 Angstrom. The upgrade project was a collaboration of Yale, LBL, and NOAO. MzLS images are public as soon as they are taken and delivered to the NOAO archive. Catalogs based on Tractor photometry for all available Legacy Survey images are released soon after they are constructed and MzLS sources will be included in next release planned for summer 2016. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 30+ million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these MzLS data, DECam data from the DECam Legacy Survey, and data from the BASS survey.

  8. ISOACCEPTING TRANSFER RNA'S OF L-M CELLS IN CULTURE AND AFTER TUMOR INDUCTION IN C3H MICE*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Kuang; Hellman, A.; Martin, D. H.; Hellman, K. B.; Novelli, G. David

    1969-01-01

    Co-chromatography in a reversed-phase column was performed for 16 aminoacyl-tRNA's prepared from L-M cells grown in serum-free suspension culture and from tumors induced in irradiated C3H mice by subcutaneous injection of L-M cells. The results showed that between the two sources there were (1) marked differences in aspartyl-, histidyl-, phenylalanyl-, and tyrosyl-tRNA's; (2) significant quantitative differences in isoaccepting species of alanyl-, isoleucyl-, seryl-, and threonyl-tRNA's; and (3) similar to minimally different patterns of arginyl-, methionyl-, prolyl-, tryptophanyl-, valyl-, glycyl-, leucyl-, and lysyl-tRNA's. The differences were evident when synthetases prepared either from L-M cells or from the tumors were used. When the L-M tumors were brought back into in vitro culture, their tRNA patterns were like those of L-M cells. Addition of serum to the culture medium caused the L-M cells to show very minute, but detectable, amounts of the isoaccepting tRNA's found in the tumors. The cellular mechanisms which may be related to the changes of tRNA patterns in the L-M cells are discussed. PMID:5271761

  9. Estimates of L:M cone ratio from ERG flicker photometry and genetics.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Joseph; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2002-01-01

    Estimates of L:M cone ratio for males with normal color vision were derived using the flicker-photometric electroretinogram (ERG). These were obtained by best fitting ERG spectral sensitivity functions to a weighted sum of long (L)- and middle (M)-wavelength-sensitive cone spectral absorption curves. Using the ERG, measurements can be made with extremely high precision, which leaves variation in the wavelength of maximal sensitivity (lambda(max)) of the cone photopigments as the major remaining source of inaccuracy in determining the ratio of cone contributions. Here that source of inaccuracy was largely eliminated through the use of individualized L-cone spectral absorption curves deduced from L-pigment gene sequences. The method was used on 62 normal males as part of an effort to obtain a true picture of how normal variations in L:M cone ratio are distributed. The percentage of L cones in the average eye was 65%L [where %L = 100 X L / (L+M)]. There were huge individual differences ranging from 28%-93%L, corresponding to more than a 30-fold range in L:M ratio (0.4-13). However, the most extreme values were relatively rare; 80% of the subjects fell within +/-15 %L of the mean, corresponding to a 4-fold range in L:M ratio (1-4). The method remedies major weaknesses inherent in earlier applications of flicker photometry to estimate cone ratio; however, it continues to depend on the assumption that the average L cone produces a response with an identical amplitude to that of the average M cone. A comparison of the ERG results with the distribution of cone ratios estimated from cone pigment messenger RNA in cadaver eyes indicates that the assumption generally holds true. However, there may be a small number of exceptions in which individuals have normally occurring (but relatively rare) amino acid substitutions in one of their pigments that significantly affect the physiology of the cone class containing that pigment, so as to reduce the amplitude of its contribution

  10. Apollo 9 Mission image - Top view of the Lunar Module (LM) spacecraft from the Command Module (CM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-03

    The Lunar Module (LM) 3 "Spider",still attached to the Saturn V third (S-IVB) stage,is photographed from the Command/Service Module (CSM) "Gumdrop" on the first day of the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. This picture was taken following CSM/LM-S-IVB separation,and prior to LM extraction from the S-IVB. The Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA) panels have already been jettisoned. Film magazine was A,film type was SO-368 Ektachrome with 0.460 - 0.710 micrometers film / filter transmittance response and haze filter, 80mm lens.

  11. Overview of the Government of Canada Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program - 13551

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, D.; McCauley, D.; Miller, J.; Brooks, S.

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from more than 60 years of nuclear research and development carried out on behalf of Canada. The liabilities are located at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario and Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba, as well as three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec that are being maintained in a safe storage state. Estimated at about $7.4 billion (current day dollars), these liabilities consist of disused nuclear facilities and associated infrastructure, a wide variety of buried and stored waste, and contaminated lands. In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year, $520 million start-up phase, thereby creating the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The Government of Canada renewed the NLLP in 2011 with a $439-million three-year second phase that ends March 31, 2014. The projects and activities carried out under the Program focus on infrastructure decommissioning, environmental restoration, improving the management of legacy radioactive waste, and advancing the long-term strategy. The NLLP is being implemented through a Memorandum of Understanding between Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and AECL whereby NRCan is responsible for policy direction and oversight, including control of funding, and AECL is responsible for implementing the program of work and holding and administering all licences, facilities and lands. (authors)

  12. Apartheid's Legacy to Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jerome T.

    1992-01-01

    Segregated and unequal education, the main instrument for sorting children into their color-coded societal niches, is deeply embedded in South Africa. Despite obstacles such as inadequate funding, a tough, Eurocentric curriculum, and a bewildering school management bureaucracy nearing collapse, South Africa's general prosperity and political…

  13. Apartheid's Legacy to Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jerome T.

    1992-01-01

    Segregated and unequal education, the main instrument for sorting children into their color-coded societal niches, is deeply embedded in South Africa. Despite obstacles such as inadequate funding, a tough, Eurocentric curriculum, and a bewildering school management bureaucracy nearing collapse, South Africa's general prosperity and political…

  14. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  15. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  16. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  17. Apollo 12 Mission image - Modular Equipment Stowage Assemble (MESA) and the Fuel Cask on the Lunar Module (LM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-48-7034 (19 Nov. 1969) --- A close-up view of a portion of quadrant II of the descent stage of the Apollo 12 Lunar Module (LM), photographed during the Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). At lower left is the LM's Y footpad. The empty Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) fuel cask is at upper right. The fuel capsule has already been removed and placed in the RTG. The RTG furnishes power for the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) which the Apollo 12 astronauts deployed on the moon. The LM's descent engine skirt is in the center background. The rod-like object protruding out from under the footpad is a lunar surface sensing probe. Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander; and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, descended in the LM to explore the moon.

  18. Apollo 12 Mission image - Dark view of Astronaut Alan L. Bean climbing down the ladder of the Lunar Module (LM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6726 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 mission, starts down the ladder of the Lunar Module (LM) to join astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., mission commander, in extravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Conrad and Bean descended in the LM "Intrepid" to explore the Ocean of Storms region of the moon, astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Yankee Clipper" in lunar orbit.

  19. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    NASA Glenn Research Center Director Ray Lugo, foreground, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, and Sen. John Glenn, background, stand during the presentation of colors by the 3rd Battalion, 25th Marine Regiment, at the start of an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Former NASA Astronaut Steve Lindsey gives remarks at an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1998 Lindsey flew onboard the space shuttle Discovery along with then 77 year-old Sen. John Glenn for the STS-95 mission. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, Sen. John Glenn, and NASA Glenn Research Center Director Ray Lugo, right, answer questions at a NASA Tweetup event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Sen. John Glenn answers questions as NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and NASA Glenn Research Center Ray Lugo look on at a NASA Tweetup event celebrating Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Dr. Ronald M. Berkman, CSU President gives remarks while former Astronaut Steve Lindsey, left, Sen. John Glenn, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, and NASA Glenn Research Center Director Ray Lugo, seated right, look on at an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    NASA Glenn Research Center Deupty Director James Free moderates a combined media briefing and NASA Tweetup with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, seated left, Sen. John Glenn, and NASA Glenn Research Center Director Ray Lugo, seated right, at an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Sen. John Glenn waves to a group of media and Twitter users as he takes the stage with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and NASA Glenn Research Center Director Ray Lugo, right, at a Tweetup event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Cleveland State University Master of Music Major James Binion Jr. sings a musical tribute during an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the university's Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1998 Lindsey flew onboard the space shuttle Discovery along with then 77 year-old Sen. John Glenn for the STS-95 mission. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Wife of former astronaut and Senator John Glenn, Annie Glenn, listens intently to Cleveland State University Master of Music Major James Binion Jr. as he sings a musical tribute during an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the university's Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Diagnostic analysis of liver B ultrasonic texture features based on LM neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Qingyun; Hua, Hu; Liu, Menglin; Jiang, Xiuying

    2017-03-01

    In this study, B ultrasound images of 124 benign and malignant patients were randomly selected as the study objects. The B ultrasound images of the liver were treated by enhanced de-noising. By constructing the gray level co-occurrence matrix which reflects the information of each angle, Principal Component Analysis of 22 texture features were extracted and combined with LM neural network for diagnosis and classification. Experimental results show that this method is a rapid and effective diagnostic method for liver imaging, which provides a quantitative basis for clinical diagnosis of liver diseases.

  9. [Identification of elephantopi herba and its adulterants by LM/SEM observation and TLC scanning].

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Li, Yao-Lan; Ye, Wen-Cai; Li, Yong-Xue; But, Pui-Hay; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2013-08-01

    To provide identification basis for distinguishing Elephantopi Herba and its adulterants. Light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thin layer chromatography scanning (TLCS) methods were used to identify Didancao (Elephantopus scaber) and its adulterants Baihuadidancao (Elephantopus mollis) and Jiadidancao (Pseudelephantopus spicatus). Based on the microscopic features and TLC profiles, the commercial Didancao samples retailed in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau markets were identified as Elephantopus scaber. These methods are accurate and reliable, which can be used for identification of Elephantopi Herba and its adulterants.

  10. Decomposition of small-footprint full waveform LiDAR data based on generalized Gaussian model and grouping LM optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongchao; Zhou, Weiwei; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Suyuan

    2017-04-01

    Full waveform airborne Light Detection And Ranging(LiDAR) data contains abundant information which may overcome some deficiencies of discrete LiDAR point cloud data provided by conventional LiDAR systems. Processing full waveform data to extract more information than coordinate values alone is of great significance for potential applications. The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is a traditional method used to estimate parameters of a Gaussian model when Gaussian decomposition of full waveform LiDAR data is performed. This paper employs the generalized Gaussian mixture function to fit a waveform, and proposes using the grouping LM algorithm to optimize the parameters of the function. It is shown that the grouping LM algorithm overcomes the common drawbacks which arise from the conventional LM for parameter optimization, such as the final results being influenced by the initial parameters, possible algorithm interruption caused by non-numerical elements that occurred in the Jacobian matrix, etc. The precision of the point cloud generated by the grouping LM is evaluated by comparing it with those provided by the LiDAR system and those generated by the conventional LM. Results from both simulation and real data show that the proposed algorithm can generate a higher-quality point cloud, in terms of point density and precision, and can extract other information, such as echo location, pulse width, etc., more precisely as well.

  11. Characterization of antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by Bacillus sp. LM7 isolated from chungkookjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Jong Suk; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2016-03-16

    A wild-type microorganism exhibiting antimicrobial activities was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented soybean food Chungkookjang and identified as Bacillus sp. LM7. During its stationary growth phase, the microorganism secreted an antimicrobial substance, which we partially purified using a simple two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and heat treatment. The partially purified antimicrobial substance, Anti-LM7, was stable over a broad pH range (4.0-9.0) and at temperatures up to 80 °C for 30 min, and was resistant to most proteolytic enzymes and maintained its activity in 30% (v/v) organic solvents. Anti-LM7 inhibited the growth of a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, but it did not inhibit lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. Moreover, unlike commercially available nisin and polymyxin B, Anti-LM7 inhibited certain fungal strains. Lastly, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Anti-LM7 revealed that it contained eight lipopeptides belonging to two families: four bacillomycin D and four surfactin analogs. These Bacillus sp. LM7-produced heterogeneous lipopeptides exhibiting extremely high stability and a broad antimicrobial spectrum are likely to be closely related to the antimicrobial activity of Chungkookjang, and their identification presents an opportunity for application of the peptides in environmental bioremediation, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Concordance of handheld reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) with histopathology in the diagnosis of lentigo maligna (LM): A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Menge, Tyler D; Hibler, Brian P; Cordova, Miguel A; Nehal, Kishwer S; Rossi, Anthony M

    2016-06-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) provides real-time noninvasive imaging of cell structure and may be useful in diagnosing lentigo maligna (LM). Few studies have compared performance of RCM with histopathology in diagnosing LM, and specific features influencing RCM interpretation are not well described. We sought to determine concordance rate between RCM and histopathology in the evaluation of suspected LM and to identify factors that may obscure diagnosis. We designed a prospective study involving 17 participants seen for evaluation at a large tertiary referral center. Cases included primary lesions and possible recurrent and/or previously treated lesions. A total of 63 clinically equivocal sites were assessed by RCM and histopathology. RCM and histopathology interpretations were concordant in 56 of 63 sites (89%). There were no false-negative and 7 false-positive results using RCM (sensitivity 100%, specificity 71%, positive predictive value 85%, negative predictive value 100%). Features suggestive of LM in the false-positive group included the presence of numerous hyperreflectile large cells at the dermoepidermal junction and follicular localization of these cells. A larger test set is needed to more reliably distinguish LM from benign lesions using RCM and to improve specificity. RCM shows excellent sensitivity for detecting LM although features of benign macules on a background of actinically damaged skin can obscure diagnosis and limit its specificity. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mining the Spitzer Legacy Science Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.; Squires, G.; Alexov, A.

    2005-12-01

    The original Spitzer Legacy Science Program is now approaching completion with the basic observations archived and the `enhanced' data products populating dedicated Spitzer and IRSA archives. To date the Legacy teams of C2D, FEPS, GLIMPSE, GOODS, SINGS and SWIRE have delivered more than half of the total planned `enhanced' data products to the public archives. The archives include fully reduced and calibrated imaging, spectra, and tabular data derived from the Spitzer IRAC, MIPS and IRS observations, as well as ancillary ground-based imaging and spectroscopy. Science results are now flowing from the Legacy teams, addressing the fundamental questions that the Spitzer observations where designed and optimized to answer. However, the data archives are mostly untapped in their science potential, offering a rich resource for astronomical data mining. We describe the archives in detail, spanning their structure, content and accessibility. User friendly resources for mining the data are showcased, including the Spitzer Science Center archive tool Leopard and the Infrared Science Archive services Atlas and RADAR.

  14. A legacy building model for holistic nursing.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernadette; Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Mariano, Carla

    2014-06-01

    This pilot project was an effort to record the historical roots, development, and legacy of holistic nursing through the visionary spirit of four older American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) members. The aim was twofold: (a) to capture the holistic nursing career experiences of elder AHNA members and (b) to begin to create a Legacy Building Model for Holistic Nursing. The narratives will help initiate an ongoing, systematic method for the collection of historical data and serve as a perpetual archive of knowledge and inspiration for present and future holistic nurses. An aesthetic inquiry approach was used to conduct in-depth interviews with four older AHNA members who have made significant contributions to holistic nursing. The narratives provide a rich description of their personal and professional evolution as holistic nurses. The narratives are presented in an aesthetic format of the art forms of snapshot, pastiche, and collage rather than traditional presentations of research findings. A synopsis of the narratives is a dialogue between the three authors and provides insight for how a Legacy Model can guide our future. Considerations for practice, education, and research are discussed based on the words of wisdom from the four older holistic nurses.

  15. Practical implementation of a bridge between legacy EHR system and a clinical research environment.

    PubMed

    Vishnyakova, Dina; Bottone, Sylviane; Pasche, Emilie; Lovis, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Employing the bridge between Clinical Information System (CIS) and Clinical Research Environment (CRE) can provide functionality, which is not easily, implemented by traditional legacy EHR system. In this paper, the experience of such implementation at the University Hospitals of Geneva is described. General overview of the mapping of extracted from CIS data to the i2b2 Clinical Data Warehouse is provided. The defined implementation manages to provide the interoperability for the CRE.

  16. Legacy Status as a Signal in College Admissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    empirical support for any claims about legacy admits in the literature. The main assertion in favor of legacy admits is financial .1 William R...Fitzsimmons, dean of admissions and financial aid at Harvard, defends the school’s legacy policy because it helps raise funds that...and logit are inconsequential for this data set. Probit is used for computational simplicity because Stata automatically computes marginal effects. An

  17. Disturbance legacies increase the resilience of forest ecosystem structure, composition, and functioning.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Rupert; Rammer, Werner; Spies, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    , demonstrating that an increase in disturbance frequency (a potential climate change effect) may considerably alter the structure, composition, and functioning of forest landscapes. Our results indicate that live tree legacies are an important component of disturbance resilience, underlining the potential of retention forestry to address challenges in ecosystem management.

  18. Disturbance legacies increase the resilience of forest ecosystem structure, composition, and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Rupert; Rammer, Werner; Spies, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    , demonstrating that an increase in disturbance frequency (a potential climate change effect) may considerably alter the structure, composition, and functioning of forest landscapes. Our results indicate that live tree legacies are an important component of disturbance resilience, underlining the potential of retention forestry to address challenges in ecosystem management. PMID:27053913

  19. Dendritic inhibition mediated by O-LM and bistratified interneurons in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christina; Remy, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In the CA1 region of the hippocampus pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons form local microcircuits. CA1 interneurons are a diverse group consisting of many subtypes, some of which provide compartment-specific inhibition specifically onto pyramidal neuron dendrites. In fact, the majority of inhibitory synapses on pyramidal neurons is found on their dendrites. The specific role of a dendrite-innervating interneuron subtype is primarily determined by its innervation pattern on the distinct dendritic domains of pyramidal neurons. The efficacy of dendritic inhibition in reducing dendritic excitation depends on the relative timing and location of the activated excitatory and inhibitory synapses. In vivo, synaptic properties such as short-term plasticity and neuro-modulation by the basal forebrain, govern the degree of inhibition in distinct dendritic domains in a dynamic, behavior dependent manner, specifically during network oscillation such as the theta rhythm. In this review we focus on two subtypes of dendrite-innervating interneurons: the oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneuron and the bistratified interneuron. Their molecular marker profile, morphology, and function in vivo and in vitro are well studied. We strive to integrate this diverse information from the cellular to the network level, and to provide insight into how the different characteristics of O-LM and bistratified interneurons affect dendritic excitability, network activity, and behavior. PMID:25324774

  20. The New GFDL Global Atmosphere and Land Model AM2 LM2: Evaluation with Prescribed SST Simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gfdl Global Atmospheric Model Development Team:

    2004-12-01

    The configuration and performance of a new global atmosphere and land model for climate research developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are presented. The atmosphere model, known as AM2, includes a new gridpoint dynamical core, a prognostic cloud scheme, and a multispecies aerosol climatology, as well as components from previous models used at GFDL. The land model, known as LM2, includes soil sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The performance of the coupled model AM2 LM2 is evaluated with a series of prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) simulations. Particular focus is given to the model's climatology and the characteristics of interannual variability related to E1 Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO).One AM2 LM2 integration was performed according to the prescriptions of the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II) and data were submitted to the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI). Particular strengths of AM2 LM2, as judged by comparison to other models participating in AMIP II, include its circulation and distributions of precipitation. Prominent problems of AM2 LM2 include a cold bias to surface and tropospheric temperatures, weak tropical cyclone activity, and weak tropical intraseasonal activity associated with the Madden Julian oscillation.An ensemble of 10 AM2 LM2 integrations with observed SSTs for the second half of the twentieth century permits a statistically reliable assessment of the model's response to ENSO. In general, AM2 LM2 produces a realistic simulation of the anomalies in tropical precipitation and extratropical circulation that are associated with ENSO.


  1. The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2-LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.L.; Balaji, V.; Broccoli, A.J.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Dixon, K.W.; Donner, L.J.; Dunne, K.A.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Garner, S.T.; Gudgel, R.G.; Gordon, C.T.; Held, I.M.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Kushner, P.J.; Langenhost, A.R.; Lau, N.-C.; Liang, Z.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Nath, M.J.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Soden, B.J.; Stern, W.F.; Thompson, L.A.; Wilson, R.J.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Wyman, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    The configuration and performance of a new global atmosphere and land model for climate research developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are presented. The atmosphere model, known as AM2, includes a new gridpoint dynamical core, a prognostic cloud scheme, and a multispecies aerosol climatology, as well as components from previous models used at GFDL. The land model, known as LM2, includes soil sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The performance of the coupled model AM2-LM2 is evaluated with a series of prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) simulations. Particular focus is given to the model's climatology and the characteristics of interannual variability related to El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). One AM2-LM2 integration was perfor med according to the prescriptions of the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II) and data were submitted to the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI). Particular strengths of AM2-LM2, as judged by comparison to other models participating in AMIP II, include its circulation and distributions of precipitation. Prominent problems of AM2-LM2 include a cold bias to surface and tropospheric temperatures, weak tropical cyclone activity, and weak tropical intraseasonal activity associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation. An ensemble of 10 AM2-LM 2 integrations with observed SSTs for the second half of the twentieth century permits a statistically reliable assessment of the model's response to ENSO. In general, AM2-LM2 produces a realistic simulation of the anomalies in tropical precipitation and extratropical circulation that are associated with ENSO. ?? 2004 American Meteorological Society.

  2. The Olympic legacy: Journal metrics in sports medicine and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joel; Walker, Tom W M; Miller, Stuart; Cobb, Alistair; Thomas, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Systematic analysis of integral aspects within sport enables improvement in performance. One key aspect is the management and prevention of injuries. Bibliometrics is a systematic method for evaluating research output. It may be expected that the quantity and quality of sports injury research over time may strongly correlate with the timing of the Olympic games. This study was conducted to determine the effect of the Olympic legacy on academic sports medicine and evidence to prevent injuries of the face and teeth. A literature search within the PubMed database was undertaken to identify the quantity of literature published annually between 1996 and 2015 in the fields of sports injuries and injury prevention. The top 5 journals publishing in each field were then identified and the change in their impact factor (IF) was investigated. It was seen that, since 1996, there has been an overall increase in the quantity of literature published regarding sports injuries and prevention of sports injuries of 209% and 217%, respectively. Publications regarding facial injuries and dental injuries within sport show an increase of 114% and 71%, respectively. There was an increase in IF since 2000 in almost every journal investigated. A strong, positive correlation is seen among journals publishing on the prevention of sports injuries, showing a median IF increase of 2.8198. No statistical significance was found between Olympic years and the number of publications. Hence, there has been a gradual increase in both the quality and quantity of publications regarding sports injuries since 1996. However, there appears to be no immediate added effect of the "Olympic legacy" following each Olympic games on the quantity or quality of publications in these fields.

  3. Unexpected Drought Legacy Effects in Six North American Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin-Nolan, R. J.; Collins, S. L.; Knapp, A.; Luo, Y.; Pockman, W.; Smith, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Global climate models predict increases in the frequency and severity of drought in grasslands worldwide, yet grassland sensitivity to drought can vary widely at a regional scale. Legacy effects of drought (drought-induced alterations in ecosystems that affect function post-drought) have been widely reported from desert to forest ecosystems. Drought legacies are usually negative and reduce ecosystem function, particularly after extended drought. Ecosystems with low resistance to drought (high sensitivity) might be expected to exhibit the largest legacy effects the next year, but the relationship between ecosystem sensitivity to drought and subsequent legacy effects is unknown. We quantified legacy effects of a severe drought in 2012 on post-drought (2013) aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in six central US grasslands. These ecosystems, spanning arid desert grasslands to mesic tallgrass prairie, varied by two-fold in their sensitivity to the natural drought in 2012. We predicted that (1) the magnitude of drought legacy effects measured in 2013 would be positively related to drought sensitivity in 2012, and (2) drought legacy effects would be negative (reducing 2013 ANPP relative to that expected given normal precipitation amounts). The magnitude of legacy effects measured in 2013 was strongly related (r2 = 0.96) to 2012 drought sensitivity across these six grasslands. However, contrary to expectations, positive legacy effects (greater than expected ANPP) were measured in most sites. Thus, while drought sensitivity may a useful predictor of the magnitude of legacy effects, short term (1-year) severe droughts may cause legacy effects that differ substantially from those observed after multi-year droughts.

  4. Russian Experience in the Regulatory Supervision of the Uranium Legacy Sites - 12441

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, M.F.; Romanov, V.V.; Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Seregin, V.A.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.; Khokhlova, E.A.

    2012-07-01

    Management of the uranium legacy is accompanied with environmental impact intensity of which depends on the amount of the waste generated, the extent of that waste localization and environmental spreading. The question is: how hazardous is such impact on the environment and human health? The criterion for safety assurance is adequate regulation of the uranium legacy. Since the establishment of the uranium industry, the well done regulatory system operates in the FMBA of Russia. Such system covers inter alia, the uranium legacy. This system includes the extent laboratory network of independent control and supervision, scientific researches, regulative practices. The current Russian normative and legal basis of the regulation and its application practice has a number of problems relating to the uranium legacy, connected firstly with the environmental remediation. To improve the regulatory system, the urgent tasks are: -To introduce the existing exposure situation into the national laws and standards in compliance with the ICRP system. - To develop criteria for site remediation and return, by stages, to uncontrolled uses. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary storage of SNF and RW. - To consider possibilities and methods of optimization for the remediation strategies under development. - To separate the special category - RW resulted from uranium ore mining and dressing. The current Russian RW classification is based on the waste subdivision in terms of the specific activities. Having in mind the new RW-specific law, we receive the opportunity to separate some special category - RW originated from the uranium mining and milling. Introduction of such category can simplify significantly the situation with management of waste of uranium mining and milling processes. Such approach is implemented in many countries and approved by IAEA. The category of 'RW originated from

  5. Nutrient pressures and legacies in a small agricultural karst catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Owen; Mellander, Per-Erik; Daly, Karen; Wall, David P.; Jahangir, Mohammad M.; Jordan, Phil; Hennessey, Deirdre; Huebsch, Manuela; Blum, Philipp; Vero, Sara; Richards, Karl G.

    2017-04-01

    Catchments with short subsurface hydrologic time lags are commonly at risk for leached losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Such catchments are suitable for testing the efficacy of mitigation measures as management changes. In some sites, however, N and P may be retained in the soil and subsoil layers, and then leached, mobilised or attenuated over time. This biogeochemical time lag may therefore have enduring effects on the water quality. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of N and P retention, attenuation and distribution of subsurface pathway in an intensively managed agricultural karst catchment with an oxidised aquifer setting, and also to inform how similar sites can be managed in the future. Results showed that in the years pre-2000 slurry from an on-site integrated pig production unit had been applied at rates of 33 t/ha annually, which supplied approximately 136 kg/ha total N and approximately 26 kg/ha total P annually. This practice contributed to large quantities of N (total N and NH4-N) and elevated soil test P (Morgan extractable P), present to a depth of 1 m. This store was augmented by recent surpluses of 263 kg N/ha, with leached N to groundwater of 82.5 kg N/ha and only 2.5 kg N/ha denitrified in the aquifer thereafter. Sub hourly spring data showed the largest proportion of N loss from small (54-88%) and medium fissure pathways (7- 21%) with longer hydrologic time lags, with smallest loads from either large fissure (1-13%) or conduit (1-10%) pathways with short hydrologic time lags (reaction time at the spring from onset of a rainfall event is within hours). Although soils were saturated in P and in mobile forms to 0.5 m, dissolved reactive P concentrations in groundwater remained low due to Ca and Mg limestone chemistry. Under these conditions a depletion of the legacy store, with no further inputs, would take approximately 50 years and with NO3-N concentrations in the source area dropping to levels that could sustain

  6. Country School Legacy Report for Southern Colorado. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Joanne L.; Dodds, Edwin

    In southern Colorado, the Country School Legacy Project, part of an eight-state research effort to locate and preserve information related to country schools, involved visiting and corresponding with 25 counties and conducting 58 oral history interviews. Materials, both factual and anecdotal, assembled into this report from school records,…

  7. The Legacy of Utah's Country Schools, 1847-1896. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkinshaw, Scott B.

    This section of the Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier Project, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and sponsored by the Mountain Plains Library Association, traces the development of schools in Utah during the Territorial Period (1847-1896). Following a discussion of the influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of…

  8. Gene conversion and purifying selection shape nucleotide variation in gibbon L/M opsin genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Routine trichromatic color vision is a characteristic feature of catarrhines (humans, apes and Old World monkeys). This is enabled by L and M opsin genes arrayed on the X chromosome and an autosomal S opsin gene. In non-human catarrhines, genetic variation affecting the color vision phenotype is reported to be absent or rare in both L and M opsin genes, despite the suggestion that gene conversion has homogenized the two genes. However, nucleotide variation of both introns and exons among catarrhines has only been examined in detail for the L opsin gene of humans and chimpanzees. In the present study, we examined the nucleotide variation of gibbon (Catarrhini, Hylobatidae) L and M opsin genes. Specifically, we focused on the 3.6~3.9-kb region that encompasses the centrally located exon 3 through exon 5, which encode the amino acid sites functional for the spectral tuning of the genes. Results Among 152 individuals representing three genera (Hylobates, Nomascus and Symphalangus), all had both L and M opsin genes and no L/M hybrid genes. Among 94 individuals subjected to the detailed DNA sequencing, the nucleotide divergence between L and M opsin genes in the exons was significantly higher than the divergence in introns in each species. The ratio of the inter-LM divergence to the intra-L/M polymorphism was significantly lower in the introns than that in synonymous sites. When we reconstructed the phylogenetic tree using the exon sequences, the L/M gene duplication was placed in the common ancestor of catarrhines, whereas when intron sequences were used, the gene duplications appeared multiple times in different species. Using the GENECONV program, we also detected that tracts of gene conversions between L and M opsin genes occurred mostly within the intron regions. Conclusions These results indicate the historical accumulation of gene conversions between L and M opsin genes in the introns in gibbons. Our study provides further support for the homogenizing

  9. Gene conversion and purifying selection shape nucleotide variation in gibbon L/M opsin genes.

    PubMed

    Hiwatashi, Tomohide; Mikami, Akichika; Katsumura, Takafumi; Suryobroto, Bambang; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Oota, Hiroki; Goto, Shunji; Kawamura, Shoji

    2011-10-22

    Routine trichromatic color vision is a characteristic feature of catarrhines (humans, apes and Old World monkeys). This is enabled by L and M opsin genes arrayed on the X chromosome and an autosomal S opsin gene. In non-human catarrhines, genetic variation affecting the color vision phenotype is reported to be absent or rare in both L and M opsin genes, despite the suggestion that gene conversion has homogenized the two genes. However, nucleotide variation of both introns and exons among catarrhines has only been examined in detail for the L opsin gene of humans and chimpanzees. In the present study, we examined the nucleotide variation of gibbon (Catarrhini, Hylobatidae) L and M opsin genes. Specifically, we focused on the 3.6~3.9-kb region that encompasses the centrally located exon 3 through exon 5, which encode the amino acid sites functional for the spectral tuning of the genes. Among 152 individuals representing three genera (Hylobates, Nomascus and Symphalangus), all had both L and M opsin genes and no L/M hybrid genes. Among 94 individuals subjected to the detailed DNA sequencing, the nucleotide divergence between L and M opsin genes in the exons was significantly higher than the divergence in introns in each species. The ratio of the inter-LM divergence to the intra-L/M polymorphism was significantly lower in the introns than that in synonymous sites. When we reconstructed the phylogenetic tree using the exon sequences, the L/M gene duplication was placed in the common ancestor of catarrhines, whereas when intron sequences were used, the gene duplications appeared multiple times in different species. Using the GENECONV program, we also detected that tracts of gene conversions between L and M opsin genes occurred mostly within the intron regions. These results indicate the historical accumulation of gene conversions between L and M opsin genes in the introns in gibbons. Our study provides further support for the homogenizing role of gene conversion between

  10. Legacy and fate of mercury and methylmercury in the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangliang; Naja, G Melodie; Kalla, Peter; Scheidt, Dan; Gaiser, Evelyn; Cai, Yong

    2011-01-15

    Mass inventories of total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) and mass budgets of Hg newly deposited during the 2005 dry and wet seasons were constructed for the Everglades. As a sink for Hg, the Everglades has accumulated 914, 1138, 4931, and 7602 kg of legacy THg in its 4 management units, namely Water Conservation Area (WCA) 1, 2, 3, and the Everglades National Park (ENP), respectively, with most Hg being stored in soil. The current annual Hg inputs account only for 1-2% of the legacy Hg. Mercury transport across management units during a season amounts to 1% or less of Hg storage, except for WCA 2 where inflow inputs can contribute 4% of total MeHg storage. Mass budget suggests distinct spatiality for cycling of seasonally deposited Hg, with significantly lower THg fluxes entering water and floc in ENP than in the WCAs. Floc in WCAs can retain a considerable fraction (around 16%) of MeHg produced from the newly deposited Hg during the wet season. This work is important for evaluating the magnitude of legacy Hg contamination and for predicting the fate of new Hg in the Everglades, and provides a methodological example for large-scale studies on Hg cycling in wetlands.

  11. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.; McClard, J. W.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  12. Legacies of 1917 in Contemporary Russian Public Health: Addiction, HIV, and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Rivkin-Fish, Michele

    2017-11-01

    I examine the legacies of Soviet public health policy and the socialist health care system and trace how the Soviet past figures in contemporary Russian policymaking and debates about drug use, HIV, and abortion. Drug policies and mainstream views of HIV reflect continuities with key aspects of Soviet-era policies, although political leaders do not acknowledge these continuities in justifying their policies. In abortion policy, by contrast, which is highly debated in the public realm, advocates represent themselves as differing from Soviet-era policies to justify their positions. Yet abortion activists' views of the past differ tremendously, reminding us that the Soviet past is symbolically productive for arguments about Russia's present and future. I describe key aspects of the Soviet approach to health and compare how current drug policy (and the related management of HIV/AIDS) and abortion policies are discursively shaped in relation to the Soviet historical and cultural legacy.

  13. Disposition of Legacy Materials at LBNL and Reuse of Valuable Items in Target Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMahamid, Ilham; Shaughnessy, Dawn A.; Sudowe, Ralf

    2005-11-01

    One of the most demanding missions of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) is to manage the radioactive waste. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) gets its share of radioactive materials and waste but at a much smaller scale than other national labs. Disposition of legacy materials at LBNL includes characterization and purification, reuse of valuable materials, and submitting waste items in accordance with federal and state regulations. During the clean up of legacy materials at LBNL, several items were identified for use in collaboration with the CEA/ DSM under the Mini-Inca program to perform transmutation studies. Cm and Np targets were prepared using an electroplating technique. Additional targets of Pu, Am, and Cf are planned for the next set of experiments. An overview of the clean up operation of two facilities will be given. An outline of items assigned to the collaboration and a brief description of the target preparation and electrodeposition set-up will be provided.

  14. The LmSNF1 Gene Is Required for Pathogenicity in the Canola Blackleg Pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Strelkov, Stephen E.; Hwang, Sheau-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans is a fungal pathogen causing blackleg in canola. Its virulence has been attributed, among other factors, to the activity of hydrolytic cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs). Studies on the pathogenicity function of CWDEs in plant pathogenic fungi have been difficult due to gene redundancy. In microorganisms many CWDE genes are repressed by glucose and derepressed by the function of the sucrose non-fermenting protein kinase 1 gene (SNF1). To address the molecular function of SNF1 in L. maculans, the ortholog of SNF1 (LmSNF1) was cloned and functionally characterized using a gene knockout strategy. Growth of the LmSNF1 knockout strains was severely disrupted, as was sporulation, spore germination and the ability to attach on the plant surface. When inoculated on canola cotyledons, the LmSNF1 knockout strains could not cause any symptoms, indicating the loss of pathogenicity. The expression of 11 selected CWDE genes and a pathogenicity gene (LopB) was significantly down-regulated in the LmSNF1 knockout strains. In conclusion, knockout of LmSNF1 prevents L. maculans from properly derepressing the production of CWDEs, compromises the utilization of certain carbon sources, and impairs fungal pathogenicity on canola. PMID:24638039

  15. The N-Terminal Domain and Glycosomal Localization of Leishmania Initial Acyltransferase LmDAT Are Important for Lipophosphoglycan Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ani, Gada K.; Patel, Nipul; Pirani, Karim A.; Zhu, Tongtong; Dhalladoo, Subbhalakshmi; Zufferey, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Ether glycerolipids of Leishmania major are important membrane components as well as building blocks of various virulence factors. In L. major, the first enzyme of the ether glycerolipid biosynthetic pathway, LmDAT, is an unusual, glycosomal dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase important for parasite's growth and survival during the stationary phase, synthesis of ether lipids, and virulence. The present work extends our knowledge of this important biosynthetic enzyme in parasite biology. Site-directed mutagenesis of LmDAT demonstrated that an active enzyme was critical for normal growth and survival during the stationary phase. Deletion analyses showed that the large N-terminal extension of this initial acyltransferase may be important for its stability or activity. Further, abrogation of the C-terminal glycosomal targeting signal sequence of LmDAT led to extraglycosomal localization, did not impair its enzymatic activity but affected synthesis of the ether glycerolipid-based virulence factor lipophosphoglycan. In addition, expression of this recombinant form of LmDAT in a null mutant of LmDAT did not restore normal growth and survival during the stationary phase. These results emphasize the importance of this enzyme's compartmentalization in the glycosome for the generation of lipophosphoglycan and parasite's biology. PMID:22114698

  16. School Choice Discourse and the Legacy of "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty years after the "Brown" decision, and in the context of persistent racial and economic segregation and inequality in schooling, it is still important to examine "Brown"'s legacy. In this focus on school choice, the rhetoric and the ways in which the legacy of "Brown" has been emphatically invoked in charter school and voucher debates is…

  17. The Legacy Project--William E. Dugger, Jr., DTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.; Dugger, William E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This is the ninth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged the educator profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these…

  18. Jack Wescott and Donald F. Smith. The Legacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.; Wescott, Jack W.; Smith, Donald F.

    2017-01-01

    This is the tenth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged our profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these leaders and…

  19. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Treesearch

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark. Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  20. The Legacy Project--William E. Dugger, Jr., DTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.; Dugger, William E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This is the ninth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged the educator profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these…

  1. Incremental Upgrade of Legacy Systems (IULS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Inputs S p e c i a l 2 0 H z MUX I /O S u b 2 0 H z M U X Outpu ts S u b 2 0 H z U n p a c k i n g P I M s S imu la t i on & D isp lay P r o c e s...processing to be "wrapped" into the mission processor was selected from candidates including blended radar processing, data fusion , and enhanced situation...Following • Blended Radar Processing • Situation Awareness • Fusion Legacy JASS OFP Bold Stroke Infrastructure MIPS Processor Advanced Mission

  2. South Africa: a legacy of family disruption.

    PubMed

    Budlender, Debbie; Lund, Francie

    2011-01-01

    This article draws together unusual characteristics of the legacy of apartheid in South Africa: the state-orchestrated destruction of family life, high rates of unemployment and a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The disruption of family life has resulted in a situation in which many women have to fulfil the role of both breadwinner and care giver in a context of high unemployment and very limited economic opportunities. The question that follows is: given this crisis of care, to what extent can or will social protection and employment-related social policies provide the support women and children need?

  3. The Burgholzli Hospital: Its history and legacy

    PubMed Central

    Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Burgholzli Hospital Zurich has a very important place in history, as part of of modern era in Psychiatry. Founded in 1870 by the efforts of Griesinger, it was here many eminent path breakers in Psychiatry like Bleuler, Jung, Adolf Meyer and others once worked. From here, Bleuler coined the term “Schizophrenia”. Now the University Hospital of Zurich, Burgholzli's transformation from a mental hospital to a centre of excellence speaks of a rich legacy. It is a model worth emulating in many parts of the world. PMID:27385861

  4. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemir, K.U.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise.

  5. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    A pre-recorded message from International Space Station, Expedition 30 crew Commander Dan Burbank, on screen left, and Expedition 30 Flight Engineer Don Pettit is shown while former Astronaut Steve Lindsey, seated left, Sen. John Glenn, and NASA Glenn Research Director Ray Lugo look on at an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Celebrating John Glenn’s Legacy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    Sen. John Glenn, left, shakes hands with former Astronaut Steve Lindsey as NASA Administrator Charles Bolden smiles at an event celebrating John Glenn's legacy and 50 years of americans in orbit held at the Cleveland State University Wolstein Center on Friday, March 3, 2012 in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1998 Lindsey flew onboard the space shuttle Discovery along with then 77 year-old Sen. John Glenn for the STS-95 mission. Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Mitigating PQ Problems in Legacy Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ilinets, Boris; /SLAC

    2011-06-01

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Problems with PQ in legacy data centers still exist and need to be mitigated; (2) Harmonics generated by non-linear IT load can be lowered by passive, active and hybrid cancellation methods; (3) Harmonic study is necessary to find the best way to treat PQ problems; (4) AHF's and harmonic cancellation transformers proved to be very efficient in mitigating PQ problems; and (5) It is important that IT leaders partner with electrical engineering to appropriate ROI statements, justifying many of these expenditures.

  8. Hubble Legacy National Air and Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-10

    Dr. Ted Maxwell, Associate Director for the Department of Collections and Research at the National Air and Space Museum, which entails the curatorial and scientific research departments, the Museum's Archives, and the Collections Division, speaks, Wednesday evening, Sept. 9, 2009, during a celebration of the Hubble Legacy at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Astronomers declared NASA's Hubble Space Telescope a fully rejuvenated observatory with the release Wednesday of observations from four of its six operating science instruments. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. The Legacy of the X-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    The X-15 established such widespread confidence in aerodynamic, thermal, and structural areas that new designs for operation aircraft for any speed regime could be expected to be successfully achieved if good use was made of all pertinent test facilities and analytical methods. This philosophy guided design of the space shuttle and is the real legacy of the X-15. The accomplishments and contributions attributable to the research and development work on the X-15 that influenced the formative years of the Space Shuttle Program are presented.

  10. Improving Lab Sample Management - POS/MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Scientists face increasing challenges in managing their laboratory samples, including long-term storage of legacy samples, tracking multiple aliquots of samples for many experiments, and linking metadata to these samples. Other factors complicating sample management include the...

  11. Improving Lab Sample Management - POS/MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Scientists face increasing challenges in managing their laboratory samples, including long-term storage of legacy samples, tracking multiple aliquots of samples for many experiments, and linking metadata to these samples. Other factors complicating sample management include the...

  12. Molecular screening for avirulence alleles AvrLm1 and AvrLm6 in airborne inoculum of Leptosphaeria maculans and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants from Poland and the UK.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Joanna; Latunde-Dada, Akinwunmi O; Irzykowski, Witold; Cools, Hans J; Stonard, Jenna F; Brachaczek, Andrzej; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2014-11-01

    A combination of staining, light microscopy and SYBR green- and dual-labelled fluorescent probe-based qPCR chemistries with species- and gene-specific primers was employed to evaluate fluctuations in the aerial biomass of Leptosphaeria maculans spores captured by volumetric spore trappings in Poznan, Poland (2006, 2008) and Harpenden, UK (2002, 2006). Arising from these surveys, DNA samples extracted from Burkard spore-trap tapes were screened for fluctuation patterns in the frequencies of AvrLm1 and AvrLm6, the most prominent of the 15 genes that code for avirulence effectors in this Dothideomycete cause of the destructive phoma stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. In Poznan, very low frequencies of AvrLm1 allele were found in the autumn of both 2006 and 2008, reflecting significantly increased cultivation of rape seed with Rlm1-based resistance. In contrast, at least six folds-higher frequencies of AvrLm6, which were also confirmed by end-point PCR bioassays on phoma-infected leaves from the same region of Poland, were obtained during both years. In the UK, however, relatively higher AvrLm1 allele titres were found in L. maculans spores captured in air samples from the autumn of 2002 on the experimental fields of Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, that were historically sown to genetically heterogeneous B. napus cultivars. In the 2006 screen these levels had plummeted, to a 1:4 ratio, in favour of frequencies of the AvrLm6 allele. Patterns of fluctuations in erg11 (CYP51) fragments coding for sterol 14α-demethylase suggest October as the month with the most viable wind-dispersed L. maculans propagules of each season of the screens.

  13. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  14. Optimum Design of LLC Resonant Converter using Inductance Ratio (Lm/Lr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palle, Kowstubha; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, Kolli

    2017-06-01

    The main benefits of LLC resonant dc/dc converter over conventional series and parallel resonant converters are its light load regulation, less circulating currents, larger bandwidth for zero voltage switching, and less tuning of switching frequency for controlled output. An unique analytical tool, called fundamental harmonic approximation with peak gain adjustment is used for designing the converter. In this paper, an optimum design of the converter is proposed by considering three different design criterions with different values of inductance ratio (Lm/Lr) to achieve good efficiency at high input voltage. The optimum design includes the analysis in operating range, switching frequency range, primary side losses of a switch and stability. The analysis is carried out with simulation using the software tools like MATLAB and PSIM. The performance of the optimized design is demonstrated for a design specification of 12 V, 5 A output operating with an input voltage range of 300-400 V using FSFR 2100 IC of Texas instruments.

  15. H-Supermagic Labeling on Shrubs Graph and Lm ⨀ Pn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulfatimah, Risala; Roswitha, Mania; Atmojo Kusmayadi, Tri

    2017-06-01

    A nite simple graph G admits an H-covering if every edge of E(G) belongs to a subgraph of G isomorphic to H. We said the graph G = (V, E) that admits H-covering to be H-magic if there exists a bijection function f : V(G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2, …, |V(G)| + |E(G)|} such that for each subgraph H‧ of G isomorphic to H, f(H‧) = ∑ υ∈V‧ f(υ) + ∑ e∈E‧ f(e) = m(f) is constant. Furthermore, if f(V) = 1, 2, …, |V(G)| then G is called H-supermagic. In this research we de ned S 2,2-supermagic labeling on shrub graph Š(m 1, m 2, …, mn ) and fish-supermagic labeling on Lm ⨀ Pn for m, n ≥ 2.

  16. Optimum Design of LLC Resonant Converter using Inductance Ratio (Lm/Lr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palle, Kowstubha; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, Kolli

    2016-07-01

    The main benefits of LLC resonant dc/dc converter over conventional series and parallel resonant converters are its light load regulation, less circulating currents, larger bandwidth for zero voltage switching, and less tuning of switching frequency for controlled output. An unique analytical tool, called fundamental harmonic approximation with peak gain adjustment is used for designing the converter. In this paper, an optimum design of the converter is proposed by considering three different design criterions with different values of inductance ratio (Lm/Lr) to achieve good efficiency at high input voltage. The optimum design includes the analysis in operating range, switching frequency range, primary side losses of a switch and stability. The analysis is carried out with simulation using the software tools like MATLAB and PSIM. The performance of the optimized design is demonstrated for a design specification of 12 V, 5 A output operating with an input voltage range of 300-400 V using FSFR 2100 IC of Texas instruments.

  17. Development of LM10-MIRA LOX/LNG expander cycle demonstrator engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnykh, Mikhail; Carapellese, Stefano; Liuzzi, Daniele; Arione, Luigi; Caggiano, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Paolo; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Pellegrini, Rocco; Lobov, S. D.; Gurtovoy, A. A.; Rachuk, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    This article contains results of joint works by Konstruktorskoe Buro Khimavtomatiki (KBKhA, Russia) and AVIO Company (Italy) on creation of the LM10-MIRA liquid-propellant rocket demonstrator engine for the third stage of the upgraded "Vega" launcher.Scientific and research activities conducted by KBKhA and AVIO in 2007-2014 in the frame of the LYRA Program, funded by the Italian Space Agency, with ELV as Prime contractor, and under dedicated ASI-Roscosmos inter-agencies agreement, were aimed at development and testing of a 7.5 t thrust expander cycle demonstrator engine propelled by oxygen and liquid natural gas (further referred to as LNG).

  18. Nutrient Legacies and Time Lags: Understanding Catchment Biogeochemical Responses in Anthropogenic Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2014-12-01

    Human modification of the nitrogen (N) cycle has resulted in increased flows of reactive N, with some suggesting that planetary boundaries for maintaining human and ecosystem health have been exceeded. Persistence of large hypoxic zones in inland and coastal waters created by elevated concentrations of nitrate is one of the most significant impacts of such increased flows. While the need to manage these flows is recognized, best management practices to reduce stream N concentrations have had only limited success. Some have attributed this lack of success to accumulation of legacy N stores from decades of fertilizer application. Here we introduce an unprecedented analysis of long-term soil data from the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) revealing significant increases in total N (TN) content. We show that TN accumulation for the MRB accounts for 43% of net anthropogenic N inputs, complementing previous work indicating an approximately 25% loss of net inputs as riverine output. These findings significantly reduce uncertainty associated with basin-level N retention and demonstrate the presence of N accumulation in the deeper subsurface of agricultural soils. The presence of such legacy N stores is utilized in the development of a conceptual framework for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy) and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy). Time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations are explored as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change, and an optimization approach has been developed to determine maximum possible concentration reduction benefits within time frames of interest.

  19. Analysis of wear track and debris of stir cast LM13/Zr composite at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Ranvir Singh Pandey, O.P.

    2013-01-15

    Particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite is in high demand in automobile industry where the operational conditions vary from low to high temperature. In order to understand the wear mode at elevated temperature, this study was planned. For this purpose we developed a metal matrix composite containing aluminum alloy (LM13) as matrix and zircon sand as particulate reinforcement by stir casting process. Different amounts of zircon sand (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%) were incorporated in the matrix to study the effect of reinforcement on the wear resistance. Dispersion of zircon sand particles in the matrix was confirmed by using optical microscopy. Sliding wear tests were done to study the durability of the composite with respect to the base alloy. The effects of load and temperature on wear behavior from room temperature to 300 Degree-Sign C were studied to understand the wear mechanism deeply. Surface morphology of the worn surfaces after the wear tests as well as wear debris was observed under scanning electron microscope. Mild to severe wear transition was noticed in tests at high temperature and high load. However, there is interesting change in wear behavior of the composite near the critical temperature of the composite. All the observed behavior has been explained with reference to the observed microstructure of the wear track and debris. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good interfacial bonding between zircon sand particles and Al matrix was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of temperature on the wear behavior of LM13/Zr composites was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wear resistance of the composite was improved with addition of zircon sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transition temperature from mild to severe wear also improved in composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM analysis of the tracks and debris was done to establish wear mechanism.

  20. Reduced temperature alters Pseudomonas exotoxin A entry into the mouse LM cell.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R E; Saelinger, C B

    1986-01-01

    The movement of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) into the cytoplasm of mouse LM fibroblasts was followed by using inhibition of protein synthesis as a biochemical index of toxin activity; biotinyl-PE and avidin-gold colloids were used for electron microscopy. At 37 degrees C both specific antitoxin and pronase-trypsin protected cells against PE toxicity when added within seconds of warming cells, whereas methylamine was protective when added during the first 7 min of endocytosis. Lowering the temperature to 19 degrees C afforded protection when the temperature transition was accomplished within 15 min of the original endocytic event. These data suggest that PE enters an acidic compartment before reaching a step blocked by shifting cells from 37 to 19 degrees C. PE expressed toxicity for LM cells at 19 degrees C, but at a concentration 1 order of magnitude higher than that required at 37 degrees C. At 19 degrees C, antitoxin or trypsin-pronase protection was rapidly ablated. In contrast cells were fully protected by methylamine for 90 min. Using electron microscopy we demonstrated that toxin moved normally (30 s) to coated areas at 19 degrees C, but remained at this site for up to 20 min before being internalized. The majority of the toxin internalized at 19 degrees C remained in endosomes or in Golgi-associated vesicles and was not delivered to lysosomes. The results suggest that, under physiological conditions (37 degrees C), PE rapidly enters cells through coated areas, moves to an acidic compartment (i.e., the endosome), and then probably to the Golgi region en route to lysosomes. The evidence suggests that movement of toxin from endosomes or Golgi vesicles to lysosomes is blocked at 19 degrees C. We hypothesize that the active form of PE enters the cytosol, where it expresses its toxicity during fusion of Golgi-derived, toxin-laden vesicles with lysosomes. Images PMID:3699892

  1. pK(a) modelling and prediction of drug molecules through GA-KPLS and L-M ANN.

    PubMed

    Noorizadeh, H; Farmany, A; Noorizadeh, M

    2013-02-01

    Genetic algorithm and partial least square (GA-PLS), kernel PLS (GA-KPLS) and Levenberg- Marquardt artificial neural network (L-M ANN) techniques were used to investigate the correlation between dissociation constant (pK(a) ) and descriptors for 60 drug compounds. The applied internal (leave-group-out cross validation (LGO-CV)) and external (test set) validation methods were used for the predictive power of models. Descriptors of GA-KPLS model were selected as inputs in L-M ANN model. The results indicate that L-M ANN can be used as an alternative modeling tool for quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Complexity dynamics and Hopf bifurcation analysis based on the first Lyapunov coefficient about 3D IS-LM macroeconomics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junhai; Ren, Wenbo; Zhan, Xueli

    2017-04-01

    Based on the study of scholars at home and abroad, this paper improves the three-dimensional IS-LM model in macroeconomics, analyzes the equilibrium point of the system and stability conditions, focuses on the parameters and complex dynamic characteristics when Hopf bifurcation occurs in the three-dimensional IS-LM macroeconomics system. In order to analyze the stability of limit cycles when Hopf bifurcation occurs, this paper further introduces the first Lyapunov coefficient to judge the limit cycles, i.e. from a practical view of the business cycle. Numerical simulation results show that within the range of most of the parameters, the limit cycle of 3D IS-LM macroeconomics is stable, that is, the business cycle is stable; with the increase of the parameters, limit cycles becomes unstable, and the value range of the parameters in this situation is small. The research results of this paper have good guide significance for the analysis of macroeconomics system.

  3. Daphnetin inhibits invasion and migration of LM8 murine osteosarcoma cells by decreasing RhoA and Cdc42 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Hiroki; Nakamura, Seikou; Chisaki, Yugo; Takada, Tetsuya; Toda, Yuki; Murata, Hiroaki; Itoh, Kazuyuki; Yano, Yoshitaka; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi

    2016-02-26

    Daphnetin, 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin, present in main constituents of Daphne odora var. marginatai, has multiple pharmacological activities including anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells. In this study, using a Transwell system, we showed that daphnetin inhibited invasion and migration of highly metastatic murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Following treatment by daphnetin, cells that penetrated the Transwell membrane were rounder than non-treated cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that daphnetin decreased the numbers of intracellular stress fibers and filopodia. Moreover, daphnetin treatment dramatically decreased the expression levels of RhoA and Cdc42. In summary, the dihydroxycoumarin derivative daphnetin inhibits the invasion and migration of LM8 cells, and therefore represents a promising agent for use against metastatic cancer. - Highlights: • Daphnetin, a coumarin-derivative, inhibited invasion and migration of LM8 cells. • Stress fibers and filopodia were decreased by daphnetin treatment. • Daphnetin decreased RhoA and Cdc42 protein expression.

  4. Evolutionary renovation of L/M opsin polymorphism confers a fruit discrimination advantage to ateline New World monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Matsushita, Yuka; Ozawa, Norihiro; Ashino, Ryuichi; Nakata, Makiko; Kasagi, Satoshi; Di Fiore, Anthony; Schaffner, Colleen M; Aureli, Filippo; Melin, Amanda D; Kawamura, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    New World monkeys exhibit prominent colour vision variation due to allelic polymorphism of the long-to-middle wavelength (L/M) opsin gene. The known spectral variation of L/M opsins in primates is broadly determined by amino acid composition at three sites: 180, 277 and 285 (the ‘three-sites’ rule). However, two L/M opsin alleles found in the black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) are known exceptions, presumably due to novel mutations. The spectral separation of the two L/M photopigments is 1.5 times greater than expected based on the ‘three-sites’ rule. Yet the consequence of this for the visual ecology of the species is unknown, as is the evolutionary mechanism by which spectral shift was achieved. In this study, we first examine L/M opsins of two other Atelinae species, the long-haired spider monkeys (A. belzebuth) and the common woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). By a series of site-directed mutagenesis, we show that a mutation Y213D (tyrosine to aspartic acid at site 213) in the ancestral opsin of the two alleles enabled N294K, which occurred in one allele of the ateline ancestor and increased the spectral separation between the two alleles. Second, by modelling the chromaticity of dietary fruits and background leaves in a natural habitat of spider monkeys, we demonstrate that chromatic discrimination of fruit from leaves is significantly enhanced by these mutations. This evolutionary renovation of L/M opsin polymorphism in atelines illustrates a previously unappreciated dynamism of opsin genes in shaping primate colour vision. PMID:24612406

  5. Evolutionary renovation of L/M opsin polymorphism confers a fruit discrimination advantage to ateline New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Matsushita, Yuka; Ozawa, Norihiro; Ashino, Ryuichi; Nakata, Makiko; Kasagi, Satoshi; Di Fiore, Anthony; Schaffner, Colleen M; Aureli, Filippo; Melin, Amanda D; Kawamura, Shoji

    2014-04-01

    New World monkeys exhibit prominent colour vision variation due to allelic polymorphism of the long-to-middle wavelength (L/M) opsin gene. The known spectral variation of L/M opsins in primates is broadly determined by amino acid composition at three sites: 180, 277 and 285 (the 'three-sites' rule). However, two L/M opsin alleles found in the black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) are known exceptions, presumably due to novel mutations. The spectral separation of the two L/M photopigments is 1.5 times greater than expected based on the 'three-sites' rule. Yet the consequence of this for the visual ecology of the species is unknown, as is the evolutionary mechanism by which spectral shift was achieved. In this study, we first examine L/M opsins of two other Atelinae species, the long-haired spider monkeys (A. belzebuth) and the common woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). By a series of site-directed mutagenesis, we show that a mutation Y213D (tyrosine to aspartic acid at site 213) in the ancestral opsin of the two alleles enabled N294K, which occurred in one allele of the ateline ancestor and increased the spectral separation between the two alleles. Second, by modelling the chromaticity of dietary fruits and background leaves in a natural habitat of spider monkeys, we demonstrate that chromatic discrimination of fruit from leaves is significantly enhanced by these mutations. This evolutionary renovation of L/M opsin polymorphism in atelines illustrates a previously unappreciated dynamism of opsin genes in shaping primate colour vision. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Rayleigh matches in carriers of inherited color vision defects: the contribution from the third L/M photopigment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Shevell, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    The mother or daughter of a male with an X-chromosome-linked red/green color defect is an obligate carrier of the color deficient gene array. According to the Lyonization hypothesis, a female carrier's defective gene is expressed and thus carriers may have more than two types of pigments in the L/M photopigment range. An open question is how a carrier's third cone pigment in the L/M range affects the postreceptoral neural signals encoding color. Here, a model considered how the signal from the third pigment pools with signals from the normal's two pigments in the L/M range. Three alternative assumptions were considered for the signal from the third cone pigment: it pools with the signal from (1) L cones, (2) M cones, or (3) both types of cones. Spectral-sensitivity peak, optical density, and the relative number of each cone type were factors in the model. The model showed that differences in Rayleigh matches among carriers can be due to individual differences in the number of the third type of L/M cone, and the spectral sensitivity peak and optical density of the third L/M pigment; surprisingly, however, individual differences in the cone ratio of the other two cone types (one L and the other M) did not affect the match. The predicted matches were compared to Schmidt's (1934/1955) report of carriers' Rayleigh matches. For carriers of either protanomaly or deuteranomaly, these matches were not consistent with the signal from the third L/M pigment combining with only the signal from M cones. The matches could be accounted for by pooling the third-pigment's response with L-cone signals, either exclusively or randomly with M-cone responses as well.

  7. Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced by short-chain PFASs and fluorinated alternatives. For ten legacy PFASs and seven recently discovered perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs), we report (1) their occurrence in the Cape Fear River (CFR) watershed, (2) their fate in water treatment processes, and (3) their adsorbability on powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the headwater region of the CFR basin, PFECAs were not detected in raw water of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), but concentrations of legacy PFASs were high. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s lifetime health advisory level (70 ng/L) for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was exceeded on 57 of 127 sampling days. In raw water of a DWTP downstream of a PFAS manufacturer, the mean concentration of perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (PFPrOPrA), a replacement for PFOA, was 631 ng/L (n = 37). Six other PFECAs were detected, with three exhibiting chromatographic peak areas up to 15 times that of PFPrOPrA. At this DWTP, PFECA removal by coagulation, ozonation, biofiltration, and disinfection was negligible. The adsorbability of PFASs on PAC increased with increasing chain length. Replacing one CF2 group with an ether oxygen decreased the affinity of PFASs for PAC, while replacing additional CF2 groups did not lead to further affinity changes. The USEPA’s recently completed Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR3) p

  8. Health legacy foundations: a new census.

    PubMed

    Niggel, Sabrina Jones; Brandon, William P

    2014-01-01

    Health care merger and acquisition activity has increased since enactment of the Affordable Care Act in 2010. Proceeds from transactions involving nonprofit hospitals, health systems, and health plans will endow philanthropic foundations, collectively known as health legacy foundations. Building on work by Grantmakers In Health, we undertook a systematic search for these foundations and generated a newly updated, comprehensive database. We found 306 organizations in forty-three states that have been endowed with proceeds from the sale, merger, lease, joint venture, or other restructuring of nonprofit health care assets. These health legacy foundations had $26.2 billion in assets in 2010. Concentrated in the southern United States, foundations originating from hospitals and specialty care facilities (86.6 percent) held mean assets of $64.7 million per funder and typically restricted grants to local communities. Foundations formed from health plans (13.4 percent) held higher mean assets ($222 million), usually served larger areas, and were more likely to engage in health care advocacy. Recent transactions involving smaller and stand-alone nonprofit hospitals will infuse many more communities with unprecedented charitable wealth.

  9. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Duff, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

  10. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources.

    PubMed

    Tesoriero, Anthony J; Duff, John H; Saad, David A; Spahr, Norman E; Wolock, David M

    2013-04-16

    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

  11. Three legacies of humanitarianism in China.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Miwa

    2013-10-01

    The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country.

  12. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN TREASURY/RESERVE AUTOMATED DEBT ENTRY SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Securities account in Legacy Treasury...

  13. Effet du traitement thermique sur la structure cristalline, la température critique et la ligne d'irréversibilité de Lm(SrBa)Cu 3O 6+ z (Lm=Sm, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellioua, Mohammed; Nafidi, Abdelhakim; El Kaaouachi, Abdelhamid; Nafidi, Ahmed

    2004-03-01

    We have studied the structural and superconducting properties of Lm(SrBa)Cu 3O 6+ z (Lm=Sm, Nd). Each of the two samples was submitted to two types of heat treatment: an annealing in oxygen [O] and a heated in argon followed by oxygen annealing [A, O]. Our iodometry measurements indicate the same total oxygen constant 6+ z, which was around 6.95±0.04 in each sample. In the case of SmSrBaCu 3O 6+ z, the treatment [A, O] increased the orthorhombicity ɛ= b- a/( b+ a) from 0 to 5.34×10 -3, indicating a tetragonal to orthorhombic structural phase transition, accompanied by an increase of 6 K in critical temperature Tc to Tc[A, O]=85 K. While in the case of NdSrBaCu 3O 6+ z, ɛ[O]= ɛ[A, O]=0 but the Tc[O]=68 K increase by 10 K. Further, there was an enhancement of the irreversibility Tp/ Tc line whatever Lm. A combination of several factors such as the change of the ionic size of the rare earth Lm, its disorder on the (Sr, Ba) site, chain oxygen ordering and increase in phase purity for the [A, O] samples may qualitatively account for the observed data. To cite this article: M. Bellioua et al., C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  14. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Lessons from f(R,Rc2,Rm2,Lm) gravity: Smooth Gauss-Bonnet limit, energy-momentum conservation, and nonminimal coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, David W.; Booth, Ivan

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies a generic fourth-order theory of gravity with Lagrangian density f(R,Rc2,Rm2,Lm), where Rc2 and Rm2 respectively denote the square of the Ricci and Riemann tensors. By considering explicit R2 dependence and imposing the "coherence condition" fR2=fRm2=-fRc2/4, the field equations of f(R,R2,Rc2,Rm2,Lm) gravity can be smoothly reduced to that of f(R,G,Lm) generalized Gauss-Bonnet gravity with G denoting the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. We use Noether's conservation law to study the f(R1,R2…,Rn,Lm) model with nonminimal coupling between Lm and Riemannian invariants Ri, and conjecture that the gradient of nonminimal gravitational coupling strength ∇μfLfLm is the only source for energy-momentum nonconservation. This conjecture is applied to the f(R,Rc2,Rm2,Lm) model, and the equations of continuity and nongeodesic motion of different matter contents are investigated. Finally, the field equation for Lagrangians including the traceless-Ricci square and traceless-Riemann (Weyl) square invariants is derived, the f(R,Rc2,Rm2,Lm) model is compared with the f(R,Rc2,Rm2,T)+2κLm model, and consequences of nonminimal coupling for black hole and wormhole physics are considered.

  16. Legacies of flood reduction on a dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromberg, J.C.; Shafroth, P.B.; Hazelton, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    The Bill Williams (Arizona) is a regulated dryland river that is being managed, in part, for biodiversity via flow management. To inform management, we contrasted riparian plant communities between the Bill Williams and an upstream free-flowing tributary (Santa Maria). Goals of a first study (1996-1997) were to identify environmental controls on herbaceous species richness and compare richness among forest types. Analyses revealed that herbaceous species richness was negatively related to woody stem density, basal area and litter cover and positively related to light levels. Introduced Tamarix spp. was more frequent at the Bill Williams, but all three main forest types (Tamarix, Salix/Populus, Prosopis) had low understory richness, as well as high stem density and low light, on the Bill Williams as compared to the Santa Maria. The few edaphic differences between rivers (higher salinity at Bill Williams) had only weak connections with richness. A second study (2006-2007) focused on floristic richness at larger spatial scales. It revealed that during spring, and for the study cumulatively (spring and fall samplings combined), the riparian zone of the unregulated river had considerably more plant species. Annuals (vs. herbaceous perennials and woody species) showed the largest between-river difference. Relative richness of exotic (vs. native) species did not differ. We conclude that: (1) The legacy of reduced scouring frequency and extent at the Bill Williams has reduced the open space available for colonization by annuals; and (2) Change in forest biomass structure, more so than change in forest composition, is the major driver of changes in plant species richness along this flow-altered river. Our study informs dryland river management options by revealing trade-offs that exist between forest biomass structure and plant species richness. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  18. Genome Sequence of Listeria monocytogenes Plasmid pLM-C-273 Carrying Genes Related to Stress Resistance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lindsay; Gnaneshan, Saravanamuttu; Garduño, Rafael A; Mallo, Gustavo V

    2016-10-13

    Mobile genetic elements in bacteria, such as plasmids, act as important vectors for the transfer of antibiotic resistance, virulence, and metal resistance genes. Here, we report the genome sequence of a new plasmid pLM-C-273, identified in a Listeria monocytogenes strain isolated from a clinical sample in Ontario, Canada.

  19. SALT spectroscopic classification of SN 2017lm (= ATLAS17aix) as a type-Ia supernova near maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Dettman, K.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kuhn, R.

    2017-01-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of SN 2017lm (= ATLAS17aix) on 2017 Jan 19.8 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-930 nm. The longslit was also placed through the host galaxy nucleus, and numerous emission lines yield a host redshift z = 0.03052.

  20. Validity of the Terman-Merrill Abbreviated Version of the Stanford-Binet, Form L-M.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Robert; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the validities of IQs obtained from independent administration Terman-Merrill (T-M) versus the rescoring method (SF) of the short form of the Stanford-Binet Form L-M. Results indicated that the T-M, depending on test sequence, correlated significantly different with the Full Scale Binet IQ than did the SF rescoring method. (Author)

  1. Genome Sequence of Listeria monocytogenes Plasmid pLM-C-273 Carrying Genes Related to Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lindsay; Gnaneshan, Saravanamuttu; Garduño, Rafael A.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements in bacteria, such as plasmids, act as important vectors for the transfer of antibiotic resistance, virulence, and metal resistance genes. Here, we report the genome sequence of a new plasmid pLM-C-273, identified in a Listeria monocytogenes strain isolated from a clinical sample in Ontario, Canada. PMID:27738039

  2. Neural Tube Defect Induction by Fumonisin B1 in LM/Bc Mice Fed Folate Deficient or Folate Replete Diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. FB1 is found in corn-based foods and evidence suggests that it is a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). The mechanism(s) underlying NTD induction by FB1 in the sensitive LM/Bc mouse model is not well...

  3. Fumonisin B1 induced neural tube defects were not increased in LM/Bc mice fed folate-deficient diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides that is found in corn-based foods and is possibly a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). The mechanism(s) underlying NTD induction by FB1 in the sensitive LM/Bc mouse model is not well understood, however, there is evidenc...

  4. Validity of the Terman-Merrill Abbreviated Version of the Stanford-Binet, Form L-M.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Robert; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the validities of IQs obtained from independent administration Terman-Merrill (T-M) versus the rescoring method (SF) of the short form of the Stanford-Binet Form L-M. Results indicated that the T-M, depending on test sequence, correlated significantly different with the Full Scale Binet IQ than did the SF rescoring method. (Author)

  5. Kuiper Prize Lecture: Stan Peale's Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2016-10-01

    Stan Peale's career in planetary science spanned over five decades and yielded an impressive record of high-impact results. His contributions include the prediction of widespread volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io, the derivation of a general theoretical framework that governs the rotational states of bodies subject to tides, the study of the origin and evolution of natural satellites, advances in our understanding of exoplanet dynamics, and the promotion of microlensing searches for exoplanets. Stan also developed an ingenious procedure to determine the size and state of Mercury's core. Because of this work, we know more about the core of Mercury than that of any planet other than Earth. Stan left us an enduring legacy that exemplifies the power of physics to probe the interiors of planets.

  6. Exploring the Legacies of Filmed Patient Narratives

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Glenn; Maben, Jill

    2015-01-01

    We trace the legacies of filmed patient narratives that were edited and screened to encourage engagement with a participatory quality improvement project in an acute hospital setting in England. Using Gabriel’s theory of “narrative contract,” we examine the initial success of the films in establishing common grounds for participatory project and later, and more varied, interpretations of the films. Over time, the films were interpreted by staff as either useful sources of learning by critical reflection, dubious (invalid or unreliable) representations of patient experience, or as “closed” items available as auditable evidence of completed quality improvement work. We find these interpretations of the films to be shaped by the effect of social distance, the differential outcomes of project work, and changing organizational agendas. We consider the wider conditions of patient narrative as a form of quality improvement knowledge with immediate potency and fragile or fluid legitimacy over time. PMID:25576480

  7. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, Christopher G.; Butler, Paul; Horner, Jonathan; Carter, Brad; Wright, Duncan; Jones, H. R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Radial velocity searches for exoplanets have undergone a revolution in recent years: now precisions of 1 m/s or better are being demonstrated by many instruments, and new purpose-built spectrographs hold the promise of bringing Earth-mass planets into the realm of secure detectability. In the "race to the bottom," it is critical not to overlook the impact of long-running planet search programs that continue to hold the advantage of time. We highlight the continuing impact of the 18-year Anglo-Australian Planet Search: the characterisation of long-period giant planets, and the insights into the occurrence rate of Jupiter and Saturn analogs. To fully understand the origins of planetary systems and the fundamental question of how common (or rare) the architecture of the Solar system is in the Galaxy, we must continue these "legacy" surveys to probe ever-larger orbital separations.

  8. Joseph Boussinesq's legacy in fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrigol, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Joseph Boussinesq was the most prolific of all French contributors to nineteenth-century fluid mechanics. His scientific production included a novel theory of solitary waves, the KdV equation for finite deformations of the water surface in an open channel, a systematic study of open channel and pipe flow based on the concept of effective viscosity, pioneering derivations of boundary layers and entrance effects, new exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation under geometrically simple boundary conditions, and the 'Boussinesq approximation' for heat convection in a moving fluid under gravity. Although his extraordinary skills were quickly recognized and rewarded, other experts in the field were often unaware even of his most important results and they ended up rediscovering some of them. Boussinesq's unusual background and the resulting peculiarities of his style explain this problematic diffusion. They also account for the richness of his legacy.

  9. Adolf Meyer: His Achievements and Legacy.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Paul R

    2017-04-01

    This lecture, given to celebrate the centennial of the founding of the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Service at Johns Hopkins, addresses the career and contributions to psychiatry and neurology of Adolf Meyer, the first Phipps Professor. It reviews his achievements historically describing the bleak clinical situation of psychiatry when he began as a neuropathologist at Kankakee Hospital in Illinois in 1892, what he did to address them, the sources of help he found and exploited from leading figures in the emerging Progressive Era (1890-1917) in American life, and how he confronted and overcame resistances to his empirical, psychobiological conceptions of mental illness as he advanced. His legacy is reflected in the signal contributions of four leaders of American psychiatry (Drs. Leo Kanner, Alexander Leighton, Jerome Frank, and Paul Lemkau) who had been his residents and in those aspects of contemporary teaching and research at Hopkins that reflect his thought.

  10. Legacies and Trajectories of Hormone Export from Agricultural Catchments Under Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, H. E.; Mashtare, M. L.; Sassman, S. A.; Rao, P. C.; Thompson, S. E.; Basu, N. B.; Lee, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Hormones and other emerging contaminants have been detected in surface waters worldwide at concentrations known to negatively impact sensitive aquatic species. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are a significant source of hormones to the environment, as their recent intensification has increased manure production and land disposal. However, little is known regarding the short- and long-term fate and transport in catchments and likely environmental impacts. Lab microcosm and column studies indicate moderately high retardation (log KOC ~ 2.8 - 3.7) and fast aerobic biotransformation (half-lives < 10 days), yet monitoring reveals consistent presence of hormones in streams. Field studies at nested scales in tile-drained agricultural catchments suggested time-invariant concentrations for hormone export at annual time scales, similar to that noted for nutrients, implying accumulation of legacy stores from annual manure applications. A robust hydro-biogeochemical model, Hormone Export and Restoration Dynamics (HERD), was developed and validated to probe several research questions: (i) can manure application practices lead to the accumulation of hormones within the soil profile and develop legacy sources?; (ii) how persistent are hormones when long-term manure applications cease?; and (iii) to what extent can best management practices be successfully employed to reduce the downstream export of hormones? Preliminary HERD simulations suggest that hormones build up in the soil profile over time as a result of repeated animal waste applications, creating legacy sources that cause hormone export to become mass transfer-limited rather than source-limited. Under such conditions, annual flow-weighted concentrations were found to be chemostatic, implying hydrologic variability rather than biogeochemical processes as the dominant control of hormone export. Additionally, these results suggest that long-term, repeated animal waste applications can lead to chronic exposure

  11. Exploring psychosocial interventions for people with dementia that enhance personhood and relate to legacy- an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Bridget; Narayanasamy, Melanie

    2016-04-05

    Epidemiological predictions suggest that dementia will continue to rise and that this will have social and economic ramifications. Effective interventions, beyond pharmacological management are needed. Psychosocial interventions have largely been investigated in relation to carers of people with dementia, or with regards to their ability to manage dementia symptoms, improve cognition, and reduce challenging behaviour. However, since dementia is a life-limiting illness and people with dementia are at risk of having their personhood compromised, psychosocial interventions should seek to enhance personhood, and offer the potential for the person to leave a legacy. An integrative review was carried out to identify, assess, appraise and synthesise studies featuring interventions, which relate to both personhood and legacy. Search strategies were developed in key databases: MEDLINE; PsycINFO; Embase; Joanna Briggs Institute; CINAHL; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; ASSIA. Grey literature was also identified through free-text searches. Thirty six articles were included in the final review, these were tabulated and were assessed based on how the intervention related to personhood and legacy. Classification resulted in three themes being identified: Offering aspects of legacy; Acknowledging the person behind the patient; Facilitating meaningful engagement. Generally, personhood aspects of interventions were well reported, but further research is required to explore legacy potential of psychosocial interventions for people with dementia. The integrative review provides an overview and exploration of an under-researched area, and provides directions for future research, which will help expand the evidence base and ultimately help improve patient care for people with dementia and their families.

  12. Prediction of Shrinkage Porosity Defect in Sand Casting Process of LM25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, Hardik; Dhulia, Jay K.; Maniar, Nirav P.

    2017-08-01

    In the present worldwide and aggressive environment, foundry commercial enterprises need to perform productively with least number of rejections and create casting parts in shortest lead time. It has become extremely difficult for foundry industries to meet demands of defects free casting and meet strict delivery schedules. The process of casting solidification is complex in nature. Prediction of shrinkage defect in metal casting is one of the critical concern in foundries and is one of the potential research areas in casting. Due to increasing pressure to improve quality and to reduce cost, it is very essential to upgrade the level of current methodology used in foundries. In the present research work, prediction methodology of shrinkage porosity defect in sand casting process of LM25 using experimentation and ANSYS is proposed. The objectives successfully achieved are prediction of shrinkage porosity distribution in Al-Si casting and determining effectiveness of investigated function for predicting shrinkage porosity by correlating results of simulating studies to those obtained experimentally. The real-time application of the research reflects from the fact that experimentation is performed on 9 different Y junctions at foundry industry and practical data obtained from experimentation are used for simulation.

  13. Dynamic metabolic transformation in tumor invasion and metastasis in mice with LM-8 osteosarcoma cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yingqi; Qiu, Yunping; Zhao, Aihua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Tianlu; Zhang, Zhiyu; Chi, Yi; Li, Quan; Sun, Wei; Li, Guodong; Cai, Zhengdong; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Jia, Wei

    2011-08-05

    While extensive evidence indicates that tumor cells shift their global metabolic programs, the molecular details of the metabolic transformation in tumor invasion, progression, and metastasis remain largely unknown. Characterization of the time-dependent metabolic shift during the tumor invasion, development, and metastasis will describe an important aspect of tumor phenotypes and potentially allow us to design therapies that inhibit tumor cell movement. In this study, a metabonomic study was performed to characterize the global metabolic changes during the process of tumor invasion and metastasis to lung in a mouse model with subcutaneous transplantation of murine osteosarcoma cell line (LM8). The serum metabolic profiling revealed that many key metabolites in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, as well as most of the amino acids were elevated at rapidly growing stage of tumor, presumably resulting from a high energy demand and turnover of anabolic metabolism during the tumor cell proliferation. Serum levels of succinic acid and proline significantly increased (with fold change FC = 10.75 and 4.43, relative to controls) among all the metabolites in the third week. The serum metabolic profile of lung metastasis at week 4 was different from that at week 3, in that most of previously increased serum metabolites were found decreased, except for cholesterol and several free fatty acids, suggesting lowered carbohydrate and amino acids metabolism, but an elevated lipid metabolism associated with tumor metastasis.

  14. Performance of High Temperature Operational Amplifier, Type LM2904WH, under Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Operation of electronic parts and circuits under extreme temperatures is anticipated in NASA space exploration missions as well as terrestrial applications. Exposure of electronics to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings greatly affects their performance via induced changes in the semiconductor material properties, packaging and interconnects, or due to incompatibility issues between interfaces that result from thermal expansion/contraction mismatch. Electronics that are designed to withstand operation and perform efficiently in extreme temperatures would mitigate risks for failure due to thermal stresses and, therefore, improve system reliability. In addition, they contribute to reducing system size and weight, simplifying its design, and reducing development cost through the elimination of otherwise required thermal control elements for proper ambient operation. A large DC voltage gain (100 dB) operational amplifier with a maximum junction temperature of 150 C was recently introduced by STMicroelectronics [1]. This LM2904WH chip comes in a plastic package and is designed specifically for automotive and industrial control systems. It operates from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages, and it consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  15. Optimization of the Machining parameter of LM6 Alminium alloy in CNC Turning using Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, S.; Muthuraman, V.; Baskaralal, V. P. M.

    2017-03-01

    Due to widespread use of highly automated machine tools in the industry, manufacturing requires reliable models and methods for the prediction of output performance of machining process. In machining of parts, surface quality is one of the most specified customer requirements. In order for manufactures to maximize their gains from utilizing CNC turning, accurate predictive models for surface roughness must be constructed. The prediction of optimum machining conditions for good surface finish plays an important role in process planning. This work deals with the study and development of a surface roughness prediction model for machining LM6 aluminum alloy. Two important tools used in parameter design are Taguchi orthogonal arrays and signal to noise ratio (S/N). Speed, feed, depth of cut and coolant are taken as process parameter at three levels. Taguchi’s parameters design is employed here to perform the experiments based on the various level of the chosen parameter. The statistical analysis results in optimum parameter combination of speed, feed, depth of cut and coolant as the best for obtaining good roughness for the cylindrical components. The result obtained through Taguchi is confirmed with real time experimental work.

  16. Catchment Legacies and Trajectories: Understanding Time Lags in Catchment Response as a Function of Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Increased nutrient loads delivered from watersheds due to agricultural intensification, industrialization, and urbanization have contributed globally to the persistence of large hypoxic zones in inland and coastal waters. Watershed management practices targeting these non-point source pollutants often lead to little or no improvement in water quality, even after extensive implementation of conservation measures or Best Management Practices (BMPs). The lag time between implementation of a conservation measure and resultant water quality benefits has recently been recognized as an important factor in the "apparent" failure of these BMPs. When conservation measures are implemented without explicit consideration of the lag time and with expectations that they will lead to immediate benefits, the resulting failure to meet such expectations can discourage vital restoration efforts. It is therefore important to quantify the lag times associated with watershed management efforts a priori and to implement restoration strategies targeted specifically at minimizing lag times and maximizing restoration benefits. The focus of this research is to develop a framework for understanding the time lags between land-use changes and stream water quality benefits. We hypothesize that such time lags arise from nutrient legacies building over decades of fertilizer application. For nitrogen (N), one can conceptualize this as either hydrologic legacy, in the form of dissolved nitrate that is delayed due to slow groundwater transport, or as biogeochemical legacy, in the form of organic N, possibly in dissolved or readily mineralizable forms. Indeed, mass-balance studies across the Mississippi and Thames river basins indicate the possibility of missing N mass in these landscapes, with inputs being consistently greater than the outputs even when accounting for all possible pathways of nitrogen transformation. Historical soil data within the upper Mississippi River Basin (MRB) indicate that

  17. Legacy data for a northern prairie grassland: Woodworth Study Area, North Dakota, 1963-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shelby H.; Austin, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data commonly become more valuable through time. Such legacy data provide baseline records of past biological, physical, and social information that provide historical perspective and are necessary for assessment of stasis or change. Legacy data collected at the Woodworth Study Area (WSA), a contiguous block of grasslands, croplands, and wetlands covering more than 1,000 hectares of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, are cataloged and summarized in this study. The WSA is one of the longest researched grassland sites in the Upper Midwest. It has an extensive history of settlement, land use, and management that provides a deeper context for future research. The WSA data include long-term vegetation transect records, land use history, habitat management records, geologic information, wetland hydrology and chemistry information, and spatial images. Substantial parts of these data have not been previously reported. The WSA is representative of many other lands purchased by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the Prairie Pothole Region from the 1930s to the 1970s; therefore, synthesized data from the WSA are broadly applicable to topics of concern in northern grasslands, such as increases in non-native plants, managing for biodiversity, and long-term effects of habitat management. New techniques are also described that were used to preserve these data for future analyses. The data preservation techniques are applicable to any project with data that should be preserved for 100 years or more.

  18. Environmentalism in American Pedagogy: The Legacy of Lester Ward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Laurel N.; Tanner, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented of the legacy of Lester Frank Ward, widely recognized as the architect of environmentalism in American pedagogy and the creator of some of the most fundamental ideas about American curriculum. (CB)

  19. In memoriam: Richard G. Harrison - his life and legacy.

    PubMed

    Howard, Daniel J; Grosberg, Richard K; Noor, Mohamed A F; Normark, Benjamin B; Rand, David M; Shaw, Kerry L; Willett, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Richard G. Harrison passed away unexpectedly on April 12th, 2016. In this memoriam we pay tribute to the life and legacy of an extraordinary scientist, mentor, friend, husband, and father. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives. PMID:22813079

  1. Joe Engle Recalls Legacy Of X-15 Testing at Dryden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Retired Air Force test pilot and NASA astronaut Joe Engle recalled the legacy of the famed X-15 rocket plane recently during a colloquium at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Engle, the only pe...

  2. Environmentalism in American Pedagogy: The Legacy of Lester Ward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Laurel N.; Tanner, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented of the legacy of Lester Frank Ward, widely recognized as the architect of environmentalism in American pedagogy and the creator of some of the most fundamental ideas about American curriculum. (CB)

  3. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hammack, Richard; Veloski, Garret

    2016-06-06

    The objective of this study was to locate legacy wells in Versailles Borough so that the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection could mitigate dangerous CH4 concentrations in the community by venting or plugging leaking wells.

  4. Clinical catecholamine neurochemistry: a legacy of Julius Axelrod.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Kopin, Irwin J

    2006-01-01

    1. Discoveries, insights, and concepts that Julius Axelrod introduced about the disposition and metabolism of catecholamines provided the scientific basis and spurred the development of clinical catecholamine neurochemistry. 2. Here, we provide examples of this aspect of Axelrod's scientific legacy.

  5. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  6. B. F. Skinner's legacy to human infant behavior and development.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, J L; Peláez-Nogueras, M

    1992-11-01

    B. F. Skinner's legacy to human behavioral research for the study of environment-infant interactions, and indeed for the conception of development itself, is described and exemplified. The legacy is largely the practicality, the efficiency, and the comparative advantage--relative to diverse other behavioral and nonbehavioral approaches--of using the operant-learning paradigm to organize and explain many of the sequential changes in behavior patterns conventionally thought to constitute infant development.

  7. The Nitrogen Legacy: Evidence of Soil Nitrogen Accumulation in Anthropogenic Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Human modification of the nitrogen (N) cycle has resulted in increased flows of reactive N, with some suggesting that planetary boundaries for maintaining human and ecosystem health have been exceeded. Persistence of large hypoxic zones in inland and coastal waters created by elevated concentrations of nitrate is one of the most significant impacts of such increased flows. While the need to manage these flows and their associated ecological impacts is recognized, best management practices to reduce stream N concentrations have had only limited success. Some have attributed this lack of success to an accumulation of legacy N stores from decades of fertilizer application. Nitrogen mass balance studies seem to suggest an ongoing retention of N within anthropogenic landscapes, but the exact form and location of this legacy N and the associated retention rates are subject to question. Here we introduce an unprecedented analysis of long-term soil data from the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) revealing significant increases in total N (TN) content. We show that TN accumulation for the MRB accounts for 49% of net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI), which complements previous work indicating that approximately 25% of net inputs are lost as riverine output. These findings significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with basin-level N retention. Further, our results demonstrate that, despite conventional wisdom of intensive agriculture leading to a depletion of TN, an accumulation of N is occurring in the deeper subsurface (25 - 100 cm) that compensates for depletion in the plow layer (0-25 cm). These legacy N stores may lead to time lags between changes in management practices and decreasing N concentrations in stream waters, thus resulting in multidecadal effects on water quality in agricultural watersheds.

  8. Examining Ecological and Ecosystem Level Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species in Lake Michigan Using An Ecosystem Productivity Model, LM-Eco

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological and ecosystem-level impacts of aquatic invasive species in Lake Michigan were examined using the Lake Michigan Ecosystem Model (LM-Eco). The LM-Eco model includes a detailed description of trophic levels and their interactions within the lower food web of Lake Michiga...

  9. Examining Ecological and Ecosystem Level Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species in Lake Michigan Using An Ecosystem Productivity Model, LM-Eco

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological and ecosystem-level impacts of aquatic invasive species in Lake Michigan were examined using the Lake Michigan Ecosystem Model (LM-Eco). The LM-Eco model includes a detailed description of trophic levels and their interactions within the lower food web of Lake Michiga...

  10. National Survey of Children's Hospitals on Legacy-Making Activities

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Mary S.; Friedman, Debra L.; Gordon, Jessie E.; Gilmer, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Many hospitals offer legacy-building activities for children with serious illnesses or their family members, yet legacy-making has received little empirical attention. This descriptive cross-sectional study examined healthcare provider perceptions of legacy-making activities (e.g., memory books) currently offered by hospitals to pediatric patients and their families. Methods Healthcare providers in seventy-seven (100%) teaching children's hospitals across the United States completed an electronic survey. Results Nearly all providers surveyed reported offering legacy-making activities to ill children and their families, with patients and families usually completing the activity together. Most activities were offered before a patient died and when cure is no longer being sought. Perceived outcomes included benefit to bereaved families and a tangible memento of their deceased child. Conclusion Legacy-making may enhance life and decrease suffering for dying children and their families. Healthcare professionals can facilitate opportunities for children and their families to build legacies. Additional research is needed to examine activities across different age groups and conditions, the best time to offer such activities, and associations with positive and negative outcomes for ill children, their family members, and the bereaved. PMID:22577785

  11. Fifty years of Water Resources Research: Legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Alberto; Bahr, Jean; Blöschl, Günter; Cai, Ximing; Mackay, D. Scott; Michalak, Anna M.; Rajaram, Harihar; Sander, Graham

    2015-09-01

    We present an overview of the contributions collected to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Water Resources Research along with a critical discussion of the legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology in the 21st century. This collection of papers highlights exciting pathways to the future of water sciences. New monitoring and modeling techniques and increasing opportunities for data and knowledge sharing from hydrological research will provide innovative means to improve water management and to ensure a sustainable development to society. We believe that this set of papers will provide valuable inspiration for future hydrologists, and will support the intensification of international cooperation among scientists.

  12. Dealing with palliative care patients' incomplete music therapy legacies: reflexive group supervision research.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Petering, Helen; Thomas, Amy; Crappsley, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Legacies encompass treasured memories and items such as wills, publications, and songs, which help to validate lives. Legacy creation is encouraged by palliative care staff to help patients deal with loss and find personal meaning; the legacy works may also support the bereaved. Within the literature, however, there is no consideration of how staff deal with patients' incomplete legacies when patients relocate, deteriorate, or die. Our research focuses on this question: What experiences did four music therapists have with palliative care patients' incomplete tangible music therapy legacies? Data included transcripts from the therapists' discussions about patients' incomplete legacies in three reflexive group supervision sessions and further reflections written during transcript verification. Inductive thematic analysis yielded five themes: the nature of incomplete music therapy legacies; reasons for and feelings about these legacies; factors determining what music therapists do with them; considerations about their future "life"; and the ways therapists' shared reflections can support their future legacy work.

  13. Laminins 2 (alpha2beta1gamma1, Lm-211) and 8 (alpha4beta1gamma1, Lm-411) are synthesized and secreted by tooth pulp fibroblasts and differentially promote neurite outgrowth from trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Fried, Kaj; Sime, Wondossen; Lillesaar, Christina; Virtanen, Ismo; Tryggvasson, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2005-07-15

    The tooth pulp innervation originates from the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and represents an illustrative example of tissue targeting by sensory nerves. Pulpal fibroblasts strongly promote neurite outgrowth from TG neurons in vitro. In the present study, we have investigated the possible participation of laminins (LNs), potent neuritogenic extracellular matrix components. Immunohistochemistry of human tooth pulp demonstrated expression of LN alpha1, alpha2, alpha4, alpha5, beta1 and gamma1, and laminin-binding integrin alpha3, alpha6, beta1 and beta4 chains in nerves. Though faintly stained for laminins in situ, pulpal fibroblasts reacted, once cultured and permeabilized, with antibodies to LN alpha2, alpha4, beta1 and gamma1 chains by flow cytometry. The cells also expressed the corresponding mRNAs and were able to assemble and secrete LN-2 (alpha2beta1gamma1, Lm-211) and LN-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1, Lm-411). LN-8 displayed a chondroitin sulphate (CS) modification in its alpha4 chain. In functional assays, mouse LN-1 (alpha1beta1gamma1, Lm-111) and recombinant human (rh) LN-8, but not native or rhLN-2, strongly promoted neurite outgrowth from TG neurons, mimicking the effect of cultured pulp fibroblast. Altogether, the results indicate that LN-2 and LN-8 are synthesized by tooth pulp fibroblasts and differentially promote neurite outgrowth from TG neurons. LN-8 may contribute to sensory innervation of teeth and other tissues during development and/or regeneration.

  14. The legacy of large regime shifts in shallow lakes.

    PubMed

    Ramstack Hobbs, Joy M; Hobbs, William O; Edlund, Mark B; Zimmer, Kyle D; Theissen, Kevin M; Hoidal, Natalie; Domine, Leah M; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Cotner, James B

    2016-12-01

    Ecological shifts in shallow lakes from clear-water macrophyte-dominated to turbid-water phytoplankton-dominated are generally thought of as rapid short-term transitions. Diatom remains in sediment records from shallow lakes in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America provide new evidence that the long-term ecological stability of these lakes is defined by the legacy of large regime shifts. We examine the modern and historical stability of 11 shallow lakes. Currently, four of the lakes are in a clear-water state, three are consistently turbid-water, and four have been observed to change state from year to year (transitional). Lake sediment records spanning the past 150-200 yr suggest that (1) the diatom assemblage is characteristic of either clear or turbid lakes, (2) prior to significant landscape alteration, all of the lakes existed in a regime of a stable clear-water state, (3) lakes that are currently classified as turbid or transitional have experienced one strong regime shift over the past 150-200 yr and have since remained in a regime where turbid-water predominates, and (4) top-down impacts to the lake food-web from fish introductions appear to be the dominant driver of strong regime shifts and not increased nutrient availability. Based on our findings we demonstrate a method that could be used by lake managers to identify lakes that have an ecological history close to the clear-turbid regime threshold; such lakes might more easily be returned to a clear-water state through biomanipulation. The unfortunate reality is that many of these lakes are now part of a managed landscape and will likely require continued intervention.

  15. Giving Structure to Legacy Finding Aids before Conversion to EAD: The Case of the Archives Departementales des Pyrenees-Atlantiques, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Anne; Maftei, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    At the Archives Departementales des Pyrenees-Atlantiques, the encoding of more than forty legacy finding aids written between 1863 and 2000 is part of a program of digitization of the collections. Because of the size of the project, an external consultant, ArchProteus, has been brought in and specific management procedures have been put in place…

  16. A return to humane medicine: Osler's legacy.

    PubMed

    Craxì, Lucia; Giardina, Simona; Spagnolo, Antonio Gioacchino

    2017-09-01

    Sir William Osler is celebrated today not only for his contributions to the advancement of medical education, but also for the humanism he brought to the practice of medicine. He was a doctor whose bedside skills and manners were emulated, and can legitimately be called an infectious diseases specialist. Nonetheless, he was also a humanist in the broader sense of the term, a student of human affairs and human nature, who emphasised compassion for the individual. To what extent, if any, are today's challenges influenced by departures from the paradigms created by Osler? In this paper we sought to ascertain whether such a tradition is still relevant to current practice and may foster a new perspective. We analysed two features of Osler's legacy that may be useful to clinicians: the first is his vision of the patient-physician relationship; the second is his approach to humanities. William Osler saw medicine in its wider scope, with the right and duty to be concerned with the human condition as a whole. Indeed, his rounded concept of the medical profession as being engaged in helping and caring for the whole human being could help physicians build a more humanised medicine. Adopted in the age of evidence-based medicine, the Oslerian approach can enhance the relationship with patients and give physicians a role based on trust and authoritativeness rather than on authority.

  17. The History and Legacy of BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2012-01-01

    The BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory was the first large detector system specifically designed for the study of gamma-ray bursts. The eight large-area detectors allowed full-sky coverage and were optimized to operate in the energy region of the peak emission of most GRBs. BATSE provided detailed observations of the temporal and spectral characteristics of large samples of GRBs, and it was the first experiment to provide rapid notifications of the coarse location of many them. It also provided strong evidence for the cosmological distances to GRBs through the observation of the sky distribution and intensity distribution of numerous GRBs. The large number of GRBs observed with the high- sensitivity BATSE detectors continues to provide a database of GRB spectral and temporal properties in the primary energy range of GRB emission that will likely not be exceeded for at least another decade. The origin and development of the BATSE experiment, some highlights from the mission and its continuing legacy are described in this paper.

  18. The Euclid/WFIRST Spitzer Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, Peter; Arendt, R.; Arnouts, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bouwens, R.; Brinchman, J.; Brodwin, M.; Carollo, M.; Castander, F.; Charlot, S.; Chary, R.-R.; Cohen, J.; Cooray, A.; Conselice, C.; Coupon, J.; Cuby, J.-G.; Culliandre, J.; Davidzon, I.; Dole, H.; Dunlop, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ferrara, A.; Gardner, J.; Hasinger, G.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ho, S.; Ilbert, O.; Jouvel, S.; Kashlinsky, A.; LeFevre, O.; LeFloc'h, E.; Maraston, C.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mei, S.; Mellier, Y.; Mitchell-Wynn, K.; Moustakas, L.; Nayyeri, H.; Paltani, S.; Rhodes, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J.; Speagle, J.; Stanford, S.; Stern, D.; Teplitz, H.; Toft, S.

    2016-08-01

    We propose 5286h of Spitzer Legacy Science Time to carry out a precursor survey for Euclid, WFIRST, and JWST. The primary goal is to enable definitive studies of reionization, z>7 galaxy formation, and the first massive black holes. The proposed data will also enhance the cosmological constraints provided by Euclid and WFIRST. The survey will cover 20 square degrees to 2h per pointing, split between the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and the North Ecliptic Pole. These are some of the darkest and most observable fields on the sky and have existing multi-wavelength data that will enable immediate science. The survey parameters are designed to enable stellar mass measurement at 33 enabling a direct probe of galaxy growth during the epoch of re-ionization.

  19. Building an IYA Legacy for Underserved Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, Philip J.; Luckey, V.; Landsberg, R. H.; Hawkins, L.; Porro, I.

    2008-05-01

    The International Year of Astronomy will attract much attention, but what legacy will it leave for populations historically underrepresented in science? In this presentation, we focus on one such population--urban youths--and ask how IYA activities might be designed to have a lasting impact. Our general premise is that a major event might be used to attract attention, but that a long-term follow up is necessary for genuine impact. We will present three after-school and summer urban outreach programs that models such long-term involvement: The KICP Space Explorers Program, the MIT Kavli Youth Astronomy Apprenticeship Program, and the Notre Dame Supernova Club. Each of these programs is deeply embedded within the community that they serve and each shows great success in building interests and capabilities in science among the youths that participate. Audience members will be asked to add their own insights to the information presented and, from that, to brainstorm means by which they might build a lasting IYA impact in their own community.

  20. John Snow's legacy: epidemiology without borders.

    PubMed

    Fine, Paul; Victora, Cesar G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan; Curtis, Val; Heymann, David L; Slutkin, Gary; May, Robert M; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Ian; Wortley, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Deaton, Angus

    2013-04-13

    This Review provides abstracts from a meeting held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, on April 11-12, 2013, to celebrate the legacy of John Snow. They describe conventional and unconventional applications of epidemiological methods to problems ranging from diarrhoeal disease, mental health, cancer, and accident care, to education, poverty, financial networks, crime, and violence. Common themes appear throughout, including recognition of the importance of Snow's example, the philosophical and practical implications of assessment of causality, and an emphasis on the evaluation of preventive, ameliorative, and curative interventions, in a wide variety of medical and societal examples. Almost all self-described epidemiologists nowadays work within the health arena, and this is the focus of most of the societies, journals, and courses that carry the name epidemiology. The range of applications evident in these contributions might encourage some of these institutions to consider broadening their remits. In so doing, they may contribute more directly to, and learn from, non-health-related areas that use the language and methods of epidemiology to address many important problems now facing the world.

  1. The Mayo brothers: an American surgical legacy.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2010-10-01

    Few in the history of surgery and just as few in the history of medicine can reach the level of clinical visibility as achieved by the Mayo brothers. The brothers changed the face of medicine while they were alive, and their fame and influence continued to grow after their death in 1939. The Mayo American surgical legacy had incredible proportions. The brothers systematically modified the field as few others had done before. They were great surgical innovators who took the surgical techniques of others and added a touch of their own to make the surgical procedure better and more secure. The Mayos were the stars regionally, nationally, and around the world. They attracted attention from their generation and occupied center stage long after. To speak of the Mayos is to speak of the quintessential American values of professionalism, respect, commitment, and caring for their fellow human beings. Their creation, the Mayo Clinic, surpassed the wildest hopes and predictions that anyone could have had regarding their best dreams.

  2. Hubble Legacy Archive And The Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Jessica; Whitmore, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Bishop, M.; Knisely, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) hosts the Image of the Month (IOTM) Series. The HLA is a joint project of STScI, the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). The HLA is designed optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The IOTM's are created for astronomers and the public to highlight various features within HLA, such as the "Interactive Display", "Footprint” and "Inventory” features to name a few. We have been working with the Office of Public Outreach (OPO) to create a standards based educational module for middle school to high school students of the IOTM: Rings and the Moons of Uranus. The set of Uranus activities are highlighted by a movie that displays the orbit of five of Uranus’ largest satellites. We made the movie based on eight visits of Uranus from 2000-06-16 to 2000-06-18, using the PC chip on the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and filter F850LP (proposal ID: 8680). Students will be engaged in activities that will allow them to "discover” the rings and satellites around Uranus, calculate the orbit of the satellites, and introduces students to analyze real data from Hubble.

  3. Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt

    PubMed Central

    Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Hulme, Philip E.; Hülber, Karl; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kleinbauer, Ingrid; Krausmann, Fridolin; Kühn, Ingolf; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Vilà, Montserrat; Genovesi, Piero; Gherardi, Francesca; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Roques, Alain; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and economic growth are widely recognized as important drivers of biological invasions. Consequently, there is an increasing need for governments to address the role of international trade in their strategies to prevent species introductions. However, many of the most problematic alien species are not recent arrivals but were introduced several decades ago. Hence, current patterns of alien-species richness may better reflect historical rather than contemporary human activities, a phenomenon which might be called “invasion debt.” Here, we show that across 10 taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, fungi, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, terrestrial insects, and aquatic invertebrates) in 28 European countries, current numbers of alien species established in the wild are indeed more closely related to indicators of socioeconomic activity from the year 1900 than to those from 2000, although the majority of species introductions occurred during the second half of the 20th century. The strength of the historical signal varies among taxonomic groups, with those possessing good capabilities for dispersal (birds, insects) more strongly associated with recent socioeconomic drivers. Nevertheless, our results suggest a considerable historical legacy for the majority of the taxa analyzed. The consequences of the current high levels of socioeconomic activity on the extent of biological invasions will thus probably not be completely realized until several decades into the future. PMID:21173227

  4. Nuclear legacy of Soviet Union poses concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.

    1995-07-01

    The Russian Federation possesses all nuclear weapons design and production facilities of the former Soviet Union, reports William Potter, director of the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. However, other former Soviet states, including Ukraine, boast other nuclear assets, including uranium mining and milling centers; training facilities; and research and commercial-power reactors, some of which are capable of producing weapons-grade plutonium. Potter insists that there is no assurance than these newly independent republics will not attempt to export their respective nuclear assets. {open_quotes}This export danger is heightened by the primitive state of export controls and compelling economic incentives to sell anything to anyone for the right price,{close_quotes} he says. Equally alarming as the absence of export control is the legacy of environmental degradation left by the Soviet nuclear program. {open_quotes}The magnitude of environmental damage caused by nuclear weapons production and testing only recently is coming to light,{close_quotes} Potter insists. Furthermore, writes Potter, {open_quotes}there is real danger that unemployed nuclear scientists in the former Soviet Union will accept offers from well-heeled renegade nations seeking to build nuclear weapons.{close_quotes}

  5. Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt.

    PubMed

    Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Hulme, Philip E; Hülber, Karl; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kleinbauer, Ingrid; Krausmann, Fridolin; Kühn, Ingolf; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Vilà, Montserrat; Genovesi, Piero; Gherardi, Francesca; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Roques, Alain; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-04

    Globalization and economic growth are widely recognized as important drivers of biological invasions. Consequently, there is an increasing need for governments to address the role of international trade in their strategies to prevent species introductions. However, many of the most problematic alien species are not recent arrivals but were introduced several decades ago. Hence, current patterns of alien-species richness may better reflect historical rather than contemporary human activities, a phenomenon which might be called "invasion debt." Here, we show that across 10 taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, fungi, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, terrestrial insects, and aquatic invertebrates) in 28 European countries, current numbers of alien species established in the wild are indeed more closely related to indicators of socioeconomic activity from the year 1900 than to those from 2000, although the majority of species introductions occurred during the second half of the 20th century. The strength of the historical signal varies among taxonomic groups, with those possessing good capabilities for dispersal (birds, insects) more strongly associated with recent socioeconomic drivers. Nevertheless, our results suggest a considerable historical legacy for the majority of the taxa analyzed. The consequences of the current high levels of socioeconomic activity on the extent of biological invasions will thus probably not be completely realized until several decades into the future.

  6. Aleksis Dreimanis: a legacy in Quaternary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicock, Stephen R.; Menzies, John

    2000-12-01

    Aleksis Dreimanis was born and raised in Latvia. His interest in Quaternary and glacial geology began early and developed into a career that has spanned 7 decades. At age 20 he published his first paper in glacial geology and soon after began teaching at the University of Latvia. Teaching and research were interrupted by World War II but resumed at the Baltic University (Pinneberg, Germany), then at the University of Western Ontario where he has been ever since. Throughout his career, Dreimanis has successfully balanced the twin disciplines of Quaternary history and glacial geology. He was among the first to study quantitatively the relationship between till lithology and till formation and to study how glacial transport and dynamics affect till texture and deformation. With co-workers he developed the well-known stratigraphic scheme of the last glaciation in the Great Lakes region of North America. Aleksis became world-renowned through his committee work, especially as President of the INQUA Commission on Genesis and Lithology of Glacial Quaternary Deposits. His diplomacy, enthusiasm, and passion for his subject have inspired students and colleagues around the globe and resulted in remarkable international dialogue, cooperation, and consensus. Professor Aleksis Dreimanis is an honest scientist, a gentleman, and a true scholar who has left a rich legacy for future Quaternarists.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    SciTech Connect

    Bisacchi, Davide; Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bordo, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3{sub 1}21/P3{sub 2}21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å.

  8. The Effects of Low Dose-Rate Ionizing Radiation on the Shapes of Transients in the LM124 Operational Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner, Stephen; McMorrow, Dale; Roche, Nicholas; Dusseau, Laurent; Pease, Ron L.

    2008-01-01

    Shapes of single event transients (SETs) in a linear bipolar circuit (LM124) change with exposure to total ionizing dose (TID) radiation. SETs shape changes are a direct consequence of TID-induced degradation of bipolar transistor gain. A reduction in transistor gain causes a reduction in the drive current of the current sources in the circuit, and it is the lower drive current that most affects the shapes of large amplitude SETs.

  9. Apollo 12 Mission image - Dark view of Astronaut Alan L. Bean climbing down the ladder of the Lunar Module (LM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6728 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 mission, is about to step off the ladder of the Lunar Module to join astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., mission commander, in extravehicular activity (EVA). Conrad and Bean descended in the Apollo 12 LM to explore the moon while astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules in lunar orbit.

  10. Querying quantitative logic models (Q2LM) to study intracellular signaling networks and cell-cytokine interactions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Melody K; Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models have substantially improved our ability to predict the response of a complex biological system to perturbation, but their use is typically limited by difficulties in specifying model topology and parameter values. Additionally, incorporating entities across different biological scales ranging from molecular to organismal in the same model is not trivial. Here, we present a framework called “querying quantitative logic models” (Q2LM) for building and asking questions of constrained fuzzy logic (cFL) models. cFL is a recently developed modeling formalism that uses logic gates to describe influences among entities, with transfer functions to describe quantitative dependencies. Q2LM does not rely on dedicated data to train the parameters of the transfer functions, and it permits straight-forward incorporation of entities at multiple biological scales. The Q2LM framework can be employed to ask questions such as: Which therapeutic perturbations accomplish a designated goal, and under what environmental conditions will these perturbations be effective? We demonstrate the utility of this framework for generating testable hypotheses in two examples: (i) a intracellular signaling network model; and (ii) a model for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cell-cytokine interactions; in the latter, we validate hypotheses concerning molecular design of granulocyte colony stimulating factor. PMID:22125256

  11. Excitation energy pathways in the photosynthetic units of reaction center LM- and H-subunit deletion mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Amarie, Sergiu; Lupo, Domenico; Lenz, Martin O; Saegesser, Rudolf; Ghosh, Robin; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2010-03-01

    Light-induced reaction dynamics of isolated photosynthetic membranes obtained from wild-type (WT) and reaction center (RC)-subunit deletion strains SPUHK1 (an H-subunit deletion mutant) and SK Delta LM (an (L+M) deletion mutant) of the purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum have been investigated by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon excitation of the spirilloxanthin (Spx) S(2) state at 546 nm, of the bacteriochlorophyll Soret band at 388 nm and probing spectral regions, which are characteristic for carotenoids, similar dynamics in the SPUHK1, SK Delta LM and WT strains could be observed. The excitation of Spx S(2) is followed by the simultaneous population of the lower singlet excited states S(1) and S* which decay with lifetimes of 1.4 and 5 ps, respectively for the mutants, and 1.4 and 4 ps, respectively, for the wild-type. The excitation of the BChl Soret band is followed by relaxation into BChl lower excited states which compete with excitation energy transfer BChl-to-Spx. The deexcitation pathway BChl(Soret) --> Spx(S(2)) --> Spx(S(1)) occurs with the same transition rate for all investigated samples (WT, SPUHK1 and SK Delta LM). The kinetic traces measured for the Spx S(1) --> S(N) transition display similar behaviour for all samples showing a positive signal which increases within the first 400 fs (i.e. the time needed for the excitation energy to reach the Spx S(1) excited state) and decays with a lifetime of about 1.5 ps. This suggests that the Spx excited state dynamics in the investigated complexes do not differ significantly. Moreover, a longer excited state lifetime of BChl for SPUHK1 in comparison to WT was observed, consistent with a photochemical quenching channel present in the presence of RC. For long delay times, photobleaching of the RC special pair and an electrochromic blue shift of the monomeric BChl a can be observed only for the WT but not for the mutants. The close similarity of the excited state decay

  12. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid–stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Komachi, Mayumi; Homma, Yoshimi; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-08-07

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), −2, and −3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5–20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC{sub 50} values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC{sub 50} values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. - Highlights: • LPA induces cell migration (invasion) in murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells. • DIFs are novel lead anti-tumor agents found in Dictyostelium discoideum. • We examined the effects of DIF derivatives on LPA-induced LM8 cell migration in vitro. • Some of the DIF derivatives inhibited LPA-induced LM8 cell migration.

  13. The receptor-like kinase SOBIR1 interacts with Brassica napus LepR3 and is required for Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm1-triggered immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lisong; Borhan, M. Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Leptosphaeria maculans (L. maculans) is the causal agent of blackleg disease of canola/oilseed rape (Brassica napus) worldwide. We previously reported cloning of the B. napus blackleg resistance gene, LepR3, which encodes a receptor-like protein. LepR3 triggers localized cell death upon recognition of its cognate Avr protein, AvrLm1. Here, we exploited the Nicotiana benthamiana model plant to investigate the recognition mechanism of AvrLm1 by LepR3. Co-expression of the LepR3/AvrLm1 gene pair in N. benthamiana resulted in development of a hypersensitive response (HR). However, a truncated AvrLm1 lacking its indigenous signal peptide was compromised in its ability to induce LepR3-mediated HR, indicating that AvrLm1 is perceived by LepR3 extracellularly. Structure-function analysis of the AvrLm1 protein revealed that the C-terminal region of AvrLm1 was required for LepR3-mediated HR in N. benthamiana and for resistance to L. maculans in B. napus. LepR3 was shown to be physically interacting with the B. napus receptor like kinase, SOBIR1 (BnSOBIR1). Silencing of NbSOBIR1 or NbSERK3 (BAK1) compromised LepR3-AvrLm1-dependent HR in N. benthamiana, suggesting that LepR3-mediated resistance to L. maculans in B. napus requires SOBIR1 and BAK1/SERK3. Using this model system, we determined that BnSOBIR1 and SERK3/BAK1 are essential partners in the LepR3 signaling complex and were able to define the AvrLm1 effector domain. PMID:26579176

  14. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety-critical computer systems must be engineered to meet system and software safety requirements. For legacy safety-critical computer systems, software safety requirements may not have been formally specified during development. When process-oriented software safety requirements are levied on a legacy system after the fact, where software development artifacts don't exist or are incomplete, the question becomes 'how can this be done?' The risks associated with only meeting certain software safety requirements in a legacy safety-critical computer system must be addressed should such systems be selected as candidates for reuse. This paper proposes a method for ascertaining formally, a software safety risk assessment, that provides measurements for software safety for legacy systems which may or may not have a suite of software engineering documentation that is now normally required. It relies upon the NASA Software Safety Standard, risk assessment methods based upon the Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire, and the application of reverse engineering CASE tools to produce original design documents for legacy systems.

  15. Legacy effects of drought on plant growth and the soil food web.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska Trijntje; Liiri, Mira E; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Setälä, Heikki M; Christensen, Søren; Bardgett, Richard D

    2012-11-01

    Soils deliver important ecosystem services, such as nutrient provision for plants and the storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), which are greatly impacted by drought. Both plants and soil biota affect soil C and N availability, which might in turn affect their response to drought, offering the potential to feed back on each other's performance. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared legacy effects of repeated drought on plant growth and the soil food web in two contrasting land-use systems: extensively managed grassland, rich in C and with a fungal-based food web, and intensively managed wheat lower in C and with a bacterial-based food web. Moreover, we assessed the effect of plant presence on the recovery of the soil food web after drought. Drought legacy effects increased plant growth in both systems, and a plant strongly reduced N leaching. Fungi, bacteria, and their predators were more resilient after drought in the grassland soil than in the wheat soil. The presence of a plant strongly affected the composition of the soil food web, and alleviated the effects of drought for most trophic groups, regardless of the system. This effect was stronger for the bottom trophic levels, whose resilience was positively correlated to soil available C. Our results show that plant belowground inputs have the potential to affect the recovery of belowground communities after drought, with implications for the functions they perform, such as C and N cycling.

  16. The slow recovery of San Francisco Bay from the legacy of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Connor, Michael S; Davis, Jay A; Leatherbarrow, Jon; Greenfield, Ben K; Gunther, Andrew; Hardin, Dane; Mumley, Thomas; Oram, John J; Werme, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides, including DDTs, chlordanes, and dieldrin, peaked in San Francisco Bay's watershed 30-40 years ago, yet residues of the pesticides remain high. Known as legacy pesticides for their persistence in the Bay decades after their uses ended, the compounds and their breakdown products occur at concentrations high enough to contribute to advisories against the consumption of sport fish from the Bay. Combined with other data sets, the long-term monitoring data collected by the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) for trace substances allow us to track recovery of the Bay from these inputs and predict its future improvement. Legacy pesticides enter the water and sediment of San Francisco Bay from a variety of sources, including runoff from California's Central Valley and local watersheds, municipal and industrial wastewater, atmospheric deposition, erosion of historically contaminated sediment deposits, and dredging and disposal of dredged material. Runoff from small-urbanized tributaries may contribute as much or more to the loads than runoff from the agricultural Central Valley, even though 90 percent of the freshwater flow comes from the Central Valley via the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. The fates of legacy pesticides in San Francisco Bay are controlled by their chemical properties, including their solubilities and partition coefficients. Degradation in the sediments, outflow through the Golden Gate, and volatilization-in that relative order-result in removal of pesticides from the Bay. A contaminant fate model was used to estimate recovery times of the Bay under various scenarios. For example, under a scenario in which no new legacy pesticides entered the Bay, model predictions suggested that concentrations of pesticides in the water and the active sediment layer would reach risk-reduction goals within one to three decades. Under scenarios of continued inputs to the Bay, recovery time would be considerably

  17. HST LEGUS - Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; LEGUS Team

    2017-01-01

    LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey) is a cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to provide a definite characterization of the links between star formation on two fundamental scales: those of individual stars, stellar clusters and associations on parsec scales, and of galaxy disks on kilo-parsec scales.In order to achieve this goal, LEGUS has obtained multi-color images of 50 nearby star-forming galaxies, in the distance range 3-16 Mpc. Wavelength coverage spans five bands (NUV, U, B, V, and I) by combining new WFC3 observations with archival ACS imaging data, when available. The galaxies were carefully selected to sample the full range of galaxy mass, morphology, star formation rate (SFR), sSFR (specific SFR=SFR/mass), metallicity, internal structure (rings, bars), and interaction state found in the Local Volume where HST can resolve and age-date young stellar populations on parsec scales. Many of the galaxies are well-known, iconic ones, with a wealth of additional information available in a number of archives. The multi-color HST images are being used to secure complete inventories of the young stars, star clusters, and structures of the galaxies, together with the characterization of their ages, masses, and extinctions.I will briefly introduce a few highlights on the scientific results obtained so far by the LEGUS team, in addition to describing the high-level science products the team plans to release to the community, in order to enable a wide range of additional scientific applications.

  18. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  20. [The legacy of Cajal in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Díaz, J L

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1854-1934) had achieved a sound school of neurobiology displaying an integrative and anatomo-functional paradigm of study of the Nervous System by integrating diverse morphological, physiological, and clinical sciences during the Second Spanish Republic. Such school flourished in the three locations of the Cajal Institute in Madrid, but was nearly lost during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) with the repression of the majority of the collaborators of the recently-extinct master. One part of these mature and capable researchers was able to reach sanctuary in the Americas to continue their research and teaching enterprises. Thanks to the welcoming policy of Mexican president Lázaro Cárdenas several of them developed an extensive work at the National University of Mexico (UNAM) becoming pioneers, founders of research institutions, and venerable teachers of several medical and neurological sciences. Among them are neuropsychiatrist Dionisio Nieto, pathologist Isaac Costero, both pupils of Pío del Río Hortega; physiologist José Puche and pharmacologist Rafael Méndez, both collaborators of Juan Negrín. The work of Dionisio Nieto is especially worthy to remark as beneficiary of the Cajal School since, among many other achievements, he applied the techniques of Del Río Hortega to study the neuropathology of epilepsy and schizophrenia since the 1950's. Besides from his legacy to Mexican psychiatry, Nieto's pupils have extended his neuroanatomical and histological work, such as Alfonso Escobar, or his psycho physiological leads, such as Augusto Fernández-Guardiola. The latter was another Spanish War refugee who before is death in 2004 published a profound testimonial pertaining to the neurosciences of the Spanish exile in Mexico.

  1. The Olympic legacy: Journal metrics in sports medicine and dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joel; Walker, Tom W. M.; Miller, Stuart; Cobb, Alistair; Thomas, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic analysis of integral aspects within sport enables improvement in performance. One key aspect is the management and prevention of injuries. Bibliometrics is a systematic method for evaluating research output. It may be expected that the quantity and quality of sports injury research over time may strongly correlate with the timing of the Olympic games. This study was conducted to determine the effect of the Olympic legacy on academic sports medicine and evidence to prevent injuries of the face and teeth. A literature search within the PubMed database was undertaken to identify the quantity of literature published annually between 1996 and 2015 in the fields of sports injuries and injury prevention. The top 5 journals publishing in each field were then identified and the change in their impact factor (IF) was investigated. It was seen that, since 1996, there has been an overall increase in the quantity of literature published regarding sports injuries and prevention of sports injuries of 209% and 217%, respectively. Publications regarding facial injuries and dental injuries within sport show an increase of 114% and 71%, respectively. There was an increase in IF since 2000 in almost every journal investigated. A strong, positive correlation is seen among journals publishing on the prevention of sports injuries, showing a median IF increase of 2.8198. No statistical significance was found between Olympic years and the number of publications. Hence, there has been a gradual increase in both the quality and quantity of publications regarding sports injuries since 1996. However, there appears to be no immediate added effect of the “Olympic legacy” following each Olympic games on the quantity or quality of publications in these fields. PMID:28032040

  2. Gulf of Mexico hypoxia: alternate states and a legacy.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Eugene; Rabalais, Nancy N; Justic, Dubravko

    2008-04-01

    A 20+ year data set of the size of the hypoxic zone off the Louisiana-Texas coast is analyzed to reveal insights about what causes variation in the size of the hypoxic zone in summer, the accumulation of carbon storage in sediments, and pelagic and sediment oxygen demand. The results of models support the conclusion that some of this variation can be explained by a higher sedimentary oxygen demand, which may be larger than water column respiration rates in summer. Proxies for organic loading to sediments reveal that carbon losses continue after accumulation, and results from other studies indicate that sediment oxygen demand is directly related to surface water phytoplankton production, which has increased because of higher nutrient loading from the Mississippi River watershed. The potential size of the hypoxic zone for a given nitrogen load has increased as a result and has doubled from 1980 to 2000. The development of widespread hypoxia after the early 1980s and its consequences could, therefore, be considered a shift to an alternate ecosystem state. The Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico goal of reducing the size of the hypoxic zone to an average of 5000 km2 by 2015 becomes more difficult to achieve for every year there is no significant reduction in nutrient loading. The decisions made to reduce the size of the hypoxic zone must incorporate these nonlinear responses and, we think, err on the side of caution in assuming that existing management efforts are sufficient to restore water quality on this shelf. The legacy of a higher sediment respiratory demand following eutrophication should apply to other coastal systems.

  3. Airlines Performance and Eflciency Evaluation using a MCDA Methodology. The Case for Low Cost Carriers vs Legacy Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Miguel; Baltazar, Maria E.; Silva, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    The air transport has suffered a remarkable transformation over the past decade. Thewaywe travel today is quite different from how we did ten years ago. Due to the rise of low cost carriers, the market of air transportation has been constantly changing and presently witnessing the transformation of legacy carriers in order to manage to continue operating. The main purpose of thiswork is to show the differences in efficiency for different performance areas on a case study comprised of six different airline carriers, legacy and low cost, using a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDA) tool - Measuring Attractiveness by a Category Based Evaluation Technique (MACBETH). With the results obtained in this study, it is expected to show the work that is being carried out to obtain a model that would measure the efficiency of one or various airline companies in a defined period of time, using a set of performance indicators, to which specialists in the area previously have given weights.

  4. Climate legacies drive global soil carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Eldridge, David J; Maestre, Fernando T; Karunaratne, Senani B; Trivedi, Pankaj; Reich, Peter B; Singh, Brajesh K

    2017-04-01

    Climatic conditions shift gradually over millennia, altering the rates at which carbon (C) is fixed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil. However, legacy impacts of past climates on current soil C stocks are poorly understood. We used data from more than 5000 terrestrial sites from three global and regional data sets to identify the relative importance of current and past (Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene) climatic conditions in regulating soil C stocks in natural and agricultural areas. Paleoclimate always explained a greater amount of the variance in soil C stocks than current climate at regional and global scales. Our results indicate that climatic legacies help determine global soil C stocks in terrestrial ecosystems where agriculture is highly dependent on current climatic conditions. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering how climate legacies influence soil C content, allowing us to improve quantitative predictions of global C stocks under different climatic scenarios.

  5. U.S. Spacesuit Legacy: Maintaining it for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; McMann, Joe; Thomas, Ken; Kosmo, Joe; Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca; Bitterly, Rose; Olivia, Vladenka Rose

    2013-01-01

    The history of U.S. spacesuit development and its use are rich with information on lessons learned, and constitutes a valuable legacy to those designing spacesuits for the future, as well as to educators, students, and the general public. The genesis of lessons learned is best understood by studying the evolution of past spacesuit programs - how the challenges and pressures of the times influenced the direction of the various spacesuit programs. This paper shows how the legacy of various spacesuit-related programs evolved in response to these forces. Important aspects of how this U.S. spacesuit legacy is being preserved today is described, including the archiving of spacesuit hardware, important documents, videos, oral history, and the rapidly expanding U.S. Spacesuit Knowledge Capture program.

  6. Legacy to Industry 4.0: A Profibus Sniffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsegaye Mamo, Fesseha; Sikora, Axel; Rathfelder, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    Legacy industrial communication protocols are proved robust and functional. During the last decades, the industry has invented completely new or advanced versions of the legacy communication solutions. However, even with the high adoption rate of these new solutions, still the majority industry applications run on legacy, mostly fieldbus related technologies. Profibus is one of those technologies that still keep on growing in the market, albeit a slow in market growth in recent years. A retrofit technology that would enable these technologies to connect to the Internet of Things, utilize the ever growing potential of data analysis, predictive maintenance or cloud-based application, while at the same time not changing a running system is fundamental.

  7. U.S. Spacesuit Legacy: Maintaining it for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; McMann, Joe; Thomas, Ken; Kosmo, Joe; Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca; Bitterly, Rose; Oliva, Vladenka

    2012-01-01

    The history of US Spacesuit development and use is rich with information on lessons learned, and constitutes a valuable legacy to those designing spacesuits for the future, as well as educators, students and the general public. The genesis of lessons learned is best understood by studying the evolution of past spacesuit programs how the challenges and pressures of the times influenced the direction of the various spacesuit programs. This paper will show how the legacy of various programs evolved in response to these forces. Important aspects of how this rich U.S. spacesuit legacy is being preserved today will be described, including the archiving of spacesuit hardware, important documents, videos, oral history, and the rapidly expanding US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture program.

  8. Climate legacies drive global soil carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Eldridge, David J.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Karunaratne, Senani B.; Trivedi, Pankaj; Reich, Peter B.; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Climatic conditions shift gradually over millennia, altering the rates at which carbon (C) is fixed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil. However, legacy impacts of past climates on current soil C stocks are poorly understood. We used data from more than 5000 terrestrial sites from three global and regional data sets to identify the relative importance of current and past (Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene) climatic conditions in regulating soil C stocks in natural and agricultural areas. Paleoclimate always explained a greater amount of the variance in soil C stocks than current climate at regional and global scales. Our results indicate that climatic legacies help determine global soil C stocks in terrestrial ecosystems where agriculture is highly dependent on current climatic conditions. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering how climate legacies influence soil C content, allowing us to improve quantitative predictions of global C stocks under different climatic scenarios. PMID:28439540

  9. Legacy effects in linked ecological-soil-geomorphic systems of drylands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A legacy effect refers to the impact that previous conditions have on current processes or properties. Ecological legacies in drylands result from feedbacks among biotic, soil, and geomorphic processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Legacy effects depend on (1) the magnitude o...

  10. Capital Conversion and Accumulation: A Social Portrait of Legacies at an Elite University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nathan D.; Spenner, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Legacies, or students with a family member who graduated from the same college or university, have been the source of much debate. We add to the existing literature by providing a detailed empirical portrait of legacies at a private, selective university across the college years. We examine how legacies are distinctive in their admissions…

  11. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.20 Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®. (a) Account. A securities account consists of: (1) An account master record, and (2) A securities portfolio... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Securities account in Legacy...

  12. Capital Conversion and Accumulation: A Social Portrait of Legacies at an Elite University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nathan D.; Spenner, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Legacies, or students with a family member who graduated from the same college or university, have been the source of much debate. We add to the existing literature by providing a detailed empirical portrait of legacies at a private, selective university across the college years. We examine how legacies are distinctive in their admissions…

  13. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  14. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  15. The Hubble Legacy Archive ACS grism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, M.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Nilsson, K. K.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    A public release of slitless spectra, obtained with ACS/WFC and the G800L grism, is presented. Spectra were automatically extracted in a uniform way from 153 archival fields (or "associations") distributed across the two Galactic caps, covering all observations to 2008. The ACS G800L grism provides a wavelength range of 0.55-1.00 μm, with a dispersion of 40 Å/pixel and a resolution of ~80 Å for point-like sources. The ACS G800L images and matched direct images were reduced with an automatic pipeline that handles all steps from archive retrieval, alignment and astrometric calibration, direct image combination, catalogue generation, spectral extraction and collection of metadata. The large number of extracted spectra (73,581) demanded automatic methods for quality control and an automated classification algorithm was trained on the visual inspection of several thousand spectra. The final sample of quality controlled spectra includes 47 919 datasets (65% of the total number of extracted spectra) for 32 149 unique objects, with a median iAB-band magnitude of 23.7, reaching 26.5 AB for the faintest objects. Each released dataset contains science-ready 1D and 2D spectra, as well as multi-band image cutouts of corresponding sources and a useful preview page summarising the direct and slitless data, astrometric and photometric parameters. This release is part of the continuing effort to enhance the content of the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) with highly processed data products which significantly facilitate the scientific exploitation of the Hubble data. In order to characterize the slitless spectra, emission-line flux and equivalent width sensitivity of the ACS data were compared with public ground-based spectra in the GOODS-South field. An example list of emission line galaxies with two or more identified lines is also included, covering the redshift range 0.2 - 4.6. Almost all redshift determinations outside of the GOODS fields are new. The scope of science projects

  16. The Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Legacy of HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    quasars to probe the Cosmic Web, also with COS. Altogether, these diverse spectral observations constitute one of the key legacies of HST, and hopefully one that will continue to be built upon in the coming years.

  17. After the Fall: The RHESSI Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Richard A.; Zarro, Dominic M.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2017-08-01

    Launched in 2002 the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) continues to observe the Sun with a nearly 50% duty cycle. During that time the instrument has recorded ~100,000 solar flares in energies from 4 keV to over 10 MeV.with durations of 10s to 1000s of seconds. However, for the reasons of the decline of the solar cycle, possible failure of the instrument, or the absence of funding, our operational phase will end someday. We describe here our plans to continue to serve this dataset in raw, processed, and analyzed forms to the worldwide solar community to continue our legacy of a stream of rich scientific results.We have and are providing a stream of quicklook lightcurves, spectra, and images that we mainly serve through a web interface as well as the data in raw form to be fully analyzed within our own branch of Solar Software written in IDL. We are in the process of creating higher quality images for flares in multiple energy bands on relevant timescales for those whose needs can be met without further processing. For users with IDL licenses we expect this software to be available far into the unknowable future. Together with a database of AIA cutouts during all SDO-era flares, along with software to recover saturated images by using the AIA diffraction fringes, these will be a highly used resource.We also are developing additional tools and databases that will increase the utility of RHESSI data to members of the community with and without either IDL licenses or full access to the RHESSI database. We will provide a database of RHESSI x-ray visibilities obtained during flares at a >4 second cadence over a broad range of detectable energies. With our IDL software those can be rendered as images for times and energies of nearly the analysts's choosing. And going beyond that we are converting our imaging procedures to the Python language to eliminate the need for an IDL license. We are also developing methods to allow the customization of these

  18. Optimal artificial neural network architecture selection for performance prediction of compact heat exchanger with the EBaLM-OTR technique

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2011-07-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used in the past to predict the performance of printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) with satisfactory accuracy. Typically published literature has focused on optimizing ANN using a training dataset to train the network and a testing dataset to evaluate it. Although this may produce outputs that agree with experimental results, there is a risk of over-training or overlearning the network rather than generalizing it, which should be the ultimate goal. An over-trained network is able to produce good results with the training dataset but fails when new datasets with subtle changes are introduced. In this paper we present EBaLM-OTR (error back propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms for over training resilience) technique, which is based on a previously discussed method of selecting neural network architecture that uses a separate validation set to evaluate different network architectures based on mean square error (MSE), and standard deviation of MSE. The method uses k-fold cross validation. Therefore in order to select the optimal architecture for the problem, the dataset is divided into three parts which are used to train, validate and test each network architecture. Then each architecture is evaluated according to their generalization capability and capability to conform to original data. The method proved to be a comprehensive tool in identifying the weaknesses and advantages of different network architectures. The method also highlighted the fact that the architecture with the lowest training error is not always the most generalized and therefore not the optimal. Using the method the testing error achieved was in the order of magnitude of within 10{sup -5} - 10{sup -3}. It was also show that the absolute error achieved by EBaLM-OTR was an order of magnitude better than the lowest error achieved by EBaLM-THP.

  19. Modelling for conflict: the legacy of ballistic research and current extremity in vivo modelling.

    PubMed

    Eardley, William G P; Watts, S A; Clasper, J C

    2013-06-01

    Extremity ballistic injury is unique and the literature intended to guide its management is commonly misinterpreted. In order to care for those injured in conflict and conduct appropriate research, clinicians must be able to identify key in vivo studies, understand their weaknesses and desist the propagation of miscited and misunderstood ballistic dogma. This review provides the only inclusive critical overview of key studies of relevance to military extremity injury. In addition, the non-ballistic studies of limb injury, stabilisation and contamination that will form the basis from which future small animal extremity studies are constructed are presented. With an awareness of the legacy of military wound models and an insight into available generic models of extremity injury and contamination, research teams are well placed to optimise future military extremity injury management.

  20. Test Excavations at Sites 39BR11 and 39LM57 Brule and Lyman Counties, South Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Dakota Final Report BUFFALO CO 0 WU-Li CO, L~L~ 11!tf S. MMONY. a z OA*N CHAMBERLAIN OTIC EECTE f FEB 06 1992 Huerfano Consultants, Inc. Denver...AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Huerfano Consultants, Inc. 1135 Fillmore Dpnvpr. O-MlO7rAdM 80906 ii...Data BntZrd) ABSTRACT Two sites, 39BR11 and 39LM57 were tested by Huerfano Consultants, Inc. of Denver, Colorado. This testing program produced the