Science.gov

Sample records for legal electronic discovery

  1. Legal Considerations for Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Mostofi, Sherry; Hoffman, Andrew L

    2015-05-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) solutions provide many potential benefits for dental practices, whether those programs run internally on a dental practice's computers or are cloud-based solutions. However, these programs also create new risks for a dental practice, which may be mitigated through due diligence and adequate contractual provisions to ensure protection for dentists. This article addresses the legal considerations associated with a dentist entering into a service contract with an EHR vendor.

  2. Legal Considerations for Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Mostofi, Sherry; Hoffman, Andrew L

    2015-05-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) solutions provide many potential benefits for dental practices, whether those programs run internally on a dental practice's computers or are cloud-based solutions. However, these programs also create new risks for a dental practice, which may be mitigated through due diligence and adequate contractual provisions to ensure protection for dentists. This article addresses the legal considerations associated with a dentist entering into a service contract with an EHR vendor. PMID:26798899

  3. Electronic Signatures: They're Legal, Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Martha A.; Gibson, Virginia R.; Tarasewich, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, electronic signatures recently became as legally binding as printed signatures. Reviews the status of electronic signatures in the United States, and compares it to work done by the United Nations. Summarizes the technology that can be used to implement electronic signatures. Discusses problems and open issues surrounding the…

  4. Reines-Cowan team discovery of the electron neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Herald W.

    2011-12-01

    Personal perspective and recollections by the author discuss the Reines-Cowan team discovery of the electron neutrino at a Savannah River reactor in 1956. First presented at the Neutrino Santa Fe 2006 Conference.

  5. Legal issues concerning electronic health information: privacy, quality, and liability.

    PubMed

    Hodge, J G; Gostin, L O; Jacobson, P D

    1999-10-20

    Personally identifiable health information about individuals and general medical information is increasingly available in electronic form in health databases and through online networks. The proliferation of electronic data within the modern health information infrastructure presents significant benefits for medical providers and patients, including enhanced patient autonomy, improved clinical treatment, advances in health research and public health surveillance, and modern security techniques. However, it also presents new legal challenges in 3 interconnected areas: privacy of identifiable health information, reliability and quality of health data, and tortbased liability. Protecting health information privacy (by giving individuals control over health data without severely restricting warranted communal uses) directly improves the quality and reliability of health data (by encouraging individual uses of health services and communal uses of data), which diminishes tort-based liabilities (by reducing instances of medical malpractice or privacy invasions through improvements in the delivery of health care services resulting in part from better quality and reliability of clinical and research data). Following an analysis of the interconnectivity of these 3 areas and discussing existing and proposed health information privacy laws, recommendations for legal reform concerning health information privacy are presented. These include (1) recognizing identifiable health information as highly sensitive, (2) providing privacy safeguards based on fair information practices, (3) empowering patients with information and rights to consent to disclosure (4) limiting disclosures of health data absent consent, (5) incorporating industry-wide security protections, (6) establishing a national data protection authority, and (7) providing a national minimal level of privacy protections. PMID:10535438

  6. Legal issues concerning electronic health information: privacy, quality, and liability.

    PubMed

    Hodge, J G; Gostin, L O; Jacobson, P D

    1999-10-20

    Personally identifiable health information about individuals and general medical information is increasingly available in electronic form in health databases and through online networks. The proliferation of electronic data within the modern health information infrastructure presents significant benefits for medical providers and patients, including enhanced patient autonomy, improved clinical treatment, advances in health research and public health surveillance, and modern security techniques. However, it also presents new legal challenges in 3 interconnected areas: privacy of identifiable health information, reliability and quality of health data, and tortbased liability. Protecting health information privacy (by giving individuals control over health data without severely restricting warranted communal uses) directly improves the quality and reliability of health data (by encouraging individual uses of health services and communal uses of data), which diminishes tort-based liabilities (by reducing instances of medical malpractice or privacy invasions through improvements in the delivery of health care services resulting in part from better quality and reliability of clinical and research data). Following an analysis of the interconnectivity of these 3 areas and discussing existing and proposed health information privacy laws, recommendations for legal reform concerning health information privacy are presented. These include (1) recognizing identifiable health information as highly sensitive, (2) providing privacy safeguards based on fair information practices, (3) empowering patients with information and rights to consent to disclosure (4) limiting disclosures of health data absent consent, (5) incorporating industry-wide security protections, (6) establishing a national data protection authority, and (7) providing a national minimal level of privacy protections.

  7. 27 CFR 73.33 - Am I legally bound by a form I sign electronically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Filing of Documents with TTB § 73.33 Am I legally bound... paper document submitted to satisfy the same reporting requirement. Persons using electronic...

  8. Safeguarding patient privacy in electronic healthcare in the USA: the legal view.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Diana; Passerini, Katia; Varshney, Upkar; Fjermestad, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The conflict between the sweeping power of technology to access and assemble personal information and the ongoing concern about our privacy and security is ever increasing. While we gradually need higher electronic access to medical information, issues relating to patient privacy and reducing vulnerability to security breaches surmount. In this paper, we take a legal perspective and examine the existing patchwork of laws and obligations governing health information in the USA. The study finds that as Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) increase in scope and dissemination, privacy protections gradually decrease due to the shortcomings in the legal system. The contributions of this paper are (1) an overview of the legal EMR issues in the USA, and (2) the identification of the unresolved legal issues and how these will escalate when health information is transmitted over wireless networks. More specifically, the paper discusses federal and state government regulations such as the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and judicial intervention. Based on the legal overview, the unresolved challenges are identified and suggestions for future research are included.

  9. 31 CFR 370.38 - What is the legal effect of an electronic signature?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the legal effect of an electronic signature? 370.38 Section 370.38 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT...

  10. Confronting the Ubiquity of Electronic Communication and Social Media: Ethical and Legal Considerations for Psychoeducational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. children and adults use computers and the Internet on a daily basis. The pervasiveness of electronic communication in a variety of contexts, including home and school, raises ethical and legal concerns for school psychologists and those in related fields of practice, because of the risks to privacy and confidentiality, boundaries,…

  11. Information Discovery on Electronic Health Records Using Authority Flow Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As the use of electronic health records (EHRs) becomes more widespread, so does the need to search and provide effective information discovery within them. Querying by keyword has emerged as one of the most effective paradigms for searching. Most work in this area is based on traditional Information Retrieval (IR) techniques, where each document is compared individually against the query. We compare the effectiveness of two fundamentally different techniques for keyword search of EHRs. Methods We built two ranking systems. The traditional BM25 system exploits the EHRs' content without regard to association among entities within. The Clinical ObjectRank (CO) system exploits the entities' associations in EHRs using an authority-flow algorithm to discover the most relevant entities. BM25 and CO were deployed on an EHR dataset of the cardiovascular division of Miami Children's Hospital. Using sequences of keywords as queries, sensitivity and specificity were measured by two physicians for a set of 11 queries related to congenital cardiac disease. Results Our pilot evaluation showed that CO outperforms BM25 in terms of sensitivity (65% vs. 38%) by 71% on average, while maintaining the specificity (64% vs. 61%). The evaluation was done by two physicians. Conclusions Authority-flow techniques can greatly improve the detection of relevant information in EHRs and hence deserve further study. PMID:20969780

  12. Next discoveries in neutrino mixing: Electron neutrino appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyang, Hongyue

    The discovery of neutrino oscillation is a clear evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Measurements of electron neutrino (nu e) and electron anti-neutrino (nu e) appearances are the most important channels to complete the neutrino mixing matrix. In a nue/ nue appearance experiment, a near detector (ND) is used to constrain the neutrino flux and measure the backgrounds to the signal. Backgrounds to the nue appearance comes from Neutral Current Muon Neutrino Interactions (numu-NC), Charged Current Muon Neutrino Interactions (numu-CC), beam nu e events and outside backgrounds. The background components are then extrapolated to the far detector (FD). By looking for excess of signal nu e/nue-like events in FD, we measure the neutrino mixing angle, neutrino's mass hierarchy and the elusive CP-violation in the lepton sector. This dissertation focuses on the signals and backgrounds in nu e/nue appearance measurements. The first part of the dissertation presents an analysis of nue appearance in a large Water Cherenkov detector such as the one proposed by the LBNE collaboration. The analysis, including scanning thousands of events, aims to distinguish nu e signals from the NC backgrounds. The second part of the dissertation presents measurements of Resonance Neutrino Interactions using the NOMAD data. This process plays a critical role in not only neutrino-nuclear cross section but also in the precision analysis of the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments such as NOnuA and LBNE. The last part of the dissertation discusses the method of using low-nu fit method to measure relative neutrino flux and constrain beam nue background.

  13. The legalities and practicalities of developing a course-specific electronic reserve room.

    PubMed

    Curran, Mary A; Curran, Kent E

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses important issues related to maintaining the currency of readings in a nursing course. The development of a course-specific electronic reserve room is offered as a methodology for achieving both timeliness and simplified distribution of course readings. The article reviews legal issues related to the development of an electronic reserve room for internet access. In addition, hardware and software issues related to the transference of paper materials to a digital format are considered. PMID:12503469

  14. Legal, ethical, and financial dilemmas in electronic health record adoption and use.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep

    2011-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate several innovations capable of reforming health care. Despite their promise, many currently unanswered legal, ethical, and financial questions threaten the widespread adoption and use of EHRs. Key legal dilemmas that must be addressed in the near-term pertain to the extent of clinicians' responsibilities for reviewing the entire computer-accessible clinical synopsis from multiple clinicians and institutions, the liabilities posed by overriding clinical decision support warnings and alerts, and mechanisms for clinicians to publically report potential EHR safety issues. Ethical dilemmas that need additional discussion relate to opt-out provisions that exclude patients from electronic record storage, sale of deidentified patient data by EHR vendors, adolescent control of access to their data, and use of electronic data repositories to redesign the nation's health care delivery and payment mechanisms on the basis of statistical analyses. Finally, one overwhelming financial question is who should pay for EHR implementation because most users and current owners of these systems will not receive the majority of benefits. The authors recommend that key stakeholders begin discussing these issues in a national forum. These actions can help identify and prioritize solutions to the key legal, ethical, and financial dilemmas discussed, so that widespread, safe, effective, interoperable EHRs can help transform health care. PMID:21422090

  15. Ethical, legal, and social implications of incorporating genomic information into electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Ribhi; Brothers, Kyle B.; Malin, Bradley A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Sanderson, Saskia C.; Rothstein, Mark A.; Williams, Marc S.; Clayton, Ellen W.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of genomic data in the electronic health record raises important ethical, legal, and social issues. In this article, we highlight these challenges and discuss potential solutions. We provide a brief background on the current state of electronic health records in the context of genomic medicine, discuss the importance of equitable access to genome-enabled electronic health records, and consider the potential use of electronic health records for improving genomic literacy in patients and providers. We highlight the importance of privacy, access, and security, and of determining which genomic information is included in the electronic health record. Finally, we discuss the challenges of reporting incidental findings, storing and reinterpreting genomic data, and nondocumentation and duty to warn family members at potential genetic risk. PMID:24030434

  16. Ethical, legal, and social implications of incorporating genomic information into electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Hazin, Ribhi; Brothers, Kyle B; Malin, Bradley A; Koenig, Barbara A; Sanderson, Saskia C; Rothstein, Mark A; Williams, Marc S; Clayton, Ellen W; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2013-10-01

    The inclusion of genomic data in the electronic health record raises important ethical, legal, and social issues. In this article, we highlight these challenges and discuss potential solutions. We provide a brief background on the current state of electronic health records in the context of genomic medicine, discuss the importance of equitable access to genome-enabled electronic health records, and consider the potential use of electronic health records for improving genomic literacy in patients and providers. We highlight the importance of privacy, access, and security, and of determining which genomic information is included in the electronic health record. Finally, we discuss the challenges of reporting incidental findings, storing and reinterpreting genomic data, and nondocumentation and duty to warn family members at potential genetic risk.

  17. Superconducting hot-electron bolometer: from the discovery of hot-electron phenomena to practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurakov, A.; Lobanov, Y.; Goltsman, G.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of hot-electron phenomena in a thin superconducting film in the last century was followed by numerous experimental studies of its appearance in different materials aiming for a better understanding of the phenomena and consequent implementation of terahertz detection systems for practical applications. In contrast to the competitors such as superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions and Schottky diodes, the hot electron bolometer (HEB) did not demonstrate any frequency limitation of the detection mechanism. The latter, in conjunction with a decent performance, rapidly made the HEB mixer the most attractive candidate for heterodyne observations at frequencies above 1 THz. The successful operation of practical instruments (the Heinrich Hertz Telescope, the Receiver Lab Telescope, APEX, SOFIA, Hershel) ensures the importance of the HEB technology despite the lack of rigorous theoretical routine for predicting the performance. In this review, we provide a summary of experimental and theoretical studies devoted to understanding the HEB physics, and an overview of various fabrication routes and materials.

  18. 31 CFR 370.38 - What is the legal effect of an electronic signature?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... denied legal effect, including legal effect as a signature, a writing, or an original, solely because the... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the legal effect of an... Requests Through the Bureau of the Fiscal Service § 370.38 What is the legal effect of an...

  19. Electron Density Guided Fragment-Based Lead Discovery of Ketohexokinase Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Alan C.; Abad, Marta C.; Zhang, Xuqing; Tounge, Brett A.; Lewandowski, Francis A.; Struble, Geoffrey T.; Sun, Weimei; Sui, Zhihua; Kuo, Lawrence C.

    2010-12-07

    A fragment-based drug design paradigm has been successfully applied in the discovery of lead series of ketohexokinase inhibitors. The paradigm consists of three iterations of design, synthesis, and X-ray crystallographic screening to progress low molecular weight fragments to leadlike compounds. Applying electron density of fragments within the protein binding site as defined by X-ray crystallography, one can generate target specific leads without the use of affinity data. Our approach contrasts with most fragment-based drug design methodology where solution activity is a main design guide. Herein we describe the discovery of submicromolar ketohexokinase inhibitors with promising druglike properties.

  20. Is there any legal and scientific basis for classifying electronic cigarettes as medications?

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Stimson, Gerry V

    2014-05-01

    The rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes has been accompanied by substantial discussions by governments, international organisations, consumers and public health experts about how they might be regulated. In the European Union they are currently regulated under consumer legislation but new legislation will regulate them under the Tobacco Products Directive. However, several countries have sought to regulate them under medicines regulations. These claims have been successfully challenged in 6 court cases in European states. Under European legislation a product may be deemed to be a medicine by function if it is used in or administered to human beings either with a view to restoring, correcting or modifying physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action, or to making a medical diagnosis. It is a medicine by presentation if it is presented (e.g. by a manufacturer or distributor) as having properties for treating or preventing disease in human beings. We assess the legal and scientific basis for the claim that electronic cigarettes should be regulated as medicines. We conclude that they are neither medicine by function nor necessarily by presentation The main reason for their existence is as a harm reduction product in which the liking for and/or dependence on nicotine is maintained, and adoption of use is as a substitute for smoking and not as a smoking cessation product. In reality, they are used as consumer products providing pleasure to the user. They are not used to treat nicotine addiction or other disease, but to enable continued use of nicotine. Their use is adjusted individually by each consumer according to his or her perceived pleasure and satisfaction. Gaps in current regulation regarding safety and quality can be met by tailored regulations.

  1. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    animals often mask the signs of infection to avoid attracting predators (Wobeser 2006). Guidance specific to sterilization of electronic devices for implantation is limited in the wildlife record (Burger et al. 1994; Mulcahy 2003). Few biologists have been formally trained in aseptic technique, but most biologists know that electronic devices should be treated in some way to reduce the chance for infection of the host animal by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Most biologists (73%) who implant devices into fishes believe aseptic techniques are important (Wagner and Cooke 2005). However, I maintain that many biologists find it difficult to place the concept of asepsis into practice in their work because of confusion about what constitutes aseptic technique, a lack of surgical knowledge and training, the perception of increased costs, or the belief that aseptic surgeries are impractical or unnecessary for their application. Some have even argued that, while compromising surgical techniques in the field might result in complications or mortalities, the money saved would allow for a compensatory increase in sample size (Anderson and Talcott 2006). In this paper I define aseptic surgical techniques, document the legal and professional guidance for performing aseptic surgeries on wild animals, and present options for sterilizing electronic devices and surgical instruments for field use.

  2. Electronic structure descriptor for the discovery of narrow-band red-emitting phosphors

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhenbin; Chu, Iek -Heng; Zhou, Fei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-05-09

    Narrow-band red-emitting phosphors are a critical component of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes for highly efficient illumination-grade lighting. In this work, we report the discovery of a quantitative descriptor for narrow-band Eu2+-activated emission identified through a comparison of the electronic structures of known narrow-band and broad-band phosphors. We find that a narrow emission bandwidth is characterized by a large splitting of more than 0.1 eV between the two highest Eu2+ 4f7 bands. By incorporating this descriptor in a high-throughput first-principles screening of 2259 nitride compounds, we identify five promising new nitride hosts for Eu2+-activated red-emitting phosphors that are predicted to exhibit goodmore » chemical stability, thermal quenching resistance, and quantum efficiency, as well as narrow-band emission. Lastly, our findings provide important insights into the emission characteristics of rare-earth activators in phosphor hosts and a general strategy to the discovery of phosphors with a desired emission peak and bandwidth.« less

  3. Prediction and accelerated laboratory discovery of previously unknown 18-electron ABX compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Romain; Zhang, Xiuwen; Hu, Linhua; Yu, Liping; Lin, Yuyuan; Sunde, Tor O. L.; Chon, Danbee; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Zunger, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Chemists and material scientists have often focused on the properties of previously reported compounds, but neglect numerous unreported but chemically plausible compounds that could have interesting properties. For example, the 18-valence electron ABX family of compounds features examples of topological insulators, thermoelectrics and piezoelectrics, but only 83 out of 483 of these possible compounds have been made. Using first-principles thermodynamics we examined the theoretical stability of the 400 unreported members and predict that 54 should be stable. Of those previously unreported ‘missing’ materials now predicted to be stable, 15 were grown in this study; X-ray studies agreed with the predicted crystal structure in all 15 cases. Among the predicted and characterized properties of the missing compounds are potential transparent conductors, thermoelectric materials and topological semimetals. This integrated process—prediction of functionality in unreported compounds followed by laboratory synthesis and characterization—could be a route to the systematic discovery of hitherto missing, realizable functional materials.

  4. An Extended Model for E-Discovery Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, David

    Most models created for electronic discovery (e-discovery) in legal proceedings tend to ignore the technical aspects mainly because they assume that only traditional digital forensic tasks are involved. However, this assumption is incorrect. The time frames for conducting e-discovery procedures are very restricted, and investigations are carried out in real time with strict non-disclosure dispositions and changing demands as the cases unfold. This paper presents an augmented model and architecture for e-discovery designed to cope with the technological complexities in real-world scenarios. It also discusses how e-discovery operations should be handled to ensure cooperation between digital forensic professionals and legal teams while guaranteeing that non-disclosure agreements and information confidentiality are preserved.

  5. The Legalities and Practicalities of Developing a Course-Specific Electronic Reserve Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Mary A.; Curran, Kent E.

    2002-01-01

    Advocates a course-specific electronic reserve for timely, simplified distribution of course readings. Provides guidelines for the copyright and fair use implications of electronic reserve, suggesting a password-protected site. Explains the logistics of file creation, software, and hardware. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  6. Electronic health records, adoption, quality of care, legal and privacy issues and their implementation in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Ben-Assuli, Ofir

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the healthcare sector has shown a growing interest in information technologies. Two popular health IT (HIT) products are the electronic health record (EHR) and health information exchange (HIE) networks. The introduction of these tools is believed to improve care, but has also raised some important questions and legal and privacy issues. The implementation of these systems has not gone smoothly, and still faces some considerable barriers. This article reviews EHR and HIE to address these obstacles, and analyzes the current state of development and adoption in various countries around the world. Moreover, legal and ethical concerns that may be encountered by EHR users and purchasers are reviewed. Finally, links and interrelations between EHR and HIE and several quality of care issues in today's healthcare domain are examined with a focus on EHR and HIE in the emergency department (ED), whose unique characteristics makes it an environment in which the implementation of such technology may be a major contributor to health, but also faces substantial challenges. The paper ends with a discussion of specific policy implications and recommendations based on an examination of the current limitations of these systems.

  7. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    1997-03-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  8. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    2008-12-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  9. The Electronic Library and the Online Classroom: A Technical, Legal, Ethical, and Moral Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimore, Ritchie R.

    This paper addresses online classroom and electronic library issues which include the myriad of technical difficulties encountered, along with physical and intellectual property rights. It also makes a statistical comparison of two proportions of Internet access between city and rural schools. An inescapable time lag between the introduction of…

  10. Data-driven discovery of seasonally linked diseases from an Electronic Health Records system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patterns of disease incidence can identify new risk factors for the disease or provide insight into the etiology. For example, allergies and infectious diseases have been shown to follow periodic temporal patterns due to seasonal changes in environmental or infectious agents. Previous work searching for seasonal or other temporal patterns in disease diagnosis rates has been limited both in the scope of the diseases examined and in the ability to distinguish unexpected seasonal patterns. Electronic Health Records (EHR) compile extensive longitudinal clinical information, constituting a unique source for discovery of trends in occurrence of disease. However, the data suffer from inherent biases that preclude a identification of temporal trends. Methods Motivated by observation of the biases in this data source, we developed a method (Lomb-Scargle periodograms in detrended data, LSP-detrend) to find periodic patterns by adjusting the temporal information for broad trends in incidence, as well as seasonal changes in total hospitalizations. LSP-detrend can sensitively uncover periodic temporal patterns in the corrected data and identify the significance of the trend. We apply LSP-detrend to a compilation of records from 1.5 million patients encoded by ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification), including 2,805 disorders with more than 500 occurrences across a 12 year period, recorded from 1.5 million patients. Results and conclusions Although EHR data, and ICD-9 coded records in particular, were not created with the intention of aggregated use for research, these data can in fact be mined for periodic patterns in incidence of disease, if confounders are properly removed. Of all diagnoses, around 10% are identified as seasonal by LSP-detrend, including many known phenomena. We robustly reproduce previous findings, even for relatively rare diseases. For instance, Kawasaki disease, a rare childhood disease that has

  11. Recent Discoveries and Bible Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent discoveries for "Bible" translation with a focus on the "Dead Sea Scrolls." Examines recent discoveries that provide direct support for alternative reading of biblical passages and those discoveries that have contributed additional insight to knowledge of cultural practices, especially legal and religious practices. (DB)

  12. Electronic Functionality in Graphene-Based Nanoarchitectures: Discovery and Design via First-Principles Modeling.

    PubMed

    Du, Aijun; Smith, Sean C

    2011-01-20

    Graphene has promised many novel applications in nanoscale electronics and sustainable energy due to its novel electronic properties. Computational exploration of electronic functionality and how it varies with architecture and doping presently runs ahead of experimental synthesis yet provides insights into types of structures that may prove profitable for targeted experimental synthesis and characterization. We present here a summary of our understanding on the important aspects of dimension, band gap, defect, and interfacial engineering of graphene based on state-of-the-art ab initio approaches. Some most recent experimental achievements relevant for future theoretical exploration are also covered.

  13. Social isolation and delayed discovery of bodies in houses: the value of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology in the medico-legal investigation.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Bassed, R B; Briggs, C A; Lynch, M J

    2005-07-16

    The bodies of socially isolated people may remain undiscovered in their own houses for prolonged periods. Occasionally the body is in situ for sufficient time to become skeletonised, or partially so. Medico-legal investigation of these cases is complicated by degradation and contamination of evidence. Thus, a multidisciplinary forensic investigation is recommended. The potential contributions of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology are outlined here with reference to two cases that occurred in Victoria, Australia, in 2003. Forensic pathologists are often unable to determine the cause of death in skeletonised bodies, however, they may find evidence to support either a natural or unnatural mode of death, and they may describe skeletal pathology or trauma, and identify skeletal features to support radiological identification of the deceased. Anthropologists can provide supplementary evidence of skeletal trauma. Additionally, they can assess age, sex, stature and racial affiliation from skeletal remains. Odontologists can identify individuals through comparison with ante-mortem dental records; however, potential difficulties exist in identifying the treating dentist of a socially isolated person. Odontologists may also examine the teeth and oro-facial skeleton for trauma. Entomologists may estimate minimum death time and/or season of death. Entomological examination of insect remains may also confirm that a body has lain in situ for a considerable period.

  14. A New Approach to Materials Discovery for Electronic and Thermoelectric Properties of Single-Molecule Junctions.

    PubMed

    Manrique, David Zsolt; Al-Galiby, Qusiy; Hong, Wenjing; Lambert, Colin J

    2016-02-10

    We have investigated a large set of symmetric and asymmetric molecules to demonstrate a general rule for molecular-scale quantum transport, which provides a new route to materials design and discovery. The rule states "the conductance GXBY of an asymmetric molecule is the geometric mean of the conductance of the two symmetric molecules derived from it and the thermopower SXBY of the asymmetric molecule is the algebraic mean of their thermopowers". The studied molecules have a structure X-B-Y, where B is the backbone of the molecule, while X and Y are anchor groups, which bind the molecule to metallic electrodes. When applied to experimentally measured histograms of conductance and thermopower, the rules apply to the statistically most probable values. We investigated molecules with anchors chosen from the following family: cyano, pyridl, dihydrobenzothiol, amine and thiol. For the backbones B, we tested 14 different structures. We found that the formulas (GXBY)(2) = GXBX*GYBY and SXBY = (SXBX + SYBY)/2 were satisfied in the large majority of the cases, provided the Fermi energy is located within the HOMO-LUMO gap of the molecules. The circuit rules imply that if measurements are performed on molecules with nA different anchors and nB different backbones, then properties of nA(nA + 1)nB/2 molecules can be predicted. So for example, in the case of 20 backbones and 10 anchors, 30 measurements (or reliable calculations) can provide a near quantitative estimate for 1070 measurements of other molecules, at no extra cost. PMID:26784577

  15. Methodology of protistan discovery: from rRNA detection to quality scanning electron microscope images.

    PubMed

    Stoeck, Thorsten; Fowle, William H; Epstein, Slava S

    2003-11-01

    Each year, thousands of new protistan 18S rRNA sequences are detected in environmental samples. Many of these sequences are molecular signatures of new protistan species, classes, and/or kingdoms that have never been seen before. The main goal of this study was to enable visualization of these novel organisms and to conduct quality ultrastructural examination. We achieved this goal by modifying standard procedures for cell fixation, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by making these methodologies work in concert. As a result, the same individual cell can now be detected by 18S rRNA-targeted fluorochrome-labeled probes and then viewed by SEM to reveal its diagnostic morphological characteristics. The method was successfully tested on a wide range of protists (alveolates, stramenopiles, kinetoplastids, and cryptomonads). The new methodology thus opens a way for fine microscopy studies of many organisms previously known exclusively by their 18S rRNA sequences.

  16. Discovery of Disease Co-occurrence Patterns from Electronic Healthcare Reimbursement Claims Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Arvind; Pullum, Laura L; Hobson, Tanner C; Quinn, Shannon; Chennubhotla, Chakra; Valkova, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Effective public health surveillance is important for national secu- rity. With novel emerging infectious diseases being reported across different parts of the world, there is a need to build effective bio- surveillance systems that can track, monitor and report such events in a timely manner. Additionally, there is a need to identify sus- ceptible geographic regions/populations where these diseases may have a significant impact and design preemptive strategies to tackle them. With the digitization of health related information through electronic health records (EHR) and electronic healthcare claim re- imbursements (eHCR), there is a tremendous opportunity to ex- ploit these datasets for public health surveillance. In this paper, we present our analysis on the use of eHCR data for bio-surveillance by studying the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic flu season. We present a novel approach to extract spatial and temporal patterns of flu in- cidence across the United States (US) from eHCRs and find that a small, but distinct set of break-out patterns govern the flu and asthma incidence rates across the entire country. Further, we ob- serve a distinct temporal lag in the onset of flu when compared to asthma across geographic regions in the US. The patterns extracted from the data collectively indicate how these break-out patterns are coupled, even though the flu represents an infectious disease whereas asthma represents a typical chronic condition. Taken to- gether, our approach demonstrates how mining eHCRs can provide novel insights in tackling public health concerns.

  17. Legal Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baril, Cecile; Couchman, Ian S. B.

    1976-01-01

    The legal processes following a rape charge mortify, denigrate and transfer guilt to the victim. Rape laws reinforce traditional sex roles and restrict the options available to women in defining their personal and sexual careers. (Author/AM)

  18. 15 CFR 904.240 - Discovery generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the materials by other means. Mental impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an... concerning discovery, the Judge may, in the interest of justice: (1) Infer that the admission,...

  19. 37 CFR 11.52 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of any attorney or other representative of a party. (c) The hearing... the discovery sought; or (3) Consists of information that is available: (i) Generally to the...

  20. 37 CFR 11.52 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of any attorney or other representative of a party. (c) The hearing... the discovery sought; or (3) Consists of information that is available: (i) Generally to the...

  1. 37 CFR 11.52 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of any attorney or other representative of a party. (c) The hearing... the discovery sought; or (3) Consists of information that is available: (i) Generally to the...

  2. 37 CFR 11.52 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of any attorney or other representative of a party. (c) The hearing... the discovery sought; or (3) Consists of information that is available: (i) Generally to the...

  3. 37 CFR 11.52 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of any attorney or other representative of a party. (c) The hearing... the discovery sought; or (3) Consists of information that is available: (i) Generally to the...

  4. Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Brooke; Hodge, James G.; Toner, Eric S.; Roxland, Beth E.; Penn, Matthew S.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Powell, Tia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Significant legal challenges arise when health-care resources become scarce and population-based approaches to care are implemented during severe disasters and pandemics. Recent emergencies highlight the serious legal, economic, and health impacts that can be associated with responding in austere conditions and the critical importance of comprehensive, collaborative health response system planning. This article discusses legal suggestions developed by the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Task Force for Mass Critical Care to support planning and response efforts for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS Following the CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology, the Legal Panel developed 35 key questions for which specific literature searches were then conducted. The literature in this field is not suitable to provide support for evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process resulting in seven final suggestions. RESULTS Acceptance is widespread for the health-care community’s duty to appropriately plan for and respond to severe disasters and pandemics. Hospitals, public health entities, and clinicians have an obligation to develop comprehensive, vetted plans for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. Such plans should address processes for evacuation and limited appeals and reviews of care decisions. To legitimize responses, deter independent actions, and trigger liability protections, mass critical care (MCC) plans should be formally activated when facilities and practitioners shift to providing MCC. Adherence to official MCC plans should

  5. 31 CFR 10.71 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... law; (7) The material sought relates to mental impressions, conclusions, or legal theories of any... things, infer that the information would be adverse to the party failing to provide it, exclude the information from evidence or issue a decision by default. (f) Other discovery. No discovery other than...

  6. 31 CFR 10.71 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... law; (7) The material sought relates to mental impressions, conclusions, or legal theories of any... things, infer that the information would be adverse to the party failing to provide it, exclude the information from evidence or issue a decision by default. (f) Other discovery. No discovery other than...

  7. 31 CFR 10.71 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... law; (7) The material sought relates to mental impressions, conclusions, or legal theories of any... things, infer that the information would be adverse to the party failing to provide it, exclude the information from evidence or issue a decision by default. (f) Other discovery. No discovery other than...

  8. 31 CFR 10.71 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... law; (7) The material sought relates to mental impressions, conclusions, or legal theories of any... things, infer that the information would be adverse to the party failing to provide it, exclude the information from evidence or issue a decision by default. (f) Other discovery. No discovery other than...

  9. 31 CFR 10.71 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... law; (7) The material sought relates to mental impressions, conclusions, or legal theories of any... things, infer that the information would be adverse to the party failing to provide it, exclude the information from evidence or issue a decision by default. (f) Other discovery. No discovery other than...

  10. Guided Discoveries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Amos

    1991-01-01

    Presented are four mathematical discoveries made by students on an arithmetical function using the Fibonacci sequence. Discussed is the nature of the role of the teacher in directing the students' discovery activities. (KR)

  11. 45 CFR 2554.26 - Are there limits on disclosure of documents or discovery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... not include legal materials such as statutes or case law obtained through legal research. (c) The... circumstances. (d) Other discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ and includes only those methods...

  12. Large Scale Discovery and De Novo-Assisted Sequencing of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides (CAMPs) by Microparticle Capture and Electron-Transfer Dissociation (ETD) Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Juba, Melanie L; Russo, Paul S; Devine, Megan; Barksdale, Stephanie; Rodriguez, Carlos; Vliet, Kent A; Schnur, Joel M; van Hoek, Monique L; Bishop, Barney M

    2015-10-01

    The identification and sequencing of novel cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) have proven challenging due to the limitations associated with traditional proteomics methods and difficulties sequencing peptides present in complex biomolecular mixtures. We present here a process for large-scale identification and de novo-assisted sequencing of newly discovered CAMPs using microparticle capture followed by tandem mass spectrometry equipped with electron-transfer dissociation (ETD). This process was initially evaluated and verified using known CAMPs with varying physicochemical properties. The effective parameters were then applied in the analysis of a complex mixture of peptides harvested from American alligator plasma using custom-made (Bioprospector) functionalized hydrogel particles. Here, we report the successful sequencing process for CAMPs that has led to the identification of 340 unique peptides and the discovery of five novel CAMPs from American alligator plasma. PMID:26327436

  13. Large Scale Discovery and De Novo-Assisted Sequencing of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides (CAMPs) by Microparticle Capture and Electron-Transfer Dissociation (ETD) Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Juba, Melanie L; Russo, Paul S; Devine, Megan; Barksdale, Stephanie; Rodriguez, Carlos; Vliet, Kent A; Schnur, Joel M; van Hoek, Monique L; Bishop, Barney M

    2015-10-01

    The identification and sequencing of novel cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) have proven challenging due to the limitations associated with traditional proteomics methods and difficulties sequencing peptides present in complex biomolecular mixtures. We present here a process for large-scale identification and de novo-assisted sequencing of newly discovered CAMPs using microparticle capture followed by tandem mass spectrometry equipped with electron-transfer dissociation (ETD). This process was initially evaluated and verified using known CAMPs with varying physicochemical properties. The effective parameters were then applied in the analysis of a complex mixture of peptides harvested from American alligator plasma using custom-made (Bioprospector) functionalized hydrogel particles. Here, we report the successful sequencing process for CAMPs that has led to the identification of 340 unique peptides and the discovery of five novel CAMPs from American alligator plasma.

  14. Managing Legal Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Richard H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses school administrators' legal-affairs management responsibilities regarding legal advice, law versus ethics, and sources of law. Suggests strategies for retaining and managing legal counsel and avoiding situations involving litigation, torts, and conflict resolution. Explains general counsel services; outlines education,…

  15. Legal Scholarship: The Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Richard S.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines content of a law-school course in legal scholarship, describes course mechanics, and reports on its success. A section explains why law students should be given additional instruction in jurisprudence, legal history, and social science. Discusses legal education's content and quality, effects of student-run law reviews, and…

  16. In silico stereo-electronic analysis of PMD (p-Menthane-3-8-Diol) and its derivatives for pharmacophore development may aid discovery of novel insect repellents.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Apurba K

    2013-09-01

    PMD (p-menthane-3-8-diol) is an insect repellent that can be synthesized chemically or derived from a steam distillate residue of the leaves of lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora. It is one of the few natural product endorsed by the Center for Disease Control (USA) for topical application to protect against mosquitoes though it is not as effective as the common repellent DEET (N,N -diethyl-1,3-toluamide). However, DEET has several undesirable side effects and toxicity too. Thus, although PMDs are comparatively safer than DEET, no quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and pharmacophore modeling studies have been reported in literature to improve efficacy and aid further development of more effective PMD analogues. In this study, we report results of quantum chemical analysis of stereoelectronic properties and pharmacophore modeling of PMD and eight of its synthetic derivatives to aid discovery and design of more effective PMD analogues. Stereo-electronic analysis indicates that lower aqueous stabilization (favorable lipophilicity) and larger separation of electrostatic potential energy together with a large localized negative electrostatic potential region by the oxygen atom play important roles for repellent activity. Consistent to these properties, the generated pharmacophore model of the PMDs showed two aliphatic hydrophobic and a hydrogen-bond donor features for potent activity. These results aided us to design more effective PMD repellents which are currently under further investigations. PMID:24010930

  17. Space Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)

  18. 10 CFR 2.1018 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party, potential party, or interested... Geologic Repository § 2.1018 Discovery. (a)(1) Parties, potential parties, and interested governmental... interested governmental participants, pursuant to the methods set forth in paragraph (a) of this section,...

  19. 29 CFR 2570.166 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  20. 29 CFR 2570.116 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  1. 29 CFR 2570.66 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  2. 29 CFR 2570.7 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a...

  3. 29 CFR 2570.7 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a...

  4. 29 CFR 2570.136 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  5. 29 CFR 2570.66 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  6. 29 CFR 2570.7 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a...

  7. 29 CFR 2570.7 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a...

  8. 29 CFR 2570.116 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  9. 29 CFR 2570.66 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  10. 29 CFR 2570.166 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  11. 29 CFR 2570.136 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  12. 29 CFR 2570.136 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  13. 29 CFR 2570.116 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  14. 29 CFR 2570.66 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  15. 29 CFR 2570.116 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  16. 29 CFR 2570.136 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  17. 29 CFR 2570.166 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  18. 29 CFR 2570.166 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  19. 29 CFR 2570.166 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  20. 29 CFR 2570.7 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a...

  1. 29 CFR 2570.136 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  2. 29 CFR 2570.66 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  3. 29 CFR 2570.116 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials or information in the... equivalent of the materials or information by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the... impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representatives of a...

  4. The discovery of quarks.

    PubMed

    Riordan, M

    1992-05-29

    Quarks are widely recognized today as being among the elementary particles of which matter is composed. The key evidence for their existence came from a series of inelastic electron-nucleon scattering experiments conducted between 1967 and 1973 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Other theoretical and experimental advances of the 1970s confirmed this discovery, leading to the present standard model of elementary particle physics.

  5. Cosmic Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    1984-04-01

    In the remarkable opening section of this book, a well-known Cornell astronomer gives precise thumbnail histories of the 43 basic cosmic discoveries - stars, planets, novae, pulsars, comets, gamma-ray bursts, and the like - that form the core of our knowledge of the universe. Many of them, he points out, were made accidentally and outside the mainstream of astronomical research and funding. This observation leads him to speculate on how many more major phenomena there might be and how they might be most effectively sought out in afield now dominated by large instruments and complex investigative modes and observational conditions. The book also examines discovery in terms of its political, financial, and sociological context - the role of new technologies and of industry and the military in revealing new knowledge; and methods of funding, of peer review, and of allotting time on our largest telescopes. It concludes with specific recommendations for organizing astronomy in ways that will best lead to the discovery of the many - at least sixty - phenomena that Harwit estimates are still waiting to be found.

  6. School Safety Legal Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ronald D., Ed.; And Others

    This legal anthology presents contemporary thoughts covering a broad range of topics in education and school safety from a national perspective. It covers four major areas: (1) an overview of schools in U.S. society from historical and legal perspectives; (2) an exploration of some aspects of school crime; (3) restitution, parental liability,…

  7. Fuller on Legal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    The perspectives of Lon L. Fuller on legal education in the 1940s and 1950s is outlined, including the responsibilities and tasks of the lawyer, curricular deficiencies, pedagogical deficiencies, the need for and objectives of a course in jurisprudence, research needs, and obstacles to good legal education. (MSE)

  8. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  9. Development of Legal Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glöckner, Andreas; Towfigh, Emanuel; Traxler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In a comprehensive empirical investigation (N = 71,405) we analyzed the development of legal expertise in a critical 1-year period of academic legal training in which advanced law students start practicing to solve complex cases. We were particularly interested in the functional form of the learning curve and inter-individual differences in…

  10. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  11. Accreditation's Legal Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Like most issues in higher education, the accreditation paradigm in the United States is defined in large measure by the legal and political climate in which the academy finds itself. In the case of accreditation in particular, the legal substrate is of particular importance given the central role of accreditation in a college's ability to receive…

  12. THE GHOST IN OUR GENES: LEGAL AND ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF EPIGENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Cai, Yu; Marchant, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most scientifically important, and legally and ethically significant, cutting-edge subjects of scientific discovery. Epigenetics link environmental and genetic influences on the traits and characteristics of an individual, and new discoveries reveal that a large range of environmental, dietary, behavioral, and medical experiences can significantly affect the future development and health of an individual and their offspring. This article describes and analyzes the ethical and legal implications of these new scientific findings. PMID:19459537

  13. 38 CFR 36.4363 - Miscellaneous legal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Miscellaneous legal requirements. 36.4363 Section 36.4363 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4363 Miscellaneous legal requirements....

  14. Legal Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NACE Journal, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses the legal issues surrounding internships. From equal employment opportunity laws to noncompete agreements, this column offers an interpretation of state and federal statutes that are applicable to experiential education programs. (GCP)

  15. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin, A. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  16. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs.

  17. LEGAL DUTIES OF PHYSICIANS

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Andrew A.

    1951-01-01

    The history of the physician's legal duties has been traced from the first recorded writings of the Babylonian era to the present day. There has been a transition from the days of absolute liability to the modern idea of liability based on culpability. The doctrine of stare decisis developed in early English law forms the very backbone of our own jurisprudence. Broadly, if a physician renders reasonable care and skill, he is absolved from liability. Some of the more important legal duties and proscriptions applying to physicians are discussed in particular in this presentation. PMID:14848696

  18. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  19. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth.

  20. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. PMID:27444530

  1. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  2. Irresistible impulse: legal viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Borichansky, L

    1989-01-01

    The legal point of view concerning irresistible impulse as an exemption from criminal liability is discussed. A defendant who pleads that at the time of committing an illegal act he was suffering from a mental disease must prove to the court that his version is the most possible one.

  3. Legal Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Salome

    2011-01-01

    For legal issues in the field of disability compliance, this is an exciting time in postsecondary education. The twentieth anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) signals a reawakening of the commitment to provide equal access to individuals with disabilities. This chapter explores three of the compliance issues that will be of…

  4. Legalization White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC.

    The second step of implementation of the legalization program of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) began on November 7, 1988. This second step is the process by which undocumented immigrants, initially granted temporary residence, may adjust to their status change to permanent resident. Certain aspects of the adjustment are…

  5. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  6. Preventing Legal Headaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzko, Vicki Nord

    2001-01-01

    Teachers continue to be underinformed about legal issues affecting schools. Litigation and case law since 1998 suggest that principals should provide teachers with additional training in the areas of school violence, school prayer, sexual harassment, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, data privacy, and student suicide. (MLH)

  7. A Legal Constant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  8. Characterization and Legal Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Laura E.

    1996-01-01

    A discourse technique, re-framing a dispute in terms favorable to the speaker, is discussed as it has implications for lawyering and legal education. Literature on this approach to argument is reviewed, addressing such issues as constructive and destructive forms and avoidance of confrontation; and several discourse models are outlined. The…

  9. Analysis: A Legal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This commentary summarizes the uncertain state of the law regarding consent for posthumous gamete retrieval. The emergence of a legal framework will be aided by the kind of ethical analysis prompted by this family's request for removal and preservation of a deceased patient's ovaries. PMID:27045308

  10. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice.

  11. Mediation and Legal Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses fieldwork to investigate the sponsorship of legal literacy within a court mediation program. This examination of institutional involvement in literacy sponsorship demonstrates the ideological nature of literacy by showing the importance of context, investigating literacy-based relationships, and uncovering the intertwined nature of…

  12. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  13. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  14. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right. PMID:18313010

  15. Immigrant health: legal tools/legal barriers.

    PubMed

    Moua, Mee; Guerra, Fernando A; Moore, Jill D; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2002-01-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants, our government having been formed by recent arrivals. This trend has continued throughout our history; according to the Center for Immigration Studies, more than 26 million immigrants have settled in the United States since 1970, and approximately one million new immigrants come to the United States each year. The immigrant population faces highly diverse health issues that states, cities, and counties must address, many of which pose significant legal and policy issues. Social, cultural, and linguistic factors complicate those challenges, as does the overlay of federal immigration and health policy. Two federal laws, the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 and Title VI of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964, have affected immigrants in two very different ways. The former made it difficult for immigrants to qualify for publicly funded benefits. In contrast, Title VI made it easier for immigrants to obtain benefits by requiring federally funded service providers to offer translating services to persons with limited English language skills. Tuberculosis treatment is perhaps the most pressing health need among recent arrivals to the United States. Methods to slow down and hopefully eliminate this disease are underway, but a more comprehensive approach to not only tuberculosis but to immigrant health in general is needed. Indeed, it will benefit those directly affected by tuberculosis and will have serious implications for the entire population for generations to come.

  16. Discovery of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Per

    2013-02-01

    The mysterious invisible radiation that ionized air was studied a century ago by many scientists. Finally, on 7 August 1912, Victor Hess in his seventh balloon flight that year, reached an altitude of about 5000 m. With his electroscopes on board the hydrogen-filled balloon he observed that the ionization instead of decreasing with altitude increased significantly. Hess had discovered cosmic rays, a discovery that gave him the 1936 Nobel Prize in physics. When research resumed after World War I focus was on understanding the nature of the cosmic radiation. Particles or radiation? Positive or negative? Electrons, positrons or protons? Progress came using new instruments like the Geiger-Muller tube and around 1940 it was clear that cosmic rays were mostly protons.

  17. Legal Translator Training: Partnership between Teachers of English for Legal Purposes and Legal Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcott, Jill; Brown, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Training legal English specialists is one area in which cooperation between discipline and language specialists is particularly valuable. Seven short excerpts from a short training course run jointly by teachers of English for legal purposes and legal specialists are presented and analysed to illustrate the contribution an ESP oriented approach,…

  18. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  19. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then

  20. Solar flare discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper considers the discoveries that have appreciably changed our understanding of the physics of solar flares. A total of 42 discoveries from all disciplines, ranging from Galileo's initial observation of faculae to the recent discovery of strong limb brightening in 10-MeV gamma-radiation, are identified. The rate of discovery increased dramatically over the past four decades as new observational tools became available. The assessment of significance suggests that recent discoveries -though more numerous - are individually less significant; perhaps this is because the minor early discoveries tend to be taken for granted.

  1. Elements of discovery.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2008-01-01

    I understand discovery as the essence of thinking man, or to paraphrase the notable French philosopher René Descartes, "I think, therefore I discover." In this study, I introduce discovery as the foundation of modern science. Discovery consists of six stages or elements, including: concept, belief, ability, support, proof, and protection. Each element is discussed within the context of the whole discovery enterprise. Fundamental tenets for understanding discovery are given throughout the paper, and a few examples illustrate the significance of some of the most important elements. I invite clinicians, researchers, and/or clinical researchers to integrate themselves into the active process of discovery. Remember--I think, therefore I discover.

  2. 29 CFR 18.14 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not ground for objection that information sought will not be admissible at the hearing if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. (c) A party..., conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning...

  3. 29 CFR 18.14 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... not ground for objection that information sought will not be admissible at the hearing if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. (c) A party..., conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning...

  4. 29 CFR 18.14 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... not ground for objection that information sought will not be admissible at the hearing if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. (c) A party..., conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning...

  5. 29 CFR 18.14 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not ground for objection that information sought will not be admissible at the hearing if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. (c) A party..., conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning...

  6. 29 CFR 18.14 - Scope of discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... not ground for objection that information sought will not be admissible at the hearing if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. (c) A party..., conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning...

  7. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

  8. Legal preparedness for bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Gene W; Benjamin, Georges; Mills, S Peter; Parmet, Wendy; Misrahi, James J

    2002-01-01

    Responding to a terrorist biological weapon attack poses new challenges not only for the public health response community but also to the very construct of public health police powers as we know them today. States are debating the merits of revising and updating these powers in order to ensure an effective and legally appropriate response. This article covers three aspects of the policy debate: the experience in one state from a legislative perspective, a discussion from an academic viewpoint, and one example of the role of enhanced powers from the response perspective. PMID:12508503

  9. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  10. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  11. The Influence of Lawyers, Legal Language and Legal Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharf, James C.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to summarize the impact that lawyers, legal language and legal thinking have had on the contemporary practice of industrial psychology; clarifies what for an increasing number of psychologists has become the very trying experience of a Title VII court procedding. (Author/RK)

  12. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  13. Medical marijuana: legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Schouten, J T

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Washington State passed a law, Initiative 692 (I-692), that gives individuals who are charged with possession of marijuana for medical purposes a possible affirmative defense. The law lets these individuals provide a note from their doctor or a copy of their medical records stating they have a condition that may benefit from the use of marijuana. I-692 does not legalize the medical use of marijuana and does not affect Federal law, which makes obtaining, possessing, and growing marijuana illegal. The Washington law limits the amount of marijuana a patient can possess to a 60-day supply and defines the conditions for which medical marijuana may be used. These conditions include HIV, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy.

  14. Representation of Legal Knowledge for Conceptual Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, George R.; deBessonet, Cary G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes traditional legal information retrieval systems--Juris, Lexis, Westlaw--and several new rule-based, knowledge-based, legal knowledge reasoning, and analytical legal information systems--Waterman and Peterson's Legal Decisionmaking System, Hafner's Legal Information Retrieval System, McCarty's TAXMAN, and the deBessonet representation of…

  15. Legal Citation at a Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bast, Carol; Harrell, Susan W.

    2004-01-01

    Legal citation, seemingly unchanged for years, has approached a crossroads. The year 2003 marked the publication of the second edition of the "ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation." This new citation manual may soon be preferred over "The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation" as the primary reference in legal writing classes…

  16. Legal Language, on the Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2006-01-01

    US federal, state, and municipal courts are facing a severe shortage of qualified interpreters as the non-English-speaking population in the country soars. Virginia Benmaman, a professor of Hispanic studies and legal interpretation advocate, runs a bilingual legal interpretation program at the College of Charleston that helps students tackle the…

  17. Legal Reasoning and Jury Deliberations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Hurlbert, Mike J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study examining the relationship of legal reasoning abilities and dominance in jury deliberations. Explains that the study considered both reasoning scores and verbal behavior during deliberations. Concludes that jury deliberations reflect the talking and opinions of members holding the most advanced legal reasoning possible.…

  18. Legal Administrative Systems. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a course in legal administrative systems. Following an introductory section that lists the common essential elements of the course, the guide contains six sections that cover the following course topics: (1) introduction to legal administrative systems; (2) word processing;…

  19. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  20. Legalizing Farmworkers: The 2002 Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)

  1. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony...

  2. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  3. STS-92 Discovery Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Viewed from across the waters of Banana Creek, clouds of smoke and steam are illuminated by the flames from Space Shuttle Discovery'''s perfect on-time launch at 7:17 p.m. EDT. Discovery carries a crew of seven on a construction flight to the International Space Station. Discovery also carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery'''s landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  4. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal documents. 543.11 Section 543.11 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal documents. (a) The Warden shall...

  5. Antibiotic drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Mast, Yvonne; Stegmann, Evi; Ziemert, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Due to the threat posed by the increase of highly resistant pathogenic bacteria, there is an urgent need for new antibiotics; all the more so since in the last 20 years, the approval for new antibacterial agents had decreased. The field of natural product discovery has undergone a tremendous development over the past few years. This has been the consequence of several new and revolutionizing drug discovery and development techniques, which is initiating a 'New Age of Antibiotic Discovery'. In this review, we concentrate on the most significant discovery approaches during the last and present years and comment on the challenges facing the community in the coming years. PMID:27470984

  6. Discovery and Classification in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Abbreviations; Introduction: the natural history of the heavens and the natural history of discovery; Part I. Entrée: 1. The Pluto affair; Part II. Narratives of Discovery: 2. Moons, rings, and asteroids: discovery in the realm of the planets; 3. In Herschel's gardens: nebulous discoveries in the realm of the stars; 4. Dwarfs, giants, and planets (again!): the discovery of the stars themselves; 5. Galaxies, quasars, and clusters: discovery in the realm of the galaxies; Part III. Patterns of Discovery: 6. The structure of discovery; 7. The varieties of discovery; 8. Discovery and classification; Part IV. Drivers of Discovery: 9. Technology and theory as drivers of discovery; Part V. The Synthesis of Discovery: 10. Luxuriant gardens and the master narrative; 11. The meaning of discovery; Appendix I; Appendix II.

  7. Attitudes to legalizing cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jenny; van Ours, Jan C; Grossman, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cannabis use and attitudes to legalizing the use of cannabis. Predictions from theory provide a means of learning about the roles of information, self interest and regret in explaining differences in attitudes to legalization between those who currently use, those who have used in the past and those who have never used. Our empirical investigation suggests that users have a greater awareness of cannabis not being as harmful as abstainers think it is. This may explain why individuals are more inclined to be in favor of legalizing cannabis once they have used it themselves. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Basic Legal Techniques Course at Catholic University School of Law; First-Year Lawyering Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marple, William

    1974-01-01

    Describes each unit of a course required for first-year law students which seeks to develop legal skills in case analysis and synthesis, research and writing, oral presentation, client interviewing, pleading, fact investigation, counseling, pre-trial discovery, and negotiation. Includes explanation of a clinical unit utilizing a simulated consumer…

  9. Decades of Discovery

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2011-06-01

    For the past two-and-a-half decades, the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy has been at the forefront of scientific discovery. Over 100 important discoveries supported by the Office of Science are represented in this document.

  10. Serendipity and Scientific Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of penicillin is cited in a discussion of the role of serendipity as it relates to scientific discovery. The importance of sagacity as a personality trait is noted. Successful researchers have questioning minds, are willing to view data from several perspectives, and recognize and appreciate the unexpected. (JW)

  11. Friends' Discovery Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Seth

    2008-01-01

    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  12. "Eureka, Eureka!" Discoveries in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…

  13. Legal aspects of service robotics.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Thomas; Spiecker Genannt Döhmann, Indra

    2012-12-01

    The emergent use of service robots in more and more areas of social life raises a number of legal issues which have to be addressed in order to apply and adapt the existing legal framework to this new technology. The article provides an overview of law as a means to regulate and govern technology and discusses fundamental issues of the relationship between law and technology. It then goes on to address a number of relevant problems in the field of service robotics. In particular, these issues include the organization of administrative control and the legal liability regime which applies to service robots. Also, the issue of autonomy of service robots is discussed, which cannot easily be answered under the existing, human-centered legal regime.

  14. Business School Internships: Legal Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Cathy Owens; Kent, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Explores legal issues involved in business student internships for employers (compensation, workers' compensation, unemployment insurance, termination, equal-opportunities legislation, general liability) and for business schools (equal opportunities-legislation, general liability). (SK)

  15. Legal Aspects of Faculty Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    1981-01-01

    A well-designed database, carefully defined procedures, and consultation with legal counsel can greatly reduce the prospect of costly litigation associated with retrenchment. Tenure contracts, case law on financial exigency, due process, and liability are discussed. (Author/LB)

  16. Performance Contracting: Making It Legal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Reed

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the possible limits on the legal authority of a school to contract with private enterprise for instructional services. The proper procedure for entering into such a contract is discussed. (JF)

  17. [Sterilization and legal proceedings].

    PubMed

    Roscam Abbing, H D

    1992-06-01

    According to data of the central bureau of social insurance, during 1983-87 4 out of a total of 197 damage claims were related to sterilization, and in 2 cases payment was made. From 1976 to 1992 there were fewer than 10 verdicts in sterilization cases. What is charged also has to be proven. If damage is involved, the accused party has to prove that it was not caused by its own negligence. For instance, spontaneous recanalization is the case when usual controls did not take place. The onus of proof is on the patient who has to prove the damage (affecting health and physical integrity) and the causative connection between the service and the damage based on the guidelines of the Commission of the European Community. The provider has to show that no error was committed. The responsibility of doctors is larger because of the insight of science into information not in the public domain and higher expectations of them. A recent case seeking damages for a hemophilic patient who was infected with HIV in June 1983 by a blood preparation was rejected, because at that time the connection between a blood preparation and AIDS was not yet firm. If pregnancy occurs after sterilization, the liability of the doctor is not exclusive; the opposite facts also have to be proven, as spontaneous recanalization is possible. The compensation for damages after failed sterilization will only have a chance of succeeding when the failure was the consequence of a shortcoming of the provider of service. If it was provided in conformity with medical-professional standards then the damage is not accountable. A Maastricht court sentenced a doctor to compensation of damages who did not sterilize a woman completely because of insufficient information. Informing the patient about a procedure that went awry can help avoid unnecessary legal procedures. Defensive health care could have negative results for the doctor-patient relationship.

  18. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    PubMed

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  19. Applying ligands profiling using multiple extended electron distribution based field templates and feature trees similarity searching in the discovery of new generation of urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dokla, Eman M; Mahmoud, Amr H; Elsayed, Mohamed S A; El-Khatib, Ahmed H; Linscheid, Michael W; Abouzid, Khaled A

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive computational procedure for the discovery of novel urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors while focusing on diversification of both chemotype and selectivity pattern. It presents a systematic structural analysis of the different binding motifs of urea-based kinase inhibitors and the corresponding configurations of the kinase enzymes. The computational model depends on simultaneous application of two protocols. The first protocol applies multiple consecutive validated virtual screening filters including SMARTS, support vector-machine model (ROC = 0.98), Bayesian model (ROC = 0.86) and structure-based pharmacophore filters based on urea-based kinase inhibitors complexes retrieved from literature. This is followed by hits profiling against different extended electron distribution (XED) based field templates representing different kinase targets. The second protocol enables cancericidal activity verification by using the algorithm of feature trees (Ftrees) similarity searching against NCI database. Being a proof-of-concept study, this combined procedure was experimentally validated by its utilization in developing a novel series of urea-based derivatives of strong anticancer activity. This new series is based on 3-benzylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-one scaffold which has interesting chemical feasibility and wide diversification capability. Antineoplastic activity of this series was assayed in vitro against NCI 60 tumor-cell lines showing very strong inhibition of GI(50) as low as 0.9 uM. Additionally, its mechanism was unleashed using KINEX™ protein kinase microarray-based small molecule inhibitor profiling platform and cell cycle analysis showing a peculiar selectivity pattern against Zap70, c-src, Mink1, csk and MeKK2 kinases. Interestingly, it showed activity on syk kinase confirming the recent studies finding of the high activity of diphenyl urea containing compounds against this kinase. Allover, the new series, which is based on

  20. Genomics as knowledge enterprise: Implementing an electronic research habitat at the Biopolis Experimental Therapeutics Center.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Wayne; Breen, Colin; Entzeroth, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The Experimental Therapeutics Center (ETC) has been established at Biopolis to advance translational research by bridging the gap between discovery science and commercialization. We describe the Electronic Research Habitat at ETC, a comprehensive hardware and software infrastructure designed to effectively manage terabyte data flows and storage, increase back office efficiency, enhance the scientific work experience, and satisfy rigorous regulatory and legal requirements. Our habitat design is secure, scalable and robust, and it strives to embody the core values of the knowledge-based workplace, thus contributing to the strategic goal of building a "knowledge economy" in the context of Singapore's on-going biotechnology initiative.

  1. 24 CFR 26.42 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... U.S.C. § 3803(a)(2), is not discoverable under any circumstances. The ALJ may grant discovery... requestor's behalf, to inspect, copy, test, or sample any designated documents or electronically stored information—including writings, drawings, graphs, charts, photographs, sound recordings, images, and...

  2. Purposive discovery of operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Michael H.; Bresina, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The Generate, Prune & Prove (GPP) methodology for discovering definitions of mathematical operators is introduced. GPP is a task within the IL exploration discovery system. We developed GPP for use in the discovery of mathematical operators with a wider class of representations than was possible with the previous methods by Lenat and by Shen. GPP utilizes the purpose for which an operator is created to prune the possible definitions. The relevant search spaces are immense and there exists insufficient information for a complete evaluation of the purpose constraint, so it is necessary to perform a partial evaluation of the purpose (i.e., pruning) constraint. The constraint is first transformed so that it is operational with respect to the partial information, and then it is applied to examples in order to test the generated candidates for an operator's definition. In the GPP process, once a candidate definition survives this empirical prune, it is passed on to a theorem prover for formal verification. We describe the application of this methodology to the (re)discovery of the definition of multiplication for Conway numbers, a discovery which is difficult for human mathematicians. We successfully model this discovery process utilizing information which was reasonably available at the time of Conway's original discovery. As part of this discovery process, we reduce the size of the search space from a computationally intractable size to 3468 elements.

  3. [Assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity].

    PubMed

    Dreßing, H; Foerster, K; Leygraf, J; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity require thorough knowledge of the legal framework and the relevant case law. This paper explains the concept of the legal capacity to contract and the concept of testamentary capacity with respect to German civil law. The relevance of major mental disorders for the assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity is discussed.

  4. Legal madness in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P

    2001-01-01

    Legal sources remain under-exploited in the history of madness, and the legal character of some documents is sometimes unrecognized. This article examines the inter-relations between legal and medical histories of madness, and discusses use and availability of nineteenth-century legal source material relating to criminal insanity, mental incapacity, and the confinement of the insane.

  5. 38 CFR 13.58 - Legal custodian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal custodian. 13.58... ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.58 Legal custodian. (a) Authority. The Veterans Service Center Manager is authorized to make determinations as to the person or legal entity to be appointed legal...

  6. 32 CFR 724.703 - Legal counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal counsel. 724.703 Section 724.703 National... Organization of the Naval Discharge Review Board § 724.703 Legal counsel. Normally, the NDRB shall function without the immediate attendance of legal counsel. In the event that a legal advisory opinion is...

  7. 32 CFR 724.703 - Legal counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal counsel. 724.703 Section 724.703 National... Organization of the Naval Discharge Review Board § 724.703 Legal counsel. Normally, the NDRB shall function without the immediate attendance of legal counsel. In the event that a legal advisory opinion is...

  8. 40 CFR 60.26 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 60.26 Section 60.26... Legal authority. (a) Each plan shall show that the State has legal authority to carry out the plan... designated pollutant(s) for which the plan is submitted. (c) The plan shall show that the legal...

  9. 38 CFR 13.58 - Legal custodian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custodian. 13.58... ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.58 Legal custodian. (a) Authority. The Veterans Service Center Manager is authorized to make determinations as to the person or legal entity to be appointed legal...

  10. 14 CFR 77.47 - Legal officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal officer. 77.47 Section 77.47... § 77.47 Legal officer. The Chief Counsel designates a member of his staff to serve as legal officer at each hearing under this subpart. The legal officer may examine witnesses and assist and advise...

  11. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-05-12

    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  12. Viral surveillance and discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, Walter Ian; Firth, Cadhla

    2014-01-01

    The field of virus discovery has burgeoned with the advent of high throughput sequencing platforms and bioinformatics programs that enable rapid identification and molecular characterization of known and novel agents, investments in global microbial surveillance that include wildlife and domestic animals as well as humans, and recognition that viruses may be implicated in chronic as well as acute diseases. Here we review methods for viral surveillance and discovery, strategies and pitfalls in linking discoveries to disease, and identify opportunities for improvements in sequencing instrumentation and analysis, the use of social media and medical informatics that will further advance clinical medicine and public health. PMID:23602435

  13. New neuroscience, old problems: legal implications of brain science.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    Despite a large and growing interest in applying brain science to the ends of justice, the implications of neuroscience for the law are still unclear. But Stephen Morse argues that, unless discoveries about the brain radically change our conception of ourselves, they are unlikely to fundamentally alter legal doctrine. For most challenges the findings might raise to justice, equality, and liberty, he writes, the law has rich theoretical resources with which to address them. On the other hand, the author acknowledges, one can easily imagine substantial changes in particular doctrines.

  14. Drug discovery in academia.

    PubMed

    Shamas-Din, Aisha; Schimmer, Aaron D

    2015-08-01

    Participation of academic centers in aspects of drug discovery and development beyond target identification and clinical trials is rapidly increasing. Yet many academic drug discovery projects continue to stall at the level of chemical probes, and they infrequently progress to drugs suitable for clinical trials. This gap poses a major hurdle for academic groups engaged in drug discovery. A number of approaches have been pursued to overcome this gap, including stopping at the production of high-quality chemical probes, establishing the resources in-house to advance select projects toward clinical trials, partnering with not-for-profit groups to bring the necessary resources and expertise to develop probes into drugs, and drug repurposing, whereby known drugs are advanced into clinical trials for new indications. In this review, we consider the role of academia in anticancer drug discovery and development, as well as the strategies used by academic groups to overcome barriers in this process.

  15. Discovery Touches Down!

    NASA Video Gallery

    Discovery has completed its final mission, STS-133, for NASA's Space Shuttle Program landing on-time at Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 11:57 a.m. EST, March 9, 2011 after 202 orbits around Eart...

  16. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Dean, F.F.

    1997-02-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  17. Toxins and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process.

  18. Defeasible reasoning with legal conditionals.

    PubMed

    Gazzo Castañeda, Lupita Estefania; Knauff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Valid conclusions can be defeated if people can think of conditions that prevent the consequent to occur although the antecedent is given. The goal of the present research was to investigate how people consider these conditions when reasoning with legal conditionals such as "If a person kills another human, then this person should be punished for manslaughter." In Experiments 1 and 2 legal conditionals were presented to participants together with exculpatory circumstances, i.e., counterexamples. The participants' task was to decide whether they would adhere to the legal conditional rule and punish the offender. Participants were either lawyers (i.e., advanced law students and graduate lawyers) or legal laypeople. We found that laypeople often ignore exculpatory circumstances and adhere to the conditional rule when offences evoked high levels of moral outrage. Lawyers did not show this effect. In Experiment 3 laypeople showed difficulties even when asked to simply imagine exculpatory circumstances for highly morally outrageous offences. Results provide new evidence for the role of emotions--like moral outrage--in the consideration of counterexamples to legal conditionals. PMID:26689704

  19. Applying Ligands Profiling Using Multiple Extended Electron Distribution Based Field Templates and Feature Trees Similarity Searching in the Discovery of New Generation of Urea-Based Antineoplastic Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dokla, Eman M.; Mahmoud, Amr H.; Elsayed, Mohamed S. A.; El-Khatib, Ahmed H.; Linscheid, Michael W.; Abouzid, Khaled A.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive computational procedure for the discovery of novel urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors while focusing on diversification of both chemotype and selectivity pattern. It presents a systematic structural analysis of the different binding motifs of urea-based kinase inhibitors and the corresponding configurations of the kinase enzymes. The computational model depends on simultaneous application of two protocols. The first protocol applies multiple consecutive validated virtual screening filters including SMARTS, support vector-machine model (ROC = 0.98), Bayesian model (ROC = 0.86) and structure-based pharmacophore filters based on urea-based kinase inhibitors complexes retrieved from literature. This is followed by hits profiling against different extended electron distribution (XED) based field templates representing different kinase targets. The second protocol enables cancericidal activity verification by using the algorithm of feature trees (Ftrees) similarity searching against NCI database. Being a proof-of-concept study, this combined procedure was experimentally validated by its utilization in developing a novel series of urea-based derivatives of strong anticancer activity. This new series is based on 3-benzylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-one scaffold which has interesting chemical feasibility and wide diversification capability. Antineoplastic activity of this series was assayed in vitro against NCI 60 tumor-cell lines showing very strong inhibition of GI50 as low as 0.9 uM. Additionally, its mechanism was unleashed using KINEX™ protein kinase microarray-based small molecule inhibitor profiling platform and cell cycle analysis showing a peculiar selectivity pattern against Zap70, c-src, Mink1, csk and MeKK2 kinases. Interestingly, it showed activity on syk kinase confirming the recent studies finding of the high activity of diphenyl urea containing compounds against this kinase. Allover, the new series, which is

  20. [Legal aspects of toxicological care].

    PubMed

    Teijeira, R

    2003-01-01

    The care of poisoned patients in the sphere of the hospital emergency services is an increasingly frequent phenomenon. Any patient, whether or not they die, who is subjected to medical care in the course of a poisoning generates certain obligations from the medical-legal point of view. This paper reviews the most frequent causes of medical care in living patients, or in those who have died because of a poisoning, the legal obligations that care gives rise to, and the suitable form for approaching and resolving these.

  1. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 3: Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 3 (7 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "The Law and Ethical Practices in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Theodore P.…

  2. Planning the Electronic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trolley, Jacqueline

    1995-01-01

    Introduces the Institute for Scientific Information's (ISI) electronic library project, and discusses the project's technological, economic, and legal issues. Describes computer system requirements that allow ISI's electronic library prototype to provide users with bibliographic information, abstracts, and full images of journals. (JMV)

  3. Legal Issues for the Medical Director.

    PubMed

    Trulove, William G

    2015-09-01

    The nephrologist serving as medical director of a dialysis clinic must understand that the role of director is not simply an extension of being a good nephrologist. The two roles-nephrology practice and the leadership of a dialysis clinic-may be filled by a single person. However, each role contains unique tasks, requiring specific skill sets, and each role comes with inherent, associated legal risks. The medical director assumes a new level of responsibility and accountability defined by contractual obligations to the dialysis provider and by state and federal regulations. Hence, a medical director is accountable not only for providing standard-of-care treatment to his or her private practice patients dialyzed at the clinic but also for maintaining the safety of the dialysis clinic patient population and staff. Accordingly, a nephrologist serving in the role of medical director faces distinct legal risks beyond typical professional liability concerns. The medical director must also be mindful of regulatory compliance, unique avenues to licensure board complaints, and implications of careless communication habits. A thoughtful and prepared medical director can mitigate these risk exposures by understanding the sources of these challenges: contractual obligations, pertinent regulatory responsibilities, and the modern electronic communications environment. PMID:25492255

  4. Legal Issues for the Medical Director

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The nephrologist serving as medical director of a dialysis clinic must understand that the role of director is not simply an extension of being a good nephrologist. The two roles—nephrology practice and the leadership of a dialysis clinic—may be filled by a single person. However, each role contains unique tasks, requiring specific skill sets, and each role comes with inherent, associated legal risks. The medical director assumes a new level of responsibility and accountability defined by contractual obligations to the dialysis provider and by state and federal regulations. Hence, a medical director is accountable not only for providing standard-of-care treatment to his or her private practice patients dialyzed at the clinic but also for maintaining the safety of the dialysis clinic patient population and staff. Accordingly, a nephrologist serving in the role of medical director faces distinct legal risks beyond typical professional liability concerns. The medical director must also be mindful of regulatory compliance, unique avenues to licensure board complaints, and implications of careless communication habits. A thoughtful and prepared medical director can mitigate these risk exposures by understanding the sources of these challenges: contractual obligations, pertinent regulatory responsibilities, and the modern electronic communications environment. PMID:25492255

  5. Legal Issues for the Medical Director.

    PubMed

    Trulove, William G

    2015-09-01

    The nephrologist serving as medical director of a dialysis clinic must understand that the role of director is not simply an extension of being a good nephrologist. The two roles-nephrology practice and the leadership of a dialysis clinic-may be filled by a single person. However, each role contains unique tasks, requiring specific skill sets, and each role comes with inherent, associated legal risks. The medical director assumes a new level of responsibility and accountability defined by contractual obligations to the dialysis provider and by state and federal regulations. Hence, a medical director is accountable not only for providing standard-of-care treatment to his or her private practice patients dialyzed at the clinic but also for maintaining the safety of the dialysis clinic patient population and staff. Accordingly, a nephrologist serving in the role of medical director faces distinct legal risks beyond typical professional liability concerns. The medical director must also be mindful of regulatory compliance, unique avenues to licensure board complaints, and implications of careless communication habits. A thoughtful and prepared medical director can mitigate these risk exposures by understanding the sources of these challenges: contractual obligations, pertinent regulatory responsibilities, and the modern electronic communications environment.

  6. Free Legal Services - Attracting Legal Talent for Public Involvement Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Domby, A.H.

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviews the public service responsibilities of lawyers, and how they can fulfill the annual goal of performing pro bono services by serving certain public involvement groups, including organization involved in Constitutional issues and environmental protection matters. Public involvement groups should consider their needs for legal services and consider soliciting lawyers to serve on their boards or to volunteer legal services which will assist those lawyers in fulfilling their professional obligations under Rules of Professional Conduct. The group should identify specific activities and tasks that require the skills and training of a lawyer, including corporate governance issues; conflict-of-interest questions; the statutory construction of laws, regulations and ordinances; or analysis of potential liability. The addition of a lawyer to advisory boards for governmental agencies and for non-profit boards of charitable, religious, civic, community, environmental and educational organizations may provide those boards with knowledge, analytical approaches and insights that complement the abilities of other board members. Rules of Professional Conduct applicable to lawyers include admonitions for lawyers to provide 'Public Service'. Representative of many rules, the American Bar Association Model Rule 6.1, entitled 'Voluntary Pro Bono Publico Service' addresses every lawyer's professional responsibility to provide legal services to those 'unable to pay'. This Model Rule exhorts each lawyer to provide fifty (50) hours of legal services without fee or expectation of fee to persons of limited means or charitable, religious or civic, community, governmental and educational organizations or to individuals, groups or organizations seeking 'to secure or protect civil rights, civil liberties, or public rights, or charitable, religious, civic, community, governmental and educational organizations in matters in furtherance of their purposes, where the payment of

  7. Avoiding the Legal “Blemish”

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.; Momin, Saira B.

    2009-01-01

    In today’s legal environment, it is unlikely that a physician will complete a medical career without being introduced to the legal system in some way. Despite this, medical education often does not incorporate a basic teaching of general legal principles, and many physicians are left unaware of some of the important legal aspects of practicing medicine. The purpose of this article is to provide a background of the essential legal principles of a malpractice action as well as review the fundamentals of the legal process, provide published caselaw of prior dermatological pitfalls, and ultimately, provide suggestions to better prepare the dermatologist to practice medicine. PMID:20725583

  8. A Decade of Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a fascinating account of some of the most significant scientific discoveries and technological innovations coming out of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Laboratories. This remarkable book illustrates how the men and women of the National Laboratories are keeping us on the cutting edge. Though few Americans are familiar with the scope and scale of the work conducted at these National Laboratories, their research is literally changing our lives and bettering our planet. The book describes the scientific discoveries and technological advancements "in recognition of the men and women working in DOE's seventeen national laboratories across the country." Through highly vivid and accessible stories, this book details recent breakthroughs in three critical areas: 1) Energy and Environment, 2) National Security and 3) Life and Physical Science. The book illustrates how this government-funded research has resulted in more energy-efficient buildings; new, cleaner alternative fuels that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; safer, more efficient, nuclear power plants; improved responses to disease outbreaks; more secure and streamlined airport security; more effective treatments for cancer and other diseases; and astonishing discoveries that are altering our understanding of the universe and enabling scientific breakthroughs in fields such as nanotechnology and particle physics. Specifically, it contains 37 stories. A Decade of Discovery is truly a recent history of discovery - and a fascinating look at what the next decade holds.

  9. PLATO, EDUCOM, and Legal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Robert J.; Noah, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    The use of the PLATO and EDUCOM systems in legal education are described. Teaching techniques (simulation and gaming), their role in law school curricula, and a survey of uses nationwide are discussed. Available at 675 S. Westmoreland Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90005. (MSE)

  10. The Legality of Chicano Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floca, Kathryn Priscilla Haines

    The thesis briefly analyzed the laws of the State of Texas and of the United States which directly affect the education of Texas Mexican Americans. The legal-political history of "Chicano" education in Texas was traced from the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 to August 1971. The educational "problems" of Mexican Americans were…

  11. Contemporary Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A., Ed.

    This book is a collection of 19 addresses made at the 1978 annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education (NOLPE). Some of the topics covered include: suits against school officials, Title IX, competency testing, teaching moral and spiritual values in public schools, the Bakke decision, unintended impacts of Supreme…

  12. Trustee Liability and Legal Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alton L.

    Litigation over actions and policies in higher education is becoming increasingly common, and college trustees can expect to be touched by it, as they are legally and ultimately responsible for what transpires on campus. Trustees must work as a team with college presidents in the development of institutional policies, as they will share the same…

  13. Student Centred Legal Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Describes a self-study legal-language program for university students studying German that included computer-assisted language learning and satellite television. The program was tested for two years at a European university. This paper examines the program's rationale, pedagogical objectives, and theoretical considerations within the context of…

  14. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  15. Janet Benshoof: Master Legal Activist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F.

    1995-01-01

    An interview with the legal activist, Janet Benshoof, focuses on her current activities (litigation and education about reproductive law), the development of her interest in women's rights and the law, her experience as a female law student at Harvard, her early education, her thoughts about special programs and rural education, and implications…

  16. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  17. Legal Aspects of Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    The legal aspects of pupil transportation are examined, including the liability of various factions for transportation decisions and the duty of school districts to provide adequate transportation. Discussed are court decisions dealing with such complex topics as transportation of special education students, transportation for purpose of…

  18. [The debate over drug legalization].

    PubMed

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  19. [Legal aspects of ritual circumcision].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, M; Schott, G E; Rascher, W; Bender, A W

    2009-12-01

    Female circumcision (genital mutilation) is a criminal violation of human rights under German law. Even with consent of the person to be circumcised and/or her legal representative this procedure must not be carried out since a consent to female circumcision is unethical and therefore void. As much consent as there is on female circumcision the legal situation with ritual male circumcision is very unclear. In practice and unnoticed by the public male circumcision is carried out - be it for medical or ritual reasons - without deeper-going reflexions on the clearness of the medical indication or the legal situation with ritual circumcision. From the medical aspect there are big differences between female and male circumcision but also certain parallels. Various reasons, partly founded in prejudice and misinformation, make people refrain from regarding circumcision of boys also as illegal. Contrary to the prevailing opinion male circumcision also represents a bodily harm which a doctor can only carry out after a preoperative interview and with the consent of the affected person. Since ritual male circumcision does not serve the wellbeing of a child it is not possible for the parents to give their consent to the circumcision in lieu of the child. Male circumcision is only permitted if the child has given his consent and is thus only legally permitted if the child has reached an age at which he is mature enough to understand the meaning and extent of such an action which is hardly the case before he has completed his 16 (th) year.

  20. Legal Education in China Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  1. Legal Aspects of Fuel Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Frederick W.

    1974-01-01

    School administrators are advised to get legal authorization now for as much maneuvering room as can be worked out with vendors of heating fuels and gasoline for school buses. Safeguards for saving gasoline and anti-freeze are outlined. (Author/MF)

  2. School Safety & the Legal Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, George; And Others

    The role of the legal community in ensuring school safety is discussed, and effective antischool-crime programs involving attorneys and judges are described. Introductory passages comment on the overall role of courts and lawyers in education, the current national concern over crime and violence in schools, and national and California initiatives…

  3. The discovery of alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, S

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the history of the discovery of the first alkaloids. Isolation of alkaloids is connected with the study of the active principles of medicines of plant origin, for example opium and cinchona bark. Sertürner described morphine as a plant alkali and claimed that it was capable of neutralizing free acids yielding salts. The recognition of alkaloids as a new class of compounds was an important step at that time because of the dogmatic denial of the possible existence of plant bases. Isolation of alkaloids is a significant event from the point of view of chemistry, physiology and medicine. The discovery caused essential conceptual changes in chemistry. Priority claims with reference to the discovery of the alkaloids are also reviewed.

  4. The Discovery of Electrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilova, Larissa; Samuilov, Vladimir

    Prof. Jakob Narkiewicz-Jodko (1947-1905) major discoveries are: Electrography - the method of the visualization of corona discharge (corona discharge photography) from the bodies due to the application of high strength and high frequency electric fields, and the first observation of the propagation of the electromagnetic waives for information transfer over the distances. They were made in his laboratory, located at his manor home Nadniemen in Eastern Europe. We describe these experiments and equipment used in the Lab for these discoveries. We also introduce a mathematical algorithm for the analysis of the electrography images.

  5. Discovery of Charm

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Goldhaber, G.

    1984-11-01

    In my talk I will cover the period 1973 to 1976 which saw the discoveries of the J/psi and psi' resonances and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the tau lepton and the D0030099,D0015599 charmed meson doublet. Occasionally I will refer briefly to more recent results. Since this conference is on the history of the weak-interactions I will deal primarily with the properties of naked charm and in particular the weakly decaying doublet of charmed mesons. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or MARK I which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976.

  6. Legal aspects of E-HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan; Cierkens, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Cross-border activities in health care in the European single market are increasing. Many of these cross-border developments are related to e-Health. E-Health describes the application of information and communication technologies across the whole range of functions that affect the health care sector. E-health attracts a growing interest on the European level that highlights the sharp need of appropriate regulatory framework able to ensure its promotion in the European Union. Some Directives constitute a step in this direction. Both the Data Protection Directive, the E-Commerce Directive, the Medical Device Directive and the Directive on Distance Contracting are some of the most important European legal achievements related to e-Health. Although the directives are not adopted especially for e-health applications, they are indirectly very important for e-Health. Firstly, the Data Protection Directive applies to personal data which form part of a filing system and contains several important principles that have to be complied with by e-Health actors processing personal data concerning health. Secondly, the E-commerce Directive applies to services provided at a distance by electronic means. Many e-Health applications fall within this scope. Thirdly, the Medical Devices Directive is of importance for the e-Health sector, especially with regard to e.g. the medical software that is used in many e-health applications. Finally, the Directive on Distance Contracting applies to contracts for goods or services which make use of one or more means of distance communication; E-Health business may involve the conclusion of contracts. Despite these Directives more developments are needed at the European level in order to make sure that e-Health will play an even more important role in health care systems than is the case today. The new e-Health applications like electronic health records, e-health platforms, health grids and the further use of genetic data and tissue involve new

  7. Legal aspects of E-HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan; Cierkens, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Cross-border activities in health care in the European single market are increasing. Many of these cross-border developments are related to e-Health. E-Health describes the application of information and communication technologies across the whole range of functions that affect the health care sector. E-health attracts a growing interest on the European level that highlights the sharp need of appropriate regulatory framework able to ensure its promotion in the European Union. Some Directives constitute a step in this direction. Both the Data Protection Directive, the E-Commerce Directive, the Medical Device Directive and the Directive on Distance Contracting are some of the most important European legal achievements related to e-Health. Although the directives are not adopted especially for e-health applications, they are indirectly very important for e-Health. Firstly, the Data Protection Directive applies to personal data which form part of a filing system and contains several important principles that have to be complied with by e-Health actors processing personal data concerning health. Secondly, the E-commerce Directive applies to services provided at a distance by electronic means. Many e-Health applications fall within this scope. Thirdly, the Medical Devices Directive is of importance for the e-Health sector, especially with regard to e.g. the medical software that is used in many e-health applications. Finally, the Directive on Distance Contracting applies to contracts for goods or services which make use of one or more means of distance communication; E-Health business may involve the conclusion of contracts. Despite these Directives more developments are needed at the European level in order to make sure that e-Health will play an even more important role in health care systems than is the case today. The new e-Health applications like electronic health records, e-health platforms, health grids and the further use of genetic data and tissue involve new

  8. Teaching Wesley Hohfeld's Theory of Legal Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Curtis

    2002-01-01

    Offers "basic training" in Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld's analysis of legal relations, with illustrations drawn from secured transactions, contracts, and negotiable instruments. Discusses his system as a resource for teaching legal skills, and summarizes the theoretical consequences of Hohfeld's work. (EV)

  9. [Communication in health care - legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Mina, András

    2016-04-24

    This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations. PMID:27084442

  10. Legal issues in clinical nursing education.

    PubMed

    Patton, Carla Wheeler; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are concerned about legal implications of teaching students in clinical settings. Although literature is available about legal issues in working with students in the classroom, there is little recent information on clinical nursing faculty's legal liability when working with students and ways to reduce the risk of becoming involved in a lawsuit. This article discusses the major issues in clinical settings that contribute to lawsuits against faculty and offers suggestions to reduce legal liability with students in clinical settings.

  11. Discovery Education: A Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Harold C.

    2002-01-01

    Discovery Education is based on the writings of Henry David Thoreau, an early champion of experiential learning. After 2 months of preparation, 10th-grade students spent 4 days in the wilderness reenacting a piece of history, such as the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The interdisciplinary approach always included journal-writing. Students gained…

  12. Interoperability and information discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of information systems, there is interoperability when the distinctions between separate information systems are not a barrier to accomplishing a task that spans those systems. Interoperability so defined implies that there are commonalities among the systems involved and that one can exploit such commonalities to achieve interoperability. The challenge of a particular interoperability task is to identify relevant commonalities among the systems involved and to devise mechanisms that exploit those commonalities. The present paper focuses on the particular interoperability task of information discovery. The Global Information Locator Service (GILS) is described as a policy, standards, and technology framework for addressing interoperable information discovery on a global and long-term basis. While there are many mechanisms for people to discover and use all manner of data and information resources, GILS initiatives exploit certain key commonalities that seem to be sufficient to realize useful information discovery interoperability at a global, long-term scale. This paper describes ten of the specific commonalities that are key to GILS initiatives. It presents some of the practical implications for organizations in various roles: content provider, system engineer, intermediary, and searcher. The paper also provides examples of interoperable information discovery as deployed using GILS in four types of information communities: bibliographic, geographic, environmental, and government.

  13. The Discovery Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    At the Center for Discovery (The Center), a private, non-profit agency 80 miles northwest of New York City in the Catskill Mountains, children are growing and learning at their own pace, in their own way, with careful attention focused on communication and social/emotional development. Children with autism are being educated to be social beings,…

  14. The Discovery of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a model for explaining the spread of human population explosion on North American continent since its discovery 12,000 years ago. The model may help to map the spread of Homo sapiens throughout the New World by using the extinction chronology of the Pleistocene megafauna. (Author/PS)

  15. Birds. Nature Discovery I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Sally F.

    The birds of New England and their particular habitats are explored in this guide which is part of a series of Nature Discovery publications. The materials are designed to directly supplement the natural science curricula and to complement other subject areas including social studies, language arts, music, and art. The program is designed for…

  16. Knowledge Discovery in Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Jay

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) revolves around the investigation and creation of knowledge, processes, algorithms, and mechanisms for retrieving knowledge from data collections. The article is an introductory overview of KDD. The rationale and environment of its development and applications are discussed. Issues related to database design…

  17. Motivation through Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Marilyn

    1984-01-01

    Music motivator projects that enable the elementary teacher to use social science methods (known as ethnomethodology) to observe and learn about students without testing are described. Working in groups and guiding each other, students compose a musical composition and then notate it. Discovery learning is encouraged. (RM)

  18. Scientific Discovery for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul; Quarless, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    The scientific discovery process comes alive for 70 minority students each year at Uniondale High School in New York where students have won top awards for "in-house" projects. Uniondale High School is in a middle-income school district where over 95% of students are from minority groups. Founded in 2000, the Uniondale High School Research Program…

  19. Ayurvedic drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Premalatha; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2007-12-01

    Ayurveda is a major traditional system of Indian medicine that is still being successfully used in many countries. Recapitulation and adaptation of the older science to modern drug discovery processes can bring renewed interest to the pharmaceutical world and offer unique therapeutic solutions for a wide range of human disorders. Eventhough time-tested evidences vouch immense therapeutic benefits for ayurvedic herbs and formulations, several important issues are required to be resolved for successful implementation of ayurvedic principles to present drug discovery methodologies. Additionally, clinical examination in the extent of efficacy, safety and drug interactions of newly developed ayurvedic drugs and formulations are required to be carefully evaluated. Ayurvedic experts suggest a reverse-pharmacology approach focusing on the potential targets for which ayurvedic herbs and herbal products could bring tremendous leads to ayurvedic drug discovery. Although several novel leads and drug molecules have already been discovered from ayurvedic medicinal herbs, further scientific explorations in this arena along with customization of present technologies to ayurvedic drug manufacturing principles would greatly facilitate a standardized ayurvedic drug discovery.

  20. MR1 discovery.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Keiichiro

    2016-08-01

    The moment of MR1 discovery is described. The MR1 gene is the first and the last reported human MHC-related gene intentionally isolated from the human genome composed of three billion base pairs. Evolutionary considerations formed the basis of its isolation. Some details surrounding the moment and some retrospective descriptions with various kinds of encounters are also included.

  1. 34 CFR 85.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 85.965 Section 85.965 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil...

  2. Anticipating Legal Issues in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Learning how to recognize and anticipate the legal risks associated with student affairs practice is a crucial skill all successful administrators must develop. This can be done by developing a sense for scanning the broad legal environment and being aware of legal issues in other parts of the education enterprise. (Contains 1 figure.)

  3. Bibliography on Public Access to Legal Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinertsen, Gail

    1986-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of literature on public access to legal information is categorized into three sections: public access to legal information and materials in law libraries, access in non-law libraries, and non-prison libraries' responsibility to provide legal information to prisoners. (CLB)

  4. "Legal Language": Varieties, Genres, Registers, Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzon, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes classification of "legal language," clarifying terms such as "variety,""genre,""register," and "discourse," and related issues in languages for special purposes, particularly as they apply to professions. Argues that "genre," not "register," is the most appropriate term for legal language, and that study of legal discourse should focus on…

  5. A Storytelling Learning Model for Legal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuano, Nicola; De Maio, Carmen; Gaeta, Angelo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Salerno, Saverio; Fratesi, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a learning model based on "Storytelling" and its application in the context of legal education helping build challenging training resources that explain, to common citizens with little or no background about legal topics, concepts related to "Legal Mediation" in general and in specific…

  6. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  7. International Practice and Comparative Legal Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    The lack of knowledge of and sensitivity to the basic features of foreign legal systems on the part of lawyers doing international work is related to a general lack of legal scholarship. The methodology and subject matter of comparative law must be renewed and revived at a time when barriers between legal systems seem to be increasing. (MSE)

  8. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  9. A New Approach to Campus Legal Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roster, Michael; Woodward, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Stanford University (California) restructured its legal services office, for both cost containment and service improvement, by outsourcing legal work. The new system consists of a smaller in-house legal staff, for largely preventive work (academic and medical affairs, policy formation), and contracts with three outside law firms to work in…

  10. 20 CFR 725.422 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal assistance. 725.422 Section 725.422... AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Adjudication of Claims by the District Director § 725.422 Legal assistance. The Secretary or his or her designee may, upon request, provide a claimant with legal assistance...

  11. 29 CFR 98.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal proceedings. 98.965 Section 98.965 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including...

  12. 5 CFR 919.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 919.965 Section 919... (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a...

  13. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil...

  14. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims filed under this subpart shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau or office out of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.775 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.775 Section 52.775... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.775 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.232(b) of this chapter are not met since the following deficiencies exist in the local agency legal authority:...

  16. 40 CFR 52.06 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.06 Section 52.06... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.06 Legal authority. (a) The Administrator's determination of the absence or inadequacy of legal authority required to be included in the plan is set...

  17. 31 CFR 19.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 19.965 Section 19.965 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any...

  18. 40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.874 Section 52.874... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of... exist in the local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County Health Department....

  19. 40 CFR 52.775 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.775 Section 52.775... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.775 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.232(b) of this chapter are not met since the following deficiencies exist in the local agency legal authority:...

  20. 40 CFR 62.4623 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 62.4623 Section 62... Control of Designated Pollutants from Existing Facilities (section 111(d) Plan) § 62.4623 Legal authority... adequate legal authority for the State to make emission data, as correlated with applicable...

  1. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the...

  2. 22 CFR 1508.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1508.965 Section 1508.965 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any...

  3. 31 CFR 19.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 19.965 Section 19.965 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1325 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.1325 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1325 Legal authority. (a) (b... local legal authority. (1) St. Louis County Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to...

  5. 29 CFR 98.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 98.965 Section 98.965 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  6. 29 CFR 1471.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 1471.965 Section 1471.965 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means...

  7. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each envelope of incoming legal mail (mail from courts or attorneys) to show the date and time of receipt,...

  8. 22 CFR 1006.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1006.965 Section 1006.965 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any...

  9. 22 CFR 1508.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1508.965 Section 1508.965 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any...

  10. 22 CFR 208.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 208.965 Section 208.965 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or...

  11. 14 CFR 77.47 - Legal officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal officer. 77.47 Section 77.47... OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE Rules of Practice for Hearings Under Subpart D § 77.47 Legal officer. The Chief Counsel designates a member of his staff to serve as legal officer at each hearing...

  12. 40 CFR 52.06 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.06 Section 52.06... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.06 Legal authority. (a) The Administrator's determination of the absence or inadequacy of legal authority required to be included in the plan is set...

  13. 29 CFR 1471.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 1471.965 Section 1471.965 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means...

  14. 28 CFR 0.13 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 0.13 Section 0.13... Attorney General § 0.13 Legal proceedings. (a) Each Assistant Attorney General and Deputy Assistant... to conduct any legal proceeding, civil or criminal, including grand jury proceedings and...

  15. 40 CFR 62.4623 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 62.4623 Section 62... Control of Designated Pollutants from Existing Facilities (section 111(d) Plan) § 62.4623 Legal authority... adequate legal authority for the State to make emission data, as correlated with applicable...

  16. 20 CFR 725.422 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal assistance. 725.422 Section 725.422... SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Adjudication of Claims by the District Director § 725.422 Legal assistance. The Secretary or his or her designee may, upon request, provide a claimant with legal...

  17. 22 CFR 1006.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1006.965 Section 1006.965 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any...

  18. 5 CFR 919.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 919.965 Section 919... (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a...

  19. 40 CFR 62.05 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 62.05 Section 62.05... PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 62.05 Legal authority. (a) The Administrator's determination of the absence or inadequacy of legal authority required to...

  20. 33 CFR 327.6 - Legal adviser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer...

  1. 29 CFR 1912.41 - Legal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal services. 1912.41 Section 1912.41 Labor Regulations...) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Miscellaneous § 1912.41 Legal services. The Solicitor of Labor shall provide such legal assistance as may be necessary or appropriate for advisory committees to carry...

  2. 40 CFR 62.05 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 62.05 Section 62.05... PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 62.05 Legal authority. (a) The Administrator's determination of the absence or inadequacy of legal authority required to...

  3. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each envelope of incoming legal mail (mail from courts or attorneys) to show the date and time of receipt,...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1325 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.1325 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1325 Legal authority. (a) (b... local legal authority. (1) St. Louis County Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to...

  5. 76 FR 11176 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 121 Proposed Legal Interpretation AGENCY: Federal Aviation... pilot must assume responsibilities for more in-flight duties. See Legal Interpretation from Donald P... duties and may be provided an opportunity for rest. See Legal Interpretation from Donald P. Byrne...

  6. 22 CFR 208.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 208.965 Section 208.965 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or...

  7. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 1404.965 Section 1404.965 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or...

  8. 7 CFR 3017.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 3017.965 Section 3017.965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  9. 33 CFR 327.6 - Legal adviser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer...

  10. 28 CFR 0.13 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 0.13 Section 0.13... Attorney General § 0.13 Legal proceedings. (a) Each Assistant Attorney General and Deputy Assistant... to conduct any legal proceeding, civil or criminal, including grand jury proceedings and...

  11. 29 CFR 1912.41 - Legal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal services. 1912.41 Section 1912.41 Labor Regulations...) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Miscellaneous § 1912.41 Legal services. The Solicitor of Labor shall provide such legal assistance as may be necessary or appropriate for advisory committees to carry...

  12. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the... preparation of legal documents for submission to a court or other judicial body. (2) Except as provided for in... scheduled by staff, duplicate legal documents if the inmate demonstrates that more than one copy must...

  13. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the... preparation of legal documents for submission to a court or other judicial body. (2) Except as provided for in... scheduled by staff, duplicate legal documents if the inmate demonstrates that more than one copy must...

  14. Legal pathways for cross-border research: building a legal platform for biomedical academia.

    PubMed

    Bovenberg, Jasper A

    2007-05-01

    A proposal for the development of a dynamic, online, grass roots WIKI+ legal platform for sharing, discussing, validating and issuing authoritative and reliable legal forms and standards to aid the (European) biomedical research community in navigating the legal pathways that govern cross-border, multi-jurisdictional (EU) research (legal platform). PMID:17327881

  15. What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same?

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2010-04-01

    Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.

  16. Ethical and legal issues in e-mail therapy.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Daniel Edward; Schulman, Charles Eric

    1996-01-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists recently started using electronic mail (e-mail) to conduct therapy. This article explores relevant ethical and legal issues including, among others, the nature of the professional relationship, boundaries of competence, informed consent, treating minors, confidentiality, and the duty to warn and protect. To illustrate these complex issues, two services currently operating are discussed. To address potential hazards to clients and the profession, a new ethical standard for e-mail therapists is offered.

  17. Digital Identity - The Legal Person?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Clare

    This paper examines the concept of digital identity which the author asserts is now evident in the United Kingdom as a consequence of the Identity Cards Act (UK) 2006 and the National Identity Scheme it establishes. The nature and functions of the concept, particularly the set of information which constitutes an individual’s transactional identity, are examined. The paper then considers the central question of who, or what, is the legal person in a transaction i.e. who or what enters into legal relations. The analysis presents some intriguing results which were almost certainly not envisaged by the legislature. The implications extend beyond the United Kingdom to similar schemes in other jurisdictions, and to countries, like Australia, which may implement such a scheme.

  18. Legal dimensions of adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Mykitiuk, Roxanne; Turnham, Stephanie

    2004-11-01

    The ethical and legal obligations with respect to treating a minor can be confusing, particularly in the areas of consent to treatment, confidentiality, and parental involvement. The clinician must be aware of the appropriate course of practice when the patient is an adolescent seeking care for contraception, pregnancy, or sexually transmitted infections. This article examines a number of ethical and legal issues that arise when providing reproductive and sexual health care to an adolescent and offers recommendations for the physician's most appropriate courses of action regarding adolescent patients and the age of consent to sexual activity, reporting of child abuse, provision of reproductive and sexual health care to a minor, assessing an adolescent's capacity to consent to treatment, the physician's duty of confidentiality, and the exceptions to the rule of confidentiality. PMID:15560862

  19. Legal issues associated with genetics.

    PubMed

    Carson, W Y

    2000-09-01

    With the evolution of genetic research, legal issues have emerged related to the health care delivery industry and the protection of patient information. The use of genetics or genetic enhancement expands the role of the nurse and also brings a new perspective to the nurse-patient relationship. Nurses now must discern their role in relation to patient privacy and confidentiality. In addition to reviewing the ethical and legal dilemmas of registered nurses in clinical practice, the nursing profession must review the level of responsibility appropriate when using genetic and or experimental treatments, especially when the nurse is not the primary care provider or the leader of the research team. Nurses will have to delve into privacy and confidentiality issues associated with genetic research. Although little case law exists on the relationship of nursing to genetic research and treatments, the implications of experimental research and policy associated with genetics must be analyzed to better understand their impact on the scope of nursing practice.

  20. Legal developments in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-05-01

    Courts have been quite consistent in allowing ex-partners in marriages or similar relationships, usually men, to veto the other partner's reproductive use of jointly-created IVF embryos. This supports the principle of voluntary parenthood. In contrast, child custody disputes following surrogate motherhood may favor the commissioning couple or the surrogate. Decisive are the best interests of the child, which a court may find favorable to the former or the latter, or custody shared between them. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may be restricted by governmental licensing regulations, and raises concerns about diagnosis showing noninheritance of a feared disorder, but not other conditions harming a subsequently born child. Travel abroad raises concerns of legality. Some countries explicitly allow nationals to go to other countries for services legally barred in their own, but others would bind nationals by their prohibitive laws if they were to receive, or counsel, services abroad that are lawful where delivered. PMID:18289543

  1. Problems in the Preservation of Electronic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lim Siew; Ramaiah, Chennupati K.; Wal, Pitt Kuan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the preservation of electronic records. Highlights include differences between physical and electronic records; volume of electronic records; physical media; authenticity; migration of electronic records; metadata; legal issues; improved storage media; and projects for preservation of electronic records. (LRW)

  2. Using Critical Literacy to Explore Genetics and Its Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues with In-Service Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Michael L.; Melancon, Megan E.; Kleine, Karynne L. M.

    2010-01-01

    The described interdisciplinary course helped a mixed population of in-service secondary English and biology teacher-participants increase their genetics content knowledge and awareness of Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) that arose from discoveries and practices associated with the Human Genome Project. This was accomplished by…

  3. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  4. Are xenotransplantation safeguards legally viable?

    PubMed

    Florencio, P S; Ramanathan, E D

    2001-01-01

    Scientists agree on the need for robust public health safeguards to accompany the imminent introduction of xenotransplantation--clinical transplantation of animal tissue into humans. To protect society in the event of emerging infectious diseases, governments must devise a legally effective means of ensuring compliance with such safeguards. Neither consent law, the law of contracts, nor existing public health legislation can adequately enforce such compliance. Consent law serves as a mechanism of communicating the momentary waiver of legal rights, not as a durable enforcement doctrine. Because it would be essential for recipients personally to comply with public safety measures, the law of contracts would also be unable to compel compliance. Existing public health legislation would also likely be ineffective because it would need to be substantially amended to incorporate the heightened powers necessary for the periodic examination of asymptomatic xenotransplant recipients. Xenotransplantation-specific legislation would be a legally effective means of enforcing public health safeguards since it could require conforming behaviors and could impose monetary fines on those recipients who, having benefited from life-saving intervention, fail to comply. This Article argues that legislation implementing a post-xenotransplantation surveillance system should withstand constitutional scrutiny because it would not be discriminatory and because, although it would violate fundamental rights of recipients, such violations would be justified under existing constitutional doctrines. PMID:15212014

  5. Are xenotransplantation safeguards legally viable?

    PubMed

    Florencio, P S; Ramanathan, E D

    2001-01-01

    Scientists agree on the need for robust public health safeguards to accompany the imminent introduction of xenotransplantation--clinical transplantation of animal tissue into humans. To protect society in the event of emerging infectious diseases, governments must devise a legally effective means of ensuring compliance with such safeguards. Neither consent law, the law of contracts, nor existing public health legislation can adequately enforce such compliance. Consent law serves as a mechanism of communicating the momentary waiver of legal rights, not as a durable enforcement doctrine. Because it would be essential for recipients personally to comply with public safety measures, the law of contracts would also be unable to compel compliance. Existing public health legislation would also likely be ineffective because it would need to be substantially amended to incorporate the heightened powers necessary for the periodic examination of asymptomatic xenotransplant recipients. Xenotransplantation-specific legislation would be a legally effective means of enforcing public health safeguards since it could require conforming behaviors and could impose monetary fines on those recipients who, having benefited from life-saving intervention, fail to comply. This Article argues that legislation implementing a post-xenotransplantation surveillance system should withstand constitutional scrutiny because it would not be discriminatory and because, although it would violate fundamental rights of recipients, such violations would be justified under existing constitutional doctrines.

  6. Disease management contracting: legal issues.

    PubMed

    Dunst, I

    1996-01-01

    The legal issues surrounding disease management (DM) agreements can be complex and confusing to participants whose primary expertise is in the management or providing of health care. Because DM is such a rapidly evolving field, attorneys can provide invaluable guidance in avoiding legal pitfalls that can arise from the partners' sometimes-differing goals and expectations. Although managed-care organizations (MCOs) are generally already familiar with the legal issues in DM, the independent partners in DM agreements, often drug companies, may be less familiar with the various state and federal licensing and regulatory requirements that may apply to their DM activities. For this reason, it is important that, unless they are prepared to take on the responsibilities involved with licensing and regulation, independent partners of MCOs should contractually state that they are not "health care providers" and should not engage in activities that would make them subject to regulation. In addition, partnership contracts must be carefully defined to avoid running afoul of federal and state anti-kickback laws, which prohibit certain impermissible inducements to purchase health care products or services covered by Medicare/Medicaid.

  7. Expression and Association Rights of School Employees in Electronic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathon, Justin M.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the recent legal decisions regarding public employee expression, particularly in electronic environments, run counter to the culture being facilitated by the Internet. This article uses a legal analysis to examine recent decisions and then considers those legal positions within the context of digital expression. (Contains 2 notes.)

  8. The Discovery Method in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belbin, R. M.

    In the form of a discussion between faceless people, this booklet concerns discovery learning and its advantages. Subjects covered in the discussions are: Introducing the Discovery Method; An Experiment with British Railways; The OECD Research Projects in U.S.A., Austria, and Sweden; How the Discovery Method Differs from Other Methods; Discovery…

  9. 28 CFR 543.15 - Legal aid program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal aid program. 543.15 Section 543.15... Inmate Legal Activities § 543.15 Legal aid program. (a) A legal aid program which is funded or approved... Warden shall give those students or legal assistants working in legal aid programs the same status...

  10. Challenges of Antibacterial Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Lynn L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The discovery of novel small-molecule antibacterial drugs has been stalled for many years. The purpose of this review is to underscore and illustrate those scientific problems unique to the discovery and optimization of novel antibacterial agents that have adversely affected the output of the effort. The major challenges fall into two areas: (i) proper target selection, particularly the necessity of pursuing molecular targets that are not prone to rapid resistance development, and (ii) improvement of chemical libraries to overcome limitations of diversity, especially that which is necessary to overcome barriers to bacterial entry and proclivity to be effluxed, especially in Gram-negative organisms. Failure to address these problems has led to a great deal of misdirected effort. PMID:21233508

  11. [Halogens: discoveries of pharmacists].

    PubMed

    Rabiant, J

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of four halogens is due to pharmacists. Chlorine was isolated by Carl Wilhem Scheele, a Swedish who was first an assistant to a pharmacist, then a pharmacist himself. Bernard Courtois, a pharmacist under the First Empire, the son of a saltpetre worker isolated iodine in I811, after a modification of the ancestral production protocol of potassium nitrate, which is the major component of the gunpowder: he replaced wood ashes by varech ashes which are less expensive. Antoine Jerôme Balard was still an assistant in chemistry and physics when he discovered bromine in the residues of the salt marshes. He became soon after a pharmacist and started a famous career as then he became Professor in the College de France and General Inspector of Higher Education. The last halogen: fluorine was isolated by Henri Moissan who received the Nobel Prize of Chemistry. The discovery will be the subject of our next communication.

  12. Discovery concepts for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Brace, L. H.; Nagy, A. F.; Jakosky, B. M.; Barth, C. A.; Waite, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Two focused Mars missions that would fit within the guidelines for the proposed Discovery line are discussed. The first mission would deal with the issue of the escape of the atmosphere (Mars') to space. A complete understanding of this topic is crucial to deciphering the evolution of the atmosphere, climate change, and volatile inventories. The second mission concerns the investigation of remanent magnetization of the crust and its relationship to the ionosphere and the atmosphere.

  13. Discovery management workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Two dozen participants assembled under the direction of the NASA Solar System Exploration Division (SEED) April 13-15, 1993. Participants supported the goals of cheaper and faster solar system exploration. The workshop concluded that the Discovery Program concept and goals are viable. Management concerns are articulated in the final report. Appendix A includes lists of participants in alphabetical order, by functional area, and by organization type. Appendix B includes the agenda for the meeting.

  14. Discovery with FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2016-02-01

    FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.

  15. Discovery as a process

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1994-05-01

    The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

  16. Legal abortion services in Brazil--a national study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2016-02-01

    This article presents the results of a mixed methods study of 68 legal abortion services in Brazil. The services were analyzed in two stages. The first stage was a census, in which all the institutions were sent an electronic questionnaire about the organization of the legal abortion services. The second stage was conducted in a sample of 5 reference services, one for each region of the country. In this stage, a form was used to collect data about the women and the abortions in the medical records, and 82 interviews with health professionals were conducted. Thirty-seven of the services informed they performed legal abortions, and the services were inactive in 7 states. Police reports, forensic reports, and court orders were required by 14%, 8% and 8% of the services, respectively. Women who underwent abortions were predominantly aged 15-29, single and Catholic. Most abortions were performed until 14 weeks in the case of rape-related pregnancy, by means of manual vacuum aspiration. According to the health professionals, the main difficulties faced in the services are the low availability of physicians to perform abortions and the insufficient training of the staff. The data reveal a discrepancy between the legal provision and the reality of the services. The implementation of more services and the strengthening of the existing services available are necessary.

  17. The language of discovery

    PubMed Central

    Souba, Wiley

    2011-01-01

    Discovery, as a public attribution, and discovering, the act of conducting research, are experiences that entail “languaging” the unknown. This distinguishing property of language ‐ its ability to bring forth, out of the unspoken realm, new knowledge, original ideas, and novel thinking – is essential to the discovery process. In sharing their ideas and views, scientists create co‐negotiated linguistic distinctions that prompt the revision of established mental maps and the adoption of new ones. While scientific mastery entails command of the conversational domain unique to a specific discipline, there is an emerging conversational domain that must be mastered that goes beyond the language unique to any particular specialty. Mastery of this new conversational domain gives researchers access to their hidden mental maps that limit their ways of thinking about and doing science. The most effective scientists use language to recontextualize their approach to problem‐solving, which triggers new insights (previously unavailable) that result in new discoveries. While language is not a replacement for intuition and other means of knowing, when we try to understand what’s outside of language we have to use language to do so. PMID:21688238

  18. The discovery of stapes.

    PubMed

    Dispenza, F; Cappello, F; Kulamarva, G; De Stefano, A

    2013-10-01

    Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia revisited and redefined some of Galeno's reports, and was recognized as one of the leading Italian Physicians of the 16th century. Ingrassia principally studied the skull, and gave very important contributions to otorhinolaryngology, including the discovery of the stapes. He also isolated the inferior nasal concha from the maxillary bone, described the frontal sinus, the pterygopalatine fossa and several foramina of the skull. Ingrassia firstly attributed a sensorial function to the middle ear bones, which he called fifth particular function. He also added some details to the description of the VIII cranial nerve, which introduces the concept of bone conducting sound. The most important discovery in Ingrassia's study about the hearing organ was the first description of the third bone of the ossicular chain that he called "stapes". Ingrassia should thus be reconsidered under a new light for his important discovery and for his intuitions about the stapes and its role in hearing. It is appropriate for a Sicilian physician to be placed at his rightful place side-by-side with Eustachio and Valsalva in the history of otology.

  19. The legal self: executive processes and legal theory.

    PubMed

    Hirstein, William; Sifferd, Katrina

    2011-03-01

    When laws or legal principles mention mental states such as intentions to form a contract, knowledge of risk, or purposely causing a death, what parts of the brain are they speaking about? We argue here that these principles are tacitly directed at our prefrontal executive processes. Our current best theories of consciousness portray it as a workspace in which executive processes operate, but what is important to the law is what is done with the workspace content rather than the content itself. This makes executive processes more important to the law than consciousness, since they are responsible for channelling conscious decision-making into intentions and actions, or inhibiting action. We provide a summary of the current state of our knowledge about executive processes, which consists primarily of information about which portions of the prefrontal lobes perform which executive processes. Then we describe several examples in which legal principles can be understood as tacitly singling out executive processes, including principles regarding defendants' intentions or plans to commit crimes and their awareness that certain facts are the case (for instance, that a gun is loaded), as well as excusatory principles which result in lesser responsibility for those who are juveniles, mentally ill, sleepwalking, hypnotized, or who suffer from psychopathy.

  20. [Current legal problems of sterilization].

    PubMed

    Eser, A; Koch, H G

    1982-06-01

    Voluntary sterilization has not yet acquired comprehensive legal formulation. Thus there is a legal vacuum which physicians have attempted to fill by relying on their internal professional regulations. These provide for sterilization on an indication; however, an offense against this rule is not punishable in the courts. There is a prohibition, in particular, against so-called "courtesy sterilization," but this is of little significance today when so many social indications for sterilization can be found. But in general these professional regulations provide no useful assistance in deciding when a sterilization is permitted. In criminal law sterilization done by free will is not punishable nor is any indication required. The law deals in detail with the meaning and definition of the "free will" of the person being sterilized. This involves: capacity to have a free will, what to do about persons lacking that capacity (especially minors), and necessity to ensure that that woman understands all the consequences of sterilization. The civil courts have much more to do with sterilization than the criminal ones. One ground for suit is that the sterilization was "contrary to accepted morality," although the courts will generally hold that the woman herself cannot assert this claim. Another ground is lack of consent by the woman. Another ground is improper performance by the physician, i.e., malpractice. Thus the physician has to fear most the charges of no valid consent or malpractice. Questions of insurance law are also pertinent, since an insured person can be compensated for sterilization only if the procedure is legal.

  1. Electron Diffraction Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Leonid A.; Gayle, Frank W.

    2001-01-01

    Electron diffraction via the transmission electron microscope is a powerful method for characterizing the structure of materials, including perfect crystals and defect structures. The advantages of electron diffraction over other methods, e.g., x-ray or neutron, arise from the extremely short wavelength (≈2 pm), the strong atomic scattering, and the ability to examine tiny volumes of matter (≈10 nm3). The NIST Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory has a history of discovery and characterization of new structures through electron diffraction, alone or in combination with other diffraction methods. This paper provides a survey of some of this work enabled through electron microscopy. PMID:27500060

  2. Legal Care as Part of Health Care: The Benefits of Medical-Legal Partnership.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Johnna S; Lawton, Ellen M; Sandel, Megan

    2015-10-01

    Many of the social determinants of health are rooted in legal problems. Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) have the potential to positively change clinical systems. This change can be accomplished by integrating legal staff into health care clinics to educate staff and residents on social determinants of health and their legal origins. When the MLP team works directly with patients to identify and address legal needs that improve health outcomes, and incorporate legal insights and solutions into health care practice where the patient population is overwhelmingly impacted by social conditions, outcomes are beneficial to children and families.

  3. Legal aspects of genetic information.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    The federally funded Human Genome Initiative will lead to the development of new capabilities to learn about an individual's genetic status. Legal issues are raised concerning patients' and other parties' access to that information. This article discusses the effect of existing statutes and case law on three pivotal questions: To what sort of information are people entitled? What control should people have over their genetic information? Do people have a right to refuse genetic information? The article emphasizes that the law protects a patient's right to obtain or refuse genetic information about oneself, as well as the right to control the dissemination of that information to others. PMID:1897258

  4. Legal aspects of genetic information.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L B

    1991-01-01

    The federally funded Human Genome Initiative will lead to the development of new capabilities to learn about an individual's genetic status. Legal issues are raised concerning patients' and other parties' access to that information. This article discusses the effect of existing statutes and case law on three pivotal questions: To what sort of information are people entitled? What control should people have over their genetic information? Do people have a right to refuse genetic information? The article emphasizes that the law protects a patient's right to obtain or refuse genetic information about oneself, as well as the right to control the dissemination of that information to others.

  5. 14 CFR 406.143 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 406.143 Section 406.143... Transportation Adjudications § 406.143 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery... after a complaint has been filed. (b) Methods of discovery. The following methods of discovery...

  6. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  7. Drug discovery in jeopardy

    PubMed Central

    Cuatrecasas, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Despite striking advances in the biomedical sciences, the flow of new drugs has slowed to a trickle, impairing therapeutic advances as well as the commercial success of drug companies. Reduced productivity in the drug industry is caused mainly by corporate policies that discourage innovation. This is compounded by various consequences of mega-mergers, the obsession for blockbuster drugs, the shift of control of research from scientists to marketers, the need for fast sales growth, and the discontinuation of development compounds for nontechnical reasons. Lessons from the past indicate that these problems can be overcome, and herein, new and improved directions for drug discovery are suggested. PMID:17080187

  8. Discovery by the examiner

    SciTech Connect

    Walterscheid, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Manual of Patent Examining Procedure (M.P.E.P.), 4th Edition now has a chapter 2100 on patentability. At present this chapter only contains sections dealing with Patentable Subject Matter - Microorganisms and the Statutory Bars of Public Use and On Sale (35 U.S.C. 102(b), but it is the intent of the Patent and Trademark Office to expand its content as future revisions of the M.P.E.P. are issued. The requirement for information provisions of chapter 2100 - if they are upheld on judicial review - portend a significant change in the relationship of the examiner and the applicant in ex parte prosecution. In view of the fact that the Office positions which appear to herald this change have been adopted without public review or comment, it is imperative that members of the patent bar review them critically and express their concerns to the Office. Simply put, although the M.P.E.P. carefully avoids any use of the term, the Office in chapter 2100 is indicating that an examiner has a right of discovery in ex parte prosecution. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to discuss the extent to which the Office is attempting to sanction discovery by examiners. In particular, it will explore certain of the ramifications of the requirement for information provisions of chapter 2100. It will begin by outlining the requirements for information in ex parte prosecution which are expressly permitted by the rules of practice. It will then review the authority for discovery requirements in ex parte prosecution and consider the sanction for failure to meet such a requirement. Some consideration will then be given to the extent and effect of a requirement for information presented under the aegis of chapter 2100. The potential for Office discovery in the prosecution of reissue applications will be briefly examined. Finally, the failure of the Office to seek public review or comment in presenting the requirement for information provisions of chapter 2100 will be briefly discussed.

  9. Moral questions, legal answers, and biotechnological advances.

    PubMed

    Godlovitch, G

    1998-03-01

    Moral failing is usually construed as a personal flaw, but there is another construction: where morals fail people, where our moral precepts are silent. The author of this article argues that this happens nowadays where technological advances, such as genetic engineering in medicine, raise moral questions but get legal answers. By responding to the legal issues involved, the moral questions are pre-empted. This results in answers drawn from legal categories, often with commercial perspectives, but misses the larger moral dilemma.

  10. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    PubMed

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. PMID:26944746

  11. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    PubMed

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional.

  12. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  13. [Drugs legalization and public health].

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.

  14. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise. PMID:23079364

  15. Pregnancy complications following legally induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Obel, E B

    1979-01-01

    The frequency of pregnancy and delivery complications in women whose previous pregnancy had been terminated by a legally induced abortion is evaluated in a prospective and a retrospective study. Bleeding before 28 weeks of gestation and retention of placenta or placental tissue occurred more frequently after legal abortion that in a control group matched for age, parity, and socio-economic status. Other pregnancy and delivery complications did not occur more frequently after legal abortion. It is of particular interest that the study could not demonstrate an increased frequency of low birth weight among women whose previous pregnancy had been terminated by legal abortion.

  16. Legal methodology as nursing problem solving.

    PubMed

    Weiler, K; Rhodes, A M

    1991-01-01

    This article presents legal methodology as a form of nursing research. The four elements of the legal methodology are examined. The sources of legal authority are explained and the essential components of one case, Sermchief v Gonzales are presented in detail as an illustration of the legal methodology. In addition to the elements of the methodology, the methodological tools for the process are described. The computer and manual searching strategies are identified. Finally, the citation system which serves as an integral portion of the methodological process is discussed.

  17. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  18. Discovery in a World of Mashups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. A.; Ritschel, B.; Hourcle, J. A.; Moon, I. S.

    2014-12-01

    When the first digital information was stored electronically, discovery of what existed was through file names and the organization of the file system. With the advent of networks, digital information was shared on a wider scale, but discovery remained based on file and folder names. With a growing number of information sources, named based discovery quickly became ineffective. The keyword based search engine was one of the first types of a mashup in the world of Web 1.0. Embedded links from one document to another with prescribed relationships between files and the world of Web 2.0 was formed. Search engines like Google used the links to improve search results and a worldwide mashup was formed. While a vast improvement, the need for semantic (meaning rich) discovery was clear, especially for the discovery of scientific data. In response, every science discipline defined schemas to describe their type of data. Some core schemas where shared, but most schemas are custom tailored even though they share many common concepts. As with the networking of information sources, science increasingly relies on data from multiple disciplines. So there is a need to bring together multiple sources of semantically rich information. We explore how harvesting, conceptual mapping, facet based search engines, search term promotion, and style sheets can be combined to create the next generation of mashups in the emerging world of Web 3.0. We use NASA's Planetary Data System and NASA's Heliophysics Data Environment to illustrate how to create a multi-discipline mash-up.

  19. Network discovery with DCM

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Li, Baojuan; Daunizeau, Jean; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about inferring or discovering the functional architecture of distributed systems using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM). We describe a scheme that recovers the (dynamic) Bayesian dependency graph (connections in a network) using observed network activity. This network discovery uses Bayesian model selection to identify the sparsity structure (absence of edges or connections) in a graph that best explains observed time-series. The implicit adjacency matrix specifies the form of the network (e.g., cyclic or acyclic) and its graph-theoretical attributes (e.g., degree distribution). The scheme is illustrated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series to discover functional brain networks. Crucially, it can be applied to experimentally evoked responses (activation studies) or endogenous activity in task-free (resting state) fMRI studies. Unlike conventional approaches to network discovery, DCM permits the analysis of directed and cyclic graphs. Furthermore, it eschews (implausible) Markovian assumptions about the serial independence of random fluctuations. The scheme furnishes a network description of distributed activity in the brain that is optimal in the sense of having the greatest conditional probability, relative to other networks. The networks are characterised in terms of their connectivity or adjacency matrices and conditional distributions over the directed (and reciprocal) effective connectivity between connected nodes or regions. We envisage that this approach will provide a useful complement to current analyses of functional connectivity for both activation and resting-state studies. PMID:21182971

  20. Causality discovery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Ertl, T.; Jirotka, M.; Trefethen, A.; Schmidt, A.; Coecke, B.; Bañares-Alcántara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newton found the cause for an apple to fall, and Darwin discovered natural selection). Meanwhile, we continue to seek a comprehensive understanding about the causes of numerous complex phenomena, such as social divisions, economic crisis, global warming, home-grown terrorism, etc. Humans analyse and reason causality based on observation, experimentation and acquired a priori knowledge. Today's technologies enable us to make observations and carry out experiments in an unprecedented scale that has created data mountains everywhere. Whereas there are exciting opportunities to discover new causation relationships, there are also unparalleled challenges to benefit from such data mountains. In this article, we present a case for developing a new piece of ICT, called Causality Discovery Technology. We reason about the necessity, feasibility and potential impact of such a technology.

  1. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  2. Drug discovery today.

    PubMed

    Schwardt, Oliver; Kolb, Hartmuth; Ernst, Beat

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, tools for the development of new drugs have been dramatically improved. These include genomic and proteomic research, numerous biophysical methods, combinatorial chemistry and screening technologies. In addition, early ADMET studies are employed in order to significantly reduce the failure rate in the development of drug candidates. As a consequence, the lead finding, lead optimization and development process has gained marked enhancement in speed and efficiency. In parallel to this development, major pharma companies are increasingly outsourcing many components of drug discovery research to biotech companies. All these measures are designed to address the need for a faster time to market. New screening methodologies have contributed significantly to the efficiency of the drug discovery process. The conventional screening of single compounds or compound libraries has been dramatically accelerated by high throughput screening methods. In addition, in silico screening methods allow the evaluation of virtual compounds. A wide range of new lead finding and lead optimization opportunities result from novel screening methods by NMR, which are the topic of this review article.

  3. K-12 access to internet: Securing the legal framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauassociate, Andrew

    1993-09-01

    While many people in government, education, and industry have lauded the potential educational value of Internet access for students in grades K-12, there is as yet no legal or regulatory framework within which this new medium is being offered to students. The Communications Policy Forum, a nonpartisan project of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, recently convened a roundtable to discuss some of the legal issues that arise when K-12 schools provide Internet access to their students. Approximately 15 people, representing carriers who provide connections to the Internet, schools or school systems who are connected to the Internet, and legal experts with expertise in this and related areas, met to discuss questions of legal liability as this new medium enters an educational setting for minors. The following attempts to capture the major issues, suggestions, and directions for further collaborative efforts raised during the course of that discussion. In brief, the group identified statutory language aimed at other types of electronic communication that may offer some guidance; was briefed on a host of state laws that could be used to prosecute providers of certain materials found on the Internet; and concluded that there is no case law that clearly applies to this setting. The discussion revealed an interest in anticipating issues and developing responses before problems arose, and the need for shared approaches to allow carriers to move forward in serving and expanding this field. Members of the group offered to pursue these issues jointly and agreed upon a handful of concrete steps for further exploration and discussion.

  4. [Electronic medical records: medical and legal aspects, privacy, safety, and legal validity].

    PubMed

    Ravizza, P; Pasini, E

    2001-03-01

    Medical records must collect all data concerning in-hospital management of patients: data have to be verified and easily retrievable. Clinicians are responsible for both format and content of medical records. Respect of patient's privacy must be made sure both during on-line management and long-term storage of records. Computerization can offer many advantages to clinicians, but needs some significant adjustments: training and motivation of operators, arrangement of clinical processes and of administrative rules to technological developments. Nevertheless, some important results can be afforded: standardization of procedures, distribution of univocal, verified and ubiquitous data to all concerned operators, protection against undesired retrieval, reliability of effective reports. Preliminary condition is a clinical local area network, widespread into the institution. Database implementation must follow well accepted methodology: flow chart design of data dictionary, standardization of data coding, input of verified data, effective reporting. Access to data must be controlled by sophisticated and sure password system. Back-up of data must be automatically available with adequate timing and methodology. Respect of rules on patient's privacy must be realized whenever possible. Complex clinical records should be made available, containing data, signals and images (both single frames and dynamic sequences), due to continuous technical progress of diagnostic tools. Medical records must be available for long periods of time: database engine and managing tools must be selected among well accepted and largely available producers; informatic assistance must be assured for management and evolution of systems over the years.

  5. Discovery and Classification in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Three decades after Martin Harwit's pioneering Cosmic Discovery (1981), and following on the recent IAU Symposium "Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery,” we have revisited the problem of discovery in astronomy, emphasizing new classes of objects. 82 such classes have been identified and analyzed, including 22 in the realm of the planets, 36 in the realm of the stars, and 24 in the realm of the galaxies. We find an extended structure of discovery, consisting of detection, interpretation and understanding, each with its own nuances and a microstructure including conceptual, technological and social roles. This is true with a remarkable degree of consistency over the last 400 years of telescopic astronomy, ranging from Galileo's discovery of satellites, planetary rings and star clusters, to the discovery of quasars and pulsars. Telescopes have served as "engines of discovery” in several ways, ranging from telescope size and sensitivity (planetary nebulae and spiral galaxies), to specialized detectors (TNOs) and the opening of the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomy (pulsars, pulsar planets, and most active galaxies). A few classes (radiation belts, the solar wind and cosmic rays), were initially discovered without the telescope. Classification also plays an important role in discovery. While it might seem that classification marks the end of discovery, or a post-discovery phase, in fact it often marks the beginning, even a pre-discovery phase. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the classification of stellar spectra, long before dwarfs, giants and supergiants were known, or their evolutionary sequence recognized. Classification may also be part of a post-discovery phase, as in the MK system of stellar classification, constructed after the discovery of stellar luminosity classes. Some classes are declared rather than discovered, as in the case of gas and ice giant planets, and, infamously, Pluto as a dwarf planet.

  6. Ethical-legal problems of DNA databases in criminal investigation

    PubMed Central

    Guillen, M.; Lareu, M. V.; Pestoni, C.; Salas, A.; Carracedo, A.

    2000-01-01

    Advances in DNA technology and the discovery of DNA polymorphisms have permitted the creation of DNA databases of individuals for the purpose of criminal investigation. Many ethical and legal problems arise in the preparation of a DNA database, and these problems are especially important when one analyses the legal regulations on the subject. In this paper three main groups of possibilities, three systems, are analysed in relation to databases. The first system is based on a general analysis of the population; the second one is based on the taking of samples for a particular list of crimes, and a third is based only on the specific analysis of each case. The advantages and disadvantages of each system are compared and controversial issues are then examined. We found the second system to be the best choice for Spain and other European countries with a similar tradition when we weighed the rights of an individual against the public's interest in the prosecution of a crime. Key Words: DNA databases • forensic genetics • ethics PMID:10951922

  7. Legal Reference Service in the Public Library: A Guide to Primary-Source Legal Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Judith M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses primary-source legal materials (laws, regulations, court decisions) useful for public libraries. Highlights include a discussion of federal and state branches of government and corresponding publications; tools needed for legal research (digests, annotated codes, "pocket parts"); four levels of legal service; and primary sources of…

  8. 20 CFR 404.733 - Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or legally adopted child. 404.733 Section 404.733 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.733 Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child. If you are...

  9. Constitutionally-Legal Policy as Base Type of Legal Policy of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anichkin, Eugene S.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with reasons for formation, nature and specifics of the constitutionally legal policy of modern Russia. The special attention is spared to the exposure of the aim, long-term and short-term tasks, and principles of national constitutionally legal policy. The functions of constitutionally legal policy are separately considered:…

  10. 20 CFR 404.733 - Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or legally adopted child. 404.733 Section 404.733 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.733 Evidence you are the legally adopting parent or legally adopted child. If you are...

  11. Hubble: 20 Years of Discovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hubble's discoveries have revolutionized nearly all areas of current astronomical research from planetary science to cosmology. Actor and writer Brent Spiner narrates a visual journey back in time ...

  12. Bioanalysis in oncology drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Bioanalysis is an important aspect of drug discovery process regardless of the chosen therapeutic area. There is a general misconception that bioanalysis is seldom important during the drug discovery process because there is no scrutiny of the data from a regulatory perspective. However, bioanalytical data gathered during the discovery stage enable several key decision(s) inclusive of termination of the program and/or creating adequate differentiation from the lead competitive molecules. The review covers various stage gate screens and experimental designs where bioanalytical data are extensively used for making an informed decision during the process of drug discovery.

  13. Optogenetics enlightens neuroscience drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Optogenetics - the use of light and genetics to manipulate and monitor the activities of defined cell populations - has already had a transformative impact on basic neuroscience research. Now, the conceptual and methodological advances associated with optogenetic approaches are providing fresh momentum to neuroscience drug discovery, particularly in areas that are stalled on the concept of 'fixing the brain chemistry'. Optogenetics is beginning to translate and transit into drug discovery in several key domains, including target discovery, high-throughput screening and novel therapeutic approaches to disease states. Here, we discuss the exciting potential of optogenetic technologies to transform neuroscience drug discovery.

  14. Legal interfaces in telemedicine technology.

    PubMed

    Lott, C M

    1996-05-01

    Telemedicine, an emerging technology which seeks to use advanced telecommunications equipment to enhance medical care, is progressing rapidly in the Department of Defense health care delivery system. This paper recommends that a cautious, preventive law approach be simultaneously initiated to ensure that the technology does not abridge patients' rights to confidentiality or security of medical records, and that agreement on practice parameters be developed. Seven interfaces, in the areas of informed consent, physician liability, non-physician liability, costs, practice parameters, physician-patient relationships, and ergonomics, are discussed in the context of telemedicine. The author recommends that telemedicine pioneers include the legal community's early input in the application of telemedicine technology to help avoid needless litigation.

  15. [Legal medicine--an evolution].

    PubMed

    Timperman, J

    1996-01-01

    After about forty years of medico-legal practice the author considers some aspects of the evolution of this activity on the forensic field. He throws a glance on the nowadays problems concerning living persons or victims and even so on the new trends in regard to thanatology and thanato-etiology. After having drown some comments towards the "CO-WORKING" with the judicial apparatus he underlines his views and perspectives regarding on the one side the eventual postdoctoral graduation of Police Surgeons and on the other, the official qualification, on the basis of academic criteria, of forensic pathologists who, with the clear support of the universities, he hopes to see more strengthened by future statutes.

  16. 28 CFR 543.15 - Legal aid program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal aid program. 543.15 Section 543.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.15 Legal aid program. (a) A legal aid program which is funded or...

  17. 22 CFR 92.84 - Legal process defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal process defined. 92.84 Section 92.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Quasi-Legal Services § 92.84 Legal process defined. Legal process means a writ, warrant, mandate, or other...

  18. Tuberculosis: Medico-Legal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vetrugno, G.; De-Giorgio, F.; D’Alessandro, F.; Scafetta, I.; Berloco, F.; Buonsenso, D.; Abbate, F.; Scalise, G.; Pascali, V.L.; Valentini, P

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90–95%) of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—and in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

  19. Tuberculosis: medico-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Vetrugno, G; De-Giorgio, F; D'Alessandro, F; Scafetta, I; Berloco, F; Buonsenso, D; Abbate, F; Scalise, G; Pascali, V L; Valentini, P

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95%) of the latter - which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed - remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of "epidemic" and "disease," it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of "epidemic," and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily-and in some cases permanently-disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

  20. Centennial of Metchnikoff's discovery.

    PubMed

    Heifets, L

    1982-05-01

    Phagocytosis was discovered by Elie Metchnikoff (Ilia Mechnikov) in 1882. Although the phenomenon of endocytosis by the leukocytes (more related to the pinocytosis) had been described 30 years earlier [8], it was Metchnikoff who explained its function, and alerted the scientific community to the importance of phagocytosis in immunity. He devoted most of his life to studying different aspects of phagocytosis and related immunological phenomena. It required 25 years of intense effort to achieve recognition of the phagocytosis theory, the first experimentally based theory in immunology. This struggle culminated in 1908 with the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Metchnikoff and Ehrlich for their two theories of immunity, "cellular" and "humoral," respectively. That was an official recognition of the existence and importance of immunology, but modern immunology began at the moment of Metchnikoff's discovery, which is why 1982 may be considered the 100th year anniversary of immunology. PMID:6750115

  1. Advice for the New Legal Studies Professor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The transition into academia from law school or legal practice is a significant and exciting shift in one's legal career. This transition, however, can also be one that presents numerous challenges. Preparing a syllabus and drafting lecture material can seem like a daunting task. Writing an academic article for the first time involves learning a…

  2. Legal issues associated with antimicrobial drug resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    An effective public health strategy against the development of antimicrobial drug resistance needs to be informed by legal as well as scientific analysis. This article describes some legal issues arising from current efforts against antimicrobial resistance and underscores the interdependence between law and public health in these efforts. PMID:9621187

  3. Legal Basics: A Handbook for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Evelyn B.

    The purpose of this handbook is to help educators at all levels to recognize potential legal hazards in educational settings and to learn how to negotiate the slick roads safely. The focus is on school and classroom issues, not district-level topics. Legal basics are discussed in the context of both informal anecdotes about actual situations and…

  4. LEGAL ISSUES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legal issues are becoming as important as any other in promoting or limiting the development of GIS technology. Certainly legal considerations must now be kept in mind during the creation and implementation of large public and private GIS projects. Debate focuses on a number of...

  5. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation...

  6. 16 CFR 600.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Credit Reporting Act are found in subpart H of 16 CFR part 1 (§§ 1.71-1.73). ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial... INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules...

  7. New Directions in Legal Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, R. T.; And Others

    The paper discusses some new developments that should evolve during the next decade in automating the handling of legal information. These new developments include: automated question-answering systems to provide quick and inexpensive answers to many non-controversial, but not necessarily simple legal questions to aid lawyers, social and welfare…

  8. 28 CFR 0.13 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 0.13 Section 0.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.13 Legal proceedings. (a) Each Assistant Attorney General and Deputy...

  9. 28 CFR 0.13 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 0.13 Section 0.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.13 Legal proceedings. (a) Each Assistant Attorney General and Deputy...

  10. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Legal basis. 120.9 Section 120.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and...

  11. Normalized Legal Drafting and the Query Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Layman E.; Engholm, C. Rudy

    1978-01-01

    Normalized legal drafting, a mode of expressing ideas in legal documents so that the syntax that relates the constituent propositions is simplified and standardized, and the query method, a question-asking activity that teaches normalized drafting and provides practice, are examined. Some examples are presented. (JMD)

  12. Legal Guidelines for Curbing School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Jonathan A.; Dowling, Ruth T.; Horton, Janet L.; Howie, Margaret-Ann F.; Majestic, Ann L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Shaw, Brian C.; Smith, Bruce W.

    This publication contains articles that focus on the legal issues that confront schools when they use various means to maintain order and safeguard student well being, and examine the liability that may be imposed if they fail to do so. Following the foreword and the introduction, the articles include: (1) "Legal and Policy Issues in Curbing…

  13. Medical marijuana: Legal and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Louise

    2015-10-16

    Nearly half of the United States has legalized medical marijuana. Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in six states can authorize patients for medical marijuana use. Knowledge of legal and regulatory aspects of medical marijuana laws will protect an APRN's license and the public.

  14. The Florida Survey of Newly Legalized Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; Nimnicht, Glen

    This study was conducted to gather more definitive information about aliens who were newly legalized under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Two groups of eligible legal aliens were interviewed in Florida: those residing in the United States before 1982 (PRE-82s) and special agricultural workers (SAWs). The 1,300 subjects were asked…

  15. Legalizing the Intolerable Is a Bad Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    History reveals that drug legalization accelerates new use and contributes to a larger population of chronic users. When states energetically enforce antidrug laws and policies, illegal drug use is reduced and eliminated. Drug use is incompatible with healthy child development and learning. Legalizing drugs is the shallowest response to the…

  16. The Employment and Wages of Legalized Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.; Tienda, Marta

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes employment and wages of recently legalized immigrants using the Legalization Application Processing System file which is based on individual records of amnesty applicants and draws comparisons with sample of foreign-born population from Current Population Surveys of 1983, 1986, and 1988. Among demographic differences of total foreign-born…

  17. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  18. The Legalization of the School Psychologists' World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirp, David L.; Kirp, Lauren M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the increasing tendency of legal rules to shape school psychologist's conduct. The article suggests that "the legalization of the school psychologist's world" may afford an opportunity to reshape, in more "nonformal" and collegial ways, relationships with other school professions, students, and parents. (Author)

  19. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  20. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  1. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  2. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  3. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  4. The Legal Issues Surrounding the TAAS Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucedo, Leticia M.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews legal claims made by the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund on behalf of plaintiffs challenging the Texas graduation requirement that students pass the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. Discusses the requirement as a violation of minority students' equal protection and due process rights. Analyzes court actions and the…

  5. 20 CFR 410.391 - Legal impediment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal impediment. 410.391 Section 410.391 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.391 Legal impediment. For purposes...

  6. 20 CFR 410.391 - Legal impediment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal impediment. 410.391 Section 410.391 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.391 Legal impediment. For purposes...

  7. The Jeffersonian Vision of Legal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Davison M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the Jeffersonian vision of legal education. Examines methods of training lawyers in colonial America, noting that colleges offered no such instruction. Considers Jefferson's vision of the role of education in sustaining a republican form of government and describes the implementation of his vision of legal education first at the college…

  8. Legal Aspects of Organizing a Library Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Huntington; Burkley, John H.

    1980-01-01

    Three aspects of a library network are discussed: (1) legal structure, (2) membership, and (3) governance. An ideal network organization, from a legal viewpoint, is outlined. Also discussed are these types of network organizational structures: government networks, quasi-government networks, nonprofit membership corporations, and unincorporated…

  9. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review....

  10. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2373 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2373 Section 52.2373 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2373 Legal authority. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2726 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2726 Section 52.2726 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Puerto Rico § 52.2726 Legal authority....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.1275 Section 52.1275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2124 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2124 Section 52.2124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2124 Legal authority....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2574 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2574 Section 52.2574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2574 Legal authority. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.1275 Section 52.1275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1379 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.1379 Section 52.1379 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1379 Legal authority. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1575 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.1575 Section 52.1575 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1575 Legal authority. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1379 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.1379 Section 52.1379 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1379 Legal authority. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2074 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2074 Section 52.2074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2074 Legal authority....

  1. 40 CFR 52.225 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.225 Section 52.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.225 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of §...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2074 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2074 Section 52.2074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2074 Legal authority....

  3. 40 CFR 52.2333 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2333 Section 52.2333 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2333 Legal authority. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 52.225 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.225 Section 52.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.225 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of §...

  5. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation...

  6. 40 CFR 52.324 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.324 Section 52.324 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.324 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.324 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.324 Section 52.324 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.324 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f)...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2726 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2726 Section 52.2726 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Puerto Rico § 52.2726 Legal authority....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2124 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2124 Section 52.2124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2124 Legal authority....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2373 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2373 Section 52.2373 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2373 Legal authority. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2025 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2025 Section 52.2025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2025 Legal authority....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2173 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2173 Section 52.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2173 Legal authority....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1575 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.1575 Section 52.1575 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1575 Legal authority. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.625 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.625 Section 52.625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.625 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.526 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.526 Section 52.526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.526 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f)...

  16. 16 CFR 600.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Credit Reporting Act are found in subpart H of 16 CFR part 1 (§§ 1.71-1.73). ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial... INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules...

  17. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.965 Legal proceedings....

  18. 29 CFR 18.35 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal assistance. 18.35 Section 18.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.35 Legal assistance. The Office of Administrative Law Judges does not...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2574 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2574 Section 52.2574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2574 Legal authority. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2173 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2173 Section 52.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2173 Legal authority....

  1. 40 CFR 52.526 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.526 Section 52.526 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.526 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f)...

  2. 40 CFR 52.625 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.625 Section 52.625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.625 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f)...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2025 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2025 Section 52.2025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2025 Legal authority....

  4. 28 CFR 76.33 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal assistance. 76.33 Section 76.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR POSSESSION OF CERTAIN CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 76.33 Legal assistance. The Judge does not...

  5. 29 CFR 18.35 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal assistance. 18.35 Section 18.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.35 Legal assistance. The Office of Administrative Law Judges does not...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2333 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2333 Section 52.2333 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2333 Legal authority. (a)...

  7. 28 CFR 76.33 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal assistance. 76.33 Section 76.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR POSSESSION OF CERTAIN CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 76.33 Legal assistance. The Judge does not...

  8. Student Discipline: Legal, Empirical, and Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. John, III, Ed.; Bennett, Christine, Ed.

    This book presents four perspectives on student discipline: legal and historical, empirical, educational, and futuristic. Part I examines the legal history of student discipline in papers by J. John Harris III, Richard E. Fields, and A. Reynaldo Contreras (Chapter 1); Richard E. Fields (Chapter 2); and David G. Carter, Sr. and Cynthia L. Jackson…

  9. American Legal Education and Professional Despair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, David

    2011-01-01

    Lawyers are among the most unhappy, least respected wealthy people in America. There are, no doubt, many reasons for the morale crisis in the legal profession. After all, not many people like lawyers. Further, many aspects of legal work are objectively stressful. Litigation is rife with conflict even in the most courteous jurisdictions, and trials…

  10. The Family Day Care Providers' Legal Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Lujuana Wolfe

    Designed specifically for family day care providers in Alameda County, California, this handbook provides legal and business advice thought to be useful as well to providers throughout the United States. A wide range of legal and business issues is covered in 15 brief chapters. Advice is offered on provider-parent contracts, planning for accidents…

  11. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review....

  12. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review....

  13. Exploring Technological Frontiers: Autonomy in Legal Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lyria Bennett

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, Barton Beebe critiqued a "golden age" of space law in the 1950s and 1960s in which obscure legal issues concerning space exploration and aliens were addressed. This article describes a more recent "golden age" in legal scholarship, namely that relating to virtual worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second Life. The author examines the…

  14. Developing Legal Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    A law professor explains how he came to view legal problem solving as the driving concept in law school curriculum design and draws on personal experience and a survey of students concerning teaching methods in a commercial law course. He outlines six curriculum design principles for teaching legal problem solving. (MSE)

  15. Are You a Legally Literate School Counselor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Beale, Andrew V.

    2010-01-01

    This exercise is designed to assist school counselors in assessing their knowledge of prevalent ethical and legal issues within the school setting. The aim is to highlight emerging legal and ethical dilemmas and motivate counselors to stay abreast of specific school rules and policies, as well as keep a basic understanding of state and federal…

  16. 28 CFR 68.34 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.34 Legal assistance. The... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal assistance. 68.34 Section 68.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE...

  17. 28 CFR 68.34 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.34 Legal assistance. The... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal assistance. 68.34 Section 68.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE...

  18. 28 CFR 68.34 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.34 Legal assistance. The... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Legal assistance. 68.34 Section 68.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE...

  19. Legal Concerns in Community College Employment Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roy C.

    2010-01-01

    The American community college has posed, for a period of time, some distinctively unique concerns pertaining to legal issues. However, the most pressing legal issues facing community colleges now are those regarding personnel. The diversity of programs community colleges offer require that personnel (specifically faculty) come to the institution…

  20. Drug discovery FAQs: workflows for answering multidomain drug discovery questions.

    PubMed

    Chichester, Christine; Digles, Daniela; Siebes, Ronald; Loizou, Antonis; Groth, Paul; Harland, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Modern data-driven drug discovery requires integrated resources to support decision-making and enable new discoveries. The Open PHACTS Discovery Platform (http://dev.openphacts.org) was built to address this requirement by focusing on drug discovery questions that are of high priority to the pharmaceutical industry. Although complex, most of these frequently asked questions (FAQs) revolve around the combination of data concerning compounds, targets, pathways and diseases. Computational drug discovery using workflow tools and the integrated resources of Open PHACTS can deliver answers to most of these questions. Here, we report on a selection of workflows used for solving these use cases and discuss some of the research challenges. The workflows are accessible online from myExperiment (http://www.myexperiment.org) and are available for reuse by the scientific community.

  1. Legal considerations when making a practice change.

    PubMed

    Armon, Bruce D; Bayus, Karilynn

    2014-07-01

    Changes in medical practice, such as retiring, selling a practice, and switching employment, have significant legal impacts on physicians. These decisions should be carefully analyzed prior to being made. Physicians who do not make decisions in a well-considered manner may face economic penalties, licensure sanctions, and/or other legal issues. This article explores some key legal issues including (1) timing, (2) patient care continuity, (3) medical records retention, (4) licensure and board certification, (5) professional liability insurance, and (6) postemployment restrictions on practice. Within these topics, sources of physicians' legal and ethical obligations are examined, including possible resolutions to identified issues. Not all changes affect physicians in the same manner. This article further considers how these important legal issues may impact differently situated physicians, such as retiring physicians vs transitioning physicians and physicians employed by groups or hospital systems vs physicians in solo practice.

  2. A Hospital-based Patient Legal Clinic.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Liz; Shahkhan, Hana; Loff, Bebe

    2016-03-01

    The HeLP Patient Legal Clinic has provided free legal advice to public hospital patients with health-related problems since March 2014. This article reports on the findings of a study of the first six months of HeLP's operation. The study adopted qualitative methods informed by grounded theory and sought to understand patient and social worker experiences of HeLP. Interviews were conducted with 13 patients and 10 next of kin. Focus group discussions were carried out with 19 social workers who referred patients to HeLP. Locating the legal service in the hospital's social work department enabled and expedited access to legal advice; a team-based approach to patient problems emerged that enhanced patient outcomes; and provision of legal advice relieved the anxiety experienced by patients, allowing them to focus better on their health concern.

  3. A Hospital-based Patient Legal Clinic.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Liz; Shahkhan, Hana; Loff, Bebe

    2016-03-01

    The HeLP Patient Legal Clinic has provided free legal advice to public hospital patients with health-related problems since March 2014. This article reports on the findings of a study of the first six months of HeLP's operation. The study adopted qualitative methods informed by grounded theory and sought to understand patient and social worker experiences of HeLP. Interviews were conducted with 13 patients and 10 next of kin. Focus group discussions were carried out with 19 social workers who referred patients to HeLP. Locating the legal service in the hospital's social work department enabled and expedited access to legal advice; a team-based approach to patient problems emerged that enhanced patient outcomes; and provision of legal advice relieved the anxiety experienced by patients, allowing them to focus better on their health concern. PMID:27323643

  4. TREC 2010 legal track: method and results of the ELK collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Spearing, Shelly; Roman, Jorge; Mc Kay, Bain; Lindquist, Eric

    2010-10-25

    The ELK team ([E]WA-IIT, [L]os Alamos National laboratory (LANL), and [K]ayvium Corporation (ELK)) used the legal Track task 302 as an opportunity to compare and integrate advanced semantic-automation strategies. The team members believe that enabling parties to discover, consume, analyze, and make decisions in a noisy and information-overloaded environment requires new tools. Together, as well as independently, they are actively developing these tools and view the TREC exercise as an opportunity to test, compare, and complement tools and approaches. Our collaboration is new to TREC, brought together by a shared interest in document relevance, concept-in-context identification and annotation, and the recognition that words out-of-context do not a match make. The team's intent was to lay the foundation for automating the mining and analysis of large volumes of electronic information by litigants and their lawyers, not only in the context of document discovery, but also to support litigation strategy, motion practice, deposition, trial tactics, etc. The premise was that a Subject Matter Expert- (SME-) built model can be automatically mapped onto various search engines for document retrieval, organization, relevance scoring, analysis and decision support. In the end, we ran nearly a dozen models, mostly, but not exclusively, with Kayvium Corporation's knowledge automation technology. The Sal Database Search Engine we used had a bug in its proximity feature, requiring that we develop a workaround. While the work-around was successful, it left us with insufficient time to converge the models to achieve expected quality. However, with optimized proximity processing in place, we would be able to run the model many more times, and believe repeatable quality would be a matter of working through a few requests to get the approach right. We believe that with more time, the results we would achieve might point towards a new way of processing documents for litigation support

  5. Academic Freedom and Civil Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoornstra, Charles D.; Liethen, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of a university to do research free from undue interference is discussed in light of two court cases: Buchanan vs. American Motors Corp. and Dow Chemical Co. vs. Allen. Their principal significance lies in sparing nonparty researchers from the discovery process notwithstanding the acknowledged breadth of discovery. (MLW)

  6. Discovery Learning Strategies in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2012-01-01

    The study substantiates that the effectiveness of Discovery Learning method in learning English Grammar for the learners at standard V. Discovery Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning a second language. It promotes peer interaction and development of the language and the learning of concepts with content. Reichert and…

  7. Self Assessment and Discovery Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Discovery learning in higher education has been reported to be effective in assisting learners to understand difficult concepts and retain long term information. This paper seeks to illustrate how one self assessment model may be used to demonstrate discovery learning in a collaborative atmosphere of students sharing and getting to know each…

  8. Discovery Reconceived: Product before Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the question, "What exactly about a mathematical concept should students discover, when they study it via discovery learning?", I present and demonstrate an interpretation of discovery pedagogy that attempts to address its criticism. My approach hinges on decoupling the solution process from its resultant product. Whereas theories of…

  9. 24 CFR 180.500 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 180.500 Section 180.500... OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Discovery § 180.500 Discovery. (a) In general. This subpart governs discovery in aid of administrative proceedings under this part. Discovery...

  10. 29 CFR 2700.56 - Discovery; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...(c) or 111 of the Act has been filed. 30 U.S.C. 815(c) and 821. (e) Completion of discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery; general. 2700.56 Section 2700.56 Labor... Hearings § 2700.56 Discovery; general. (a) Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or...

  11. Fill the Gap in the Legal Knowledge Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmirani, Monica; Contissa, Giuseppe; Rubino, Rossella

    There is a gap between the legal text description in XML trends and the legal knowledge representation of the norms that from the text starts. This gap affects the effectiveness of the legal resources exploitation and the integrity of the legal knowledge on the Web. This paper presents a legal document model for managing the legal resources in integrated way and linking all the different levels of representation.

  12. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  13. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  14. The Neutron's Discovery - 80 Years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John D.

    A brief review is given of selected highlights in scientific developments from the birth of modern nuclear physics at the end of the 19th century to the discovery of the neutron in 1932. This is followed by some important milestones in neutron and reactor physics that have led to our current understanding and implementation of nuclear technologies. The beginnings can be traced back to the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen, the identification of natural radioactivity by Becquerel and the discovery of the electron by Thomson, towards the end of the 19th Century. Rutherford was a key figure in experimental physics who determined the structure of the atom and who inspired his students at McGill, Manchester and Cambridge Universities (many of whom would become Nobel laureates) in the pursuit of their physics research. One of Rutherford's students, James Chadwick, had studied the work carried out by Bothe and Becker on alpha particle-induced disintegration of light elements which had led to their observation of high energy penetrating radiation that neither they nor the Joliot-Curies could identify. Chadwick knew that the only possible explanation was the emission of a neutron in the nuclear reaction. He carried out tests in the Cavendish Laboratory and submitted his now classical paper identifying the neutron to the periodical Nature in 1932. The discovery of the neutron and of nuclear fission in 1939 opened up new areas for scientific investigation, in, for example, astrophysics, geology, neutron and nuclear physics. The prospects for nuclear power in particular appeared to be unlimited and both civil and military applications have been actively pursued. Many new experimental facilities have been designed and built to provide intense sources of neutrons for research purposes. Work carried out in such centres is included in the programme of the 7th International Topical Meeting on Neutron Radiography, an important forum for discussion of the latest research work of this

  15. Uncovering Discovery Layer Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Today's electronic information landscape is growing exponentially with no signs of slowing. This poses a significant challenge for academic libraries. Librarians must continually learn and adapt to harness this explosion of resources. To fulfill their claim as the leaders in the information field they must be effective in providing access and…

  16. NASA Discovery Program Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review concepts for Discover-class missions that would follow the first two missions (MESUR-Pathfinder and NEAR) of this new program. The concepts had been generated by scientists involved in NASA's Solar System Exploration Program to carry out scientifically important investigations within strict guidelines -- $150 million cap on development cost and 3 year cap on development schedule. Like the Astrophysics Small Explorers (SMEX), such 'faster and cheaper' missions could provide vitality to solar system exploration research by returning high quality data more frequently and regularly and by involving many more young researchers than normally participate directly in larger missions. An announcement of opportunity (AO) to propose a Discovery mission to NASA is expected to be released in about two years time. One purpose of the workshop was to assist Code SL in deciding how to allocate its advanced programs resources. A second, complimentary purpose was to provide the concept proposers with feedback to allow them to better prepare for the AO.

  17. System for Information Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, Vern; Nakamura, Grant; Younkin, Chance

    1998-09-25

    SID characterizes natural language based documents so that they may be related and retrieved based on content similarity. This technology processes textual documents, autonoumsly identifies the major topics of the document set, and constructs an interpretable, high dimensional representation of each document. SID also provides the ability to interactively reweight representations based on user need, so users may analyze the dataset from multiple points of view. The particular advantages SID offers are speed, data compression, flexibility in representation, and incremental processing. SPIRE consists of software for visual analysis of text-based information sources. This technology enables users to make discoveries about the content of very large sets of textual documents without requiring the user to read or presort the documents. It employs algorithms for text and word proximity analysis to identify the key themes within the documents. The results of this analysis are projected onto a visual spatial proximity display (Galaxies or Themescape) where document proximity represents the degree of relatedness of theme.

  18. System for Information Discovery

    1998-09-25

    SID characterizes natural language based documents so that they may be related and retrieved based on content similarity. This technology processes textual documents, autonoumsly identifies the major topics of the document set, and constructs an interpretable, high dimensional representation of each document. SID also provides the ability to interactively reweight representations based on user need, so users may analyze the dataset from multiple points of view. The particular advantages SID offers are speed, data compression,more » flexibility in representation, and incremental processing. SPIRE consists of software for visual analysis of text-based information sources. This technology enables users to make discoveries about the content of very large sets of textual documents without requiring the user to read or presort the documents. It employs algorithms for text and word proximity analysis to identify the key themes within the documents. The results of this analysis are projected onto a visual spatial proximity display (Galaxies or Themescape) where document proximity represents the degree of relatedness of theme.« less

  19. Should nurses act legally or ethically?

    PubMed

    Newnham, H

    1998-03-01

    Should health professionals act legally or ethically in the delivery of health care presuming it is impossible to do both? There is a tendency by some to take the position that to act ethically is more important in the provision of health care and to ignore or at least minimise any legal consequences that may arise. At the same time the law may ignore ethical principles claiming the legal position is more important. This article argues that while law and ethics are both important in the delivery of health care the law as the final arbitrator takes precedence.

  20. Maximizing Academic Library Collections: Measuring Changes in Use Patterns Owing to EBSCO Discovery Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of academic libraries adopting web-scale discovery tools, few studies have quantified their effect on the use of library collections. This study measures the impact that EBSCO Discovery Service has had on use of library resources through circulation statistics, use of electronic resources, and interlibrary loan requests.…

  1. The discovery of Maxwell's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everitt, Francis

    2012-02-01

    In January 1865, Maxwell at age 34 wrote a letter to his cousin Charles Cay describing various doings, including his work on the viscosity of gases and a visit from two of the world's leading oculists to inspect the eyes of his dog ``Spice''. He added, ``I have also a paper afloat, with an electromagnetic theory of light, which, till I am convinced to the contrary, I hold to be great guns.'' That paper ``A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field'' was his fourth on the subject. It was followed in 1868 by another, and then in 1873 by his massive two volume Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Even so, by the time of his death in 1879 as he was beginning a radically revised edition of the Treatise, much remained to be done. We celebrate here the 150^th anniversary of Maxwell's first astonished realization in 1862 of the link between electromagnetism and light. So revolutionary was this that 15 or more years went by before Lorentz, Poynting, FitzGerald, and others came to address it, sometimes with improvements, sometimes not. Not until 1888 did Hertz make the essential experimental discovery of radio waves. What is so remarkable about Maxwell's five papers is that each presents a complete view of the subject radically different from the one before. I shall say something about each, emphasizing in particular Maxwell's most unexpected idea, the displacement current, so vastly more interesting than the accounts of it found in textbooks today. Beyond lie other surprises. The concept of gauge invariance, and the role the vector potential would play in defining the canonical momentum of the electron, both go back to Maxwell. In 1872 came a paper ``On the Mathematical Classification of Physical Quantities'', which stands as an education in itself. Amid much else, there for the first time appears the distinction between axial and polar vectors and those new operational concepts related to quaternion theory: curl, divergence, and gradient.

  2. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations.

  3. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations. PMID:20431258

  4. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks. PMID:27491648

  5. STS-105 Shuttle Orbiter Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a view of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it approaches the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-105 mission. Visible in the payload bay of Discovery are the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Leonardo at right, which stores various supplies and experiments to be transferred into the ISS; at center, the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) which carries the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS); and two Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) containers at left. Aboard Discovery were the ISS Expedition Three crew, who were to replace the Expedition Two crew that had been living on the ISS for the past five months.

  6. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks.

  7. Sharing and Reuse of Sensitive Data and Samples: Supporting Researchers in Identifying Ethical and Legal Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Schluender, Irene; Smee, Carol; Suhr, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Availability of and access to data and biosamples are essential in medical and translational research, where their reuse and repurposing by the wider research community can maximize their value and accelerate discovery. However, sharing human-related data or samples is complicated by ethical, legal, and social sensitivities. The specific ethical and legal requirements linked to sensitive data are often unfamiliar to life science researchers who, faced with vast amounts of complex, fragmented, and sometimes even contradictory information, may not feel competent to navigate through it. In this case, the impulse may be not to share the data in order to safeguard against unintentional misuse. Consequently, helping data providers to identify relevant ethical and legal requirements and how they might address them is an essential and frequently neglected step in removing possible hurdles to data and sample sharing in the life sciences. Here, we describe the complex regulatory context and discuss relevant online tools—one which the authors co-developed—targeted at assisting providers of sensitive data or biosamples with ethical and legal questions. The main results are (1) that the different approaches of the tools assume different user needs and prior knowledge of ethical and legal requirements, affecting how a service is designed and its usefulness, (2) that there is much potential for collaboration between tool providers, and (3) that enriched annotations of services (e.g., update status, completeness of information, and disclaimers) would increase their value and facilitate quick assessment by users. Further, there is still work to do with respect to providing researchers using sensitive data or samples with truly ‘useful’ tools that do not require pre-existing, in-depth knowledge of legal and ethical requirements or time to delve into the details. Ultimately, separate resources, maintained by experts familiar with the respective fields of research, may be

  8. Sharing and Reuse of Sensitive Data and Samples: Supporting Researchers in Identifying Ethical and Legal Requirements.

    PubMed

    Sariyar, Murat; Schluender, Irene; Smee, Carol; Suhr, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Availability of and access to data and biosamples are essential in medical and translational research, where their reuse and repurposing by the wider research community can maximize their value and accelerate discovery. However, sharing human-related data or samples is complicated by ethical, legal, and social sensitivities. The specific ethical and legal requirements linked to sensitive data are often unfamiliar to life science researchers who, faced with vast amounts of complex, fragmented, and sometimes even contradictory information, may not feel competent to navigate through it. In this case, the impulse may be not to share the data in order to safeguard against unintentional misuse. Consequently, helping data providers to identify relevant ethical and legal requirements and how they might address them is an essential and frequently neglected step in removing possible hurdles to data and sample sharing in the life sciences. Here, we describe the complex regulatory context and discuss relevant online tools-one which the authors co-developed-targeted at assisting providers of sensitive data or biosamples with ethical and legal questions. The main results are (1) that the different approaches of the tools assume different user needs and prior knowledge of ethical and legal requirements, affecting how a service is designed and its usefulness, (2) that there is much potential for collaboration between tool providers, and (3) that enriched annotations of services (e.g., update status, completeness of information, and disclaimers) would increase their value and facilitate quick assessment by users. Further, there is still work to do with respect to providing researchers using sensitive data or samples with truly 'useful' tools that do not require pre-existing, in-depth knowledge of legal and ethical requirements or time to delve into the details. Ultimately, separate resources, maintained by experts familiar with the respective fields of research, may be needed while

  9. Legal issues: office management practices.

    PubMed

    Bergren, M D

    1999-08-01

    Student health records, whether paper or electronic, are restricted and protected to a greater degree than are educational records. Some school health office software is designed to provide greater data protection than is possible in paper records. However, unless basic district and health office practices are established to prevent access to or corruption of electronic health data, technological safeguards will be useless. This article describes school and health office policies and practices that are necessary for the integrity, confidentiality, and security of student health information.

  10. Cyberinfrastructure for Atmospheric Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmson, R.; Moore, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    Each year across the United States, floods, tornadoes, hail, strong winds, lightning, hurricanes, and winter storms cause hundreds of deaths, routinely disrupt transportation and commerce, and result in billions of dollars in annual economic losses . MEAD and LEAD are two recent efforts aimed at developing the cyberinfrastructure for studying and forecasting these events through collection, integration, and analysis of observational data coupled with numerical simulation, data mining, and visualization. MEAD (Modeling Environment for Atmospheric Discovery) has been funded for two years as an NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Alliance Expedition. The goal of this expedition has been the development/adaptation of cyberinfrastructure that will enable research simulations, datamining, machine learning and visualization of hurricanes and storms utilizing the high performance computing environments including the TeraGrid. Portal grid and web infrastructure are being tested that will enable launching of hundreds of individual WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) simulations. In a similar way, multiple Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) or WRF/ROMS simulations can be carried out. Metadata and the resulting large volumes of data will then be made available for further study and for educational purposes using analysis, mining, and visualization services. Initial coupling of the ROMS and WRF codes has been completed and parallel I/O is being implemented for these models. Management of these activities (services) are being enabled through Grid workflow technologies (e.g. OGCE). LEAD (Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery) is a recently funded 5-year, large NSF ITR grant that involves 9 institutions who are developing a comprehensive national cyberinfrastructure in mesoscale meteorology, particularly one that can interoperate with others being developed. LEAD is addressing the fundamental information technology (IT) research challenges needed

  11. Discovery of natural resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guild, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Mankind will continue to need ores of more or less the types and grades used today to supply its needs for new mineral raw materials, at least until fusion or some other relatively cheap, inexhaustible energy source is developed. Most deposits being mined today were exposed at the surface or found by relatively simple geophysical or other prospecting techniques, but many of these will be depleted in the foreseeable future. The discovery of deeper or less obvious deposits to replace them will require the conjunction of science and technology to deduce the laws that governed the concentration of elements into ores and to detect and evaluate the evidence of their whereabouts. Great theoretical advances are being made to explain the origins of ore deposits and understand the general reasons for their localization. These advances have unquestionable value for exploration. Even a large deposit is, however, very small, and, with few exceptions, it was formed under conditions that have long since ceased to exist. The explorationist must suppress a great deal of "noise" to read and interpret correctly the "signals" that can define targets and guide the drilling required to find it. Is enough being done to ensure the long-term availability of mineral raw materials? The answer is probably no, in view of the expanding consumption and the difficulty of finding new deposits, but ingenuity, persistence, and continued development of new methods and tools to add to those already at hand should put off the day of "doing without" for many years. The possibility of resource exhaustion, especially in view of the long and increasing lead time needed to carry out basic field and laboratory studies in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry and to synthesize and analyze the information gained from them counsels against any letting down of our guard, however (17). Research and exploration by government, academia, and industry must be supported and encouraged; we cannot wait until an eleventh

  12. 5 CFR 582.204 - Electronic disbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic disbursement. 582.204 Section... GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.204 Electronic disbursement. The party... funds remitted by electronic funds transfer, rather than by paper check. The request shall include...

  13. 5 CFR 582.204 - Electronic disbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic disbursement. 582.204 Section... GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.204 Electronic disbursement. The party... funds remitted by electronic funds transfer, rather than by paper check. The request shall include...

  14. The Discovery of Extrasolar Planets by Backyard Astronomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Tim; Laughlin, Greg; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The discovery since 1995 of more than 80 planets around nearby solar-like stars and the photometric measurement of a transit of the jovian mass planet orbiting the solar-like star HD 209458 (producing a more than 1% drop in brightness that lasts 3 hours) has heralded a new era in astronomy. It has now been demonstrated that small telescopes equipped with sensitive and stable electronic detectors can produce fundamental scientific discoveries regarding the frequency and nature of planets outside the solar system. The modest equipment requirements for the discovery of extrasolar planetary transits of jovian mass planets in short period orbits around solar-like stars are fulfilled by commercial small aperture telescopes and CCD (charge coupled device) imagers common among amateur astronomers. With equipment already in hand and armed with target lists, observing techniques and software procedures developed by scientists at NASA's Ames Research Center and the University of California at Santa Cruz, non-professional astronomers can contribute significantly to the discovery and study of planets around others stars. In this way, we may resume (after a two century interruption!) the tradition of planet discoveries by amateur astronomers begun with William Herschel's 1787 discovery of the 'solar' planet Uranus.

  15. Legal vs Ethical News-Gathering Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahl, Rod

    1990-01-01

    Discusses legal and ethical issues surrounding methods of news-gathering, including undercover reporting, misrepresentation of the reporter's identity, fabrication, and plagiarism. Maintains that high school reporters should search out and follow guidelines for their information-seeking methods. (SR)

  16. Chronic pain management: legal and licensure issues.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-Lang; Fillingim, Roger; Hurley, Robert W; Schmidt, Siegfried

    2015-05-01

    Legal and licensure issues are an inevitable aspect of treating patients with chronic pain. Clinicians need to ensure compliance with state medical board and federal guidelines. Prescription drug abuse continues to be a significant problem. Despite the legalization of medical marijuana in some states, there is currently no medical indication for prescribing marijuana; the exceptions are dronabinol and nabilone. These are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and dronabinol also is approved for anorexia in patients with AIDS or cancer. Other legal issues concern establishment of chronic pain as a basis for disability status. Clinicians often are asked to provide a letter or assessment, such as a functional capacity evaluation, for documenting disability. Referral to a physical medicine and rehabilitation subspecialist or physical therapist for this evaluation should be considered. Balancing legal and licensure issues with the best interests of the patient can be challenging for clinicians. PMID:25970871

  17. Legal Underpinnings for Creating Campus Computer Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Marjorie W.; Worona, Steven L.

    1996-01-01

    Provides guidelines for the development of campus computer policies, focusing on legal issues related to adult material, harassment, privacy, commerce, and copyright. Notes that computer use policies and practices need to evolve in concert with the changing computer culture. (MDM)

  18. Some Legal Aspects of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Casimir J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This article explores some legal aspects of public and private education, as well as several Amendments to the Constitution and their relationships to higher education: the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. (Author)

  19. Standardizing Legal Content with OWL and RDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondros, Constantine

    Wolters Kluwer is one of the largest legal publishers in the world. Its various publishing units use a multitude of different formats to mark up what is effectively similar content. We describe a common content architecture based on OWL, RDF and XHTML that is used to build a standard representation of legal content, allowing publishable assets to be integrated across the enterprise. This architecture is governed by an OWL ontology that models the (occasionally complex) behaviour of legal documents and acts as a domain model of common legal metadata. How do OWL and RDF scale up to real-world publishing? We describe practical issues in producing and validating RDF on an industrial scale; in performance management; in handling fragmented ontologies; and the challenge of using RDF in a performant XSLT pipeline.

  20. 40 CFR 52.1074 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1074 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 698(f) of the Maryland Air...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1074 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1074 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 698(f) of the Maryland Air...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1074 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1074 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 698(f) of the Maryland Air...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1074 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1074 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 698(f) of the Maryland Air...

  4. Desegregation in Education: A Legal Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Michael B., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    Includes references on equal educational opportunity, educational finance, preferential admissions, higher education, racial discrimination in teacher employment, civil rights, school desegregation, legal education, minorities, desegregation litigation, busing, and due process of law. (AM)

  5. Managing Legal Texts in Requirements Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Paul N.; Antón, Annie I.

    Laws and regulations are playing an increasingly important role in requirements engineering and systems development. Monitoring systems for requirements and policy compliance has been recognized in the requirements engineering community as a key area for research. Similarly, legal compliance is critical in systems development, especially given that non-compliance can result in both financial and criminal penalties. Working with legal texts can be very challenging, however, because they contain numerous ambiguities, cross-references, domain-specific definitions, and acronyms, and are frequently amended via new statutes, regulations, and case law. Requirements engineers and compliance auditors must be able to identify relevant legal texts, extract requirements and other key concepts, and monitor compliance. This chapter surveys research efforts over the past 50 years in handling legal texts for systems development. This survey can aid requirements engineers and auditors to better specify, test, and monitor systems for compliance.

  6. [Legalization of drugs--pro and con].

    PubMed

    Marjanović-Cengić, S

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with various opinions and assertions regarding drug legalization. Societal and clinical implication regarding the effect of decrease or increase in the use of psyhoactive substances, on public health, violence and criminal activities have been pointed out. The relation between legal and illegal drugs has been considered. Special attention has been paid to arguments on legalization and decriminalization of marihuana and possible consequences on the risk group-children and adolescents. Experiences from USA and some European countries have been presented. Having in mind the specific situation in BiH, the author of article gives her own view and suggest the introduction of harm reduction strategy into BiH drug policy, without changing the legal drug status. PMID:11769432

  7. The legal status of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  8. Minority Confinement in the Juvenile Justice System: Legal, Social, and Racial Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drakeford, William; Staples, Jeanine M.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a brief review of the literature on the legal, social, and racial factors that affect and describe minority confinement in the juvenile justice system. To identify appropriate literature, the authors searched electronic resources through the University of Maryland library research system called Research Port. The findings in…

  9. Resolving legal questions with psychological data.

    PubMed

    Loftus, E F

    1991-10-01

    Psychologists are ever finding new legal arenas for their psychological data and concepts. Findings about the character and operation of stereotyping have been introduced in sex discrimination litigation in the United States. Findings about conformity, obedience to authority, and bystander apathy have been introduced into death penalty cases in South Africa. These concrete and detailed applications of psychological science demonstrate the expanding role that psychology is playing in the legal world.

  10. Legal issues critical in software license agreements.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, M J; Peterson, D M

    1989-05-01

    The complex legal aspects of software license agreements are addressed in this final part of a three-part series. A healthcare organization that has selected a software vendor and has reviewed the central provisions of a licensing agreement must then take a close look at the other provisions of the agreement. These include numerous legal provisions, regulatory requirements, and ancillary agreements related to maintenance and access to the software.

  11. A legal version of the nanoworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, Stéphanie

    2011-09-01

    Nanosciences and nanotechnologies come into a pre-existing legal system. Their arrival, and how they are received are worthy of analysis. Such an effort shall at first include simply lexical considerations, in order to penetrate, via their origins, the traces of these specific objects into the territory of law. The goal of this article is to explore the effects of "nanos" in various legal fields, including their relevance to the principle of precaution, patent law, and the applicable laws for chemical substances.

  12. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... directives he has issued pursuant to §§ 326.3 and 326.4, or other relief as appropriate. Appropriate...

  13. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... directives he has issued pursuant to §§ 326.3 and 326.4, or other relief as appropriate. Appropriate...

  14. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... directives he has issued pursuant to §§ 326.3 and 326.4, or other relief as appropriate. Appropriate...

  15. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... directives he has issued pursuant to §§ 326.3 and 326.4, or other relief as appropriate. Appropriate...

  16. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... directives he has issued pursuant to §§ 326.3 and 326.4, or other relief as appropriate. Appropriate...

  17. Drug discovery: lessons from evolution

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John

    2011-01-01

    A common view within the pharmaceutical industry is that there is a problem with drug discovery and we should do something about it. There is much sympathy for this from academics, regulators and politicians. In this article I propose that lessons learnt from evolution help identify those factors that favour successful drug discovery. This personal view is influenced by a decade spent reviewing drug development programmes submitted for European regulatory approval. During the prolonged gestation of a new medicine few candidate molecules survive. This process of elimination of many variants and the survival of so few has much in common with evolution, an analogy that encourages discussion of the forces that favour, and those that hinder, successful drug discovery. Imagining a world without vaccines, anaesthetics, contraception and anti-infectives reveals how medicines revolutionized humanity. How to manipulate conditions that favour such discoveries is worth consideration. PMID:21395642

  18. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  19. Discovery – Development of Rituximab

    Cancer.gov

    NCI funded the development of rituximab, one of the first monoclonal antibody cancer treatments. With the discovery of rituximab, more than 70 percent of patients diagnosed with non-hodgkin lymphoma now live five years past their initial diagnosis.

  20. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  1. Serendipity: Accidental Discoveries in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Royston M.

    1989-06-01

    Many of the things discovered by accident are important in our everyday lives: Teflon, Velcro, nylon, x-rays, penicillin, safety glass, sugar substitutes, and polyethylene and other plastics. And we owe a debt to accident for some of our deepest scientific knowledge, including Newton's theory of gravitation, the Big Bang theory of Creation, and the discovery of DNA. Even the Rosetta Stone, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the ruins of Pompeii came to light through chance. This book tells the fascinating stories of these and other discoveries and reveals how the inquisitive human mind turns accident into discovery. Written for the layman, yet scientifically accurate, this illuminating collection of anecdotes portrays invention and discovery as quintessentially human acts, due in part to curiosity, perserverance, and luck.

  2. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  3. Computer-aided drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Computational approaches are an integral part of interdisciplinary drug discovery research. Understanding the science behind computational tools, their opportunities, and limitations is essential to make a true impact on drug discovery at different levels. If applied in a scientifically meaningful way, computational methods improve the ability to identify and evaluate potential drug molecules, but there remain weaknesses in the methods that preclude naïve applications. Herein, current trends in computer-aided drug discovery are reviewed, and selected computational areas are discussed. Approaches are highlighted that aid in the identification and optimization of new drug candidates. Emphasis is put on the presentation and discussion of computational concepts and methods, rather than case studies or application examples. As such, this contribution aims to provide an overview of the current methodological spectrum of computational drug discovery for a broad audience. PMID:26949519

  4. Discovery of the krypton isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Heim, M.; Fritsch, A.; Schuh, A.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-07-15

    Thirty-two krypton isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  6. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  7. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 35mm camera was used to expose this close-up image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches.

  8. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 35mm camera was used to expose this image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches. The launch pad and orbiter can be seen reflected in the water directly in front of it.

  9. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This wide lux image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station shows the base of the launch pad as well as the orbiter just clearing the gantry. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches.

  10. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 70mm camera was used to expose this image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches. The launch pad and orbiter can be seen reflected in the water directly in front of it.

  11. Legal Status of Telemedicine in the Internal Market.

    PubMed

    Glanowski, Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Health services enjoy freedom of movement within the European Union (EU). This freedom also applies to information society services (ISS). This article presents a legal framework within which it is possible to provide qualifying health services with the help of information and telecommunications technology (ICT) as iss. Due to the ambiguity of EU regulation, the problem regarding how to determine whether a particular medical service corresponds to favourable structural iss conditions is considered. Since telemedicine makes a wide application of electronic devices possible, a new element appears in the relationship between physicians and their patients. Therefore, using electronic devices may cause numerous doubts regarding the normative status of these devices, since they modify the physician's responsibility and affect the scope of his duty with regard to information. At the same time, the complexity of functional elements (actions) necessary to provide health services using ICT can, in some cases, prevent them from being recognised as ISS. PMID:27491247

  12. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  13. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  14. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  15. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  16. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  17. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  18. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  19. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  20. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...