Science.gov

Sample records for legacy survey description

  1. THE SPITZER LOCAL VOLUME LEGACY: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Schuster, M. D.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Block, M.; Marble, A. R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Lee, J. C.; Begum, A.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Funes, J. G.; Gordon, K. D.; Johnson, B. D.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E. D.; Van Zee, L.; Walter, F.

    2009-09-20

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, Halpha, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc Halpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and the ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  2. Legacy extragalactic UV survey (LEGUS) with the Hubble space telescope. I. Survey description

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetti, D.; Andrews, J. E.; Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S. N.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T. M.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L. J.; Chandar, R.; Clayton, G. C.; Silva, R. da; Mink, S. E. de; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; and others

    2015-02-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ∼kiloparsec-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging from the near-ultraviolet to the I band with the Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3), plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the WFC3 are F275W(λ2704 Å), F336W(λ3355 Å), F438W(λ4325 Å), F555W(λ5308 Å), and F814W(λ8024 Å); the parallel observations with the ACS use the filters F435W(λ4328 Å), F606W(λ5921 Å), and F814W(λ8057 Å). The multiband images are yielding accurate recent (≲50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas–star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial scientific results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community.

  3. The DECam Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Robert D.; Burleigh, Kaylan; Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Levi, Michael; Myers, Adam D.; Lang, Dustin; Moustakas, John; Patej, Anna; Valdes, Francisco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Huanyuan, Shan; Nord, Brian; Olsen, Knut A.; Delubac, Timothée; Saha, Abi; James, David; Walker, Alistair R.; DECaLS Team

    2016-06-01

    The DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) is conducting a 3-band imaging survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) extragalactic footprint as part of the Legacy Survey, which is associated with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) redshift survey. The Legacy Survey covers 14000 square degrees in the g, r, and z bands and is being executed on the Blanco 4-m, Mayall 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. For DECaLS, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) will image the footprint overlapping SDSS in the region -20 < Dec < +30 deg, to depths of g=24.7, r=23.9, z=23.0 and will eventually cover a total of 7500 square degrees. The survey began in 2014 and will run through Spring 2017. Images and catalogs were introduced in Public Data Release 2 (DR2), which occurred in January 2016. The algorithm "Tractor" applies multi-wavelength forced photometry to DECam and WISE data to produce galaxy (and star) magnitudes (as well as shape and other information) for the catalogs. In total, the optical data in DR2 cover a disjoint footprint in 2078, 2141 and 5322 square degrees in g, r, and z bands, respectively; 1807 square degrees has been observed in all three optical filters. There are approximately 260 million unique sources in DR2 spread over 97,554 0.25 x 0.25 square degree bricks.The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 30+ million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these DECam data, the MOSAIC camera on the Mayall 4-meter, and the 90Prime camera on the Bok telescope.

  4. National Survey of Children's Hospitals on Legacy-Making Activities

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Mary S.; Friedman, Debra L.; Gordon, Jessie E.; Gilmer, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Many hospitals offer legacy-building activities for children with serious illnesses or their family members, yet legacy-making has received little empirical attention. This descriptive cross-sectional study examined healthcare provider perceptions of legacy-making activities (e.g., memory books) currently offered by hospitals to pediatric patients and their families. Methods Healthcare providers in seventy-seven (100%) teaching children's hospitals across the United States completed an electronic survey. Results Nearly all providers surveyed reported offering legacy-making activities to ill children and their families, with patients and families usually completing the activity together. Most activities were offered before a patient died and when cure is no longer being sought. Perceived outcomes included benefit to bereaved families and a tangible memento of their deceased child. Conclusion Legacy-making may enhance life and decrease suffering for dying children and their families. Healthcare professionals can facilitate opportunities for children and their families to build legacies. Additional research is needed to examine activities across different age groups and conditions, the best time to offer such activities, and associations with positive and negative outcomes for ill children, their family members, and the bereaved. PMID:22577785

  5. The Mayall z-band Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David R.; Blum, Robert D.; Allen, Lori; Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Lang, Dustin; Moustakas, John; Meisner, Aaron M.; Valdes, Francisco; Patej, Anna; Myers, Adam D.; Sprayberry, David; Saha, Abi; Olsen, Knut A.; Safonova, Sasha; Yang, Qian; Burleigh, Kaylan J.; MzLS Team

    2016-06-01

    The Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS) is conducting a deep z-band imaging survey covering 5000 square degrees in the north Galactic cap as part of the Legacy Survey, which is associated with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) redshift survey. The Legacy Survey covers 14000 square degrees in the g, r, and z bands and is being executed on the Blanco 4-m, Mayall 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. The MzLS footprint will be observed in the g and r bands using the Bok 2.3-m telescope also on Kitt Peak. The Beijing Arizona Sky Survey (BASS) is being conducted by a parallel team from Beijing and the University of Arizona. MzLS will cover the sky north of declination 30 degrees and reach a depth of z=23.0. The survey began in January 2016 and will run through June 2017 comprising approximately 230 nights on the Mayall telescope. The data are being obtained with an upgraded Mosaic camera that deploys with newred-sensitive CCDs from Lawrence Berkeley Lab (LBL) whose throughput is in excess of 80% at 8000 to approximately 9800 Angstrom. The upgrade project was a collaboration of Yale, LBL, and NOAO. MzLS images are public as soon as they are taken and delivered to the NOAO archive. Catalogs based on Tractor photometry for all available Legacy Survey images are released soon after they are constructed and MzLS sources will be included in next release planned for summer 2016. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 30+ million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these MzLS data, DECam data from the DECam Legacy Survey, and data from the BASS survey.

  6. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Stefano; Civano, Francesca M.; Elvis, Martin; Urry, C. Megan; Comastri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The COSMOS field is the only large (2 sq. deg.) field for which complete, deep, panchromatic data exist and which all large telescopes can observe due to its equatorial location. In 2013, the COSMOS survey was greatly extended, thanks to the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey, the second largest extragalactic Chandra project ever approved. This survey is aimed at studying the formation of the structures in the high redshift Universe and understanding the role active super massive black holes played in their evolution. With 56 overlapping ACIS-I pointings of 50-ksec depth each, the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey uniformly covers the 1.7 sq. deg. COSMOS/HST field to ~160 ksec depth, with a total of 2.8 Ms exposure time. This triples the area of the earlier deep C-COSMOS survey (limiting flux ~3e-16 ergs/cm2/s in the 0.5-2 keV band), and together these two projects cover a total area of 2.2 sq. deg., yielding a sample of ~4200 X-ray sources. We present the survey properties, the procedure adopted to obtain our final catalog and the first scientific highlights, focusing on the high redshift (z>3) sample.

  7. Scientific Organization of the ALFA Legacy Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    The ALFA Legacy Surveys are organized as a partnership between NAIC and the community of interested and involved academic researchers. NAIC has committed a large fraction of the time on the Arecibo telescope to the ALFA surveys for the next 5 or more years in return for which the ALFA Consortia are making a large commitment of personnel resources in conducting the surveys, writing the needed software, and archiving the data for use by others. The surveys are facilitated by means of commensal observations--simultaneous observations made by two or more Consortia each processing the same received signal using different spectrometers designed for different scientific applications. The spectrometer specifications are set by the Consortia, and the hardware is built by NAIC under contract to university-based instrumentation groups. The NAIC vision of its partnership with the ALFA consortia: (1) Is necessary to the success of the ALFA legacy surveys; (2) Provides the opportunity to re-establish an effective partnership between the national observatory and the academic research community; (3) Reflects the maturity of 50 years of research in radio astronomy. NAIC is operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the NSF.

  8. The Euclid/WFIRST Spitzer Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, Peter; Arendt, R.; Arnouts, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bouwens, R.; Brinchman, J.; Brodwin, M.; Carollo, M.; Castander, F.; Charlot, S.; Chary, R.-R.; Cohen, J.; Cooray, A.; Conselice, C.; Coupon, J.; Cuby, J.-G.; Culliandre, J.; Davidzon, I.; Dole, H.; Dunlop, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ferrara, A.; Gardner, J.; Hasinger, G.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ho, S.; Ilbert, O.; Jouvel, S.; Kashlinsky, A.; LeFevre, O.; LeFloc'h, E.; Maraston, C.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mei, S.; Mellier, Y.; Mitchell-Wynn, K.; Moustakas, L.; Nayyeri, H.; Paltani, S.; Rhodes, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J.; Speagle, J.; Stanford, S.; Stern, D.; Teplitz, H.; Toft, S.

    2016-08-01

    We propose 5286h of Spitzer Legacy Science Time to carry out a precursor survey for Euclid, WFIRST, and JWST. The primary goal is to enable definitive studies of reionization, z>7 galaxy formation, and the first massive black holes. The proposed data will also enhance the cosmological constraints provided by Euclid and WFIRST. The survey will cover 20 square degrees to 2h per pointing, split between the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and the North Ecliptic Pole. These are some of the darkest and most observable fields on the sky and have existing multi-wavelength data that will enable immediate science. The survey parameters are designed to enable stellar mass measurement at 3survey is truly unique and will not be superseded for decades. Only Spitzer can probe this region of survey space at 3-5um, a wavelength range that uniquely enables stellar mass estimates at z>3 enabling a direct probe of galaxy growth during the epoch of re-ionization.

  9. The X-UDS Chandra Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale; Hasinger, Guenther

    2015-08-01

    The X-UDS Survey is a Chandra X-ray Visionary Project that will obtain deep+wide (1.25 Msec) observations of the Subaru-XMM Deep/UKIDSS Ultradeep Survey (SXDS/UDS) field. I will present an overview of the survey's scientific goals and provide an update on the status of the survey. Scheduled to being in August 2015, X-UDS will help shed light on SMBH growth in two key epochs: Cosmic Dawn at z>7 and Cosmic Noon at z~2. The survey has two main scientific goals: (1) It aims to extract information on the nature of the first luminous accreting BHs in the Universe by cross-correlating large-scale fluctuations in the X-ray and infrared backgrounds. This will provide a unique insight into populations of the early black hole seeds and galaxies that are inaccessible to current direct studies. (2) We will also use these deep observations to identify a sizable number of compton-thick AGN via their X-ray spectral signatures up to z~2-3 and determine their obscuration and host galaxy properties using existing deep Hubble, Spitzer and Herschel observations. The wealth of ancillary data in the UDS field will allow us to determine the morphologies, masses and star formation rates of AGN hosts as a function of obscuration in the redshift, luminosity and column-density range responsible for the bulk of SMBH growth in the Universe.

  10. First results from the Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca M.; the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Team

    2014-01-01

    The equatorial 2 deg2 COSMOS area is the only large field for which a complete, deep, pan-chromatic data set exists, from an outstanding survey effort, and that all large telescopes can observe. During 2013, this pioneering and ambitious COSMOS survey had a major extension, pushing its frontiers via the newly approved Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey, the second largest Chandra proposal ever approved, plus new deep Spitzer, JVLA and NuSTAR surveys all aimed to study the formation of the structures in the high redshift Universe and the role of active super massive black holes. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey uniformly covers the 1.7 deg2 COSMOS/HST field with 2.8 Ms of Chandra ACIS-I imaging at ~160 ksec depth. This project expands the deep C-COSMOS area by a factor of ~3 at ~3e-16 (1.45 vs 0.44 deg2). The survey consists of 56x50 ks tiles covering a total area of 2.2 deg2 yelding a sample of ~4000 X-ray sources. In this poster we present the first results on the survey and we concentrate on the high redshift z>3 sample.

  11. The Chandra Cosmos Legacy Survey: Overview and Point Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Comastri, A.; Urry, M. C.; Elvis, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Allevato, V.; Brunner, H.; Capak, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Glotfelty, K.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hao, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Karim, A.; LaMassa, S. M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. J.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Stern, D.; Toft, S.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-03-01

    The COSMOS-Legacy survey is a 4.6 Ms Chandra program that has imaged 2.2 deg2 of the COSMOS field with an effective exposure of ≃ 160 ks over the central 1.5 deg2 and of ≃ 80 ks in the remaining area. The survey is the combination of 56 new observations obtained as an X-ray Visionary Project with the previous C-COSMOS survey. We describe the reduction and analysis of the new observations and the properties of 2273 point sources detected above a spurious probability of 2 × 10-5. We also present the updated properties of the C-COSMOS sources detected in the new data. The whole survey includes 4016 point sources (3814, 2920 and 2440 in the full, soft, and hard band). The limiting depths are 2.2 × 10-16, 1.5 × 10-15, and 8.9 × 10-16 {\\text{erg cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.5-2, 2-10, and 0.5-10 keV bands, respectively. The observed fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei with a column density >1022 cm-2 from the hardness ratio (HR) is ˜50{}-16+17%. Given the large sample we compute source number counts in the hard and soft bands, significantly reducing the uncertainties of 5%-10%. For the first time we compute number counts for obscured (HR > -0.2) and unobscured (HR < -0.2) sources and find significant differences between the two populations in the soft band. Due to the unprecedent large exposure, COSMOS-Legacy area is three times larger than surveys at similar depths and its depth is three times fainter than surveys covering similar areas. The area-flux region occupied by COSMOS-Legacy is likely to remain unsurpassed for years to come.

  12. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Spectral Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plume, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Helmich, F.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Roberts, H.; Bowey, J.; Buckle, J.; Butner, H.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Friberg, P.; Gibb, A. G.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Matthews, H.; Millar, T. J.; Mitchell, G.; Moore, T. J. T.; Ossenkopf, V.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Richer, J.; Roellig, M.; Schilke, P.; Spaans, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Thompson, M. A.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, Glenn J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Stars form in the densest, coldest, most quiescent regions of molecular clouds. Molecules provide the only probes that can reveal the dynamics, physics, chemistry, and evolution of these regions, but our understanding of the molecular inventory of sources and how this is related to their physical state and evolution is rudimentary and incomplete. The Spectral Legacy Survey (SLS) is one of seven surveys recently approved by the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Board of Directors. Beginning in 2007, the SLS will produce a spectral imaging survey of the content and distribution of all the molecules detected in the 345 GHz atmospheric window (between 332 and 373 GHz) toward a sample of five sources. Our intended targets are a low-mass core (NGC 1333 IRAS 4), three high-mass cores spanning a range of star-forming environments and evolutionary states (W49, AFGL 2591, and IRAS 20126), and a photodissociation region (the Orion Bar). The SLS will use the unique spectral imaging capabilities of HARP-B/ACSIS (Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme B/Auto-Correlation Spectrometer and Imaging System) to study the molecular inventory and the physical structure of these objects, which span different evolutionary stages and physical environments and to probe their evolution during the star formation process. As its name suggests, the SLS will provide a lasting data legacy from the JCMT that is intended to benefit the entire astronomical community. As such, the entire data set (including calibrated spectral data cubes, maps of molecular emission, line identifications, and calculations of the gas temperature and column density) will be publicly available.

  13. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as “static understanding,” ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, “genetic understanding” based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method. PMID:25987860

  14. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    PubMed

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  15. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II), Data Release 7, including the Legacy Survey

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The seventh data release (DR7) from the SDSS represents a completion of the overall, original project, though SDSS-III began in 2008 and will build upon the knowledge gained already. The SDSS Legacy Survey provided a uniform, well-calibrated map of more than 7,500 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap, and three stripes in the South Galactic Cap totaling 740 square degrees. The central stripe in the South Galactic Gap, Stripe 82, was scanned multiple times to enable a deep co-addition of the data and to enable discovery of variable objects. Legacy data supported studies ranging from asteroids and nearby stars to the large-scale structure of the universe. All of the imaging data have been processed to yield calibrated astrometric and photometric parameters and classifications. These parameters are available in one or more tables in a database accessible via the Catalog Archive Server (CAS) at http://cas.sdss.org/astro. [taken and edited from the Legacy page at http://www.sdss.org/legacy/index.html] All three surveys summarized are: 1) Legacy: an imaging survey in five bands over a contiguous 7646 deg2 high-latitude elliptical region in the Northern Galactic Cap, plus an additional 750 deg2 in the Southern Galactic Cap, together with spectroscopy of complete samples of galaxies and quasars covering about 8200 square degrees. The total imaging area in the Legacy survey is 8423 square degrees; 2) SEGUE: (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration): additional imaging of 3240 deg2 of sky at lower Galactic latitudes, together with spectroscopy of 240,000 stars towards 200 sight lines covering 1400 square degrees (spread throughout the Legacy and SEGUE imaging footprints), to study the structure of the Milky Way; 3

  16. MALT90: The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Foster, J. B.; Whitaker, J. S.; Sanhueza, P.; Claysmith, C.; Mascoop, J. L.; Wienen, M.; Breen, S. L.; Herpin, F.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Csengeri, T.; Longmore, S. N.; Contreras, Y.; Indermuehle, B.; Barnes, P. J.; Walsh, A. J.; Cunningham, M. R.; Brooks, K. J.; Britton, T. R.; Voronkov, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Alves, J.; Jordan, C. H.; Hill, T.; Hoq, S.; Finn, S. C.; Bains, I.; Bontemps, S.; Bronfman, L.; Caswell, J. L.; Deharveng, L.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Garay, G.; Green, J. A.; Hindson, L.; Jones, P. A.; Lenfestey, C.; Lo, N.; Lowe, V.; Mardones, D.; Menten, K. M.; Minier, V.; Morgan, L. K.; Motte, F.; Muller, E.; Peretto, N.; Purcell, C. R.; Schilke, P.; Bontemps, Schneider-N.; Schuller, F.; Titmarsh, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Zavagno, A.

    2013-11-01

    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope 1 , MALT90 has obtained 3' × 3' maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to H II regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s-1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps' morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.

  17. Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT 90)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, James; Lo, Nadia; Rathborne, Jill; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Brooks, Kate; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Menten, Karl; Schilke, Peter; Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Minier, Vincent; Longmore, Steven; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Herpin, Fabrice; Hill, Tracey; Bronfman, Leonardo; Deharveng, Lise; Finn, Susanna; Schuller, Frederic; Motte, Frédérique; Peretto, Nicolas; Bontemps, Sylvain; Wienen, Marion; Contreras, Yanett; Lenfestey, Clare; Foster, Jonathan; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Christopher

    2011-04-01

    We request Mopra telescope time to complete MALT90, a new, international project to survey molecular line emission from 3,000 dense cores. MALT90 exploits Mopra's capability for fast mapping and simultaneous imaging of 16 molecular lines near 90 GHz. These molecular lines will probe the cores physical, chemical, and evolutionary state. The target cores are selected from the 870 um ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range of evolutionary states from pre-stellar cores, to protostellar cores, and on to H II regions. Each core will be mapped at excellent angular (40'') and spectral (0.1 km/s) resolution. The survey data will be made available to the public via the internet. We require 875 hours per year for the next 4 winter seasons to complete the project, and request pre-graded (continuing) status. MALT90 will provide a key legacy database for the star-formation community and supply the definitive source list of high-mass dense cores for ALMA.

  18. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. I. Survey presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; van de Ven, G.; Vílchez, J. M.; Wisotzki, L.; Walcher, C. J.; Mast, D.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Albiol-Pérez, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Alves, J.; Bakos, J.; Bartáková, T.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boselli, A.; Bomans, D. J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Del Olmo, A.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Díaz, A.; Ellis, S.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Flores, H.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; González Delgado, R.; Gruel, N.; Haines, T.; Hao, C.; Husemann, B.; Iglésias-Páramo, J.; Jahnke, K.; Johnson, B.; Jungwiert, B.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kupko, D.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Meidt, S.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Montijo, C.; Mourão, A. M.; Palacios-Navarro, G.; Papaderos, P.; Pasquali, A.; Peletier, R.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Relaño, M.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sengupta, C.; Singh, R.; Stanishev, V.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.; Viironen, K.; Wild, V.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    2012-02-01

    The final product of galaxy evolution through cosmic time is the population of galaxies in the local universe. These galaxies are also those that can be studied in most detail, thus providing a stringent benchmark for our understanding of galaxy evolution. Through the huge success of spectroscopic single-fiber, statistical surveys of the Local Universe in the last decade, it has become clear, however, that an authoritative observational description of galaxies will involve measuring their spatially resolved properties over their full optical extent for a statistically significant sample. We present here the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey, which has been designed to provide a first step in this direction. We summarize the survey goals and design, including sample selection and observational strategy. We also showcase the data taken during the first observing runs (June/July 2010) and outline the reduction pipeline, quality control schemes and general characteristics of the reduced data. This survey is obtaining spatially resolved spectroscopic information of a diameter selected sample of ~600 galaxies in the Local Universe (0.005 < z < 0.03). CALIFA has been designed to allow the building of two-dimensional maps of the following quantities: (a) stellar populations: ages and metallicities; (b) ionized gas: distribution, excitation mechanism and chemical abundances; and (c) kinematic properties: both from stellar and ionized gas components. CALIFA uses the PPAK integral field unit (IFU), with a hexagonal field-of-view of ~1.3⎕', with a 100% covering factor by adopting a three-pointing dithering scheme. The optical wavelength range is covered from 3700 to 7000 Å, using two overlapping setups (V500 and V1200), with different resolutions: R ~ 850 and R ~ 1650, respectively. CALIFA is a legacy survey, intended for the community. The reduced data will be released, once the quality has been guaranteed. The analyzed data fulfillthe expectations of

  19. Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT 90)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, James; Lo, Nadia; Rathborne, Jill; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Brooks, Kate; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Menten, Karl; Schilke, Peter; Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Minier, Vincent; Longmore, Steven; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Herpin, Fabrice; Hill, Tracey; Bronfman, Leonardo; Deharveng, Lise; Schuller, Frederic; Motte, Frédérique; Peretto, Nicolas; Bontemps, Sylvain; Wienen, Marion; Contreras, Yanett; Lenfestey, Clare; Foster, Jonathan; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Christopher; Hoq, Sadia

    2012-04-01

    We request Mopra time to complete MALT90, a large, volume-complete survey of high-mass star-forming cores. MALT90 is unique and exploits Mopra's capability for OTF mapping and simultaneous imaging of 16 molecular lines near 90GHz. These molecular lines probe the cores' physical, chemical, and evolutionary state. The target cores are selected from the 870um ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span their complete range in evolution. Each core will be mapped at excellent angular (40'') and spectral (0.1km/s) resolution. As in the previous years, fully reduced data products will be made available to the community through the ATOA. In order for MALT90 to be volume-complete, we require 1397 hours to map 942 remaining cores. This time allocation is necessary so that MALT90 is complete to all high-mass cores out to 7kpc: a carefully chosen distance limit to adequate sample a range of Galactic environments and to include all high-mass regions for which individual cores can be resolved with ALMA. When complete, MALT90 will provide an important legacy database for the community and supply the definitive source list of high-mass cores for ALMA.

  20. MALT 90: The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, James M.; Foster, J.; Brooks, K.; Rathborne, J.; Longmore, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the first season results of the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90), which will image 3 mm molecular line emission from 3,000 dense star-forming cores. MALT90 exploits the capability of the ATNF Mopra 22 m telescope for fast mapping and simultaneous imaging of 16 molecular lines near 90 GHz. These molecular lines will probe the cores’ physical, chemical, and evolutionary state. The target cores are selected from the 870 micron ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range of evolutionary states from pre-stellar cores, to protostellar cores, and on to H II regions. Each core will be mapped at excellent angular (40'') and spectral (0.1 km/s) resolution. We present preliminary results for four key science projects: (1) determining the kinematic distances and Galactic distribution of dense cores, (2) establishing the distribution and evolution of angular momentum in a large sample of high-mass cores, (3) investigating the chemical evolution of dense cores, and (4) comparing the extragalactic molecular line-infrared luminosity correlations with those in Galactic cores. MALT90 will provide the definitive source list of high-mass dense cores for ALMA.

  1. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey: optical/IR identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hasinger, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Cappelluti, N.; Cardamone, C.; Finoguenov, A.; Griffiths, R. E.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; LaMassa, S. M.; Jahnke, K.; Ranalli, P.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Smolcic, V.; Suh, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra program on the 2.2 deg2 of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 μm identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 μm information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while ≃54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2–10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.

  2. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey: optical/IR identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hasinger, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Cappelluti, N.; Cardamone, C.; Finoguenov, A.; Griffiths, R. E.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; LaMassa, S. M.; Jahnke, K.; Ranalli, P.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Smolcic, V.; Suh, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra program on the 2.2 deg2 of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 μm identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 μm information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while ≃54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2-10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.

  3. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey: The z>3 Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Salvato, M.; Shankar, F.; Comastri, A.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Gilli, R.; Griffiths, R.; Hasinger, G.; Miyaji, T.; Schawinski, K.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the largest high-redshift (3 < z < 6.85) sample of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on a contiguous field, using sources detected in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey. The sample contains 174 sources, 87 with spectroscopic redshift and the other 87 with photometric redshift (z phot). In this work, we treat z phot as a probability-weighted sum of contributions, adding to our sample the contribution of sources with z phot < 3 but z phot probability distribution >0 at z > 3. We compute the number counts in the observed 0.5-2 keV band, finding a decline in the number of sources at z > 3 and constraining phenomenological models of the X-ray background. We compute the AGN space density at z > 3 in two different luminosity bins. At higher luminosities (logL(2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s-1), the space density declines exponentially, dropping by a factor of ˜20 from z ˜ 3 to z ˜ 6. The observed decline is ˜80% steeper at lower luminosities (43.55 erg s-1 < logL(2-10 keV) < 44.1 erg s-1) from z ˜ 3 to z ˜ 4.5. We study the space density evolution dividing our sample into optically classified Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs. At logL(2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s-1, unobscured and obscured objects may have different evolution with redshift, with the obscured component being three times higher at z ˜ 5. Finally, we compare our space density with predictions of quasar activation merger models, whose calibration is based on optically luminous AGNs. These models significantly overpredict the number of expected AGNs at logL (2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s-1 with respect to our data.

  4. The JCMT Legacy Survey: A Spectroscopic And Continuum Survey Of The Submillimetre Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysostomou, Antonio; Davis, G. R.; Legacy Survey coordinators, JCMT

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the submillimetre sky is underway at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) using two state-of-the-art instruments: SCUBA-2 is a 10,000 pixel bolometer array, operating simultaneously at 450 and 850 microns (see companion paper: Davis et al. Session 38), and HARP is a heterodyne array receiver operating between 325 and 375 GHz. The JCMT Legacy Survey (JLS) is comprised of 7 survey projects, and ranges in scope from the study of nearby debris disk systems, the study of star formation in nearby molecular cloud systems and more distant structures in our Galactic Plane, to the structure and composition of galaxies in our local neighborhood and the number and evolution of submillimetre galaxies at high redshifts in the early Universe. The HARP components of the JLS are now complete and with on-sky commissioning of SCUBA-2 at the JCMT recently completed, the continuum component with SCUBA-2 has commenced. In this presentation I will describe the JLS and its constituent projects and also present some of the latest results to emerge from the JLS, including some of the latest data with SCUBA-2.

  5. Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE). Survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Chen, Christine; Perrin, Marshall D.; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Schneider, Glenn; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments. HST/AR-12652), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive with advanced post-processing techniques. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. We present the results of the overall reduction campaign and discuss the first statistical analysis of the candidate detections. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here an update and overview of the specifications of this standard.

  6. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: A New Window to the Obscured and Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca M.; Elvis, M.; Hasinger, G.; Comastri, A.; Harrison, F.; Urry, C. M.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Scoville, N.; Schinnerer, E.; Donley, J.; Allevato, V.; Silverman, J.; Treister, E.; Capak, P. L.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Alexander, D.; D'Abrusco, R.; Finoguenov, A.; Fruscione, A.; Glikman, E.; Hao, H.; Jahnke, K.; Karim, A.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Leauthaud, A.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Vignali, C.; Fiore, F.; Puccetti, S.; Ranalli, P.; Smolcic, V.; Riguccini, L.; Sargent, M.; Schawinski, K.; Stern, D.; Gilli, R.

    2013-01-01

    The equatorial 2 deg2 COSMOS area is the only large field for which a complete, deep, pan-chromatic data set exists, from an outstanding survey effort, and that all large telescopes can observe. Now, this pioneering and ambitious COSMOS survey is undergoing major extension, pushing its frontiers via the newly approved Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey, the second largest Chandra proposal ever approved.'COSMOS-Legacy' will uniformly cover the 1.7 deg2 COSMOS/HST field with 2.8 Ms of Chandra ACIS-I imaging at ~160 ksec depth. This project expands the current deep C-COSMOS area by a factor of ~3 at ~3e-16 (1.45 vs 0.44 deg2). This will be achieved with 56x50 ks tiles covering a total area of 2.2 deg2, which will be observed during Chandra Cycle 14. The area and depth of COSMOS Legacy are designed to detect ~40 z>4, and ~4 z>5 Large Scale Structures on >15 arcmin scales. These structures have proven to connect luminous AGN (over 200 at z>3 will be detected) and sub-mm galaxies. COSMOS Legacy will also probe mini-quasars at z>7, using anistotropies of the unresolved X-ray Background, and the masses of the Dark Matter halos hosting X-ray AGN up to 3, via autocorrelation functions on ~30arcmin scales. To fully achieve these goals, COSMOS Legacy is complemented by spectroscopic follow-up with DEIMOS and MOSFIRE at Keck and KMOS at the VLT and FMOS at Subaru, just approved observations with Spitzer and JVLA, and with harder (5-80 keV) X-ray imaging with NuSTAR. In the near future, observations with Subaru HyperSuprimeCam (grizY) to r(AB)=28.2 are planned.

  7. Introduction to the CFHT Legacy Survey final release (CFHTLS T0007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, Jean-Charles J.; Withington, Kanoa; Hudelot, Patrick; Goranova, Yuliana; McCracken, Henry; Magnard, Frédéric; Mellier, Yannick; Regnault, Nicolas; Bétoule, Marc; Aussel, Hervé; Kavelaars, J. J.; Fernique, Pierre; Bonnarel, François; Ochsenbein, Francois; Ilbert, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) is a high impact scientific program which will see its final official release open to the world in 2012. That release will seal the legacy aspect of the survey which has already produced a large collection of scientific articles with topics ranging from cosmology to the Solar system. The survey core science was focused on dark energy and dark matter: the full realization of the scientific potential of the data set gathered between 2003 and 2009 with the MegaCam wide-field imager mounted at the CFHT prime focus is almost complete with the Supernovae Legacy Survey (SNLS) team preparing its third and last release (SNLS5), and the CFHTLenS team planning the release based around the cosmic shear survey later this year. While the data processing center TERAPIX offered to the CFHTLS scientific community regular releases over the course of the survey in its data acquisition phase (T0001-T0006), the final release took three years to refine in order to produce a pristine data collection photometrically calibrated at better than the percent both internally and externally over the total survey surface of 155 square degrees in all five photometric bands (u*, g’, r’, i’, z’). This final release, called T0007, benefits from the various advances in photometric calibration MegaCam has benefited through the joint effort between SNLS and CFHT to calibrate MegaCam at levels unexplored for an optical wide-field imager. T0007 stacks and catalogs produced by TERAPIX will be made available to the world at CADC while the CDS will offer a full integration of the release in its VO tools from VizieR to Aladin. The photometric redshifts have been produced to be released in phase with the survey. This proceeding is a general introduction to the survey and aims at presenting its final release in broad terms.

  8. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS): Revolutionary UV astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Leonardo

    2014-06-01

    The Treasury program LEGUS (HST/GO-13364) is a 154-orbit Hubble Space Telescope survey that is obtaining HST/WFC3 and HST/ACS NUV, U, B, V, and I-band imaging of 50 star-forming galaxies at distances of 4-12 Mpc. The LEGUS targets have been carefully selected to uniformly sample a full range of global galaxy properties such as morphology, star formation rate, mass, metallicity, internal structure, and interaction state.We provide a first taste of the type and quality of the data products that will be made available to the community through the website legus.stsci.edu. The data includes: state of the art science-ready mosaics in five wavelengths; band-merged catalogs of stellar sources (including location and photometry), band-merged catalogs of star clusters (locations, photometry, aperture corrections), catalogs of star cluster properties (ages, masses, extinction). and ancillary data available for this galaxy sample such as GALEX, Spitzer and WISE imaging.The above catalogs will enable a wide range of scientific applications, including color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams of both stars and clusters, to derive star formation histories, cluster formation histories, the evolution of stars/association/cluster clustering, and the dependence of these on galactic environment. These are only a few of the potential applications enabled by a diverse sample like LEGUS.

  9. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI): The NOAO DECam Legacy Imaging Survey and DESI Target Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, David J.; Blum, Robert D.; Castander, Francisco Javier; Dey, Arjun; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Foucaud, Sebastien; Honscheid, Klaus; James, David; Lang, Dustin; Levi, Michael; Moustakas, John; Myers, Adam D.; Newman, Jeffrey; Nord, Brian; Nugent, Peter E.; Patej, Anna; Reil, Kevin; Rudnick, Gregory; Rykoff, Eli S.; Ford Schlafly, Eddie; Stark, Casey; Valdes, Francisco; Walker, Alistair R.; Weaver, Benjamin; DECam Legacy Survey Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The DECam Legacy Survey will conduct a 3-band imaging survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) extragalactic footprint. The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) will be used to image the 6700 square degree footprint overlapping SDSS in the region -20 < Dec < +30 deg, to depths of g=24.7, r=23.9, z=23.0. The survey will be conducted from Fall 2014 through Spring 2017, with periodic data releases beginning in March 2015. These releases will include catalogs constructed with the Tractor-based multi-wavelength forced photometry applied to the DECam and WISE satellite data.The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 24 million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these DECam data, the MOSAIC camera on the Mayall 4-meter, and the 90Prime camera on the Bok Telescope.

  10. THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY: STACKED IMAGES AND CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.

    2012-02-15

    This paper describes the image stacks and catalogs of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey produced using the MegaPipe data pipeline at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. The Legacy Survey is divided into two parts. The Deep Survey consists of four fields each of 1 deg{sup 2}, with magnitude limits (50% completeness for point sources) of u = 27.5, g = 27.9, r = 27.7, i = 27.4, and z = 26.2. It contains 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} sources. The Wide Survey consists of 150 deg{sup 2} split over four fields, with magnitude limits of u = 26.0, g = 26.5, r = 25.9, i = 25.7, and z = 24.6. It contains 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} sources. This paper describes the calibration, image stacking, and catalog generation process. The images and catalogs are available on the web through several interfaces: normal image and text file catalog downloads, a 'Google Sky' interface, an image cutout service, and a catalog database query service.

  11. Nobeyama 45 m Telescope Legacy Project: Line Survey of L1527

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokudome, T.; Sakai, N.; Sakai, T.; Takano, S.; Yamamoto, S.; NRO Line Survey Project Members

    2013-10-01

    A spectral line survey in the 3 mm band has been conducted toward the low-mass protostellar core, L1527, as one of the legacy projects of the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. L1527 is known as a prototypical warm carbon-chain chemistry source. The survey has covered the frequency range from 79 GHz to 116 GHz. Most of detected molecules are carbon-chain molecules. In particular, c-C3H2 is so abundant that its two 13C species as well as mono- and doubly- deuterated species have been detected. Moreover, cyclopropenone has been detected for the first time in nearby molecular clouds. These results demonstrate rich carbon chemistry in this source.

  12. The Wide-Area X-ray Survey in the Legacy Stripe 82 Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, S.; Urry, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Glikman, E.; Richards, G.; B"ohringer, H.

    2016-06-01

    We are carrying out a wide-area X-ray survey in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field to uncover how luminous, obscured AGN evolve over cosmic time and the role they play in galaxy evolution. Stripe 82 is a legacy field with a high level of spectroscopic completeness and rich multi-wavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to far-infrared, including Spitzer and Herschel imaging. Our Stripe 82X survey currently reaches 31 deg^{2}, with ˜6200 X-ray point sources detected at ≥5σ level. I will review the characteristics of this survey, on-going programs to target obscured AGN candidates, and how we can use the lessons learned from the synergistic multi-wavelength coverage to develop strategic plans for future surveys and missions. Finally, I will comment on how extending the Stripe 82X survey area to 100 deg^{2} will provide unprecedented insight into the high-L (Lx > 10^{45} erg/s), high-z (z > 2) AGN population.

  13. CANDELS: THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Grogin, Norman A.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brown, Thomas M.; Casertano, Stefano; Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Cassata, Paolo; Castellano, Marco; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; and others

    2011-12-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, over the approximate redshift (z) range 8-1.5. It will image >250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope, from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standardizable candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} to z Almost-Equal-To 2, reaching the knee of the ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies to z Almost-Equal-To 8. The survey covers approximately 800 arcmin{sup 2} and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5{sigma} point-source limit H = 27.7 mag) covers {approx}125 arcmin{sup 2} within Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)-N and GOODS-S. The CANDELS/Wide survey includes GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-deep Survey) and covers the full area to a 5{sigma} point-source limit of H {approx}> 27.0 mag. Together with the Hubble Ultra Deep Fields, the strategy creates a three-tiered 'wedding-cake' approach that has proven efficient for extragalactic surveys. Data from the survey are nonproprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this paper, we describe the basic motivations for the survey, the CANDELS team science goals and the resulting observational requirements, the field selection and geometry, and the observing design. The Hubble data processing and products are described in a companion paper.

  14. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE 3D LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yong; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Kwok, Sun E-mail: xiazh@hku.hk

    2012-01-20

    We used the data from the Spitzer Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) to investigate the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates. In previous studies of GLIMPSE I and II data, we have shown that these MIR data are very useful in distinguishing PNs from other emission-line objects. In the present paper, we focus on the PNs in the field of the GLIMPSE 3D survey, which has a more extensive latitude coverage. We found a total of 90 Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs and 101 known PNs to have visible MIR counterparts in the GLIMPSE 3D survey area. The images and photometry of these PNs are presented. Combining the derived IRAC photometry at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m with the existing photometric measurements from other infrared catalogs, we are able to construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these PNs. Among the most notable objects in this survey is the PN M1-41, whose GLIMPSE 3D image reveals a large bipolar structure of more than 3 arcmin in extent.

  15. CANDELS: The Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Casertano, Stefano; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; DeMello, Duilla; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Straughn, Amber N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, from z approx. 8 - 1.5. It will image > 250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Tele8cope, from the mid-UV to near-IR, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae beyond z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 10(exp 9) solar mass to z approx. 2, reaching the knee of the UV luminosity function of galaxies to z approx. 8. The survey covers approximately 800 square arc minutes and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5(sigma) point-source limit H =27.7mag) covers approx. 125 square arcminutes within GOODS-N and GOODS-S. The CANDELS/Wide survey includes GOODS and three additional fields (EGS, COSMOS, and UDS) and covers the full area to a 50(sigma) point-source limit of H ? or approx. = 27.0 mag. Together with the Hubble Ultradeep Fields, the strategy creates a three-tiered "wedding cake" approach that has proven efficient for extragalactic surveys. Data from the survey are non-proprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this paper, we describe the basic motivations for the survey, the CANDELS team science goals and the resulting observational requirements, the field selection and geometry, and the observing design.

  16. The Spitzer/Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel; Berger, Edo; Butler, Nathaniel; Cenko, S. Bradley; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cucchiara, Antonino; Ellis, Richard; Fong, Wen-fai; Fruchter, Andrew; Fynbo, Johan; Gehrels, Neil; Graham, John; Greiner, Jochen; Hjorth, Jens; Hunt, Leslie; Jakobsson, Pall; Kruehler, Thomas; Laskar, Tanmoy; Le Floc'h, Emerich; Levan, Andrew; Levesque, Emily; Littlejohns, Owen; Malesani, Daniele; Michalowski, Michal; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Salvaterra, Ruben; Schulze, Steve; Schady, Patricia; Tanvir, Nial; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Vergani, Susanna; Watson, Darach

    2016-08-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts act as beacons to the sites of star-formation in the distant universe. GRBs reveal galaxies too faint and star-forming regions too dusty to characterize in detail using any other method, and provide a powerful independent constraint on the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density at high-redshift. However, a full understanding of the GRB phenomenon and its relation to cosmic star-formation requires connecting the observations obtained from GRBs to the properties of the galaxies hosting them. The large majority of GRBs originate at moderate to high redshift (z>1) and Spitzer has proven crucial for understanding the host population, given its unique ability to observe the rest-frame NIR and its unrivaled sensitivity and efficiency. We propose to complete a comprehensive public legacy survey of the Swift GRB host population to build on our earlier successes and push beyond the statistical limits of previous, smaller efforts. Our survey will enable a diverse range of GRB and galaxy science including: (1) to quantitatively and robustly map the connection between GRBs and cosmic star-formation to constrain the GRB progenitor and calibrate GRB rate-based measurements of the high-z cosmic star-formation rate; (2) to constrain the luminosity function of star-forming galaxies at the faint end and at high redshift; (3) to understand how the ISM properties seen in absorption in high-redshift galaxies unveiled by GRBs - metallicity, dust column, dust properties - connect to global properties of the host galaxies such as mass and age. Building on a decade of experience at both observatories, our observations will create an enduring joint Swift-Spitzer legacy sample - providing the definitive resource with which to examine all aspects of the GRB/galaxy connection for years to come and setting the stage for intensive JWST follow-up of the most interesting sources from our sample.

  17. The Rise Time of Type Ia Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.; Howes, A.; Sullivan, M.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aubourg, E.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Filiol, M.; Le Borgne, D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.

    2006-10-01

    We compare the rise times of nearby and distant Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as a test for evolution using 73 high-redshift spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia from the first 2 years of the 5 year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) and published observations of nearby SNe. Because of the ``rolling'' search nature of the SNLS, our measurement is approximately 6 times more precise than previous studies, allowing for a more sensitive test of evolution between nearby and distant SNe. Adopting a simple t2 early-time model (as in previous studies), we find that the rest-frame B rise times for a fiducial SN Ia at high and low redshift are consistent, with values 19.10+0.18-0.17(stat)+/-0.2(syst) and 19.58+0.22-0.19 days, respectively; the statistical significance of this difference is only 1.4 σ. The errors represent the uncertainty in the mean rather than any variation between individual SNe. We also compare subsets of our high-redshift data set based on decline rate, host galaxy star formation rate, and redshift, finding no substantive evidence for any subsample dependence. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the CFHT Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS.

  18. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok E-mail: sunkwok@hku.h

    2009-11-20

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 mum, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 mum band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Halpha images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  19. Photometric selection of Type Ia supernovae in the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, G.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Aubourg, E.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Sullivan, M.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Lidman, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Walker, E. S.

    2011-10-01

    We present a sample of 485 photometrically identified Type Ia supernova candidates mined from the first three years of data of the CFHT SuperNova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The images were submitted to a deferred processing independent of the SNLS real-time detection pipeline. Light curves of all transient events were reconstructed in the gM, rM, iM and zM filters and submitted to automated sequential cuts in order to identify possible supernovae. Pure noise and long-term variable events were rejected by light curve shape criteria. Type Ia supernova identification relied on event characteristics fitted to their light curves assuming the events to be normal SNe Ia. The light curve fitter SALT2 was used for this purpose, assigning host galaxy photometric redshifts to the tested events. The selected sample of 485 candidates is one magnitude deeper than that allowed by the SNLS spectroscopic identification. The contamination by supernovae of other types is estimated to be 4%. Testing Hubble diagram residuals with this enlarged sample allows us to measure the Malmquist bias due to spectroscopic selections directly. The result is fully consistent with the precise Monte Carlo based estimate used to correct SN Ia distance moduli in the SNLS 3-year cosmological analyses. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a photometric selection of high redshift supernovae with known host galaxy redshifts, opening interesting prospects for cosmological analyses from future large photometric SN Ia surveys.

  20. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A.; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R.

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  1. First Results from the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: A New Window on the High-z Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca M.; Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey Team

    2013-04-01

    The 2 sq.deg. COSMOS area is the only large field for which a complete, deep, pan-chromatic data set exists, thanks to an outstanding survey effort over nearly a decade. Now, the COSMOS survey is undergoing major extensions, via the newly approved Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey ('COSMOS-Legacy') and other programs. COSMOS-Legacy is the second largest Chandra proposal ever approved. COSMOS-Legacy will uniformly cover the 1.7 sq.deg. COSMOS/HST field with 2.8 Ms of Chandra ACIS-I imaging at ~160 ksec depth, expanding the deep C-COSMOS area by a factor of ~3 at ~3e-16 erg/cm2/s (1.45 vs 0.44 deg2). A total area of 2.2 deg2 will be covered. The first ten 50ks tiles (as of Jan 2013), out of 56 tiles, have been observed. At least other twenty are scheduled by the end of March 2013. At the same time NuSTAR is observing COSMOS for 3 Msec in the harder (5-80 keV) band to 5e-14 cgs (10-30 keV) complementing the Chandra observations. The area and depth of COSMOS Legacy are designed to detect ~40 z>4, and ~4 z>5 Large Scale Structures on >15 arcmin scales. These proto-structures have proven to connect luminous AGN and sub-mm galaxies in the early Universe. Over 200 z>3 X-ray AGN (below and above Lx=10^44) are expected, many of which should lie in these structures. To fully characterize the high-z X-ray sources in the structures, COSMOS Legacy is supported by spectroscopic follow-up observations (DEIMOS and MOSFIRE at Keck, KMOS at the VLT, FMOS at Subaru). New deep imaging surveys with Spitzer and JVLA are underway to define the properties of the galaxies in the structures up to 7. Extremely deep, r_{AB}=28.2, optical imaging in grizY are planned with the new HyperSuprimeCam on Subaru as well.

  2. Supernova Legacy Survey: using spectral signatures to improve Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, E. S.; Hook, I. M.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Bronder, T. J.; Carlberg, R.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Aldering, G.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Kronborg, T.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Zhang, T.

    2011-01-01

    Optical long-slit spectroscopy at the Gemini-North telescope using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) was used to classify targets from the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) from 2005 July and 2006 May-2008 May. During this time, 95 objects were observed. Where possible, the objects' redshifts (z) were measured from narrow emission or absorption features in the host galaxy spectrum, otherwise they were measured from the broader supernova features. We present spectra of 68 confirmed or probable SNe Ia from SNLS with redshifts in the range 0.17 ≤z≤ 1.02. In combination with earlier SNLS Gemini and VLT spectra, we used these new observations to measure pseudo-equivalent widths (EWs) of three spectral features - Ca II H&K, Si II and Mg II- in 144 objects and compared them to the EWs of low-redshift SNe Ia from a sample drawn from the literature. No signs of changes with z are seen for the Ca II H&K and Mg II features. Systematically lower EW Si II is seen at high redshift, but this can be explained by a change in demographics of the SNe Ia population within a two-component model combined with an observed correlation between EW Si II and photometric light-curve stretch.

  3. FAINT TIDAL FEATURES IN GALAXIES WITHIN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY WIDE FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Adam M.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2013-03-01

    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (M{sub r{sup '}}<-19.3 mag) galaxies in the magnitude range 15.5 mag < r' < 17 mag and in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.2. Although we have classified tidal features according to their morphology (e.g., streams, shells, and tails), we do not attempt to interpret them in terms of their physical origin (e.g., major versus minor merger debris). Instead, we provide a catalog that is intended to provide raw material for future investigations which will probe the nature of low surface brightness substructure around galaxies. We find that around 12% of the galaxies in our sample show clear tidal features at the highest confidence level. This fraction rises to about 18% if we include systems with convincing, albeit weaker tidal features, and to 26% if we include systems with more marginal features that may or may not be tidal in origin. These proportions are a strong function of rest-frame color and of stellar mass. Linear features, shells, and fans are much more likely to occur in massive galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10.5} M {sub Sun }, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  4. SUPERNOVA CONSTRAINTS AND SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES FROM THE FIRST THREE YEARS OF THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, A.; Carlberg, R. G.; Perrett, K. M.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M.; Basa, S.; Fouchez, D.; Howell, D. A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Baumont, S.

    2011-01-15

    We combine high-redshift Type Ia supernovae from the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) with other supernova (SN) samples, primarily at lower redshifts, to form a high-quality joint sample of 472 SNe (123 low-z, 93 SDSS, 242 SNLS, and 14 Hubble Space Telescope). SN data alone require cosmic acceleration at >99.999% confidence, including systematic effects. For the dark energy equation of state parameter (assumed constant out to at least z = 1.4) in a flat universe, we find w = -0.91{sup +0.16} {sub -0.20}(stat){sup +0.07} {sub -0.14}(sys) from SNe only, consistent with a cosmological constant. Our fits include a correction for the recently discovered relationship between host-galaxy mass and SN absolute brightness. We pay particular attention to systematic uncertainties, characterizing them using a systematic covariance matrix that incorporates the redshift dependence of these effects, as well as the shape-luminosity and color-luminosity relationships. Unlike previous work, we include the effects of systematic terms on the empirical light-curve models. The total systematic uncertainty is dominated by calibration terms. We describe how the systematic uncertainties can be reduced with soon to be available improved nearby and intermediate-redshift samples, particularly those calibrated onto USNO/SDSS-like systems.

  5. HI Absorption Lines Detected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong-zu, Wu; Martha P, Haynes; Riccardo, Giovanelli; Ming, Zhu; Ru-rong, Chen

    2015-10-01

    We present some preliminary results of an on-going study of HI 21-cm absorption lines based on the 40% survey data released by the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA). (1) Ten HI candidate absorbers have been detected. Five of them are previously published in the literature, and the rest of them are new detections that need further confirmation. (2) For those sources with no detected absorptions, we have calculated the upper limit of their foreground HI column density NHI. The statistical result of the NHI distribution indicates that the ratio Ts/f between the averaged spin temperature and coverage factor for DLAs (the damped Lyα systems) might be larger than 500 K. The radio frequency interference (RFI) and standing wave are the main factors affecting the detection of HI absorption lines, which have been analyzed and discussed as well in order to find a method of solution. Our study can serve as a pathfinder for the future large-scale search of HI 21-cm absorption lines using the Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), which is an Arecibo-type radio telescope currently under construction in China with greatly increased sensitivity, bandwidth, and observational sky area. As prospects, we have discussed two types of observational studies of HI absorption lines toward extragalactic sources using the FAST telescope.

  6. Constraining Type Ia Supernovae Progenitors from Three Years of Supernova Legacy Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, F. B.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Kasen, D.; González-Gaitán, S.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Fourmanoit, N.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2011-11-01

    While it is generally accepted that Type Ia supernovae are the result of the explosion of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf accreting mass in a binary system, the details of their genesis still elude us, and the nature of the binary companion is uncertain. Kasen points out that the presence of a non-degenerate companion in the progenitor system could leave an observable trace: a flux excess in the early rise portion of the light curve caused by the ejecta impact with the companion itself. This excess would be observable only under favorable viewing angles, and its intensity depends on the nature of the companion. We searched for the signature of a non-degenerate companion in three years of Supernova Legacy Survey data by generating synthetic light curves accounting for the effects of shocking and comparing true and synthetic time series with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Our most constraining result comes from noting that the shocking effect is more prominent in the rest-frame B than V band: we rule out a contribution from white dwarf-red giant binary systems to Type Ia supernova explosions greater than 10% at the 2σ, and greater than 20% at the 3σ level.

  7. The Type Ia Supernova Rate at z~0.5 from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, J. D.; Sullivan, M.; Balam, D.; Pritchet, C. J.; Howell, D. A.; Perrett, K.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Gonçalves, A. C.; Hardin, D.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Lusset, V.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Schlegel, D.; Tao, C.

    2006-09-01

    We present a measurement of the distant Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate derived from the first 2 yr of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey. We observed four 1deg×1deg fields with a typical temporal frequency of <Δt>~4 observer-frame days over time spans of 158-211 days per season for each field, with breaks during the full Moon. We used 8-10 m class telescopes for spectroscopic follow-up to confirm our candidates and determine their redshifts. Our starting sample consists of 73 spectroscopically verified SNe Ia in the redshift range 0.2=0.47)=[0.42+0.13-0.09(syst.)+/-0.06(stat.)×10-4 yr-1 Mpc3, assuming h=0.7, Ωm=0.3, and a flat cosmology. Using recently published galaxy luminosity functions derived in our redshift range, we derive a SN Ia rate per unit luminosity of rL(=0.47)=0.154+0.048-0.033(syst.)+0.039-0.031(stat.) SN units. Using our rate alone, we place an upper limit on the component of SN Ia production that tracks the cosmic star formation history of 1 SN Ia per 103 Msolar of stars formed. Our rate and other rates from surveys using spectroscopic sample confirmation display only a modest evolution out to z=0.55. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. This work is also based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Program 171.A-0486), and on observations (programs GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004A-Q-11

  8. The Supernova Legacy Survey 3-year sample: Type Ia supernovae photometric distances and cosmological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, J.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We present photometric properties and distance measurements of 252 high redshift Type Ia supernovae (0.15 < z < 1.1) discovered during the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-colour light curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshifts. Methods: Systematic uncertainties arising from light curve modeling are studied, making use of two techniques to derive the peak magnitude, shape and colour of the supernovae, and taking advantage of a precise calibration of the SNLS fields. Results: A flat ΛCDM cosmological fit to 231 SNLS high redshift type Ia supernovae alone gives Ω_M = 0.211 ± 0.034(stat) ± 0.069(sys). The dominant systematic uncertainty comes from uncertainties in the photometric calibration. Systematic uncertainties from light curve fitters come next with a total contribution of ±0.026 on Ω_M. No clear evidence is found for a possible evolution of the slope (β) of the colour-luminosity relation with redshift. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Programme 171.A-0486 & 176.A-0589). Based on

  9. Nature and statistical properties of quasar associated absorption systems in the XQ-100 Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, S.; D'Odorico, V.; Prochaska, J. X.; Cristiani, S.; Cupani, G.; Ellison, S.; López, S.; Becker, G. D.; Berg, T. A. M.; Christensen, L.; Denney, K. D.; Hamann, F.; Pâris, I.; Vestergaard, M.; Worseck, G.

    2016-11-01

    We statistically study the physical properties of a sample of narrow absorption line (NAL) systems looking for empirical evidences to distinguish between intrinsic and intervening NALs without taking into account any a priori definition or velocity cut-off. We analyse the spectra of 100 quasars with 3.5 < zem < 4.5, observed with X-shooter/Very Large Telescope in the context of the XQ-100 Legacy Survey. We detect an ˜8σ excess in the C IV number density within 10 000 km s- 1 of the quasar emission redshift with respect to the random occurrence of NALs. This excess does not show a dependence on the quasar bolometric luminosity and it is not due to the redshift evolution of NALs. It extends far beyond the standard 5000 km s- 1 cut-off traditionally defined for associated absorption lines. We propose to modify this definition, extending the threshold to 10 000 km s- 1 when weak absorbers (equivalent width < 0.2 Å) are also considered. We infer N V is the ion that better traces the effects of the quasar ionization field, offering the best statistical tool to identify intrinsic systems. Following this criterion, we estimate that the fraction of quasars in our sample hosting an intrinsic NAL system is 33 per cent. Lastly, we compare the properties of the material along the quasar line of sight, derived from our sample, with results based on close quasar pairs investigating the transverse direction. We find a deficiency of cool gas (traced by C II) along the line of sight connected to the quasar host galaxy, in contrast with what is observed in the transverse direction.

  10. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey: Source X-Ray Spectral Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Lanzuisi, G.; Civano, F.; Iwasawa, K.; Suh, H.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Griffiths, R.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Schawinski, K.; Silverman, J.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Vignali, C.

    2016-10-01

    We present the X-ray spectral analysis of the 1855 extragalactic sources in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey catalog having more than 30 net counts in the 0.5–7 keV band. A total of 38% of the sources are optically classified type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 60% are type 2 AGNs, and 2% are passive, low-redshift galaxies. We study the distribution of AGN photon index Γ and of the intrinsic absorption {N}{{H},{{z}}} based on the sources’ optical classification: type 1 AGNs have a slightly steeper mean photon index Γ than type 2 AGNs, which, on the other hand, have average {N}{{H},{{z}}} ∼ 3 times higher than type 1 AGNs. We find that ∼15% of type 1 AGNs have {N}{{H},{{z}}}\\gt {10}22 cm‑2, i.e., are obscured according to the X-ray spectral fitting; the vast majority of these sources have {L}2{--10{keV}} \\gt 1044 erg s‑1. The existence of these objects suggests that optical and X-ray obscuration can be caused by different phenomena, the X-ray obscuration being, for example, caused by dust-free material surrounding the inner part of the nuclei. Approximately 18% of type 2 AGNs have {N}{{H},{{z}}}\\lt {10}22 cm‑2, and most of these sources have low X-ray luminosities (L {}2{--10{keV}} \\lt 1043 erg s‑1). We expect a part of these sources to be low-accretion, unobscured AGNs lacking broad emission lines. Finally, we also find a direct proportional trend between {N}{{H},{{z}}} and host-galaxy mass and star formation rate, although part of this trend is due to a redshift selection effect.

  11. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. III. Second public data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Sánchez, S. F.; Husemann, B.; de Amorim, A. L.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Ellis, S. C.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López-Fernandez, R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Pérez, E.; Vale Asari, N.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bomans, D. J.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Demleitner, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Díaz, A. I.; Florido, E.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Holmes, L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Jahnke, K.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Meidt, S. E.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Morisset, C.; del Olmo, A.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Singh, R.; Spekkens, K.; Stanishev, V.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; van de Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Walcher, C. J.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.; Alves, J.; Barrado, D.; Quintana, J. M.; Aceituno, J.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the Second Public Data Release (DR2) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The data for 200 objects are made public, including the 100 galaxies of the First Public Data Release (DR1). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. Two different spectral setups are available for each galaxy, (i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3745-7500 Å with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å (FWHM); and (ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 Å with a spectral resolution of 2.3 Å (FWHM). The sample covers a redshift range between 0.005 and 0.03, with a wide range of properties in the color-magnitude diagram, stellar mass, ionization conditions, and morphological types. All the cubes in the data release were reduced with the latest pipeline, which includes improvedspectrophotometric calibration, spatial registration, and spatial resolution. The spectrophotometric calibration is better than 6% and the median spatial resolution is 2.̋4. In total, the second data release contains over 1.5 million spectra. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The second data release is available at http://califa.caha.es/DR2

  12. The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: a first look at Taurus with HARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. J.; Chrysostomou, A.; Hatchell, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Nutter, D.; Fich, M.; Brunt, C.; Butner, H.; Cavanagh, B.; Curtis, E. I.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; di Francesco, J.; Etxaluze, M.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J. S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Richer, J. S.; Roberts, J.; Sadavoy, S.; Simpson, R. J.; Tothill, N.; Tsamis, Y.; Viti, S.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, Glenn J.; Yates, J.

    2010-06-01

    As part of a James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Legacy Survey of star formation in the Gould Belt, we present early science results for Taurus. CO J = 3 -2 maps have been secured along the north-west ridge and bowl, collectively known as L 1495, along with deep 13CO and C18O J = 3 -2 maps in two subregions. With these data, we search for molecular outflows, and use the distribution of flows, Herbig-Haro (HH) objects and shocked H2 line-emission features, together with the population of young stars, protostellar cores and starless condensations to map star formation across this extensive region. In total, 21 outflows are identified. It is clear that the bowl is more evolved than the ridge, harbouring a greater population of T Tauri stars and a more diffuse, more turbulent ambient medium. By comparison, the ridge contains a much younger, less widely distributed population of protostars which, in turn, is associated with a greater number of molecular outflows. We estimate the ratio of the numbers of pre-stellar to protostellar cores in L 1495 to be ~1.3-2.3, and of gravitationally unbound starless cores to (gravitationally bound) pre-stellar cores to be ~1. If we take previous estimates of the protostellar lifetime of ~5 × 105 yr, this indicates a pre-stellar lifetime of 9(+/-3) × 105 yr. From the number of outflows, we also crudely estimate the star formation efficiency in L 1495, finding it to be compatible with a canonical value of 10-15 per cent. We note that molecular outflow-driving sources have redder near-infrared colours than their HH jet-driving counterparts. We also find that the smaller, denser cores are associated with the more massive outflows, as one might expect if mass build-up in the flow increases with the collapse and contraction of the protostellar envelope.

  13. The HST Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters: Shedding UV Light on Their Populations and Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotto, Giampaolo

    2013-10-01

    This is a UV-initiative proposal to complement the existing F606W and F814W database of the ACS Globular Cluster {GC} Treasury by imaging most of its clusters through UV/blue WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W and F438W. This "magic trio" of filters has shown an uncanny ability to disentangle and characterize multiple-population {MP} patterns, in a way that is exquisitely sensitive to C, N, and O abundance variations. Combination of these passbands with the optical ones also gives the best leverage for measuring helium enrichment. The dozen clusters so far observed in these bands exhibit a bewildering variety of MP patterns, so that only a wide survey can map the full variance of the phenomenon. This ubiquity of multiple stellar generations in GCs has made the formation of these cornerstone objects more intriguing than ever; GC formation and the origin of their MPs have now become one and the same problem.Our resulting five-band Treasury database will also provide unique tools to address a wide variety of other issues, such as: the advanced evolution of intermediate-mass stars; their chemical yields and contribution to the chemical evolution of galaxies; the calibration of UV-optical colors for unresolved stellar systems; the nature of the second parameter{s} that control the morphology of the horizontal branch; the identification and characterization of blue stragglers, high-energy sources, optical counterparts of millisecond pulsars, and other exotica that tend to congregate in globular clusters. Thus, an extremely wide scientific return will come from this HST legacy database.

  14. Two Superluminous Supernovae from the Early Universe Discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D. A.; Kasen, D.; Lidman, C.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2013-12-01

    We present spectra and light curves of SNLS 06D4eu and SNLS 07D2bv, two hydrogen-free superluminous supernovae (SNe) discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey. At z = 1.588, SNLS 06D4eu is the highest redshift superluminous SN with a spectrum, at MU = -22.7 it is one of the most luminous SNe ever observed, and it gives a rare glimpse into the rest-frame ultraviolet where these SNe put out their peak energy. SNLS 07D2bv does not have a host galaxy redshift, but on the basis of the SN spectrum, we estimate it to be at z ~ 1.5. Both SNe have similar observer-frame griz light curves, which map to rest-frame light curves in the U band and UV, rising in ~20 rest-frame days or longer and declining over a similar timescale. The light curves peak in the shortest wavelengths first, consistent with an expanding blackbody starting near 15,000 K and steadily declining in temperature. We compare the spectra with theoretical models, and we identify lines of C II, C III, Fe III, and Mg II in the spectra of SNLS 06D4eu and SCP 06F6 and find that they are consistent with an expanding explosion of only a few solar masses of carbon, oxygen, and other trace metals. Thus, the progenitors appear to be related to those suspected for SNe Ic. A high kinetic energy, 1052 erg, is also favored. Normal mechanisms of powering core-collapse or thermonuclear SNe do not seem to work for these SNe. We consider models powered by 56Ni decay and interaction with circumstellar material, but we find that the creation and spin-down of a magnetar with a period of 2 ms, a magnetic field of 2 × 1014 G, and a 3 M ⊙ progenitor provides the best fit to the data.

  15. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. IV. Third public data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Walcher, C. J.; Husemann, B.; Mendoza, M. A.; Galbany, L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Mast, D.; Aceituno, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alves, J.; Amorim, A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrado-Navascues, D.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Bekeraitè, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cano Díaz, M.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Cavichia, O.; Cortijo, C.; Dannerbauer, H.; Demleitner, M.; Díaz, A.; Dettmar, R. J.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; del Olmo, A.; Galazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R.; Holmes, L.; Iglésias-Páramo, J.; Kehrig, C.; Kelz, A.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kleemann, B.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López Fernández, R.; López Sánchez, A. R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R.; Márquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Ortega Minakata, R.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Pérez, E.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Schilling, U.; Spekkens, K.; Vale Asari, N.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Yıldırım, A.; Ziegler, B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the third public data release (DR3) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. Science-grade quality data for 667 galaxies are made public, including the 200 galaxies of the second public data release (DR2). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. Three different spectral setups are available: i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3745-7500 Å (4240-7140 Å unvignetted) with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å (FWHM) for 646 galaxies, ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 Å (3650-4620 Å unvignetted) with a spectral resolution of 2.3 Å (FWHM) for 484 galaxies, and iii) the combination of the cubes from both setups (called COMBO) with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å and a wavelength range between 3700-7500 Å (3700-7140 Å unvignetted) for 446 galaxies. The Main Sample, selected and observed according to the CALIFA survey strategy covers a redshift range between 0.005 and 0.03, spans the color-magnitude diagram and probes a wide range of stellar masses, ionization conditions, and morphological types. The Extension Sample covers several types of galaxies that are rare in the overall galaxy population and are therefore not numerous or absent in the CALIFA Main Sample. All the cubes in the data release were processed using the latest pipeline, which includes improved versions of the calibration frames and an even further improved image reconstruction quality. In total, the third data release contains 1576 datacubes, including ~1.5 million independent spectra. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The spectra are available at http://califa.caha.es/DR3

  16. Evolution in the Volumetric Type Ia Supernova Rate from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrett, K.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; González-Gaitán, S.; Carlberg, R.; Fouchez, D.; Ripoche, P.; Neill, J. D.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Baumont, S.; Lidman, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Walker, E. S.

    2012-08-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate (SNRIa) as a function of redshift for the first four years of data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This analysis includes 286 spectroscopically confirmed and more than 400 additional photometrically identified SNe Ia within the redshift range 0.1 <= z <= 1.1. The volumetric SNRIa evolution is consistent with a rise to z ~ 1.0 that follows a power law of the form (1+z)α, with α = 2.11 ± 0.28. This evolutionary trend in the SNLS rates is slightly shallower than that of the cosmic star formation history (SFH) over the same redshift range. We combine the SNLS rate measurements with those from other surveys that complement the SNLS redshift range, and fit various simple SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) models to the combined data. A simple power-law model for the DTD (i.e., vpropt -β) yields values from β = 0.98 ± 0.05 to β = 1.15 ± 0.08 depending on the parameterization of the cosmic SFH. A two-component model, where SNRIa is dependent on stellar mass (M stellar) and star formation rate (SFR) as SNRIa(z) = A × M stellar(z) + B × SFR(z), yields the coefficients A = (1.9 ± 0.1) × 10-14 SNe yr-1 M -1 ⊙ and B = (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-4 SNe yr-1 (M ⊙ yr-1)-1. More general two-component models also fit the data well, but single Gaussian or exponential DTDs provide significantly poorer matches. Finally, we split the SNLS sample into two populations by the light-curve width (stretch), and show that the general behavior in the rates of faster-declining SNe Ia (0.8 <= s < 1.0) is similar, within our measurement errors, to that of the slower objects (1.0 <= s < 1.3) out to z ~ 0.8.

  17. Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey -- UDS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Sandra

    2010-09-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the ?rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} to provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of ?ve widely separated ?elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a ?Wide? imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a ?Deep? imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.In combination with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef?cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include: - Structure in young

  18. THE DISTRIBUTION OF FAINT SATELLITES AROUND CENTRAL GALAXIES IN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. Y.; Jing, Y. P.; Li, Cheng

    2012-11-20

    We investigate the radial number density profile and the abundance distribution of faint satellites around central galaxies in the low-redshift universe using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey. We consider three samples of central galaxies with magnitudes of M {sub r} = -21, -22, and -23 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalog of Yang et al. The satellite distribution around these central galaxies is obtained by cross-correlating these galaxies with the photometric catalog of the CFHT Legacy Survey. The projected radial number density of the satellites obeys a power-law form with the best-fit logarithmic slope of -1.05, independent of both the central galaxy luminosity and the satellite luminosity. The projected cross-correlation function between central and satellite galaxies exhibits a non-monotonic trend with satellite luminosity. It is most pronounced for central galaxies with M {sub r} = -21, where the decreasing trend of clustering amplitude with satellite luminosity is reversed when satellites are fainter than central galaxies by more than 2 mag. A comparison with the satellite luminosity functions in the Milky Way (MW) and M31 shows that the MW/M31 system has about twice as many satellites as around a typical central galaxy of similar luminosity. The implications for theoretical models are briefly discussed.

  19. The Supernova Legacy Survey: measurement of ΩM, ΩΛ and w from the first year data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astier, P.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Pain, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Courtois, H.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Gonçalves, A. C.; Goobar, A.; Guide, D.; Hardin, D.; Lusset, V.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; Walton, N.

    2006-02-01

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands, as part of the CFHT Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z=1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multi-band photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results: Ω_M= 0.263 ± 0.042 (stat) ± 0.032 (sys) for a flat ΛCDM model; and w = -1.023 ± 0.090 (stat) ± 0.054 (sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined with the constraint from the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations.

  20. Two superluminous supernovae from the early universe discovered by the supernova legacy survey

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, D. A.; Kasen, D.; Lidman, C.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Pritchet, C. J.

    2013-12-20

    We present spectra and light curves of SNLS 06D4eu and SNLS 07D2bv, two hydrogen-free superluminous supernovae (SNe) discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey. At z = 1.588, SNLS 06D4eu is the highest redshift superluminous SN with a spectrum, at M{sub U} = –22.7 it is one of the most luminous SNe ever observed, and it gives a rare glimpse into the rest-frame ultraviolet where these SNe put out their peak energy. SNLS 07D2bv does not have a host galaxy redshift, but on the basis of the SN spectrum, we estimate it to be at z ∼ 1.5. Both SNe have similar observer-frame griz light curves, which map to rest-frame light curves in the U band and UV, rising in ∼20 rest-frame days or longer and declining over a similar timescale. The light curves peak in the shortest wavelengths first, consistent with an expanding blackbody starting near 15,000 K and steadily declining in temperature. We compare the spectra with theoretical models, and we identify lines of C II, C III, Fe III, and Mg II in the spectra of SNLS 06D4eu and SCP 06F6 and find that they are consistent with an expanding explosion of only a few solar masses of carbon, oxygen, and other trace metals. Thus, the progenitors appear to be related to those suspected for SNe Ic. A high kinetic energy, 10{sup 52} erg, is also favored. Normal mechanisms of powering core-collapse or thermonuclear SNe do not seem to work for these SNe. We consider models powered by {sup 56}Ni decay and interaction with circumstellar material, but we find that the creation and spin-down of a magnetar with a period of 2 ms, a magnetic field of 2 × 10{sup 14} G, and a 3 M {sub ☉} progenitor provides the best fit to the data.

  1. The c2d MAMBO Legacy Survey of Star Forming Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, J.; Bertoldi, F.; Evans, N. J., II.

    2006-12-01

    We have imaged the dust emission in 37 starless and protostellar clouds and cores. These observations provide complementary information for the deep Spitzer images taken within the Spitzer Legacy Program ``From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks''. The dust continuum maps alone provide interesting constraints on the earliest stages of star formation. We find a number of cores that appear to be too massive to be supported against gravity by thermal and turbulent pressure alone. Our detailed modeling suggests that magnetic fields must also contribute to their stability.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The COSMOS-Legacy Survey (CLS) catalog (Civano+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Comastri, A.; Urry, M. C.; Elvis, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Allevato, V.; Brunner, H.; Capak, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Glotfelty, K.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hao, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Karim, A.; Lamassa, S. M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. J.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Stern, D.; Toft, S.; Trakhenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-05-01

    The half-a-field shift tiling strategy was designed to uniformly cover the COSMOS Hubble area in depth and point-spread function (PSF) size by combining the old C-COSMOS (Elvis+, 2009, J/ApJS/184/158) observations with the new Chandra ones (see Figure 1). We summarize the main properties of the new ACIS-I Chandra COSMOS-Legacy observations in Table 1. The observations took place in four blocks: 2012 November to 2013 January; 2013 March to July; 2013 October to 2014 January; and 2014 March. The mean net effective exposure time per field was 48.8ks after all the cleaning and reduction operations. (2 data files).

  3. Gemini Spectroscopy of Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey: Improving High-Redshift Supernova Selection and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Bronder, T. J.; Hook, I. M.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Knop, R.; McMahon, R. G.; Perlmutter, S.; Walton, N. A.

    2005-12-01

    We present new techniques for improving the efficiency of supernova (SN) classification at high redshift using 64 candidates observed at Gemini North and South during the first year of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The SNLS is an ongoing 5 year project with the goal of measuring the equation of state of dark energy by discovering and following over 700 high-redshift SNe Ia using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. We achieve an improvement in the SN Ia spectroscopic confirmation rate: at Gemini 71% of candidates are now confirmed as SNe Ia, compared to 54% using the methods of previous surveys. This is despite the comparatively high redshift of this sample, in which the median SN Ia redshift is z=0.81 (0.155<=z<=1.01). These improvements were realized because we use the unprecedented color coverage and light curve sampling of the SNLS to predict whether a candidate is a SN Ia and to estimate its redshift, before obtaining a spectrum, using a new technique called the ``SN photo-z.'' In addition, we have improved techniques for galaxy subtraction and SN template χ2 fitting, allowing us to identify candidates even when they are only 15% as bright as the host galaxy. The largest impediment to SN identification is found to be host galaxy contamination of the spectrum-when the SN was at least as bright as the underlying host galaxy the target was identified more than 90% of the time. However, even SNe in bright host galaxies can be easily identified in good seeing conditions. When the image quality was better than 0.55", the candidate was identified 88% of the time. Over the 5 year course of the survey, using the selection techniques presented here, we will be able to add ~170 more confirmed SNe Ia than would be possible using previous methods. APC, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. DSM/DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

  4. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: galaxies in the deep 850 μm survey, and the star-forming `main sequence'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, M. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Roseboom, I.; Geach, J. E.; Cirasuolo, M.; Aretxaga, I.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Banerji, M.; Bourne, N.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Chapman, S.; Hughes, D. H.; Jenness, T.; McLure, R. J.; Symeonidis, M.; Werf, P. van der

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the properties of the galaxies selected from the deepest 850-μm survey undertaken to date with (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2) SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. A total of 106 sources (>5σ) were uncovered at 850 μm from an area of ≃150 arcmin2 in the centre of the COSMOS/UltraVISTA/Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) field, imaged to a typical depth of σ850 ≃ 0.25 mJy. We utilize the available multifrequency data to identify galaxy counterparts for 80 of these sources (75 per cent), and to establish the complete redshift distribution for this sample, yielding bar{z} = 2.38± 0.09. We have also been able to determine the stellar masses of the majority of the galaxy identifications, enabling us to explore their location on the star formation rate:stellar mass (SFR:M*) plane. Crucially, our new deep 850-μm-selected sample reaches flux densities equivalent to SFR ≃ 100 M⊙ yr-1, enabling us to confirm that sub-mm galaxies form the high-mass end of the `main sequence' (MS) of star-forming galaxies at z > 1.5 (with a mean specific SFR of sSFR = 2.25 ± 0.19 Gyr-1 at z ≃ 2.5). Our results are consistent with no significant flattening of the MS towards high masses at these redshifts. However, our results add to the growing evidence that average sSFR rises only slowly at high redshift, resulting in log10sSFR being an apparently simple linear function of the age of the Universe.

  5. THE CFHTLS-STRONG LENSING LEGACY SURVEY (SL2S): INVESTIGATING THE GROUP-SCALE LENSES WITH THE SARCS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    More, A.; More, S.; Cabanac, R.; Alard, C.; Gavazzi, R.; Limousin, M.; Kneib, J-P.; Motta, V.

    2012-04-10

    We present the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey-ARCS (SARCS) sample compiled from the final T0006 data release of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) covering a total non-overlapping area of 159 deg{sup 2}. We adopt a semi-automatic method to find gravitational arcs in the survey that makes use of an arc-finding algorithm. The candidate list is pruned by visual inspection and ranking to form the final SARCS sample. This list also includes some serendipitously discovered lens candidates which the automated algorithm did not detect. The SARCS sample consists of 127 lens candidates which span arc radii {approx}2''-18'' within the unmasked area of {approx}150 deg{sup 2}. Within the sample, 54 systems are promising lenses among which, we find 12 giant arcs (length-to-width ratio {>=}8). We also find two radial arc candidates in SL2SJ141447+544704. From our sample, we detect a systematic alignment of the giant arcs with the major axis of the baryonic component of the putative lens in concordance with previous studies. This alignment is also observed for all arcs in the sample and does not vary significantly with increasing arc radius. The mean values of the photometric redshift distributions of lenses corresponding to the giant arcs and all arcs sample are at z {approx} 0.6. Owing to the large area and depth of the CFHTLS, we find the largest sample of lenses probing mass scales that are intermediate to cluster and galaxy lenses for the first time. We compare the observed image separation distribution (ISD) of our arcs with theoretical models. A two-component density profile for the lenses which accounts for both the central galaxy and the dark matter component is required by the data to explain the observed ISD. Unfortunately, current levels of uncertainties and degeneracies accommodate models both with and without adiabatic contraction. We also show the effects of changing parameters of the model that predict the ISD and that a larger lens sample

  6. The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Omega_M, Omega_Lambda, and w from the First Year Data Set

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Astier, P.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Pain, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Courtois, H.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Goncalves, A. C.; Goobar, A.; Guide, D.; Hardin, D.; Lusset, V.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; Walton, N.

    2005-10-14

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z = 1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multiband photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results: {Omega}{sub M} = 0.263 {+-} 0.042 (stat) {+-} 0.032 (sys) for a flat {Lambda}CDM model; and w = -1.023 {+-} 0.090 (stat) {+-} 0.054 (sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined with the constraint from the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations.

  7. The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Omega_M, Omega_Lambda,and w from the First Year Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Astier, P.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Pain, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balam,D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R.G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J.D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Courtois, H.; Ellis, R.S.; Filiol, M.; Goncalves, A.C.; Goobar, A.; Guide, D.; Hardin, D.; Lusset, V.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; Walton, N.

    2005-10-14

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z = 1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multiband photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results: {Omega}{sub M} = 0.263 {+-} 0.042 (stat) {+-} 0.032 (sys) for a flat {Lambda}CDM model; and w = -1.023 {+-} 0.090 (stat) {+-} 0.054 (sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined with the constraint from the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations.

  8. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS Survey (SLUGGS): Sample Definition, Methods, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A.; Foster, Caroline; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Spitler, Lee R.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Woodley, Kristin A.

    2014-11-01

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin2 field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ~8 R e, and to ~15 R e in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (~2-3 R e) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  9. S-COSMOS: The Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope ACS 2 deg2 COSMOS Field I: Survey Strategy and First Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Ilbert, O.; Scoville, N.; Surace, J. A.; Frayer, D. T.; Sheth, K.; Helou, G.; Brooke, T.; Bhattacharya, B.; Yan, L.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Barnes, J. E.; Blain, A. W.; Calzetti, D.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Comastri, A.; Daddi, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Fall, S. M.; Franceschini, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hasinger, G.; Impey, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, M. C.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Renzini, A.; Rich, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Shopbell, P. L.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Urry, C. M.; Williams, J. P.

    2007-09-01

    The COSMOS Spitzer survey (S-COSMOS) is a Legacy program (Cycles 2+3) designed to carry out a uniform deep survey of the full 2 deg2 COSMOS field in all seven Spitzer bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.6, 8.0, 24.0, 70.0, and 160.0 μm). This paper describes the survey parameters, mapping strategy, data reduction procedures, achieved sensitivities to date, and the complete data set for future reference. We show that the observed infrared backgrounds in the S-COSMOS field are within 10% of the predicted background levels. The fluctuations in the background at 24 μm have been measured and do not show any significant contribution from cirrus, as expected. In addition, we report on the number of asteroid detections in the low Galactic latitude COSMOS field. We use the Cycle 2 S-COSMOS data to determine preliminary number counts, and compare our results with those from previous Spitzer Legacy surveys (e.g., SWIRE, GOODS). The results from this ``first analysis'' confirm that the S-COSMOS survey will have sufficient sensitivity with IRAC to detect ~L* disks and spheroids out to z>~3, and with MIPS to detect ultraluminous starbursts and AGNs out to z~3 at 24 μm and out to z~1.5-2 at 70 and 160 μm. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by AURA under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy

  10. The Hubble Space TelescopeUV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - V. Constraints on formation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzini, A.; D'Antona, F.; Cassisi, S.; King, I. R.; Milone, A. P.; Ventura, P.; Anderson, J.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T. M.; Piotto, G.; van der Marel, R. P.; Barbuy, B.; Dalessandro, E.; Hidalgo, S.; Marino, A. F.; Ortolani, S.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.

    2015-12-01

    We build on the evidence provided by our Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters (GC) to submit to a crucial test four scenarios currently entertained for the formation of multiple stellar generations in GCs. The observational constraints on multiple generations to be fulfilled are manifold, including GC specificity, ubiquity, variety, predominance, discreteness, supernova avoidance, p-capture processing, helium enrichment and mass budget. We argue that scenarios appealing to supermassive stars, fast rotating massive stars and massive interactive binaries violate in an irreparable fashion two or more among such constraints. Also the scenario appealing to asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars as producers of the material for next generation stars encounters severe difficulties, specifically concerning the mass budget problem and the detailed chemical composition of second-generation stars. We qualitatively explore ways possibly allowing one to save the AGB scenario, specifically appealing to a possible revision of the cross-section of a critical reaction rate destroying sodium, or alternatively by a more extensive exploration of the vast parameter space controlling the evolutionary behaviour of AGB stellar models. Still, we cannot ensure success for these efforts and totally new scenarios may have to be invented to understand how GCs formed in the early Universe.

  11. 101 Astro Honors Laboratory Exercises using the Hubble Legacy Archive, the Digitized Sky Survey on MAST, and Stellar Spectral Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory lab exercises and documents are presented that can be used with Honors-student introductory astronomy students in a dedicated laboratory section. The three lab exercises involve using the Hubble Legacy Archive to create a color-magnitude diagram, use of stellar spectra standards catalog to learn spectral classification, and the Digitized Sky Survey on MAST to present the students with a challenging morphological exercise. The labs contrast with some of the standard physics-based labs, and focusing on encountering data in an astronomical context. Appropriate for a lab section of between 15 and 25 students, each exercise lasts approximately two hours, and are designed to be done in teams. The first two labs have a strong advantage that the primary answers cannot be obtained with ease from various internet search engines. The DSS/MAST exercises deliberately exploits the ubiquity of portable computers in the possession of the students in classes, and forces them to do extensive image and data comparison and interpretation. The labs have all been used in multiple sections, as well as workshops with amateur astronomers, with the greatest success in the stellar spectra lab.

  12. Analyzing legacy U.S. Geological Survey geochemical databases using GIS: applications for a national mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Granitto, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This report emphasizes geographic information system analysis and the display of data stored in the legacy U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Database for use in mineral resource investigations. Geochemical analyses of soils, stream sediments, and rocks that are archived in the National Geochemical Database provide an extensive data source for investigating geochemical anomalies. A study area in the Egan Range of east-central Nevada was used to develop a geographic information system analysis methodology for two different geochemical datasets involving detailed (Bureau of Land Management Wilderness) and reconnaissance-scale (National Uranium Resource Evaluation) investigations. ArcGIS was used to analyze and thematically map geochemical information at point locations. Watershed-boundary datasets served as a geographic reference to relate potentially anomalous sample sites with hydrologic unit codes at varying scales. The National Hydrography Dataset was analyzed with Hydrography Event Management and ArcGIS Utility Network Analyst tools to delineate potential sediment-sample provenance along a stream network. These tools can be used to track potential upstream-sediment-contributing areas to a sample site. This methodology identifies geochemically anomalous sample sites, watersheds, and streams that could help focus mineral resource investigations in the field.

  13. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. VI. The distribution of gas and star formation in M 81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Gallego, J. R.; Knapen, J. H.; Heiner, J. S.; Wilson, C. D.; Warren, B. E.; Allen, R. J.; Azimlu, M.; Barmby, P.; Bendo, G. J.; Comerón, S.; Israel, F. P.; Serjeant, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Vlahakis, C.; van der Werf, P.

    2011-03-01

    We present the first complete 12CO J = 3-2 map of M 81, observed as part of the Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey being carried out at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We detect nine regions of significant CO emission located at different positions within the spiral arms, and confirm that the global CO emission in the galaxy is low. We combine these data with a new Hα map obtained using the Isaac Newton Telescope and archival H i, 24μm, and FUV images to uncover a correlation between the molecular gas and star forming regions in M 81. For the nine regions detected in CO J = 3-2, we combine our CO J = 3-2 data with existing CO J = 1-0 data to calculate line ratios. We find that the ratio J = (3-2)/(1-0) is in agreement with the range of typical values found in the literature (0.2-0.8). Making reasonable assumptions, this allows us to constrain the hydrogen density to the range (103-104) cm-3. We also estimated the amount of hydrogen produced in photo-dissociation regions near the locations where CO J = 3-2 was detected.

  14. First Results from the SMA Legacy Survey of the Central Molecular Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, Cara

    2016-01-01

    The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) is home to the largest reservoir of dense molecular gas in our Galaxy. Analogous to high-redshift galaxies in its gas density and level of turbulence, the CMZ, at a distance of only 8.4 kpc, is our nearest laboratory to understand extreme star formation throughout the universe. We exploit the high angular resolution, large bandwidth, and wide-field mapping capabilities of the Submilllimeter Array (SMA) to conduct the first large-scale, high-resolution survey of this uniquely interesting star-forming environment in the Milky Way. Over the course of 3 years, we are mapping 240 sq. arcminutes of the highest column density gas in the CMZ at 0.2 pc resolution in both 1.3 mm cold dust continuum and a variety of spectral lines (including tracers of dense gas, hot core chemistry, shocks, and outflows). We present here early highlights of the survey from years 1 and 2, including evidence for tidal compression of clouds at pericenter passage by Sgr A* and the consequent formation of massive clusters. We observe widespread shocks, high densities, and high turbulence in clouds at percienter passage, but no active star formation, while clouds further downstream show progressively more evolved star formation.

  15. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: The Galaxy Population Detected by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2012-09-01

    Making use of H I 21 cm line measurements from the ALFALFA survey (α.40) and photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), we investigate the global scaling relations and fundamental planes linking stars and gas for a sample of 9417 common galaxies: the α.40-SDSS-GALEX sample. In addition to their H I properties derived from the ALFALFA data set, stellar masses (M *) and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fitting the UV-optical spectral energy distributions. 96% of the α.40-SDSS-GALEX galaxies belong to the blue cloud, with the average gas fraction f H I ≡ M H I /M * ~ 1.5. A transition in star formation (SF) properties is found whereby below M * ~ 109.5 M ⊙, the slope of the star-forming sequence changes, the dispersion in the specific star formation rate (SSFR) distribution increases, and the star formation efficiency (SFE) mildly increases with M *. The evolutionary track in the SSFR-M * diagram, as well as that in the color-magnitude diagram, is linked to the H I content; below this transition mass, the SF is regulated strongly by the H I. Comparison of H I and optically selected samples over the same restricted volume shows that the H I-selected population is less evolved and has overall higher SFR and SSFR at a given stellar mass, but lower SFE and extinction, suggesting either that a bottleneck exists in the H I-to-H2 conversion or that the process of SF in the very H I-dominated galaxies obeys an unusual, low-efficiency SF law. A trend is found that, for a given stellar mass, high gas fraction galaxies reside preferentially in dark matter halos with high spin parameters. Because it represents a full census of H I-bearing galaxies at z ~ 0, the scaling relations and fundamental planes derived for the ALFALFA population can be used to assess the H I detection rate by future blind H I surveys and intensity mapping experiments at higher redshift. Based on observations made with the Arecibo

  16. The SCUBA-2 cosmology legacy survey: Ultraluminous star-forming galaxies in a z = 1.6 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Simpson, J. M.; Geach, J. E.; Tadaki, K.; Arumugam, V.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Hartley, W.; Almaini, O.; Conselice, C.; Bremer, M. N.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Scott, D.; Simpson, C. J.; Karim, A.; Kodama, T.; and others

    2014-02-10

    We analyze new SCUBA-2 submillimeter and archival SPIRE far-infrared imaging of a z = 1.62 cluster, Cl 0218.3–0510, which lies in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey/Ultra-Deep Survey field of the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. Combining these tracers of obscured star-formation activity with the extensive photometric and spectroscopic information available for this field, we identify 31 far-infrared/submillimeter-detected probable cluster members with bolometric luminosities ≳10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and show that by virtue of their dust content and activity, these represent some of the reddest and brightest galaxies in this structure. We exploit ALMA submillimeter continuum observations, which cover one of these sources, to confirm the identification of a SCUBA-2-detected ultraluminous star-forming galaxy in this structure. Integrating the total star-formation activity in the central region of the structure, we estimate that it is an order of magnitude higher (in a mass-normalized sense) than clusters at z ∼ 0.5-1. However, we also find that the most active cluster members do not reside in the densest regions of the structure, which instead host a population of passive and massive, red galaxies. We suggest that while the passive and active populations have comparable near-infrared luminosities at z = 1.6, M{sub H} ∼ –23, the subsequent stronger fading of the more active galaxies means that they will evolve into passive systems at the present day that are less luminous than the descendants of those galaxies that were already passive at z ∼ 1.6 (M{sub H} ∼ –20.5 and M{sub H} ∼ –21.5, respectively, at z ∼ 0). We conclude that the massive galaxy population in the dense cores of present-day clusters were already in place at z = 1.6 and that in Cl 0218.3–0510 we are seeing continuing infall of less extreme, but still ultraluminous, star-forming galaxies onto a pre-existing structure.

  17. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: Multiwavelength Counterparts to 103 Submillimeter Galaxies in the UKIDSS-UDS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Ivison, Rob J.; Arumugam, Vinodiran; Almaini, Omar; Conselice, Christopher J.; Geach, James E.; Hartley, Will G.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Mortlock, Alice; Simpson, Chris; Simpson, James M.; Swinbank, A. Mark; Aretxaga, Itziar; Blain, Andrew; Chapman, Scott C.; Dunlop, James S.; Farrah, Duncan; Halpern, Mark; Michałowski, Michał J.; van der Werf, Paul; Wilkinson, Aaron; Zavala, Jorge A.

    2016-04-01

    We present multiwavelength identifications for the counterparts of 1088 submillimeter sources detected at 850 μm in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey study of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey-Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS) field. By utilizing an Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) pilot study on a subset of our bright SCUBA-2 sample as a training set, along with the deep optical-near-infrared (OIR) data available in this field, we develop a novel technique, Optical-IR Triple Color (OIRTC), using z - K, K - [3.6], [3.6] - [4.5] colors to select the candidate submillimeter galaxy (SMG) counterparts. By combining radio identification and the OIRTC technique, we find counterpart candidates for 80% of the Class = 1 ≥ 4σ SCUBA-2 sample, defined as those that are covered by both radio and OIR imaging and the base sample for our scientific analyses. Based on the ALMA training set, we expect the accuracy of these identifications to be 82% ± 20%, with a completeness of 69% ± 16%, essentially as accurate as the traditional p-value technique but with higher completeness. We find that the fraction of SCUBA-2 sources having candidate counterparts is lower for fainter 850 μm sources, and we argue that for follow-up observations sensitive to SMGs with S850 ≳ 1 mJy across the whole ALMA beam, the fraction with multiple counterparts is likely to be >40% for SCUBA-2 sources at S850 ≳ 4 mJy. We find that the photometric redshift distribution for the SMGs is well fit by a lognormal distribution, with a median redshift of z = 2.3 ± 0.1. After accounting for the sources without any radio and/or OIRTC counterpart, we estimate the median redshift to be z = 2.6 ± 0.1 for SMGs with S850 > 1 mJy. We also use this new large sample to study the clustering of SMGs and the far-infrared properties of the unidentified submillimeter sources by stacking their Herschel SPIRE far-infrared emission.

  18. Enhancing the Legacy of Spitzer and Herschel with the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen

    The next frontier for comprehensive galaxy surveys is the epoch at z~1.5-3.5, the peak of star formation and black hole activity. Despite the new windows that Spitzer and Herschel have opened up into the stellar and dust emission of distant galaxies and AGN during this key epoch, these studies have been limited by the lack of spectroscopic redshifts and the unknown physical conditions (e.g., metallicities, ionization) within the targeted galaxies. To realize the full potential of Spitzer and Herschel, we require a large spectroscopic survey that will: (a) efficiently assemble spectroscopic redshifts for large samples of galaxies at z=1.4-3.8; (b) yield the physical conditions, including the ionization and metallicities of these galaxies; and (c) easily obtain spectroscopic redshifts even for very dusty/confused galaxies. To this end, our team has been allocated a large program of 47 Keck nights with the multi-object near-IR spectrograph MOSFIRE to carry out the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey (MOSDEF) in three of the Hubble CANDELS fields. MOSDEF will obtain rest-optical spectra of ~1500 galaxies at redshifts z=1.4-3.8, targeting many of the optical nebular emission lines and continuum features (e.g., [OII], [OIII], H-beta, H-alpha, [NII], [SII], 4000 Angstrom break, Ca H and K, and Mbg) that until now have been inaccessible for large samples of distant galaxies, but which are routinely used to measure the SFRs, dust attenuation, metal and gas content, and ionization and dynamical properties in nearby galaxies. MOSDEF spectroscopy provides a critical supporting role for the analysis of Spitzer and Herschel observations of distant galaxies. With this transformative dataset, we will perform the following analyses. First, we will use Spitzer and Herschel imaging, aided with spectroscopic redshifts from MOSDEF, to construct individual and mean dust SEDs for galaxies at redshifts 1.4

  19. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. III. A Quintuple Stellar Population in NGC 2808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Cassisi, S.; D'Antona, F.; Bellini, A.; Jerjen, H.; Pietrinferni, A.; Ventura, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we present the first results from multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 as an extension of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs (GO-13297 and previous proprietary and HST archive data). Our analysis allowed us to disclose a multiple-stellar-population phenomenon in NGC 2808 even more complex than previously thought. We have separated at least five different populations along the main sequence and the red giant branch (RGB), which we name A, B, C, D, and E (though an even finer subdivision may be suggested by the data). We identified the RGB bump in four out of the five RGBs. To explore the origin of this complex color-magnitude diagram, we have combined our multi-wavelength HST photometry with synthetic spectra, generated by assuming different chemical compositions. The comparison of observed colors with synthetic spectra suggests that the five stellar populations have different contents of light elements and helium. Specifically, if we assume that NGC 2808 is homogeneous in [Fe/H] (as suggested by spectroscopy for Populations B, C, D, E, but lacking for Population A) and that population A has a primordial helium abundance, we find that populations B, C, D, E are enhanced in helium by ΔY ˜ 0.03, 0.03, 0.08, 0.13, respectively. We obtain similar results by comparing the magnitude of the RGB bumps with models. Planned spectroscopic observations will test whether Population A also has the same metallicity, or whether its photometric differences with Population B can be ascribed to small [Fe/H] and [O/H] differences rather than to helium. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  20. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. IX. The Atlas of Multiple Stellar Populations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A. P.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Marino, A. F.; Bedin, L. R.; Vesperini, E.; D'Antona, F.; Nardiello, D.; Anderson, J.; King, I. R.; Yong, D.; Bellini, A.; Aparicio, A.; Barbuy, B.; Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; Ortolani, S.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2016-10-01

    We use high-precision photometry of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars in 57 Galactic globular clusters (GCs), mostly from the "Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters", to identify and characterize their multiple stellar populations. aFor each cluster the pseudo two-color diagram (or `chromosome map') is presented, built with a suitable combination of stellar magnitudes in the F275W, F336W, F438W and F814W filters that maximizes the separation between multiple populations. In the chromosome map of most GCs (Type I clusters), stars separate in two distinct groups that we identify with the first (1G) and the second generation (2G). This identification is further supported by noticing that 1G stars have primordial (oxygen-rich, sodium-poor) chemical composition, whereas 2G stars are enhanced in sodium and depleted in oxygen. This 1G-2G separation is not possible for a few GCs where the two sequences have apparently merged into an extended, continuous sequence. In some GCs (Type II clusters) the 1G and/or the 2G sequences appear to be split, hence displaying more complex chromosome maps. These clusters exhibit multiple SGBs also in purely optical color-magnitude diagrams, with the fainter SGB joining into a red RGB which is populated by stars with enhanced heavy-element abundance. We measure the RGB width by using appropriate colors and pseudo-colors. When the metallicity dependence is removed, the RGB width correlates with the cluster mass. The fraction of 1G stars ranges from ˜8% to ˜67% and anticorrelates with the cluster mass, indicating that incidence and complexity of the multiple population phenomenon both increase with cluster mass.

  1. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. A QUINTUPLE STELLAR POPULATION IN NGC 2808

    SciTech Connect

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Jerjen, H.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; D’Antona, F.; Ventura, P.

    2015-07-20

    In this study we present the first results from multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 as an extension of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs (GO-13297 and previous proprietary and HST archive data). Our analysis allowed us to disclose a multiple-stellar-population phenomenon in NGC 2808 even more complex than previously thought. We have separated at least five different populations along the main sequence and the red giant branch (RGB), which we name A, B, C, D, and E (though an even finer subdivision may be suggested by the data). We identified the RGB bump in four out of the five RGBs. To explore the origin of this complex color–magnitude diagram, we have combined our multi-wavelength HST photometry with synthetic spectra, generated by assuming different chemical compositions. The comparison of observed colors with synthetic spectra suggests that the five stellar populations have different contents of light elements and helium. Specifically, if we assume that NGC 2808 is homogeneous in [Fe/H] (as suggested by spectroscopy for Populations B, C, D, E, but lacking for Population A) and that population A has a primordial helium abundance, we find that populations B, C, D, E are enhanced in helium by ΔY ∼ 0.03, 0.03, 0.08, 0.13, respectively. We obtain similar results by comparing the magnitude of the RGB bumps with models. Planned spectroscopic observations will test whether Population A also has the same metallicity, or whether its photometric differences with Population B can be ascribed to small [Fe/H] and [O/H] differences rather than to helium.

  2. THE SPACE DENSITY EVOLUTION OF WET AND DRY MERGERS IN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Richard C. Y.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Bridge, Carrie R. E-mail: abraham@astro.utoronto.ca

    2011-03-15

    We analyze 1298 merging galaxies with redshifts up to z = 0.7 from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, taken from the catalog presented in the work of Bridge et al. By analyzing the internal colors of these systems, we show that the so-called wet and dry mergers evolve in different senses, and quantify the space densities of these systems. The local space density of wet mergers is essentially identical to the local space density of dry mergers. The evolution in the total merger rate is modest out to z {approx} 0.7, although the wet and dry populations have different evolutionary trends. At higher redshifts, dry mergers make a smaller contribution to the total merging galaxy population, but this is offset by a roughly equivalent increase in the contribution from wet mergers. By comparing the mass density function of early-type galaxies to the corresponding mass density function for merging systems, we show that not all the major mergers with the highest masses (M{sub stellar}>10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) will end up with the most massive early-type galaxies, unless the merging timescale is dramatically longer than that usually assumed. On the other hand, the usually assumed merging timescale of {approx}0.5-1 Gyr is quite consistent with the data if we suppose that only less massive early-type galaxies form via mergers. Since low-intermediate-mass ellipticals are 10-100 times more common than their most massive counterparts, the hierarchical explanation for the origin of early-type galaxies may be correct for the vast majority of early types, even if incorrect for the most massive ones.

  3. Leadership Legacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent obituaries and testimonials to Coretta Scott King and Wendy Wasserstein are reminders of the leadership legacies of these women. About Coretta Scott King (1927-2006), Burch in "The Miami Herald" (February 1, 2006) stated "Coretta Scott King built a legacy from pain and progress, first as the wife who stood tall next to a man bent on…

  4. The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS): Description and Science Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Mark; Baum, Stefi Alison; Chandler, Claire J.; Chatterjee, Shami; Murphy, Eric J.; Myers, Steven T.; VLASS Survey Science Group

    2016-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) will cover 80% of the sky to a target depth of 70muJy in the 2-4GHz S-band of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. With a resolution of 2.5 arcseconds, it will deliver the highest angular resolution of any wide area radio survey. Each area of the survey will be observed in three epochs spaced by 32 months in order to investigate the transient radio source population over an unprecedented combination of depth and area, resulting in a uniquely powerful search for hidden explosions in the Universe. The survey will be carried out in full polarization, allowing the characterization of the magneto-ionic medium in AGN and intervening galaxies over a wide range of redshifts, and the study of Faraday rotating foregrounds such as ionized bubbles in the Milky Way. The high angular resolution will allow us to make unambiguous identifications of nearly 10 million radio sources, comprised of both extragalactic objects and more nearby radio sources in the Milky Way, through matching to wide area optical/IR surveys such as SDSS, PanSTARRS, DES, LSST, EUCLID, WFIRST and WISE. Integral to the VLASS plan is an Education and Public Outreach component that will seek to inform and educate both the scientific community and the general public about radio astronomy through the use of social media, citizen science and educational activities. We will discuss opportunities for community involvement in VLASS, including the development of Enhanced Data Products and Services that will greatly increase the scientific utility of the survey.

  5. New constraints on the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity function from the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Stefano; Civano, Francesca M.; Elvis, Martin; Urry, C. Megan; Comastri, Andrea; Chandra Cosmos Legacy Team

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, we present new results on number counts and luminosity function in the 0.5-2 and 2-10 keV bands, obtained in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey. The COSMOS field is the largest (2 deg2) field with a complete coverage at any wavelength, and the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey uniformly covers the 1.7 deg2 COSMOS/HST field to ~160 ksec depth, with a total of 2.8 Ms exposure time. This triples the area of the earlier deep C-COSMOS survey (limiting flux ~3e-16 ergs/cm2/s in the 0.5-2 keV band), and together these two projects cover a total area of 2.2 deg2, yielding a sample of ~4100 X-ray sources, ~2300 of which have been detected in the new observations. We describe how the survey improves our knowledge in the galaxy-super massive black hole co-evolution.

  6. Herschel Legacy Survey of Hydrogen Fluoride and Water Towards Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Monje, Raquel

    potential valuable surrogate for molecular hydrogen, as recent work from our team and others has confirmed. From observations of Galactic sources we also learnt that the ground state transitions of HF and water in the Galactic disk probe the same gas-phase volume, with HF abundances comparable to those of para-water, despite the fact that interstellar fluorine abundance is four orders of magnitude lower than that of oxygen. Based on the importance of the HF and H2O studies in the Milky Way, we propose to conduct a comprehensive survey of HF and H2O molecular lines in nearby galaxies obtained with reliable archival Herschel/HIFI, SPIRE and PACS molecular spectra. The objective of this survey is to probe the chemistry of fluorine and oxygen-bearing molecules and to determine to what extent both species can be used as diagnostics of the physical process at play in the ISM of the host galaxy. With our studies we will determine the main excitation mechanism of HF - collisions with electrons, IR or chemical pumping - in nearby galaxies and provide steady templates of the chemistry and physical conditions of the ISM to be used in the early universe, where observations of hydride molecules are more scarce.

  7. The H I mass function and velocity width function of void galaxies in the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Hoyle, Fiona; Pan, Danny C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    We measure the H I mass function (HIMF) and velocity width function (WF) across environments over a range of masses, 7.2Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Survey, located in the region of sky where ALFALFA and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Data Release 7) North overlap. We divide our galaxy sample into those that reside in large-scale voids (void galaxies) and those that live in denser regions (wall galaxies). We find the void HIMF to be well fitted by a Schechter function with normalization Φ* = (1.37 ± 0.1) × 10-2y h3 Mpc-3, characteristic mass log(M_{H {I}^*/M_{⊙}) + 2 log h70 = 9.86 ± 0.02, and low-mass-end slope α = -1.29 ± 0.02. Similarly, for wall galaxies, we find best-fitting parameters Φ* = (1.82 ± 0.03) × 10-2 h3 Mpc-3, log(M_{H I}^*/M_{⊙}) + 2 log h70 = 10.00 ± 0.01, and α = -1.35 ± 0.01. We conclude that void galaxies typically have slightly lower H I masses than their non-void counterparts, which is in agreement with the dark matter (DM) halo mass function shift in voids assuming a simple relationship between DM mass and H I mass. We also find that the low-mass slope of the void HIMF is similar to that of the wall HIMF suggesting that there is either no excess of low-mass galaxies in voids or there is an abundance of intermediate H I mass galaxies. We fit a modified Schechter function to the ALFALFA void WF and determine its best-fitting parameters to be Φ* = 0.21 ± 0.1 h3 Mpc-3, log (W*) = 2.13 ± 0.3, α = 0.52 ± 0.5, and high-width slope β = 1.3 ± 0.4. For wall galaxies, the WF parameters are Φ* = 0.022 ± 0.009 h3 Mpc-3, log (W*) = 2.62 ± 0.5, α = -0.64 ± 0.2, and β = 3.58 ± 1.5. Because of large uncertainties on the void and wall WFs, we cannot conclude whether the WF is dependent on the environment.

  8. SNLS3: Constraints on Dark Energy Combining the Supernova Legacy Survey Three-year Data with Other Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, M.; Guy, J.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hudson, M. J.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Neill, J. D.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2011-08-01

    We present observational constraints on the nature of dark energy using the Supernova Legacy Survey three-year sample (SNLS3) of Guy et al. and Conley et al. We use the 472 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in this sample, accounting for recently discovered correlations between SN Ia luminosity and host galaxy properties, and include the effects of all identified systematic uncertainties directly in the cosmological fits. Combining the SNLS3 data with the full WMAP7 power spectrum, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy power spectrum, and a prior on the Hubble constant H 0 from SHOES, in a flat universe we find Ω m = 0.269 ± 0.015 and w = -1.061+0.069 - 0.068 (where the uncertainties include all statistical and SN Ia systematic errors)—a 6.5% measure of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w. The statistical and systematic uncertainties are approximately equal, with the systematic uncertainties dominated by the photometric calibration of the SN Ia fluxes—without these calibration effects, systematics contribute only a ~2% error in w. When relaxing the assumption of flatness, we find Ω m = 0.271 ± 0.015, Ω k = -0.002 ± 0.006, and w = -1.069+0.091 - 0.092. Parameterizing the time evolution of w as w(a) = w 0 + wa (1 - a) gives w 0 = -0.905 ± 0.196, wa = -0.984+1.094 - 1.097 in a flat universe. All of our results are consistent with a flat, w = -1 universe. The size of the SNLS3 sample allows various tests to be performed with the SNe segregated according to their light curve and host galaxy properties. We find that the cosmological constraints derived from these different subsamples are consistent. There is evidence that the coefficient, β, relating SN Ia luminosity and color, varies with host parameters at >4σ significance (in addition to the known SN luminosity-host relation); however, this has only a small effect on the cosmological results and is currently a subdominant systematic.

  9. A Descriptive Survey of Why Parents Choose Hybrid Homeschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearne, Eric

    2016-01-01

    "Hybrid home schools" are schools in which students attend school with other students for 2 or 3 days per week in traditional classroom settings, and are homeschooled the balance of the week. This exploratory study presents self-reported reasons parents choose these schools, using an electronic survey of parents from four such schools…

  10. The IAC Stripe 82 Legacy Project: a wide-area survey for faint surface brightness astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliri, Jürgen; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    We present new deep co-adds of data taken within Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), especially stacked to reach the faintest surface brightness limits of this data set. Stripe 82 covers 275 ° ^2 within -50° ≤ RA ≤ +60° and -1.25° ≤ Dec. ≤ +1.25°. We discuss the steps of our reduction which puts special emphasis on preserving the characteristics of the background (sky + diffuse light) in the input images using a non-aggressive sky subtraction strategy. Our reduction reaches a limit of ˜28.5 mag arcsec-2 (3σ, 10 × 10 arcsec2) in the r band. The effective surface brightness limit (50 per cent completeness for exponential light distribution) lies at <μe(r)> ˜ 25.5 mag arcsec-2. For point sources, we reach 50 per cent completeness limits (3σ level) of (24.2, 25.2, 24.7, 24.3, 23.0) mag in (u, g, r, i, z). This is between 1.7 and 2.0 mag deeper than the single-epoch SDSS releases. The co-adds show point spread functions (PSFs) with median full width at half-maximum values ranging from 1 arcsec in i and z to 1.3 arcsec in the u band. The imaging data are made publicly available at http://www.iac.es/proyecto/stripe82. The release includes deep co-adds and representations of the PSF for each field. Additionally, we provide object catalogues with stars and galaxies confidently separated until g ˜ 23 mag. The IAC Stripe 82 co-adds offer a rather unique possibility to study the low surface brightness Universe, exemplified by the discovery of stellar streams around NGC 0426 and NGC 0936. We also discuss further science cases like stellar haloes and disc truncations, low surface brightness galaxies, the intracluster light in galaxy clusters and the diffuse emission of Galactic dust known as Galactic Cirrus.

  11. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  12. THE 2MASS REDSHIFT SURVEY-DESCRIPTION AND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Huchra, John P.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael; Falco, Emilio; Mink, Jessica D.; Tokarz, Susan; Macri, Lucas M.; Masters, Karen L.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Crook, Aidan C.; Cutri, Roc; Erdogdu, Pirin; Lahav, Ofer; George, Teddy; Hutcheson, Conrad M.; Mader, Jeff; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Schneider, Stephen; Skrutskie, Michael; Westover, Michael E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.uk

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), a ten-year project to map the full three-dimensional distribution of galaxies in the nearby universe. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) was completed in 2003 and its final data products, including an extended source catalog (XSC), are available online. The 2MASS XSC contains nearly a million galaxies with K{sub s} {<=} 13.5 mag and is essentially complete and mostly unaffected by interstellar extinction and stellar confusion down to a galactic latitude of |b| = 5 Degree-Sign for bright galaxies. Near-infrared wavelengths are sensitive to the old stellar populations that dominate galaxy masses, making 2MASS an excellent starting point to study the distribution of matter in the nearby universe. We selected a sample of 44,599 2MASS galaxies with K{sub s} {<=} 11.75 mag and |b| {>=} 5 Degree-Sign ({>=}8 Degree-Sign toward the Galactic bulge) as the input catalog for our survey. We obtained spectroscopic observations for 11,000 galaxies and used previously obtained velocities for the remainder of the sample to generate a redshift catalog that is 97.6% complete to well-defined limits and covers 91% of the sky. This provides an unprecedented census of galaxy (baryonic mass) concentrations within 300 Mpc. Earlier versions of our survey have been used in a number of publications that have studied the bulk motion of the Local Group, mapped the density and peculiar velocity fields out to 50 h{sup -1} Mpc, detected galaxy groups, and estimated the values of several cosmological parameters. Additionally, we present morphological types for a nearly complete sub-sample of 20,860 galaxies with K{sub s} {<=} 11.25 mag and |b| {>=} 10 Degree-Sign .

  13. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  14. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  15. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  16. Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey -- GOODS-South Field, Non-SNe-Searched Visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the ?rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of ?ve widely separated ?elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a ?Wide? imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a ?Deep? imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.When combined with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef?cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include: - Structure in young vs. old

  17. Report on the ESO Workshop ''Rainbows on the Southern Sky: Science and Legacy Value of the ESO Public Surveys and Large Programmes''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Leibundgut, B.; Beccari, G.

    2015-12-01

    This was the third ESO workshop on the science from Large Programmes and the second on Public Surveys. By design, this workshop covered all areas of research in observational astronomy, providing a forum for the presentation of the most recent scientific results from these programmes and fostering discussions on the planned developments enabled by large and coherent time allocations on ESO telescopes. Several aspects of the legacy value of such programmes —technological, archival content, access to data, time domain and sociological — were evaluated and set a reference for future developments of ESO services to the community.

  18. The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: mapping 13CO and C18O in Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Davis, C. J.; Francesco, J. Di; Graves, S. F.; Nutter, D.; Richer, J. S.; Roberts, J. F.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.; Brunt, C.; Butner, H. M.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E. I.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Etxaluze, M.; Fich, M.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J. S.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Sadavoy, S.; Simpson, R. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Yates, J.

    2012-05-01

    The Gould Belt Legacy Survey will map star-forming regions within 500 pc, using Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP), Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and Polarimeter 2 (POL-2) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This paper describes HARP observations of the J= 3 → 2 transitions of 13CO and C18O towards Orion A. The 15 arcsec resolution observations cover 5 pc of the Orion filament, including OMC 1 (including BN-KL and Orion bar), OMC 2/3 and OMC 4, and allow a comparative study of the molecular gas properties throughout the star-forming cloud. The filament shows a velocity gradient of ˜1 km s-1 pc-1 between OMC 1, 2 and 3, and high-velocity emission is detected in both isotopologues. The Orion Nebula and Bar have the largest masses and linewidths, and dominate the mass and energetics of the high-velocity material. Compact, spatially resolved emission from CH3CN, 13CH3OH, SO, HCOOCH3, CH3CHO and CH3OCHO is detected towards the Orion Hot Core. The cloud is warm, with a median excitation temperature of ˜24 K; the Orion Bar has the highest excitation temperature gas, at >80 K. The C18O excitation temperature correlates well with the dust temperature (to within 40 per cent). The C18O emission is optically thin, and the 13CO emission is marginally optically thick; despite its high mass, OMC 1 shows the lowest opacities. A virial analysis indicates that Orion A is too massive for thermal or turbulent support, but is consistent with a model of a filamentary cloud that is threaded by helical magnetic fields. The variation of physical conditions across the cloud is reflected in the physical characteristics of the dust cores. We find similar core properties between starless and protostellar cores, but variations in core properties with position in the filament. The OMC 1 cores have the highest velocity dispersions and masses, followed by OMC 2/3 and OMC 4. The differing fragmentation of these cores may explain why OMC 1 has formed

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Supernova Legacy Survey Sample With ΛCDM and the Rh=ct Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift-luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the Rh = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the Rh = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since Rh = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of Rh = ct is ˜90%, compared with only ˜10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to Rh = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely. This work is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Tan Lu, who sadly passed away 2014 December 3. Among his many achievements, he is considered to be one of the founders of high-energy astrophysics, and a pioneer in modern cosmology, in China.

  20. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: ALMA Resolves the Bright-end of the Sub-millimeter Number Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. M.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Geach, J. E.; Ivison, R. J.; Thomson, A. P.; Aretxaga, I.; Blain, A. W.; Cowley, W. I.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dunlop, J. S.; Edge, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Ibar, E.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Meijerink, R.; Michałowski, M. J.; Scott, D.; Spaans, M.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2015-07-01

    We present high-resolution 870 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1 degree2 850 μm maps from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the brightest sources in the field (median {S}{SCUBA-2} = 8.7 ± 0.4 mJy). We detect 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) at >4σ significance in our 30 ALMA maps. In {61}-15+19% of the ALMA maps the single-dish source comprises a blend of ≥2 SMGs, where the secondary SMGs are Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) with {L}{IR} ≳ 1012 {\\text{}}{L}⊙ . The brightest SMG contributes on average {80}-2+6% of the single-dish flux density, and in the ALMA maps containing ≥2 SMGs the secondary SMG contributes {25}-5+1% of the integrated ALMA flux. We construct source counts and show that multiplicity boosts the apparent single-dish cumulative counts by 20% at S870 > 7.5 mJy, and by 60% at S870 > 12 mJy. We combine our sample with previous ALMA studies of fainter SMGs and show that the counts are well-described by a double power law with a break at 8.5 ± 0.6 mJy. The break corresponds to a luminosity of ˜6 × 1012 {\\text{}}{L}⊙ or a star formation rate (SFR) of ˜103 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. For the typical sizes of these SMGs, which are resolved in our ALMA data with {R}{{e}} = 1.2 ± 0.1 kpc, this yields a limiting SFR density of ˜100 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 Finally, the number density of S870 ≳ 2 mJy SMGs is 80 ± 30 times higher than that derived from blank-field counts. An over-abundance of faint SMGs is inconsistent with line-of-sight projections dominating multiplicity in the brightest SMGs, and indicates that a significant proportion of these high-redshift ULIRGs are likely to be physically associated.

  1. Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR): Science objectives and mission description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. Scott; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    In-situ observations and measurements of Mars are objectives of a feasibility study beginning at the Ames Research Center for a mission called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). The purpose of the MESUR mission is to emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of landers on the Martian surface to make both short- and long-term observations of the atmosphere and surface. The basic concept is to deploy probes which would directly enter the Mars atmosphere, provide measurements of the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. MESUR is intended to be a relatively low-cost mission to advance both Mars science and human presence objectives. Mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities, thereby minimizing the peak annual costs; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on science while providing a solid basis for human exploration; and (4) minimize project cost and complexity wherever possible. In order to meet the diverse scientific objectives, each MESUR lander will carry the following strawman instrument payload consisting of: (1) Atmospheric structure experiment, (2) Descent and surface imagers, (3) Meteorology package, (4) Elemental composition instrument, (5) 3-axis seismometer, and (6) Thermal analyzer/evolved gas analyzer. The feasibility study is primarily to show a practical way to design an early capability for characterizing Mars' surface and atmospheric environment on a global scale. The goals are to answer some of the most urgent questions to advance significantly our scientific knowledge about Mars, and for planning eventual exploration of the planet by robots and humans.

  2. The LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). I. Survey description and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, G. H.; Pizzo, R. F.; Orrú, E.; Breton, R. P.; Carbone, D.; Ferrari, C.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jurusik, W.; Macario, G.; Mulcahy, D.; Rafferty, D.; Asgekar, A.; Brentjens, M.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Toribio, M. C.; Adebahr, B.; Arts, M.; Bell, M. R.; Bonafede, A.; Bray, J.; Broderick, J.; Cantwell, T.; Carroll, P.; Cendes, Y.; Clarke, A. O.; Croston, J.; Daiboo, S.; de Gasperin, F.; Gregson, J.; Harwood, J.; Hassall, T.; Heesen, V.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Jones, D.; Kant, D.; Kokotanekov, G.; Martin, P.; McKean, J. P.; Morabito, L. K.; Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, M.; Pratley, L.; Riseley, C.; Rowlinson, A.; Sabater, J.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Scheers, L. H. A.; Sendlinger, K.; Shulevski, A.; Sipior, M.; Sobey, C.; Stewart, A. J.; Stroe, A.; Swinbank, J.; Tasse, C.; Trüstedt, J.; Varenius, E.; van Velzen, S.; Vilchez, N.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijnholds, S.; Williams, W. L.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Nijboer, R.; Wise, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Breitling, F.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Geus, E.; de Jong, A.; de Vos, M.; Deller, A.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H. A.; Intema, H.; Jackson, N. J.; Jütte, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Klijn, W. F. A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mevius, M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Noordam, J. E.; Norden, M. J.; Paas, H.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Renting, A.; Röttgering, H.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schwarz, D.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic multifrequency nature providing information about the spectral properties of the detected sources over more than two octaves (from 30 to 160 MHz). The broadband frequency coverage, together with the fast survey speed generated by LOFAR's multibeaming capabilities, make MSSS the first survey of the sort anticipated to be carried out with the forthcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Two of the sixteen frequency bands included in the survey were chosen to exactly overlap the frequency coverage of large-area Very Large Array (VLA) and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) surveys at 74 MHz and 151 MHz respectively. The survey performance is illustrated within the MSSS Verification Field (MVF), a region of 100 square degrees centered at (α,δ)J2000 = (15h,69°). The MSSS results from the MVF are compared with previous radio survey catalogs. We assess the flux and astrometric uncertainties in the catalog, as well as the completeness and reliability considering our source finding strategy. We determine the 90% completeness levels within the MVF to be 100 mJy at 135 MHz with 108″ resolution, and 550 mJy at 50 MHz with 166″ resolution. Images and catalogs for the full survey, expected to contain 150 000-200 000 sources, will be released to a public web server. We outline the plans for the ongoing production of the final survey products, and the ultimate public release of images and source catalogs.

  3. Spatial Mental Representations Derived from Survey and Route Descriptions: When Individuals Prefer Extrinsic Frame of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigates the role of individual differences in preference for adopting extrinsic frame of reference (EFR) in ability to represent mentally spatial information learned through survey and route descriptions. A sample of 191 participants (100 females and 91 males) was categorized as four groups with high (H-EFR), medium-high…

  4. The green bank northern celestial cap pulsar survey. I. Survey description, data analysis, and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, K.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Leake, S.; Lynch, R. S.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Boyles, J.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; and others

    2014-08-10

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > –40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm{sup –3}) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of –1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M{sub J}). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  5. The IMACS Cluster Building Survey. I. Description of the Survey and Analysis Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oemler Jr., Augustus; Dressler, Alan; Gladders, Michael G.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bai, Lei; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward; Fritz, Jacopo; Rieke, George; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines.With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

  6. THE IMACS CLUSTER BUILDING SURVEY. I. DESCRIPTION OF THE SURVEY AND ANALYSIS METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Oemler, Augustus Jr.; Dressler, Alan; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward; Gladders, Michael G.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bai Lei; Fritz, Jacopo; Rieke, George; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-06-10

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines. With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

  7. Darwin's legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin was no theoretical physicist, and I am no biologist. Yet, as a theoretical physicist, I have found much to think about in Darwin's legacy - and in that of his fellow naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. Darwin's style of science is not usually thought of as theoretical and certainly not mathematical: he was a careful observer of nature, kept copious notes, contributed to zoological collections; and eventually from his vast repertoire of observation deduced the idea of natural selection as the origin of species. The value of theorizing is often dismissed in the biological sciences as less important than observation; and Darwin was the master observer.

  8. THE JAMES CLERK MAXWELL TELESCOPE NEARBY GALAXIES LEGACY SURVEY. II. WARM MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN THREE FIELD SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, B. E.; Wilson, C. D.; Sinukoff, E.; Israel, F. P.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Serjeant, S.; Bendo, G. J.; Clements, D. L.; Brinks, E.; Irwin, J. A.; Knapen, J. H.; Leech, J.; Tan, B. K.; Matthews, H. E.; Muehle, S.; Mortimer, A. M. J.; Petitpas, G.; Spekkens, K.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Usero, A. E-mail: wilson@physics.mcmaster.c E-mail: israel@strw.leidenuniv.n

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of large-area {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 emission mapping of three nearby field galaxies, NGC 628, NGC 3521, and NGC 3627, completed at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. These galaxies all have moderate to strong {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 detections over large areas of the fields observed by the survey, showing resolved structure and dynamics in their warm/dense molecular gas disks. All three galaxies were part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey sample, and as such have excellent published multiwavelength ancillary data. These data sets allow us to examine the star formation properties, gas content, and dynamics of these galaxies on sub-kiloparsec scales. We find that the global gas depletion time for dense/warm molecular gas in these galaxies is consistent with other results for nearby spiral galaxies, indicating this may be independent of galaxy properties such as structures, gas compositions, and environments. Similar to the results from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey, we do not see a correlation of the star formation efficiency with the gas surface density consistent with the Schmidt-Kennicutt law. Finally, we find that the star formation efficiency of the dense molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 is potentially flat or slightly declining as a function of molecular gas density, the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2/J = 1-0 ratio (in contrast to the correlation found in a previous study into the starburst galaxy M83), and the fraction of total gas in molecular form.

  9. XQ-100: A legacy survey of one hundred 3.5 ≲ z ≲ 4.5 quasars observed with VLT/X-shooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, S.; D'Odorico, V.; Ellison, S. L.; Becker, G. D.; Christensen, L.; Cupani, G.; Denney, K. D.; Pâris, I.; Worseck, G.; Berg, T. A. M.; Cristiani, S.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Haehnelt, M.; Hamann, F.; Hennawi, J.; Iršič, V.; Kim, T.-S.; López, P.; Lund Saust, R.; Ménard, B.; Perrotta, S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Vestergaard, M.; Viel, M.; Wisotzki, L.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the execution and data reduction of the European Southern Observatory Large Programme "Quasars and their absorption lines: a legacy survey of the high-redshift Universe with VLT/X-shooter" (hereafter "XQ-100"). XQ-100 has produced and made publicly available a homogeneous and high-quality sample of echelle spectra of 100 quasars (QSOs) at redshifts z ≃ 3.5-4.5 observed with full spectral coverage from 315 to 2500 nm at a resolving power ranging from R ~ 4000 to 7000, depending on wavelength. The median signal-to-noise ratios are 33, 25 and 43, as measured at rest-frame wavelengths 1700, 3000 and 3600 Å, respectively. This paper provides future users of XQ-100 data with the basic statistics of the survey, along with details of target selection, data acquisition and data reduction. The paper accompanies the public release of all data products, including 100 reduced spectra. XQ-100 is the largest spectroscopic survey to date of high-redshift QSOs with simultaneous rest-frame UV/optical coverage, and as such enables a wide range of extragalactic research, from cosmology and galaxy evolution to AGN astrophysics. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 189.A-0424.The XQ-100 raw data and the XQ-100 Science Data Products can be found at http://archive.eso.org/eso/eso_archive_main.html and http://archive.eso.org/wdb/wdb/adp/phase3_main/form, respectively.

  10. Luminous and High Stellar Mass Candidate Galaxies at z ≈ 8 Discovered in the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Davé, Romeel; Faber, S. M.; Papovich, Casey; Guo, Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Reddy, Naveen; Cooray, Asantha R.; Siana, Brian D.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Ashby, Matthew; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Lucas, Ray A.; Dekel, Avishai; Pentericci, Laura; Conselice, Christopher J.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lai, Kamson

    2012-12-01

    One key goal of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey is to track galaxy evolution back to z ≈ 8. Its two-tiered "wide and deep" strategy bridges significant gaps in existing near-infrared surveys. Here we report on z ≈ 8 galaxy candidates selected as F105W-band dropouts in one of its deep fields, which covers 50.1 arcmin2 to 4 ks depth in each of three near-infrared bands in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field. Two of our candidates have J < 26.2 mag, and are >1 mag brighter than any previously known F105W-dropouts. We derive constraints on the bright end of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies at z ≈ 8, and show that the number density of such very bright objects is higher than expected from the previous Schechter luminosity function estimates at this redshift. Another two candidates are securely detected in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera images, which are the first such individual detections at z ≈ 8. Their derived stellar masses are on the order of a few × 109 M ⊙, from which we obtain the first measurement of the high-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function at z ≈ 8. The high number density of very luminous and very massive galaxies at z ≈ 8, if real, could imply a large stellar-to-halo mass ratio and an efficient conversion of baryons to stars at such an early time.

  11. Attracting and Retaining Adult Learners (ARAL). A Compilation of Selected Program Descriptions Taken from the 1980 ARAL Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. Testing Program, Iowa City, IA. National Center for the Advancement of Educational Practices.

    A catalog of 205 descriptions of college programs to recruit and retain adult learners is presented, based on a national survey, "Attracting and Retaining Adult Learners" (ARAL), conducted in 1980 by the American College Testing Program. In addition to a brief program description, each program form provides information on the type of program, the…

  12. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY: THE {alpha}.40 H I SOURCE CATALOG, ITS CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE DERIVATION OF THE H I MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Martin, Ann M.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Huang Shan; Papastergis, Emmanouil E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: shan@astro.cornell.edu; and others

    2011-11-15

    We present a current catalog of 21 cm H I line sources extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey over {approx}2800 deg{sup 2} of sky: the {alpha}.40 catalog. Covering 40% of the final survey area, the {alpha}.40 catalog contains 15,855 sources in the regions 07{sup h}30{sup m} < R.A. < 16{sup h}30{sup m}, +04 Degree-Sign < decl. <+16 Degree-Sign , and +24 Degree-Sign < decl. <+28 Degree-Sign and 22{sup h} < R.A. < 03{sup h}, +14 Degree-Sign < decl. <+16 Degree-Sign , and +24 Degree-Sign < decl. < + 32 Degree-Sign . Of those, 15,041 are certainly extragalactic, yielding a source density of 5.3 galaxies per deg{sup 2}, a factor of 29 improvement over the catalog extracted from the H I Parkes All-Sky Survey. In addition to the source centroid positions, H I line flux densities, recessional velocities, and line widths, the catalog includes the coordinates of the most probable optical counterpart of each H I line detection, and a separate compilation provides a cross-match to identifications given in the photometric and spectroscopic catalogs associated with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Fewer than 2% of the extragalactic H I line sources cannot be identified with a feasible optical counterpart; some of those may be rare OH megamasers at 0.16 < z < 0.25. A detailed analysis is presented of the completeness, width-dependent sensitivity function and bias inherent of the {alpha}.40 catalog. The impact of survey selection, distance errors, current volume coverage, and local large-scale structure on the derivation of the H I mass function is assessed. While {alpha}.40 does not yet provide a completely representative sampling of cosmological volume, derivations of the H I mass function using future data releases from ALFALFA will further improve both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  13. The Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. II. Rest-frame Near-IR Luminosity Distribution and Evidence for a Near-solar Metallicity Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Chary, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T.; Levan, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Schulze, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ˜ 0.5 and z ˜ 1.5, but little variation between z ˜ 1.5 and z ˜ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass-metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2 metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  14. Does survey method bias the description of northern goshawk nest-site structure?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daw, S.K.; DeStefano, S.; Steidl, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Past studies on the nesting habitat of northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) often relied on nests found opportunistically, either during timber-sale operations, by searching apparently 'good' goshawk habitat, or by other search methods where areas were preselected based on known forest conditions. Therefore, a bias in the characterization of habitat surrounding northern goshawk nest sites may exist toward late-forest structure (large trees, high canopy closure). This potential problem has confounded interpretation of data on nesting habitat of northern goshawks and added to uncertainty in the review process to consider the species for federal listing as threatened or endangered. Systematic survey methods, which strive for complete coverage of an area and often use broadcasts of conspecific calls, have been developed to overcome these potential biases, but no study has compared habitat characteristics around nests found opportunistically with those found systematically. We compared habitat characteristics in a 0.4-ha area around nests found systematically (n = 27) versus those found opportunistically (n = 22) on 3 national forests in eastern Oregon. We found that both density of large trees (systematic: x?? = 16.4 ?? 3.1 trees/ha; x?? ?? SE; opportunistic: x?? = 21.3 ?? 3.2; P = 0.56) and canopy closure (systematic: x?? = 72 ?? 2%; opportunistic: x?? = 70 ?? 2%; P = 0.61) were similar around nests found with either search method. Our results diminish concern that past survey methods mischaracterized northern goshawk nest-site structure. However, because northern goshawks nest in a variety of forest cover types with a wide range of structural characteristics, these results do not decrease the value of systematic survey methods in determining the most representative habitat descriptions for northern goshawks. Rigorous survey protocols allow repeatability and comparability of monitoring efforts and results over time.

  15. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY SAMPLE WITH ΛCDM AND THE R{sub h}=ct UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S. E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn E-mail: rsm@math.arizona.edu

    2015-03-15

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift–luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the R{sub h} = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the R{sub h} = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since R{sub h} = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of R{sub h} = ct is ∼90%, compared with only ∼10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to R{sub h} = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely.

  16. A Pharmaceutical Bioethics Consultation Service: Six-Year Descriptive Characteristics and Results of a Feedback Survey

    PubMed Central

    Van Campen, Luann E.; Allen, Albert J.; Watson, Susan B.; Therasse, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bioethics consultations are conducted in varied settings, including hospitals, universities, and other research institutions, but there is sparse information about bioethics consultations conducted in corporate settings such as pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this article is to describe a bioethics consultation service at a pharmaceutical company, to report characteristics of consultations completed by the service over a 6-year period, and to share results of a consultation feedback survey. Methods: Data on the descriptive characteristics of bioethics consultations were collected from 2008 to 2013 and analyzed in Excel 2007. Categorical data were analyzed via the pivot table function, and time-based variables were analyzed via formulas. The feedback survey was administered to consultation requesters from 2009 to 2012 and also analyzed in Excel 2007. Results: Over the 6-year period, 189 bioethics consultations were conducted. The number of consultations increased from five per year in 2008 to approximately one per week in 2013. During this time, the format of the consultation service was changed from a committee-only approach to a tiered approach (tailored to the needs of the case). The five most frequent topics were informed consent, early termination of a clinical trial, benefits and risks, human biological samples, and patient rights. The feedback survey results suggest the consultation service is well regarded overall and viewed as approachable, helpful, and responsive. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical bioethics consultation is a unique category of bioethics consultation that primarily focuses on pharmaceutical research and development but also touches on aspects of clinical ethics, business ethics, and organizational ethics. Results indicate there is a demand for a tiered bioethics consultation service within this pharmaceutical company and that advice was valued. This company's experience indicates that a bioethics consultation service raises

  17. Gas-rich Galaxies in the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) -- From HI Dwarfs to Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Making use of HI 21 cm line measurements from the ALFALFA survey (α.40) and photometry from the SDSS and GALEX, we investigate the global scaling relations linking stars and gas for 9417 common galaxies (α.40-SDSS-GALEX). Stellar masses (M*) and SFRs are derived from fitting the UV-optical SEDs. 96% of the α.40-SDSS-GALEX galaxies belong to the blue cloud, with the average gas fraction MHI/M* > 1.5. A transition in star formation (SF) properties is found whereby below M* > 109.5M⊙, the slope of the SF sequence changes, the dispersion in the specific star formation rate (SSFR) distribution increases, and the star formation efficiency (SFE) mildly increases with M*. The evolutionary track in the SSFR-M* diagram, as well as that in the CMD, is linked to the HI content; below this transition mass, the SF is regulated strongly by the HI. Comparison of HI and optically selected samples shows that the HI-selected population is less evolved and has overall higher SFR and SSFR at a given M*, but lower SFE and extinction, suggesting either that a bottleneck exists in the HI-to-H2 conversion, or that the very HI-dominated galaxies obey an low efficiency SF law. We show that for a given M*, high gas fraction galaxies reside preferentially in dark matter halos with high spin parameters. In addition, we closely studied 229 low MHI ALFALFA dwarfs with reprocessed GALEX photometry. Many of them are currently undergoing active SF, relative to the past-averaged level, so that the widely used standard formulae calibrated for a continuous SF history systematically overestimate the M* and SFR. Currently, we are gathering multi-wavelength data for the High HI Mass, HI-rich (HIghMass) galaxies identified by the ALFALFA (MHI>1010M⊙ and gas fraction more than 1σ above the mean given their M*). They may be in an arrested stage of evolution, or their huge HI disks may reflect recent baryon accretion. Most of the HIghMass galaxies exhibit strong color gradient and have higher Hα EWs

  18. Descriptive statistics tables from a detailed analysis of the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, A.M.; Klepeis, N.E.

    1996-07-01

    Detailed results tables are presented from an unweighted statistical analysis of selected portions of the 1992--1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data base. This survey collected data on the potential exposure of Americans to important household pollutants. Randomly selected individuals (9,386) supplied minute-by-minute diaries spanning a 24-hour day as well as follow-up questions on specific exposure types. Selected 24-hour diary locations and activities, selected regroupings of the 24-hour diary locations, activities, and smoker-present categories, and most of the follow-up question variables in the NHAPS data base were statistically analyzed across 12 subgroups (gender, age, Hispanic, education, employment, census region, day-of-week, season, asthma, angina and bronchitis/emphysema). Overall statistics were also generated for the 9,386 total respondents. Tables show descriptive statistics (including frequency distributions) of time spent and frequency of occurrence in each of 39 locations and for 22 activities (that were experienced by more than 50 respondents), along with equivalent tables for 10 regrouped locations (Residence-Indoors, Residence-Outdoors, Inside Vehicle, Near Vehicle, Other Outdoor, Office/Factory, Mall/Store, Public Building, Bar/Restaurant, Other Indoor), seven regrouped activities and smoker present. Tables of frequency distributions of time spent in exposure activities, or the frequency of occurrence of exposure activities, as determined from the follow up questions that were analyzed are also presented. Detailed indices provide page numbers for each table. An Appendix contains a condensed listing of the questionnaires (Versions A and B for adults, child-direct and child-proxy interview types), including the question number, the NHAPS data base variable name, and the verbatim question text.

  19. Home Literacy Experiences and Early Childhood Disability: A Descriptive Study Using the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) Program Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present article illustrates how the National Household Education Surveys (NHES; U.S. Department of Education, 2009) database might be used to address questions of relevance to researchers who are concerned with literacy development among young children. Following a general description of the NHES database, a study is provided that…

  20. Physical and chemical differentiation of the luminous star-forming region W49A. Results from the JCMT Spectral Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Z.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Fuller, G. A.; Plume, R.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The massive and luminous star-forming region W49A is a well-known Galactic candidate to probe the physical conditions and chemistry similar to those expected in external starburst galaxies. Aims: We aim to probe the physical and chemical structure of W49A on a spatial scale of ~0.8 pc based on the JCMT Spectral Legacy Survey, which covers the frequency range between 330 and 373 GHz. Methods: The wide 2 × 2 arcmin field and the high spectral resolution of the HARP instrument on JCMT provides information on the spatial structure and kinematics of the cloud traced by the observed molecular lines. For species where multiple transitions are available, we estimate excitation temperatures and column densities using a population diagram method that takes beam dilution and optical depth corrections into account. Results: We detected 255 transitions corresponding to 63 species in the 330-373 GHz range at the center position of W49A. Excitation conditions can be probed for 14 molecules, including the complex organic molecules CH3CCH, CH3CN, and CH3OH. The chemical composition suggests the importance of shock, photon-dominated region (PDR), and hot core chemistry. Many molecular lines show a significant spatial extent across the maps including CO and its isotopologues, high density tracers (e.g., HCN, HNC, CS, HCO+), and tracers of UV irradiation (e.g., CN and C2H). The spatially extended species reveal a complex velocity-structure of W49A with possible infall and outflow motions. Large variations are seen between the subregions with mostly blue-shifted emission toward the eastern tail, mostly red-shifted emission toward the northern clump, and emission peaking around the expected source velocity toward the southwest clump. Conclusions: A comparison of column density ratios of characteristic species observed toward W49A to Galactic PDRs suggests that while the chemistry toward the W49A center is driven by a combination of UV irradiation and shocks, UV irradiation

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of physical activity among Omani adults: the Oman World Health Survey, 2008.

    PubMed

    Mabry, R M; Morsi, M; Al-Lawati, J A; Owen, N

    2016-04-28

    There is an increasing burden of obesity and obesity-related noncommunicable diseases in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, including Oman. This descriptive, epidemiological study assessed physical activity among 2977 Omani adults using a population-based household survey in 2008. Overall, 54.2% of men and 41.6% of women were physically active; the rate was higher in younger cohorts and varied significantly by region of residence. Physical activity related to the transportation (walking and cycling) domain was higher than in the leisure or work domains. Unmarried men aged 30-39 years were twice as likely to be physically active (OR 2.25) and unmarried women aged 40+ years were half as likely to be active (OR 0.58) than their married counterparts. Young women not working were less active (OR 0.18) than working women. Higher education was significantly associated with leisure activity for men aged 30+ years and women aged 40+ years. Further research to understand regional variations and to identify culturally appropriate strategies to promote physical activity is required.

  2. Mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness: A descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; BIrudu, Raju; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite of growing evidence of mental disorders in developing countries, research on mental health literacy is limited from India. Aim: To examine mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among 161 randomly selected caregivers of persons with mental illness at outpatient department of a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Regarding the causes of mental illness, a majority agreed that genetic inheritance (69%), substance abuse (64%) and brain disease (59.6%) are main factors for developing mental illness. Although more than two-thirds agreed that anyone could suffer from mental illness, 61.5% also agreed that people with mental health problems are largely to blame for their condition. The majority of the participants also agreed that mentally ill are not able to maintain friendships (45.9%), are dangerous (54%), and not capable to work (59.1%). Just over half (55.9%) of the participants would not want people to know if they had a mental illness and nearly half of them also expressed that they would feel ashamed if a family member had a mental illness. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study researchers suggest that there is an urgent need to educate and change the attitudes of caregivers through mental health literacy programs specifically designed for them. PMID:26167019

  3. Descriptive epidemiology of physical activity among Omani adults: the Oman World Health Survey, 2008.

    PubMed

    Mabry, R M; Morsi, M; Al-Lawati, J A; Owen, N

    2016-02-01

    There is an increasing burden of obesity and obesity-related noncommunicable diseases in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, including Oman. This descriptive, epidemiological study assessed physical activity among 2977 Omani adults using a population-based household survey in 2008. Overall, 54.2% of men and 41.6% of women were physically active; the rate was higher in younger cohorts and varied significantly by region of residence. Physical activity related to the transportation (walking and cycling) domain was higher than in the leisure or work domains. Unmarried men aged 30-39 years were twice as likely to be physically active (OR 2.25) and unmarried women aged 40+ years were half as likely to be active (OR 0.58) than their married counterparts. Young women not working were less active (OR 0.18) than working women. Higher education was significantly associated with leisure activity for men aged 30+ years and women aged 40+ years. Further research to understand regional variations and to identify culturally appropriate strategies to promote physical activity is required. PMID:27180738

  4. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Derek; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jogee, Shardha; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.

    2010-11-15

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers {approx}50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii ({approx}1.75 Mpc or 1{sup 0}) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin{sup 2}. The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for {approx}73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10{sigma} point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 < M {sub F814W} < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008

  5. Landsat Legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Landsat resources survey system spawned a number of companies engaged in commercial applications of remote sensing, among them International Imaging Systems (I2S). With initial NASA assistance, I2S has provided remote sensing hardware and software to several foreign countries, developed meteorological analysis systems, medical diagnostic software and scanning equipment for government and commercial use. Latest product is an advanced image-based photogrammetric system employing digital technology - not optical or mechanical systems - to generate terrain elevation data and other processing functions. Called PRI2SM, it compensates automatically for topographic relief displacement, is cheaper, faster, and easier to use and maintain. Company product line includes four major areas: image processing equipment for Earth Resources Management; meteorological analysis systems; satellite ground processing systems; and digital photogrammetric mapping systems.

  6. Proposal for a Modified Dreyfus and Miller Model with simplified competency level descriptions for performing self-rated surveys.

    PubMed

    Park, Janghee

    2015-01-01

    In competency-based education, it is important to frequently evaluate the degree of competency achieved by establishing and specifying competency levels. To self-appraise one's own competency level, one needs a simple, clear, and accurate description for each competency level. This study aimed at developing competency stages that can be used in surveys and conceptualizing clear and precise competency level descriptions. In this paper, the author intends to conceptualize a simple competency level description through a literature review. The author modified the most widely quoted competency level models-Dreyfus' Five-stage Model and Miller's Pyramid-and classified competency levels into the following: The Modified Dreyfus Model comprises absolute beginner, beginner, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert, while the Modified Miller Model uses the levels of knows little, knows and knows how, exercised does, selected does, experienced does, and intuitive does. The author also provided a simple and clear description of competency levels. The precise description of competency levels developed in this study is expected to be useful in determining one's competency level in surveys.

  7. The history of human-induced soil erosion: Geomorphic legacies, early descriptions and research, and the development of soil conservation—A global synopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a global synopsis about the geomorphic evidence of soil erosion in humid and semihumid areas since the beginning of agriculture. Historical documents, starting from ancient records to data from the mid-twentieth century and numerous literature reviews form an extensive assortment of examples that show how soil erosion has been perceived previously by scholars, land surveyors, farmers, land owners, researchers, and policy makers. Examples have been selected from ancient Greek and Roman Times and from central Europe, southern Africa, North America, the Chinese Loess Plateau, Australia, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Furthermore, a comprehensive collection on the development of soil erosion research and soil conservation has been provided, with a particular focus on Germany and the USA. Geomorphic evidence shows that most of the agriculturally used slopes in the Old and New Worlds had already been affected by soil erosion in earlier, prehistoric times. Early descriptions of soil erosion are often very vague. With regard to the Roman Times, geomorphic evidence shows seemingly opposing results, ranging from massive devastation to landscapes remaining stable for centuries. Unfortunately, historical documentation is lacking. In the following centuries, historical records become more frequent and more precise and observations on extreme soil erosion events are prominent. Sometimes they can be clearly linked to geomorphic evidence in the field. The advent of professional soil conservation took place in the late eighteenth century. The first extensive essay on soil conservation known to the Western world was published in Germany in 1815. The rise of professional soil conservation occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Soil remediation and flood prevention programs were initiated, but the long-term success of these actions remains controversial. In recent years, increasing interest is to recover any traditional knowledge of soil

  8. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  9. Ranger's Legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    With its Landsat satellites, development of sensors, and advancement of processing techniques, NASA provided the initial technology base for another Earth-benefit application of image processing, Earth resources survey by means of remote sensing. Since each object has its own unique "signature," it is possible to distinguish among surface features and to generate computer-processed imagery identifying specific features of importance to resource managers. This capability, commercialized by Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., offers practical application in such areas as agricultural crop forecasting, rangeland and forest management, land use planning, mineral and petroleum exploration, map making, water quality evaluation and disaster assessment. Major users of the technology have been federal, state, and local governments, but it is making its way into commercial operations, for example, resource exploration companies looking for oil, gas and mineral sources, and timber production firms seeking more efficient treeland management. Supporting both government and private users is a small industry composed of companies producing the processing hardware software. As is the case in the medical application, many of these companies are direct offspring of NASA's work.

  10. A descriptive survey of management and operations at selected sports medicine centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Olsen, D

    1996-11-01

    No uniform guidelines for operations or accreditation standards for sports medicine center were available and, at the time of this study, little information on the management and operation of sports medicine centers was available in the literature. The purpose of the study was to determine the management structure and function of selected sports medicine centers in the United States. Questionnaires were mailed to 200 randomly selected centers throughout the United State from a directory of sports medicine centers published in Physician and Sportsmedicine (1992) to gather descriptive information on eight areas, including 1) general background, 2) staffing, 3) services, facilities, and equipment, 4) billing, collections, and revenue, 5) clientele, caseloads, and referrals, 6) ownership and financing, 7) school and club outreach contracts, and 8) marketing strategies and future trends. A total of 71 surveys (35.5%) were returned in the allotted time frame. Data were analyzed using ranges, means, medians, modes, and percentages. Results yielded several conclusions about sports medicine centers. Nearly all (93%) of the centers employed physical therapists; physical therapists were clinical directors at 70.2% of centers; orthopaedists were most often medical directors; rehabilitation was the most frequently offered service (93%); physical therapy produced the highest revenue; sports injuries accounted for a mean 34.5% of patients, who were mostly recreational or high school athletes between 13-60 years of age; primary shareholders were most often physical therapists or physicians; most were involved in outreach services for schools; marketing strategies primarily involved communication with referral sources; and managed care was identified most frequently as a trend affecting the future of sports medicine centers. Findings identified common aspects of sports medicine centers and may assist in establishing guidelines for operations or accreditation of sports medicine

  11. Misconduct in research: a descriptive survey of attitudes, perceptions and associated factors in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Misconduct in research tarnishes the reputation, credibility and integrity of research institutions. Studies on research or scientific misconduct are still novel in developing countries. In this study, we report on the attitudes, perceptions and factors related to the work environment thought to be associated with research misconduct in a group of researchers in Nigeria - a developing country. Method A survey of researchers attending a scientific conference was done using an adapted Scientific Misconduct Questionnaire-Revised (SMQ-R). Initial descriptive analysis of individual items using frequencies and proportions for all quantitative data was performed. Thereafter, Likert scale responses were transformed into dichotomous responses. Fisher exact test was performed for associations as appropriate. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was accepted as significant. Result Half of the respondents (50.4%) were aware of a colleague who had committed misconduct, defined as “non-adherence to rules, regulations, guidelines, and commonly accepted professional codes or norms”. Over 88% of the researchers were concerned about the perceived amount of misconduct prevalent in their institution and 96.2% believed that one or more forms of scientific misconduct had occurred in their workplace. More than half (52.7%) rated the severity of penalties for scientific misconduct in their work environment as low. Furthermore¸ the majority (56.1%) were of the view that the chance of getting caught for scientific misconduct in their work environment was low. Conclusion Researchers in Nigeria perceive that scientific misconduct is commonplace in their institutions, but are however worried about the negative effects of scientific misconduct on the credibility of scientific research. We recommend that researchers be empowered with the knowledge and virtues necessary for self-regulation that advance research integrity. Research institutions should however also step into their

  12. The GMRT High Resolution Southern Sky Survey for Pulsars and Transients. I. Survey Description and Initial Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Cooper, S.; Malenta, M.; Roy, J.; Chengalur, J.; Keith, M.; Kudale, S.; McLaughlin, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Stappers, B. W.

    2016-02-01

    We are conducting a survey for pulsars and transients using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The GMRT High Resolution Southern Sky (GHRSS) survey is an off-Galactic plane (| b| > 5) survey in the declination range -40° to -54° at 322 MHz. With the high time (up to 30.72 μs) and frequency (up to 0.016275 MHz) resolution observing modes, the 5σ detection limit is 0.5 mJy for a 2 ms pulsar with a 10% duty cycle at 322 MHz. The total GHRSS sky coverage of 2866 deg2 will result from 1953 pointings, each covering 1.8 deg2. The 10σ detection limit for a 5 ms transient burst is 1.6 Jy for the GHRSS survey. In addition, the GHRSS survey can reveal transient events like rotating radio transients or fast radio bursts. With 35% of the survey completed (i.e., 1000 deg2), we report the discovery of 10 pulsars, 1 of which is a millisecond pulsar (MSP), which is among the highest pulsar per square degree discovery rates for any off-Galactic plane survey. We re-detected 23 known in-beam pulsars. Utilizing the imaging capability of the GMRT, we also localized four of the GHRSS pulsars (including the MSP) in the gated image plane within ±10″. We demonstrated rapid convergence in pulsar timing with a more precise position than is possible with single-dish discoveries. We also show that we can localize the brightest transient sources with simultaneously obtained lower time resolution imaging data, demonstrating a technique that may have application in the Square Kilometre Array.

  13. [Sampling effort and floristic atlases: survey completeness of localities and description of knowledge gaps].

    PubMed

    Vallet, Jeanne; Rambaud, Maëlle; Coquel, Loïc; Poncet, Laurent; Hendoux, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Floristic atlases have an important input to flora conservation planning even though their data quality varied greatly across countries. This study aimed to assess survey completeness of cells of floristic atlases. Then, a surveying guide is designed to overcome as efficiently as possible sampling biases. A review and analyses on a wide dataset were carried out to select an estimator of the true species richness of surveyed cells. The Jackknife 1, a non-parametric estimator, appeared as the best compromise for regional floristic atlases. The number of records in each cell was used as an estimator of sampling effort. The ratio between the observed species richness and the estimated species richness measures the completeness of inventories in each surveyed cell. Eighteen variables were selected to describe current inventories and design new surveys. These variables highlight locations, periods and species to be given priority in future studies.

  14. The role of psychiatrists in community mental health centers: a survey of job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Diamond, R J; Goldfinger, S M; Pollack, D; Silver, M

    1995-12-01

    There is little data about the role of psychiatrists within CMHCs. To gain perspective on this issue, job descriptions for medical directors and staff psychiatrists were collected from 214 CMHCs. The data demonstrated that most CMHCs want fully trained psychiatrists involved in a variety of activities in addition to prescribing medication. Policy development was specifically included as part of the medical director's job for 69% of the CMHCs, and 50% mentioned training as part of the staff psychiatrist's job. Although job descriptions may not accurately reflect the actual roles of the psychiatrist in all cases, these data suggest that CMHCs support a multifaceted role for their psychiatrists.

  15. A complex legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  16. SPOTS: The Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars. I. Survey description and first observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, C.; Desidera, S.; Bonavita, M.; Janson, M.; Usuda, T.; Henning, T.; Köhler, R.; Carson, J.; Boccaletti, A.; Bergfors, C.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M.; Klahr, H.; Marzari, F.; Mordasini, C.

    2014-12-01

    Direct imaging surveys for exoplanets commonly exclude binary stars from their target lists, leaving a large part of the overall planet demography unexplored. To address this gap in our understanding of planet formation and evolution, we have launched the first direct-imaging survey dedicated to circumbinary planets: SPOTS, the Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars. We discuss the theoretical context, scientific merit, and technical feasibility of such observations, describe the target sample and observational strategy of our survey, and report on the first results from our pilot survey of 26 targets with the VLT NaCo facility. While we have not found any confirmed substellar companions to date, a number of promising candidate companions remain to be tested for common proper motion in upcoming follow-up observations. We also report on the astrometry of the three resolved binaries in our target sample. This pilot survey constitutes a successful proof of concept for our survey strategy and paves the way for a second stage in the exploratory observations with VLT SPHERE. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Programmes 088.C-0291 and 090.C-0416) and at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. PESSTO: survey description and products from the first data release by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smartt, S. J.; Valenti, S.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Young, D. R.; Sullivan, M.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Smareglia, R.; Smith, K. W.; Taubenberger, S.; Yaron, O.; Anderson, J. P.; Ashall, C.; Balland, C.; Baltay, C.; Barbarino, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Baumont, S.; Bersier, D.; Blagorodnova, N.; Bongard, S.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Bulla, M.; Cappellaro, E.; Campbell, H.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Chen, T.-W.; Childress, M. J.; Clocchiatti, A.; Contreras, C.; Dall'Ora, M.; Danziger, J.; de Jaeger, T.; De Cia, A.; Della Valle, M.; Dennefeld, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Elman, N.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gall, E.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Galbany, L.; Morales Garoffolo, A.; Greggio, L.; Guillou, L. L.; Hachinger, S.; Hadjiyska, E.; Hage, P. E.; Hillebrandt, W.; Hodgkin, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; James, P. A.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kangas, T.; Kankare, E.; Kotak, R.; Kromer, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Leloudas, G.; Lundqvist, P.; Lyman, J. D.; Hook, I. M.; Maguire, K.; Manulis, I.; Margheim, S. J.; Mattila, S.; Maund, J. R.; Mazzali, P. A.; McCrum, M.; McKinnon, R.; Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Nicholl, M.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pignata, G.; Phillips, M. M.; Polshaw, J.; Pumo, M. L.; Rabinowitz, D.; Reilly, E.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Scalzo, R.; Schmidt, B.; Schulze, S.; Sim, S.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Walker, E.; Walton, N. A.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Yuan, F.; Zampieri, L.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The Public European Southern Observatory Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO) began as a public spectroscopic survey in April 2012. PESSTO classifies transients from publicly available sources and wide-field surveys, and selects science targets for detailed spectroscopic and photometric follow-up. PESSTO runs for nine months of the year, January - April and August - December inclusive, and typically has allocations of 10 nights per month. Aims: We describe the data reduction strategy and data products that are publicly available through the ESO archive as the Spectroscopic Survey data release 1 (SSDR1). Methods: PESSTO uses the New Technology Telescope with the instruments EFOSC2 and SOFI to provide optical and NIR spectroscopy and imaging. We target supernovae and optical transients brighter than 20.5m for classification. Science targets are selected for follow-up based on the PESSTO science goal of extending knowledge of the extremes of the supernova population. We use standard EFOSC2 set-ups providing spectra with resolutions of 13-18 Å between 3345-9995 Å. A subset of the brighter science targets are selected for SOFI spectroscopy with the blue and red grisms (0.935-2.53 μm and resolutions 23-33 Å) and imaging with broadband JHKs filters. Results: This first data release (SSDR1) contains flux calibrated spectra from the first year (April 2012-2013). A total of 221 confirmed supernovae were classified, and we released calibrated optical spectra and classifications publicly within 24 h of the data being taken (via WISeREP). The data in SSDR1 replace those released spectra. They have more reliable and quantifiable flux calibrations, correction for telluric absorption, and are made available in standard ESO Phase 3 formats. We estimate the absolute accuracy of the flux calibrations for EFOSC2 across the whole survey in SSDR1 to be typically ~15%, although a number of spectra will have less reliable absolute flux calibration because of

  18. The SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity survey of M dwarfs. I. Description of the survey and science goals

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, R.; Bender, C. F.; Mahadevan, S.; Terrien, R. C.; Schneider, D. P.; Fleming, S. W.; Blake, C. H.; Carlberg, J. K.; Zasowski, G.; Hearty, F.; Crepp, J.; Rajpurohit, A. S.; Reylé, C.; Nidever, D. L.; Prieto, C. Allende; Hernández, J.; Bizyaev, D.; Ebelke, G.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Ge, J.; and others

    2013-12-01

    We are carrying out a large ancillary program with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS-III, using the fiber-fed multi-object near-infrared APOGEE spectrograph, to obtain high-resolution H-band spectra of more than 1200 M dwarfs. These observations will be used to measure spectroscopic rotational velocities, radial velocities, physical stellar parameters, and variability of the target stars. Here, we describe the target selection for this survey, as well as results from the first year of scientific observations based on spectra that will be publicly available in the SDSS-III DR10 data release. As part of this paper we present radial velocities and rotational velocities of over 200 M dwarfs, with a vsin i precision of ∼2 km s{sup –1} and a measurement floor at vsin i = 4 km s{sup –1}. This survey significantly increases the number of M dwarfs studied for rotational velocities and radial velocity variability (at ∼100-200 m s{sup –1}), and will inform and advance the target selection for planned radial velocity and photometric searches for low-mass exoplanets around M dwarfs, such as the Habitable Zone Planet Finder, CARMENES, and TESS. Multiple epochs of radial velocity observations enable us to identify short period binaries, and adaptive optics imaging of a subset of stars enables the detection of possible stellar companions at larger separations. The high-resolution APOGEE spectra, covering the entire H band, provide the opportunity to measure physical stellar parameters such as effective temperatures and metallicities for many of these stars. At the culmination of this survey, we will have obtained multi-epoch spectra and radial velocities for over 1400 stars spanning the spectral range M0-L0, providing the largest set of near-infrared M dwarf spectra at high resolution, and more than doubling the number of known spectroscopic vsin i values for M dwarfs. Furthermore, by modeling telluric lines to correct for small instrumental radial velocity shifts, we

  19. THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE): MISSION DESCRIPTION AND INITIAL ON-ORBIT PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Ressler, Michael E.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Cutri, Roc M.; Jarrett, Thomas; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Padgett, Deborah; McMillan, Robert S.; Skrutskie, Michael; Stanford, S. A.; Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.; Mather, John C.; Leisawitz, David; Benford, Dominic; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Blain, Andrew

    2010-12-15

    The all sky surveys done by the Palomar Observatory Schmidt, the European Southern Observatory Schmidt, and the United Kingdom Schmidt, the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey have proven to be extremely useful tools for astronomy with value that lasts for decades. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is mapping the whole sky following its launch on 2009 December 14. WISE began surveying the sky on 2010 January 14 and completed its first full coverage of the sky on July 17. The survey will continue to cover the sky a second time until the cryogen is exhausted (anticipated in 2010 November). WISE is achieving 5{sigma} point source sensitivities better than 0.08, 0.11, 1, and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic in bands centered at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 {mu}m. Sensitivity improves toward the ecliptic poles due to denser coverage and lower zodiacal background. The angular resolution is 6.''1, 6.''4, 6.''5, and 12.''0 at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 {mu}m, and the astrometric precision for high signal-to-noise sources is better than 0.''15.

  20. The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Mainzer, Amy; Ressler, Michael E.; Cutri, Roc M.; Jarrett, Thomas; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Padgett, Deborah; McMillan, Robert S.; Skrutskie,Michael; Stanford, S. A.; Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.; Mather, John C.; Leisawitz, David; Gautier, Thomas N., III; McLean, Ian; Benford, Dominic; Lonsdale,Carol J.; Blain, Andrew; Mendez,Bryan; Irace, William R.; Duval, Valerie; Liu, Fengchuan; Royer, Don

    2010-01-01

    The all sky surveys done by the Palomar Observatory Schmidt, the European Southern Observatory Schmidt, and the United Kingdom Schmidt, the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite and the 2 Micron All Sky Survey have proven to be extremely useful tools for astronomy with value that lasts for decades. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is mapping the whole sky following its launch on 14 December 2009. WISE began surveying the sky on 14 Jan 2010 and completed its first full coverage of the sky on July 17. The survey will continue to cover the sky a second time until the cryogen is exhausted (anticipated in November 2010). WISE is achieving 5 sigma point source sensitivities better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic in bands centered at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers. Sensitivity improves toward the ecliptic poles due to denser coverage and lower zodiacal background. The angular resolution is 6.1", 6.4", 6.5" and 12.0" at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers, and the astrometric precision for high SNR sources is better than 0.15".

  1. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS). I. Survey description and a kinematical map of the Milky Way bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccali, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Vasquez, S.; Hill, V.; Rejkuba, M.; Valenti, E.; Renzini, A.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Martinez-Valpuesta, I.; Babusiaux, C.; Brown, T.; Minniti, D.; McWilliam, A.

    2014-02-01

    Context. The Galactic bulge is a massive, old component of the Milky Way. It is known to host a bar, and it has recently been demonstrated to have a pronounced boxy/peanut structure in its outer region. Several independent studies suggest the presence of more than one stellar populations in the bulge, with different origins and a relative fraction changing across the bulge area. Aims: This is the first of a series of papers presenting the results of the Giraffe Inner Bulge Survey, carried out at the ESO-VLT with the multifibre spectrograph FLAMES. Spectra of ~5000 red clump giants in 24 bulge fields have been obtained at resolution R = 6500, in the infrared Calcium triplet wavelength region at ~8500 Å. They are used to derive radial velocities and metallicities, based on new calibration specifically devised for this project. Radial velocities for another ~1200 bulge red clump giants, obtained from similar archive data, have been added to the sample. Higher resolution spectra have been obtained for ~450 additional stars at latitude b = -3.5, with the aim of investigating chemical abundance patterns variations with longitude, across the inner bulge. In total we present here radial velocities for 6392 red clump stars. Methods: We present here the target selection criteria, observing strategy and the catalog with radial velocity measurements for all the target stars. Results: We derive a radial velocity, and velocity dispersion map of the Milky Way bulge, useful to be compared with similar maps of external bulges, and to infer the expected velocities and dispersion at any line of sight. The K-type giants kinematics is consistent with the cylindrical rotation pattern of M-giants from the BRAVA survey. Our sample enables to extend this result to latitude b = -2, closer to the Galactic plane than probed by previous surveys. Finally, we find strong evidence for a velocity dispersion peak at (0, -1) and (0, -2), possibily indicative of a high density peak in the central

  2. UH-1 Helicopter Mechanic (MOS 67N20) Job Description Survey: Performance of Specific Maintenance Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.; And Others

    The report is the second of two describing the results of a world-wide survey of the maintenance activities of UH-1 helicopter mechanics for the purpose of studying the relationships among job requirements, training, and manpower considerations for aviation maintenance. A summary of the results of the first report is included. The survey…

  3. Descriptive survey of Summer Genetics Institute nurse graduates in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Kathleen T; Sciacca, Robert R; McCarthy, Mary S

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical, research, educational, and professional activities that nurses are engaged in following participation in a 2 month intramural genetics training program. An online survey was administered in 2010 to graduates of the program sponsored by the US National Institute of Nursing Research from 2000 to 2009, in Bethesda, Maryland, USA. The electronic, voluntary survey was sent to 189 graduates via email. The survey included demographic characteristics, educational preparation, professional roles and responsibilities, and attitudes about genetic testing and privacy issues. Of the 95 graduates responding to the survey, 74% had doctorates and 70% were advanced practice nurses. All respondents reported incorporating genetics knowledge into daily clinical, academic, or research practices since completing the program, with 72% reporting being involved in genetically-focused research (52% with research funding), 32% incorporating genetics into patient care, and 79% providing genetics education. Respondents working in a hospital setting or academic institution were more likely to desire additional training in genetics. National Institute of Nursing Research graduates have successfully integrated genomics into a variety of nursing practices.

  4. Description of the US Geological Survey`s water level monitoring program at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, September 1993--February 1994; Description of the collection of continuous water-level data; Description of the collection of monthly water-level data

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-15

    The US Department of Energy and the US Department of the Interior agreed to monitor water-level data in 16 observation wells located at Hallam Facility, Hallam, Nebraska. The data collection period began in September 1993 and continued through August 1994. This report contains the interim summary representing six months of data collection. Specific sections include the following: description of the US Geological Survey`s monitoring program at the Hallam Nuclear Facility (Sept. 1993 to Feb. 1994); description of the collection of continuous water-level data; description of the collection of monthly water-level data; table of observation well number, latitude, longitude, and depth; table of monthly ground-water levels data; table of recorder wells, rainfall, and barometric pressure unit values; and table of recorder well, rainfall, and barometric daily values; hydrographs of selected wells.

  5. Twitter Strategies for Web-Based Surveying: Descriptive Analysis From the International Concussion Study

    PubMed Central

    Düking, Peter; Mellalieu, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media provides researchers with an efficient means to reach and engage with a large and diverse audience. Twitter allows for the virtual social interaction among a network of users that enables researchers to recruit and administer surveys using snowball sampling. Although using Twitter to administer surveys for research is not new, strategies to improve response rates are yet to be reported. Objective To compare the potential and actual reach of 2 Twitter accounts that administered a Web-based concussion survey to rugby players and trainers using 2 distinct Twitter-targeting strategies. Furthermore, the study sought to determine the likelihood of receiving a retweet based on the time of the day and day of the week of posting. Methods A survey based on previous concussion research was exported to a Web-based survey website Survey Monkey. The survey comprised 2 questionnaires, one for players, and one for those involved in the game (eg, coaches and athletic trainers). The Web-based survey was administered using 2 existing Twitter accounts, with each account executing a distinct targeting strategy. A list of potential Twitter accounts to target was drawn up, together with a list of predesigned tweets. The list of accounts to target was divided into ‘High-Profile’ and ‘Low-Profile’, based on each accounts’ position to attract publicity with a high social interaction potential. The potential reach (number of followers of the targeted account), and actual reach (number of retweets received by each post) between the 2 strategies were compared. The number of retweets received by each account was further analyzed to understand when the most likely time of day, and day of the week, a retweet would be received. Results The number of retweets received by a Twitter account decreased by 72% when using the ‘high-profile strategy’ compared with the ‘low-profile strategy’ (incidence rate ratio (IRR); 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0

  6. The Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies. I. Description and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Hanish, D. J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Knezek, P. M.; Kilborn, V. A.; Putman, M. E.; Smith, R. C.; Koribalski, B.; Meyer, M.; Oey, M. S.; Ryan-Weber, E. V.; Zwaan, M. A.; Heckman, T. M.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Lee, J. C.; Webster, R. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Dopita, M. A.; Freeman, K. C.; Doyle, M. T.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Werk, J.

    2006-07-01

    We introduce the Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SINGG), a census of star formation in H I-selected galaxies. The survey consists of Hα and R-band imaging of a sample of 468 galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS). The sample spans three decades in H I mass and is free of many of the biases that affect other star-forming galaxy samples. We present the criteria for sample selection, list the entire sample, discuss our observational techniques, and describe the data reduction and calibration methods. This paper focuses on 93 SINGG targets whose observations have been fully reduced and analyzed to date. The majority of these show a single emission line galaxy (ELG). We see multiple ELGs in 13 fields, with up to four ELGs in a single field. All of the targets in this sample are detected in Hα, indicating that dormant (non-star-forming) galaxies with MHI>~3×107 Msolar are very rare. A database of the measured global properties of the ELGs is presented. The ELG sample spans 4 orders of magnitude in luminosity (Hα and R band), and Hα surface brightness, nearly 3 orders of magnitude in R surface brightness and nearly 2 orders of magnitude in Hα equivalent width (EW). The surface brightness distribution of our sample is broader than that of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic sample, the EW distribution is broader than prism-selected samples, and the morphologies found include all common types of star-forming galaxies (e.g., irregular, spiral, blue compact dwarf, starbursts, merging and colliding systems, and even residual star formation in S0 and Sa spirals). Thus, SINGG presents a superior census of star formation in the local universe suitable for further studies ranging from the analysis of H II regions to determination of the local cosmic star formation rate density.

  7. A descriptive study of healthcare ethics consultants in Canada: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, M D; Watts, J

    1993-05-01

    As part of a project to examine health care ethics consultation in Canada, we surveyed individuals who were considered by themselves or others to play a significant role in health care ethics consultation. Since one goal of the project was to examine the education and abilities necessary for consultants, we sought to determine the qualifications and skills currently possessed by persons considered to be ethics consultants. For the purposes of the questionnaire, 'health care ethics consultation' was defined broadly to include consultation on ethical issues in clinical care or in clinical research, ethics consultation to Clinical Ethics Committees, Research Ethics Committees, and policy formulation committees in health care institutions; 'clinical ethics work' was defined more broadly still to include, in addition to the above, ethics education, administration, research and writing on bioethics other than the above, and public speaking. Three hundred and fifty questionnaires were sent to individuals and institutions across Canada that were thought to have some involvement in health care ethics consultation. Two hundred and fifty-three questionnaires were returned for a response rate of 72%. This report presents initial findings of the study and attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of ethics consultation within Canada. The survey examines demographics, educational background, time spent on ethics, institutional affiliations, approaches to the role of consultation, research related issues, and attitudes toward certification. Of the 253 questionnaires returned, 162 were completed by individuals who indicated that they provided some kind of ethics consultation. Of these, 43 indicated that they spent 30% or more of their time in clinical ethics work. These individuals are quite heterogeneous in background, training and activities, and while the great majority of them are based in an academic setting (university or teaching hospital), many act

  8. Recent incidence and descriptive epidemiological survey of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Ansari, Abid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number of women with BC increased steadily from 1990-2010. On the basis of the number of cases, the percentage distribution of BC appears to be increasing. There were 1152 female BC cases in 2008 in comparison with 1308 in 2009, and 1473 in 2010. Breast cancer ranked first among females accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers (5378) in the year 2010. The average age at the diagnosis of BC was 48; weighted average was 49.8, and range 43-52. Conclusion: Among Saudi patients, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of BC, which occurs at an earlier age than in Western countries. Continued vigilance, mammographic screening, and patient education are needed to establish early diagnosis and perform optimal treatment. PMID:26446327

  9. Surveying the RHIO landscape. A description of current RHIO models, with a focus on patient identification.

    PubMed

    Bartschat, Wanda; Burrington-Brown, Jill; Carey, Susan; Chen, Jennie; Deming, Sally; Durkin, Stacie; Fernandes, Lorraine; Giannangelo, Kathy; Heinecke, Kerry; Helbig, Susan; Hisle, Rhonda; Hughes, Gwen; Hull, Susan; Just, Beth; Knox, Teresa; Kohn, Deborah; Koval, Dianne; Lemery, Chrisann; Mandler, Eve-Ellen; Nichols-Banks, Natalie; O'Connor, Michele; Peters, Laurie; Ramsey, Rebecca; Reynolds, Rebecca; Spohn, Renae; Thomas, Melanie; Waterstraat, Frank; Wheatley, Vicki; Wood, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Across the country, new RHIOs are being formed every day. The 21 RHIOs studied by the work group illustrate the variety of purposes, funding, and record linking methods RHIOs may adopt. As this trend continues to evolve and improve, RHIOs may prove to be a valuable stepping stone on the road to a national system in which a patient's medical data will be available anywhere, anytime. Accurate patient identification and linking are the foundation of health technology that is implemented in a RHIO or any similar network that shares patient information. Without accurate patient identification, patient safety and quality of care are compromised. When high percentages of duplication or overlaying of records occurs in electronic health record databases, physician trust in the system is lost. As HIM professionals, we must be involved in addressing the security and confidentiality of RHIO databases and in defining the record linking method appropriate to the RHIO. As professionals skilled in patient identification methods and possessing significant organizational skills and personnel management experience, HIM professionals should become involved in this process at the earliest opportunity in the RHIO formation. HIM professionals can participate in long-term planning, business plan development, and organizational structure definition. Future articles will address how HIM professionals can become involved, what particular attributes and skills they can bring to the table, and job descriptions appropriate to HIM professionals in the healthcare information sharing industry. The work group urges all HIM professionals to become involved personally in this exciting new field. PMID:16475743

  10. Surveying the RHIO landscape. A description of current RHIO models, with a focus on patient identification.

    PubMed

    Bartschat, Wanda; Burrington-Brown, Jill; Carey, Susan; Chen, Jennie; Deming, Sally; Durkin, Stacie; Fernandes, Lorraine; Giannangelo, Kathy; Heinecke, Kerry; Helbig, Susan; Hisle, Rhonda; Hughes, Gwen; Hull, Susan; Just, Beth; Knox, Teresa; Kohn, Deborah; Koval, Dianne; Lemery, Chrisann; Mandler, Eve-Ellen; Nichols-Banks, Natalie; O'Connor, Michele; Peters, Laurie; Ramsey, Rebecca; Reynolds, Rebecca; Spohn, Renae; Thomas, Melanie; Waterstraat, Frank; Wheatley, Vicki; Wood, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Across the country, new RHIOs are being formed every day. The 21 RHIOs studied by the work group illustrate the variety of purposes, funding, and record linking methods RHIOs may adopt. As this trend continues to evolve and improve, RHIOs may prove to be a valuable stepping stone on the road to a national system in which a patient's medical data will be available anywhere, anytime. Accurate patient identification and linking are the foundation of health technology that is implemented in a RHIO or any similar network that shares patient information. Without accurate patient identification, patient safety and quality of care are compromised. When high percentages of duplication or overlaying of records occurs in electronic health record databases, physician trust in the system is lost. As HIM professionals, we must be involved in addressing the security and confidentiality of RHIO databases and in defining the record linking method appropriate to the RHIO. As professionals skilled in patient identification methods and possessing significant organizational skills and personnel management experience, HIM professionals should become involved in this process at the earliest opportunity in the RHIO formation. HIM professionals can participate in long-term planning, business plan development, and organizational structure definition. Future articles will address how HIM professionals can become involved, what particular attributes and skills they can bring to the table, and job descriptions appropriate to HIM professionals in the healthcare information sharing industry. The work group urges all HIM professionals to become involved personally in this exciting new field.

  11. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal data integration framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, David L.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Kunicki, Thomas C.; Walker, Jordan I.; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed an open-standard data integration framework for working efficiently and effectively with large collections of climate and other geoscience data. A web interface accesses catalog datasets to find data services. Data resources can then be rendered for mapping and dataset metadata are derived directly from these web services. Algorithm configuration and information needed to retrieve data for processing are passed to a server where all large-volume data access and manipulation takes place. The data integration strategy described here was implemented by leveraging existing free and open source software. Details of the software used are omitted; rather, emphasis is placed on how open-standard web services and data encodings can be used in an architecture that integrates common geographic and atmospheric data.

  12. The Legacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2012-01-01

    This article is the first in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." It focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged technology engineering education profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize them and…

  13. Science: The Islamic Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunde, Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In the wake of the first space voyage and in-flight experiments by a Muslim astronaut, this document focuses upon the story of Islamic science through the ages. It is intended to demonstrate the resurgence of scientific research and technological development in the Muslim world. The booklet contains chapters on: (1) science: the Islamic legacy;…

  14. Securing Your Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeau, Edward

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a former college president, reflects on his career and the challenges of retirement. He shares his experience from career preparation to on-the-job training to succession planning. The author stresses that the decisions college presidents make define the legacies they leave.

  15. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. I. INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTION AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Horch, Elliott P.; Veillette, Daniel R.; Shah, Sagar C.; O'Rielly, Grant V.; Baena Galle, Roberto; Van Altena, William F. E-mail: drv@usno.navy.mil E-mail: gorielly@umassd.edu E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu

    2009-06-15

    First results of a new speckle imaging system, the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, are reported. The instrument is designed to take speckle data in two filters simultaneously with two independent CCD imagers. This feature results in three advantages over other speckle cameras: (1) twice as many frames can be obtained in the same observation time which can increase the signal-to-noise ratio for astrometric measurements, (2) component colors can be derived from a single observation, and (3) the two colors give substantial leverage over atmospheric dispersion, allowing for subdiffraction-limited separations to be measured reliably. Fifty-four observations are reported from the first use of the instrument at the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO 3.5 m Telescope{sup 9}The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. in 2008 September, including seven components resolved for the first time. These observations are used to judge the basic capabilities of the instrument.

  17. A survey of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of southern Iran, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Ameri, Ali; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Beyarslan, Ahmet; Kamali, Karim

    2014-12-23

    A faunistic survey of Euphorinae (Hym., Braconidae) in southern Iran, as well as an updated checklist of the genera and species in Iran, are presented. Sampling was performed using Malaise traps at different locations of Hormozgan province and Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf during 2011-2013. In total, 38 species belonging to 10 genera are listed from Iran. The recorded species belong to the following genera: Allurus Forster, 1862 (two species), Chrysopophthorus Goidanich 1948 (one species), Dinocampus Forster, 1862 (one species), Ecclitura Kokujev, 1902 (one species), Leiophron Nees von Esenbeck, 1819 (10 species), Meteorus Haliday, 1835 (12 species), Perilitus Nees von Esenbeck, 1819 (five species), Syntretus Forster 1862 (three species), Wesmaelia Foerster, 1862 (one species) and Zele Curtis, 1832 (two species). Allurus lituratus (Haliday 1835), Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802), Leiophron (Peristenus) grandiceps (Thomson 1892), Meteorus rubens (Nees, 1811) and Wesmaelia petiolata (Wollaston, 1858) are new records for Hormozgan province and Leiophron (Peristenus) grandiceps (Thomson 1892) is recorded for the first time from Iran. In addition, Meteorus breviterebratus Ameri, Talebi & Beyarslan sp. n. is newly described and illustrated. 

  18. The health of children in refuges for women victims of domestic violence: cross sectional descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Elspeth; Shankleman, Judith; Evans, Meirion R; Brooks, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To describe the health and developmental status of children living in refuges for women victims of domestic violence and to investigate their access to primary healthcare services. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting Women's refuges in Cardiff. Participants 148 resident children aged under 16 years and their mothers. Main outcome measures Completeness of records on the child health system (register of all children that includes data on the child's health) for named health visitor, named general practitioner, and immunisation uptake; satisfactory completion of child health surveillance; Denver test results for developmental status; Rutter test scores for behavioural and emotional problems; reports of maternal concerns. Results 148/257 (58%) children living in refuges between April 1999 and January 2000 were assessed. Child health system data were incorrect (general practitioner and/or address) or unavailable for 85/148 (57%) children. Uptake of all assessments and immunisations was low. 13/68 (19%) children aged <5 years had delayed or questionable development on the Denver test, and 49/101 (49%) children aged 3-15 years had a Rutter score of >10 (indicating probable mental health problems). Concerns were expressed by mothers of 113/148 (76%) children. After leaving the refuge, 22 children were untraceable and 36 returned home to the perpetrator from whom the families had fled. Conclusions The children had a high level of need, as well as poor access to services. Time spent in a refuge provides a window of opportunity to review health and developmental status. Specialist health visitors could facilitate and provide support, liaison, and follow up. What is already known on this topicA pilot study showed poor uptake of immunisations and surveillance among children who live in refuges for women victims of domestic violenceQualitative studies suggest that these children are at risk of psychological ill healthWhat this study addsBaseline health and

  19. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  20. A legacy building model for holistic nursing.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernadette; Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Mariano, Carla

    2014-06-01

    This pilot project was an effort to record the historical roots, development, and legacy of holistic nursing through the visionary spirit of four older American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) members. The aim was twofold: (a) to capture the holistic nursing career experiences of elder AHNA members and (b) to begin to create a Legacy Building Model for Holistic Nursing. The narratives will help initiate an ongoing, systematic method for the collection of historical data and serve as a perpetual archive of knowledge and inspiration for present and future holistic nurses. An aesthetic inquiry approach was used to conduct in-depth interviews with four older AHNA members who have made significant contributions to holistic nursing. The narratives provide a rich description of their personal and professional evolution as holistic nurses. The narratives are presented in an aesthetic format of the art forms of snapshot, pastiche, and collage rather than traditional presentations of research findings. A synopsis of the narratives is a dialogue between the three authors and provides insight for how a Legacy Model can guide our future. Considerations for practice, education, and research are discussed based on the words of wisdom from the four older holistic nurses.

  1. The HETG Orion Legacy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Testa, P.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Canizares, C. R.

    2008-03-01

    The HETG Orion Legacy Project aims to study high energy plasma properties of a large number of highly resolved X-ray spectra from young stars over a large range of masses and evolutionary stages. The spectra are collected throughout the lifetime of Chandra and thus not only provide highly significant X-ray line strengths for detailed plasma diagnostics but also long-term X-ray monitoring. The heart of the Orion Nebula Cluster with a dynamic age of 300000 yr is one of the youngest and closest star forming regions to our Sun and contains an ensemble of the youngest stars the Galaxy. The survey produces emission measure distributions and allows us to perform plasma diagnostics using H-, He-, Li-like lines in over a dozen stars. We investigate the hypothesis further that X-ray production in very young massive stars is consistent with the standard model but very weak and low in energy unless there is enhancement by additional processes. The survey produces HETG spectra for about a dozen of mostly K-type T Tauri stars various quality levels. By spreading the observing time over many Chandra observation cycles the recording of HETG spectra of a few serendipitous flares is anticipated. This work was supported by NASA through the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) contract SV3-73016 for the Chandra X-Ray Center and Science Instruments.

  2. The Hubble space telescope UV legacy survey of galactic globular clusters. I. Overview of the project and detection of multiple stellar populations

    SciTech Connect

    Piotto, G.; Nardiello, D.; Cunial, A. E-mail: domenico.nardiello@studenti.unipd.it; and others

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we describe a new UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope project (GO-13297) that will complement the existing F606W and F814W database of the Advanced Camera for Surveys Globular Cluster (GC) Treasury by imaging most of its clusters through UV/blue WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. This “magic trio” of filters has shown an uncanny ability to disentangle and characterize multiple population (MP) patterns in GCs in a way that is exquisitely sensitive to C, N, and O abundance variations. Combination of these passbands with those in the optical also gives the best leverage for measuring helium enrichment. The dozen clusters that had previously been observed in these bands exhibit a bewildering variety of MP patterns, and the new survey will map the full variance of the phenomenon. The ubiquity of multiple stellar generations in GCs has made the formation of these cornerstone objects more intriguing than ever; GC formation and the origin of their MPs have now become one and the same problem. In this paper we will describe the database and our data reduction strategy, as well as the uses we intend to make of the final photometry, astrometry, and PMs. We will also present preliminary color–magnitude diagrams from the data so far collected. These diagrams also draw on data from GO-12605 and GO-12311, which served as a pilot project for the present GO-13297.

  3. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VII. Implications from the Nearly Universal Nature of Horizontal Branch Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; D'Antona, F.; Salaris, M.; Milone, A. P.; Dalessandro, E.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Sweigart, A. V.; Bellini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Sarajedini, A.; Aparicio, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Pietrinferni, A.; Nardiello, D.

    2016-05-01

    The UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey of Galactic globular clusters provides a new window into the phenomena that shape the morphological features of the horizontal branch (HB). Using this large and homogeneous catalog of UV and blue photometry, we demonstrate that the HB exhibits discontinuities that are remarkably consistent in color (effective temperature). This consistency is apparent even among some of the most massive clusters hosting multiple distinct sub-populations (such as NGC 2808, ω Cen, and NGC 6715), demonstrating that these phenomena are primarily driven by atmospheric physics that is independent of the underlying population properties. However, inconsistencies arise in the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the discontinuity within the blue HB (BHB) distribution shifts ˜1000-2000 K hotter. We demonstrate that this shift is likely due to a large helium enhancement in the BHB stars of these clusters, which in turn affects the surface convection and evolution of such stars. Our survey also increases the number of Galactic globular clusters known to host blue-hook stars (also known as late hot flashers) from 6 to 23 clusters. These clusters are biased toward the bright end of the globular cluster luminosity function, confirming that blue-hook stars tend to form in the most massive clusters with significant self-enrichment. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-13297.

  4. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VII. Implications from the Nearly Universal Nature of Horizontal Branch Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; D’Antona, F.; Salaris, M.; Milone, A. P.; Dalessandro, E.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Sweigart, A. V.; Bellini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Sarajedini, A.; Aparicio, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Pietrinferni, A.; Nardiello, D.

    2016-05-01

    The UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey of Galactic globular clusters provides a new window into the phenomena that shape the morphological features of the horizontal branch (HB). Using this large and homogeneous catalog of UV and blue photometry, we demonstrate that the HB exhibits discontinuities that are remarkably consistent in color (effective temperature). This consistency is apparent even among some of the most massive clusters hosting multiple distinct sub-populations (such as NGC 2808, ω Cen, and NGC 6715), demonstrating that these phenomena are primarily driven by atmospheric physics that is independent of the underlying population properties. However, inconsistencies arise in the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the discontinuity within the blue HB (BHB) distribution shifts ˜1000–2000 K hotter. We demonstrate that this shift is likely due to a large helium enhancement in the BHB stars of these clusters, which in turn affects the surface convection and evolution of such stars. Our survey also increases the number of Galactic globular clusters known to host blue-hook stars (also known as late hot flashers) from 6 to 23 clusters. These clusters are biased toward the bright end of the globular cluster luminosity function, confirming that blue-hook stars tend to form in the most massive clusters with significant self-enrichment. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-13297.

  5. Survey of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding reproductive health among urban men in China: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Gong, Rui-Long; Han, Qing-Rong; Shi, Yu-Qin; Jia, Quan-An; Xu, Shan-Dan; Wang, Le-Qun; Zhu, Chang-Cai

    2015-01-01

    There has been little focus on men's reproductive health (RH) in China. This descriptive study conducted in Yiling District, Yichang, China, surveyed male knowledge of sexual physiology and RH to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) regarding prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A total of 3933 men, aged 18–59 years (mean, 40.3 years), were recruited by cluster random sampling. They completed a questionnaire in the presence of an interviewer, with items related to subject characteristics, RH knowledge, and subjective symptoms of the reproductive system. Physical examination and reproductive system disease diagnosis were performed. Participants’ occupations were predominantly skilled labor (80.5%). Nearly four-fifths (78.5%) respondents had at least one reproductive disease. Over half of respondents were aware of and declared a positive attitude about sexual physiology and safe sex, and 70% of them selected to visit a doctor when they had a reproductive disorder. However, only 41.9% believed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome could be transmitted through breastfeeding, and 64.6% incorrectly thought they could avoid contracting STDs by cleaning their genitals after intercourse. In addition, 45% discriminated against and were unwilling to be friends with infected persons. Nearly 45% of those with a reproductive system disorder refused to discuss it with friends or family members. These results indicate that this cohort of Chinese men had a certain degree of KAP about RH, whereas some aspects require further public health education in the general population. It is necessary to disseminate accurate knowledge of STD risk in China based on sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:25532571

  6. Language Learners and Diverse Legacies: Question of Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolson, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 43 Scottish open university students, aged 28-87, who were studying another language, examined extent of bilingualism; schooling in and exposure to other languages in youth; school, family, media, and travel influences on language attitudes; and motivations for language study. Social and educational legacies affecting student…

  7. THE SCUBA-2 COSMOLOGY LEGACY SURVEY: ALMA RESOLVES THE REST-FRAME FAR-INFRARED EMISSION OF SUB-MILLIMETER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J. M.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Ma, C.-J.; Almaini, O.; Conselice, C.; Hartley, W. G.; Lani, C.; Blain, A. W.; Bremer, M. N.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Chapman, S. C.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Farrah, D.; Geach, J. E.; Karim, A.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We present high-resolution (0.''3) Atacama Large Millimeter Array 870 μm imaging of 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Ultra Deep Survey field to investigate the size and morphology of the sub-millimeter (sub-mm) emission on 2-10 kpc scales. We derive a median intrinsic angular size of FWHM = 0.''30 ± 0.''04 for the 23 SMGs in the sample detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >10. Using the photometric redshifts of the SMGs we show that this corresponds to a median physical half-light diameter of 2.4 ± 0.2 kpc. A stacking analysis of the SMGs detected at S/N <10 shows they have sizes consistent with the 870 μm bright SMGs in the sample. We compare our results to the sizes of SMGs derived from other multi-wavelength studies, and show that the rest-frame ∼250 μm sizes of SMGs are consistent with studies of resolved {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2 to 7-6) emission lines, but that sizes derived from 1.4 GHz imaging appear to be approximately two times larger on average, which we attribute to cosmic ray diffusion. The rest-frame optical sizes of SMGs are around four times larger than the sub-millimeter sizes, indicating that the star formation in these galaxies is compact relative to the pre-existing stellar distribution. The size of the starburst region in SMGs is consistent with the majority of the star formation occurring in a central region, a few kiloparsecs in extent, with a median star formation rate surface density of 90 ± 30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}, which may suggest that we are witnessing an intense period of bulge growth in these galaxies.

  8. Locating legacy in illness.

    PubMed

    Froude, Cameron Kiely

    2016-06-01

    The author, a licensed marriage and family therapist, describes her work with Sofia, an eight-year-old Puerto Rican female with chronic and persistent abdominal pain and leg paralysis with no known organic cause. Sofia's mother, Ana, was also seen by the author. Over the course of several weeks, the family shared stories of painful medical procedures and extreme dietary plans prescribed to them by doctors to identify the etiology of Sofia's illness. Ana described her simultaneous relief and frustration when each test result indicated that there was no organic cause for Sofia's debilitating pain. They talked about the push and pull Ana's family experienced as they prayed simultaneously for abnormal and normal test results. The author told Sofia's pediatrician that she would begin to create a community genogram with the family in their next meeting. She explained that the purpose of the community genogram was to illustrate the social and historical contexts of families' lives. They learned that a seminal narrative in Sofia's family legacy connected deep understanding of others with embodiment of their immediate experience. Sofia's illness became one part of her and her family's legacy and cultural tapestry. Ana described the renewed connections that she and Sofia shared with their family members. As Sofia and Ana spoke with their family members more often, Sofia's leg paralysis and stomach pains decreased. Sofia began attending school regularly and visiting less with her pediatrician. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270250

  9. An HST/COS legacy survey of intervening Si III absorption in the extended gaseous halos of low-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P.; Wakker, B. P.; Fechner, C.; Herenz, P.; Tepper-García, T.; Fox, A. J.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Doubly ionized silicon (Si iii) is a powerful tracer of diffuse ionized gas inside and outside of galaxies. It can be observed in the local Universe in ultraviolet (UV) absorption against bright extragalactic background sources. We here present an extensive study of intervening Si iii-selected absorbers and study the properties of the warm circumgalactic medium (CGM) around low-redshift (z ≤ 0.1) galaxies. Methods: We analyzed the UV absorption spectra of 303 extragalactic background sources, as obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We developed a geometrical model for the absorption-cross section of the CGM around the local galaxy population and compared the observed Si iii absorption statistics with predictions provided by the model. We also compared redshifts and positions of the absorbers with those of ~64 000 galaxies using archival galaxy-survey data to investigate the relation between intervening Si iii absorbers and the CGM. Results: Along a total redshift path of Δz ≈ 24, we identify 69 intervening Si iii systems that all show associated absorption from other low and high ions (e.g., H i, Si ii, Si iv, C ii, C iv). We derive a bias-corrected number density of dN/dz(Si iii)= 2.5 ± 0.4 for absorbers with column densities log N(Si iii) > 12.2, which is ~3 times the number density of strong Mg ii systems at z = 0. This number density matches the expected cross section of a Si iii absorbing CGM around the local galaxy population with a mean covering fraction of ⟨ fc ⟩ = 0.69. For the majority (~60 percent) of the absorbers, we identify possible host galaxies within 300 km s-1 of the absorbers and derive impact parameters ρ < 200 kpc, demonstrating that the spatial distributions of Si iii absorbers and galaxies are highly correlated. Conclusions: Our study indicates that the majority of Si iii-selected absorbers in our sample trace the CGM of nearby galaxies within their virial radii at a

  10. Descriptions of mineral occurrences and interpretation of mineralized rock geochemical data in the Stikine geophysical survey area, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed descriptions of some of the more significant mineral occurrences in the Stikine Airborne Geophysical Survey Project Area are presented based upon site-specific examinations by the U.S. Geological Survey in May of 1998. Reconnaissance geochemical data on unmineralized igneous and sedimentary host rocks, and mineralized rocks are also presented and are accompanied by a brief analysis of geochemical signatures typical of each occurrence. Consistent with the stated goal of the geophysical survey; to stimulate exploration for polymetallic massive sulfides similar to the Greens Creek deposit, the majority of the described occurrences are possible members of a belt of Late Triassic mineral deposits that are distributed along the eastern edge of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska. Many of the described occurrences in the Duncan Canal-Zarembo Island area share similarities to the Greens Creek deposit. When considered as a whole, the geology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of these occurrences help to define a transitional portion of the Late Triassic mineral belt where changes in shallow to deeper water stratigraphy and arc-like to rift-related igneous rocks are accompanied by concomitant changes in the size, morphology, and metal endowments of the mineral occurrences. As a result, Late Triassic mineral occurrences in the area appear as: 1) small, discontinuous, structurally controlled stockwork veins in mafic volcanic rocks, 2) small, irregular replacements and stratabound horizons of diagenetic semi-massive sulfides in dolostones and calcareous shales, and as 3) larger, recognizably stratiform accumulations of baritic, semi-massive to massive sulfides at and near the contact between mafic volcanic rocks and overlying sedimentary rocks. Empirical exploration guidelines for Greens Creek-like polymetallic massive sulfide deposits in southeastern Alaska include: 1) a Late Triassic volcano-sedimentary host sequence exhibiting evidence of succession from

  11. Schiaparelli and his legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, A.; Trinchieri, G.

    Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli has been one of the most important Italian astronomers of the eighteen hundreds. He was an active scientist and the director of the Brera Observatory for close to 40 years; his scientific achievements and his personal influence can be traced to a very large community of people and subjects, which go well beyond the observations of Mars, for which he is most famous. His vast range of interests, which include studies on history of Astronomy and ancient languages, Solar System bodies, meteorology, and Earth sciences, are well documented and will be the reviewed in this conference. More relevant to modern science, he has left us a very solid legacy, both with his pioneering scientific works, now progressing with new discoveries and the aid of new technology, and with the consequences of his observations of Mars, which have greatly influenced the literary world and have opened new research activities in medicine.

  12. Legacy Systems Interaction Reengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ramly, Mohammad; Stroulia, Eleni; Samir, Hani

    We present a lightweight approach for reengineering the human computer interaction (HCI) and/or interaction with other software systems. While interaction reengineering can be achieved by changing the source code and design (e.g., library replacement, refactoring, etc.) resulting in a different user interface (UI), we limit the discussion to interaction reengineering methods that do not involve changing the source code or internal design of the system. Instead, we focus on methods and techniques for wrapping and packaging the existing interaction layer to reproduce it in a different format, e.g., on a different platform or to integrate the legacy system services in another application possibly under a different architecture paradigm, e.g., service-oriented architectures (SOA).

  13. The scientific legacy of Apollo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian

    2012-12-01

    On the 40th anniversary of the last human expedition to the Moon, Ian Crawford reviews the scientific legacy of the Apollo programme and argues that science would benefit from a human return to the Moon.

  14. Exploring the "legacy" of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: a follow-up study from the Tuskegee Legacy Project.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ralph V; Green, B Lee; Kressin, Nancy R; James, Sherman A; Wang, Min Qi; Claudio, Cristina; Russell, Stephanie Luise

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this follow-up 2003 3-City Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) Study was to validate or refute our prior findings from the 1999-2000 4 City TLP Study, which found no evidence to support the widely acknowledged "legacy" of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSS), ie, that blacks are reluctant to participate in biomedical studies due to their knowledge of the TSS. The TLP Questionnaire was administered in this random-digit-dial telephone survey to a stratified random sample of 1162 black, white, and Puerto Rican Hispanic adults in 3 different US cities. The findings from this current 3-City TLP Study fail to support the widely acknowledged "legacy" of the TSS, as awareness of the TSS was not statistically associated with the willingness to participate in biomedical studies. These findings, being in complete agreement with our previous findings from our 1999-2000 4-City TLP, validate those prior findings.

  15. CERES EBAF TOA Legacy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-24

    ... etc.) averaged fluxes where the TOA net flux has been energy balanced. Description : CERES TOA all-sky and spatially complete ... fluxes, where TOA net flux is constrained to ocean heat storage. ...

  16. The Planck Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupac, X.; Arviset, C.; Fernandez Barreiro, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Tauber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Planck Collaboration has released in 2015 their second major dataset through the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA). It includes cosmological, Extragalactic and Galactic science data in temperature (intensity) and polarization. Full-sky maps are provided with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity, together with a large number of ancillary maps, catalogues (generic, SZ clusters and Galactic cold clumps), time-ordered data and other information. The extensive cosmological likelihood package allows cosmologists to fully explore the plausible parameters of the Universe. A new web-based PLA user interface is made public since Dec. 2014, allowing easier and faster access to all Planck data, and replacing the previous Java-based software. Numerous additional improvements to the PLA are also being developed through the so-called PLA Added-Value Interface, making use of an external contract with the Planetek Hellas and Expert Analytics software companies. This will allow users to process time-ordered data into sky maps, separate astrophysical components in existing maps, simulate the microwave and infrared sky through the Planck Sky Model, and use a number of other functionalities.

  17. The Influence of Visual Experience on the Ability to Form Spatial Mental Models Based on Route and Survey Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Zuidhoek, Sander; Postma, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: the first objective is to evaluate the importance of visual experience for the ability to form a spatial representation (spatial mental model) of fairly elaborate spatial descriptions. Secondly, we examine whether blind people exhibit the same preferences (i.e. level of performance on spatial tasks) as…

  18. The CEO's real legacy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kenneth W

    2004-11-01

    The literature on CEO succession planning is nearly unanimous in its advice: Begin early, look first inside your company for exceptional talent, see that candidates gain experience in all aspects of the business, and help them develop the skills they will need in the top job. It all makes sense and sounds pretty straightforward. Nevertheless, the list of CEOs who last no more than a few years on the job continues to grow. Implicit in many, if not all, of these unceremonious departures is the absence of an effective CEO succession plan. The problem is, most boards simply don't want to talk about CEO succession: Why rock the boat when things are going well? Why risk offending the current CEO? Meanwhile, most CEOs can't imagine that anyone could adequately replace them. In this article, Kenneth W. Freeman, the retired CEO of Quest Diagnostics, discusses his own recent handoff experience (Surya N. Mohapatra became chief executive in May 2004) and offers his approach to succession planning. He says it falls squarely on the incumbent CEO to put ego aside and initiate and actively manage the process of selecting and grooming a successor. Aggressive succession planning is one of the best ways for CEOs to ensure the long-term health of the company, he says. Plus, thinking early and often about a successor will likely improve the chief executive's performance during his tenure. Freeman advocates the textbook rules for succession planning but adds to that list a few more that apply specifically to the incumbent CEO: Insist that the board become engaged in succession planning, look for a successor who is different from you, and make the successor's success your own. After all, Freeman argues, the CEO's true legacy is determined by what happens after he leaves the corner office.

  19. [Households and families in 1982: on the analysis and description of household and family structure using representative population surveys].

    PubMed

    Porst, R

    1984-04-01

    "This study tests the feasibility of describing household and family structure by means of survey data. Rather than presenting new results, it focuses on alternative ways of obtaining information on the social structure. A typology of households and families is formulated and empirically reconstructed using data from the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS) of 1982; the results are compared with official data from the 1981 'microcensus'. There is a remarkable correspondence between the ALLBUS data and those from the 'microcensus'. This result--along with a range of more general advantages--demonstrates the potential of survey data for social structural analysis, especially for the analysis of household and family structure." (summary in ENG)

  20. The preparation of illustrations for reports of the United States Geological survey : with brief descriptions of processes of reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgway, John L.

    1920-01-01

    There has been an obvious need in the Geological Survey o£ a paper devoted wholly to illustrations. No complete paper on the character, use, and mode of preparation of illustration has been published by the Survey, though brief suggestions concerning certain features of their use have been printed in connection wit other suggestions pertaining to publications. The present paper includes matter which it is hoped will be of service to authors in their work of making up original drafts of illustrations and to drafsmen who are using these originals in preparing more finished drawing but it is not a technical treatise on drafting.

  1. What We Know about Community College Low-Income and Minority Student Outcomes: Descriptive Statistics from National Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas; Jenkins, Davis; Leinbach, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the latest available national statistics on access and attainment by low income and minority community college students. The data come from the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) annual surveys of all postsecondary educational institutions and the NCES…

  2. Launching College Students on Academic Probation into the First Phase of Self-Efficacy: A Descriptive Case Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Rochelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this case survey was to examine the reasons that students provide regarding why they are on academic probation and the efficacy of discussing the family life cycle among this group. Initially, a pilot population of 93 students on academic probation, who are a part of a multi-cultural community college in New York City, were surveyed…

  3. THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY Pi GHz SKY SURVEY. I. SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND STATIC CATALOG RESULTS FOR THE BOOeTES FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Croft, Steve; Keating, Garrett; Whysong, David; Backer, Don; Bauermeister, Amber; Blitz, Leo; Bock, Douglas; Cheng, Calvin; Dexter, Matt; Engargiola, Greg; Ackermann, Rob; Atkinson, Shannon; Backus, Peter; Bradford, Tucker; Davis, Mike; Dreher, John; Barott, Billy; Cork, Chris; DeBoer, Dave

    2010-12-20

    The Pi GHz Sky Survey (PiGSS) is a key project of the Allen Telescope Array. PiGSS is a 3.1 GHz survey of radio continuum emission in the extragalactic sky with an emphasis on synoptic observations that measure the static and time-variable properties of the sky. During the 2.5 year campaign, PiGSS will twice observe {approx}250,000 radio sources in the 10,000 deg{sup 2} region of the sky with b>30{sup 0} to an rms sensitivity of {approx}1 mJy. Additionally, sub-regions of the sky will be observed multiple times to characterize variability on timescales of days to years. We present here observations of a 10 deg{sup 2} region in the Booetes constellation overlapping the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey field. The PiGSS image was constructed from 75 daily observations distributed over a 4 month period and has an rms flux density between 200 and 250 {mu}Jy. This represents a deeper image by a factor of 4-8 than we will achieve over the entire 10,000 deg{sup 2}. We provide flux densities, source sizes, and spectral indices for the 425 sources detected in the image. We identify {approx}100 new flat-spectrum radio sources; we project that when completed PiGSS will identify 10{sup 4} flat-spectrum sources. We identify one source that is a possible transient radio source. This survey provides new limits on faint radio transients and variables with characteristic durations of months.

  4. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-02-01

    NORPERM - The Norwegian Permafrost Database was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). This paper describes the structural and technical design of NORPERM. NORPERM follows the IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. The ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard is also presented, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, as the data providers for NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. NORPERM stores temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. It contains all the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project, totalling 32 boreholes and 98 sites with miniature temperature data-loggers for continuous monitoring of micrometeorological conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual borehole logging. The amount of data in the database will gradually increase as data from older, previous projects are added. NORPERM also provides links to near real-time permafrost temperatures obtained by GSM data transfer.

  5. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  6. A Legacy of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerwahr, John

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret that American higher education is facing a daunting set of challenges. While public opinion surveys show that the public thinks a collegiate education is more important than ever, states across the country are reducing financial resources for their public colleges and universities--which are, in turn, eliminating programs or raising…

  7. A survey and description of candidate technologies to support single shell tank waste retrieval, leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Wegener, W.H.; Iwatate, D.F.

    1995-09-01

    This report was initially designed to provide a comprehensive review of potential leak detection technologies (LDTs). To this end, the report would contain several sections outlining the selection process. The purpose was twofold:(l) the reader would have a clear understanding of why specific technologies were recommended or not recommended, and (2) the reader could apply the same process in the future as new LDTs become available. Curtailment of project scope has prevented the development of the requisite judging criteria. The report has been modified accordingly. Section 2 of this report presents the baseline and guiding assumptions that were used to judge the LDTs. These assumptions include the environment where the technologies would be employed, the potential leak detection targets, and anticipated leak mechanisms. Section 3 presents a brief review of the methods used to arrive at the recommended LDTs. It also includes a description of the different technology families considered. Section 4 presents the recommended LDTs along with detailed descriptions of each that include sensitivities, operating parameters, and costs.

  8. MID-INFRARED SIZE SURVEY OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS: DESCRIPTION OF KECK SEGMENT-TILTING EXPERIMENT AND BASIC RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Monnier, J. D.; Tannirkulam, A.; Tuthill, P. G.; Ireland, M.; Cohen, R.; Perrin, M. D.

    2009-07-20

    The mid-infrared properties of pre-planetary disks are sensitive to the temperature and flaring profiles of disks for the regions where planet formation is expected to occur. In order to constrain theories of planet formation, we have carried out a mid-infrared ({lambda} = 10.7 {mu}m) size survey of young stellar objects using the segmented Keck telescope in a novel configuration. We introduced a customized pattern of tilts to individual mirror segments to allow efficient sparse-aperture interferometry, allowing full aperture synthesis imaging with higher calibration precision than traditional imaging. In contrast to previous surveys on smaller telescopes and with poorer calibration precision, we find that most objects in our sample are partially resolved. Here, we present the main observational results of our survey of five embedded massive protostars, 25 Herbig Ae/Be stars, 3 T Tauri stars, 1 FU Ori system, and five emission-line objects of uncertain classification. The observed mid-infrared sizes do not obey the size-luminosity relation found at near-infrared wavelengths and a companion paper will provide further modeling analysis of this sample. In addition, we report imaging results for a few of the most resolved objects, including complex emission around embedded massive protostars, the photoevaporating circumbinary disk around MWC 361A, and the subarcsecond binaries T Tau, FU Ori, and MWC 1080.

  9. Modernizing Fortran 77 legacy codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, C. D.; Decyk, V. K.

    2000-01-01

    Legacy software has great value since it is generally well debugged, produces results that are trusted and is actively meeting end-user goals. The amount of hidden expert knowledge embedded in such software can be significant, making its preservation important.

  10. Evaluation of Mapping Methodologies at a Legacy Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Roback, R. C.; Kelley, R. E.; Drellack, S.; Reed, D.; Miller, E.; Cooper, D. I.; Sandoval, M.; Wang, R.

    2013-12-01

    On June 12th, 1985, a nuclear test with an announced yield between 20-150kt was detonated in rhyolitic lava in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface. This test did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather resulted in a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation, providing an opportunity to evaluate the site using a number of surface mapping methodologies. The site was investigated over a two-year time span by several mapping teams. In order to determine the most time efficient and accurate approach for mapping post-shot surface features at a legacy test site, a number of different techniques were employed. The site was initially divided into four quarters, with teams applying various methodologies, techniques, and instrumentations to each quarter. Early methods included transect lines and site gridding with a Brunton pocket transit, flagging tape, measuring tape, and stakes; surveying using a hand-held personal GPS to locate observed features with an accuracy of × 5-10m; and extensive photo-documentation. More recent methods have incorporated the use of near survey grade GPS devices to allow careful location and mapping of surface features. Initially, gridding was employed along with the high resolution GPS surveys, but this was found to be time consuming and of little observational value. Raw visual observation (VOB) data included GPS coordinates for artifacts or features of interest, field notes, and photographs. A categorization system was used to organize the myriad of items, in order to aid in database searches and for visual presentation of findings. The collected data set was imported into a geographic information system (GIS) as points, lines, or polygons and overlain onto a digital color orthophoto map of the test site. Once these data were mapped, spectral data were collected using a high resolution field spectrometer. In addition to geo-locating the field observations with 10cm

  11. Aquifer descriptions from the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program, 1978-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, Claire B.; Doherty, Helen

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1978. The overall purpose of this program is to define the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical framework of the Nation's most important aquifers and aquifer systems. This report summarizes the aquifer or aquifer system name, geographic area, rock units, equivalent names, lithology, thickness, hydrologic characteristics, water quality, water use, and references for 157 aquifers in 23 areas of the United States. A .zip file containing the aquifer data and data search programs (in compressed ASCII format) is included in the report.

  12. The Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS Redshift Survey of Galaxy Evolution since z = 1.5. I. Description and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Villanueva, Edward V.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Quadri, Ryan F.

    2014-03-01

    We describe the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) Survey, a wide-field, near-IR selected spectrophotometric redshift survey with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on Magellan-Baade. By defining a flux-limited sample of galaxies in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6 μm imaging of SWIRE fields, the CSI Survey efficiently traces the stellar mass of average galaxies to z ~ 1.5. This first paper provides an overview of the survey selection, observations, processing of the photometry and spectrophotometry. We also describe the processing of the data: new methods of fitting synthetic templates of spectral energy distributions are used to derive redshifts, stellar masses, emission line luminosities, and coarse information on recent star formation. Our unique methodology for analyzing low-dispersion spectra taken with multilayer prisms in IMACS, combined with panchromatic photometry from the ultraviolet to the IR, has yielded high-quality redshifts for 43,347 galaxies in our first 5.3 deg2 of the SWIRE XMM-LSS field. We use three different approaches to estimate our redshift errors and find robust agreement. Over the full range of 3.6 μm fluxes of our selection, we find typical redshift uncertainties of σ z /(1 + z) <~ 0.015. In comparisons with previously published spectroscopic redshifts we find scatters of σ z /(1 + z) = 0.011 for galaxies at 0.7 <= z <= 0.9, and σ z /(1 + z) = 0.014 for galaxies at 0.9 <= z <= 1.2. For galaxies brighter and fainter than i = 23 mag, we find σ z /(1 + z) = 0.008 and σ z /(1 + z) = 0.022, respectively. Notably, our low-dispersion spectroscopy and analysis yields comparable redshift uncertainties and success rates for both red and blue galaxies, largely eliminating color-based systematics that can seriously bias observed dependencies of galaxy evolution on environment. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  13. The Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS redshift survey of galaxy evolution since z = 1.5. I. Description and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Villanueva, Edward V.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Quadri, Ryan F.

    2014-03-10

    We describe the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) Survey, a wide-field, near-IR selected spectrophotometric redshift survey with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on Magellan-Baade. By defining a flux-limited sample of galaxies in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6 μm imaging of SWIRE fields, the CSI Survey efficiently traces the stellar mass of average galaxies to z ∼ 1.5. This first paper provides an overview of the survey selection, observations, processing of the photometry and spectrophotometry. We also describe the processing of the data: new methods of fitting synthetic templates of spectral energy distributions are used to derive redshifts, stellar masses, emission line luminosities, and coarse information on recent star formation. Our unique methodology for analyzing low-dispersion spectra taken with multilayer prisms in IMACS, combined with panchromatic photometry from the ultraviolet to the IR, has yielded high-quality redshifts for 43,347 galaxies in our first 5.3 deg{sup 2} of the SWIRE XMM-LSS field. We use three different approaches to estimate our redshift errors and find robust agreement. Over the full range of 3.6 μm fluxes of our selection, we find typical redshift uncertainties of σ {sub z}/(1 + z) ≲ 0.015. In comparisons with previously published spectroscopic redshifts we find scatters of σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.011 for galaxies at 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 0.9, and σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.014 for galaxies at 0.9 ≤ z ≤ 1.2. For galaxies brighter and fainter than i = 23 mag, we find σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.008 and σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.022, respectively. Notably, our low-dispersion spectroscopy and analysis yields comparable redshift uncertainties and success rates for both red and blue galaxies, largely eliminating color-based systematics that can seriously bias observed dependencies of galaxy evolution on environment.

  14. The ALFALFA Hα Survey. I. Project Description and The Local Star-formation Rate Density from the Fall Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Sistine, Angela; Salzer, John J.; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALFALFA Hα survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA Hα contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ˜20 and ˜100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband Hα images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of Hα images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[M ⊙ yr‑1 Mpc‑3]) = ‑1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  15. The Mediating Role of Perceived Descriptive and Injunctive Norms in the Effects of Media Messages on Youth Smoking.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    This research advances and tests a normative mediation model of media effects on youth smoking. The model predicts that exposure to various types of smoking-related media messages, including anti-smoking ads, cigarette ads, and smoking scenes in movies and television shows, exerts indirect effects on youth smoking intentions through the mediation of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms. Analysis of the data from the 3rd Legacy Media Tracking Survey offers general support for the proposed model with some unexpected findings, revealing a complex picture of media influence on youth smoking via normative and non-normative mechanisms. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. The Mediating Role of Perceived Descriptive and Injunctive Norms in the Effects of Media Messages on Youth Smoking.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    This research advances and tests a normative mediation model of media effects on youth smoking. The model predicts that exposure to various types of smoking-related media messages, including anti-smoking ads, cigarette ads, and smoking scenes in movies and television shows, exerts indirect effects on youth smoking intentions through the mediation of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms. Analysis of the data from the 3rd Legacy Media Tracking Survey offers general support for the proposed model with some unexpected findings, revealing a complex picture of media influence on youth smoking via normative and non-normative mechanisms. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26225619

  17. A National Descriptive Portrait of Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Results From the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators." PMID:25548142

  18. A National Descriptive Portrait of Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Results From the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators."

  19. Prevalence, Correlates, and Description of Self-Reported Diabetes in Brazilian Capitals – Results from a Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; de Moura, Lenildo; Vigo, Álvaro; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazilian adults and to describe its population correlates as well as the clinical characteristics of the reported cases. Methods We analyzed basic and supplementary data of 54.144 subjects participating in VIGITEL 2011 (Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases), a telephone survey based on a probabilistic sample of subjects ≥18 years old residing in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. Estimates reported are weighted so as to represent the surveyed population. Results The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 6.3% (95% CI 5.9–6.7), increasing markedly with age and nutritional status, and decreasing with level of education. Prevalence was higher among those self-declaring their race/color as black. Most cases (90%) reported the diagnosis being made at 35 years or older. The vast majority (99.8%) of self-reported cases informed having previously performed at least one glucose test, and 76% of those not reporting diabetes also informed having previously performed glucose testing. Most cases (92.6%) reported following some form of diabetes treatment, 79% taking medication. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of known diabetes found, 6.3%, is consistent with estimates given by international summaries. The additional data collected in VIGITEL 2011 regarding previous glucose testing and current treatment support the use of telephone-based information to monitor the prevalence of known diabetes in Brazilian capitals. PMID:25255096

  20. Investigating Visual Literacy Integration: Lida's Legacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayall, Hayley J.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to begin to understand the current levels of awareness and understanding of teachers regarding visual literacy resources and tools, a descriptive study was recently undertaken by the authors. Data were gathered through a researchers-generated and pilot-tested web-based survey from 43 in-service teachers from the northern Illinois region.…

  1. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey`s slug-tests at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, July to November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-19

    An aquifer test agreement between the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) was set up to log and measure the aquifer response in two observation wells, IB and 4C at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, Hallam, Nebraska. Observation wells 1B and 4C are owned by the USDOE and were installed by HWS Technologies Inc. of Lincoln, Nebraska, in June 1993. These observation wells were measured monthly from September 1993 to August 1994 by using a graduated steel tape. The accuracy of these water-level measurements is approximately {plus_minus}0.02 foot. Also well 1B contained a submersible pressure transducer to record hourly water-level data during this same period. During access of the wells, personnel wear clean disposable latex gloves, a hard hat, and safety glasses. Directly following each measurement the steel-tape was rinsed with deionized water and the effluent was disposed of in a 55-gallon drum. For the aquifer tests, observation wells 1B and 4C had submersible pressure transducers installed to monitor water-level responses. These pressure transducers were connected to an electronic data logger (edl) to record the water levels, atmospheric pressure from a barometric pressure gauge, and rainfall data from a tipping-bucket rain gauge. The data recorded on each edl was downloaded onto a field computer during each site visit, processed in the field, and then stored on the USGS`s Data General workstations upon return to the District Office.

  2. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, Molly S.; Tumlinson, Jason; Fox, Andrew; Aloisi, Alessandra; Ayres, Thomas R.; Danforth, Charles; Fleming, Scott W.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Keeney, Brian A.; Oliveira, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    With no future space ultraviolet instruments currently planned, the data from the UV spectrographs aboard the Hubble Space Telescope have a legacy value beyond their initial science goals. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive will provide to the community new science-grade combined spectra for all publicly available data obtained by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These data will be packaged into "smart archives" according to target type and scientific themes to facilitate the construction of archival samples for common science uses. A new "quick look" capability will make the data easy for users to quickly access, assess the quality of, and download for archival science starting in Cycle 24, with the first generation of these products for the FUV modes of COS available online via MAST in early 2016.

  3. Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decyk, Viktor; Norton, Charles

    2003-01-01

    An incremental approach to modernization of scientific software written in the Fortran 77 computing language has been developed. This approach makes it possible to preserve the investment in legacy Fortran software while augmenting the software with modern capabilities to satisfy expanded requirements. This approach could be advantageous (1) in situations in which major rewriting of application programs is undesirable or impossible, or (2) as a means of transition to major rewriting.

  4. [Study nurses in Germany--a survey of job-related activities in clinical trials as a basis for a job description and for training curricula].

    PubMed

    Fisk, Bettina; Beier, Jutta

    2007-10-01

    Until now, the conducting of clinical trials by nurses has scarcely come under scientific examination. Particularly in Germany, the field of activity has only been treated marginally in the health-care and nursing sciences. In Germany, the term 'Study Nurse' is used not only for members of the nursing profession but across disciplines; it is one of the most widely used terms. An explorative, descriptive study has been conducted employing a modified version of the Work Sampling Method. 79 Study Nurses were anonymously surveyed using a self-administered workload catalogue. 85 participated in the survey that focused on demographics, qualifications, and salary. In every workload catalogue, contact with other colleagues as well as job activities and the time spent on each activity were documented over twenty days. Study Nurses are mostly members of the nursing profession. They work mostly at university clinics and are responsible for conducting clinical trials. This applies to all trials that license medicinal products but also for trials initiated by investigators. While trial-specific documentation is their most time-intensive task, the overall role of Study Nurses encompasses a very broad range of activities. For the most part, they work alone and independently but have various contacts mainly to patients and the investigator. Future research should take into consideration the motivation for opting for the job of Study Nurse and the question of whether through their training and experience nurses are better qualified than other healthcare professionals.

  5. Neurosurgery: A legacy of excellence.

    PubMed

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2015-01-01

    Neurosurgeons are often identified with traits such as arrogance and hubris. However, the true legacy of neurosurgeons is excellence. Harvey Cushing, the pioneering neurosurgeon of the United States, is largely responsible for this legacy of excellence. Eminent personalities have agreed that sincere and hard work is necessary to achieve excellence. Excellence in neurosurgery in the domains of surgical work and research will be discussed in the article. Excellence in surgical work should be measured comprehensively and over long follow-up periods using tools such as functional outcomes and quality of life instruments besides morbidity and mortality. For excellence in neurosurgical research, one can use the help of indices such as the h-index and i10 index. No single measure, whether for surgical excellence or excellence in research, however, incorporates a measure of qualities such as empathy, integrity and mentorship. These intangible qualities should be an integral part of the assessment of a neurosurgeon and his/her work. Cushing's attributes of meticulous record keeping, attention to detail, and maximal utilization of opportunities should guide us in our pursuit of excellence. In recent years, it has been suggested that excellence is not the result of an innate talent but can be aspired to by anyone willing to adopt a work ethic that involves several hours of "deliberate practice," feedback and passion. Neurosurgeons should continue to pursue the legacy of Cushing especially in present times when medical professionals are frequently depicted as being driven more by avarice than by Hippocratic principles. PMID:26238874

  6. Neurosurgery: A legacy of excellence.

    PubMed

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2015-01-01

    Neurosurgeons are often identified with traits such as arrogance and hubris. However, the true legacy of neurosurgeons is excellence. Harvey Cushing, the pioneering neurosurgeon of the United States, is largely responsible for this legacy of excellence. Eminent personalities have agreed that sincere and hard work is necessary to achieve excellence. Excellence in neurosurgery in the domains of surgical work and research will be discussed in the article. Excellence in surgical work should be measured comprehensively and over long follow-up periods using tools such as functional outcomes and quality of life instruments besides morbidity and mortality. For excellence in neurosurgical research, one can use the help of indices such as the h-index and i10 index. No single measure, whether for surgical excellence or excellence in research, however, incorporates a measure of qualities such as empathy, integrity and mentorship. These intangible qualities should be an integral part of the assessment of a neurosurgeon and his/her work. Cushing's attributes of meticulous record keeping, attention to detail, and maximal utilization of opportunities should guide us in our pursuit of excellence. In recent years, it has been suggested that excellence is not the result of an innate talent but can be aspired to by anyone willing to adopt a work ethic that involves several hours of "deliberate practice," feedback and passion. Neurosurgeons should continue to pursue the legacy of Cushing especially in present times when medical professionals are frequently depicted as being driven more by avarice than by Hippocratic principles.

  7. Alumni Perspectives Survey. 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Alumni are a powerful force in building a business school's brand. They recommend programs to prospective students, they connect current students to job opportunities, and they contribute significantly to building a school's legacy. The findings in the 2014 Alumni Perspectives Survey Report provide a current snapshot of nearly 21,000 business…

  8. The Legacy Project: Donald P. Lauda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2016-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the teaching profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged…

  9. The Legacy Project--Ralph Bohn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2013-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on their profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. This is the third in a series of articles entitled The Legacy Project, which focuses on…

  10. The Legacy Project: M. James Bensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2015-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have the responsibility to continue to build upon. This is the sixth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project" that…

  11. The Legacy Project: Lee H. Smalley, DTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2015-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. This is the seventh in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project," which…

  12. Designing a Leadership Legacy (L2) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierke, Kerry K.

    2015-01-01

    What does it mean to leave a "leadership legacy" in the organizations and communities in which we are involved? This mixed-methods research project will explore the stories of successful individuals who have left a leadership legacy. Specifically in this article, the preliminary research will share various components of a model to create…

  13. Living out our values: the legacy of Christian academic nursing leadership.

    PubMed

    Coeling, Harriet V; Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Thompson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Retired academic nursing leaders possess a rich legacy of knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, knowledge possessed by 14 retired Christian Chairperson/Deans was explored. Two themes representing commitment to living out Christian values; and fortitude, understanding, and spiritual guidance emerged from written responses to open-ended survey questions.

  14. Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Methods and Principal Findings Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. Conclusions/Significance This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted. PMID:19649264

  15. Evolution of Stellar-to-Halo Mass Ratio at z = 0 - 7 Identified by Clustering Analysis with the Hubble Legacy Imaging and Early Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harikane, Yuichi; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; More, Surhud; Saito, Shun; Lin, Yen-Ting; Coupon, Jean; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Price, Paul A.; Lin, Lihwai; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Ishigaki, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Silverman, John; Takata, Tadafumi; Tamazawa, Hiroko; Toshikawa, Jun

    2016-04-01

    We present clustering analysis results from 10,381 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 4–7, identified in the Hubble legacy deep imaging and new complimentary large-area Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam data. We measure the angular correlation functions of these LBGs at z ∼ 4, 5, 6, and 7 and fit these measurements using halo occupation distribution (HOD) models that provide an estimate of halo masses, {M}{{h}}∼ (1-20)× {10}11 {M}ȯ . Our Mh estimates agree with those obtained by previous clustering studies in a UV-magnitude versus Mh plane and allow us to calculate stellar-to-halo mass ratios (SHMRs) of LBGs. By comparison with the z∼ 0 SHMR, we identify evolution of the SHMR from z∼ 0 to z∼ 4 and from z∼ 4 to z∼ 7 at the >98% confidence levels. The SHMR decreases by a factor of ∼2 from z∼ 0 to 4 and increases by a factor of ∼4 from z∼ 4 to 7 at the dark matter halo mass of {M}{{h}}∼ {10}11 {M}ȯ . We compare our SHMRs with results of a hydrodynamic simulation and a semianalytic model and find that these theoretical studies do not predict the SHMR increase from z∼ 4 to 7. We obtain the baryon conversion efficiency (BCE) of LBGs at z∼ 4 and find that the BCE increases with increasing dark matter halo mass. Finally, we compare our clustering+HOD estimates with results from abundance matching techniques and conclude that the Mh estimates of the clustering+HOD analyses agree with those of the simple abundance matching within a factor of 3, and that the agreement improves when using more sophisticated abundance matching techniques that include subhalos, incompleteness, and/or evolution in the star formation and stellar mass functions.

  16. Mary Glover Lecture 2004: leaving a legacy.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Marlene

    2005-09-01

    Mary Glover was a Head Nurse at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver. She was killed in a plane crash more than 25 years ago. Yet, through this neuroscience nurse's passion for her specialty, we share in her legacy through the annual Mary Glover Lecture, which was established by her parents after her death. The first Mary Glover Lecturer was Pamela Mitchell, a well-known neuroscience nurse from the School of Nursing at the University of Washington. She is leaving a multifaceted legacy through her research on intracranial pressure and quality of care as well as her books and her mentorship. Jessie Young has left a legacy as the founder and first president of the Canadian Association of Neuroscience Nurses (CANN). CANN is leaving a legacy with many firsts among Canadian nursing specialty organizations. Leaving a legacy is not just about donating money or writing a famous book. For most of us, our legacy comes in the little everyday things of life. Ask yourself, what is the legacy that you are leaving as a neuroscience nurse and as an individual?

  17. Aging, Climate Change, and Legacy Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Linda; Moody, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is a complex, long-term public health challenge. Older people are especially susceptible to certain climate change impacts, such as heat waves. We suggest that older people may be a resource for addressing climate change because of their concern for legacy—for leaving behind values, attitudes, and an intact world to their children and grandchildren. We review the theoretical basis for “legacy thinking” among older people. We offer suggestions for research on this phenomenon, and for action to strengthen the sense of legacy. At a time when older populations are growing, understanding and promoting legacy thinking may offer an important strategy for addressing climate change. PMID:22698047

  18. A descriptive survey study to evaluate the relationship between socio-demographic factors and quality of life in patients with a permanent colostomy.

    PubMed

    Kement, Metin; Gezen, Cem; Aydin, Halime; Haksal, Mustafa; Can, Ugur; Aksakal, Nihat; Öncel, Mustafa

    2014-10-01

    The impact of having a stoma on quality of life is increasingly recognized and studied. A descriptive survey study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2011 among 44 patients (18 women, 26 men) with a permanent stoma receiving care at the Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, to evaluate socio-demographic factors that may affect the quality of life in Turkish Muslim patients with an enteral stoma. A socio-demographic questionnaire, a 10- item Religious Orientation Scale (Modified Allport-Ross ROS), and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Quality of Life survey were administered by a stoma therapy nurse at least 6 months after completion of all surgical and oncological treatments. The mean follow-up period was 15.3 ± 9.7 (range 6-44) months since completion of all treatments. Data were collected using paper/pencil instruments and entered for data analysis using Student's t-tests or one-way ANOVA univariate and multivariate analyses. No significant differences were observed for income, education level, surgical history, or religion score. Gender, geographic region, and household status were found independently related to quality of life in stoma patients. Female patients had significantly lower scores than males in general health perception (P = 0.049), role emotion (P = 0.02), mental health perception (P = 0.026), and mental component (P = 0.007). Patients living in a village (four) had significantly lower scores than patients living in a big city (33) in all scales (P <0.05 for all comparisons). Village-dwelling patents also had significantly lower scores than patients living in a town (seven) in physical function (P = 0.001), vitality (P = 0.012), social function (P = 0.003), and mental component scores (P = 0.021). Patients living alone (seven) had significantly lower scores than patients living with a partner (11) in three of eight scales (physical functioning [P <0.001], role-physical [P = 0.047], and bodily pain [P = 0

  19. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

  20. Interfacing with Legacy using Remote Method Invocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Scott M.

    1998-01-01

    The assignment described was enough to make a neophyte Java developer bolt for the door: provide a remote method for use by an applet which invokes a native method that wraps a function in an existing legacy library. The purpose of the remote method is to return an instance of a class object whose contents reflect the data structure returned by the legacy function. While embroiled in implementation, I would have spent the time wading through their JNI use group archive as well, but I couldn't seem to locate one. Subsequently, I made the decision to try to document my findings in order to assist others. Before we start on the class design, let's look at what the existing legacy code does. The C function to be called, Get-Legacy-Data, consists of two steps: an ASII file is read from the local disk and its contents are parsed into a Legacy_Type structure whose address is passed as an argument by the caller. The legacy code was compiled into a shared object library, legacy. so, using the IRIX 6.2 compiler and then loaded onto the Web server, a Silicon Graphics Indy station loaded with the IRIX 6.4 operating system. As far as the class design is concerned, the first thing required is a class to act as a template for the data structure returned by the legacy function. This class, JLegacy, declares a series of public instance variables which correspond to the members of Legacy_Type and provides a parameterless constructor. This constructor is never called, not even by the native method which allocates the object for return to the remote method. Next, the remote interface declaration for the remote object must be defined. In order for JLegacyRO to implement getJLegacy, JLegacyRO must interface with the existing legacy code through a native method, getn. getn is declared in the JLegacyRO class but implemented in C, just like the legacy code. getn returns a JLegacy instance and is declared static since its implementation is the same for all instances of the JLegacyRO class.

  1. Drought description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  2. The Legacy of Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, Judith; Bridges, John; Sims, Mark; Clemmet, Jim; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Beagle 2 lander spun off from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft on 19 December 2003 and headed off towards Isidis Planitia on Mars. The scheduled landing of the 60 kg lander was 6 days later on Christmas morning, 25 December. It is universally known that no signal was received from the lander and its fate remained unknown. What is not questioned is the impact that the mission, and not least its charismatic leaders headed by the late Professor Colin Pillinger, had on the general public of the UK, Europe and worldwide. More than a decade after Beagle 2 was last seen, we review the legacy of the mission on the public perception of the value of space exploration, economically, commercially and cultural, and look forward to an expanding programme. The spin off from Beagle 2 science and technology into terrestrial applications will be addressed as will the ongoing career destinations of many of the original team; both supporting the significance that the mission had on determining the future pathway of space science and exploration in Europe and beyond. The ongoing search for evidence that Beagle 2 did in fact land as planned on Mars will be addressed and images from Mars orbiting spacecraft assessed.

  3. The legacy of early attachments.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R A

    2000-01-01

    The impact of early close relationships on psychological development is one of the enduring questions of developmental psychology that is addressed by attachment theory and research. This essay evaluates what has been learned, and offers ideas for future research, by examining the origins of continuity and change in the security of attachment early in life, and its prediction of later behavior. The discussion evaluates research on the impact of changing family circumstances and quality of care on changes in attachment security, and offers new hypotheses for future study. Considering the representations (or internal working models) associated with attachment security as developing representations, the discussion proposes that (1) attachment security may be developmentally most influential when the working models with which it is associated have sufficiently matured to influence other emerging features of psychosocial functioning; (2) changes in attachment security are more likely during periods of representational advance; and (3) parent-child discourse and other relational influences shape these developing representations after infancy. Finally, other features of early parent-child relationships that develop concurrently with attachment security, including negotiating conflict and establishing cooperation, also must be considered in understanding the legacy of early attachments.

  4. Comparison of New and Legacy TATBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Mark D.; Willey, Trevor; Mitchell, Alexander; Depiero, Sabrina

    2009-09-02

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small-scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives and the densities of pressed pellets were lower. Recrystallization of both new TATBs from sulfolane produced nearly hexagonal platelets with improved density and thermal stability.

  5. Comparison of New and Legacy TATBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Willey, T M; Mitchell, A R; DePiero, S C

    2007-11-08

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzenes (TATBs) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives. Pressed pellets of the new explosives were less dense. Recrystallization from sulfolane improved the density and thermal stability of both new TATBs, though the morphology of the recrystallized TATB was nearly hexagonal platelets.

  6. Managing and Documenting Legacy Scientific Workflows.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ruben; Chomilier, Jacques; Lacroix, Zoé

    2015-01-01

    Scientific legacy workflows are often developed over many years, poorly documented and implemented with scripting languages. In the context of our cross-disciplinary projects we face the problem of maintaining such scientific workflows. This paper presents the Workflow Instrumentation for Structure Extraction (WISE) method used to process several ad-hoc legacy workflows written in Python and automatically produce their workflow structural skeleton. Unlike many existing methods, WISE does not assume input workflows to be preprocessed in a known workflow formalism. It is also able to identify and analyze calls to external tools. We present the method and report its results on several scientific workflows. PMID:26673793

  7. Managing and Documenting Legacy Scientific Workflows.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ruben; Chomilier, Jacques; Lacroix, Zoé

    2015-10-06

    Scientific legacy workflows are often developed over many years, poorly documented and implemented with scripting languages. In the context of our cross-disciplinary projects we face the problem of maintaining such scientific workflows. This paper presents the Workflow Instrumentation for Structure Extraction (WISE) method used to process several ad-hoc legacy workflows written in Python and automatically produce their workflow structural skeleton. Unlike many existing methods, WISE does not assume input workflows to be preprocessed in a known workflow formalism. It is also able to identify and analyze calls to external tools. We present the method and report its results on several scientific workflows.

  8. 7 CFR 621.20 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.20 Description. Floodplain management studies provide needed information and assistance to local and...

  9. 7 CFR 621.20 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.20 Description. Floodplain management studies provide needed information and assistance to local and...

  10. 7 CFR 621.20 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.20 Description. Floodplain management studies provide needed information and assistance to local and...

  11. 7 CFR 621.20 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.20 Description. Floodplain management studies provide needed information and assistance to local and...

  12. 7 CFR 621.20 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.20 Description. Floodplain management studies provide needed information and assistance to local and...

  13. Distribution of Amphipods (Gammarus nipponensis Ueno) Among Mountain Headwater Streams with Different Legacies of Debris Flow Occurrence

    EPA Science Inventory

    To understand the impacts of debris flows on the distribution of an amphipod with limited dispersal ability in the context of stream networks, we surveyed the presence of Gammarus nipponensis in 87 headwater streams with different legacies of debris flow occurrence within an 8.5-...

  14. Two Views of the Columbian Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a five-day study unit that provides positive and negative views of Columbus' voyages. Explains that lessons include reading and writing assignments culminating in a debate of the implications of the Columbian legacy. Offers questions designed to prompt students to defend their views on Columbus. Identifies instructional objectives and…

  15. Legacy: Challenging Lessons in Civics and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Julia P., Ed.

    This is a collection of lesson plans on civic education designed for all levels of gifted students and written by teachers from across the U.S. The 25 teachers submitting lessons to the compilation are a part of the LEGACY (Linking Educators and the Gifted with Attorneys for Civics: Yes!) project. The lessons involve students in the study of the…

  16. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Lise Anne Marie; Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-04-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  17. The Armenian Genocide: Context and Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adalian, Rouben

    1991-01-01

    Traces the Armenian experience between 1915 and 1918 when the Muslim Turks carried out a policy to eliminate the Christian-Armenian minority. Focuses on the distinction between massacres and genocide; the use of technology in facilitating mass murder; and the legacy of genocide. Includes maps and photographs. (NL)

  18. Hannelore Wass: Professional Influences and Legacies.

    PubMed

    Corr, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the professional influence of Dr. Hannelore Wass on the author's introduction to and work in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. At the same time, it also offers comments on her broader influence on and legacies left to others who work in this field.

  19. Hannelore Wass: Professional Influences and Legacies.

    PubMed

    Corr, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the professional influence of Dr. Hannelore Wass on the author's introduction to and work in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. At the same time, it also offers comments on her broader influence on and legacies left to others who work in this field. PMID:26207791

  20. George Peabody's (1795-1869) Educational Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.

    During his career, George Peabody financially supported educational endeavors and went beyond the accumulation of money to leave for one's children. His support began in the mid-1800s and his educational legacy remains. He established: (1) a $2 million Peabody Education Fund to promote public schools and teacher training in 12 civil war devastated…

  1. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  2. Enduring Legacy? Charles Tilly and Durable Inequality

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Charles Tilly’s Durable Inequality and traces its influence. In writing Durable Inequality, Tilly sought to shift the research agenda of stratification scholars. But the book’s initial impact was disappointing. In recent years, however, its influence has grown, suggesting a more enduring legacy. PMID:21258635

  3. The Next Generation: Our Legacy, Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this "Seventeenth Delphine Hanna Commemorative Lecture," Boyce draws on the legacy of Delphine Hanna's work in science-based curriculum to address the need for today's educators to balance both professional mission and disciplinary knowledge. In the mid 1960s, Franklin Henry proposed the notion that the foundation of physical…

  4. Moral Reflections on the Columbian Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, James

    1992-01-01

    Restates in moral terms the legacy of Columbus's voyages. Suggests that the conflict and conflict of humans, plants, organisms, institutions, and ideas raises many moral questions. Suggests that imagination is the key to moral understanding. Argues that past societies pass moral judgment on one another through the study of contemporary moral…

  5. Burns B. Crookston: Life and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Burns B. Crookston was a man ahead of his times. He left a legacy to the student affairs profession that inspired the practice of student development education. His writings described a role for higher education in training students to become active citizens by learning about leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution in democratic…

  6. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  7. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  8. Description of sediment data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in small watersheds in coal-mining areas of the eastern United States, 1980-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 20 small watersheds in the surface-mining areas of the eastern United States from 1980 through 1984 as part of the Survey1 s coal-hydrology program. Each data set includes sediment-concentration, streamflow, and precipitation data collected at 5- or 15-minute intervals. One reason for collecting the data was to test the sediment component of a watershed model. However, adequate testing requires reliable calibration data collected at several points during the rise and fall of hydrographs of several storms. Therefore, the quantity and quality of the data sets needed to be described to determine which sets could be used to test a model adequately. The data sets are described in a table that presents information about watershed characteristics, period of record, and amount of useful sediment data. Also, similar data sets collected by 10 Survey project offices during other Survey programs are described in a similar table.

  9. The Identification and Description of Critical Thinking Behaviors in the Practice of Clinical Laboratory Science, Part 1: Design, Implementation, Evaluation, and Results of a National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenimer, Elizabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 1,562 clinical laboratory scientists ranked critical thinking behaviors used in practice. Important behaviors were cognitive, behavioral, affective, and situated/contextual. Findings support a view of critical thinking as a metaprocess that spans learning domains. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  10. Description of CRIB, the GIPSY retrieval mechanism, and the interface to the General Electric MARK III Service : CRIB, the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey--guide for public users, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James Alfred; Keefer, Eleanor K.; Ofsharick, Regina A.; Mason, George T.; Tracy, Patricia; Atkins, Mary

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) is being made available for public use through the computer facilities of the University of Oklahoma and the General Electric Company, U.S.A. The use of General Electric's worldwide information-services network provides access to the CRIB file to a worldwide clientele. This manual, which consists of two chapters, is intended as a guide to users who wish to interrogate the file. Chapter A contains a description of the CRIB file, information on the use of the GIPSY retrieval system, and a description of the General Electric MARK III Service. Chapter B contains a description of the individual data items in the CRIB record as well as code lists. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records on the metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources of the United States and other countries. At present, 31,645 records in the master file are being made available. The record contains information on mineral deposits and mineral commodities. Some topics covered are: deposit name, location, commodity information, description of deposit, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or content of any element of information in the record; these specifications can be logically linked to prepare sophisticated search strategies. Output is available in the form of the complete record, a listing of selected parts of the record, or fixed-field tabulations. The General Electric MARK III Service is a computerized information services network operating internationally by land lines, satellites, and undersea cables. The service is available by local telephone to 500 cities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan

  11. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  12. [Spending on private health insurance plans of Brazilian families: a descriptive study with data from the Family Budget Surveys 2002-2003 and 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Ocké-Reis, Carlos Octávio; de Magalhães, Luís Carlos Garcia; Sant'Anna, Ana Claudia; de Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana

    2015-05-01

    Spending on health insurance represents an important share of private expenditure on health in Brazil. The study aimed to describe the evolution of spending on private health insurance plans of Brazilian families, according to their income. Data from the Family Budget Surveys (POF) 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 were used. To compare the spending figures among the surveys, the Consumer Price Index (IPCA) was applied. The proportion of families with private health insurance expenses remained stable in both surveys (2002-2003 and 2008-2009), around 24%. However, the household spending on health insurance plans increased. Among those families who spent money oh health insurance plans, the average spending increased from R$154.35 to R$183.97. The average spending on health insurance plans was greater with increasing household income, as well as portions of the family income and total expenditure committed to these expenses. Spending on health insurance is concentrated among higher-income families, for which it was the main component of total health expenditure. PMID:26017945

  13. The VLT/NaCo large program to probe the occurrence of exoplanets and brown dwarfs at wide orbits. II. Survey description, results, and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, G.; Vigan, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Desidera, S.; Bonavita, M.; Mesa, D.; Boccaletti, A.; Buenzli, E.; Carson, J.; Delorme, P.; Hagelberg, J.; Montagnier, G.; Mordasini, C.; Quanz, S. P.; Segransan, D.; Thalmann, C.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Biller, B.; Covino, E.; Feldt, M.; Girard, J.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Kasper, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Messina, S.; Meyer, M.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Reggiani, M.; Schlieder, J. E.; Zurlo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Young, nearby stars are ideal targets for direct imaging searches for giant planets and brown dwarf companions. After the first-imaged planet discoveries, vast efforts have been devoted to the statistical analysis of the occurence and orbital distributions of giant planets and brown dwarf companions at wide (≥5-6 AU) orbits. Aims: In anticipation of the VLT/SPHERE planet-imager, guaranteed-time programs, we have conducted a preparatory survey of 86 stars between 2009 and 2013 to identify new faint comoving companions to ultimately analyze the occurence of giant planets and brown dwarf companions at wide (10-2000 AU) orbits around young, solar-type stars. Methods: We used NaCo at VLT to explore the occurrence rate of giant planets and brown dwarfs between typically 0.1 and 8''. Diffraction-limited observations in H-band combined with angular differential imaging enabled us to reach primary star-companion brightness ratios as small as 10-6 at 1.5''. Repeated observations at several epochs enabled us to discriminate comoving companions from background objects. Results: During our survey, twelve systems were resolved as new binaries, including the discovery of a new white dwarf companion to the star HD 8049. Around 34 stars, at least one companion candidate was detected in the observed field of view. More than 400 faint sources were detected; 90% of them were in four crowded fields. With the exception of HD 8049 B, we did not identify any new comoving companions. The survey also led to spatially resolved images of the thin debris disk around HD 61005 that have been published earlier. Finally, considering the survey detection limits, we derive a preliminary upper limit on the frequency of giant planets for the semi-major axes of [10, 2000] AU: typically less than 15% between 100 and 500 AU and less than 10% between 50 and 500 AU for exoplanets that are more massive than 5 MJup and 10 MJup respectively, if we consider a uniform input distribution and a

  14. Report for borehole explosion data acquired in the 1999 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II), Southern California: Part I, description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, Gary S.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul M.; Thygesen, Kristina; Baher, Shirley A.; Ryberg, Trond; Benthien, Mark L.; Simila, Gerry; Perron, J. Taylor; Yong, Alan K.; Reusser, Luke; Lutter, William J.; Kaip, Galen; Fort, Michael D.; Asudeh, Isa; Sell, Russell; Van Schaack, John R.; Criley, Edward E.; Kaderabek, Ronald; Kohler, Will M.; Magnuski, Nickolas H.

    2001-01-01

    The Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) is a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The purpose of this project is to produce seismic images of the subsurface of the Los Angeles region down to the depths at which earthquakes occur, and deeper, in order to remedy a deficit in our knowledge of the deep structure of this region. This deficit in knowledge has persisted despite over a century of oil exploration and nearly 70 years of recording earthquakes in southern California. Understanding the deep crustal structure and tectonics of southern California is important to earthquake hazard assessment. Specific imaging targets of LARSE include (a) faults, especially blind thrust faults, which cannot be reliably detected any other way; and (b) the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins. Imaging of faults is important in both earthquake hazard assessment but also in modeling earthquake occurrence. Earthquake occurrence cannot be understood unless the earthquake-producing "machinery" (tectonics) is known (Fuis and others, 2001). Imaging the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins is important because earthquake shaking at the surface is enhanced by basin depth and by the presence of sharp basin edges (Wald and Graves, 1998, Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1995; Field and others, 2001). (Sedimentary basins are large former valleys now filled with sediment eroded from nearby mountains.) Sedimentary basins in the Los Angeles region that have been investigated by LARSE include the Los Angeles, San Gabriel Valley, San Fernando Valley, and Santa Clarita Valley basins. The seismic imaging surveys of LARSE include recording of earthquakes (both local and distant earthquakes) along several corridors (or transects) through the Los Angeles region and also recording of man-made sources along these same corridors. Man-made sources have included airguns offshore and borehole

  15. The use of unmanned aerial systems for the mapping of legacy uranium mines.

    PubMed

    Martin, P G; Payton, O D; Fardoulis, J S; Richards, D A; Scott, T B

    2015-05-01

    Historical mining of uranium mineral veins within Cornwall, England, has resulted in a significant amount of legacy radiological contamination spread across numerous long disused mining sites. Factors including the poorly documented and aged condition of these sites as well as the highly localised nature of radioactivity limit the success of traditional survey methods. A newly developed terrain-independent unmanned aerial system [UAS] carrying an integrated gamma radiation mapping unit was used for the radiological characterisation of a single legacy mining site. Using this instrument to produce high-spatial-resolution maps, it was possible to determine the radiologically contaminated land areas and to rapidly identify and quantify the degree of contamination and its isotopic nature. The instrument was demonstrated to be a viable tool for the characterisation of similar sites worldwide.

  16. Legacy: General Aviation Highlights from 8 Decades of NACA/NASA Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, Susan L.; Strain, Natale A.; Robinson, Stephen K.

    1995-01-01

    Legacy includes the bibliographic citations and full text images of 179 NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) and NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) reports of interest to the general aviation (GA) community. The majority of titles included in this collection were recommended by the GA community in response to an Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) survey conducted in January 1995. Searching and browsing of the collection is supported using all elements of the bibliographic record. A complete scanned image of each report is provided for viewing and printing. This 'first volume' of Legacy is a prototype product that will serve as a proof-of-concept trial for distributing information via CD-ROM to members of AGATE and others. The CD-ROM may be operated on Mac (6.0.5 or higher), Windows (3.1 or higher), or DOS (3.0 or higher) platforms.

  17. Legacy sample disposition project. Volume 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, R.N.; Shifty, K.L.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the legacy sample disposition project at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), which assessed Site-wide facilities/areas to locate legacy samples and owner organizations and then characterized and dispositioned these samples. This project resulted from an Idaho Department of Environmental Quality inspection of selected areas of the INEEL in January 1996, which identified some samples at the Test Reactor Area and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant that had not been characterized and dispositioned according to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The objective of the project was to manage legacy samples in accordance with all applicable environmental and safety requirements. A systems engineering approach was used throughout the project, which included collecting the legacy sample information and developing a system for amending and retrieving the information. All legacy samples were dispositioned by the end of 1997. Closure of the legacy sample issue was achieved through these actions.

  18. Mining the Spitzer Legacy Science Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.; Squires, G.; Alexov, A.

    2005-12-01

    The original Spitzer Legacy Science Program is now approaching completion with the basic observations archived and the `enhanced' data products populating dedicated Spitzer and IRSA archives. To date the Legacy teams of C2D, FEPS, GLIMPSE, GOODS, SINGS and SWIRE have delivered more than half of the total planned `enhanced' data products to the public archives. The archives include fully reduced and calibrated imaging, spectra, and tabular data derived from the Spitzer IRAC, MIPS and IRS observations, as well as ancillary ground-based imaging and spectroscopy. Science results are now flowing from the Legacy teams, addressing the fundamental questions that the Spitzer observations where designed and optimized to answer. However, the data archives are mostly untapped in their science potential, offering a rich resource for astronomical data mining. We describe the archives in detail, spanning their structure, content and accessibility. User friendly resources for mining the data are showcased, including the Spitzer Science Center archive tool Leopard and the Infrared Science Archive services Atlas and RADAR.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey applied research studies of the Cheyenne River System, South Dakota; description and collation of data, water years 1987-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, K. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Cheyenne River System in western South Dakota has been impacted by the discharge of about 100 million metric tons of gold-mill tailings to Whitewood Creek near Lead, South Dakota. In April 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an extensive series of research studies to investigate the magnitude of the impact and to define important processes acting on the contaminated sediments present in the system. The report presents all data collected during the 1987 and 1988 water years for these research studies. Some of the data included have been published previously. Data collected in the 1985 and 1986 water years have been published in a companion report (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-484). Hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data are available for sites on Whitewood Creek, and the Belle Fourche and Cheyenne Rivers. Data complexity varies from routine discharge and water-quality to very complex energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Methods for sample collection, handling and preservation, and laboratory analysis are also presented. No interpretations or complex statistical summaries are included. (See also W89-08390) (USGS)

  20. Repackaging Rocky Flats Legacy Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    McTaggart, Jerri Lynne

    2008-01-15

    Repackaging legacy Transuranic (TRU), Transuranic Mixed (TRM), Low Level Waste (LLW), and Low Level Mixed (LLM) waste requires good characterization skills and the ability to adapt to less than ideal conditions. Repackaging legacy waste in a facility that is not undergoing Decontamination and Decommission (D and D) is optimum. However, repackaging any waste in a D and D facility, under cold and dark conditions, can be difficult. Cold and dark conditions are when the heating and air conditioning are no longer in service and the lighting consists of strands of lights hung throughout each of the rooms. Working under these conditions adds an additional level of stress and danger that must be addressed. The use of glovebags was very useful at Rocky Flats during the D and D of many buildings. Glovebags can be adapted for many different types of wastes and unusual conditions. Repackaging of legacy TRU waste, in a D and D facility, can be accomplished safely and cost effectively with the use of glovebags. In conclusion: the use of glovebags to repackage legacy TRU, TRM, LLW, or LLM waste was done safely and cost effectively at Rocky Flats. The cost of using glovebags was minimal. Glovebags are easily adaptable to whatever the waste configuration is. The use of glovebags, for repackaging of Legacy waste, allows D and D efforts to stay on schedule and on task. Without the use of glovebags, additional gloveboxes would have been required at Rocky Flats. Larger items, such as the HEPA filters, would have required the construction of a new large item repackaging glovebox. Repackaging in glovebags allows the freedom to either locate the glovebag by the waste or locate the glovebag in a place that least impacts D and D efforts. The use of glovebags allowed numerous configurations of waste to be repackaged without the use of gloveboxes. During the D and D of the Rocky Flats facility, which was in a cold and dark stage, D and D work was not impacted by the repackaging activity

  1. VARIABLE POINT SOURCES IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82. I. PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND INITIAL CATALOG (0 hr {<=}{alpha}{<=} 4 hr)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, Waqas A.; Ford, Holland C.; Richmond, Michael W.; Petro, Larry D.

    2010-02-01

    We report the first results of a study of variable point sources identified using multi-color timeseries photometry from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, including data from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey, over a span of nearly 10 years (1998-2007). We construct a light-curve catalog of 221,842 point sources in the R.A. 0-4 hr half of Stripe 82, limited to r = 22.0 mag, that have at least 10 detections in the ugriz bands and color errors < 0.2 mag. These sources are then classified by color and by cross matching them to existing SDSS catalogs of interesting objects. Inhomogeneous ensemble differential photometry techniques are used to greatly improve our sensitivity to variability and reduce contamination by sources that appear variable due to large photometric noise or systematic effects caused by non-uniform photometric conditions throughout the survey. We use robust variable identification methods to extract 6520 variable candidates from this data set, resulting in an overall variable fraction of {approx}2.9% at the level of {approx}0.05 mag variability. Despite the sparse and uneven time sampling of the light-curve data, we discover 143 periodic variables in total. Due to period ambiguity caused by relatively poor phase coverage, we identify a smaller final set of 101 periodic variables with well-determined periods and light curves. Among these are 55 RR Lyrae, 30 eclipsing binary candidates, and 16 high-amplitude Delta Scuti variables. In addition to these objects, we also identify a sample of 2704 variable quasars matched to the SDSS Quasar Catalog, which make up a large fraction of our variable candidates. An additional 2403 quasar candidates are tentatively identified and selected by their non-stellar colors and variability. A sample of 11,328 point sources that appear to be nonvariable given the limits of our variability sensitivity is also briefly discussed. Finally, we describe several interesting objects discovered among our eclipsing binary

  2. A descriptive study of California hospice providers' perceptions of public reporting of quality data using the Family Evaluation of Hospice Care Survey.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Marsha; Gale, Randall C; Naierman, Naomi; DeViney, Meredith

    2014-06-01

    The Affordable Care Act requires US hospices to report quality data to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in 2013 with data eventually being made public. There may be some benefit to participating in a voluntary public-reporting program prior to public disclosure by CMS; therefore, we developed and conducted an electronic survey exploring California hospices' perceptions of public reporting. The majority (78.1%) of respondents reported current use of the Family Evaluation of Hospice Care tool and a willingness to consider voluntary participation in a public-reporting program outside of what is being implemented by CMS (58.6%). Tax status of responding hospices was not predictive of a willingness to participate in a statewide public-reporting program of hospice quality in our study.

  3. Quality of helping behaviours of members of the public towards a person with a mental illness: a descriptive analysis of data from an Australian national survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Courses such as Mental Health First Aid equip members of the public to perform appropriate helping behaviours towards people experiencing a mental illness or mental health crisis. However, studies investigating the general public’s knowledge and skills in relation to assisting a person with a mental illness are rare. This study assesses the quality of mental health first aid responses by members of the Australian public using data from a national survey. Methods Participants in a national survey of mental health literacy were assigned one of six vignettes (depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, social phobia or post-traumatic stress disorder) and asked an open-ended question about how they would help the character in the vignette. The 6,019 respondents were also asked if and how they had helped a person in real life with a similar problem. Responses to these questions were scored using a system based on an action plan developed from expert consensus guidelines on mental health first aid. Results The quality of responses overall was poor, with participants scoring an average of 2 out of 12. The most commonly reported actions for both questions were listening to the person, providing support and information and encouraging them to seek appropriate professional help. Actions such as assessing and assisting with crisis were rarely mentioned, even for the depression with suicidal thoughts vignette. Conclusions The quality of the Australian public’s mental health first aid knowledge and skills requires substantial improvement. Particular attention should be given to helping people recognise that anxiety disorders such as social phobia require professional help and to improving responses to a suicidal person. PMID:24438434

  4. Unexpected Melt at Summit, Greenland: Its Potential Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Summit, Greenland is a high altitude cold site where snow on the ice sheet rarely melts; it was the site where the GISP2 ice core was drilled almost two decades ago. In July 2012, unusual meteorological events caused the surface snow at Summit to experience a very rare true melt event. The melt period was short-lived, and subfreezing temperatures soon turned the melt into an ice layer. Modern satellite-born sensing technologies provided the first opportunity to witness and confirm that indeed the melt was very widespread over most of the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Many tens of meters beneath the firn surface at Summit is the next significantly thick ice layer, dating to 1889; this layer also has been identified at a number of other sites in Greenland. The 2012 melt at Summit provided an unusual opportunity to investigate the way in which the melt alters the properties of the snow at this site. Measurements of the nature of the melt at Summit in 2012 and its impact on stratigraphy, density, permeability, and grain size are presented. Insights from the observations we made in July 2012 and comparisons with characteristics of the 1889 ice layer from Summit are employed in a description of the potential impacts of refrozen melt layers on polar snow and firn processes in the dry snow zones of ice sheets. The potential legacy that the 2012 ice layer may imprint on future ice core records is discussed.

  5. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    The Imperial and Coachella Valleys are being formed by active plate-tectonic processes. From the Imperial Valley southward into the Gulf of California, plate motions are rifting the continent apart. In the Coachella Valley, the plates are sliding past one another along the San Andreas and related faults (fig. 1). These processes build the stunning landscapes of the region, but also produce damaging earthquakes. Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard that California will face in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of infrastructure (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that might bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the nation’s efforts to avert a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects have been undertaken to more fully understand and mitigate the effects of such an event. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded jointly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), seeks to understand, through seismic imaging, the structure of the Earth surrounding the SAF, including the sedimentary basins on which cities are built. The principal investigators (PIs) of this collaborative project represent the USGS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and Stanford University. SSIP will create images of underground structure and sediments in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and adjacent mountain ranges to investigate the earthquake hazards posed to cities in this area. Importantly, the images will help determine the underground geometry of the SAF, how deep the sediments are, and how fast

  6. U.S. Geological Survey applied research studies of the Cheyenne River system, South Dakota; description and collation of data, water years 1985-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, Kimball E.

    1988-01-01

    The Cheyenne River system in Western South Dakota has been impacted by the discharge of about 100 million metric tons of gold-mill tailings to Whitewood Creek near Lead, South Dakota. In April 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an extensive series of research studies to investigate the magnitude of the impact and to define important processes acting on the contaminated sediments present in the system. The report presents all data collected during the 1985 and 1986 water years for these research studies. Some of the data included have been published previously. Hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data are available for sites on Whitewood Creek, the Belle Fourche and Cheyenne Rivers, and for the Cheyenne River arm of Lake Oahe. Data complexity varies from routine discharge and water quality to very complex photon-correlation spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Methods for sample collection, handling and preservation, and laboratory analysis are also presented. No interpretations or complex statistical summaries are included. (USGS)

  7. A survey of coccidian infections of freshwater fishes of Peninsular Malaysia, with descriptions of three species of Goussia Labbé, 1896 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Molnár, K; Shaharom-Harrison, F; Székely, Cs

    2003-05-01

    Ninety-five specimens of 14 freshwater fish species from small streams in the Kuala Terengganu district and the Lake Kenyir Reservoir, Malaysia, were surveyed for coccidian infections. Six fish species proved to be infected with apicomplexans belonging to the genus Goussia. In all of these fishes Goussia species were found in unsporulated and semisporulated stages. Oöcysts of four species inhabiting the intestinal epithelium became sporulated in tap-water within 24 hours. In two fish species sporulation failed and only unsporulated oöcysts were recorded in the intestine. Three of the intestinal species finishing sporulation proved to be new to science and were described as Goussia malayensis n. sp., G. bettae n. sp. and G. pogonognathi n. sp. from Apocheilus panchax, Betta splendens and Hemirhamphodon pogonognatus, respectively. The fourth species, found in Trichogaster pectoralis, was identified as G. trichogasteri Székely & Molnár, 1992, a species known from aquarium-cultured T. trichopterus. PMID:12815211

  8. Country School Legacy Report for Southern Colorado. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Joanne L.; Dodds, Edwin

    In southern Colorado, the Country School Legacy Project, part of an eight-state research effort to locate and preserve information related to country schools, involved visiting and corresponding with 25 counties and conducting 58 oral history interviews. Materials, both factual and anecdotal, assembled into this report from school records,…

  9. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.; McClard, J. W.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  10. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey`s water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring program at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, June through September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A water-quality and water-level program of the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in cooperation with the US Geological Survey (USGS) was re-established in June 1996 to develop six new USDOE observation wells, collect one set of water-quality samples from 17 of the 19 USDOE observation wells, and take monthly water-level measurements for a 3-month period in all 19 USDOE observation wells at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, Hallam, Nebraska. Thirteen of the observation wells were installed by HWS Consulting Group, Inc., in June 1993 and the remaining six were installed by Applied Research Associates in August 1995.

  11. Philosophical Remarks on Nelson Mandela's Education Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on Nelson Mandela's (Madiba, the clan name of Mandela) education legacy. I argue that Madiba's education legacy is constituted by three interrelated aspects: firstly, an education for non-violence guided by deliberation, compassion and reconciliation; secondly, education as responsibility towards the Other; and…

  12. The 5L Instructional Design For Exploring Legacies through Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Monroe, Eula E.; Wilcox, Bradley Ray

    2013-01-01

    People who have impacted generations have left legacies we can explore today through biographies. The 5L instructional design introduced in this article includes five components: Listen, Learn, Locate, Link, and Legacy. In the "Listen" section, teachers use storytelling and read-alouds to introduce individuals who shaped history. During…

  13. The Legacy Project--William E. Dugger, Jr., DTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.; Dugger, William E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This is the ninth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged the educator profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these…

  14. School Choice Discourse and the Legacy of "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty years after the "Brown" decision, and in the context of persistent racial and economic segregation and inequality in schooling, it is still important to examine "Brown"'s legacy. In this focus on school choice, the rhetoric and the ways in which the legacy of "Brown" has been emphatically invoked in charter school and voucher debates is…

  15. South Africa: a legacy of family disruption.

    PubMed

    Budlender, Debbie; Lund, Francie

    2011-01-01

    This article draws together unusual characteristics of the legacy of apartheid in South Africa: the state-orchestrated destruction of family life, high rates of unemployment and a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The disruption of family life has resulted in a situation in which many women have to fulfil the role of both breadwinner and care giver in a context of high unemployment and very limited economic opportunities. The question that follows is: given this crisis of care, to what extent can or will social protection and employment-related social policies provide the support women and children need?

  16. The lingering presence of the Nightingale legacy.

    PubMed

    Hegge, Margaret J

    2011-04-01

    The history of the nursing profession is still evolving. One-hundred years ago, Nightingale died, leaving a legacy of philosophical cornerstones that still infuses the profession. Her idealism flows through her writings, as fresh today as 150 years ago. The initiatives of nursing today had their roots in Nightingale ideals. The alignment of current trends in nursing with Nightingale constructs is striking. Contemporary nurses are challenged to propel these ideals forward. The author here tracks Nightingale quotes, events, and writings with current initiatives, linking philosophical ideals to practical realities of current nursing practice. Nightingale constructs influencing nursing theories and models are examined. PMID:21471040

  17. The Legacy of the X-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    The X-15 established such widespread confidence in aerodynamic, thermal, and structural areas that new designs for operation aircraft for any speed regime could be expected to be successfully achieved if good use was made of all pertinent test facilities and analytical methods. This philosophy guided design of the space shuttle and is the real legacy of the X-15. The accomplishments and contributions attributable to the research and development work on the X-15 that influenced the formative years of the Space Shuttle Program are presented.

  18. Mitigating PQ Problems in Legacy Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ilinets, Boris; /SLAC

    2011-06-01

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Problems with PQ in legacy data centers still exist and need to be mitigated; (2) Harmonics generated by non-linear IT load can be lowered by passive, active and hybrid cancellation methods; (3) Harmonic study is necessary to find the best way to treat PQ problems; (4) AHF's and harmonic cancellation transformers proved to be very efficient in mitigating PQ problems; and (5) It is important that IT leaders partner with electrical engineering to appropriate ROI statements, justifying many of these expenditures.

  19. The Burgholzli Hospital: Its history and legacy

    PubMed Central

    Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Burgholzli Hospital Zurich has a very important place in history, as part of of modern era in Psychiatry. Founded in 1870 by the efforts of Griesinger, it was here many eminent path breakers in Psychiatry like Bleuler, Jung, Adolf Meyer and others once worked. From here, Bleuler coined the term “Schizophrenia”. Now the University Hospital of Zurich, Burgholzli's transformation from a mental hospital to a centre of excellence speaks of a rich legacy. It is a model worth emulating in many parts of the world. PMID:27385861

  20. Integrating and visualizing primary data from prospective and legacy taxonomic literature

    PubMed Central

    Agosti, Donat; Penev, Lyubomir; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Catapano, Terry; Patterson, David; King, David; Pereira, Serrano; Vos, Rutger Aldo; Sierra, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Specimen data in taxonomic literature are among the highest quality primary biodiversity data. Innovative cybertaxonomic journals are using workflows that maintain data structure and disseminate electronic content to aggregators and other users; such structure is lost in traditional taxonomic publishing. Legacy taxonomic literature is a vast repository of knowledge about biodiversity. Currently, access to that resource is cumbersome, especially for non-specialist data consumers. Markup is a mechanism that makes this content more accessible, and is especially suited to machine analysis. Fine-grained XML (Extensible Markup Language) markup was applied to all (37) open-access articles published in the journal Zootaxa containing treatments on spiders (Order: Araneae). The markup approach was optimized to extract primary specimen data from legacy publications. These data were combined with data from articles containing treatments on spiders published in Biodiversity Data Journal where XML structure is part of the routine publication process. A series of charts was developed to visualize the content of specimen data in XML-tagged taxonomic treatments, either singly or in aggregate. The data can be filtered by several fields (including journal, taxon, institutional collection, collecting country, collector, author, article and treatment) to query particular aspects of the data. We demonstrate here that XML markup using GoldenGATE can address the challenge presented by unstructured legacy data, can extract structured primary biodiversity data which can be aggregated with and jointly queried with data from other Darwin Core-compatible sources, and show how visualization of these data can communicate key information contained in biodiversity literature. We complement recent studies on aspects of biodiversity knowledge using XML structured data to explore 1) the time lag between species discovry and description, and 2) the prevelence of rarity in species descriptions

  1. Integrating and visualizing primary data from prospective and legacy taxonomic literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeremy A; Agosti, Donat; Penev, Lyubomir; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Catapano, Terry; Patterson, David; King, David; Pereira, Serrano; Vos, Rutger Aldo; Sierra, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Specimen data in taxonomic literature are among the highest quality primary biodiversity data. Innovative cybertaxonomic journals are using workflows that maintain data structure and disseminate electronic content to aggregators and other users; such structure is lost in traditional taxonomic publishing. Legacy taxonomic literature is a vast repository of knowledge about biodiversity. Currently, access to that resource is cumbersome, especially for non-specialist data consumers. Markup is a mechanism that makes this content more accessible, and is especially suited to machine analysis. Fine-grained XML (Extensible Markup Language) markup was applied to all (37) open-access articles published in the journal Zootaxa containing treatments on spiders (Order: Araneae). The markup approach was optimized to extract primary specimen data from legacy publications. These data were combined with data from articles containing treatments on spiders published in Biodiversity Data Journal where XML structure is part of the routine publication process. A series of charts was developed to visualize the content of specimen data in XML-tagged taxonomic treatments, either singly or in aggregate. The data can be filtered by several fields (including journal, taxon, institutional collection, collecting country, collector, author, article and treatment) to query particular aspects of the data. We demonstrate here that XML markup using GoldenGATE can address the challenge presented by unstructured legacy data, can extract structured primary biodiversity data which can be aggregated with and jointly queried with data from other Darwin Core-compatible sources, and show how visualization of these data can communicate key information contained in biodiversity literature. We complement recent studies on aspects of biodiversity knowledge using XML structured data to explore 1) the time lag between species discovry and description, and 2) the prevelence of rarity in species descriptions.

  2. A survey of nematodes of the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Nematoda, Seuratoidea) parasitic in marine fishes off Brazil, including description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Pereira, Felipe B; Pantoja, Camila; Soares, Iris A; Pereira, Aldenice N; Timi, Juan T; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-11-05

    A taxonomic survey of six nematode species (including three new taxa) from the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777, parasites of marine fishes off the Brazilian coast, is provided. Nematodes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cucullanus gastrophysi n. sp. parasitic in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda Ribeiro differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: shape and number of sclerotized structures in the oesophastome (a pair of lateral elongate structures and a single small reniform one), position of deirids and excretory pore (both anterior to oesophagus base), spicule length and spicule/body length ratio (0.97-1.29 mm and 6.5-10.5%, respectively), morphology and length of gubernaculum (V-shaped, 107-135 µm long). Cucullanus protrudens n. sp. from Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) has the cloacal lips broadly protruded, which differentiates it from several species of Cucullanus; other features, e.g., the length of spicules and gubernaculum (400-415 µm and 91-103 µm, respectively), arrangement of caudal papillae and position of excretory pore (slightly posterior to oesophagus-intestine junction) also characterize this species. Cucullanus pseudopercis n. sp. from Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) has deirids and excretory pore posterior to the oesophagus-intestine junction, which distinguishes the species from most of the congeners; furthermore, the arrangement of caudal papillae in combination with the length of spicules and gubernaculum (1.0-1.5 mm and 178-196 µm, respectively) separate this species from other taxa. Newly collected specimens of C. cirratus Müller, 1777 (type species of the genus) from Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup), C. pedroi from Conger orbignianus Valenciennes (type host of the species) and C. genypteri Sardella, Navone & Timi, 1997 from Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, were studied as well. Comparisons between newly collected samples and the taxonomic data available for each respective species revealed

  3. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    The Imperial and Coachella Valleys are being formed by active plate-tectonic processes. From the Imperial Valley southward into the Gulf of California, plate motions are rifting the continent apart. In the Coachella Valley, the plates are sliding past one another along the San Andreas and related faults (fig. 1). These processes build the stunning landscapes of the region, but also produce damaging earthquakes. Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard that California will face in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of infrastructure (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that might bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the nation’s efforts to avert a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects have been undertaken to more fully understand and mitigate the effects of such an event. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded jointly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), seeks to understand, through seismic imaging, the structure of the Earth surrounding the SAF, including the sedimentary basins on which cities are built. The principal investigators (PIs) of this collaborative project represent the USGS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and Stanford University. SSIP will create images of underground structure and sediments in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and adjacent mountain ranges to investigate the earthquake hazards posed to cities in this area. Importantly, the images will help determine the underground geometry of the SAF, how deep the sediments are, and how fast

  4. Health legacy foundations: a new census.

    PubMed

    Niggel, Sabrina Jones; Brandon, William P

    2014-01-01

    Health care merger and acquisition activity has increased since enactment of the Affordable Care Act in 2010. Proceeds from transactions involving nonprofit hospitals, health systems, and health plans will endow philanthropic foundations, collectively known as health legacy foundations. Building on work by Grantmakers In Health, we undertook a systematic search for these foundations and generated a newly updated, comprehensive database. We found 306 organizations in forty-three states that have been endowed with proceeds from the sale, merger, lease, joint venture, or other restructuring of nonprofit health care assets. These health legacy foundations had $26.2 billion in assets in 2010. Concentrated in the southern United States, foundations originating from hospitals and specialty care facilities (86.6 percent) held mean assets of $64.7 million per funder and typically restricted grants to local communities. Foundations formed from health plans (13.4 percent) held higher mean assets ($222 million), usually served larger areas, and were more likely to engage in health care advocacy. Recent transactions involving smaller and stand-alone nonprofit hospitals will infuse many more communities with unprecedented charitable wealth.

  5. Health legacy foundations: a new census.

    PubMed

    Niggel, Sabrina Jones; Brandon, William P

    2014-01-01

    Health care merger and acquisition activity has increased since enactment of the Affordable Care Act in 2010. Proceeds from transactions involving nonprofit hospitals, health systems, and health plans will endow philanthropic foundations, collectively known as health legacy foundations. Building on work by Grantmakers In Health, we undertook a systematic search for these foundations and generated a newly updated, comprehensive database. We found 306 organizations in forty-three states that have been endowed with proceeds from the sale, merger, lease, joint venture, or other restructuring of nonprofit health care assets. These health legacy foundations had $26.2 billion in assets in 2010. Concentrated in the southern United States, foundations originating from hospitals and specialty care facilities (86.6 percent) held mean assets of $64.7 million per funder and typically restricted grants to local communities. Foundations formed from health plans (13.4 percent) held higher mean assets ($222 million), usually served larger areas, and were more likely to engage in health care advocacy. Recent transactions involving smaller and stand-alone nonprofit hospitals will infuse many more communities with unprecedented charitable wealth. PMID:24395949

  6. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Duff, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

  7. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ronald H; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-06-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen and Jakob Lange in Denmark. Volumes of color paintings and several exsiccati, most notably one edited by Lundell and Nannfeldt attached fungal portraits and preserved specimens (and often photographs) to Fries names. The result is a massive resource from which to harvest the name-concept relationship with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past. PMID:26203415

  8. Three legacies of humanitarianism in China.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Miwa

    2013-10-01

    The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. PMID:23876108

  9. Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE): Statistical assessment of point source detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquet, Élodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall D.; Hagan, J. Brendan; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Aguilar, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The ALICE program, for Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environment, is currently conducting a virtual survey of about 400 stars, by re-analyzing the HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive with advanced post-processing techniques. We present here the strategy that we adopted to identify detections and potential candidates for follow-up observations, and we give a preliminary overview of our detections. We present a statistical analysis conducted to evaluate the confidence level on these detection and the completeness of our candidate search.

  10. Archival legacy investigations of circumstellar environments: overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquet, Élodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Hagan, J. Brendan; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Chen, Christine; Perrin, Marshall D.; Debes, John; Golimowski, David; Hines, Dean C.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Schneider, Glenn; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Soummer, Rémi

    2014-08-01

    We are currently conducting a comprehensive and consistent re-processing of archival HST-NICMOS coronagraphic surveys using advanced PSF subtraction methods, entitled the Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environments program (ALICE, HST/AR 12652). This virtual campaign of about 400 targets has already produced numerous new detections of previously unidentified point sources and circumstellar structures. We present five newly spatially resolved debris disks revealed in scattered light by our analysis of the archival data. These images provide new views of material around young solar-type stars at ages corresponding to the period of terrestrial planet formation in our solar system. We have also detected several new candidate substellar companions, for which there are ongoing followup campaigns (HST/WFC3 and VLT/SINFONI in ADI mode). Since the methods developed as part of ALICE are directly applicable to future missions (JWST, AFTA coronagraph) we emphasize the importance of devising optimal PSF subtraction methods for upcoming coronagraphic imaging missions. We describe efforts in defining direct imaging high-level science products (HLSP) standards that can be applicable to other coronagraphic campaigns, including ground-based (e.g., Gemini Planet Imager), and future space instruments (e.g., JWST). ALICE will deliver a first release of HLSPs to the community through the MAST archive at STScI in 2014.

  11. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  12. Phonetics: A Critical Analysis of Phonetic Theory and a Technic for the Practical Description of Sounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Kenneth L.

    This book seeks to point out the difficulties which remain in phonetic theory because of a legacy from prephonemic days when phonetics and phonemics were one. Sounds were shown to have been chosen for description because of their use in speech rather than because of their articulatory or acoustic nature; many sounds were ignored because they were…

  13. Ten Years of Legacy Management: U.S. DOE Office of Legacy Management Accomplishments - 13246

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Tony; Miller, Judith

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to provide a long-term, sustainable solution to environmental impacts that remain from nuclear weapons production during World War II and the Cold War. The production activities created adverse environmental conditions at over 100 sites. When LM was established on December 15, 2003, it became responsible for 33 sites where active environmental remediation was complete. Currently, LM is responsible for long-term surveillance and maintenance of environmental remedies, promotion of beneficial reuse of land and buildings, and management of records and information at 89 sites in 29 states and Puerto Rico. LM is also responsible for meeting contractual obligations associated with former contractor workers' pensions and post-retirement benefits. Effectively addressing this environmental and human legacy will continue to require a focused and well-managed effort. (authors)

  14. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  15. Managing a project's legacy: implications for organizations and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Majchrzak, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Organizations that rely on projects to implement their products must find effective mechanisms for propagating lessons learned on one project throughout the organization. A broad view of what constitutes a project's 'legacy' is presented that includes not just the design products and leftover parts, but new processes, relationships, technology, skills, planning data, and performance metrics. Based on research evaluating knowledge reuse in innovative contexts, this paper presents an approach to project legacy management that focuses on collecting and using legacy knowledge to promote organizational learning and effective reuse, while addressing factors of post-project responsibility, information obsolescence, and the importance of ancillary contextual information. .

  16. The All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey(AEGIS) Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.P.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.C.; Coil,A.L.; Conselice, C.J.; Cooper, M.C.; Croton, D.J.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Ellis, R.S.; Faber, S.M.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke,B.F.; Goss, W.M.; Gwyn, S.; Harker, J.; Hopkins, A.M.; Huang, J.-S.; Ivison, R.J.; Kassin, S.A.; Kirby, E.N.; Koekemoer, A.M.; Koo, D.C.; Laird, E.S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lin, L.; Lotz, J.M.; Marshall, P.J.; Martin,D.C.; Metevier, A.J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Nandra, K.; Noeske, K.G.; Papovich, C.; Phillips, A.C.; Rich,R. M.; Rieke, G.H.; Rigopoulou, D.; Salim, S.; Schiminovich, D.; Simard, L.; Smail, I.; Small,T.A.; Weiner,B.J.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Willner, S.P.; Wilson, G.; Wright, E.L.; Yan, R.

    2006-10-13

    In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z{approx}1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200-2500 Angstroms), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600-9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400-8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

  17. The All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.; Coil, A.L.; Conselice, C.; Cooper, M.; Croton, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ellis, R.; Faber, S.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke, B.; Goss, W.M.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Lick Observ. /LBL, Berkeley /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Royal Observ., Edinburgh /Caltech /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Nottingham U. /Caltech, JPL /Imperial Coll., London /UC, Berkeley /NRAO, Socorro /Victoria U. /Sydney U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /NOAO, Tucson /KIPAC, Menlo Park /UCLA /Oxford U. /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys.

    2006-07-21

    In this the first of a series of ''Letters'', we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z {approx} 1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS{sup 30} X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX{sup 31} ultraviolet (1200-2500 A), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey{sup 32} optical (3600-9000 {angstrom}), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 {angstrom}), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS{sup 33} optical (4400-8500 {angstrom}), Palomar/WIRC{sup 34} near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC{sup 35} mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA{sup 36} radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope{sup 37}. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

  18. Kuiper Prize Lecture: Stan Peale's Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2016-10-01

    Stan Peale's career in planetary science spanned over five decades and yielded an impressive record of high-impact results. His contributions include the prediction of widespread volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io, the derivation of a general theoretical framework that governs the rotational states of bodies subject to tides, the study of the origin and evolution of natural satellites, advances in our understanding of exoplanet dynamics, and the promotion of microlensing searches for exoplanets. Stan also developed an ingenious procedure to determine the size and state of Mercury's core. Because of this work, we know more about the core of Mercury than that of any planet other than Earth. Stan left us an enduring legacy that exemplifies the power of physics to probe the interiors of planets.

  19. Exploring the Legacies of Filmed Patient Narratives

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Glenn; Maben, Jill

    2015-01-01

    We trace the legacies of filmed patient narratives that were edited and screened to encourage engagement with a participatory quality improvement project in an acute hospital setting in England. Using Gabriel’s theory of “narrative contract,” we examine the initial success of the films in establishing common grounds for participatory project and later, and more varied, interpretations of the films. Over time, the films were interpreted by staff as either useful sources of learning by critical reflection, dubious (invalid or unreliable) representations of patient experience, or as “closed” items available as auditable evidence of completed quality improvement work. We find these interpretations of the films to be shaped by the effect of social distance, the differential outcomes of project work, and changing organizational agendas. We consider the wider conditions of patient narrative as a form of quality improvement knowledge with immediate potency and fragile or fluid legitimacy over time. PMID:25576480

  20. Early chemical development at Legacy Wyeth Research.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael K; Kolb, Michael; Connolly, Terrence J; McWilliams, J Christopher; Sutherland, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an approach to early process development in the context of the productivity model in legacy Wyeth (i.e. to deliver two New Drug Applications per year for New Molecular Entities). As a result of the model, the cycle time from lead selection to phase I decreased and the number of compounds in early development increased. In response, Wyeth Chemical Development devised a resource-neutral approach to early process development, which is described here. This model harvested synergies from integrating advanced technologies and aggressive sourcing with a matrix research organization and efficient ways of working. It provided a model that met the business needs of our former organization while ensuring the timely delivery of high-quality active pharmaceutical ingredients and safe, scalable processes. PMID:21111844

  1. Peter Waterman and his scientific legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Kahnert, Michael; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peter C. Waterman, a giant figure in the theory of electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic wave scattering, passed away on 3 June, 2012. In view of his fundamental contributions, which to a large degree have guided the progress of these disciplines over the past five decades and affected profoundly the multifaceted research published in the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT), we felt that it would be appropriate to solicit papers for a special issue of JQSRT commemorating Peter Waterman's scientific legacy. This initiative was endorsed by the JQSRT management and has resulted in a representative collection of high-quality papers which have undergone the same peer scrutiny as any paper submitted to JQSRT.

  2. The legacy of the European Geotraverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, D. J.

    1999-12-01

    The European Geotraverse (EGT) created a 4600-km profile across Europe from North Cape Norway to Tunisia. Not only did this produce the first comprehensive cross-section to a depth of 450 km of continental lithosphere covering an eighth of the Earth's circumference, it covered the geological history of Europe from the Archaean to the present. EGT built up a detailed knowledge of the crust and upper mantle of Europe by integrating geological and geophysical information in a coherent way, continuously along a single profile. It illuminated the dramatic contrast between the thickness and complexity of the lithosphere of western Europe and that of Fennoscandia, which remain in isostatic equilibrium, and elucidated the multilayered elements of thickened Alpine crust and lithosphere and the dynamics of the western Mediterranean. Nine years on, the legacy of EGT is the platform it provided for major scientific advances that have stemmed from it, the greatest being through EUROPROBE projects. The PANCARDI project has discovered the subducted slab beneath the Carpathian Arc in the process of tearing apart from the lithosphere. URALIDES has discovered the Urals orogen is almost perfectly preserved since the Palaeozoic, and the TESZ project has elucidated the complex evolution of the transitional region between the Baltic Shield and the Caledonian and Variscan crustal terranes of western Europe. The scientific advances of EGT were matched by its achievement in mobilising an international workforce from every discipline of the Earth sciences. Friendships made in that endeavour are another legacy of EGT and many of those who started their research careers in EGT are now leading EUROPROBE projects and other collaborative ventures. We all owe a great debt to Professor Stephan Mueller who founded and led the European Geotraverse and was its enduring inspiration.

  3. Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Measuring Stream Bank Erosion within Legacy Sediments: Data Processing and Analysis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starek, M. J.; Mitasova, H.; Wegmann, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    Land clearing for agricultural purposes following European settlement of America resulted in upland erosion rates 50-400 times above long-term geologic rates in much of the North Carolina Piedmont region. A considerable amount of the eroded sediment was subsequently aggraded on floodplains and impounded in the slackwater ponds behind milldams. This trapped "legacy" sediment is commonly mistaken for natural floodplain deposition and has remained largely unrecognized as a potential source of accelerated sediment erosion contributing to modern water quality impairment. In this study, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is utilized to monitor stream bank evolution along a reach that has breached a former millpond. Due to the unique surface geometry and orientation of the stream bank, vegetation occlusion, and true 3D structure of the point cloud, a systematic data processing approach is implemented to compute the change in sediment volume between repeat TLS surveys. The processing approach consists of the following four steps: 1) segmentation of the stream bank point cloud; 2) transformation of the point cloud such that the xy plane is parallel to the trend of the bank; 3) filter vegetation by selecting local lowest point within a grid cell; 4) smooth high frequency noise 5) generate bare earth digital elevation model (DEM). From the DEMs, change in volume was quantified for a 13 m x 3.5 m section of the stream bank providing an estimate on erosion rates and slumping between surveys. The major mechanisms for the observed changes are freeze-thaw events and fluvial entrainment. To evaluate the surface evolution between the distinct sedimentary layers (legacy vs non-legacy) that comprise the stream bank, elevation change is modeled as a continuous trivariate function z = f(x,y,t) where x,y is horizontal location, t is time, and z is a first-surface referenced elevation. Hence, z=0 for all x,y at t=0, time of first survey. The filtered, transformed, and first

  4. THE SIMPLE SURVEY: OBSERVATIONS, REDUCTION, AND CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Damen, M.; Franx, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Labbe, I.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Muzzin, A.; Brandt, W. N.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Illingworth, G. D.; Marchesini, D.; Papovich, C.; Rix, H.-W.

    2011-01-20

    We present the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy Survey in the Extended CDF-South (SIMPLE), which consists of deep IRAC observations covering the {approx}1600 arcmin{sup 2} area surrounding GOODS-S. The limiting magnitudes of the SIMPLE IRAC mosaics typically are 23.8, 23.6, 21.9, and 21.7, at 3.6 {mu}m, 4.5 {mu}m, 5.8 {mu}m, and 8.0 {mu}m, respectively (5{sigma} total point source magnitudes in AB). The SIMPLE IRAC images are combined with the 10' x 15' GOODS IRAC mosaics in the center. We give detailed descriptions of the observations, data reduction, and properties of the final images, as well as the detection and photometry methods used to build a catalog. Using published optical and near-infrared data from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC), we construct an IRAC-selected catalog, containing photometry in UBVRIz'JHK, [3.6 {mu}m], [4.5 {mu}m], [5.8 {mu}m], and [8.0 {mu}m]. The catalog contains 43,782 sources with S/N >5 at 3.6 {mu}m, 19,993 of which have 13-band photometry. We compare this catalog to the publicly available MUSYC and FIREWORKS catalogs and discuss the differences. Using a high signal-to-noise sub-sample of 3391 sources with ([3.6] + [4.5])/2 < 21.2, we investigate the star formation rate history of massive galaxies out to z {approx} 1.8. We find that at z {approx} 1.8 at least 30% {+-} 7% of the most massive galaxies (M{sub *} >10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) are passively evolving, in agreement with earlier results from surveys covering less area.

  5. Foundations of invasion genetics: the Baker and Stebbins legacy.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Spencer C H

    2015-05-01

    Invasion genetics is a relatively new discipline that investigates patterns of genetic variation in populations of invasive species and their ecological and evolutionary consequences. Evolutionary biologists have a long-standing interest in colonizing species, owing to their short life cycles and widespread distributions, but not until publication of The Genetics of Colonizing Species (1965), edited by H.G. Baker and G.L. Stebbins, was a synthesis on the genetics and evolution of colonizers available. Here, I make the case that the Baker and Stebbins volume is the foundational document for invasion genetics, and in conjunction with the increased use of genetic markers and development of invasion biology, resulted in the birth of this new field over the past two decades. I consider the historical origins and legacy of the Baker and Stebbins volume and review some of the key issues that were addressed. I provide biographical sketches of the two editors, emphasizing their contrasting backgrounds and personalities. I review examples from my own work on plant invasions that are relevant to issues discussed by contributors to the volume. These include the following: determinants of invasion success, life history trade-offs, generalist vs. specialist strategies, general-purpose genotypes, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, mating systems and the influence of bottlenecks on genetic variation. I conclude by posing several key questions in invasion genetics and argue that one of the main challenges that the area faces is to integrate experimental field studies of the ecology and demography of populations with the largely descriptive approaches that have tended to dominate most research to date. PMID:25442107

  6. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives. PMID:22813079

  7. Environmentalism in American Pedagogy: The Legacy of Lester Ward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Laurel N.; Tanner, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented of the legacy of Lester Frank Ward, widely recognized as the architect of environmentalism in American pedagogy and the creator of some of the most fundamental ideas about American curriculum. (CB)

  8. Joe Engle Recalls Legacy Of X-15 Testing at Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired Air Force test pilot and NASA astronaut Joe Engle recalled the legacy of the famed X-15 rocket plane recently during a colloquium at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Engle, the only pe...

  9. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  10. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brain B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  11. Integrated Mapping and Imaging at a Legacy Test Site (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Kelley, R. E.; Sweeney, J. J.; Vigil, S.; DiBenedetto, J.; Chipman, V.

    2013-12-01

    A team of multi-disciplinary geoscientists was tasked to characterize and evaluate a legacy nuclear detonation site in order to develop research locations with the long-term goal of improving treaty monitoring, verification, and other national security applications. There was a test at the site of interest that was detonated on June 12, 1985 in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface in rhyolites. With announced yield of 20-150 kt, the event did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather experienced a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation. This result provides the team with an opportunity to evaluate a number of surface and subsurface inspection technologies in a broad context. The team collected ground-based visual observation, ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic, ground-based and airborne LiDAR, ground-based and airborne hyperspectral, gravity and magnetics, dc and induction electrical methods, and active seismic data during field campaigns in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Detection of features was performed using various approaches that were assessed for accuracy, efficiency and diversity of target features. For example, whereas the primary target of the ground-based visual observation survey was to map the surface features, the target of the gravity survey was to attempt the detection of a possible subsurface collapse zone which might be located as little as 200 meters below the surface. The datasets from surveys described above are integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) database for analysis and visualization. Other presentations during this session provide further details as to some of the work conducted. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security Technologies, LLC, was performed under

  12. Geological Mapping Using Legacy Geophysical Data in Las Vegas Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, D.; O'Donnell, J.; McLin, K.

    2014-12-01

    In 2008-2011, Clark County, Building Department contracted with Optim to collect 10,700 Reflection Microtremor (ReMi) 600 ft seismic lines that cover most of the metropolitan area of Las Vegas and other outlying communities such as Moapa, Laughlin, Primm, and Coyote Spring. The County completed their goal of characterizing seismic susceptibility of the top 100 ft and the results are posted at http://gisgate.co.clark.nv.us/openweb/. The research question of the authors is: What additional geologic information can be inferred from the data, either through reprocessing, cross correlation of drill hole data or additional data collection? An advantage of geophysical data is that it can be reprocessed to provide additional insight into the local geologic setting. The interpretation is also improved if combined with drill hole data and / or hydrologic information. It should be noted that there is also legacy geophysical data in limited areas collected by the USGS, primarily in conjunction with water well drilling, where some of the ReMi seismic data was collected. An unexpected result of the ReMi survey was a clear delineation of current and paleo channels in Laughlin, Moapa, and Las Vegas. The geometry of the paleochanel, of the Colorado River, is well away from the current position. however the signal is very similar to modern streams such as the Muddy River. Although the surficial geologic mapping in Las Vegas Valley was very detailed, and importantly, was performed prior to development; the new geophysical data provides better details of the lithologic properties of the units. That is it may be an excellent basis for remapping for specific properties related to engineering and hydrologic modeling.

  13. The philosophical terrain of behavior analysis: a review of B. A. Thyer (Ed.), The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism.

    PubMed Central

    Lamal, P A

    2000-01-01

    The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism, edited by Bruce A. Thyer, is a set of original contributions, each dealing, from a behavioral stance, with one of the following major topics of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, consciousness, language, free will and determinism, and self-control. Confusions about radical behaviorism and its similarities to, and differences from, other behavioral and non-behavioral approaches are described in the book, which provides a state-of-the-art description of the philosophical underpinnings of behavior analysis. PMID:11029026

  14. Disability legacy of the Haitian earthquake.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Ronan, Laurence J

    2010-06-15

    Haiti's earthquake caused untold numbers of new disabilities across the age spectrum, from infants and children to elderly individuals. Amputations, spinal cord and brain injuries, complex multiple fractures, and other massive trauma will leave residual impairments, precipitating pressing needs at both the individual and societal levels. Short-term priorities include clinical stabilization, wound healing, and surgical revisions of suboptimal repairs. Afterward, in the near term, comprehensive rehabilitation must commence to ensure the best possible functional outcomes. Even before the earthquake struck, Haiti had few rehabilitation professionals and little capacity to manufacture essential assistive technologies, including prostheses and wheelchairs. While international organizations are assisting to fill these gaps, ultimately rehabilitation programs and assistive technologies will need to fit the specific demands of Haiti's culture and rugged natural physical environment. As Haiti rebuilds its public and private spaces, ensuring accessibility to persons with disabilities will be critical. Ultimately, one positive legacy of Haiti's earthquake could be the emergence of social attitudes, public policies, and physical environments that more fully accommodate disability across the life span.

  15. John Snow's legacy: epidemiology without borders.

    PubMed

    Fine, Paul; Victora, Cesar G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan; Curtis, Val; Heymann, David L; Slutkin, Gary; May, Robert M; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Ian; Wortley, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Deaton, Angus

    2013-04-13

    This Review provides abstracts from a meeting held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, on April 11-12, 2013, to celebrate the legacy of John Snow. They describe conventional and unconventional applications of epidemiological methods to problems ranging from diarrhoeal disease, mental health, cancer, and accident care, to education, poverty, financial networks, crime, and violence. Common themes appear throughout, including recognition of the importance of Snow's example, the philosophical and practical implications of assessment of causality, and an emphasis on the evaluation of preventive, ameliorative, and curative interventions, in a wide variety of medical and societal examples. Almost all self-described epidemiologists nowadays work within the health arena, and this is the focus of most of the societies, journals, and courses that carry the name epidemiology. The range of applications evident in these contributions might encourage some of these institutions to consider broadening their remits. In so doing, they may contribute more directly to, and learn from, non-health-related areas that use the language and methods of epidemiology to address many important problems now facing the world.

  16. The History and Legacy of BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2012-01-01

    The BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory was the first large detector system specifically designed for the study of gamma-ray bursts. The eight large-area detectors allowed full-sky coverage and were optimized to operate in the energy region of the peak emission of most GRBs. BATSE provided detailed observations of the temporal and spectral characteristics of large samples of GRBs, and it was the first experiment to provide rapid notifications of the coarse location of many them. It also provided strong evidence for the cosmological distances to GRBs through the observation of the sky distribution and intensity distribution of numerous GRBs. The large number of GRBs observed with the high- sensitivity BATSE detectors continues to provide a database of GRB spectral and temporal properties in the primary energy range of GRB emission that will likely not be exceeded for at least another decade. The origin and development of the BATSE experiment, some highlights from the mission and its continuing legacy are described in this paper.

  17. The molecular legacy of apoptosis in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pallet, N; Dieudé, M; Cailhier, J; Hébert, M

    2012-06-01

    Transplanted organs have to cope with diverse immunologic and metabolic stressors that augment the percentage of stressed and dying cells. Cell death, whether apoptotic or necrotic, is crucial in various transplantation-associated conditions. Necrosis, a proinflammatory type of cell death classically considered as accidental, is increasingly recognized as a highly controlled death program. Apoptosis, the classical programmed cell death mode program, is tightly orchestrated and culminates in the activation of caspases. Apoptosis was classically regarded as a silent form of cell death, but mounting evidence indicates that apoptotic cells "don't go silently" and leave a heritage to the local microenvironment. This apoptotic legacy, embedded within the effector phase of apoptosis, is aimed, at least in part, at controlling leukocyte trafficking and fostering tissue remodeling at sites of apoptotic cell deletion and can promote maladaptive remodeling pathways of importance for obliterative vascular remodeling. Moreover, apoptotic cells can transfer bioactive molecules by the release of apoptotic membrane vesicles that, in turn, shapes the phenotype and functions of immune cells. In this review, we summarize recent data highlighting the importance of apoptosis-associated intercellular communication networks in the regulation of allograft remodeling and immune responses in transplantation. PMID:22420581

  18. The International Ultraviolet Explorer: Origins and Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    he International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite was launched on 26 January 1978, and operated as a Guest Observer space observatory for nearly 19 years. IUE was, without doubt, one of the most successful astronomical facilities ever developed. Used by thousands of astronomers worldwide, it yielded over 100,000 UV spectra (in the wavelength range 1150-3250A), covering stars of all types, the interstellar medium in our own galaxy and other local galaxies, the galactic halo, normal and active galaxies and QSO's, X-ray binaries, novae and supernovae, and in our solar system comets, planets and their moons. Over 3500 refereed papers have been published based on IUE results, and a similar number of papers in conference proceedings. Over 600 PhD theses have been produced based on IUE data. All IUE data are available in archives maintained by the three agencies involved in the mission: NASA, ESA and the UK Science Research Council. In this paper I will discuss the origins of the IUE mission, the special design and operation which led to its spectacular success and the legacy it left for UV astronomy.

  19. Aleksis Dreimanis: a legacy in Quaternary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicock, Stephen R.; Menzies, John

    2000-12-01

    Aleksis Dreimanis was born and raised in Latvia. His interest in Quaternary and glacial geology began early and developed into a career that has spanned 7 decades. At age 20 he published his first paper in glacial geology and soon after began teaching at the University of Latvia. Teaching and research were interrupted by World War II but resumed at the Baltic University (Pinneberg, Germany), then at the University of Western Ontario where he has been ever since. Throughout his career, Dreimanis has successfully balanced the twin disciplines of Quaternary history and glacial geology. He was among the first to study quantitatively the relationship between till lithology and till formation and to study how glacial transport and dynamics affect till texture and deformation. With co-workers he developed the well-known stratigraphic scheme of the last glaciation in the Great Lakes region of North America. Aleksis became world-renowned through his committee work, especially as President of the INQUA Commission on Genesis and Lithology of Glacial Quaternary Deposits. His diplomacy, enthusiasm, and passion for his subject have inspired students and colleagues around the globe and resulted in remarkable international dialogue, cooperation, and consensus. Professor Aleksis Dreimanis is an honest scientist, a gentleman, and a true scholar who has left a rich legacy for future Quaternarists.

  20. Disability legacy of the Haitian earthquake.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Ronan, Laurence J

    2010-06-15

    Haiti's earthquake caused untold numbers of new disabilities across the age spectrum, from infants and children to elderly individuals. Amputations, spinal cord and brain injuries, complex multiple fractures, and other massive trauma will leave residual impairments, precipitating pressing needs at both the individual and societal levels. Short-term priorities include clinical stabilization, wound healing, and surgical revisions of suboptimal repairs. Afterward, in the near term, comprehensive rehabilitation must commence to ensure the best possible functional outcomes. Even before the earthquake struck, Haiti had few rehabilitation professionals and little capacity to manufacture essential assistive technologies, including prostheses and wheelchairs. While international organizations are assisting to fill these gaps, ultimately rehabilitation programs and assistive technologies will need to fit the specific demands of Haiti's culture and rugged natural physical environment. As Haiti rebuilds its public and private spaces, ensuring accessibility to persons with disabilities will be critical. Ultimately, one positive legacy of Haiti's earthquake could be the emergence of social attitudes, public policies, and physical environments that more fully accommodate disability across the life span. PMID:20231547

  1. The Hubble Legacy Archive NICMOS grism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudling, W.; Kümmel, M.; Haase, J.; Hook, R.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J.

    2008-11-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) aims to create calibrated science data from the Hubble Space Telescope archive and make them accessible via user-friendly and Virtual Observatory (VO) compatible interfaces. It is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) and the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF). Data produced by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instruments with slitless spectroscopy modes are among the most difficult to extract and exploit. As part of the HLA project, the ST-ECF aims to provide calibrated spectra for objects observed with these HST slitless modes. In this paper, we present the HLA NICMOS G141 grism spectra. We describe in detail the calibration, data reduction and spectrum extraction methods used to produce the extracted spectra. The quality of the extracted spectra and associated direct images is demonstrated through comparison with near-IR imaging catalogues and existing near-IR spectroscopy. The output data products and their associated metadata are publicly available (http://hla.stecf.org/) through a web form, as well as a VO-compatible interface that enables flexible querying of the archive of the 2470 NICMOS G141 spectra. In total, spectra of 1923  unique targets are included.

  2. The Mayo brothers: an American surgical legacy.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2010-10-01

    Few in the history of surgery and just as few in the history of medicine can reach the level of clinical visibility as achieved by the Mayo brothers. The brothers changed the face of medicine while they were alive, and their fame and influence continued to grow after their death in 1939. The Mayo American surgical legacy had incredible proportions. The brothers systematically modified the field as few others had done before. They were great surgical innovators who took the surgical techniques of others and added a touch of their own to make the surgical procedure better and more secure. The Mayos were the stars regionally, nationally, and around the world. They attracted attention from their generation and occupied center stage long after. To speak of the Mayos is to speak of the quintessential American values of professionalism, respect, commitment, and caring for their fellow human beings. Their creation, the Mayo Clinic, surpassed the wildest hopes and predictions that anyone could have had regarding their best dreams. PMID:20874478

  3. Ghosts of Cultivation Past - Native American Dispersal Legacy Persists in Tree Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    A long-term assumption in ecology is that species distributions correspond with their niche requirements, but evidence that species can persist in unsuitable habitat for centuries undermines the link between species and habitat. Moreover, species may be more dependent on mutualist partners than specific habitats. Most evidence connecting indigenous cultures with plant dispersal is anecdotal, but historical records suggest that Native Americans transported and cultivated many species, including Gleditsia triacanthos ("Honey locust"). Gleditsia triacanthos was an important medicinal/culinary (e.g., sugar), cultural (e.g., game sticks) and spiritual tree for the Cherokee (southeastern U.S. Native Americans). This study tests the hypothesis that a Cherokee cultivation legacy drives current regional G. triacanthos distribution patterns. Gleditsia triacanthos occurs in rocky uplands and xeric fields, but inexplicably also occurs in mesic riverine corridors and floodplains where Cherokee once settled and farmed. I combined field experiments and surveys in the Southern Appalachian Mountain region (U.S.) to investigate G. triacanthos recruitment requirements and distribution patterns to determine whether there is a quantifiable G. triacanthos association with former Cherokee settlements. Moreover, I also investigated alternate dispersal mechanisms, such as stream transport and domestic cattle. The results indicate that a centuries-old legacy of Native American cultivation remains intact as G. triacanthos' current southern Appalachian distribution appears better explained Cherokee settlement patterns than habitat. The data indicate that the tree is severely dispersal limited in the region, only moving appreciable distances from former Cherokee settlements where cattle grazing is prevalent. Human land use legacy may play a long-term role in shaping species distributions, and pre-European settlement activity appears underrated as a factor influencing modern tree species

  4. Ghosts of Cultivation Past - Native American Dispersal Legacy Persists in Tree Distribution.

    PubMed

    Warren, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    A long-term assumption in ecology is that species distributions correspond with their niche requirements, but evidence that species can persist in unsuitable habitat for centuries undermines the link between species and habitat. Moreover, species may be more dependent on mutualist partners than specific habitats. Most evidence connecting indigenous cultures with plant dispersal is anecdotal, but historical records suggest that Native Americans transported and cultivated many species, including Gleditsia triacanthos ("Honey locust"). Gleditsia triacanthos was an important medicinal/culinary (e.g., sugar), cultural (e.g., game sticks) and spiritual tree for the Cherokee (southeastern U.S. Native Americans). This study tests the hypothesis that a Cherokee cultivation legacy drives current regional G. triacanthos distribution patterns. Gleditsia triacanthos occurs in rocky uplands and xeric fields, but inexplicably also occurs in mesic riverine corridors and floodplains where Cherokee once settled and farmed. I combined field experiments and surveys in the Southern Appalachian Mountain region (U.S.) to investigate G. triacanthos recruitment requirements and distribution patterns to determine whether there is a quantifiable G. triacanthos association with former Cherokee settlements. Moreover, I also investigated alternate dispersal mechanisms, such as stream transport and domestic cattle. The results indicate that a centuries-old legacy of Native American cultivation remains intact as G. triacanthos' current southern Appalachian distribution appears better explained Cherokee settlement patterns than habitat. The data indicate that the tree is severely dispersal limited in the region, only moving appreciable distances from former Cherokee settlements where cattle grazing is prevalent. Human land use legacy may play a long-term role in shaping species distributions, and pre-European settlement activity appears underrated as a factor influencing modern tree species

  5. Ghosts of Cultivation Past - Native American Dispersal Legacy Persists in Tree Distribution.

    PubMed

    Warren, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    A long-term assumption in ecology is that species distributions correspond with their niche requirements, but evidence that species can persist in unsuitable habitat for centuries undermines the link between species and habitat. Moreover, species may be more dependent on mutualist partners than specific habitats. Most evidence connecting indigenous cultures with plant dispersal is anecdotal, but historical records suggest that Native Americans transported and cultivated many species, including Gleditsia triacanthos ("Honey locust"). Gleditsia triacanthos was an important medicinal/culinary (e.g., sugar), cultural (e.g., game sticks) and spiritual tree for the Cherokee (southeastern U.S. Native Americans). This study tests the hypothesis that a Cherokee cultivation legacy drives current regional G. triacanthos distribution patterns. Gleditsia triacanthos occurs in rocky uplands and xeric fields, but inexplicably also occurs in mesic riverine corridors and floodplains where Cherokee once settled and farmed. I combined field experiments and surveys in the Southern Appalachian Mountain region (U.S.) to investigate G. triacanthos recruitment requirements and distribution patterns to determine whether there is a quantifiable G. triacanthos association with former Cherokee settlements. Moreover, I also investigated alternate dispersal mechanisms, such as stream transport and domestic cattle. The results indicate that a centuries-old legacy of Native American cultivation remains intact as G. triacanthos' current southern Appalachian distribution appears better explained Cherokee settlement patterns than habitat. The data indicate that the tree is severely dispersal limited in the region, only moving appreciable distances from former Cherokee settlements where cattle grazing is prevalent. Human land use legacy may play a long-term role in shaping species distributions, and pre-European settlement activity appears underrated as a factor influencing modern tree species

  6. The MALT-45 Pilot Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2011-10-01

    As part of the MALT (Millimetre Astronomers Legacy Team) collaboration, we are proposing to undertake test observations with the ATCA that will lead to a southern Galactic plane survey at 7mm. We intend to take fast-mosaicking snaphot observations of a quarter square degree of the Galactic plane, focusing on the 7mm spectral lines of CS(1-0), C34S (1-0), Class I methanol masers and SiO masers. We will utilise the new CABB in zoom mode to simultaneously observe these lines and test the system for a future large-scale survey.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Legacy Uranium Mine Site Reclamation - Lessons Learned - 12384

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, Laura E.; Cotter, Ed

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management is responsible for administering the DOE Uranium Leasing Program (ULP) and its 31 uranium lease tracts located in the Uravan Mineral Belt of southwestern Colorado (see Figure 1). In addition to administering the ULP for the last six decades, DOE has also undertaken the significant task of reclaiming a large number of abandoned uranium (legacy) mine sites and associated features located throughout the Uravan Mineral Belt. In 1995, DOE initiated a 3-year reconnaissance program to locate and delineate (through extensive on-the-ground mapping) the legacy mine sites and associated features contained within the historically defined boundaries of its uranium lease tracts. During that same time frame, DOE recognized the lack of regulations pertaining to the reclamation of legacy mine sites and contacted the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) concerning the reclamation of legacy mine sites. In November 1995, The BLM Colorado State Office formally issued the United States Department of the Interior, Colorado Bureau of Land Management, Closure/Reclamation Guidelines, Abandoned Uranium Mine Sites as a supplement to its Solid Minerals Reclamation Handbook (H-3042-1). Over the next five-and-one-half years, DOE reclaimed the 161 legacy mine sites that had been identified on DOE withdrawn lands. By the late 1990's, the various BLM field offices in southwestern Colorado began to recognize DOE's experience and expertise in reclaiming legacy mine sites. During the ensuing 8 years, BLM funded DOE (through a series of task orders) to perform reclamation activities at 182 BLM mine sites. To date, DOE has reclaimed 372 separate and distinct legacy mine sites. During this process, DOE has learned many lessons and is willing to share those lessons with others in the reclamation industry because there are still many legacy mine sites not yet reclaimed. DOE currently administers 31 lease tracts (11,017 ha) that collectively

  8. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety-critical computer systems must be engineered to meet system and software safety requirements. For legacy safety-critical computer systems, software safety requirements may not have been formally specified during development. When process-oriented software safety requirements are levied on a legacy system after the fact, where software development artifacts don't exist or are incomplete, the question becomes 'how can this be done?' The risks associated with only meeting certain software safety requirements in a legacy safety-critical computer system must be addressed should such systems be selected as candidates for reuse. This paper proposes a method for ascertaining formally, a software safety risk assessment, that provides measurements for software safety for legacy systems which may or may not have a suite of software engineering documentation that is now normally required. It relies upon the NASA Software Safety Standard, risk assessment methods based upon the Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire, and the application of reverse engineering CASE tools to produce original design documents for legacy systems.

  9. Advancing description and explanation in clinical linguistics: a legacy of Martin J. Ball.

    PubMed

    Damico, Jack S; Damico, Holly L; Nelson, Ryan L

    2011-11-01

    This article asserts the importance of explication of order and disorder in language as a privileged objective of clinical linguistics and service delivery and reviews the contributions of Martin Ball in advancing this agenda.

  10. 77 FR 28401 - Information Collection Activities: Legacy Data Verification Process (LDVP); Submitted for Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Legacy Data... this ICR. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Legacy Data Verification Process (LDVP)--NTL (formerly known as Historical Well Data Cleanup). OMB Control Number: 1014-0009. Abstract: The Outer...

  11. Digital Storytelling: An Innovative Legacy-Making Intervention for Children with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akard, Terrah Foster; Dietrich, Mary S.; Friedman, Debra L.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Given, Barbara; Wray, Sarah; Gilmer, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined the feasibility of a legacy-making intervention in children with cancer and the preliminary effects on outcomes related to quality of life. Procedure Children (N = 28) ages 7–17 years completed a baseline QOL questionnaire (PedsQL) at T1. After baseline, the intervention group (n = 15) completed a randomized intervention that guided children to answer questions about legacy-making and create a digital story about themselves. A final copy of the digital story was provided to the families. A control group (n = 13) received customary care. Children repeated the questionnaire at T2. Parents (N = 22) of children who completed the intervention completed follow-up survey questions regarding intervention effects. Results Feasibility was strong (78% participation; 1 attrition). While differences between the groups in physical, emotional, social, or school functioning change was not statistically significant, the intervention group showed slightly better emotional and school functioning compared to controls. Parents reported that their child’s digital story provided emotional comfort to them (n = 11, 46%), facilitated communication between parents and children (n = 9, 38%), and was a coping strategy for them (n = 4, 17%). Parents reported that the intervention helped children express their feelings (n = 19, 79%), cope (n = 6, 27%), and feel better emotionally (n = 5, 23%). Conclusions Our intervention is feasible for children with cancer, is developmentally appropriate for children 7 to 17 years of age, and demonstrates promise to improve quality of life outcomes for children with cancer and their parents. PMID:25586983

  12. The VMC Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioni, M.-R. L.

    The VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds system (VMC) is a public survey project of ESO. It is collecting near-infrared data across large areas of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the Bridge and a few fields in the Stream. The combination of great sensitivity to stars below the old main sequence turn off, and the multiplicity at K s band (at least 12 epochs) make VMC highly suitable for the determination of the spatially resolved star formation history and three-dimensional geometry, using variable stars such as Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. The VMC observations, to be completed in 2018, have a high legacy value and many science results have already been published while others are in preparation.

  13. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy.

  14. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  15. The scientific legacy of Howard Vincent Malmstadt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlick, Gary

    2006-06-01

    Howard Malmstadt was a true giant of Analytical Chemistry and clearly one of the most influential analytical chemists of the last 50 years. Howard, through his own work and that of his students (first generation) and their students (second generation) and their students' students (third generation) changed the course of Analytical Chemistry. His research interests were broad and ranged from analytical solution chemistry (titrimetry and reaction rates) and electrochemistry to atomic and molecular spectroscopy, chemical instrumentation, clinical chemistry and automation. Howard was also one of the most innovative and influential educators of our time. He changed forever the analytical curriculum through his many books on Electronics for Scientists, most written in conjunction with Chris Enke and Stan Crouch. Their texts and short courses went from pioneering the application of tube-based analog electronics (servo systems and operational amplifiers) in scientific measurements to the impact that integrated circuits and digital electronics would have on laboratory measurements. He strongly believed in the importance of "hands-on" in education. To this end, he expended considerable personal effort and time to see not only the development and commercialization of an effective laboratory infrastructure to support education in analog and digital electronics, but also oversaw the development of modular instrumentation for spectroscopy. Over the years he received many awards from the Analytical Chemistry community for his outstanding efforts and contributions to teaching and research. Many of Howard's students went on into academia. They and their students now represent the ongoing legacy for analytical chemistry that evolved from Howard's laboratory at Illinois. A remarkable diversity of research programs are underway in their laboratories. Topics range from atomic, laser, mass, and Raman spectroscopy to detection technology, analytical education, micro

  16. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy. PMID:27476593

  17. ASCO Plenary Sessions: impact, legacy, future.

    PubMed

    Vandross, Andrae; Prasad, Vinay; Mailankody, Sham

    2016-06-01

    The ASCO annual meeting draws a large crowd of physicians, cancer researchers, policy makers, and industry representatives. The crown jewel of the annual events is the Plenary session where impactful, influential and visible abstracts are selected for the largest audience. Plenary topics are frequently paired with concurrent New England Journal or Lancet publications.  Here, we review 9 years of ASCO plenary sessions.  Several themes emerge.  First, many of the topics selected have indeed been practice changing, such as the use of ALK inhibitors for ALK rearranged NSCLC, or checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic melanoma.  Second, although some plenary topics seemed destined to change practice, they ultimately falter, such as the use of Cetuximab in NSCLC, vaccine therapy for follicular lymphoma, and even Bevacizumab in metastatic renal cell cancer. Who could have forseen bevacizumab displaced by several VEGF TKIs?  Third, negative trials are rare among Plenary sessions, but when they are presented they are immensely important.  Examples include a seminal study using CA-125 levels to guide treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer, the use of lapatinib combined with traztuzumab in the adjuvant treatment of HER2 + disease, and studies showing no survival benefit to upfront bevacizumab in glioblastoma multiforme.   Fourth, we note a large industry presence among Plenary sessions, as the Industry in part sponsored 62% of Plenary abstracts.  Ultimately a review of 9 years of ASCO plenary reveals the plenary for what it is: a conservative selection of abstracts that, at the time, are thought to change the face of oncology.  Time, however, is the true arbiter, and some succeed in this quest, while others falter.  ASCO plenary sessions reveal the influence, legacy and future of cancer care.

  18. [The legacy of Cajal in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Díaz, J L

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1854-1934) had achieved a sound school of neurobiology displaying an integrative and anatomo-functional paradigm of study of the Nervous System by integrating diverse morphological, physiological, and clinical sciences during the Second Spanish Republic. Such school flourished in the three locations of the Cajal Institute in Madrid, but was nearly lost during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) with the repression of the majority of the collaborators of the recently-extinct master. One part of these mature and capable researchers was able to reach sanctuary in the Americas to continue their research and teaching enterprises. Thanks to the welcoming policy of Mexican president Lázaro Cárdenas several of them developed an extensive work at the National University of Mexico (UNAM) becoming pioneers, founders of research institutions, and venerable teachers of several medical and neurological sciences. Among them are neuropsychiatrist Dionisio Nieto, pathologist Isaac Costero, both pupils of Pío del Río Hortega; physiologist José Puche and pharmacologist Rafael Méndez, both collaborators of Juan Negrín. The work of Dionisio Nieto is especially worthy to remark as beneficiary of the Cajal School since, among many other achievements, he applied the techniques of Del Río Hortega to study the neuropathology of epilepsy and schizophrenia since the 1950's. Besides from his legacy to Mexican psychiatry, Nieto's pupils have extended his neuroanatomical and histological work, such as Alfonso Escobar, or his psycho physiological leads, such as Augusto Fernández-Guardiola. The latter was another Spanish War refugee who before is death in 2004 published a profound testimonial pertaining to the neurosciences of the Spanish exile in Mexico.

  19. CERES ISCCP-D2like Legacy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-24

    ... fluxes and clouds. Description : CERES-MODIS and GEO cloud properties stratified by ISCCP cloud types and in the similar D2 ... geostationary cloud retrievals for daytime only.  GEO : 3-hourly geostationary-only cloud retrievals for daytime only.  ...

  20. Managing Online Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Managing data collected from online surveys may be a straightforward process involving no more than downloading a spreadsheet from a Web survey host and presenting descriptive statistics associated with each questionnaire item. On the other hand, if the evaluation objectives require more complex analysis and presentation of the data, it will be…

  1. U.S. Spacesuit Legacy: Maintaining it for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; McMann, Joe; Thomas, Ken; Kosmo, Joe; Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca; Bitterly, Rose; Olivia, Vladenka Rose

    2013-01-01

    The history of U.S. spacesuit development and its use are rich with information on lessons learned, and constitutes a valuable legacy to those designing spacesuits for the future, as well as to educators, students, and the general public. The genesis of lessons learned is best understood by studying the evolution of past spacesuit programs - how the challenges and pressures of the times influenced the direction of the various spacesuit programs. This paper shows how the legacy of various spacesuit-related programs evolved in response to these forces. Important aspects of how this U.S. spacesuit legacy is being preserved today is described, including the archiving of spacesuit hardware, important documents, videos, oral history, and the rapidly expanding U.S. Spacesuit Knowledge Capture program.

  2. Legacy Management CERCLA Sites. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Donna L.

    2007-05-03

    S.M. Stoller Corporation is the contractor for the Technical Assistance Contract (TAC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) operations. Stoller employs a management system that applies to all programs, projects, and business management systems funded through DOE-LM task orders. The management system incorporates the philosophy, policies, and requirements of health and safety, environmental compliance, and quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of project planning and implementation. Health and safety requirements are documented in the Health and Safety Manual (STO 2), the Radiological Control Manual (STO 3), the Integrated Safety Management System Description (STO 10), and the Drilling Health and Safety Requirements (STO 14). Environmental compliance policy and requirements are documented in the Environmental Management Program Implementation Manual (STO 11). The QA Program is documented in the Quality Assurance Manual (STO 1). The QA Manual (STO 1) implements the specific requirements and philosophy of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance. This manual also includes the requirements of other standards that are regularly imposed by customers, regulators, or other DOE orders. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 830, “Quality Assurance Requirements,” ANSI/ASQC E4-2004, “Quality Systems for Environmental Data and Technology Programs – Requirements with Guidance for Use,” and ISO 14001-2004, “Environmental Management Systems,” have been included. These standards are similar in content. The intent of the QA Manual (STO 1) is to provide a QA management system that incorporates the requirements and philosophy of DOE and other customers within the QA Manual. Criterion 1, “Quality Assurance Program,” identifies the fundamental requirements for establishing and implementing the QA management system; QA Instruction (QAI) 1.1, “QA Program Implementation,” identifies the TAC organizations that have responsibility for

  3. Legacy effects in linked ecological-soil-geomorphic systems of drylands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A legacy effect refers to the impact that previous conditions have on current processes or properties. Ecological legacies in drylands result from feedbacks among biotic, soil, and geomorphic processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Legacy effects depend on (1) the magnitude o...

  4. Integrating legacy soil information in a Digital Soil Mapping approach based on a modified conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Schoenbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Scholten, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    One crucial component of a Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) framework is outlined by geo-referenced soil observations. Nevertheless, highly informative legacy soil information, acquired by traditional soil surveys, is often neglected due to lacking accordance with specific statistical DSM designs. The focus of this study is to integrate legacy data into a state-of-the-art DSM approach, based on a modified conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) design and Random Forest. Furthermore, by means of the cLHS modification the scope of actually unique cLHS sampling locations is widened in order to compensate limited accessability in the field. As well, the maximally stratified cLHS design is not diluted by the modification. Exemplarily the target variables of the modelling are represented by sand and clay fractions. The study site is a small mountainous hydrological catchment of 4.2 km² in the reservoir of the Three Gorges Dam in Central China. The modification is accomplished by demarcating the histogram borders of each cLHS stratum, which are based on the multivariate cLHS feature space. Thereby, all potential sample locations per stratum are identified. This provides a possibility to integrate legacy data samples that match one of the newly created sample locations, and flexibility with respect to field accessibility. Consequently, six legacy data samples, taken from a total sample size of n = 30 were integrated into the sampling design and for all strata several potential sample locations are identified. The comparability of the modified and standard cLHS data sets is approved by (i) identifying their feature space coverage with respect to the cLHS stratifying variables, and (ii) by assessing the Random Forest accuracy estimates.

  5. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  6. The World Magnetic Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.

    1963-01-01

    The mathematical and graphical description of the earth's main field has been, and is, a "data limited" problem. The World Magnetic Survey (WMS) is an endeavor to minimize this limitation by rapidly and comprehensively blanketing the earth with magnetic field measurements. Satellite surveys, which will play a key role in the W MS, are the principal topic of this paper. Existing magnetic field descriptions, the expected results from new surveys, and the methods of obtaining these results with the POGO satellite are emphasized. It is anticipated on the basis of extrapolation from Vanguard 3 results and other considerations that a factor of 10 improvement will be obtained. This means that the average errors of 1 to 3 percent now present in field charts and spherical harmonic descriptions should be reduced to 0.1 to 0.3 percent as a result of the survey.

  7. The Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Legacy of HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    quasars to probe the Cosmic Web, also with COS. Altogether, these diverse spectral observations constitute one of the key legacies of HST, and hopefully one that will continue to be built upon in the coming years.

  8. Cultural Legacies: Operationalizing Chicano Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordaz, Maricela; Anda, Diane de

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 41 Chicanos and 39 whites ages 18-80 found that despite effects of acculturation, Chicanos held educational and developmental values and beliefs consistent with ancient Nahuatl (Aztec) society, an indigenous Mexican culture. Suggests a need to examine social service delivery systems to determine whether assumptions and procedures are…

  9. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Major Legacy Astronomy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; Alfalfa Team

    2015-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The collaborative nature of the UAT allows faculty and students from a wide ​range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to develop scholarly collaborations. Components of the program include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Alfvin et al., Martens et al., Sanders et al., this meeting). Through this model, faculty and students are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. In the 7 years of the program, 23 faculty and more than 220 undergraduate students have participated at a significant level. 40% of them have been women and members of underrepresented groups. Faculty, many of whom were new to the collaboration and had expertise in other fields, contribute their diverse sets of skills to ALFALFA ​related projects via observing, data reduction, collaborative research, and research with students. 142 undergraduate students have attended the annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 131 summer research projects and 94 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 62 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 46 have presented their results at national meetings. 93% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. Half of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been

  10. Legacies of Brown: Multiracial Equity in American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J., Ed.; Flores, Stella M., Ed.; Reddick, Richard J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Legacies of Brown" illuminates the effects of segregation, desegregation, and integration on students, practitioners, communities, and policymakers in the fifty years since the landmark "Brown v. Board of Education" ruling. Articles by leading legal and education scholars address questions that are central to the Brown…

  11. Cherished Possessions: A New England Legacy. Educator's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Amy L.

    The exhibition, "Cherished Possessions: A New England Legacy," consists of approximately 200 objects drawn from the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities collection of fine and decorative arts. Each item in the exhibition has been selected for its ability to tell a story and to place the history of that item within the larger…

  12. Leaving a Legacy: Passing Montessori to the Next Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    For each of the past 19 years, the American Montessori Society has chosen to recognize one Montessorian as an AMS Living Legacy. Recipients are honored at the AMS annual conference for their salient work or volunteerism in the Montessori field and their dedication and leadership that has made an impact on the AMS community. It seems fitting that…

  13. How to strengthen the legacy of European Space Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberreiter, Margit; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Tourpali, Klairie; Del Zanna, Giulio; Delouille, Veronique; Ermolli, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    European Projects in the Space Domain are crucial for the advancement in the field of solar and heliospheric physics. Certainly, the European projects are important for the important transition from fundamental research to prototypes, or quasi-operational services. To improve the legacy of European Projects we would like to trigger some discussions and share lessons learnt from the perspective of the SOLID project.

  14. Legacy literature-a need for virtual libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After years of conducting, writing-up, and reviewing research, many entomologists have examined, organized, and annotated some as 2-3 gigabytes of pdfs and 4-5 file cabinets of hard-copy articles, in addition to thousands of spreadsheets, docs, jpgs, and wav files of data. This is a useful legacy th...

  15. "Brown's" Legacy: Fulfilling the Promise of Equal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Judge Robert L. Carter submits this article on "Brown's" legacy in recognition of the invaluable role "The Journal of Negro Education" has played in this fight; it served as a forum for academic discussion and helped facilitate the development of creative strategies. Over the past seventy-five years "The Journal" has become a repository of ideas…

  16. Paralympics 2012 Legacy: Accessible Housing and Disability Equality or Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The golden summer of sport is now over, but what is the legacy of London 2012 for disabled people? Nadia Ahmed, a disabled student, discusses the difficulties she has faced in finding accessible accommodation in London. She argues that while the Games are over, the United Kingdom still has lots of hurdles to leap when it comes to disability. The…

  17. The Troublesome Legacy of "Brown v. Board of Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Gerardo R.; Burciaga, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article reflects on the 60th anniversary of the "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision while discussing the significant lessons learned from this and subsequent court decisions. Argument: In this article, we posit that a fundamentally different conversation surrounding the legacy of Brown is needed if we are…

  18. A Legacy of Dandelions: Carolyn Lewis Attneave (1990-1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman-Stone, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the legacy of Carolyn Lewis Attneave who was, according to T. D. LaFromboise and J. E. Trimble (1966), "undoubtedly the most well-known psychologist of American Indian background." Reviews Attneave's work in organizations across the United States promoting the causes of American Indian families and community mental health and her skill…

  19. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Loraine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

  20. International Conference on Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology -- Einstein's Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    100 years ago Albert Einstein published three seminal papers on the theories of special relativity, of the photoelectric effect and of Brownian motion, which made the world call the year 1905 the miraculous year. Together with Einstein's theory of general relativity fundamental building blocks were provided for modern astrophysics and cosmology and can thus be considered as a true legacy to mankind.

  1. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Dr. John Hope Franklin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; Levering-Lewis, David; French, John D.; Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. John Hope Franklin chronicled the experiences of African-Americans like no one before him, forcing America to recognize Black history as American history. His contributions were innumerable and his impact was abiding. In celebration of his life and legacy, the authors profile the celebrated scholar and activist, Dr. John Hope Franklin.

  2. Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael; Thompson, Nelson; Orr, Mark; Fox, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Tool Integration Environment (ATIE) is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software and developing new software. The information that can be encapsulated in ATIE includes experts documentation, input and output data of tests cases, source code, and compilation scripts. All of this information is available within a common environment and retained in a database for ease of access and recovery by use of powerful search engines. ATIE also accommodates the embedment of supporting software that users require for their work, and even enables access to supporting commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software within the flow of the experts work. The flow of work can be captured by saving the sequence of computer programs that the expert uses. A user gains access to ATIE via a Web browser. A modern Web-based graphical user interface promotes efficiency in the retrieval, execution, and modification of legacy code. Thus, ATIE saves time and money in the support of new and pre-existing programs.

  3. The life and legacy of Dr. Lee Baldwin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper outlines the life and legacy of the late Dr. Ransom L. Baldwin, V. The purpose was to highlight the impact his teaching and research had on the international energy and protein metabolism communities at their fourth international conference. The paper will be presented at the outset of ...

  4. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  5. Writing job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, M

    1990-01-01

    The skill of writing job descriptions begins with an understanding of the advantages, as well as the basic elements, of a well written description. The end result should be approved and updated as needed. Having a better understanding of this process makes writing the job description a challenge rather than a chore.

  6. Catchment Legacies and Time Lags: A Parsimonious Watershed Model to Predict the Effects of Legacy Storage on Nitrogen Export

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Kimberly J.; Basu, Nandita B.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy) and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy). The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures. PMID:25985290

  7. Catchment legacies and time lags: a parsimonious watershed model to predict the effects of legacy storage on nitrogen export.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Kimberly J; Basu, Nandita B

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy) and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy). The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures. PMID:25985290

  8. [Charcot and his legacy to medicine].

    PubMed

    Camacho Aguilera, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was a French physician whose professional life is divided into two phases: the first dedicated to neurology, and the second dedicated to the psychiatry area. Charcot is considered the father of modern neurology. In the Hospice de la Salpêtrière he began his research on neurological diseases, founded a laboratory of pathology (including microscopy and photography), and gave hospital classes based on pathological anatomy related to clinical manifestations based in the field of neurology. His research led to the description and study of different neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, motor ataxia, Parkinson`s disease, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, visual aphasia and agnosia, to name a few. Some signs and diseases took their name as an eponym, and some are still mentioned in the current medicine, while others are left in oblivion.

  9. A survey of surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    A new era for the field of Galactic structure is about to be opened with the advent of wide-area digital sky surveys. In this article, the author reviews the status and prospects for research for 3 new ground-based surveys: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) and the Two Micron AU Sky Survey (2MASS). These surveys will permit detailed studies of Galactic structure and stellar populations in the Galaxy with unprecedented detail. Extracting the information, however, will be challenging.

  10. 7 CFR 621.10 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies § 621.10 Description. Cooperative river basin studies provide USDA planning assistance to Federal, State, and local governments. The purpose of these studies is to assist in appraising water and related land...

  11. 7 CFR 621.10 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies § 621.10 Description. Cooperative river basin studies provide USDA planning assistance to Federal, State, and local governments. The purpose of these studies is to assist in appraising water and related land...

  12. 7 CFR 621.10 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies § 621.10 Description. Cooperative river basin studies provide USDA planning assistance to Federal, State, and local governments. The purpose of these studies is to assist in appraising water and related land...

  13. 7 CFR 621.10 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies § 621.10 Description. Cooperative river basin studies provide USDA planning assistance to Federal, State, and local governments. The purpose of these studies is to assist in appraising water and related land...

  14. 7 CFR 621.10 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies § 621.10 Description. Cooperative river basin studies provide USDA planning assistance to Federal, State, and local... the requesting agencies and citizen groups that are consistent with USDA authorities...

  15. 7 CFR 621.30 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Description. 621.30 Section 621.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Joint Investigations and Reports With...

  16. 7 CFR 621.30 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Description. 621.30 Section 621.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Joint Investigations and Reports With...

  17. The CALIFA Survey: Calibration Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, B.; Sánchez, S. F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Mast, D.; García-Benito, R.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The currently ongoing Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey is aimed to observe ˜600 galaxies in the local Universe (0.005survey to date using optical integral field spectroscopy. Here, we shortly introduce the main characteristics of the survey and discuss a few important steps related to the calibration of the data, focussing on the spectrophotometry and astrometry. Error estimation is always needed for a proper interpretation of astronomical data, so CALIFA will provide proper errors associated with the data. However, all CALIFA users need to be aware of the correlated noise that is unavoidable present in the data as we highlight at the end. We find that the overall quality of the data is excellent for all the core CALIFA science goals, but we are already prepared to increase the accuracy even more for future data releases.

  18. Legacy model integration for enhancing hydrologic interdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, A.; Arabi, M.; David, O.

    2013-12-01

    Many challenges are introduced to interdisciplinary research in and around the hydrologic science community due to advances in computing technology and modeling capabilities in different programming languages, across different platforms and frameworks by researchers in a variety of fields with a variety of experience in computer programming. Many new hydrologic models as well as optimization, parameter estimation, and uncertainty characterization techniques are developed in scripting languages such as Matlab, R, Python, or in newer languages such as Java and the .Net languages, whereas many legacy models have been written in FORTRAN and C, which complicates inter-model communication for two-way feedbacks. However, most hydrologic researchers and industry personnel have little knowledge of the computing technologies that are available to address the model integration process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to address these new challenges by utilizing a novel approach based on a publish-subscribe-type system to enhance modeling capabilities of legacy socio-economic, hydrologic, and ecologic software. Enhancements include massive parallelization of executions and access to legacy model variables at any point during the simulation process by another program without having to compile all the models together into an inseparable 'super-model'. Thus, this study provides two-way feedback mechanisms between multiple different process models that can be written in various programming languages and can run on different machines and operating systems. Additionally, a level of abstraction is given to the model integration process that allows researchers and other technical personnel to perform more detailed and interactive modeling, visualization, optimization, calibration, and uncertainty analysis without requiring deep understanding of inter-process communication. To be compatible, a program must be written in a programming language with bindings to a common

  19. The Legacy of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Assessing its Impact on Willingness to Participate in Biomedical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ralph V.; Green, B. Lee; Kressin, Nancy R.; Kegeles, S. Stephen; Wang, Min Qi; James, Sherman A.; Russell, Stefanie L.; Claudio, Cristina; McCallum, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The phrase, legacy of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, is sometimes used to denote the belief that Blacks are more reluctant than Whites to participate in biomedical research studies because of the infamous study of syphilis in men run by the U.S. Public Health Service from 1932-72. This paper is the first to attempt to assess directly the accuracy of this belief within a multi-city, multi-racial, large-scale, detailed random survey. We administered the Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) Questionnaire to 826 Blacks and non-Hispanic White adults in three U.S. cities. While Blacks had higher levels of general awareness of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, there was no association between either awareness or detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and willingness to participate in biomedical research, either for Blacks or Whites observed in our survey. While this study refutes the notion that there is a direct connection between detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and willingness to participate in biomedical research, it does not assess the broader question of whether and how historical events influence people's willingness to participate in research. Future studies should explore this. PMID:19029744

  20. Multimedia content description framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  1. Werner Brandt legacy to PIXE: Past and present perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapicki, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization cross sections used in Particle-Induced X-ray Elemental (PIXE) analyses are routinely calculated in the ECPSSR [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 1717-1729] theory and/or semiempirical formulas scaled to that theory. Thirty years after the passing of Werner Brandt, with recognition of his seminal contributions to other research on positron physics and stopping power problems, the work and articles that progressed into the ECPSSR theory for inner-shell ionization by protons and heavier ions are recalled as Brandt's past legacy to the PIXE community. Applications of the ECPSSR and its evolution into the ECUSAR [G. Lapicki, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 189 (2002) 8-20] theory over the last three decades are reviewed with perspectives on Brandt's present legacy.

  2. Digitizing legacy documents: A knowledge-base preservation project

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.; Atkinson, R.; Crego, C.; Slisz, J.; Tompson, S.

    1998-09-01

    As more library customers and staff throughout the world come to rely upon rapid electronic access to fulltext documents, there is increasing demand to also make older documents electronically accessible. Illinois State Library grant funds allowed us to purchase hardware and software necessary to answer this demand. We created a production system to scan our legacy documents, convert them into Portable Document Format (PDF), save them to a server for World Wide Web access, and write them to CD discs for distribution.

  3. Aspiring and Residing IT Leaders: A Legacy for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…

  4. The Galileo Spacecraft: A Telecommunications Legacy for Future Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo mission to Jupiter has implemented a wide range of telecommunication inprovements in response to the loss of its high gain antenna. While necessity dictated the use of these new techniques for Galileo, now that they have been proven in flight, they are available for use on future deep space missions. This telecommunications legacy of Galileo will aid in our ability to conduct a meaningful exploration of the solar system, and beyond, at a reasonable cost.

  5. Learning from project experiences using a legacy-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Majchrzak, Ann; Faraj, Samer

    2005-01-01

    As project teams become used more widely, the question of how to capitalize on the knowledge learned in project teams remains an open issue. Using previous research on shared cognition in groups, an approach to promoting post-project learning was developed. This Legacy Review concept was tested on four in tact project teams. The results from those test sessions were used to develop a model of team learning via group cognitive processes. The model and supporting propositions are presented.

  6. Restoration in Urban Streams Impacted by Legacy Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, D. J.; Smith, S. M.; Colosimo, M. F.

    2007-12-01

    Degraded urban streams are ideal candidates for restoration; as these restorations can provide multiple benefits ranging from increased accessible green space to enhanced nutrient processing. However, connections between the channel and floodplain are poorly understood in urban systems. In particular, urban valleys impacted by legacy sediment are challenging to rehabilitate. For example, the excavation of legacy sediment is expensive and can require the destruction of established riparian vegetation. The hardening of stream banks slows fluvial dynamics and may inhibit nutrient processing occurring in self-adjusting alluvial stream reaches. Further complications arise from the hydrologic changes that accompany urbanization, which can create unexpected hydrodynamic conditions divergent from intended channel and floodplain design. Here, we analyze data from Eastern U.S. Piedmont streams to characterize the role of floodplains in reach and watershed-scale sediment flux. A series of collocated historical cross-section resurveys and radio-isotopic reconstruction of over-bank sedimentation rates are compared. The data indicate that floodplain storage rates in some urban areas are comparable to or larger than rates of sediment remobilization from channel widening. This observation suggests urban floodplains with thick legacy deposits can remain a sediment sink even after channel entrenchment. The contemporary storage capacity has fundamental consequences for stream restoration designs, including the potential for rapid refilling of excavated bottoms and unsatisfactory reductions in watershed sediment yields.

  7. Automated component creation for legacy C++ and fortran codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Sottile, M. J.; Rasmussen, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A significant amount of work has been spent creating component models and programming environments, but little support exists for automation in the process of creating components from existing codes. To entice users to adopt the component-based paradigm over traditional programming models, integration of legacy codes must be as simple and fast as possible, We present a system for automating the IDL generation stage of component development based on source code analysis of legacy C, C-t-4 and Fortran codes using the Program Database Toolkit. Together with IDL compilation tools such as Babel, we provide an alternative to hand-written IDL code for legacy applications and libraries. In addition to generating IDL, we propose an XML-based method for specifying meta-data related to type mapping and wrapper generation that can be shared between our tools and IDL compilers. The component model of choice for this work is the Common Component Architecture (CCA) using the Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL), though the concepts presented can be applied to other models.

  8. A pseudolite-based positioning system for legacy GNSS receivers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-03-27

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors.

  9. Provocative Opinion: Descriptive Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Henry A.; Bent, Brian E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses many of the distinctions that chemists draw between theoretical chemistry and descriptive chemistry, along with the tendency for chemical educators to adopt the type of chemistry they feel is most important to teach. Uses examples to argue that theoretical chemistry and descriptive chemistry are, at the bottom line, the same. (TW)

  10. A Descriptive Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Josef

    1979-01-01

    In this experiment in description, students in a high school honors English class were asked to select a surrealistic painting and capture it in writing. Their compositions were given to art students who tried to reproduce the paintings from the written descriptions. (SJL)

  11. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  12. Job descriptions made easy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The act of writing a job description can be a daunting and difficult task for many managers. This article focuses on the key concepts of What, How, and Measureable Results as they relate to an employee's job duties. When the answers to these three elements are articulated, they define the core responsibilities of any job that form the basis for an effective job description.

  13. Wings In Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, N. Wayne (Editor); Lulla, Kamlesh (Editor); Lane, Helen W. (Editor); Chapline, Gail (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This Space Shuttle book project reviews Wings In Orbit-scientific and engineering legacies of the Space Shuttle. The contents include: 1) Magnificent Flying Machine-A Cathedral to Technology; 2) The Historical Legacy; 3) The Shuttle and its Operations; 4) Engineering Innovations; 5) Major Scientific Discoveries; 6) Social, Cultural, and Educational Legacies; 7) Commercial Aerospace Industries and Spin-offs; and 8) The Shuttle continuum, Role of Human Spaceflight.

  14. The legacy of Pompeii and its volcano.

    PubMed

    de Divitiis, Enrico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Esposito, Felice; Cavallo, Luigi M

    2004-10-01

    On August 24, AD 79, a terrible eruption of Mount Vesuvius deranged life in beautiful Pompeii and killed thousands of men, women, and children. They were restored to us by the fact that Mount Vesuvius, with its rain of ashes, proved to be a skilled sculptor, preserving the shape and even the wrinkles in the clothes the Pompeians wore while trying to escape during the day of the tragedy. The detailed description of Plinius the Younger and modern static studies of the eruptive residues have made it possible to reconstruct with great accuracy the various phases of the eruption that took place 2000 years ago, including the hours and days during which the phenomena first became obvious. Today, almost 2000 years later, Pompeii has reawakened and risen from its sepulcher of ashes thanks to the excavations initiated under King Charles III of Bourbon in 1748. Excavations proceeded slowly under the Bourbons, with the aim of enriching the Bourbon Museum of Naples rather than of classifying the ruins and placing them into a historical context. Under Joachim Murat, interest in the town planning and architecture of the uncovered cities reemerged, especially with respect to Pompeii. In 1860, however, with the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy, the excavations, now under the direction of archaeologist Giuseppe Fiorelli, were provided new impetus and, finally, a scientific basis. Today, the excavations are giving us back extraordinary evidence concerning the culture, the everyday life, the habits, the architecture, and the wonderful frescoes of the Roman cities of southern Italy, making possible the statement that Pompeii is "the most alive of the dead cities."

  15. The legacy of pesticide pollution: An overlooked factor in current risk assessments of freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jes J; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Cedergreen, Nina; McKnight, Ursula S; Kreuger, Jenny; Jacobsen, Dean; Kristensen, Esben A; Friberg, Nikolai

    2015-11-01

    We revealed a history of legacy pesticides in water and sediment samples from 19 small streams across an agricultural landscape. Dominant legacy compounds included organochlorine pesticides, such as DDT and lindane, the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and triazine herbicides such as terbutylazine and simazine which have long been banned in the EU. The highest concentrations of legacy pesticides were found in streams draining catchments with a large proportion of arable farmland suggesting that they originated from past agricultural applications. The sum of toxic units (SumTUD.magna) based on storm water samples from agriculturally impacted streams was significantly higher when legacy pesticides were included compared to when they were omitted. Legacy pesticides did not significantly change the predicted toxicity of water samples to algae or fish. However, pesticide concentrations in bed sediment and suspended sediment samples exceeded safety thresholds in 50% of the samples and the average contribution of legacy pesticides to the SumTUC.riparius was >90%. Our results suggest that legacy pesticides can be highly significant contributors to the current toxic exposure of stream biota, especially macroinvertebrate communities, and that those communities were primarily exposed to legacy pesticides via the sediment. Additionally, our results suggest that neglecting legacy pesticides in the risk assessment of pesticides in streams may severely underestimate the risk of ecological effects.

  16. 75 FR 47338 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Nepalese Legacy in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority... ``The Nepalese Legacy in Tibetan Painting,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  17. Sociology and abortion: legacies and strategies.

    PubMed

    Imber, J B

    1979-11-01

    A survey essay sees the sociological view of abortion practice in 1979 appearing as a dense web of philosophical conundrums and at times violent political strategies; with abortion still not typically seen as 1 form of birth control among others. Attention is called to the variety of approaches to abortion in books and articles about its medical, demographic, religious, historical, political, philosophical, psychological, practical, and personal aspects. These include: James C. Mohr's Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy 1800-1900; Abortion, by Potts, Diggory, and Peel; Abortion in Psychosocial Perspective: Trends in Transnational Research, edited by Davis, Friedman, Van der Tak, and Seville; Linda Francke's The Ambivalence of Abortion; Mary K. Zimmerman's Passage Through Abortion: The Personal and Social Reality of Women's Experiences; Abortion Politics: The Hawaii Experience, by Steinhoff and Diamond; John Connery's Abortion: the Development of the Roman Catholic Perspective; Abortion: New Directions for Policy Studies, by Manier, Liu, and Solomon; and Harry Harris' Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion.

  18. The XMM Large Scale Structure Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Marguerite

    2005-10-01

    We propose to complete, by an additional 5 deg2, the XMM-LSS Survey region overlying the Spitzer/SWIRE field. This field already has CFHTLS and Integral coverage, and will encompass about 10 deg2. The resulting multi-wavelength medium-depth survey, which complements XMM and Chandra deep surveys, will provide a unique view of large-scale structure over a wide range of redshift, and will show active galaxies in the full range of environments. The complete coverage by optical and IR surveys provides high-quality photometric redshifts, so that cosmological results can quickly be extracted. In the spirit of a Legacy survey, we will make the raw X-ray data immediately public. Multi-band catalogues and images will also be made available on short time scales.

  19. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  20. CATALOG MATCHING WITH ASTROMETRIC CORRECTION AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE HUBBLE LEGACY ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Budavari, Tamas; Lubow, Stephen H. E-mail: lubow@stsci.edu

    2012-12-20

    Object cross-identification in multiple observations is often complicated by the uncertainties in their astrometric calibration. Due to the lack of standard reference objects, an image with a small field of view can have significantly larger errors in its absolute positioning than the relative precision of the detected sources within. We present a new general solution for the relative astrometry that quickly refines the World Coordinate System of overlapping fields. The efficiency is obtained through the use of infinitesimal three-dimensional rotations on the celestial sphere, which do not involve trigonometric functions. They also enable an analytic solution to an important step in making the astrometric corrections. In cases with many overlapping images, the correct identification of detections that match together across different images is difficult to determine. We describe a new greedy Bayesian approach for selecting the best object matches across a large number of overlapping images. The methods are developed and demonstrated on the Hubble Legacy Archive, one of the most challenging data sets today. We describe a novel catalog compiled from many Hubble Space Telescope observations, where the detections are combined into a searchable collection of matches that link the individual detections. The matches provide descriptions of astronomical objects involving multiple wavelengths and epochs. High relative positional accuracy of objects is achieved across the Hubble images, often sub-pixel precision in the order of just a few milliarcseconds. The result is a reliable set of high-quality associations that are publicly available online.

  1. Legacy and Emergence of Spaceport Technology Development at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stanley; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has a long and successful legacy in the checkout and launch of missiles and space vehicles. These operations have become significantly more complex, and their evolution has driven the need for many technology developments. Unanticipated events have also underscored the need for a local, highly responsive technology development and testing capability. This evolution is briefly described, as well as the increasing level of technology capability at KSC. The importance of these technologies in achieving past national space goals suggests that the accomplishment of low-cost and reliable access to space will depend critically upon KSC's future success in developing spaceport technologies. This paper concludes with a description KSC's current organizational approach and major thrust areas in technology development. The first phase of our historical review focuses on the development and testing of field- deployable short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles (1953 to 1958). These vehicles are later pressed into service as space launchers. The second phase involves the development of large space lift vehicles culminating in the Saturn V launches (1959 to 1975). The third phase addresses the development and operations of the partially reusable launch vehicle, Space Shuttle (1976 to 2000). In the current era, KSC is teaming with the U.S. Air Force (AF), industry, academia, and other partners to identify and develop Spaceport and Range Technologies necessary to achieve national space goals of lower-cost and higher-reliability space flight.

  2. J-PAS: The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato a.; Benitez, Narciso; Moles, Mariano; Sodre, Laerte; J-PAS Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow band, very wide field Cosmological Survey to be carried out from the Javalambre Astrophysical Observatory in Spain with a dedicated 2.5m telescope and a 4.7deg^2 camera with 1.2Gpix. Starting in 2016, J-PAS will observe 8600 deg^2 of the Northern Sky and measure 0.003(1+z) precision photometric redshifts for nearly 1E08 LRG and ELG galaxies plus several million QSOs, sampling an effective volume of ~14 Gpc^3 up to z = 1.3. J-PAS will also detect and measure the mass of more than a hundred thousand galaxy clusters, setting constrains on Dark Energy which rival those obtained from BAO measurements.The key to the J-PAS potential is its innovative approach the combination of 54 145°A filters, placed 100°A apart, and a multi-degree field of view (FOV) which makes it a powerful “redshift machine”, with the survey speed of a 4000 multiplexing low resolution spectrograph, but many times cheaper and much faster to build. Moreover, since the J-PAS camera is equivalent to a very large, 4.7deg^2 “IFU”, it will produce a time-resolved, 3D image of the Northern Sky with a very wide range of Astrophysical applications in Galaxy Evolution, the nearby Universe and the study of resolved stellar populations. J-PAS will have a lasting legacy value in many areas of Astrophysics, serving as a fundamental dataset for future Cosmological projects.Here, we present the overall description, status and scientific potential of the survey.

  3. J-PAS: The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato A.; Benitez, Narciso; Moles, Mariano; Sodre, Laerte; Irwin, Jimmy; J-PAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow band, very wide field Cosmological Survey to be carried out from the Javalambre Astrophysical Observatory in Spain with a dedicated 2.5m telescope and a 4.7deg^2 camera with 1.2Gpix. Starting in 2016, J-PAS will observe 8600 deg^2 of the Northern Sky and measure 0.003(1+z) precision photometric redshifts for nearly 1E08 LRG and ELG galaxies plus several million QSOs, sampling an effective volume of ~14 Gpc^3 up to z = 1.3. J-PAS will also detect and measure the mass of more than a hundred thousand galaxy clusters, setting constrains on Dark Energy which rival those obtained from BAO measurements.The key to the J-PAS potential is its innovative approach the combination of 54 145°A filters, placed 100°A apart, and a multi-degree field of view (FOV) which makes it a powerful "redshift machine", with the survey speed of a 4000 multiplexing low resolution spectrograph, but many times cheaper and much faster to build. Moreover, since the J-PAS camera is equivalent to a very large, 4.7deg^2 "IFU", it will produce a time-resolved, 3D image of the Northern Sky with a very wide range of Astrophysical applications in Galaxy Evolution, the nearby Universe and the study of resolved stellar populations. J-PAS will have a lasting legacy value in many areas of Astrophysics, serving as a fundamental dataset for future Cosmological projects.Here, we present the overall description, status and scientific potential of the survey.

  4. Completing the Legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, Ivo; Caputi, Karina; McLeod, Derek; Cowley, Will; Dayal, Pratika; Behroozi, Peter; Ashby, Matt; Franx, Marijn; Dunlop, James; Le Fevre, Olivier; Fynbo, Johan; McCracken, Henry; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Ilbert, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; de Barros, Stephane; Oesch, Pascal; Bouwens, Rychard; Muzzin, Adam; Illingworth, Garth; Stefanon, Mauro; Schreiber, Corentin; Hutter, Anne; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    We propose to complete the legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS by extending the deep coverage to the full 1.8 sq degree field, producing a nearly homogenous and contiguous map unparalleled in terms of area and depth. Ongoing and scheduled improvements in the supporting optical-to-NIR data down to ultradeep limits have reconfirmed COSMOS as a unique field for probing the bright end of the z=6-11 universe and the formation of large-scale structures. However, currently only one-third of the field has received sufficiently deep IRAC coverage to match the new optical/near-IR limits. Here we request deep matching IRAC data over the full 1.8 sq degree field to detect almost one million galaxies. The proposed observations will allow us to 1) constrain the galaxy stellar mass function during the epoch of reionization at z=6-8 with ~10,000 galaxies at these redshifts, 2) securely identify the brightest galaxies at 9 < z < 11, 3) trace the growth of stellar mass at 1 < z < 8 and the co-evolution of galaxies and their dark matter halos, 4) identify (proto)clusters and large scale structures, and 5) reveal dust enshrouded starbursts and the first quiescent galaxies at 3 < z < 6. The Spitzer Legacy over COSMOS will enable a wide range of discoveries beyond these science goals owing to the unique array of multiwavelength data from the X-ray to the radio. COSMOS is a key target for ongoing and future studies with ALMA and for spectroscopy from the ground, and with the timely addition of the Spitzer Legacy it will prove to be a crucial treasury for efficient planning and early follow-up with JWST.

  5. NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Holbert, Connie; Petrolino, Joseph; Watkins, Bart; Irick, David

    2011-12-31

    The Legacy engine is a completely new design, transitional diesel engine, replacing the reciprocating engine with a rotary engine. The Legacy engine offers significant advances over conventional internal combustion engines in 1) power to weight ratio; 2) multiple fuel acceptance; 3) fuel economy; and 4) environmental compliance. These advances are achieved through a combination of innovative design geometry, rotary motion, aspiration simplicity, and manufacturing/part simplicity. The key technical challenge to the Legacy engine's commercialization, and the focus of this project, was the development of a viable roton tip seal. The PST concept for the roton tip seal was developed into a manufacturable design. The design was evaluated using a custom designed and fabricated seal test fixture and further refined. This design was incorporated into the GEN2.5A prototype and tested for achievable compression pressure. The Decision Point at the end of Phase 1 of the project (described below) was to further optimize the existing tip seal design. Enhancements to the tip seal design were incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Compression pressures adequate for compression ignition of diesel fuel were achieved, although not consistently in all combustion volumes. The variation in compression pressures was characterized versus design features. As the roton tip seal performance was improved, results pointed toward inadequate performance of the housing side seals. Enhancement of the housing side seal system was accomplished using a custom designed side seal test fixture. The design enhancements developed with the test fixture were also incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector was

  6. A pseudolite-based positioning system for legacy GNSS receivers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-01-01

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors. PMID:24681674

  7. A Pseudolite-Based Positioning System for Legacy GNSS Receivers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-01-01

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors. PMID:24681674

  8. Writing through the Labyrinth of Fears: The Legacy of Walter Dean Myers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary discusses the legacy of Walter Dean Myers in relationship to advancing writing as an intellectual tool of protection for black male teens. Multiple implications are provided for teachers who want to engage black male teens to write fearlessly to extend the legacy of Walter Dean Myers.

  9. Land-use legacies from dry farming in the Park Valley area of Box Elder County

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Last fall in this newsletter, we reported on the initiation of a study on the land-use legacies of dry farming in the Park Valley area. Land-use legacies are the long lasting impacts of historic land uses; such as, cultivation for dry farming. The Park Valley area and Box Elder County experienced ...

  10. The Impact of Legacy Status on Undergraduate Admissions at Elite Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the impact of legacy status on admissions decisions at 30 highly selective colleges and universities. Unlike other quantitative studies addressing this topic, I use conditional logistic regression with fixed effects for colleges to draw conclusions about the impact of legacy status on admissions odds. By doing so, I…

  11. Introduction: the influence and legacy of Barbara Grier.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Danielle M

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Lesbian Studies focuses on the life and legacy of the lesbian publisher, editor, and author Barbara Grier. Through Grier's "Lesbiana" column in Daughters of Bilitis's magazine The Ladder, three editions of The Lesbian in Literature (1967, 1975, 1985), to her role as publisher of the Naiad Press from 1973-2003, Grier introduced hundreds of new lesbian books to readers and kept several lesbian classics on the literary horizon. The articles in this issue focus on Grier's biography, history, and impact through archival analysis, interviews, and content analysis. This introduction contextualizes and outlines the articles in this special issue.

  12. Introduction: the influence and legacy of Barbara Grier.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Danielle M

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Lesbian Studies focuses on the life and legacy of the lesbian publisher, editor, and author Barbara Grier. Through Grier's "Lesbiana" column in Daughters of Bilitis's magazine The Ladder, three editions of The Lesbian in Literature (1967, 1975, 1985), to her role as publisher of the Naiad Press from 1973-2003, Grier introduced hundreds of new lesbian books to readers and kept several lesbian classics on the literary horizon. The articles in this issue focus on Grier's biography, history, and impact through archival analysis, interviews, and content analysis. This introduction contextualizes and outlines the articles in this special issue. PMID:25298095

  13. Introduction: Untold Legacies of the First World War in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Alison S.; Meyer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current centenary of the First World War provides an unrivalled opportunity to uncover some of the social legacies of the war. The four articles which make up this special issue each examine a different facet of the war’s impact on British society to explore an as yet untold story. The subjects investigated include logistics, the history of science, the social history of medicine and resistance to war. This article introduces the four which follow, locating them in the wider historiographic debates around the interface between warfare and societies engaged in war. PMID:27453628

  14. From Music to Physics: The Undervalued Legacy of Pythagoras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleon, Imelda; Ramanathan, Subramaniam

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the early investigations about the nature of sound of the Pythagoreans, and how they started a tradition that remains valid up to present times—the use of numbers in representing natural reality. It will touch on the Pythagorean notion of musical harmony, which was extended to the notion of universal harmony. How the Pythagorean ideas have inspired many great works in physics, such as those of Galileo, Kepler and Newton, will also be presented. In exploring the legacy of Pythagoras to physics and the study of the universe, some valuable insights on the nature of science that can inspire budding physicists are extracted.

  15. Legacy effects in linked ecological-soil-geomorphic systems of drylands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monger, Curtis; Sala, Osvaldo E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Goldfus, Haim; Meir, Isaac A.; Poch, Rosa M.; Throop, Heather L.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-01-01

    A legacy effect refers to the impacts that previous conditions have on current processes or properties. Legacies have been recognized by many disciplines, from physiology and ecology to anthropology and geology. Within the context of climatic change, ecological legacies in drylands (eg vegetative patterns) result from feedbacks between biotic, soil, and geomorphic processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Legacy effects depend on (1) the magnitude of the original phenomenon, (2) the time since the occurrence of the phenomenon, and (3) the sensitivity of the ecological–soil–geomorphic system to change. Here we present a conceptual framework for legacy effects at short-term (days to months), medium-term (years to decades), and long-term (centuries to millennia) timescales, which reveals the ubiquity of such effects in drylands across research disciplines.

  16. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 2. Technical appendix

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The technical appendix presents the technical aspects of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: the survey questionnaire, exhibit cards, instructions for interviewers, and a description of the survey plan. A description of the sample plan (method used to determine which 4000 households) is given. (MCW)

  17. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  18. Darwin and Lincoln: their legacy of human dignity.

    PubMed

    Earls, Felton

    2010-01-01

    The legacy of Charles Darwin and Abraham Lincoln is to champion the dignity inherent in every human being. The moment of the bicentennial of their births provides an opportunity to celebrate and reflect on ways they have shaped our understanding and commitment to human rights. The naturalist and the constitutional lawyer, so different in circumstance and discipline, were morally allied in the mission to eradicate slavery. The profound lessons to be extracted from the lives of these two icons bind us to the agonizing reality that nearly 150 years after Gettysburg and the publication of the Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, there remains much work to do toward advancing the security, respect, and equality of our species. This article describes how Darwin and Lincoln's inspiring legacies guided the author's personal choices as a scientist and activist. The essay concludes with a set of questions and challenges that confront us, foremost among which is the need to balance actions in response to the violation of negative rights by actions in the pursuit of positive rights.

  19. A Collaborative Semantic Web Layer to Enhance Legacy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzo, Alfio; Gangemi, Aldo; Presutti, Valentina; Cardillo, Elena; Daga, Enrico; Salvati, Alberto; Troiani, Gianluca

    This paper introduces a framework to add a semantic web layer to legacy organizational information, and describes its application to the use case provided by the Italian National Research Council (CNR) intraweb. Building on a traditional web-based view of information from different legacy databases, we have performed a semantic porting of data into a knowledge base, dependent on an OWL domain ontology. We have enriched the knowledge base by means of text mining techniques, in order to discover on-topic relations. Several reasoning techniques have been applied, in order to infer relevant implicit relationships. Finally, the ontology and the knowledge base have been deployed on a semantic wiki by means of the WikiFactory tool, which allows users to browse the ontology and the knowledge base, to introduce new relations, to revise wrong assertions in a collaborative way, and to perform semantic queries. In our experiments, we have been able to easily implement several functionalities, such as expert finding, by simply formulating ad-hoc queries from either an ontology editor or the semantic wiki interface. The result is an intelligent and collaborative front end, which allow users to add information, fill gaps, or revise existing information on a semantic basis, while keeping the knowledge base automatically updated.

  20. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 1; Western Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and cup-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Vandenberg AFB. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy cup-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005. A total of 153,961 readings of I-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 18 out of 34 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. Data from these 18 were used to form a composite comparison. A small positive bias in the composite RSA average wind speed increased from +0.5 kts at 15 kts, to +1 kt at 25 kts. A slightly larger positive bias in the RSA peak wind speed increased from +1 kt at 15 kts, to +2 kts at 30 kts.

  1. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 2; Eastern Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and propeller-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy propeller-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005, A total of 357,626 readings of 1-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 15 out of 19 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. RSA average wind speed data from these 15 showed a small positive bias of 0.38 kts. A slightly larger positive bias of 0.94 kts was found in the RSA peak wind speed.

  2. The legacy of diploid progenitors in allopolyploid gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Buggs, Richard J. A.; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Coate, Jeremy E.

    2014-01-01

    Allopolyploidization (hybridization and whole-genome duplication) is a common phenomenon in plant evolution with immediate saltational effects on genome structure and gene expression. New technologies have allowed rapid progress over the past decade in our understanding of the consequences of allopolyploidy. A major question, raised by early pioneer of this field Leslie Gottlieb, concerned the extent to which gene expression differences among duplicate genes present in an allopolyploid are a legacy of expression differences that were already present in the progenitor diploid species. Addressing this question necessitates phylogenetically well-understood natural study systems, appropriate technology, availability of genomic resources and a suitable analytical framework, including a sufficiently detailed and generally accepted terminology. Here, we review these requirements and illustrate their application to a natural study system that Gottlieb worked on and recommended for this purpose: recent allopolyploids of Tragopogon (Asteraceae). We reanalyse recent data from this system within the conceptual framework of parental legacies on duplicate gene expression in allopolyploids. On a broader level, we highlight the intellectual connection between Gottlieb's phrasing of this issue and the more contemporary framework of cis- versus trans-regulation of duplicate gene expression in allopolyploid plants. PMID:24958927

  3. Darwin and Lincoln: their legacy of human dignity.

    PubMed

    Earls, Felton

    2010-01-01

    The legacy of Charles Darwin and Abraham Lincoln is to champion the dignity inherent in every human being. The moment of the bicentennial of their births provides an opportunity to celebrate and reflect on ways they have shaped our understanding and commitment to human rights. The naturalist and the constitutional lawyer, so different in circumstance and discipline, were morally allied in the mission to eradicate slavery. The profound lessons to be extracted from the lives of these two icons bind us to the agonizing reality that nearly 150 years after Gettysburg and the publication of the Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, there remains much work to do toward advancing the security, respect, and equality of our species. This article describes how Darwin and Lincoln's inspiring legacies guided the author's personal choices as a scientist and activist. The essay concludes with a set of questions and challenges that confront us, foremost among which is the need to balance actions in response to the violation of negative rights by actions in the pursuit of positive rights. PMID:20173291

  4. CRAC2 model description

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.

  5. Office of Legacy Management. Information and Records Management. Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    2004-03-01

    The Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. LM will work with each site using an integrated team approach to ensure a successful transition. Part of this process will include transition of Government records and information. The Office of Legacy Management Information and Records Management Transition Guidance focuses on LM’s goal to preserve and protect legacy records and information. This guidance document establishes a framework for the transfer of records management responsibilities for sites transferring to LM. It describes the requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for the efficient and cost-effective transfer of custody, ownership, and management of records and other information products from the transfer site to LM. Records management practices are critical to the functions of Federal agencies because records provide information about, or evidence of, the organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other activities. Therefore, the information generated by an agency is created, maintained, and dispositioned through records management processes that ensure the appropriate preservation and retrieval of essential information. Because of their intrinsic value, best practices to preserve information and records should be utilized when records are transferred from one organization to another. As the transfer program completes cleanup activities at closure sites, a transitional process will facilitate the transparent shift in the management of site records activities to LM. The roles and responsibilities of the transfer site and/or program and LM described in this document are a necessary foundation for cooperation and coordination and are essential to the successful transition of records and

  6. Current Results at PALFA Pulsar Survey at Arecibo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beroiz, Martin; Stovall, K.; Jenet, F.; Cordes, J.; Lorimer, D.; Backer, D.; PALFA Consortium

    2010-01-01

    We present the current progress on the PALFALFA (Pulsar-ALFALFA) survey recently started at the Arecibo Radio Observatory. PALFALFA enhances the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) extragalactic HI survey by adding a commensal real-time pulsar/radio transient search pipe-line. The current analysis pipe-line runs on an 8 core (2.3 GHz) G5 Macpro at the observatory. It incorporates the PRESTO periodicity search tools together with software developed at University of Texas at Brownsville for radio transient detection. In this poster we present results, statistics, and algorithms used in the survey.

  7. Monod before Monod: enzymatic adaptation, Lwoff, and the legacy of general biology.

    PubMed

    Loison, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    For most of his scientific career, Jacques Monod appeared to be a man of a single problem: the formation of enzymes and the regulation of their properties. His ability to produce theoretical models led him to play a major role in both the discovery of the operon regulation and the model of allosteric transitions. The successes of Monod, from the 1950s to the Noble Prize (1965), are already well documented. In this paper, I will focus on the Monod before Monod, that is, the Monod who, during the 1940s, tried to explain the fundamental phenomenon of enzymatic adaptation. To begin with, however, I will survey how this phenomenon was discovered and explained by French Pasteurians at the very beginning of the twentieth century. This first explanation took place amidst an entrenched Lamarckian atmosphere in French thought, which was still alive during the 1920s and the 1930s, when Monod commenced the study of biology at the Sorbonne. Because of his will to construct a scientific biology free from teleology, Monod always tried to break from the legacy of this traditional background of Lamarckism, and he consequently developed ways of thinking that, in the main, were not part of the French biological tradition. Nevertheless, one point did link Monod to French history: his fruitful interactions with André Lwoff. As we shall see, these interactions were necessary for the development of Monod's science, both technically and intellectually speaking. PMID:24466631

  8. The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part II: Reparative Adaptational Impacts.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Lindert, Jutta; Paisner, Vera; Kronenberg, Sefi; Engdahl, Brian; Richter, Julia

    2015-05-01

    The impacts of the Holocaust on children of survivors have been widely investigated. However, consensus is limited, and no validated measures have been tailored with or to them. We aimed to develop and validate a scale that measures these specific impacts (Part II of the Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma). We studied 484 adult children of survivors who participated in a cross-sectional web-based survey in English or Hebrew; of these, 191 participated in a clinical interview. Exploratory factor analyses of 58 items to reduce and refine the measure yielded a 36-item scale, Reparative Adaptational Impacts, that had excellent internal consistency (α = .91) and congruence between English and Hebrew versions (φ ≥ .95). Associations between impacts and SCID-based diagnoses of major depressive episode, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were moderate to strong (ds = 0.48-0.89). Strong associations also emerged between severity of offspring's reparative adaptational impacts and intensity of their parents' posttrauma adaptational styles (Multiple R = .72), with intensity of victim style, especially the mother's, having the strongest effect (β = .31-.33). Having both research and clinical relevance for assessing Holocaust survivors' offspring, future studies might investigate the scale's generalizability to other populations affected by mass trauma. PMID:25985110

  9. The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part II: Reparative Adaptational Impacts.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Lindert, Jutta; Paisner, Vera; Kronenberg, Sefi; Engdahl, Brian; Richter, Julia

    2015-05-01

    The impacts of the Holocaust on children of survivors have been widely investigated. However, consensus is limited, and no validated measures have been tailored with or to them. We aimed to develop and validate a scale that measures these specific impacts (Part II of the Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma). We studied 484 adult children of survivors who participated in a cross-sectional web-based survey in English or Hebrew; of these, 191 participated in a clinical interview. Exploratory factor analyses of 58 items to reduce and refine the measure yielded a 36-item scale, Reparative Adaptational Impacts, that had excellent internal consistency (α = .91) and congruence between English and Hebrew versions (φ ≥ .95). Associations between impacts and SCID-based diagnoses of major depressive episode, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were moderate to strong (ds = 0.48-0.89). Strong associations also emerged between severity of offspring's reparative adaptational impacts and intensity of their parents' posttrauma adaptational styles (Multiple R = .72), with intensity of victim style, especially the mother's, having the strongest effect (β = .31-.33). Having both research and clinical relevance for assessing Holocaust survivors' offspring, future studies might investigate the scale's generalizability to other populations affected by mass trauma.

  10. OBIS-USA: a data-sharing legacy of census of marine life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedberry, George R.; Fautin, Daphne G.; Feldman, Michael; Fornwall, Mark D.; Goldstein, Phillip; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey's Biological Informatics Program hosts OBIS-USA, the US node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). OBIS-USA gathers, coordinates, applies standard formats to, and makes widely available data on biological collections in marine waters of the United States and other areas where US investigators have collected data and, in some instances, specimens. OBIS-USA delivers its data to OBIS international, which then delivers its data to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and other Web portals for marine biodiversity data. OBIS-USA currently has 145 data sets from 36 participants, representing over 6.5 million occurrence records of over 83,000 taxa from more than 888,000 locations. OBIS-USA, a legacy of the decade-long (2001–2010) international collaborative Census of Marine Life enterprise, continues to add data, including those from ongoing Census projects. Among the many challenges in creating OBIS, including OBIS-USA, were developing a community of trust and shared value among data providers, and demonstrating to providers the value of making their data accessible to others. Challenges also posed by the diversity of data sets relevant to marine biodiversity stored on thousands of computers, in a variety of formats, not all widely accessible, have been met in OBIS-USA by implementing a uniform standard and publishing platform that is easily accessible to a broad range of users.

  11. OBIS-USA: a data-sharing legacy of the census of marine life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedberry, G.R.; Fautin, D.G.; Feldman, M.; Fornwall, M.D.; Goldstein, P.; Guralnick, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey's Biological Informatics Program hosts OBIS-USA, the US node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). OBIS-USA gathers, coordinates, applies standard formats to, and makeswidely available data on biological collections in marine waters of the United States and other areas where US investigators have collected data and, in some instances, specimens. OBIS-USA delivers its data to OBIS international, which then delivers its data to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and other Web portals for marine biodiversity data. OBIS-USA currently has 145 data sets from 36 participants, representing over 6.5 million occurrence records of over 83,000 taxa from more than 888,000 locations. OBIS-USA, a legacy of the decade-long (2001-2010) international collaborative Census of Marine Life enterprise, continues to add data, including those from ongoing Census projects. Among the many challenges in creating OBIS, including OBIS-USA, were developing a community of trust and shared valueamong data providers, and demonstrating to providers the value of making their data accessible to others. Challenges also posed by the diversity of data sets relevant tomarine biodiversity stored on thousands of computers, in a variety of formats, not all widely accessible, have been met in OBIS-USA by implementing a uniform standard and publishing platform that is easily accessible to a broad range of users.

  12. Teaching Descriptive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashers, H. C.

    1968-01-01

    As the inexperienced writer becomes aware of the issues involved in the composition of effective descriptive prose, he also develops a consistent control over his materials. The persona he chooses, if coherently thought out, can function as an index of many choices, helping him to manipulate the tone, intent, and mood of this style; to regulate…

  13. Legacies in urban stormwater management and the effect on gully formation in a Piedmont region of the US Mid Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, L.; Wehner, C. E.; Santangelo, T.; Soroka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces in urban areas lead to increased stormwater runoff and produce flashier hydrology which can lead to stream bank erosion and increased sediment delivery to downstream ecosystems. Since the early 1990s the EPA has enforced stormwater regulation and nowadays, practices must be implemented that minimize water quality impacts. However, legacies of stormwater management in pre-regulated areas could be an important factor in the degradation of water quality. From a larger watershed perspective there is therefore a disconnect between investments in newly developed areas where water quality deterioration is perhaps minor vs. minimal investments in pre-regulation areas where water quality deterioration is perhaps major. In this study we examine such legacies in urban stormwater management and the effect on gully formation, with the objective to identify hotspots of water quality degradation and optimal locations for reducing water quality impacts. Our research primarily focuses on older developments (pre-1990s) in the Piedmont region of the Christina River basin (CRB), a tributary of the Delaware River. Many of the streams in the CRB have impaired water quality. We used a combination of methodological approaches, including historical surveys (aerial imagery, land-use maps, stormwater design reports), field observations (WQ sampling, topographic surveys), hydrological modeling, and geospatial analysis. We developed a simple GIS-based model that predicts susceptibility for gully erosion. The model calculates runoff (using Curve Number method), performs hydrologic routing, and based on topographic indices it estimates gully susceptibility for stream reaches draining urban developments. Our results show that the gully susceptibility model produces accurate predictions, including the location of deeply incised gullies. Through geospatial analysis we also identify benefits of structural stormwater control measures and BMPs, and the role of spatial variable land

  14. Reducing survey burden: Feasibility and validity of PROMIS measures in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Senders, Angela; Hanes, Douglas; Bourdette, Dennis; Whitham, Ruth; Shinto, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes are important for clinical research and care, yet administering and scoring questionnaires requires considerable effort and time. The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) could considerably reduce administrative obstacles and lessen survey burden for participants. Objective Assess feasibility and validity of PROMIS compared to commonly used legacy measures for multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Cross-sectional survey; 133 participants with confirmed MS completed legacy surveys and PROMIS Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs) for depression, anxiety, pain, fatigue, and physical function. A multitrait-multimethod analysis was conducted and verified with confirmatory factor analysis. Results Correlations between PROMIS and corresponding legacy measures were large (0.67 to 0.87). Multitrait-multimethod criteria were generally well met, providing good evidence of validity of PROMIS measures. PROMIS surveys asked fewer questions and required substantially less time to complete than legacy scales. Conclusions Results provide evidence of construct validity of PROMIS for use with MS. Several aspects of PROMIS CATs make them an important resource, including: 1) less time required to complete, 2) reduced missing data, and 3) automatic scoring referenced to the general population. Findings support the use of PROMIS in MS research and may have broader implications for clinical care, as well. PMID:24402035

  15. Beyond death: inheriting the past and giving to the future, transmitting the legacy of one's self.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Elizabeth G

    This study explores the phenomenon of legacy as a component of the aging experience among women. Against a backdrop of prior focus on transmission of material possessions as the primary form of legacy, the concept is critically examined in developing an expanded, theoretically and empirically grounded perspective. In-depth interviews with 38 women, ranging in age from 31 to 94 and representing diverse marital, parental, and health statuses, reveal multiple dimensions of leaving a legacy in terms of content, creation, and transmission. Through the stories of the participants in this study, legacy emerges as a means of passing on the essence of one's self, in particular one's values and beliefs. Legacy is a method of leaving something behind after death and making meaning of the end of life. The desire to leave a legacy is manifest in many different ways dependent on the individual and their culture. While the idea of legacy is often couched in terms of material possessions, it appears that passing on values and beliefs is more important to older adults.

  16. Biological legacies: direct early ecosystem recovery and food web reorganization after a volcanic eruption in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Lawrence R.; Sikes, Derek S.; DeGange, Anthony R.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Michaelson, Gary; Talbot, Sandra L.; Talbot, Stephen S.; Wang, Bronwen; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to understand how communities assemble following a disturbance are challenged by the difficulty of determining the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes. Biological legacies, which result from organisms that survive a disturbance, can favour deterministic processes in community assembly and improve predictions of successional trajectories. Recently disturbed ecosystems are often so rapidly colonized by propagules that the role of biological legacies is obscured. We studied biological legacies on a remote volcanic island in Alaska following a devastating eruption where the role of colonization from adjacent communities was minimized. The role of biological legacies in the near shore environment was not clear, because although some kelp survived, they were presumably overwhelmed by the many vagile propagules in a marine environment. The legacy concept was most applicable to terrestrial invertebrates and plants that survived in remnants of buried soil that were exposed by post-eruption erosion. If the legacy concept is extended to include ex situ survival by transient organisms, then it was also applicable to the island's thousands of seabirds, because the seabirds survived the eruption by leaving the island and have begun to return and rebuild their nests as local conditions improve. Our multi-trophic examination of biological legacies in a successional context suggests that the relative importance of biological legacies varies with the degree of destruction, the availability of colonizing propagules, the spatial and temporal scales under consideration, and species interactions. Understanding the role of biological legacies in community assembly following disturbances can help elucidate the relative importance of colonists versus survivors, the role of priority effects among the colonists, convergence versus divergence of successional trajectories, the influence of spatial heterogeneity, and the role of island biogeographical concepts.

  17. Optical infrared sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a photographic survey of the northern sky currently underway at Steward Observatory. The survey is being conducted at a principal bandpass of 8000-9000 A supplemented by a V bandpass. The survey is the first of its type conducted using a small (20-in. aperture) wide-field telescope, a very large-format (146 mm) image intensifier with a red-extended, multialkali photocathode. The output phosphor of the intensifier is photographed with IIaD emulsion on film. One of the goals of the survey is to catalog red stellar objects on the photographs and to examine in detail regions of the sky which are obscured by hydrogen emission on conventional photographs.

  18. Large carbon release legacy from bark beetle outbreaks across Western United States.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A; Collatz, G James; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Rogan, John; Kulakowski, Dominik; Masek, Jeffrey G

    2015-08-01

    Warmer conditions over the past two decades have contributed to rapid expansion of bark beetle outbreaks killing millions of trees over a large fraction of western United States (US) forests. These outbreaks reduce plant productivity by killing trees and transfer carbon from live to dead pools where carbon is slowly emitted to the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration which subsequently feeds back to climate change. Recent studies have begun to examine the local impacts of bark beetle outbreaks in individual stands, but the full regional carbon consequences remain undocumented for the western US. In this study, we quantify the regional carbon impacts of the bark beetle outbreaks taking place in western US forests. The work relies on a combination of postdisturbance forest regrowth trajectories derived from forest inventory data and a process-based carbon cycle model tracking decomposition, as well as aerial detection survey (ADS) data documenting the regional extent and severity of recent outbreaks. We find that biomass killed by bark beetle attacks across beetle-affected areas in western US forests from 2000 to 2009 ranges from 5 to 15 Tg C yr(-1) and caused a reduction of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of about 6.1-9.3 Tg C y(-1) by 2009. Uncertainties result largely from a lack of detailed surveys of the extent and severity of outbreaks, calling out a need for improved characterization across western US forests. The carbon flux legacy of 2000-2009 outbreaks will continue decades into the future (e.g., 2040-2060) as committed emissions from heterotrophic respiration of beetle-killed biomass are balanced by forest regrowth and accumulation.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAC HUDF and GOODS ultradeep surveys (Labbe+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, I.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Carollo, C. M.; Trenti, M.; Holden, B.; Smit, R.; Gonzalez, V.; Magee, D.; Stiavelli, M.; Stefanon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The IRAC ultradeep field and IRAC Legacy over GOODS programs are two ultradeep imaging surveys at 3.6 and 4.5μm with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The primary aim is to directly detect the infrared light of reionization epoch galaxies at z>7 and to constrain their stellar populations. The observations cover the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), including the two HUDF parallel fields, and the CANDELS/GOODS-South, and are combined with archival data from all previous deep programs into one ultradeep data set. The resulting imaging reaches unprecedented coverage in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5μm ranging from >50hr over 150arcmin2, >100hr over 60sq arcmin2, to ~200hr over 5-10arcmin2. This paper presents the survey description, data reduction, and public release of reduced mosaics on the same astrometric system as the CANDELS/GOODS-South Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) data. To facilitate prior-based WFC3+IRAC photometry, we introduce a new method to create high signal-to-noise PSFs from the IRAC data and reconstruct the complex spatial variation due to survey geometry. The PSF maps are included in the release, as are registered maps of subsets of the data to enable reliability and variability studies. Simulations show that the noise in the ultradeep IRAC images decreases approximately as the square root of integration time over the range 20-200hr, well below the classical confusion limit, reaching 1σ point-source sensitivities as faint as 15nJy (28.5 AB) at 3.6μm and 18nJy (28.3 AB) at 4.5μm. The value of such ultradeep IRAC data is illustrated by direct detections of z=7-8 galaxies as faint as HAB=28. (1 data file).

  20. ULTRADEEP IRAC IMAGING OVER THE HUDF AND GOODS-SOUTH: SURVEY DESIGN AND IMAGING DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Stefanon, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Holden, B.; Magee, D.; Carollo, C. M.; Trenti, M.; Smit, R.; González, V.; Stiavelli, M.

    2015-12-15

    The IRAC ultradeep field and IRAC Legacy over GOODS programs are two ultradeep imaging surveys at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The primary aim is to directly detect the infrared light of reionization epoch galaxies at z > 7 and to constrain their stellar populations. The observations cover the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), including the two HUDF parallel fields, and the CANDELS/GOODS-South, and are combined with archival data from all previous deep programs into one ultradeep data set. The resulting imaging reaches unprecedented coverage in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm ranging from >50 hr over 150 arcmin{sup 2}, >100 hr over 60 sq arcmin{sup 2}, to ∼200 hr over 5–10 arcmin{sup 2}. This paper presents the survey description, data reduction, and public release of reduced mosaics on the same astrometric system as the CANDELS/GOODS-South Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) data. To facilitate prior-based WFC3+IRAC photometry, we introduce a new method to create high signal-to-noise PSFs from the IRAC data and reconstruct the complex spatial variation due to survey geometry. The PSF maps are included in the release, as are registered maps of subsets of the data to enable reliability and variability studies. Simulations show that the noise in the ultradeep IRAC images decreases approximately as the square root of integration time over the range 20–200 hr, well below the classical confusion limit, reaching 1σ point-source sensitivities as faint as 15 nJy (28.5 AB) at 3.6 μm and 18 nJy (28.3 AB) at 4.5 μm. The value of such ultradeep IRAC data is illustrated by direct detections of z = 7–8 galaxies as faint as H{sub AB} = 28.

  1. The legacy of Maria Curie Skłodowska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnowski, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    Maria Skłodowska Curie left us a great legacy. Her discovery of polonium and radium was incomparably greater than the mere discovery of new elements. Its significance lay in the discovery of a new form of matter, namely radioactive one, but also in her unveiling of the internal property of its atoms. Subsequently emitted radiation went on to play the role of a "natural accelerator" for both scientific research and in medical radiotherapy. It was thanks to these discoveries that the field of nuclear physics arose just a few decades later. As importantly the work of Maria Curie Skłodowska during the Great War demonstrated how important pure scientific discovery can be for society and its welfare.

  2. Remodeling of legacy systems in health care using UML.

    PubMed

    Garde, Sebastian; Knaup, Petra; Herold, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    Research projects in the field of Medical Informatics often involve the development of application systems. Usually they are developed over a longer period of time, so that at a certain point of time a systematically planned reimplementation is necessary. The first step of reimplementation should be a systematic and comprehensive remodeling. When using UML for this task a systematic approach for remodeling activities is missing. Therefore, we developed a method for remodeling of legacy systems (Qumquad) and applied it to DOSPO, a documentation and therapy planning system for pediatric oncology. Qumquad helps to systematically carry out three steps: the modeling of the current actual state of the application system, the systematic identification of weak points and the development of a target concept for reimplementation considering the identified weak points. Results show that this approach is valuable and feasible and could be applied to various application systems in health care.

  3. Remodeling of legacy systems in health care using UML.

    PubMed

    Garde, Sebastian; Knaup, Petra; Herold, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    Research projects in the field of Medical Informatics often involve the development of application systems. Usually they are developed over a longer period of time, so that at a certain point of time a systematically planned reimplementation is necessary. The first step of reimplementation should be a systematic and comprehensive remodeling. When using UML for this task a systematic approach for remodeling activities is missing. Therefore, we developed a method for remodeling of legacy systems (Qumquad) and applied it to DOSPO, a documentation and therapy planning system for pediatric oncology. Qumquad helps to systematically carry out three steps: the modeling of the current actual state of the application system, the systematic identification of weak points and the development of a target concept for reimplementation considering the identified weak points. Results show that this approach is valuable and feasible and could be applied to various application systems in health care. PMID:15460740

  4. The Chandra Legacy 1 Megasecond Observation of NGC3115

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Jimmy; Wong, K.; Strader, J.; Romanowsky, A.; Sivakoff, G.; Yukita, M.; Million, E.; Su, Y.; Mathews, W.; Quataert, E.; Brody, J.; Larsen, S.

    2012-05-01

    We present initial results from the Chandra 1 Megasecond observation of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC3115, which harbors the nearest >1e9 solar mass supermassive black hole. The goal of this legacy-type project is to put the first direct observational constraints on the temperature and density structure of an accretion flow inside the Bondi radius of a supermassive black hole. These temperature/density constraints will provide a critical test for competing inefficient accretion flow theories. The large angular Bondi radius of NGC3115's black hole provides the *only* opportunity to perform such a test of inefficient accretion flow theory in the Chandra era and the foreseeable future. In addition to providing temperature and density profiles of the hot gas, this long observation also represents the deepest look at the X-ray binary population of a normal early-type galaxy.

  5. The legacy of Charles R. Drew, MD, CM, MDSc.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bryan A; O'Connor, Wendi G; Willis, Monte S

    2011-01-01

    April 2011 marked the 70th anniversary of the establishment of the American Red Cross Blood Services (ARCBS). In this report, we present a biography of Dr. Charles Drew, the first medical director of the ARCBS. Although many may recognize Dr. Charles Drew for this position, the research and training that led him to be uniquely qualified to take this position may not be as well known. We present his professional training, his research on blood preservation and distribution, and his service to the larger medical community and country. Lastly, we address the many myths that have arisen over the years since his untimely death at the age of 45 on April 1, 1950, and present the legacy of Dr. Charles Drew that has largely been unknown to the greater medical and scientific community.

  6. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  7. Mendel and modern genetics: the legacy for today.

    PubMed

    Allen, Garland E

    2003-06-01

    The legacy of Mendel's pioneering studies of hybridization in the pea continues to influence the way we understand modern genetics. But what sort of picture did Mendel himself have of his work and its ultimate uses, and how does that picture compare with the collection of ideas and methodologies that was put forward in his name and later became known as 'Mendelism'? With genetics standing at the center of our present biomedical and biotechnological research, an examination of the history of our concepts in the field can help us better understand what we should and should not expect from current genetic claims. For that enterprise there is no better starting place than Mendel himself.

  8. Noncommutativity and Humanity — Julius Wess and his Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Goran S.

    2012-03-01

    A personal view on Julius Wess's human and scientific legacy in Serbia and the Balkan region is given. Motivation for using noncommutative and nonarchimedean geometry on very short distances is presented. In addition to some mathematical preliminaries, we present a short introduction in adelic quantum mechanics in a way suitable for its noncommutative generalization. We also review the basic ideas and tools embedded in q-deformed and noncommutative quantum mechanics. A rather fundamental approach, called deformation quantization, is noted. A few relations between noncommutativity and nonarchimedean spaces, as well as similarities between corresponding quantum theories, in particular, quantum cosmology are pointed out. An extended Moyal product in a frame of an adelic noncommutative quantum mechanics is also considered.

  9. The Grism Data in the Hubble Legacy Archive Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, M.; Kuntschner, H.; Walsh, J. R.; Lombardi, M.; Stoehr, F.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Rosati, P.; Micol, A.; Fosbury, R.; Freudling, W.

    2009-07-01

    In 2006 the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), together with its partners at the STScI and the CADC, started a project to build the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA): a collection of high level Hubble data products and access-tools to ease scientific analysis in the age of the Virtual Observatory. The ST-ECF has focused on providing extracted spectra from slitless spectroscopy HST images. While slitless NICMOS G141 data have already been released in February 2008, we are currently working on the ACS/WFC G800L data, which promises to yield a total of around 20,000 fully calibrated spectra. In this contribution we give an overview of the project.

  10. The legacy of James Edgar Paullin, M.D.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1990-10-01

    The legacy of the man lives on, years after his death. Physicians from his own hospital have held and will hold his former posts as president of the AMA and the American College of Physicians (Harrison Rogers and Nick Davies, respectively). Organizations that he helped start, the Southeastern Clinical Society and the Atlanta Clinical Society, continue to thrive. His high standards of medical care continue from a grandson-in-law (David Watson) and great-grandson (Brooks Lide). To quote from Dr. R. Hugh Wood's letter in 1951: "From the life of Dr. Paullin one may learn to better serve his profession and his country. Possessed of a keen intelligence, he took full advantage of his exceptional educational opportunities, and with vigor and persistence he lived a full life of service as physician, teacher, citizen, and friend."

  11. Lister at home and abroad: a continuing legacy

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, M. Anne

    2013-01-01

    Joseph Lister's painstaking experiments in antiseptic lotions, dressings, and sutures in the 1860s and early 1870s seemed needlessly complex to his critics and were best understood by those who saw him in action. From the 1880s the acrimony subsided, and Lister's international reputation became a major asset to the medical profession, even as it discarded or bypassed many of his techniques. He was claimed as an influence by many new specialties, even though in some cases his links with the discipline were tenuous. By the early twentieth century Lister had become a focus of imperial sentiment, and his legacy is seen at home and abroad through successive generations of students from his Scottish universities.

  12. Historical legacies, information and contemporary water science and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, Daniel J.; Arrigo, Jennifer A.S.; Green, Mark B.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years). However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1) How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2) Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America) provide a suitable restoration target? and (3) How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  13. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  14. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

  15. Management control system description

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Scientific Data as the Core Legacy of IPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The interdisciplinary breadth of the International Polar Year is unprecedented. The IPY has explicit objectives to link researchers across different fields to address questions and issues lying beyond the scope of individual disciplines and to strengthen international coordination of research and enhance international collaboration and cooperation. The IPY Data Policy and Management Subcommittee have developed a policy to help meet these objectives and an international collaboration of investigators and data managers, the IPY Data and Information Service, are working to make IPY data widely available. I will present an overview of the primary data management considerations for IPY and how diverse organizations are making IPY and related data available. Centralized discovery mechanisms for widely distributed data plus targeted access mechanisms for specific disciplines will be presented. These range from near real time access to satellite remote sensing data and GCM output to fair and appropriate access to traditional knowledge of the Arctic. These mechanisms reflect significant advancement in polar data management, but they belie the major challenges that remain. These challenges include fostering a culture change in science that puts greater value on data publication and open data access as well as developing sustained systems and business models for the long-term preservation of IPY data. This will be crucial to ensuring the legacy of IPY, a major objective of IPY sponsors, ICSU and WMO. New efforts to ensure this legacy include the development of the WMO Information System, the Sustained Arctic Observing Network, and the Global Earth Observing System of Systems; the reform of ICSU's World Data Center System; and the results of the Electronic Geophysical Year.

  17. Ghosts of vegetation past: Biogeochemical legacy effects in changing drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, H. L.

    2012-12-01

    Woody encroachment, the proliferation of woody plants into grasslands and savannas, is a major land cover change that has affected drylands worldwide over the past century. This vegetation change has fundamentally altered biogeochemical processes in drylands, with evidence that woody plant cover accounts for a significant, albeit highly uncertain, fraction of the Northern Hemisphere carbon (C) sink. Elevated under-canopy soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have been widely reported following woody encroachment. Although generalizing rates of SOC accumulation among encroached drylands remains challenging, integrating information on factors such as land management, soil properties, and spatio-temporal patterns of encroachment is improving estimates of these patterns. Recent work suggests that changes in SOC may occur fairly rapidly following shrub encroachment into southwestern drylands, but that these inputs are primarily in relatively labile, light fraction SOC. Isotopic analyses indicate that woody plant inputs are incorporated into heavy fraction C pools as well, suggesting that these pools may reflect relatively dynamic inputs and outputs. However, understanding the biogeochemical consequences of woody encroachment are complicated by land management practices. In the western US, landscapes are often a mosaic of sites undergoing woody encroachment and sites recovering from 'brush management' practices imposed to reduce woody plant cover. In contrast to the rapid changes in SOC following encroachment, biogeochemical legacies of removed shrubs may persist for decades following brush management. These legacy effects may be a function of slow degradation of stable SOC compounds. In addition, lag effects on surface litter decomposition may remain for many years following brush management, the result of persistent high grass density in the vicinity of "ghosts" shrubs. Results from the CENTURY model suggest that SOC losses would continue for ca. 105 years after shrub

  18. AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE DURING PREGNANCY AND THE MICROCHIMERISM LEGACY OF PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Nelson, J. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy has both short-term effects and long-term consequences. For women who have an autoimmune disease and subsequently become pregnant, pregnancy can induce amelioration of the mother’s disease, such as in rheumatoid arthritis, while exacerbating or having no effect on other autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus. That pregnancy also leaves a long-term legacy has recently become apparent by the discovery that bi-directional cell trafficking results in persistence of fetal cells in the mother and of maternal cells in her offspring for decades after birth. The long-term persistence of a small number of cells (or DNA) from a genetically disparate individual is referred to as microchimerism. While microchimerism is common in healthy individuals and is likely to have health benefits, microchimerism has been implicated in some autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis. In this paper, we will first discuss short-term effects of pregnancy on women with autoimmune disease. Pregnancy-associated changes will be reviewed for selected autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune thyroid disease. The pregnancy-induced amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis presents a window of opportunity for insights into both immunological mechanisms of fetal-maternal tolerance and pathogenic mechanisms in autoimmunity. A mechanistic hypothesis for the pregnancy-induced amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis will be described. We will then discuss the legacy of maternal-fetal cell transfer from the perspective of autoimmune diseases. Fetal and maternal microchimerism will be reviewed with a focus on systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), autoimmune thyroid disease, neonatal lupus and type I diabetes mellitus. PMID:18716941

  19. Transformation of legacy network management system to service oriented architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyan, Jithesh; Shenoy, Krishnananda

    2007-09-01

    Service providers today are facing the challenge of operating and maintaining multiple networks, based on multiple technologies. Network Management System (NMS) solutions are being used to manage these networks. However the NMS is tightly coupled with Element or the Core network components. Hence there are multiple NMS solutions for heterogeneous networks. Current network management solutions are targeted at a variety of independent networks. The wide spread popularity of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a clear indication that all of these independent networks will be integrated into a single IP-based infrastructure referred to as Next Generation Networks (NGN) in the near future. The services, network architectures and traffic pattern in NGN will dramatically differ from the current networks. The heterogeneity and complexity in NGN including concepts like Fixed Mobile Convergence will bring a number of challenges to network management. The high degree of complexity accompanying the network element technology necessitates network management systems (NMS) which can utilize this technology to provide more service interfaces while hiding the inherent complexity. As operators begin to add new networks and expand existing networks to support new technologies and products, the necessity of scalable, flexible and functionally rich NMS systems arises. Another important factor influencing NMS architecture is mergers and acquisitions among the key vendors. Ease of integration is a key impediment in the traditional hierarchical NMS architecture. These requirements trigger the need for an architectural framework that will address the NGNM (Next Generation Network Management) issues seamlessly. This paper presents a unique perspective of bringing service orientated architecture (SOA) to legacy network management systems (NMS). It advocates a staged approach in transforming a legacy NMS to SOA. The architecture at each stage is detailed along with the technical advantages and

  20. Can vaccine legacy explain the British pertussis resurgence?

    PubMed

    Riolo, Maria A; King, Aaron A; Rohani, Pejman

    2013-12-01

    Pertussis incidence has been rising in some countries, including the UK, despite sustained high vaccine coverage. We questioned whether it is possible to explain the resurgence without recourse to complex hypotheses about pathogen evolution, subclinical infections, or trends in surveillance efficiency. In particular, we investigated the possibility that the resurgence is a consequence of the legacy of incomplete pediatric immunization, in the context of cohort structure and age-dependent transmission. We constructed a model of pertussis transmission in England and Wales based on data on age-specific contact rates and historical vaccine coverage estimates. We evaluated the agreement between model-predicted and observed patterns of age-specific pertussis incidence under a variety of assumptions regarding the duration of immunity. Under the assumption that infection-derived immunity is complete and lifelong, and regardless of the duration of vaccine-induced immunity, the model consistently predicts a resurgence of pertussis incidence comparable to that which has been observed. Interestingly, no resurgence is predicted when infection- and vaccine-derived immunities wane at the same rate. These results were qualitatively insensitive to rates of primary vaccine failure. We conclude that the alarming resurgence of pertussis among adults and adolescents in Britain and elsewhere may simply be a legacy of historically inadequate coverage employing imperfect vaccines. Indeed, we argue that the absence of resurgence at this late date would be more surprising. Our analysis shows that careful accounting for age dependence in contact rates and susceptibility is prerequisite to the identification of which features of pertussis epidemiology want additional explanation.

  1. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Latham, D. W.; Seager, S.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Villasenor, J. S.; Winn, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction of TESS target stars will be 30-100 times brighter than those observed by Kepler satellite, and therefore TESS . planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS will make it possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars. TESS will provide prime targets for observation with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future. TESS data will be released with minimal delay (no proprietary period), inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the very nearest and brightest main-sequence stars hosting transiting exoplanets, thus providing future observers with the most favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: W49A JCMT Spectral Legacy Survey spectroscopy (Nagy+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Z.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Fuller, G. A.; Plume, R.

    2015-08-01

    We carried out the SLS observations using the 16-receptor (spatial pixel) Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme B (HARP-B, 325-375GHz) and the Auto-Correlation Spectral Imaging System (ACSIS) correlator at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope1 (JCMT) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We carried out the observations in jiggle position switch mode, sampled every 7.5" for a 2x2-arcmin field centered on RA=19:10:13.4; DE=09:06:14 (J2000). (1 data file).

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Supernova Legacy Survey. Type Ia supernovae (Walker+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, E. S.; Hook, I. M.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Bronder, T. J.; Carlberg, R.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Aldering, G.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Kronborg, T.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Zhang, T.

    2011-08-01

    The targets were selected from real-time SNLS imaging which took place at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). Fainter objects were usually observed spectroscopically at Gemini, with brighter candidates at either VLT or Keck. (7 data files).

  4. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  5. Exploring the potential offered by legacy soil databases for ecosystem services mapping of Central African soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoodt, Ann; Baert, Geert; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Central African soil resources are characterised by a large variability, ranging from stony, shallow or sandy soils with poor life-sustaining capabilities to highly weathered soils that recycle and support large amounts of biomass. Socio-economic drivers within this largely rural region foster inappropriate land use and management, threaten soil quality and finally culminate into a declining soil productivity and increasing food insecurity. For the development of sustainable land use strategies targeting development planning and natural hazard mitigation, decision makers often rely on legacy soil maps and soil profile databases. Recent development cooperation financed projects led to the design of soil information systems for Rwanda, D.R. Congo, and (ongoing) Burundi. A major challenge is to exploit these existing soil databases and convert them into soil inference systems through an optimal combination of digital soil mapping techniques, land evaluation tools, and biogeochemical models. This presentation aims at (1) highlighting some key characteristics of typical Central African soils, (2) assessing the positional, geographic and semantic quality of the soil information systems, and (3) revealing its potential impacts on the use of these datasets for thematic mapping of soil ecosystem services (e.g. organic carbon storage, pH buffering capacity). Soil map quality is assessed considering positional and semantic quality, as well as geographic completeness. Descriptive statistics, decision tree classification and linear regression techniques are used to mine the soil profile databases. Geo-matching as well as class-matching approaches are considered when developing thematic maps. Variability in inherent as well as dynamic soil properties within the soil taxonomic units is highlighted. It is hypothesized that within-unit variation in soil properties highly affects the use and interpretation of thematic maps for ecosystem services mapping. Results will mainly be based

  6. The Legacies of Literacy: From Plato to Freire through Harvey Graff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    1989-01-01

    Reviews "The Legacies of Literacy: Continuities and Contradictions in Western Culture and Society" (Harvey G. Graff). Discusses the historical role of literacy education as a tool for liberation, emphasizing the viewpoints of Plato and Freire. (FMW)

  7. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Ursula S; Rasmussen, Jes J; Kronvang, Brian; Binning, Philip J; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-05-01

    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs.

  8. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management Program Update, April-June 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    Welcome to the April-June 2009 issue of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Program Update. This publication is designed to provide a status of activities within LM. The Legacy Management goals are: (1) Protect human health and the environment through effective and efficient long-term surveillance and maintenance - This goal highlights DOE's responsibility to ensure long-term protection of people, the environment, and the integrity of engineered remedies and monitoring systems. (2) Preserve, protect, and make accessible legacy records and information - This goal recognizes LM's commitment to successfully manage records, information, and archives of legacy sites under its authority. (3) Support an effective and efficient work force structured to accomplish Departmental missions and assure continuity of contractor worker pension and medical benefits - This goal recognizes DOE's commitment to its contracted work force and the consistent management of pension and health benefits. As sites continue to close, DOE faces the challenges of managing pension plan and health benefits liability. (4) Manage legacy land and assets, emphasizing protective real and personal property reuse and disposition - This goal recognizes a DOE need for local collaborative management of legacy assets, including coordinating land use planning, personal property disposition to community reuse organizations, and protecting heritage resources (natural, cultural, and historical). (5) Improve program effectiveness through sound management - This goal recognizes that LM's goals cannot be attained efficiently unless the federal and contractor work force is motivated to meet requirements and work toward continuous performance improvement.

  10. 77 FR 52051 - Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Electronic Stakeholder Survey-Office for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Electronic Stakeholder Survey... Stakeholder Survey. OMB Control Number: XXXX-pending. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The Electronic Stakeholder Survey is necessary to collect information for demonstrating...

  11. The Case for Descriptive Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauck, Marian K.

    An approach to teaching descriptive writing and its values are discussed. Benefits derived from a descriptive writing unit are said to be the following: (1) Descriptive writing is fun; (2) It enables the instructor to demonstrate that the first word that pops into the writer's mind is often not the best one; (3) There is no easier way in which to…

  12. Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

  13. Disturbance legacies of historic tie-drives persistently alter geomorphology and large wood characteristics in headwater streams, southeast Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffing, Claire M.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Dwire, Kathleen A.

    2015-02-01

    Instream wood is recognized as an integral component of stream morphology in forested areas. However, few studies have evaluated the legacy effects of historic wood removal activities and associated impacts on channel morphology, contemporary wood loading, and recruitment. This study investigates the role of historic tie-driving, a widespread channel disturbance legacy, in shaping present-day stream channel conditions in southern Wyoming. Geomorphic and riparian surveys were used to assess the extent of disturbance and degree of recovery within three sets of paired tie-driven and non-driven study reaches. Tie-driven streams were narrower, shallower, and had low cross-sectional roughness and higher width-to-depth ratios when compared to non-driven streams. Study reaches in first-order tie-driven streams were characterized by predominantly plane-bed morphologies and an extremely low abundance of wood compared to paired, non-driven reaches. Wood loads in second-order tie-driven reaches were similar to non-driven reaches, but overall wood distribution varied and was more likely to accumulate in jams. Existing wood loads in tie-driven reaches exhibited a narrower range of geomorphic functions and were less stable overall, although the relative state of decay was similar across all reaches. Basal area, stream power, and reach slope were identified as key mechanisms driving wood retention in the study reaches. The results of this study suggest that contemporary channel morphology and wood loads continue to reflect disturbance histories but have not yet been affected by other contemporary disturbances expected to influence wood loads such as bark beetle infestations.

  14. Characterization and Disposition of Legacy Low-Level Waste at the Y-12 National Security Complex - 12133

    SciTech Connect

    Tharp, Tim; Donnelly, Jim

    2012-07-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) is concluding a multi-year program to characterize and dispose of all legacy low-level waste (LLW). The inventory of legacy waste at Y-12 has been reduced from over 3500 containers in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 containers at the end of FY2011. In addition, the site recently eliminated the inventory of other low-level waste that is greater than 365 days old (i.e., >365-Day LLW), to be in full compliance with DOE Order 435.1. A consistent technical characterization approach emerged for both of these populations of backlogged waste: (1) compile existing historical data and process knowledge and conduct interviews with site personnel; (2) inspect the containers and any tags, labels, or other markings to confirm or glean additional data; (3) with appropriate monitoring, open the container, visually inspect and photograph the contents while obtaining preliminary radiological surveys; (4) obtain gross weight and field non-destructive assay (NDA) data as needed; (5) use the non-public Oak Ridge Reservation Haul Road to ship the container to a local offsite vendor for waste sorting and segregation; (6) sort, drain, sample, and remove prohibited items; and (7) compile final data and prepare for shipment to disposal. After disposing of this backlog, the focus has now turned to avoiding the recurrence of this situation by maintaining low inventories of low-level waste and shortening the duration between waste generation and disposal. An enhanced waste tracking system and monthly metric charts are used to monitor and report progress to contractor and federal site office management. During the past 2 years, the average age of LLW onsite at Y-12 has decreased from more than 180 days to less than 60 days. (authors)

  15. Legacy system retirement plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.E.

    1998-09-29

    The implementation of the Business Management System (BMS) will replace a number of systems currently in use at Hanford. These systems will be retired when the replacement is complete and the data from the old systems adequately stored and/or converted to the new system. The replacement is due to a number of factors: (1) Year 2000 conversion: Most of the systems being retired are not year 2000 compliant. Estimates on making these systems compliant approach the costs of replacing with the enterprise system. (2) Many redundant custom-made systems: Maintenance costs on the aging custom developed systems is high. The systems also have overlapping functionality. Replacement with an enterprise system is expected to lower the maintenance costs. (3) Shift inefficient/complex work processes to commercial standards: Many business practices have been developed in isolation from competitive pressures and without a good business foundation. Replacement of the systems allows an opportunity to upgrade the business practices to conform to a market driven approach. (4) Questionable legacy data: Significant amount of data contained within the legacy systems is of questionable origin and value. Replacement of the systems allows for a new beginning with a clean slate and stronger data validation rules. A number of the systems being retired depend on hardware and software technologies that are no longer adequately supported in the market place. The IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, HNF-PRO-2778, and the Data Systems Review Board (DSRB) define a system retirement process which involves the removal of an existing system from active support or use either by: ceasing its operation or support; or replacing it with a new system; or replacing it with an upgraded version of the existing system. It is important to note, that activities associated with the recovery of the system, once archived, relates to the ability for authorized personnel to gain access to the data and

  16. Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam Survey of the Andromeda Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Tanaka, Mikito; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    We present a progress report on our deep and wide-field imaging survey of the Andromeda halo with Hyper Suprime Cam (HSC) mounted on Subaru. HSC is the upgraded prime focus camera after Suprime-Cam, having a field of view of 1.77 square degree (1.5 degree in diameter), namely about 10 times larger than that of Suprime-Cam. This camera will thus offer us great opportunities to explore unique and legacy surveys for the Andromeda halo, as well as for other Galactic Archaeology science cases.

  17. [Health survey in Quilombola communities (descendants of Afro-Brazilian slaves who escaped from slave plantations that existed in Brazil until abolition in 1888) in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia (COMQUISTA Project), Brazil: methodological aspects and descriptive analysis].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Souzas, Raquel; Giatti, Luana; Steffens, Ana Paula; Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Souza, Cláudio Lima; Moura, Cristiano Soares de; Soares, Daniela Arruda; Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos de; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Neves, Orlando Sílvio Caires; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article was to present the methodology, preliminary descriptive results and the reliability of the instruments used in the COMQUISTA Project. It involved a cross-sectional study with adults (>18 years) and children (up to 5 years old) of Quilombola communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. Data collection consisted of individual and household interviews, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. A semi-structured questionnaire adapted from the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) was used and the interviews were conducted using handheld computers. 397 housing units were visited and 797 adults and 130 children were interviewed. The demographic profile of the Quilombolas was similar to the Brazilian population with respect to sex and age, however, they had precarious access to basic sanitation and a low socioeconomic status. The analysis of reliability revealed the adequacy of strategies adopted for quality assurance and control in the study. The methodology used was considered adequate to achieve the objectives and can be used in other populations. The results indicate the need for implementing strategies to improve the quality of life and reduce the degree of vulnerability of the Quilombolas.

  18. Preserving the legacy: Physical treatment technologies (Ptl0201). Audiovisual

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Survey includes deep, dual bed, and belt filters; baghouses; centrifuges; distillation; reverse osmosis; microfiltration; flocculation; evaporation and settling ponds; air stripping; electrostatic precipitation; and adsorption.

  19. Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE): Overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquet, E.; Soummer, R.; Pueyo, L.; Perrin, M.; Chen, C.; Debes, J.; Golimowski, D. A.; Hagan, J. B.; Hines, D. C.; Marois, C.; Mawet, D.; Mittal, T.; Moerchen, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Rajan, A.; Reid, N.; Wolff, S.; Schneider, G.

    2014-03-01

    We are currently conducting a comprehensive and consistent reprocessing of archival HST-NICMOS coronagraphic surveys using advanced PSF subtraction methods, entitled the Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments program (ALICE, HST/AR 12652). This virtual campaign of about 400 HST orbits has already produced numerous new detections of previously unidentified point sources and circumstellar structures. We present five newly spatially resolved debris disks revealed in scattered light by our analysis of the archival data. Three of these disks (HD 30447, HD 35841, and HD 141943) appear to be edge-on, the fourth (HD 191089) appears to be an asymmetric inclined ring, and the fifth, HD 202917 confirms a dramatic asymmetric arc that had previously been detected in ACS GTO observations. These images provide new views of material around young solar-type stars at ages corresponding to the period of terrestrial planet formation in our solar system. We have also detected several new candidate substellar companions, for which there is an ongoing followup campaign, and discuss preliminary statistical constraints ALICE places on the occurrence of brown dwarf and exo-planet companions around nearby stars. Since the methods developed as part of ALICE are directly applicable to future missions (JWST, AFTA coronagraph) we emphasize the importance of devising optimal PSF subtraction methods for upcoming coronagraphic imaging missions. We describe efforts in defining direct imaging highlevel science products (HLSP) standards that can be applicable to other coronagraphic campaigns, including ground-based (e.g., Gemini Planet Imager), and future space instruments (e.g., JWST). ALICE will deliver a first release of HLSPs to the community through the MAST archive at STScI in 2014.

  20. The ghosts of trees past: savanna trees create enduring legacies in plant species composition.

    PubMed

    Stahlheber, Karen A; Crispin, Kimberly L; Anton, Cassidy; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2015-09-01

    Isolated trees in savannas worldwide are known to modify their local environment and interact directly with neighboring plants. Less is known about how related tree species differ in their impacts on surrounding communities, how the effects of trees vary between years, and how composition might change following loss of the tree. To address these knowledge gaps, we explored the following questions: How do savanna trees influence the surrounding composition of herbaceous plants? Is the influence of trees consistent across different species and years? How does this change following the death of the tree? We surveyed herbaceous species composition and environmental attributes surrounding living and dead evergreen and deciduous Quercus trees in California (USA) savannas across several years that differed in their total precipitation. Oak trees of all species created distinct, homogenous understory communities dominated by exotic grasses across several sites. The composition of the low-diversity understory communities showed less interannual variation than open grassland, despite a two-fold difference in precipitation between the driest and wettest year. Vegetation composition was correlated with variation in soil properties, which were strongly affected by trees. Oaks also influenced the communities beyond the edge of the crown, but this depended on site and oak species. Low-diversity understory communities persisted up to 43 years following the death of the tree. A gradual decline in the effect of trees on the physical, environment following death did not result in vegetation becoming more similar to open grassland over time. The presence of long-lasting legacies of past tree crowns highlights the difficulty of assigning control of the current distribution of herbaceous species in grassland to their contemporary environment.

  1. The ghosts of trees past: savanna trees create enduring legacies in plant species composition.

    PubMed

    Stahlheber, Karen A; Crispin, Kimberly L; Anton, Cassidy; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2015-09-01

    Isolated trees in savannas worldwide are known to modify their local environment and interact directly with neighboring plants. Less is known about how related tree species differ in their impacts on surrounding communities, how the effects of trees vary between years, and how composition might change following loss of the tree. To address these knowledge gaps, we explored the following questions: How do savanna trees influence the surrounding composition of herbaceous plants? Is the influence of trees consistent across different species and years? How does this change following the death of the tree? We surveyed herbaceous species composition and environmental attributes surrounding living and dead evergreen and deciduous Quercus trees in California (USA) savannas across several years that differed in their total precipitation. Oak trees of all species created distinct, homogenous understory communities dominated by exotic grasses across several sites. The composition of the low-diversity understory communities showed less interannual variation than open grassland, despite a two-fold difference in precipitation between the driest and wettest year. Vegetation composition was correlated with variation in soil properties, which were strongly affected by trees. Oaks also influenced the communities beyond the edge of the crown, but this depended on site and oak species. Low-diversity understory communities persisted up to 43 years following the death of the tree. A gradual decline in the effect of trees on the physical, environment following death did not result in vegetation becoming more similar to open grassland over time. The presence of long-lasting legacies of past tree crowns highlights the difficulty of assigning control of the current distribution of herbaceous species in grassland to their contemporary environment. PMID:26594707

  2. Direction and Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Menahem, Yemima

    This paper deals with the dependence of directionality in the course of events-or our claims concerning such directionality-on the modes of description we use in speaking of the events in question. I argue that criteria of similarity and individuation play a crucial role in assessments of directionality. This is an extension of Davidson's claim regarding the difference between causal and explanatory contexts. The argument is based on a characterisation of notions of necessity and contingency that differ from their modal logic counterparts on the one hand, and from causality and chance on the other. I show that some types of directionality are perfectly compatible with both determinism and indeterminism at the microscopic level, and that there is no likelihood of, or advantage to, reducing such directionality to other laws or causal processes.

  3. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  4. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  5. Description of Jet Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we review recent results on the breakup of cylindrical jets of a Newtonian fluid. Capillary forces provide the main driving mechanism and our interest is in the description of the flow as the jet pinches to form drops. The approach is to describe such topological singularities by constructing local (in time and space) similarity solutions from the governing equations. This is described for breakup according to the Euler, Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that slender jet theories can be applied when viscosity is present, but for inviscid jets the local shape of the jet at breakup is most likely of a non-slender geometry. Systems of one-dimensional models of the governing equations are solved numerically in order to illustrate these differences.

  6. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  7. Model selection as a science driver for dark energy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; Liddle, Andrew R.; Kunz, Martin

    2006-07-01

    A key science goal of upcoming dark energy surveys is to seek time-evolution of the dark energy. This problem is one of model selection, where the aim is to differentiate between cosmological models with different numbers of parameters. However, the power of these surveys is traditionally assessed by estimating their ability to constrain parameters, which is a different statistical problem. In this paper, we use Bayesian model selection techniques, specifically forecasting of the Bayes factors, to compare the abilities of different proposed surveys in discovering dark energy evolution. We consider six experiments - supernova luminosity measurements by the Supernova Legacy Survey, SNAP, JEDI and ALPACA, and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements by WFMOS and JEDI - and use Bayes factor plots to compare their statistical constraining power. The concept of Bayes factor forecasting has much broader applicability than dark energy surveys.

  8. The Fritz Roethlisberger Memorial Award Goes to "Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fritz J. Roethlisberger Memorial Award for the best article in the 2011 "Journal of Management Education" goes to Rae Andre for her article, Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses ("Journal of Management Education," Volume 35, Number 5, pp. 596-619). In keeping with Roethlisberger's legacy, this year's…

  9. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy Program: The Life Cycle of Dust and Gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, F.; Woods, Paul M.; Antoniou, V.; Bernard, J.-P.; Blum, R. D.; Boyer, M. L.; Chan, J.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Cohen, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Engelbracht, C.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Gielen, C.; Gordon, Karl D.; Gorjian, V.; Harris, J.; Hony, S.; Hora, J. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Jones, O.; Kawamura, A.; Lagadec, E.; Lawton, B.; Leisenring, J. M.; Madden, S. C.; Marengo, M.; Matsuura, M.; McDonald, I.; McGuire, C.; Meixner, M.; Mulia, A. J.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliveira, J. M.; Paladini, R.; Paradis, D.; Reach, W. T.; Rubin, D.; Sandstrom, K.; Sargent, B. A.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Sloan, G. C.; Speck, A. K.; Srinivasan, S.; Szczerba, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Aarle, E.; Van Dyk, S. D.; van Loon, J. Th.; Van Winckel, H.; Vijh, Uma P.; Volk, K.; Whitney, B. A.; Wilkins, A. N.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2010-06-01

    The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program is a spectroscopic follow-up to the SAGE-LMC photometric survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present an overview of SAGE-Spec and some of its first results. The SAGE-Spec program aims to study the life cycle of gas and dust in the Large Magellanic Cloud and to provide information essential to the classification of the point sources observed in the earlier SAGE-LMC photometric survey. We acquired 224.6 h of observations using the infrared spectrograph and the spectral energy distribution (SED) mode of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. The SAGE-Spec data, along with archival Spitzer spectroscopy of objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud, are reduced and delivered to the community. We discuss the observing strategy, the specific data-reduction pipelines applied, and the dissemination of data products to the scientific community. Initial science results include the first detection of an extragalactic 21 μm feature toward an evolved star and elucidation of the nature of disks around RV Tauri stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Toward some young stars, ice features are observed in absorption. We also serendipitously observed a background quasar, at a redshift of z ≈ 0.14, which appears to be hostless.

  10. Beyond the game: the legacy of Bill Masterton.

    PubMed

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Bill Masterton is the only man to die of injuries sustained in a National Hockey League (NHL) game. He remains the last fatality in any professional team sport involving a direct in-game injury in North America. While Masterton was originally thought to have suffered a fatal brain injury while being checked on the ice, later analysis of the case revealed evidence of second-impact syndrome and the effects of prior concussions. Masterton's death sparked both an immediate debate in the NHL on whether helmets should be compulsory and the NHL's first vote on mandatory helmet use. Although the subject of mandated helmet use met with resistance in the 10 years after Masterton's death, especially from hockey owners and coaches, the NHL finally legislated helmet use by all players entering the league beginning in the 1979-1980 season. Several awards, including one recognizing the NHL player who best exemplifies the qualities of perseverance, sportsmanship, and dedication to hockey, have been created in memory of Masterton. However, his legacy extends far beyond the awards that bear his name. His death was the seminal event bringing head safety to the forefront of a game that was both unready and unwilling to accept change. An increase in mainstream media attention in recent years has led to unprecedented public awareness of brain injury and concussion in hockey and other sports. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of head injury in sports have occurred recently, the impetus for which started over 45 years ago, when Bill Masterton died.

  11. The Evolutionary Legacy of Diversification Predicts Ecosystem Function.

    PubMed

    Yguel, Benjamin; Jactel, Hervé; Pearse, Ian S; Moen, Daniel; Winter, Marten; Hortal, Joaquin; Helmus, Matthew R; Kühn, Ingolf; Pavoine, Sandrine; Purschke, Oliver; Weiher, Evan; Violle, Cyrille; Ozinga, Wim; Brändle, Martin; Bartish, Igor; Prinzing, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Theory suggests that the structure of evolutionary history represented in a species community may affect its functioning, but phylogenetic diversity metrics do not allow for the identification of major differences in this structure. Here we propose a new metric, ELDERness (for Evolutionary Legacy of DivERsity) to estimate evolutionary branching patterns within communities by fitting a polynomial function to lineage-through-time (LTT) plots. We illustrate how real and simulated community branching patterns can be more correctly described by ELDERness and can successfully predict ecosystem functioning. In particular, the evolutionary history of branching patterns can be encapsulated by the parameters of third-order polynomial functions and further measured through only two parameters, the "ELDERness surfaces." These parameters captured variation in productivity of a grassland community better than existing phylogenetic diversity or diversification metrics and independent of species richness or presence of nitrogen fixers. Specifically, communities with small ELDERness surfaces (constant accumulation of lineages through time in LTT plots) were more productive, consistent with increased productivity resulting from complementary lineages combined with niche filling within lineages. Overall, while existing phylogenetic diversity metrics remain useful in many contexts, we suggest that our ELDERness approach better enables testing hypotheses that relate complex patterns of macroevolutionary history represented in local communities to ecosystem functioning.

  12. The Legacy of the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Melora; Pensinger, John; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Langford, Donald; Hahn, Inseob; Dick, G. John

    2004-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been building the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) as a multi-user research facility for the International Space Station. Because of the recent Presidential Exploration Initiative placed on NASA, NASA has informally told JPL to phase out the development of the LTMPF, assuming a suspension of funding at the end of fiscal year 2004. Over the last five years of development of the Facility, a tremendous legacy of both scientific and technical progress has been made, and a significant amount of flight hardware has been built. During these last few months of remaining funding, the LTMPF plans on finishing some remaining development efforts, archiving the hardware (flight and engineering models), software, and capturing the knowledge generated for possible future missions. These possible future missions could include gravitational or relativistic physics experiments (around the Earth or the Moon), charged particle physics experiments away from the Earth, possible other fundamental physics experiments in a Code U-developed free flyer orbiting the Earth, or even gravitational mapping experiments around the Moon or possibly Mars. LTMPF-developed technologies that are likely to have substantial impact on such future missions include SQUID magnetometers and thermometers, ultra-high-performance cryogenics, and high-Q superconducting resonators.

  13. The Evolutionary Legacy of Diversification Predicts Ecosystem Function.

    PubMed

    Yguel, Benjamin; Jactel, Hervé; Pearse, Ian S; Moen, Daniel; Winter, Marten; Hortal, Joaquin; Helmus, Matthew R; Kühn, Ingolf; Pavoine, Sandrine; Purschke, Oliver; Weiher, Evan; Violle, Cyrille; Ozinga, Wim; Brändle, Martin; Bartish, Igor; Prinzing, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Theory suggests that the structure of evolutionary history represented in a species community may affect its functioning, but phylogenetic diversity metrics do not allow for the identification of major differences in this structure. Here we propose a new metric, ELDERness (for Evolutionary Legacy of DivERsity) to estimate evolutionary branching patterns within communities by fitting a polynomial function to lineage-through-time (LTT) plots. We illustrate how real and simulated community branching patterns can be more correctly described by ELDERness and can successfully predict ecosystem functioning. In particular, the evolutionary history of branching patterns can be encapsulated by the parameters of third-order polynomial functions and further measured through only two parameters, the "ELDERness surfaces." These parameters captured variation in productivity of a grassland community better than existing phylogenetic diversity or diversification metrics and independent of species richness or presence of nitrogen fixers. Specifically, communities with small ELDERness surfaces (constant accumulation of lineages through time in LTT plots) were more productive, consistent with increased productivity resulting from complementary lineages combined with niche filling within lineages. Overall, while existing phylogenetic diversity metrics remain useful in many contexts, we suggest that our ELDERness approach better enables testing hypotheses that relate complex patterns of macroevolutionary history represented in local communities to ecosystem functioning. PMID:27622874

  14. John Snow’s legacy: epidemiology without borders

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Paul; Victora, Cesar G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan; Curtis, Val; Heymann, David L; Slutkin, Gary; May, Robert M; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Ian; Wortley, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Deaton, Angus

    2013-01-01

    This Review provides abstracts from a meeting held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, on April 11–12, 2013, to celebrate the legacy of John Snow. They describe conventional and unconventional applications of epidemiological methods to problems ranging from diarrhoeal disease, mental health, cancer, and accident care, to education, poverty, financial networks, crime, and violence. Common themes appear throughout, including recognition of the importance of Snow’s example, the philosophical and practical implications of assessment of causality, and an emphasis on the evaluation of preventive, ameliorative, and curative interventions, in a wide variety of medical and societal examples. Almost all self-described epidemiologists nowadays work within the health arena, and this is the focus of most of the societies, journals, and courses that carry the name epidemiology. The range of applications evident in these contributions might encourage some of these institutions to consider broadening their remits. In so doing, they may contribute more directly to, and learn from, non-health-related areas that use the language and methods of epidemiology to address many important problems now facing the world. PMID:23582396

  15. Building on a legacy for the era of population health.

    PubMed

    Brady, Marla G

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Joplin tornado was a catastrophic EF5 multiple-vortex tornado that struck Joplin, Missouri, late in the afternoon of Sunday, May 22, 2011. It was part of a larger, late-May tornado outbreak and reached a maximum width of nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) during its path through the city. Mercy St John's Hospital (which had recently joined Mercy Ministries) suffered a direct hit and was rendered nonuseable. A total of 183 patients and nearly 200 coworkers/staff members were evacuated from the building within the next 90 minutes. Triage centers were set up outside as hospitals of other areas opened their doors for St John's patients and community members who had been injured. The tornado in Joplin destroyed Mercy St John's Hospital. Given this future, why did Mercy Ministries choose to rebuild an acute care facility rather than merely an outpatient system? The organization considered current community needs and the needs of the future. They also remembered their mission and the legacy of their heritage.

  16. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  17. Reengineering legacy software to object-oriented systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitman, C.; Braley, D.; Fridge, E.; Plumb, A.; Izygon, M.; Mears, B.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has a legacy of complex software systems that are becoming increasingly expensive to maintain. Reengineering is one approach to modemizing these systems. Object-oriented technology, other modem software engineering principles, and automated tools can be used to reengineer the systems and will help to keep maintenance costs of the modemized systems down. The Software Technology Branch at the NASA/Johnson Space Center has been developing and testing reengineering methods and tools for several years. The Software Technology Branch is currently providing training and consulting support to several large reengineering projects at JSC, including the Reusable Objects Software Environment (ROSE) project, which is reengineering the flight analysis and design system (over 2 million lines of FORTRAN code) into object-oriented C++. Many important lessons have been learned during the past years; one of these is that the design must never be allowed to diverge from the code during maintenance and enhancement. Future work on open, integrated environments to support reengineering is being actively planned.

  18. The ST-ECF ACS Grism Hubble Legacy Archive Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, M.; Kuntschner, H.; Walsh, J. R.; Lombardi, M.; Stoehr, F.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Rosati, P.; Micol, A.; Fosbury, R.; Freudling, W.

    2009-09-01

    In 2006 the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), together with its partners at the STScI and the CADC, started a project to build a Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA): a collection of high-level Hubble data products and access tools to ease scientific analysis in the age of the Virtual Observatory. The ST-ECF has focused on providing extracted spectra from slitless spectroscopy HST images. The slitless NICMOS G141 data were presented at previous ADASS meetings and have already been released. In this contribution we present an overview of the ongoing project of processing the ACS/WFC G800L data which cover a larger area and contain more spectra. There are around 150 ACS/WFC G800L datasets covering an area of ˜ 600 arcmin^2, and we expect to extract and publish about 20,000 fully-calibrated spectra. We discuss the techniques and methods that were developed to automatically extract the spectra from the observations and present a selection of ACS/WFC G800L spectra as examples.

  19. Building on a legacy for the era of population health.

    PubMed

    Brady, Marla G

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Joplin tornado was a catastrophic EF5 multiple-vortex tornado that struck Joplin, Missouri, late in the afternoon of Sunday, May 22, 2011. It was part of a larger, late-May tornado outbreak and reached a maximum width of nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) during its path through the city. Mercy St John's Hospital (which had recently joined Mercy Ministries) suffered a direct hit and was rendered nonuseable. A total of 183 patients and nearly 200 coworkers/staff members were evacuated from the building within the next 90 minutes. Triage centers were set up outside as hospitals of other areas opened their doors for St John's patients and community members who had been injured. The tornado in Joplin destroyed Mercy St John's Hospital. Given this future, why did Mercy Ministries choose to rebuild an acute care facility rather than merely an outpatient system? The organization considered current community needs and the needs of the future. They also remembered their mission and the legacy of their heritage. PMID:24569762

  20. The Life and Legacy of G. I. Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, G. K.

    1996-07-01

    G.I. Taylor, one of the most distinguished physical scientists of this century, used his deep insight and originality to increase our understanding of phenomena such as the turbulent flow of fluids. His interest in the science of fluid flow was not confined to theory; he was one of the early pioneers of aeronautics, and designed a new type of anchor that was inspired by his passion for sailing. Taylor spent most of his working life in the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, where he investigated the mechanics of fluid and solid materials; his discoveries and ideas have had application throughout mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering, meteorology, oceanography and materials science. He was also a noted research leader, and his group in Cambridge became one of the most productive centers for the study of fluid mechanics. How was Taylor able to be innovative in so many different ways? This interesting and unusual biography helps answer that question. Professor Batchelor, himself a student and close collaborator of Taylor, is ideally placed to describe Taylor's life, achievements and background. He does so without introducing any mathematical details, making this book enjoyable reading for a wide range of people--and especially those whose own interests have brought them into contact with the legacy of Taylor.