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Sample records for legume nodulation phosphate

  1. Adaptive strategies for nitrogen metabolism in phosphate deficient legume nodules.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Alex J; Kleinert, Aleysia; Benedito, Vagner A

    2017-03-01

    Legumes play a significant role in natural and agricultural ecosystems. They can fix atmospheric N2 and contribute the fixed N to soils and plant N budgets. In legumes, the availability of P does not only affect nodule development, but also N acquisition and metabolism. For legumes as an important source of plant proteins, their capacity to metabolise N during P deficiency is critical for their benefits to agriculture and the natural environment. In particular for farming, rock P is a non-renewable source of which the world has about 60-80 years of sustainable extraction of this P left. The global production of legume crops would be devastated during a scarcity of P fertiliser. Legume nodules have a high requirement for mineral P, which makes them vulnerable to soil P deficiencies. In order to maintain N metabolism, the nodules have evolved several strategies to resist the immediate effects of P limitation and to respond to prolonged P deficiency. In legumes nodules, N metabolism is determined by several processes involving the acquisition, assimilation, export, and recycling of N in various forms. Although these processes are integrated, the current literature lacks a clear synthesis of how legumes respond to P stress regarding its impact on N metabolism. In this review, we synthesise the current state of knowledge on how legumes maintain N metabolism during P deficiency. Moreover, we discuss the potential importance of two additional alterations to N metabolism during P deficiency. Our goals are to place these newly proposed mechanisms in perspective with other known adaptations of N metabolism to P deficiency and to discuss their practical benefits during P deficiency in legumes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Water-tolerant legume nodulation.

    PubMed

    Capoen, Ward; Goormachtig, Sofie; Holsters, Marcelle

    2010-03-01

    Water-tolerant nodulation is an adaptation of legumes that grow in wet or temporarily flooded habitats. This nodulation mode takes place at lateral root bases via intercellular bacterial invasion in cortical infection pockets. The tropical legume Sesbania rostrata has become a model for the study of the molecular basis of crack entry nodulation compared with root hair curl nodulation. For intercellular invasion, Nodulation Factor (NF) signalling recruits an ethylene-dependent, common Sym gene-independent pathway, leading to local cell death. The NF structure requirements are less stringent than for intracellular invasion in root hairs, which is correlated with a very specific NF-induced calcium spiking signature, presumably necessary for correct gene expression to assemble a functional entry complex in the epidermis.

  3. Mechanistic action of gibberellins in legume nodulation.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Satomi; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2014-10-01

    Legume plants are capable of entering into a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia bacteria. This results in the formation of novel organs on their roots, called nodules, in which the bacteria capture atmospheric nitrogen and provide it as ammonium to the host plant. Complex molecular and physiological changes are involved in the formation and establishment of such nodules. Several phytohormones are known to play key roles in this process. Gibberellins (gibberellic acids; GAs), a class of phytohormones known to be involved in a wide range of biological processes (i.e., cell elongation, germination) are reported to be involved in the formation and maturation of legume nodules, highlighted by recent transcriptional analyses of early soybean symbiotic steps. Here, we summarize what is currently known about GAs in legume nodulation and propose a model of GA action during nodule development. Results from a wide range of studies, including GA application, mutant phenotyping, and gene expression studies, indicate that GAs are required at different stages, with an optimum, tightly regulated level being key to achieve successful nodulation. Gibberellic acids appear to be required at two distinct stages of nodulation: (i) early stages of rhizobia infection and nodule primordium establishment; and (ii) later stages of nodule maturation. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Molecular mechanisms controlling legume autoregulation of nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Dugald E.; Ferguson, Brett J.; Hayashi, Satomi; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Gresshoff, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Background High input costs and environmental pressures to reduce nitrogen use in agriculture have increased the competitive advantage of legume crops. The symbiotic relationship that legumes form with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria in root nodules is central to this advantage. Scope Understanding how legume plants maintain control of nodulation to balance the nitrogen gains with their energy needs and developmental costs will assist in increasing their productivity and relative advantage. For this reason, the regulation of nodulation has been extensively studied since the first mutants exhibiting increased nodulation were isolated almost three decades ago. Conclusions Nodulation is regulated primarily via a systemic mechanism known as the autoregulation of nodulation (AON), which is controlled by a CLAVATA1-like receptor kinase. Multiple components sharing homology with the CLAVATA signalling pathway that maintains control of the shoot apical meristem in arabidopsis have now been identified in AON. This includes the recent identification of several CLE peptides capable of activating nodule inhibition responses, a low molecular weight shoot signal and a role for CLAVATA2 in AON. Efforts are now being focused on directly identifying the interactions of these components and to identify the form that long-distance transport molecules take. PMID:21856632

  5. Molecular mechanisms controlling legume autoregulation of nodulation.

    PubMed

    Reid, Dugald E; Ferguson, Brett J; Hayashi, Satomi; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2011-10-01

    High input costs and environmental pressures to reduce nitrogen use in agriculture have increased the competitive advantage of legume crops. The symbiotic relationship that legumes form with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria in root nodules is central to this advantage. Understanding how legume plants maintain control of nodulation to balance the nitrogen gains with their energy needs and developmental costs will assist in increasing their productivity and relative advantage. For this reason, the regulation of nodulation has been extensively studied since the first mutants exhibiting increased nodulation were isolated almost three decades ago. Nodulation is regulated primarily via a systemic mechanism known as the autoregulation of nodulation (AON), which is controlled by a CLAVATA1-like receptor kinase. Multiple components sharing homology with the CLAVATA signalling pathway that maintains control of the shoot apical meristem in arabidopsis have now been identified in AON. This includes the recent identification of several CLE peptides capable of activating nodule inhibition responses, a low molecular weight shoot signal and a role for CLAVATA2 in AON. Efforts are now being focused on directly identifying the interactions of these components and to identify the form that long-distance transport molecules take.

  6. Nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodules.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neera; Singla, Ranju; Geetanjali

    2004-02-01

    A large amount of energy is utilized by legume nodules for the fixation of nitrogen and assimilation of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) into organic compounds. The source of energy is provided in the form of photosynthates by the host plant. Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzyme, which is responsible for carbon dioxide fixation in C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism plants, has also been found to play an important role in carbon metabolism in legume root nodule. PEPC-mediated CO2 fixation in nodules results in the synthesis of C4 dicarboxylic acids, viz. aspartate, malate, fumarate etc. which can be transported into bacteroids with the intervention of dicarboxylate transporter (DCT) protein. PEPC has been purified from the root nodules of few legume species. Information on the relationship between nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism through PEPC in leguminous plants is scanty and incoherent. This review summarizes the various aspects of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in legume root nodules.

  7. Glutathione and Homoglutathione Synthesis in Legume Root Nodules1

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Moran, Jose F.; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Rubio, Maria C.; Becana, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection was used to study thiol metabolism in legume nodules. Glutathione (GSH) was the major non-protein thiol in all indeterminate nodules examined, as well as in the determinate nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), whereas homoglutathione (hGSH) predominated in soybean (Glycine max), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and mungbean (Vigna radiata) nodules. All nodules had greater thiol concentrations than the leaves and roots of the same plants because of active thiol synthesis in nodule tissue. The correlation between thiol tripeptides and the activities of glutathione synthetase (GSHS) and homoglutathione synthetase (hGSHS) in the nodules of eight legumes, and the contrasting thiol contents and activities in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaves (98% hGSH, 100% hGSHS) and nodules (72% GSH, 80% GSHS) indicated that the distribution of GSH and hGSH is determined by specific synthetases. Thiol contents and synthesis decreased with both natural and induced nodule senescence, and were also reduced in the senescent zone of indeterminate nodules. Thiols and GSHS were especially abundant in the meristematic and infected zones of pea (Pisum sativum) nodules. Thiols and γ-glutamylcysteinyl synthetase were also more abundant in the infected zone of bean nodules, but hGSHS was predominant in the cortex. Isolation of full-length cDNA sequences coding for γ-glutamylcysteinyl synthetase from legume nodules revealed that they are highly homologous to those from other higher plants. PMID:10557236

  8. Standardized mapping of nodulation patterns in legume roots.

    PubMed

    Remmler, Lauren; Clairmont, Lindsey; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Guinel, Frédérique Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Optimizing nodulation in legumes is a target for crop improvement, and the spatial control of nodulation is just beginning to be unravelled. However, there is currently no method for standard phenotyping of nodulation patterns. Here we present a method and software for the quantitative analysis of nodulation phenotypes. Roots of nodulated peas (Pisum sativum), wild-type and two mutants, were photographed. Data from the photographs were extracted using custom image and data analysis software. The software makes it possible to extract each nodule's position along primary and lateral roots, and to represent the nodulated root system in a standardized way independent of the way roots are arranged in the soil. A wide variety of nodulation and root variables are calculated, and average spatial nodulation patterns can be computed from multiple samples. Standardized spatial analysis of nodulation patterns opens the way for comparative analyses among genotypes of a single legume species, as here in pea. This approach could also be used to compare nodulation patterns among crops, among plants grown under different environmental conditions, or among plants exposed to different pharmacological treatments. The proposed method should therefore prove useful for studies on nodule organogenesis and nodule physiology and for optimizing nodulation in crops. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Hormonal Control of Lateral Root and Nodule Development in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Bensmihen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Many plants can establish symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, some of which lead to nodulation, including legumes. Indeed, in the rhizobium/legume symbiosis, new root organs, called nodules, are formed by the plant in order to host the rhizobia in protective conditions, optimized for nitrogen fixation. In this way, these plants can benefit from the reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia by the hosted bacteria, and in exchange the plant provides the rhizobia with a carbon source. Since this symbiosis is costly for the plant it is highly regulated. Both legume nodule and lateral root organogenesis involve divisions of the root inner tissues, and both developmental programs are tightly controlled by plant hormones. In fact, most of the major plant hormones, such as auxin, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and strigolactones, control both lateral root formation and nodule organogenesis, but often in an opposite manner. This suggests that the sensitivity of legume plants to some phytohormones could be linked to the antagonism that exists between the processes of nodulation and lateral root formation. Here, we will review the implication of some major phytohormones in lateral root formation in legumes, compare them with their roles in nodulation, and discuss specificities and divergences from non-legume eudicot plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27135340

  10. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Legume Nodules: Metabolism and Regulatory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sulieman, Saad; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-01-01

    The special issue “Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Legume Nodules: Metabolism and Regulatory Mechanisms” aims to investigate the physiological and biochemical advances in the symbiotic process with an emphasis on nodule establishment, development and functioning. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of nodule metabolism and various regulatory pathways, which could have important future implications. This issue also included one review article that highlights the importance of using legume trees in the production of renewable biofuels. PMID:25347276

  11. Biogenic amines in rhizobia and legume root nodules.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    Root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia) are of great importance for nitrogen acquisition through symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a wide variety of leguminous plants. These bacteria differ from most other soil microorganisms by taking dual forms, i.e. a free-living form in soils and a symbiotic form inside of host legumes. Therefore, they should have a versatile strategy for survival, whether inhabiting soils or root nodules formed through rhizobia-legume interactions. Rhizobia generally contain large amounts of the biogenic amine homospermidine, an analog of spermidine which is an essential cellular component in most living systems. The external pH, salinity and a rapid change in osmolarity are thought to be significant environmental factors affecting the persistence of rhizobia. The present review describes the regulation of homospermidine biosynthesis in response to environmental stress and its possible functional role in rhizobia. Legume root nodules, an alternative habitat of rhizobia, usually contain a variety of biogenic amines besides homospermidine and the occurrence of some of these amines is closely associated with rhizobial infections. In the second half of this review, novel biogenic amines found in certain legume root nodules and the mechanism of their synthesis involving cooperation between the rhizobia and host legume cells are also described.

  12. Biosynthesis of Ascorbic Acid in Legume Root Nodules1

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Loscos, Jorge; Coronado, Maria J.; Ramos, Javier; Sato, Shusei; Testillano, Pilar S.; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a major antioxidant and redox buffer, but is also involved in other critical processes of plants. Recently, the hypothesis has been proposed that legume nodules are unable to synthesize ascorbate and have to import it from the shoot or root, thus providing a means by which the plant regulates nodule senescence. The last step of ascorbate biosynthesis in plants is catalyzed by l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH). The mRNAs encoding GalLDH and three other enzymes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis are clearly detectable in nodules. Furthermore, an active membrane-bound GalLDH enzyme is present in nodule mitochondria. Biochemical assays on dissected nodules reveal that GalLDH activity and ascorbate are correlated in nodule tissues and predominantly localized in the infected zone, with lower levels of both parameters (relative to the infected tissues) in the apex (87%) and senescent region (43%) of indeterminate nodules and in the peripheral tissues (65%) of determinate nodules. In situ RNA hybridization showed that the GalLDH mRNA is particularly abundant in the infected zone of indeterminate and determinate nodules. Thus, our results refute the hypothesis that ascorbate is not synthesized in nodules and lend support to a previous conclusion that ascorbate in the infected zone is primarily involved in the protection of host cells against peroxide damage. Likewise, the high ascorbate and GalLDH activity levels found in the apex of indeterminate nodules strongly suggest a participation of ascorbate in additional functions during symbiosis, possibly related to cell growth and division and to molecular signaling. PMID:16766673

  13. Recent insights into antioxidant defenses of legume root nodules.

    PubMed

    Becana, Manuel; Matamoros, Manuel A; Udvardi, Michael; Dalton, David A

    2010-12-01

    Legume root nodules are sites of intense biochemical activity and consequently are at high risk of damage as a result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). These molecules can potentially give rise to oxidative and nitrosative damage but, when their concentrations are tightly controlled by antioxidant enzymes and metabolites, they also play positive roles as critical components of signal transduction cascades during nodule development and stress. Thus, recent advances in our understanding of ascorbate and (homo)glutathione biosynthesis in plants have opened up the possibility of enhancing N(2) fixation through an increase of their concentrations in nodules. It is now evident that antioxidant proteins other than the ascorbate-glutathione enzymes, such as some isoforms of glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxins, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione S-transferases, are also critical for nodule activity. To avoid cellular damage, nodules are endowed with several mechanisms for sequestration of Fenton-active metals (nicotianamine, phytochelatins, and metallothioneins) and for controlling ROS/RNS bioactivity (hemoglobins). The use of 'omic' technologies has expanded the list of known antioxidants in plants and nodules that participate in ROS/RNS/antioxidant signaling networks, although aspects of developmental variation and subcellular localization of these networks remain to be elucidated. To this end, a critical point will be to define the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of antioxidant proteins.

  14. Phenolphthalein false-positive reactions from legume root nodules.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Daniel; Kovacs, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Presumptive tests for blood play a critical role in the examination of physical evidence and in the determination of subsequent analysis. The catalytic power of hemoglobin allows colorimetric reactions employing phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer test) to indicate "whether" blood is present. Consequently, DNA profiles extracted from phenolphthalein-positive stains are presumed to be from blood on the evidentiary item and can lead to the identification of "whose" blood is present. Crushed nodules from a variety of legumes yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactions that were indistinguishable from true bloodstains both in color quality and in developmental time frame. Clothing and other materials stained by nodules also yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactivity for several years after nodule exposure. Nodules from leguminous plants contain a protein (leghemoglobin) which is structurally and functionally similar to hemoglobin. Testing of purified leghemoglobin confirmed this protein as a source of phenolphthalein reactivity. A scenario is presented showing how the presence of leghemoglobin from nodule staining can mislead investigators. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Function of glutathione peroxidases in legume root nodules

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Saiz, Ana; Peñuelas, Maria; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Mulet, Jose M.; Barja, Maria V.; Rouhier, Nicolas; Moore, Marten; James, Euan K.; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Becana, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) are antioxidant enzymes not studied so far in legume nodules, despite the fact that reactive oxygen species are produced at different steps of the symbiosis. The function of two Gpxs that are highly expressed in nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus was examined. Gene expression analysis, enzymatic and nitrosylation assays, yeast cell complementation, in situ mRNA hybridization, immunoelectron microscopy, and LjGpx-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions were used to characterize the enzymes and to localize each transcript and isoform in nodules. The LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 genes encode thioredoxin-dependent phospholipid hydroperoxidases and are differentially regulated in response to nitric oxide (NO) and hormones. LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 are nitrosylated in vitro or in plants treated with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Consistent with the modification of the peroxidatic cysteine of LjGpx3, in vitro assays demonstrated that this modification results in enzyme inhibition. The enzymes are highly expressed in the infected zone, but the LjGpx3 mRNA is also detected in the cortex and vascular bundles. LjGpx1 is localized to the plastids and nuclei, and LjGpx3 to the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Based on yeast complementation experiments, both enzymes protect against oxidative stress, salt stress, and membrane damage. It is concluded that both LjGpxs perform major antioxidative functions in nodules, preventing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative processes at different subcellular sites of vascular and infected cells. The enzymes are probably involved in hormone and NO signalling, and may be regulated through nitrosylation of the peroxidatic cysteine essential for catalytic function. PMID:25740929

  16. Function of glutathione peroxidases in legume root nodules.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Manuel A; Saiz, Ana; Peñuelas, Maria; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Mulet, Jose M; Barja, Maria V; Rouhier, Nicolas; Moore, Marten; James, Euan K; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Becana, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) are antioxidant enzymes not studied so far in legume nodules, despite the fact that reactive oxygen species are produced at different steps of the symbiosis. The function of two Gpxs that are highly expressed in nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus was examined. Gene expression analysis, enzymatic and nitrosylation assays, yeast cell complementation, in situ mRNA hybridization, immunoelectron microscopy, and LjGpx-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions were used to characterize the enzymes and to localize each transcript and isoform in nodules. The LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 genes encode thioredoxin-dependent phospholipid hydroperoxidases and are differentially regulated in response to nitric oxide (NO) and hormones. LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 are nitrosylated in vitro or in plants treated with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Consistent with the modification of the peroxidatic cysteine of LjGpx3, in vitro assays demonstrated that this modification results in enzyme inhibition. The enzymes are highly expressed in the infected zone, but the LjGpx3 mRNA is also detected in the cortex and vascular bundles. LjGpx1 is localized to the plastids and nuclei, and LjGpx3 to the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Based on yeast complementation experiments, both enzymes protect against oxidative stress, salt stress, and membrane damage. It is concluded that both LjGpxs perform major antioxidative functions in nodules, preventing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative processes at different subcellular sites of vascular and infected cells. The enzymes are probably involved in hormone and NO signalling, and may be regulated through nitrosylation of the peroxidatic cysteine essential for catalytic function.

  17. Rhizobium symbiotic genes required for nodulation of legume and nonlegume hosts

    PubMed Central

    Marvel, Deborah J.; Torrey, John G.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    1987-01-01

    Parasponia, a woody member of the elm family, is the only nonlegume genus whose members are known to form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium or Rhizobium species. The Bradyrhizobium strain Rp501, isolated from Parasponia nodules, also nodulates the legumes siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). To test whether some of the same genes are involved in the early stages of legume and nonlegume nodulation, we generated transposon Tn5 insertions in the region of three evolutionarily conserved genes (nodA, nodB, and nodC) required for legume nodulation in several Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium species. Assays of these mutant Rp501 strains on legume hosts and Parasponia seedlings established that nodABC are required for nodulation of legume and nonlegume hosts, indicating that nonlegumes and legumes can respond to the same bacterial signal(s). In addition, a strain carrying a Tn5 insertion adjacent to the nodABC genes vigorously nodulated Rp501 legume hosts but was incapable of nodulating Parasponia, possibly identifying a nonlegume-specific nodulation function. Images PMID:16593814

  18. The High-Affinity Phosphate Transporter GmPT5 Regulates Phosphate Transport to Nodules and Nodulation in Soybean1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lu; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Jiang; Chen, Liyu; Sun, Zhaoan; Guo, Yongxiang; Lu, Xing; Gu, Mian; Xu, Guohua; Liao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Legume biological nitrogen (N) fixation is the most important N source in agroecosystems, but it is also a process requiring a considerable amount of phosphorus (P). Therefore, developing legume varieties with effective N2 fixation under P-limited conditions could have profound significance for improving agricultural sustainability. We show here that inoculation with effective rhizobial strains enhanced soybean (Glycine max) N2 fixation and P nutrition in the field as well as in hydroponics. Furthermore, we identified and characterized a nodule high-affinity phosphate (Pi) transporter gene, GmPT5, whose expression was elevated in response to low P. Yeast heterologous expression verified that GmPT5 was indeed a high-affinity Pi transporter. Localization of GmPT5 expression based on β-glucuronidase staining in soybean composite plants with transgenic roots and nodules showed that GmPT5 expression occurred principally in the junction area between roots and young nodules and in the nodule vascular bundles for juvenile and mature nodules, implying that GmPT5 might function in transporting Pi from the root vascular system into nodules. Overexpression or knockdown of GmPT5 in transgenic composite soybean plants altered nodulation and plant growth performance, which was partially dependent on P supply. Through both in situ and in vitro 33P uptake assays using transgenic soybean roots and nodules, we demonstrated that GmPT5 mainly functions in transporting Pi from roots to nodules, especially under P-limited conditions. We conclude that the high-affinity Pi transporter, GmPT5, controls Pi entry from roots to nodules, is critical for maintaining Pi homeostasis in nodules, and subsequently regulates soybean nodulation and growth performance. PMID:22740613

  19. Identification of rhizobial strains nodulating Egyptian grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Hamdi H; Chahboune, Rajaa; Moreno, Silvia; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Abdel-Fattah, Medhat; Yasser, Manal M; Mahmoud, Ahmed M

    2013-09-01

    Fifty four bacterial strains were isolated from root nodules of the grain legumes Cicer arietinum, Lens esculentus, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, and Vicia faba grown in cultivated lands of Beni-Suef Governorate (Egypt). Repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clustered the strains into 15 REP-PCR groups. The nearly complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene from a representative strain of each REP-PCR pattern showed that the strains were closely related to members of the family Rhizobiaceae of the Alphaproteobacteria. Pairwise alignments between globally aligned sequences indicated that the strains from V. faba had 99.6% identity with Rhizobium leguminosarum, and those from P. vulgaris 99.76% and 100% with sequences from R. leguminosarum and R. mesosinicum, respectively. Strains from P. sativum had 99.76%, 99.84%, and 99.92% sequence identity with R. leguminosarum, R. etli, and R. pisi, respectively, and those from L. esculentus had 99.61% identity with sequences from R. leguminosarum. Sequences of the strains from C. arietinum had 100% identity with those of Mesorhizobium amorphae and M. robiniae, respectively. Nitrogenase activity, determined as acetylene-dependent ethylene production, was detected in nodules formed after inoculation of the corresponding host plant with the representative rhizobial species.

  20. NODULE ROOT and COCHLEATA maintain nodule development and are legume orthologs of Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE genes.

    PubMed

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Zhukov, Vladimir; Mondy, Samuel; Abu el Heba, Ghada; Cosson, Viviane; Ellis, T H Noel; Ambrose, Mike; Wen, Jiangqi; Tadege, Million; Tikhonovich, Igor; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Putterill, Joanna; Hofer, Julie; Borisov, Alexei Y; Ratet, Pascal

    2012-11-01

    During their symbiotic interaction with rhizobia, legume plants develop symbiosis-specific organs on their roots, called nodules, that house nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The molecular mechanisms governing the identity and maintenance of these organs are unknown. Using Medicago truncatula nodule root (noot) mutants and pea (Pisum sativum) cochleata (coch) mutants, which are characterized by the abnormal development of roots from the nodule, we identified the NOOT and COCH genes as being necessary for the robust maintenance of nodule identity throughout the nodule developmental program. NOOT and COCH are Arabidopsis thaliana BLADE-ON-PETIOLE orthologs, and we have shown that their functions in leaf and flower development are conserved in M. truncatula and pea. The identification of these two genes defines a clade in the BTB/POZ-ankyrin domain proteins that shares conserved functions in eudicot organ development and suggests that NOOT and COCH were recruited to repress root identity in the legume symbiotic organ.

  1. Symbiotic relationships of legumes and nodule bacteria on Barro Colorado Island, Panama: a review.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew A

    2008-05-01

    Abstract New data on 129 bacterial isolates were analyzed together with prior samples to characterize community-level patterns of legume-rhizobial symbiosis on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Nodules have been sampled from 24 BCI legume species in 18 genera, representing about one quarter of the legume species and one half of the genera on the island. Most BCI legumes associated exclusively with nodule symbionts in the genus Bradyrhizobium, which comprised 86.3% of all isolates (315 of 365). Most of the remaining isolates (44 of 365) belonged to the beta-proteobacterial genus Burkholderia; these were restricted to two genera in the legume subfamily Mimosoideae. Multilocus sequence analysis indicated that BCI Bradyrhizobium strains were differentiated into at least eight lineages with deoxyribonucleic acid divergence of the same magnitude as found among currently recognized species in this bacterial genus. Two of these lineages were widely distributed across BCI legumes. One lineage was utilized by 15 host species of diverse life form (herbs, lianas, and trees) in 12 genera spanning two legume subfamilies. A second common lineage closely related to the taxon B. elkanii was associated with at least five legume genera in four separate tribes. Thus, BCI legume species from diverse clades within the family frequently share interaction with a few common lineages of nodule symbionts. However, certain host species were associated with unique symbiont lineages that have not been found on other coexisting BCI legumes. More comprehensive sampling of host taxa will be needed to characterize the overall diversity of nodule bacteria and the patterns of symbiont sharing among legumes in this community.

  2. Studies on manganese nodule leached residues 2. Adsorption of aqueous phosphate on manganese nodule leached residues.

    PubMed

    Parida, K M; Mallick, S; Dash, S S

    2005-10-01

    Adsorption of phosphate onto manganese nodule leached residues was investigated as a possible alternative to conventional methods of phosphate removal from industrial effluents. Adsorption behaviors were studied as a function of time, temperature, pH, and concentration level of adsorbate and adsorbent in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer medium. The adsorption of phosphate follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The magnitude of adsorption of phosphate in manganese nodule leached residues was compared with that in naturally occurring Mn nodule. Manganese nodule leached residues show better affinity toward phosphate adsorption.

  3. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species. PMID:26858743

  4. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  5. Competition between rhizobia under different environmental conditions affects the nodulation of a legume.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhao Jun; Yan, Hui; Cui, Qing Guo; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Chen, Wen Xin

    2017-03-01

    Mutualistic symbiosis and nitrogen fixation of legume rhizobia play a key role in ecological environments. Although many different rhizobial species can form nodules with a specific legume, there is often a dominant microsymbiont, which has the highest nodule occupancy rates, and they are often known as the "most favorable rhizobia". Shifts in the most favorable rhizobia for a legume in different geographical regions or soil types are not well understood. Therefore, in order to explore the shift model, an experiment was designed using successive inoculations of rhizobia on one legume. The plants were grown in either sterile vermiculite or a sandy soil. Results showed that, depending on the environment, a legume could select its preferential rhizobial partner in order to establish symbiosis. For perennial legumes, nodulation is a continuous and sequential process. In this study, when the most favorable rhizobial strain was available to infect the plant first, it was dominant in the nodules, regardless of the existence of other rhizobial strains in the rhizosphere. Other rhizobial strains had an opportunity to establish symbiosis with the plant when the most favorable rhizobial strain was not present in the rhizosphere. Nodule occupancy rates of the most favorable rhizobial strain depended on the competitiveness of other rhizobial strains in the rhizosphere and the environmental adaptability of the favorable rhizobial strain (in this case, to mild vermiculite or hostile sandy soil). To produce high nodulation and efficient nitrogen fixation, the most favorable rhizobial strain should be selected and inoculated into the rhizosphere of legume plants under optimum environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. South african papilionoid legumes are nodulated by diverse burkholderia with unique nodulation and nitrogen-fixation Loci.

    PubMed

    Beukes, Chrizelle W; Venter, Stephanus N; Law, Ian J; Phalane, Francina L; Steenkamp, Emma T

    2013-01-01

    The root-nodule bacteria of legumes endemic to the Cape Floristic Region are largely understudied, even though recent reports suggest the occurrence of nodulating Burkholderia species unique to the region. In this study, we considered the diversity and evolution of nodulating Burkholderia associated with the endemic papilionoid tribes Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae. We identified distinct groups from verified rhizobial isolates by phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and recA housekeeping gene regions. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the nodulation and diazotrophy of these rhizobia we analysed the genes encoding NifH and NodA. The majority of these 69 isolates appeared to be unique, potentially representing novel species. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer determining the symbiotic ability of these Cape Floristic Region isolates indicate evolutionary origins distinct from those of nodulating Burkholderia from elsewhere in the world. Overall, our findings suggest that Burkholderia species associated with fynbos legumes are highly diverse and their symbiotic abilities have unique ancestries. It is therefore possible that the evolution of these bacteria is closely linked to the diversification and establishment of legumes characteristic of the Cape Floristic Region.

  7. South African Papilionoid Legumes Are Nodulated by Diverse Burkholderia with Unique Nodulation and Nitrogen-Fixation Loci

    PubMed Central

    Beukes, Chrizelle W.; Venter, Stephanus N.; Law, Ian J.; Phalane, Francina L.; Steenkamp, Emma T.

    2013-01-01

    The root-nodule bacteria of legumes endemic to the Cape Floristic Region are largely understudied, even though recent reports suggest the occurrence of nodulating Burkholderia species unique to the region. In this study, we considered the diversity and evolution of nodulating Burkholderia associated with the endemic papilionoid tribes Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae. We identified distinct groups from verified rhizobial isolates by phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and recA housekeeping gene regions. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the nodulation and diazotrophy of these rhizobia we analysed the genes encoding NifH and NodA. The majority of these 69 isolates appeared to be unique, potentially representing novel species. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer determining the symbiotic ability of these Cape Floristic Region isolates indicate evolutionary origins distinct from those of nodulating Burkholderia from elsewhere in the world. Overall, our findings suggest that Burkholderia species associated with fynbos legumes are highly diverse and their symbiotic abilities have unique ancestries. It is therefore possible that the evolution of these bacteria is closely linked to the diversification and establishment of legumes characteristic of the Cape Floristic Region. PMID:23874611

  8. Biogeographical Patterns of Legume-Nodulating Burkholderia spp.: from African Fynbos to Continental Scales

    PubMed Central

    Chimphango, Samson B. M.; Stirton, Charles; Rafudeen, Suhail; Honnay, Olivier; Smets, Erik; Chen, Wen-Ming; Sprent, Janet; James, Euan K.; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhizobia of the genus Burkholderia have large-scale distribution ranges and are usually associated with South African papilionoid and South American mimosoid legumes, yet little is known about their genetic structuring at either local or global geographic scales. To understand variation at different spatial scales, from individual legumes in the fynbos (South Africa) to a global context, we analyzed chromosomal (16S rRNA, recA) and symbiosis (nifH, nodA, nodC) gene sequences. We showed that the global diversity of nodulation genes is generally grouped according to the South African papilionoid or South American mimosoid subfamilies, whereas chromosomal sequence data were unrelated to biogeography. While nodulation genes are structured on a continental scale, a geographic or host-specific distribution pattern was not detected in the fynbos region. In host range experiments, symbiotic promiscuity of Burkholderia tuberum STM678T and B. phymatum STM815T was discovered in selected fynbos species. Finally, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken to assess the ability of mimosoid (Mimosa pudica) and papilionoid (Dipogon lignosus, Indigofera filifolia, Macroptilium atropurpureum, and Podalyria calyptrata) species to nodulate in South African (fynbos) and Malawian (savanna) soils. While the Burkholderia-philous fynbos legumes (D. lignosus, I. filifolia, and P. calyptrata) nodulated only in their native soils, the invasive neotropical species M. pudica did not develop nodules in the African soils. The fynbos soil, notably rich in Burkholderia, seems to retain nodulation genes compatible with the local papilionoid legume flora but is incapable of nodulating mimosoid legumes that have their center of diversity in South America. IMPORTANCE This study is the most comprehensive phylogenetic assessment of root-nodulating Burkholderia and investigated biogeographic and host-related patterns of the legume-rhizobial symbiosis in the South African fynbos biome, as well as at

  9. Novel paralogous gene families with potential function in legume nodules and seeds.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Kevin A T; Graham, Michelle A; VandenBosch, Kathryn A

    2006-04-01

    Within the plant kingdom, legumes are unusual in their ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules in symbiosis with certain bacteria in the family Rhizobiaceae (rhizhobia). Genes that are required for signaling between plant and symbiont, and for the development and maintenance of the nodule, were either created de novo or adopted from other plant pathways. Only in recent years have genome-scale sequence data from legumes made it possible to identify large, novel families of genes probably evolved to function in nodulation. Members of these novel families are expressed in seeds or nodules, and are homologous to defense-related proteins. Perhaps the most striking example is a large family (of more than 340 members) of cysteine cluster proteins that have homology to plant defensins.

  10. Assay of Substances Stimulatory to Legume Nodule Formation 1

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, A. G.; Alexander, M.

    1967-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the assay of substances stimulatory to the nodulation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots growing from segments of hypocotyl tissue. Coconut water was the chief source of active material, but extracts of cotyledons, hypocotyls and leaves of beans and of horse chestnut fruits were also stimulatory. High concentrations of nitrate improved nodulation both in the presence and absence of coconut water. The ash of coconut water was inactive. Whole alfalfa seedlings formed nodules in the dark when grown in the split medium, but nodulation was not improved by the addition of coconut water. PMID:16656537

  11. A Legume Genetic Framework Controls Infection of Nodules by Symbiotic and Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K.; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B.; Madsen, Lene H.; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  12. A legume genetic framework controls infection of nodules by symbiotic and endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B; Madsen, Lene H; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule.

  13. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-05-18

    Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant's response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis.

  14. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant’s response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27213330

  15. Malonate Catabolism Does Not Drive N2 Fixation in Legume Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; East, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase, malonyl-CoA synthetase, and malonate transporter mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and trifolii fixed N2 at wild-type rates on pea and clover, respectively. Thus, malonate does not drive N2 fixation in legume nodules. PMID:23666330

  16. Malonate catabolism does not drive N2 fixation in legume nodules.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; East, Alison K; Poole, Philip S

    2013-07-01

    Malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase, malonyl-CoA synthetase, and malonate transporter mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and trifolii fixed N2 at wild-type rates on pea and clover, respectively. Thus, malonate does not drive N2 fixation in legume nodules.

  17. Rhizobial Diversity and Nodulation Characteristics of the Extremely Promiscuous Legume Sophora flavescens.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yin Shan; Liu, Yuan Hui; Yan, Hui; Wang, En Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin; Guo, Bao Lin; Chen, Wen Feng

    2015-12-01

    In present study, we report our extensive survey on the diversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with Sophora flavescens, a sophocarpidine (matrine)-containing medicinal legume. We additionally investigated the cross nodulation, infection pattern, light and electron microscopies of root nodule sections of S. flavescens infected by various rhizobia. Seventeen genospecies of rhizobia belonging to five genera with seven types of symbiotic nodC genes were found to nodulate S. flavescens in natural soils. In the cross-nodulation tests, most representative rhizobia in class α-Proteobacteria, whose host plants belong to different cross-nodulation groups, form effective indeterminate nodules, while representative rhizobia in class β-Proteobacteria form ineffective nodules on S. flavescens. Highly host-specific biovars of Rhizobium leguminosarum (bv. trifolii and bv. viciae) and Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli could establish symbioses with S. flavescens, providing further evidence that S. flavescens is an extremely promiscuous legume and it does not have strict selectivity on either the symbiotic genes or the species-determining housekeeping genes of rhizobia. Root-hair infection is found as the pattern that rhizobia have gained entry into the curled root hairs. Electron microscopies of ultra-thin sections of S. flavescens root nodules formed by different rhizobia show that the bacteroids are regular or irregular rod shape and nonswollen types. Some bacteroids contain poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), while others do not, indicating the synthesis of PHB in bacteroids is rhizobia-dependent. The extremely promiscuous symbiosis between S. flavescens and different rhizobia provide us a basis for future studies aimed at understanding the molecular interactions of rhizobia and legumes.

  18. Antioxidant treatments counteract the non-culturability of bacterial endophytes isolated from legume nodules.

    PubMed

    Muresu, Rosella; Tondello, Alessandra; Polone, Elisa; Sulas, Leonardo; Baldan, Barbara; Squartini, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    In many wild legumes, attempts to cultivate nodule bacteria fail. We hypothesized that the limited culturability could be related to injury from oxidative stress caused by disruption of plant tissues during isolation. To test that, we isolated bacteria from nodules of Hedysarum spinosissimum and Tetragonolobus purpureus using buffers supplemented with scavenging systems to prevent damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatments included the following: antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbate, EDTA) or enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase), tested either as modified squashing buffers or added in plates. Some combinations yielded dramatic increases of culturability. Different endophytes were found, including additional Rhizobiaceae that were not the primary symbiont and were unable to nodulate. Their H2O2 tolerance in broth culture showed differences consistent with the unequal culturability observed. In wild legumes species, ROS generation during extraction appears to be a major factor limiting microbiota isolation, and protocols presented here significantly improve the recovery of culturable bacterial endophytes from plants.

  19. Characterization and diversity of rhizobia nodulating selected tree legumes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Emmanuel Yaw; Lawson, Innocent Yao Dotse; Danso, Seth Kofi Akyea; Offei, Samuel Kwame

    The study was conducted to assess the characteristics and diversity of the rhizobia that nodulate some prominent tree legumes in three soils of Ghana. Five introduced and/or indigenous tree legumes were initially assessed for nodulation in three Ghanaian soils. After 12 weeks of growth in nursery pots the 200 rhizobial strains isolated from their nodules were characterized culturally, metabolically and phenotypically. Sixty of these isolates were selected randomly and their genotypic characteristics determined using PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA and intergenic spacer (ITS) genes. Each tree legume was nodulated by isolates classified as fast or very fast-growers or by isolates classified as slow- or very slow-growers with 54 % of all the 200 isolates belonging to fast- or very fast-growers. Morphologically, eighty five percent of the colonies formed on yeast extract mannitol agar were wet and gummy while 70 % were acid tolerant, i.e. they were able to grow at a pH of 3.5. Combined restriction of the 16S rRNA genes of the 60 rhizobial isolates with five restriction enzymes clearly distinguished seven different clusters at 80 % similarity level. The majority of A. lebbeck isolates were distinct from those of the Acacias and L. leucocephala. The M. thonningii isolates were related to L. leucocephala isolates. Simple PCR of the ITS DNA provided several distinct band sizes indicating great variation among the isolates and restriction of the ITS with three different enzymes did not yield many further differences. Molecular techniques revealed a great diversity among the rhizobia that nodulate tree legumes in the tropics and this may explain why many introduced and/or indigenous trees are able to form nodules with indigenous rhizobia in this region.

  20. The Class II Trehalose 6-phosphate Synthase Gene PvTPS9 Modulates Trehalose Metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Barraza, Aarón; Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Reyes, José L.; Juárez-Verdayes, Marco A.; Avonce, Nelson; Quinto, Carmen; Díaz-Camino, Claudia; Sanchez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1%) of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant. PMID:27847509

  1. The Class II Trehalose 6-phosphate Synthase Gene PvTPS9 Modulates Trehalose Metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris Nodules.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Aarón; Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Reyes, José L; Juárez-Verdayes, Marco A; Avonce, Nelson; Quinto, Carmen; Díaz-Camino, Claudia; Sanchez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1%) of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant.

  2. Legume-Rhizobium Interactions: Cowpea Root Exudate Elicits Faster Nodulation Response by Rhizobium Species

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Arvind A.; Thomas, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Preinfection events in legume-Rhizobium symbiosis were analyzed by studying the different nodulation behaviors of two rhizobial strains in cowpeas (Vigna sinensis). Log-phase cultures of Rhizobium sp. strain 1001, an isolate from the plant nodule, initiated host responses leading to infection within 2 h after inoculation, whereas log-phase cultures of Rhizobium sp. strain 32H1 took at least 7 h to trigger a discernible response. The delay observed with strain 32H1 could be eliminated by incubating the rhizobial suspension, before inoculation, for 4.5 h either in the cowpea rhizosphere/rhizoplane condition or in the root exudate of cowpea plants, grown without NH4+ in the rooting medium. The delay could not be eliminated by incubating the rhizobial suspension in the rooting medium of plants grown in the presence of 5 mM NH4+, indicating that there is a regulatory role of combined nitrogen in triggering preinfection events by the legume. The substance(s) in the root exudate which elicited the faster nodulation response by Rhizobium sp. strain 32H1 could be separated into a high-molecular-weight fraction by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The data support the notion that legume roots release substances that favor the development of rhizobial features essential for infection and nodulation. PMID:16345989

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis of nodules of two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations with differential symbiotic efficiency under phosphate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Inoue, Komaki; Chu, Ha Duc; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Van Ha, Chien; Watanabe, Yasuko; Burritt, David J; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Mochida, Keiichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2017-09-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency is known to be a major limitation for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF), and hence legume crop productivity globally. However, very little information is available on the adaptive mechanisms, particularly in the important legume crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), which enable nodules to respond to low-Pi availability. Thus, to elucidate these mechanisms in chickpea nodules at molecular level, we used an RNA sequencing approach to investigate transcriptomes of the nodules in Mesorhizobium mediterraneum SWRI9-(MmSWRI9)-chickpea and M. ciceri CP-31-(McCP-31)-chickpea associations under Pi-sufficient and Pi-deficient conditions, of which the McCP-31-chickpea association has a better SNF capacity than the MmSWRI9-chickpea association during Pi starvation. Our investigation revealed that more genes showed altered expression patterns in MmSWRI9-induced nodules than in McCP-31-induced nodules (540 vs. 225) under Pi deficiency, suggesting that the Pi-starvation-more-sensitive MmSWRI9-induced nodules required expression change in a larger number of genes to cope with low-Pi stress than the Pi-starvation-less-sensitive McCP-31-induced nodules. The functional classification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was examined to gain an understanding of how chickpea nodules respond to Pi starvation, caused by soil Pi deficiency. As a result, more DEGs involved in nodulation, detoxification, nutrient/ion transport, transcriptional factors, key metabolic pathways, Pi remobilization and signalling were found in Pi-starved MmSWRI9-induced nodules than in Pi-starved McCP-31-induced nodules. Our findings have enabled the identification of molecular processes that play important roles in the acclimation of nodules to Pi deficiency, ultimately leading to the development of Pi-efficient chickpea symbiotic associations suitable for Pi-deficient soils. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    PubMed

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of Lotus uliginosus symbionts with bradyrhizobia nodulating genistoid legumes.

    PubMed

    Lorite, María J; Videira e Castro, Isabel; Muñoz, Socorro; Sanjuán, Juan

    2012-02-01

    Lotus species are legumes with potential for pastures in soils with low-fertility and environmental constraints. The aim of this work was to characterize bacteria that establish efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the forage species Lotus uliginosus. A total of 39 isolates were obtained from nodules of L. uliginosus naturally growing in two different locations of Portugal. Molecular identification of the isolates plus the commercial inoculant strain NZP2039 was performed by REP-PCR, 16S rRNA RFLP, and 16S rRNA, glnII and recA sequence analyses. Limited genetic diversity was found among the L. uliginosus symbionts, which showed a close phylogenetic relationship with the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The symbiotic nifH, nodA and nodC gene sequences were closely related with the corresponding genes of various Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Lupinus and other genistoid legumes and therefore were phylogenetically separated from other Lotus spp. rhizobia. The L. uliginosus bradyrhizobia were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in association with L. uliginosus, could nodulate Lotus corniculatus with generally poor nitrogen-fixing efficiency, formed nonfixing nodules in Lotus tenuis and Lupinus luteus roots and were unable to nodulate Glycine soja or Glycine max. Thus, L. uliginosus rhizobia seem closely related to B. japonicum biovar genistearum strains.

  6. The genetic and biochemical basis for nodulation of legumes by rhizobia

    SciTech Connect

    Pueppke, S.G.

    1996-05-01

    Soil bacteria of the genera Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium are collectively termed rhizobia. They share the ability to penetrate legume roots and elicit morphological responses that lead to the appearance of nodules. Bacteria within these symbiotic structures fix atmosphere nitrogen and thus are of immense ecological and agricultural significance. Although modern genetic analysis of rhizobia began less than 20 years ago, dozens of nodulation genes have now been identified, some in multiple species of rhizobia. These genetic advances have led to the discovery of a host surveillance system encoded by nodD and to the identification of Nod factor signals. These derivatives of oligochitin are synthesized by the protein products of nodABC, nodFE, NodPQ, and other nodulation genes: they provoke symbiotic responses on the part of the host and have generated immense interest in recent years. The symbiotic functions of other nodulation genes are nonetheless uncertain, and there remain significant gaps in the knowledge of several large groups of rhizobia with interesting biological properties. This review focuses on the nodulation genes of rhizobia, with particular emphasis on the concept of biological specificity of symbiosis with legume host plants. 419 refs.

  7. Carbon metabolism in legume nodules. Progress report, July 1982-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The goal is to understand how the legume nodule metabolizes carbohydrate to provide energy and reductant for symbiotic fixation. The working hypothesis has been that the plant cytosol is microacrobic and that some carbon metabolism may be via anaerobic pathways similar to those in roots of flood tolerant plants. A method of analyzing redox changes in intact mitochondria, bacteroids or bacteria was adapted; a method of manipulating nitrogenase activity by oxygen inhibition was developed; the production of alcohol by soybean nodules was studied; and enzymes metabolizing alcohol/aldehyde were found in other nitrogen fixing systems. (ACR)

  8. Construction of a marker system for the evaluation of competitiveness for legume nodulation in Rhizobium strains.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cañizares, Carmen; Palacios, Jose

    2013-03-01

    A marker system has been set up for the analysis of competitiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains for legume nodulation. The strains generated incorporate gusA and celB marker genes at identical positions and allow efficient scoring of single and double infections. Based on this system, we have found that strain UPM791 outcompetes 3841 for nodulation in pea. This technique will be useful to determine the effect of different traits on competitiveness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple polyploidy events in the early radiation of nodulating and nonnodulating legumes.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Steven B; McKain, Michael R; Harkess, Alex; Nelson, Matthew N; Dash, Sudhansu; Deyholos, Michael K; Peng, Yanhui; Joyce, Blake; Stewart, Charles N; Rolf, Megan; Kutchan, Toni; Tan, Xuemei; Chen, Cui; Zhang, Yong; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Doyle, Jeff J; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD affects most lineages in the Papilionoideae and occurred sometime after the divergence of the papilionoid and mimosoid clades, but the exact timing has been unknown. The history of WGD has also not been established for legume lineages outside the Papilionoideae. We investigated the presence and timing of WGDs in the legumes by querying thousands of phylogenetic trees constructed from transcriptome and genome data from 20 diverse legumes and 17 outgroup species. The timing of duplications in the gene trees indicates that the papilionoid WGD occurred in the common ancestor of all papilionoids. The earliest diverging lineages of the Papilionoideae include both nodulating taxa, such as the genistoids (e.g., lupin), dalbergioids (e.g., peanut), phaseoloids (e.g., beans), and galegoids (=Hologalegina, e.g., clovers), and clades with nonnodulating taxa including Xanthocercis and Cladrastis (evaluated in this study). We also found evidence for several independent WGDs near the base of other major legume lineages, including the Mimosoideae-Cassiinae-Caesalpinieae (MCC), Detarieae, and Cercideae clades. Nodulation is found in the MCC and papilionoid clades, both of which experienced ancestral WGDs. However, there are numerous nonnodulating lineages in both clades, making it unclear whether the phylogenetic distribution of nodulation is due to independent gains or a single origin followed by multiple losses.

  10. Multiple Polyploidy Events in the Early Radiation of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B.; McKain, Michael R.; Harkess, Alex; Nelson, Matthew N.; Dash, Sudhansu; Deyholos, Michael K.; Peng, Yanhui; Joyce, Blake; Stewart, Charles N.; Rolf, Megan; Kutchan, Toni; Tan, Xuemei; Chen, Cui; Zhang, Yong; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Doyle, Jeff J.; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD affects most lineages in the Papilionoideae and occurred sometime after the divergence of the papilionoid and mimosoid clades, but the exact timing has been unknown. The history of WGD has also not been established for legume lineages outside the Papilionoideae. We investigated the presence and timing of WGDs in the legumes by querying thousands of phylogenetic trees constructed from transcriptome and genome data from 20 diverse legumes and 17 outgroup species. The timing of duplications in the gene trees indicates that the papilionoid WGD occurred in the common ancestor of all papilionoids. The earliest diverging lineages of the Papilionoideae include both nodulating taxa, such as the genistoids (e.g., lupin), dalbergioids (e.g., peanut), phaseoloids (e.g., beans), and galegoids (=Hologalegina, e.g., clovers), and clades with nonnodulating taxa including Xanthocercis and Cladrastis (evaluated in this study). We also found evidence for several independent WGDs near the base of other major legume lineages, including the Mimosoideae–Cassiinae–Caesalpinieae (MCC), Detarieae, and Cercideae clades. Nodulation is found in the MCC and papilionoid clades, both of which experienced ancestral WGDs. However, there are numerous nonnodulating lineages in both clades, making it unclear whether the phylogenetic distribution of nodulation is due to independent gains or a single origin followed by multiple losses. PMID:25349287

  11. Carbon metabolism in legume nodules. Progress report, June 1, 1982-January 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, T.A.

    1983-02-01

    The oxidation and reduction of flavins and pyridine nucleotides in intact bacteria can be monitored by their changes in fluorescence. This technique permits study in nitrogen fixing bacteria of the effect of inhibitors of electron transport, and of the effect of substrates which may provide reductant for nitrogenase or oxidative phosphorylation. The nitrogen fixing ability of intact legume plants or bacteroids isolated from nodules can be manipulated downward by appropriate brief treatment of supra-optimal oxygen concentrations.

  12. Transition metals in legume root nodules: iron-dependent free radical production increases during nodule senescence.

    PubMed Central

    Becana, M; Klucas, R V

    1992-01-01

    The cytosol from root nodules of soybean, bean, and cowpea contained Fe and Cu capable of catalyzing the formation of highly reactive free radicals. Specific and sensitive assays based on free radical-mediated DNA degradation revealed that most catalytic Fe and Cu were present as small chelates (300-600 Da). The involvement of catalytic Fe in free radical production during nodule senescence, which was induced by exposure of plants to continuous darkness for 2-4 days, was investigated. (i) Free heme remained at a constant and low concentration (1-4% of total nodule heme) during senescence, indicating that it is not an important constituent of the catalytic Fe pool of nodules. (ii) Catalytic Fe of nodule cytosol promoted deoxyribose degradation and linolenic acid peroxidation in reaction mixtures containing physiological concentrations of ascorbate and H2O2. Deoxyribose degradation but not lipid peroxidation required hydroxyl radicals to proceed. (iii) The cytosol from senescent nodules, particularly of bean and cowpea, sustained in vitro higher rates of deoxyribose degradation and lipid peroxidation than the cytosol from unstressed nodules. Both degradative processes were inhibited by the Fe chelator desferrioxamine and were correlated with the content of catalytic Fe in the nodule cytosol. (iv) Although other transition metals (Cu, Mn, Mo, and Ni) were present in significant amounts in the low molecular mass fraction (<3 kDa) of the nodule cytosol, Fe is most likely the only metal involved in free radical generation in vivo. (v) By using dimethyl sulfoxide as a molecular probe, formation of significant amounts of hydroxyl radical was observed in vivo during senescence of bean and cowpea nodules. Images PMID:11607326

  13. Bioproduction of ascorbic acid in root nodule and root of the legume pulse Phaseolus mungo.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Maiti, T K; Basu, P S

    2008-05-01

    The root nodules of Phaseolus mungo (L.), a herbaceous leguminous pulse, contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (AsA). A glucose pool present in the nodule might serve as precursor for AsA production. From root nodule, a Rhizobium sp. was isolated. The symbiont produced a large amount of AsA (290.5 microg/ml) from glucose-supplemented basal medium. The production of AsA by the symbiont was much greater than that of the control when the glucose (0.5%)-supplemented mineral medium was enriched with thiamine hydrochloride (20 microg/100 ml), biotin (20 microg/100 ml), and L-asparagine (0.2%). The possible role of the rhizobial production of AsA on rhizobia-legume symbiosis is discussed.

  14. NODULE ROOT and COCHLEATA Maintain Nodule Development and Are Legume Orthologs of Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE Genes[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Zhukov, Vladimir; Mondy, Samuel; Abu el Heba, Ghada; Cosson, Viviane; Ellis, T.H. Noel; Ambrose, Mike; Wen, Jiangqi; Tadege, Million; Tikhonovich, Igor; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Putterill, Joanna; Hofer, Julie; Borisov, Alexei Y.; Ratet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    During their symbiotic interaction with rhizobia, legume plants develop symbiosis-specific organs on their roots, called nodules, that house nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The molecular mechanisms governing the identity and maintenance of these organs are unknown. Using Medicago truncatula nodule root (noot) mutants and pea (Pisum sativum) cochleata (coch) mutants, which are characterized by the abnormal development of roots from the nodule, we identified the NOOT and COCH genes as being necessary for the robust maintenance of nodule identity throughout the nodule developmental program. NOOT and COCH are Arabidopsis thaliana BLADE-ON-PETIOLE orthologs, and we have shown that their functions in leaf and flower development are conserved in M. truncatula and pea. The identification of these two genes defines a clade in the BTB/POZ-ankyrin domain proteins that shares conserved functions in eudicot organ development and suggests that NOOT and COCH were recruited to repress root identity in the legume symbiotic organ. PMID:23136374

  15. Distinct Bradyrhizobium [corrected] communities nodulate legumes native to temperate and tropical monsoon Australia.

    PubMed

    Stępkowski, Tomasz; Watkin, Elizabeth; McInnes, Alison; Gurda, Dorota; Gracz, Joanna; Steenkamp, Emma T

    2012-05-01

    Geographic isolation and growing climate aridity played major roles in the evolution of Australian legumes. It is likely that these two factors also impacted on the evolution of their root-nodule bacteria. To investigate this issue, we applied a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) approach to examine Bradyrhizobium isolates originating from temperate areas of Western Australia (WA) and the tropical-monsoon area of the Northern Territory (NT). The isolates were mostly collected from the nodules of legumes belonging to tribes, genera and species endemic or native to Australia. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences for the housekeeping atpD, dnaK, glnII, gyrB, recA and 16S rRNA genes and nodulation nodA gene revealed that most isolates belonged to groups that are distinct from non-Australian Bradyrhizobium isolates, which is in line with earlier studies based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of the nodA data allowed identification of five major Clades among the WA and NT isolates. All WA isolates grouped in a subgroup I.1 of Clade I with strains originating from temperate eastern Australia. In contrast, the NT isolates formed part of Clades I (subgroup I.2), III (subgroup III.3), IV, V and X. Of these nodA clades, Clade I, Clade IV, Clade X presumably have an Australian origin. Overall, these data demonstrate that the impact of geographic isolation of the Australian landmass is manifested by the presence of numerous unique clusters in housekeeping and nodulation gene trees. In addition, the intrinsic climate characteristics of temperate WA and tropical-monsoon NT were responsible for the formation of distinct legume communities selecting for unrelated Bradyrhizobium groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple polyploidy events in the early radiation of nodulating and non-nodulating legumes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD af...

  17. Nodule development on the tropical legume Sesbania virgata under flooded and non-flooded conditions.

    PubMed

    Bomfeti, C A; Ferreira, P A A; Carvalho, T S; De Rycke, R; Moreira, F M S; Goormachtig, S; Holsters, M

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between the Brazilian pioneer legume Sesbania virgata and its microsymbiont Azorhizobium doebereinerae leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots that grow either in well-aerated soils or in wetlands. We studied the initiation and development of nodules under these alternative conditions. To this end, light and fluorescence microscopy were used to follow the bacterial colonisation and invasion into the host and, by means of transmission electron microscopy, we could observe the intracellular entry. Under hydroponic conditions, intercellular invasion took place at lateral root bases and mature nodules were round and determinate. However, on roots grown in vermiculite that allows aerated growth, bacteria also entered via root hair invasion and nodules were both of the determinate and indeterminate type. Such versatility in entry and developmental plasticity, as previously described in Sesbania rostrata, enables efficient nodulation in both dry and wet environments and are an important adaptive feature of this group of semi-tropical plants that grow in temporarily flooded habitats.

  18. Mitochondria are an early target of oxidative modifications in senescing legume nodules.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Manuel A; Fernández-García, Nieves; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Loscos, Jorge; Saiz, Ana; Becana, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    Legume nodule senescence is a poorly understood process involving a decrease in N(2) fixation and an increase in proteolytic activity. Some physiological changes during nodule aging have been reported, but scarce information is available at the subcellular level. Biochemical, immunological and proteomic approaches were used to provide insight into the effects of aging on the mitochondria and cytosol of nodule host cells. In the mitochondria, the oxidative modification of lipids and proteins was associated with a marked decline in glutathione, a reduced capacity to regenerate ascorbate, and upregulation of alternative oxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase. In the cytosol, there were consistent reductions in the protein concentrations of carbon metabolism enzymes, inhibition of protein synthesis and increase in serine proteinase activity, disorganization of cytoskeleton, and a sharp reduction of cytosolic proteins, but no detectable accumulation of oxidized molecules. We conclude that nodule mitochondria are an early target of oxidative modifications and a likely source of redox signals. Alternative oxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase may play important roles in controlling ROS concentrations and the redox state of mitochondria. The finding that specific methionine residues of a cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoform are sulfoxidized suggests a regulatory role of this enzyme in senescing nodules.

  19. Improving legume nodulation and Cu rhizostabilization using a genetically modified rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Julián; Lafuente, Alejandro; Doukkali, Bouchra; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Caviedes, Miguel A; Pajuelo, Eloísa; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D

    2015-01-01

    The rhizobia-legume interaction has been proposed as an interesting and appropriate tool for rhizostabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals. One of the main requirements to use this symbiosis is the availability of tolerant and symbiotically effective rhizobia. The aim of this work was to improve the symbiotic properties of the arsenic-resistant wild-type strain Ensifer medicae MA11 in Cu-contaminated substrates. The copAB genes from a Cu-resistant Pseudomonas fluorescens strain were expressed in E. medicae MA11 under the control of the nifH promoter. The resulting strain E. medicae MA11-copAB was able to alleviate the toxic effect of Cu in Medicago truncatula. At 300 µM Cu, root and shoot dry matter production, nitrogen content, number of nodules and photosynthetic rate were significantly reduced in plants inoculated with the wild-type strain. However, these parameters were not altered in plants inoculated with the genetically modified strain. Moreover, nodules elicited by this strain were able to accumulate twofold the Cu measured in nodules formed by the wild-type strain. In addition, the engineered E. medicae strain increased Cu accumulation in roots and decreased the content in shoots. Thus, E. medicae MA11-copAB increased the capacity of M. truncatula to rhizostabilize Cu, decreasing the translocation factor and avoiding metal entry into the food chain. The plasmid containing the nifH promoter-copAB construct could be a useful biotool for Cu rhizostabilization using legumes, since it can be transferred to different rhizobia microsymbionts of authoctonous legumes growing in Cu-contaminated soils.

  20. New ichnospecies of scratching traces from phosphatic nodules (Cenomanian, England)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumakov, N. M.; Dronov, A. V.; Mikuláš, R.

    2013-05-01

    Surfaces of phosphorite nodules and pebbles from the "Cambridge Green Sand" (Cenomanian, South England) yielded several discernible types of scratches. These originated before the burial of nodules/pebbles as evidenced by fossil epibiotic oysters cemented to cover the scratches. The individual forms of scratches differ in size and shape; therefore, the set of "scratching instruments" also had to be different. The scratches described differ from scratches generated by glacial processes, namely by the regularity of length and intervals, parallel orientation, existence of recurrent forms and placement along the nodule edges. We interpret the scratches as trace fossils of the ichnogenus Machichnus. Three new species, namely M. normani, M. harlandi and M. jeansi, are erected for them herein. The series of scratches originated probably by teeth on a couple of jaws; the makers possibly scraped bacterial or algal film off the surface of nodules that were covered with the phosphate gel. Both homodont and heterodont animals (probably fish) were involved.

  1. Legume nodule senescence: roles for redox and hormone signalling in the orchestration of the natural aging process.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Alain; Groten, Karin; Bastian, Fabiola; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Soussi, Mariam; Lucas, M Mercedes; de Felipe, Maria Rosario; Harrison, Judith; Vanacker, Hélène; Foyer, Christine H

    2005-03-01

    Research on legume nodule development has contributed greatly to our current understanding of plant-microbe interactions. However, the factors that orchestrate root nodule senescence have received relatively little attention. Accumulating evidence suggests that redox signals contribute to the establishment of symbiosis and senescence. Although degenerative in nature, nodule senescence is an active process programmed in development in which reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidants, hormones and proteinases have key roles. Nodules have high levels of the redox buffers, ascorbate and glutathione, which are important in the nodulation process and in senescence. These metabolites decline with N-fixation as the nodule ages but the resultant decrease in redox buffering capacity does not necessarily lead to enhanced ROS or oxidative stress. We propose models by which ROS and antioxidants interact with hormones such as abscisic acid in the orchestration of nodule senescence.

  2. Prevalence of Burkholderia sp. nodule symbionts on four mimosoid legumes from Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Craig F; Parker, Matthew A

    2005-01-01

    Sequences of 16S rRNA and partial 23S rRNA genes and PCR assays with genotype-specific primers indicated that bacteria in the genus Burkholderia were the predominant root nodule symbionts for four mimosoid legumes (Mimosa pigra, M. casta, M. pudica, and Abarema macradenia) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Among 51 isolates from these and a fifth mimosoid host (Pithecellobium hymenaeafolium), 44 were Burkholderia strains while the rest were placed in Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, or Bradyrhizobium. The Burkholderia strains displayed four distinct rRNA sequence types, ranging from 89% to 97% similarity for 23S rRNA and 96.5-98.4% for 16S rRNA. The most common genotype comprised 53% of all isolates sampled and was associated with three legume host species. All Burkholderia genotypes formed nodules on Macroptilium atropurpureum or Mimosa pigra, and sequencing of rRNA genes in strains re-isolated from nodules verified identity with inoculant strains. Sequence analysis of the nitrogenase alpha-subunit gene (nifD) in two of the Burkholderia genotypes indicated that they were most similar to a partial sequence from the nodule-forming strain Burkholderia tuberum STM 678 from South Africa. In addition, a PCR screen with primers specific to Burkholderia nodB genes yielded the expected amplification product in most strains. Comparison of 16S rRNA and partial 23S rRNA phylogenies indicated that tree topologies were significantly incongruent. This implies that relationships across the rRNA region may have been altered by lateral gene transfer events in this Burkholderia population.

  3. Nodulation gene factors and plant response in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. [Nodulation

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Our original application aimed to identify genes outside the common nod region involved in nodulation and host range of alfalfa. This has been revised by adding other studies on nodulation gene action and removing molecular studies of gene action. Our restated goals and progress are as follows. An early goal was identification and characterization of additional nodulation genes. By means of transposon mutagenesis, mapping and marker exchange we have established 87 independent mutations in a 20kb area represented by plasmid pRmJT5. We discovered four new genes: nodP, nodD3, syrA and syrM. The sequence, start site and protein product for nodFe, nodG, and nodH were also identified. Regulation of nod FEGH was studied. nod FEGH can be induced by luteolin in the presence of noodle; nodD1; noD3 and syrM, a symbiotic regulator gene also increase transcription of nod FEGH. syrA will interact with syrM; syrM also regulates exopolysaccharide genes and is believed to be a master regulator. As part of these studies, an in vitro transcription/translation system for Rhizobium was developed. Adjacent to nodP we discussed nodQ, nodPQ occurrs in two highly consumed copies. nodQ appears by sequence analysis to be similar to initiation and elongation factors, with the highest homology in the GDP binding domain. We have also investigated the nod strain, WL131. WL131 has an insertion, ISRm3, interrupting nodG, and a nonsase mutation in nodH, nodH is responsible for the lack of nodulation. We are currently investigating supernatant factors, host range effects C by spot inoculation, glucaronidase fusion proteins, and are developing, a single root hair inoculation protocol. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Conserved nodulation genes from the non-legume symbiont Bradyrhizobium sp. (Parasponia).

    PubMed Central

    Scott, K F

    1986-01-01

    A nodulation locus from the broad-host-range, non-legume symbiont Bradyrhizobium sp. (Parasponia) strain ANU289, has been identified by hybridisation to cloned Rhizobium trifolii nodulation (nod) genes. Transfer of cloned ANU289 nod genes to R.trifolii nodulation-deficient mutants showed that the locus contains a functional homologue of the R. trifolii nodD gene. DNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three additional genes nodA, nodB and nodC clustered adjacent to nodD. The four genes from ANU289 share substantial sequence homology with those characterised from narrow-host-range Rhizobium strains. A novel 700-bp sequence inserted between the nodD and nodABC genes encodes an open reading frame designated nodK and is oriented in the same direction as nodABC. nodKABC appear to be organized in a single transcriptional unit and nodD is oriented divergently to nodKABC. A 35-bp sequence containing the ribosome binding site for the nodD gene and an AT-rich core sequence has been identified by comparison with sequences from other Rhizobium strains and is likely to be implicated in the plant-mediated induction of nodulation gene expression. Images PMID:3960737

  5. Two MicroRNAs Linked to Nodule Infection and Nitrogen-Fixing Ability in the Legume Lotus japonicus1[W

    PubMed Central

    De Luis, Ana; Markmann, Katharina; Cognat, Valérie; Holt, Dennis B.; Charpentier, Myriam; Parniske, Martin; Stougaard, Jens; Voinnet, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Legumes overcome nitrogen shortage by developing root nodules in which symbiotic bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen in exchange for host-derived carbohydrates and mineral nutrients. Nodule development involves the distinct processes of nodule organogenesis, bacterial infection, and the onset of nitrogen fixation. These entail profound, dynamic gene expression changes, notably contributed to by microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we used deep-sequencing, candidate-based expression studies and a selection of Lotus japonicus mutants uncoupling different symbiosis stages to identify miRNAs involved in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Induction of a noncanonical miR171 isoform, which targets the key nodulation transcription factor Nodulation Signaling Pathway2, correlates with bacterial infection in nodules. A second candidate, miR397, is systemically induced in the presence of active, nitrogen-fixing nodules but not in that of noninfected or inactive nodule organs. It is involved in nitrogen fixation-related copper homeostasis and targets a member of the laccase copper protein family. These findings thus identify two miRNAs specifically responding to symbiotic infection and nodule function in legumes. PMID:23071252

  6. Burkholderia kirstenboschensis sp. nov. nodulates papilionoid legumes indigenous to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Emma T; van Zyl, Elritha; Beukes, Chrizelle W; Avontuur, Juanita R; Chan, Wai Yin; Palmer, Marike; Mthombeni, Lunghile S; Phalane, Francina L; Sereme, T Karabo; Venter, Stephanus N

    2015-12-01

    Despite the diversity of Burkholderia species known to nodulate legumes in introduced and native regions, relatively few taxa have been formally described. For example, the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa is thought to represent one of the major centres of diversity for the rhizobial members of Burkholderia, yet only five species have been described from legumes occurring in this region and numerous are still awaiting taxonomic treatment. Here, we investigated the taxonomic status of 12 South African root-nodulating Burkholderia isolates from native papilionoid legumes (Hypocalyptus coluteoides, H. oxalidifolius, H. sophoroides and Virgilia oroboides). Analysis of four gene regions (16S rRNA, recA, atpD and rpoB) revealed that the isolates represent a genealogically unique and exclusive assemblage within the genus. Its distinctness was supported by all other aspects of the polyphasic approach utilized, including the genome-based criteria DNA-DNA hybridization (≥70.9%) and average nucleotide identities (≥96%). We accordingly propose the name B. kirstenboschensis sp. nov. for this taxon with isolate Kb15(T) (=LMG 28727(T); =SARC 695(T)) as its type strain. Our data showed that intraspecific genome size differences (≥0.81 Mb) and the occurrence of large DNA regions that are apparently unique to single individuals (16-23% of an isolate's genome) can significantly limit the value of data obtained from DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Substitution of DNA-DNA hybridization with whole genome sequencing as a prerequisite for the description of Burkholderia species will undoubtedly speed up the pace at which their diversity are documented, especially in hyperdiverse regions such as the Cape Floristic Region.

  7. Purification, properties, and distribution of ascorbate peroxidase in legume root nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, D.A.; Hanus, F.J.; Russell, S.A.; Evans, H.J. )

    1987-01-01

    All aerobic biological system, including N{sub 2}-fixing root nodules, are subject to O{sub 2} toxicity that results from the formation of reactive intermediates such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and free radicals of O{sub 2}. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may be removed from root nodules in a series of enzymic reactions involving ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase. The authors confirm here the presence of these enzymes in root nodules from nine species of legumes and from Alnus rubra. Ascorbate peroxidase from soybean nodules was purified to near homogeneity. This enzyme was found to be a hemeprotein with a molecular weight of 30,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. KCN, NaN{sub 3}, CO, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} were potent inhibitors of activity. Nonphysiological reductants such as guaiacol, o-dianisidine, and pyrogallol functioned as substrates for the enzyme. No activity was detected with NAD(P)H, reduced glutathione, or urate. Ascorbate peroxidation did not follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The substrate concentration which resulted in a reaction rate of 1/2 V{sub max} was 70 micromolar for ascorbate and 3 micromolar for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The high affinity of ascorbate peroxidase for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} indicates that this enzyme, rather than catalase, is responsible for most H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal outside of peroxisomes in root nodules.

  8. Function of plasma membrane microdomain-associated proteins during legume nodulation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Libault, Marc

    2017-08-17

    Plasma membrane microdomains are plasma membrane sub-compartments enriched in sphingolipids and sterols, and composed by a specific set of proteins. They are involved in recognizing signal molecules, transducing these signals, and controlling endocytosis and exocytosis processes. In a recent study, applying biochemical and microscopic methods, we characterized the soybean GmFWL1 protein, a major regulator of soybean nodulation, as a new membrane microdomain-associated protein. Interestingly, upon rhizobia inoculation of the soybean root system, GmFWL1 and one of its interacting partners, GmFLOT2/4, both translocate to the root hair cell tip, the primary site of interaction and infection between soybean and Rhizobium. The role of GmFWL1 as a plasma membrane microdomain-associated protein is also supported by immunoprecipitation assays performed on soybean nodules, which revealed 178 GmFWL1 protein partners including a large number of microdomain-associated proteins such as GmFLOT2/4. In this addendum, we provide additional information about the identity of the soybean proteins repetitively identified as GmFWL1 protein partners. Their function is discussed especially in regard to plant-microbe interactions and microbial symbiosis. This addendum will provide new insights in the role of plasma membrane microdomains in regulating legume nodulation.

  9. Monitoring the colonization and infection of legume nodules by Micromonospora in co-inoculation experiments with rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Benito, Patricia; Alonso-Vega, Pablo; Aguado, Carolina; Luján, Rafael; Anzai, Yojiro; Hirsch, Ann M; Trujillo, Martha E

    2017-09-08

    The discovery that the actinobacterium Micromonospora inhabits nitrogen-fixing nodules raised questions as to its potential ecological role. The capacity of two Micromonospora strains to infect legumes other than their original host, Lupinus angustifolius, was investigated using Medicago and Trifolium as test plants. Compatible rhizobial strains were used for coinoculation of the plants because Micromonospora itself does not induce nodulation. Over 50% of nodules from each legume housed Micromonospora, and using 16S rRNA gene sequence identification, we verified that the reisolated strains corresponded to the microorganisms inoculated. Entry of the bacteria and colonization of the plant hosts were monitored using a GFP-tagged Lupac 08 mutant together with rhizobia, and by using immunogold labeling. Strain Lupac 08 was localized in plant tissues, confirming its capacity to enter and colonize all hosts. Based on studying three different plants, our results support a non-specific relationship between Micromonospora and legumes. Micromonospora Lupac 08, originally isolated from Lupinus re-enters root tissue, but only when coinoculated with the corresponding rhizobia. The ability of Micromonospora to infect and colonize different legume species and function as a potential plant-growth promoting bacterium is relevant because this microbe enhances the symbiosis without interfering with the host and its nodulating and nitrogen-fixing microbes.

  10. The potential of oil-utilizing bacterial consortia associated with legume root nodules for cleaning oily soils.

    PubMed

    Dashti, N; Khanafer, M; El-Nemr, I; Sorkhoh, N; Ali, N; Radwan, S

    2009-03-01

    The surfaces of root nodules of Vicia faba and Lupinus albus (legume crops), were colonized with bacterial consortia which utilized oil and fixed nitrogen. Such combined activities apparently make those periphytic consortia efficient contributors to bioremediation of oily nitrogen-poor desert soils. This was confirmed experimentally in this study. Thus, cultivating V. faba, L. albus and, for comparison, Solanum melongena, a nonlegume crop, separately in oily sand samples resulted in more oil attenuation than in an uncultivated sample. This effect was more pronounced with the legume crops than with the nonlegume crop. Furthermore, in flask cultures, V. faba plants with nodulated roots exhibited a higher potential for oil attenuation in the surrounding water than plants with nodule-free roots. Denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rRNA coding genes revealed that periphytic bacteria had DGGE bands not matching those of the oil-utilizing rhizospheric bacteria. Legume nodules also contained endophytic bacteria whose 16S rDNA bands did not match those of Rhizobium nor those of all other individual periphytic and rhizospheric strains. It was concluded that legume crops host on their roots bacterial consortia with a satisfactory potential for oil phytoremediation.

  11. Identification of fast-growing rhizobia nodulating tropical legumes from Puerto Rico as Rhizobium gallicum and Rhizobium tropici.

    PubMed

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Velázquez, Encarna; Lorite, María José; Brelles-Mariño, Graciela; Schröder, Eduardo C; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2004-08-01

    Fifteen isolates from several nodulated tropical legumes from Puerto Rico (USA) were characterised by their phenotypic, molecular and symbiotic features. The identification of isolates was based on a polyphasic approach, including phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA sequencing, Low molecular weight (LMW) RNA profiles, Two Primers-RAPD patterns, and restriction patterns from 16S rDNA molecules. Despite of the variety of hosts included in this study the 15 isolates were separated into only two groups that corresponded to Rhizobium gallicum and Rhizobium tropici. This work shows that R. gallicum and R. tropici nodulate legume plants, such as Sesbania, Caliandra, Poitea, Piptadenia, Neptunia and Mimosa species, that were not previously considered as hosts for these rhizobia. Moreover, some of these host plants can be nodulated by both species. The results confirm the great promiscuity of R. tropici and also support the hypothesis that the species R. gallicum may be native from America or cosmopolitan and worldwide spread.

  12. Bacterial-induced calcium oscillations are common to nitrogen-fixing associations of nodulating legumes and nonlegumes.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Emma; Sun, Jongho; Op den Camp, Rik; Pujic, Petar; Hill, Lionel; Normand, Philippe; Morris, Richard J; Downie, J Allan; Geurts, Rene; Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2015-08-01

    Plants that form root-nodule symbioses are within a monophyletic 'nitrogen-fixing' clade and associated signalling processes are shared with the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Central to symbiotic signalling are nuclear-associated oscillations in calcium ions (Ca(2+) ), occurring in the root hairs of several legume species in response to the rhizobial Nod factor signal. In this study we expanded the species analysed for activation of Ca(2+) oscillations, including nonleguminous species within the nitrogen-fixing clade. We showed that Ca(2+) oscillations are a common feature of legumes in their association with rhizobia, while Cercis, a non-nodulating legume, does not show Ca(2+) oscillations in response to Nod factors from Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234. Parasponia andersonii, a nonlegume that can associate with rhizobia, showed Nod factor-induced calcium oscillations to S. fredii NGR234 Nod factors, but its non-nodulating sister species, Trema tomentosa, did not. Also within the nitrogen-fixing clade are actinorhizal species that associate with Frankia bacteria and we showed that Alnus glutinosa induces Ca(2+) oscillations in root hairs in response to exudates from Frankia alni, but not to S. fredii NGR234 Nod factors. We conclude that the ability to mount Ca(2+) oscillations in response to symbiotic bacteria is a common feature of nodulating species within the nitrogen-fixing clade.

  13. Applying Reversible Mutations of Nodulation and Nitrogen-Fixation Genes to Study Social Cheating in Rhizobium etli-Legume Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Mutualisms are common in nature, though these symbioses can be quite permeable to cheaters in situations where one individual parasitizes the other by discontinuing cooperation yet still exploits the benefits of the partnership. In the Rhizobium-legume system, there are two separate contexts, namely nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes, by which resident Rhizobium individuals can benefit by cheating. Here, we constructed reversible and irreversible mutations in key nodulation and nitrogen-fixation pathways of Rhizobium etli and compared their interaction with plant hosts Phaseolus vulgaris to that of wild type. We show that R. etli reversible mutants deficient in nodulation factor production are capable of intra-specific cheating, wherein mutants exploit other Rhizobium individuals capable of producing these factors. Similarly, we show that R. etli mutants are also capable of cheating inter-specifically, colonizing the host legume yet contributing nothing to the partnership in terms of nitrogen fixation. Our findings indicate that cheating is possible in both of these frameworks, seemingly without damaging the stability of the mutualism itself. These results may potentially help explain observations suggesting that legume plants are commonly infected by multiple bacterial lineages during the nodulation process. PMID:23922937

  14. Applying reversible mutations of nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes to study social cheating in Rhizobium etli-legume interaction.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jun; Zheng, Huiming; Katzianer, David S; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Mutualisms are common in nature, though these symbioses can be quite permeable to cheaters in situations where one individual parasitizes the other by discontinuing cooperation yet still exploits the benefits of the partnership. In the Rhizobium-legume system, there are two separate contexts, namely nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes, by which resident Rhizobium individuals can benefit by cheating. Here, we constructed reversible and irreversible mutations in key nodulation and nitrogen-fixation pathways of Rhizobium etli and compared their interaction with plant hosts Phaseolus vulgaris to that of wild type. We show that R. etli reversible mutants deficient in nodulation factor production are capable of intra-specific cheating, wherein mutants exploit other Rhizobium individuals capable of producing these factors. Similarly, we show that R. etli mutants are also capable of cheating inter-specifically, colonizing the host legume yet contributing nothing to the partnership in terms of nitrogen fixation. Our findings indicate that cheating is possible in both of these frameworks, seemingly without damaging the stability of the mutualism itself. These results may potentially help explain observations suggesting that legume plants are commonly infected by multiple bacterial lineages during the nodulation process.

  15. Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. I. Long term studies with a continuous supply of nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    The synthesis and accumulation of nitrite has been suggested as a causative factor in the inhibition of legume nodules supplied with nitrate. Plants were grown in sand culture with a moderate level of nitrate (2.1 to 6.4 millimolar) supplied continuously from seed germination to 30 to 50 days after planting. In a comparison of nitrate treatments, a highly significant negative correlation between nitrite concentration in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) nodules and nodule fresh weight per shoot dry weight was found even when bacteroids lacked nitrate reductase (NR). However, in a comparison of two Rhizobium japonicum strains, there was only 12% as much nitrite in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ R. japonicum as in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ R. japonicum, and growth and acetylene reduction activity of both types of nodules was about equally inhibited. The very small concentration of nitrite found in P. vulgaris nodules was probably below that required for the inhibition of nitrogenase based on published in vitro experiments, and yet the specific acetylene reduction activity was inhibited 83% by nitrate. The overall results do not support the idea that nitrite plays a role in the inhibition of nodule growth and nitrogenase activity by nitrate.

  16. Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes.

    PubMed

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-04-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy.

  17. Compatibility of Rhizobial Genotypes within Natural Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae for Nodulation of Host Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-01-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy. PMID:12676710

  18. Phylogenetic diversity of Rhizobium strains nodulating diverse legume species growing in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-meskel, Endalkachew; Frostegård, Åsa

    2013-06-01

    The taxonomic diversity of thirty-seven Rhizobium strains, isolated from nodules of leguminous trees and herbs growing in Ethiopia, was studied using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of six core and two symbiosis-related genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene grouped them into five clusters related to nine Rhizobium reference species (99-100% sequence similarity). In addition, two test strains occupied their own independent branches on the phylogenetic tree (AC86a2 along with R. tibeticum; 99.1% similarity and AC100b along with R. multihospitium; 99.5% similarity). One strain from Milletia ferruginea was closely related (>99%) to the genus Shinella, further corroborating earlier findings that nitrogen-fixing bacteria are distributed among phylogenetically unrelated taxa. Sequence analyses of five housekeeping genes also separated the strains into five well-supported clusters, three of which grouped with previously studied Ethiopian common bean rhizobia. Three of the five clusters could potentially be described into new species. Based on the nifH genes, most of the test strains from crop legumes were closely related to several strains of Ethiopian common bean rhizobia and other symbionts of bean plants (R. etli and R. gallicum sv. phaseoli). The grouping of the test strains based on the symbiosis-related genes was not in agreement with the housekeeping genes, signifying differences in their evolutionary history. Our earlier studies revealing a large diversity of Mesorhizobium and Ensifer microsymbionts isolated from Ethiopian legumes, together with the results from the present analysis of Rhizobium strains, suggest that this region might be a potential hotspot for rhizobial biodiversity.

  19. Unexpectedly diverse Mesorhizobium strains and Rhizobium leguminosarum nodulate native legume genera of New Zealand, while introduced legume weeds are nodulated by Bradyrhizobium species.

    PubMed

    Weir, Bevan S; Turner, Susan J; Silvester, Warwick B; Park, Duck-Chul; Young, John M

    2004-10-01

    The New Zealand native legume flora are represented by four genera, Sophora, Carmichaelia, Clianthus, and Montigena. The adventive flora of New Zealand contains several legume species introduced in the 19th century and now established as serious invasive weeds. Until now, nothing has been reported on the identification of the associated rhizobia of native or introduced legumes in New Zealand. The success of the introduced species may be due, at least in part, to the nature of their rhizobial symbioses. This study set out to address this issue by identifying rhizobial strains isolated from species of the four native legume genera and from the introduced weeds: Acacia spp. (wattles), Cytisus scoparius (broom), and Ulex europaeus (gorse). The identities of the isolates and their relationship to known rhizobia were established by comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA, atpD, glnII, and recA gene sequences. Maximum-likelihood analysis of the resultant data partitioned the bacteria into three genera. Most isolates from native legumes aligned with the genus Mesorhizobium, either as members of named species or as putative novel species. The widespread distribution of strains from individual native legume genera across Mesorhizobium spp. contrasts with previous reports implying that bacterial species are specific to limited numbers of legume genera. In addition, four isolates were identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum. In contrast, all sequences from isolates from introduced weeds aligned with Bradyrhizobium species but formed clusters distinct from existing named species. These results show that native legume genera and these introduced legume genera do not have the same rhizobial populations.

  20. Genetic divergence and gene flow among Mesorhizobium strains nodulating the shrub legume Caragana.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhaojun; Yan, Hui; Cui, Qingguo; Wang, Entao; Chen, Wenxin; Chen, Wenfeng

    2015-05-01

    Although the biogeography of rhizobia has been investigated extensively, little is known about the adaptive molecular evolution of rhizobia influenced by soil environments and selected by legumes. In this study, microevolution of Mesorhizobium strains nodulating Caragana in a semi-fixing desert belt in northern China was investigated. Five core genes-atpD, glnII, gyrB, recA, and rpoB, six heat-shock factor genes-clpA, clpB, dnaK, dnaJ, grpE, and hlsU, and five nodulation genes-nodA, nodC, nodD, nodG, and nodP, of 72 representative mesorhizobia were studied in order to determine their genetic variations. A total of 21 genospecies were defined based on the average nucleotide identity (ANI) of concatenated core genes using a threshold of 96% similarity, and by the phylogenetic analyses of the core/heat-shock factor genes. Significant genetic divergence was observed among the genospecies in the semi-fixing desert belt (areas A-E) and Yunnan province (area F), which was closely related to the environmental conditions and geographic distance. Gene flow occurred more frequently among the genospecies in areas A-E, and three sites in area B, than between area F and the other five areas. Recombination occurred among strains more frequently for heat-shock factor genes than the other genes. The results conclusively showed that the Caragana-associated mesorhizobia had divergently evolved according to their geographic distribution, and have been selected not only by the environmental conditions but also by the host plants.

  1. Nodule-enhanced expression of a sucrose phosphate synthase gene member (MsSPSA) has a role in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Lorenzo; Ortega, Jose Luis; Martinez-Grimes, Martha; Seger, Mark; Holguin, Francisco Omar; Uribe, Diana J.; Garcia-Ibilcieta, David

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of sucrose in photosynthetic tissues. We characterized the expression of three different isoforms of SPS belonging to two different SPS gene families in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a previously identified SPS (MsSPSA) and two novel isoforms belonging to class B (MsSPSB and MsSPSB3). While MsSPSA showed nodule-enhanced expression, both MsSPSB genes exhibited leaf-enhanced expression. Alfalfa leaf and nodule SPS enzymes showed differences in chromatographic and electrophoretic migration and differences in Vmax and allosteric regulation. The root nodules in legume plants are a strong sink for photosynthates with its need for ATP, reducing power and carbon skeletons for dinitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation. The expression of genes encoding SPS and other key enzymes in sucrose metabolism, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, was analyzed in the leaves and nodules of plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Based on the expression pattern of these genes, the properties of the SPS isoforms and the concentration of starch and soluble sugars in nodules induced by a wild type and a nitrogen fixation deficient strain, we propose that SPS has an important role in the control of carbon flux into different metabolic pathways in the symbiotic nodules. PMID:19898977

  2. Nodule-enhanced expression of a sucrose phosphate synthase gene member (MsSPSA) has a role in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Aleman, Lorenzo; Ortega, Jose Luis; Martinez-Grimes, Martha; Seger, Mark; Holguin, Francisco Omar; Uribe, Diana J; Garcia-Ibilcieta, David; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of sucrose in photosynthetic tissues. We characterized the expression of three different isoforms of SPS belonging to two different SPS gene families in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a previously identified SPS (MsSPSA) and two novel isoforms belonging to class B (MsSPSB and MsSPSB3). While MsSPSA showed nodule-enhanced expression, both MsSPSB genes exhibited leaf-enhanced expression. Alfalfa leaf and nodule SPS enzymes showed differences in chromatographic and electrophoretic migration and differences in V (max) and allosteric regulation. The root nodules in legume plants are a strong sink for photosynthates with its need for ATP, reducing power and carbon skeletons for dinitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation. The expression of genes encoding SPS and other key enzymes in sucrose metabolism, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, was analyzed in the leaves and nodules of plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Based on the expression pattern of these genes, the properties of the SPS isoforms and the concentration of starch and soluble sugars in nodules induced by a wild type and a nitrogen fixation deficient strain, we propose that SPS has an important role in the control of carbon flux into different metabolic pathways in the symbiotic nodules.

  3. Burkholderia aspalathi sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of the South African legume Aspalathus abietina Thunb.

    PubMed

    Mavengere, Natasha R; Ellis, Allan G; Le Roux, Johannes J

    2014-06-01

    During a study to investigate the diversity of rhizobia associated with native legumes in South Africa's Cape Floristic Region, a Gram-negative bacterium designated VG1C(T) was isolated from the root nodules of Aspalathus abietina Thunb. Based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and recA genes, VG1C(T) belongs to the genus Burkholderia, with the highest degree of sequence similarity to the type strain of Burkholderia sediminicola (98.5% and 98%, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain VG1C(T) was 60.1 mol%, and DNA-DNA relatedness values to the type strain of closely related species were found to be substantially lower than 70%. As evidenced by results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic tests provided here, we conclude that isolate VG1C(T) represents a novel rhizosphere-associated species in the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia aspalathi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain VG1C(T) ( = DSM 27239(T) = LMG 27731(T)).

  4. Legume nodules from nutrient-poor soils exhibit high plasticity of cellular phosphorus recycling and conservation during variable phosphorus supply.

    PubMed

    Vardien, Waafeka; Steenkamp, Emma T; Valentine, Alexander J

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen fixing legumes rely on phosphorus for nodule formation, nodule function and the energy costs of fixation. Phosphorus is however very limited in soils, especially in ancient sandstone-derived soils such as those in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Plants growing in such areas have evolved the ability to tolerate phosphorus stress by eliciting an array of physiological and biochemical responses. In this study we investigated the effects of phosphorus limitation on N2 fixation and phosphorus recycling in the nodules of Virgilia divaricata (Adamson), a legume native to the Cape Floristic Region. In particular, we focused on nutrient acquisition efficiencies, phosphorus fractions and the exudation and accumulation of phosphatases. Our finding indicate that during low phosphorus supply, V. divaricata internally recycles phosphorus and has a lower uptake rate of phosphorus, as well as lower levels adenylates but greater levels of phosphohydrolase exudation suggesting it engages in recycling internal nodule phosphorus pools and making use of alternate bypass routes in order to conserve phosphorus.

  5. Reactive oxygen species and ethylene play a positive role in lateral root base nodulation of a semiaquatic legume

    PubMed Central

    D'Haeze, Wim; De Rycke, Riet; Mathis, René; Goormachtig, Sofie; Pagnotta, Sophie; Verplancke, Christa; Capoen, Ward; Holsters, Marcelle

    2003-01-01

    Lateral root base nodulation on the tropical, semiaquatic legume Sesbania rostrata results from two coordinated, Nod factor-dependent processes: formation of intercellular infection pockets and induction of cell division. Infection pocket formation is associated with cell death and production of hydrogen peroxide. Pharmacological experiments showed that ethylene and reactive oxygen species mediate Nod factor responses and are required for nodule initiation, whereby induction of division and infection could not be uncoupled. Application of purified Nod factors triggered cell division, and both Nod factors and ethylene induced cavities and cell death features in the root cortex. Thus, in S. rostrata, ethylene and reactive oxygen species act downstream from the Nod factors in pathways that lead to formation of infection pockets and initiation of nodule primordia. PMID:12975522

  6. SCARN a Novel Class of SCAR Protein That Is Required for Root-Hair Infection during Legume Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liping; Lin, Jie-Shun; Xu, Ji; Sato, Shusei; Parniske, Martin; Wang, Trevor L; Downie, J Allan; Xie, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Rhizobial infection of legume root hairs requires a rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton to enable the establishment of plant-made infection structures called infection threads. In the SCAR/WAVE (Suppressor of cAMP receptor defect/WASP family verpolin homologous protein) actin regulatory complex, the conserved N-terminal domains of SCAR proteins interact with other components of the SCAR/WAVE complex. The conserved C-terminal domains of SCAR proteins bind to and activate the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, which can bind to actin filaments catalyzing new actin filament formation by nucleating actin branching. We have identified, SCARN (SCAR-Nodulation), a gene required for root hair infection of Lotus japonicus by Mesorhizobium loti. Although the SCARN protein is related to Arabidopsis thaliana SCAR2 and SCAR4, it belongs to a distinct legume-sub clade. We identified other SCARN-like proteins in legumes and phylogeny analyses suggested that SCARN may have arisen from a gene duplication and acquired specialized functions in root nodule symbiosis. Mutation of SCARN reduced formation of infection-threads and their extension into the root cortex and slightly reduced root-hair length. Surprisingly two of the scarn mutants showed constitutive branching of root hairs in uninoculated plants. However we observed no effect of scarn mutations on trichome development or on the early actin cytoskeletal accumulation that is normally seen in root hair tips shortly after M. loti inoculation, distinguishing them from other symbiosis mutations affecting actin nucleation. The C-terminal domain of SCARN binds to ARPC3 and ectopic expression of the N-terminal SCAR-homology domain (but not the full length protein) inhibited nodulation. In addition, we found that SCARN expression is enhanced by M. loti in epidermal cells and that this is directly regulated by the NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) transcription factor.

  7. SCARN a Novel Class of SCAR Protein That Is Required for Root-Hair Infection during Legume Nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Liping; Lin, Jie-shun; Xu, Ji; Sato, Shusei; Parniske, Martin; Wang, Trevor L.; Downie, J. Allan; Xie, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobial infection of legume root hairs requires a rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton to enable the establishment of plant-made infection structures called infection threads. In the SCAR/WAVE (Suppressor of cAMP receptor defect/WASP family verpolin homologous protein) actin regulatory complex, the conserved N-terminal domains of SCAR proteins interact with other components of the SCAR/WAVE complex. The conserved C-terminal domains of SCAR proteins bind to and activate the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, which can bind to actin filaments catalyzing new actin filament formation by nucleating actin branching. We have identified, SCARN (SCAR-Nodulation), a gene required for root hair infection of Lotus japonicus by Mesorhizobium loti. Although the SCARN protein is related to Arabidopsis thaliana SCAR2 and SCAR4, it belongs to a distinct legume-sub clade. We identified other SCARN-like proteins in legumes and phylogeny analyses suggested that SCARN may have arisen from a gene duplication and acquired specialized functions in root nodule symbiosis. Mutation of SCARN reduced formation of infection-threads and their extension into the root cortex and slightly reduced root-hair length. Surprisingly two of the scarn mutants showed constitutive branching of root hairs in uninoculated plants. However we observed no effect of scarn mutations on trichome development or on the early actin cytoskeletal accumulation that is normally seen in root hair tips shortly after M. loti inoculation, distinguishing them from other symbiosis mutations affecting actin nucleation. The C-terminal domain of SCARN binds to ARPC3 and ectopic expression of the N-terminal SCAR-homology domain (but not the full length protein) inhibited nodulation. In addition, we found that SCARN expression is enhanced by M. loti in epidermal cells and that this is directly regulated by the NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) transcription factor. PMID:26517270

  8. Diversity of sporadic symbionts and nonsymbiotic endophytic bacteria isolated from nodules of woody, shrub, and food legumes in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Räsänen, Leena A; Aseffa, Fassil; Hailemariam, Asfaw; Lindström, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    Fifty-five bacterial isolates were obtained from surface-sterilized nodules of woody and shrub legumes growing in Ethiopia: Crotalaria spp., Indigofera spp., and Erythrina brucei, and the food legumes soybean and common bean. Based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the majority of the isolates were identified as Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the genera Achromobacter, Agrobacterium, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Enterobacter, Mesorhizobium, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Rhizobium, Serratia, and Variovorax. Seven isolates were Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Planomicrobium, and Rhodococcus. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting showed that each strain was genetically distinct. According to phylogenetic analysis of recA, glnII, rpoB, and 16S rRNA gene sequences, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Agrobacterium were further classified into six different genospecies: Agrobacterium spp., Agrobacterium radiobacter, Rhizobium sp., Rhizobium phaseoli, Mesorhizobium sp., and putative new Rhizobium species. The strains from R. phaseoli, Rhizobium sp. IAR30, and Mesorhizobium sp. ERR6 induced nodules on their host plants. The other strains did not form nodules on their original host. Nine endophytic bacterial strains representing seven genera, Agrobacterium, Burkholderia, Paenibacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Serratia, were found to colonize nodules of Crotalaria incana and common bean on co-inoculation with symbiotic rhizobia. Four endophytic Rhizobium and two Agrobacterium strains had identical nifH gene sequences with symbiotic Rhizobium strains, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Most symbiotic and nonsymbiotic endophytic bacteria showed plant growth-promoting properties in vitro, which indicate their potential role in the promotion of plant growth when colonizing plant roots and the rhizosphere.

  9. Interkingdom Responses to Bacterial Quorum Sensing Signals Regulate Frequency and Rate of Nodulation in Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Andrew G; Mukherjee, Arijit; Stacy, Danielle M; Lazar, Stephen; Ané, Jean-Michel; Blackwell, Helen E

    2016-11-17

    Density-dependent phenotypic switching in bacteria, the phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS), is instrumental in many pathogenic and mutualistic behaviors. In many Gram-negative bacteria, QS is regulated by N-acylated-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs). Synthetic analogues of these AHLs hold significant promise for regulating QS at the host-symbiont interface. Regulation depends on refined temporal and spatial models of quorums under native conditions. Critical to this is an understanding of how the presence of these signals may affect a prospective host. We screened a library of AHL analogues for their ability to regulate the legume-rhizobia mutualistic symbiosis (nodulation) between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Using an established QS-reporter line of S. meliloti and nodulation assays with wild-type bacteria, we identified compounds capable of increasing either the rate of nodule formation or total nodule number. Most importantly, we identified compounds with activity exclusive to either host or pathogen, underscoring the potential to generate QS modulators selective to bacteria with limited effects on a prospective host. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Proof that Burkholderia strains form effective symbioses with legumes: a study of novel Mimosa-nodulating strains from South America.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; de Faria, Sergio M; Straliotto, Rosângela; Pitard, Rosa M; Simões-Araùjo, Jean L; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Yi-Ju; Barrios, Edmundo; Prescott, Alan R; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2005-11-01

    Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other beta-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known beta-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes.

  11. Proof that Burkholderia Strains Form Effective Symbioses with Legumes: a Study of Novel Mimosa-Nodulating Strains from South America

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Ming; de Faria, Sergio M.; Straliotto, Rosângela; Pitard, Rosa M.; Simões-Araùjo, Jean L.; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Yi-Ju; Barrios, Edmundo; Prescott, Alan R.; Elliott, Geoffrey N.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other β-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known β-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes. PMID:16269788

  12. A New Species of Devosia That Forms a Unique Nitrogen-Fixing Root-Nodule Symbiosis with the Aquatic Legume Neptunia natans (L.f.) Druce

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Raul; Velázquez, Encarna; Willems, Anne; Vizcaíno, Nieves; Subba-Rao, Nanjappa S.; Mateos, Pedro F.; Gillis, Monique; Dazzo, Frank B.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2002-01-01

    Rhizobia are the common bacterial symbionts that form nitrogen-fixing root nodules in legumes. However, recently other bacteria have been shown to nodulate and fix nitrogen symbiotically with these plants. Neptunia natans is an aquatic legume indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions and in African soils is nodulated by Allorhizobium undicola. This legume develops an unusual root-nodule symbiosis on floating stems in aquatic environments through a unique infection process. Here, we analyzed the low-molecular-weight RNA and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence of the same fast-growing isolates from India that were previously used to define the developmental morphology of the unique infection process in this symbiosis with N. natans and found that they are phylogenetically located in the genus Devosia, not Allorhizobium or Rhizobium. The 16S rDNA sequences of these two Neptunia-nodulating Devosia strains differ from the only species currently described in that genus, Devosia riboflavina. From the same isolated colonies, we also located their nodD and nifH genes involved in nodulation and nitrogen fixation on a plasmid of approximately 170 kb. Sequence analysis showed that their nodD and nifH genes are most closely related to nodD and nifH of Rhizobium tropici, suggesting that this newly described Neptunia-nodulating Devosia species may have acquired these symbiotic genes by horizontal transfer. PMID:12406707

  13. Enzymes of the Glyoxylate Cycle in Rhizobia and Nodules of Legumes 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Gordon V.; Evans, Harold J.; Ching, Temay

    1966-01-01

    The relatively high level of fatty acids in soybean nodules and rhizobia from soybean nodules suggested that the glyoxylate cycle might have a role in nodule metabolism. Several species of rhizobia in pure culture were found to have malate synthetase activity when grown on a number of different carbon sources. Significant isocitrate lyase activity was induced when oleate, which presumably may act as an acetyl CoA precursor, was utilized as the principle carbon source. Malate synthetase was active in extracts of rhizobia from nodules of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Activity of malate synthetase was, however, barely detectable in rhizobia from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) nodules. Appreciable isocitrate lyase activity was not detected in rhizobia from nodules nor was it induced by depletion of endogenous substrates by incubation of excised bush bean nodules. Although rhizobia has the potential for the formation of the key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, the absence of isocitrate lyase activity in bacteria isolated from nodules indicated that the glyoxylate cycle does not operate in the symbiotic growth of rhizobia and that the observed high content of fatty acids in nodules and nodule bacteria probably is related to a structural role. PMID:16656404

  14. RRNA and dnaK relationships of Bradyrhizobium sp. nodule bacteria from four papilionoid legume trees in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew A

    2004-05-01

    Enzyme electrophoresis and sequencing of rRNA and dnaK genes revealed high genetic diversity among root nodule bacteria from the Costa Rican trees Andira inermis, Dalbergia retusa, Platymiscium pinnatum (Papilionoideae tribe Dalbergieae) and Lonchocarpus atropurpureus (Papilionoideae tribe Millettieae). A total of 21 distinct multilocus genotypes [ETs (electrophoretic types)] was found among the 36 isolates analyzed, and no ETs were shared in common by isolates from different legume hosts. However, three of the ETs from D. retusa were identical to Bradyrhizobium sp. isolates detected in prior studies of several other legume genera in both Costa Rica and Panama. Nearly full-length 16S rRNA sequences and partial 23S rRNA sequences confirmed that two isolates from D. retusa were highly similar or identical to Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from the legumes Erythrina and Clitoria (Papilionoideae tribe Phaseoleae) in Panama. rRNA sequences for five isolates from L. atropurpureus, P. pinnatum and A. inermis were not closely related to any currently known strains from Central America or elsewhere, but had affinities to the reference strains Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 (three isolates) or to B. elkanii USDA 76 (two isolates). A phylogenetic tree for 21 Bradyrhizobium strains based on 603 bp of the dnaK gene showed several significant conflicts with the rRNA tree, suggesting that genealogical relationships may have been altered by lateral gene transfer events.

  15. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar.

  16. Relevance of Fucose-Rich Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Rhizobium sullae Strains Nodulating Hedysarum coronarium L. Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Carpéné, Marie-Anne; Couderc, François; Benguedouar, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Specific and complex interactions between soil bacteria, known as rhizobia, and their leguminous host plants result in the development of root nodules. This process implies a complex dialogue between the partners. Rhizobia synthesize different classes of polysaccharides: exopolysaccharides (EPS), Kdo-rich capsular polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, and cyclic β-(1,2)-glucans. These polymers are actors of a successful symbiosis with legumes. We focus here on studying the EPS produced by Rhizobium sullae bacteria that nodulate Hedysarum coronarium L., largely distributed in Algeria. We describe the influence of the carbon source on the production and on the composition of EPS produced by R. sullae A6 and RHF strains. High-molecular-weight EPS preserve the bacteria from desiccation. The structural characterization of the EPS produced by R. sullae strains has been performed through sugar analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The low-molecular-weight EPS of one strain (RHF) has been totally elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance and quantitative time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analyses. An unusual fucose-rich EPS has been characterized. The presence of this deoxy sugar seems to be related to nodulation capacity. PMID:23183977

  17. Relevance of fucose-rich extracellular polysaccharides produced by Rhizobium sullae strains nodulating Hedysarum coronarium l. legumes.

    PubMed

    Gharzouli, Razika; Carpéné, Marie-Anne; Couderc, François; Benguedouar, Ammar; Poinsot, Véréna

    2013-03-01

    Specific and complex interactions between soil bacteria, known as rhizobia, and their leguminous host plants result in the development of root nodules. This process implies a complex dialogue between the partners. Rhizobia synthesize different classes of polysaccharides: exopolysaccharides (EPS), Kdo-rich capsular polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, and cyclic β-(1,2)-glucans. These polymers are actors of a successful symbiosis with legumes. We focus here on studying the EPS produced by Rhizobium sullae bacteria that nodulate Hedysarum coronarium L., largely distributed in Algeria. We describe the influence of the carbon source on the production and on the composition of EPS produced by R. sullae A6 and RHF strains. High-molecular-weight EPS preserve the bacteria from desiccation. The structural characterization of the EPS produced by R. sullae strains has been performed through sugar analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The low-molecular-weight EPS of one strain (RHF) has been totally elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance and quantitative time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analyses. An unusual fucose-rich EPS has been characterized. The presence of this deoxy sugar seems to be related to nodulation capacity.

  18. Long-term non-invasive and continuous measurements of legume nodule activity.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Ricardo A; Liese, Rebecca; Fischinger, Stephanie A; Sulieman, Saad; Avenhaus, Ulrike; Lingner, Annika; Hein, Hans; Koester, Beke; Baumgarten, Vanessa; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a process of considerable economic, ecological and scientific interest. The central enzyme nitrogenase reduces H(+) alongside N2 , and the evolving H2 allows a continuous and non-invasive in vivo measurement of nitrogenase activity. The objective of this study was to show that an elaborated set-up providing such measurements for periods as long as several weeks will produce specific insight into the nodule activity's dependence on environmental conditions and genotype features. A system was developed that allows the air-proof separation of a root/nodule and a shoot compartment. H2 evolution in the root/nodule compartment can be monitored continuously. Nutrient solution composition, temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity around the shoots can concomitantly be maintained and manipulated. Medicago truncatula plants showed vigorous growth in the system when relying on nitrogen fixation. The set-up was able to provide specific insights into nitrogen fixation. For example, nodule activity depended on the temperature in their surroundings, but not on temperature or light around shoots. Increased temperature around the nodules was able to induce higher nodule activity in darkness versus light around shoots for a period of as long as 8 h. Conditions that affected the N demand of the shoots (ammonium application, Mg or P depletion, super numeric nodules) induced consistent and complex daily rhythms in nodule activity. It was shown that long-term continuous measurements of nodule activity could be useful for revealing special features in mutants and could be of importance when synchronizing nodule harvests for complex analysis of their metabolic status. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sucrose Synthase in Legume Nodules Is Essential for Nitrogen Fixation1

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Anthony J.; Minchin, Frank R.; James, Caron L.; Komina, Olga

    1999-01-01

    The role of sucrose synthase (SS) in the fixation of N was examined in the rug4 mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in which SS activity was severely reduced. When dependent on nodules for their N supply, the mutant plants were not viable and appeared to be incapable of effective N fixation, although nodule formation was essentially normal. In fact, N and C resources invested in nodules were much greater in mutant plants than in the wild-type (WT) plants. Low SS activity in nodules (present at only 10% of WT levels) resulted in lower amounts of total soluble protein and leghemoglobin and lower activities of several enzymes compared with WT nodules. Alkaline invertase activity was not increased to compensate for reduced SS activity. Leghemoglobin was present at less than 20% of WT values, so O2 flux may have been compromised. The two components of nitrogenase were present at normal levels in mutant nodules. However, only a trace of nitrogenase activity was detected in intact plants and none was found in isolated bacteroids. The results are discussed in relation to the role of SS in the provision of C substrates for N fixation and in the development of functional nodules. PMID:10398723

  20. Short-Term Molecular Acclimation Processes of Legume Nodules to Increased External Oxygen Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Avenhaus, Ulrike; Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; Dittert, Klaus; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Schulze, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier (ODB) located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the ODB is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30% oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about 2 min of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about 8 min later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency toward upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 min, corresponding to approximately 90% of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050) showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds) of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased neoformation of the enzyme. This reaction might be

  1. Short-Term Molecular Acclimation Processes of Legume Nodules to Increased External Oxygen Concentration.

    PubMed

    Avenhaus, Ulrike; Cabeza, Ricardo A; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; Dittert, Klaus; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Schulze, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier (ODB) located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the ODB is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30% oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about 2 min of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about 8 min later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency toward upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 min, corresponding to approximately 90% of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050) showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds) of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased neoformation of the enzyme. This reaction might be

  2. Determination of the hydrogenase status of individual legume nodules by a methylene blue reduction assay.

    PubMed

    Lambert, G R; Hanus, F J; Russell, S A; Evans, H J

    1985-08-01

    We adapted a method for the rapid screening of colonies of free-living Rhizobium japonicum for hydrogenase activity to determine the hydrogenase status of individual soybean nodules. Crude bacteroid suspensions from nodules containing strains known to be hydrogen uptake positive (Hup) caused a localized decolorization of filter paper disks, whereas suspensions from nodules arising from inoculation with hydrogen uptake-negative (Hup) mutants or strains did not decolorize the disks. The reliability of the method was demonstrated by its successful application to 29 slow-growing rhizobia. The Hup phenotype on methylene blue filters agreed with that determined amperometrically with either methylene blue or oxygen as the electron acceptor.

  3. A Phylogenetically Conserved Group of Nuclear Factor-Y Transcription Factors Interact to Control Nodulation in Legumes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Laloum, Tom; Lepage, Agnès; Ariel, Federico; Frances, Lisa; Gamas, Pascal; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    The endosymbiotic association between legumes and soil bacteria called rhizobia leads to the formation of a new root-derived organ called the nodule in which differentiated bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be assimilated by the host plant. Successful root infection by rhizobia and nodule organogenesis require the activation of symbiotic genes that are controlled by a set of transcription factors (TFs). We recently identified Medicago truncatula nuclear factor-YA1 (MtNF-YA1) and MtNF-YA2 as two M. truncatula TFs playing a central role during key steps of the Sinorhizobium meliloti-M. truncatula symbiotic interaction. NF-YA TFs interact with NF-YB and NF-YC subunits to regulate target genes containing the CCAAT box consensus sequence. In this study, using a yeast two-hybrid screen approach, we identified the NF-YB and NF-YC subunits able to interact with MtNF-YA1 and MtNF-YA2. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in planta, we further demonstrated by both coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation that these NF-YA, -B, and -C subunits interact and form a stable NF-Y heterotrimeric complex. Reverse genetic and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR approaches revealed the importance of these newly identified NF-YB and NF-YC subunits for rhizobial symbiosis and binding to the promoter of MtERN1 (for Ethylene Responsive factor required for Nodulation), a direct target gene of MtNF-YA1 and MtNF-YA2. Finally, we verified that a similar trimer is formed in planta by the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) NF-Y subunits, revealing the existence of evolutionary conserved NF-Y protein complexes to control nodulation in leguminous plants. This sheds light on the process whereby an ancient heterotrimeric TF mainly controlling cell division in animals has acquired specialized functions in plants. PMID:26432878

  4. A Phylogenetically Conserved Group of Nuclear Factor-Y Transcription Factors Interact to Control Nodulation in Legumes.

    PubMed

    Baudin, Maël; Laloum, Tom; Lepage, Agnès; Rípodas, Carolina; Ariel, Federico; Frances, Lisa; Crespi, Martin; Gamas, Pascal; Blanco, Flavio Antonio; Zanetti, Maria Eugenia; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Niebel, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The endosymbiotic association between legumes and soil bacteria called rhizobia leads to the formation of a new root-derived organ called the nodule in which differentiated bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be assimilated by the host plant. Successful root infection by rhizobia and nodule organogenesis require the activation of symbiotic genes that are controlled by a set of transcription factors (TFs). We recently identified Medicago truncatula nuclear factor-YA1 (MtNF-YA1) and MtNF-YA2 as two M. truncatula TFs playing a central role during key steps of the Sinorhizobium meliloti-M. truncatula symbiotic interaction. NF-YA TFs interact with NF-YB and NF-YC subunits to regulate target genes containing the CCAAT box consensus sequence. In this study, using a yeast two-hybrid screen approach, we identified the NF-YB and NF-YC subunits able to interact with MtNF-YA1 and MtNF-YA2. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in planta, we further demonstrated by both coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation that these NF-YA, -B, and -C subunits interact and form a stable NF-Y heterotrimeric complex. Reverse genetic and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR approaches revealed the importance of these newly identified NF-YB and NF-YC subunits for rhizobial symbiosis and binding to the promoter of MtERN1 (for Ethylene Responsive factor required for Nodulation), a direct target gene of MtNF-YA1 and MtNF-YA2. Finally, we verified that a similar trimer is formed in planta by the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) NF-Y subunits, revealing the existence of evolutionary conserved NF-Y protein complexes to control nodulation in leguminous plants. This sheds light on the process whereby an ancient heterotrimeric TF mainly controlling cell division in animals has acquired specialized functions in plants.

  5. NrcR, a New Transcriptional Regulator of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 Involved in the Legume Root-Nodule Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    del Cerro, Pablo; Rolla-Santos, Amanda A. P.; Valderrama-Fernández, Rocío; Gil-Serrano, Antonio; Bellogín, Ramón A.; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Megías, Manuel; Hungría, Mariangela; Ollero, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium-legume symbioses requires a highly complex cascade of events. In this molecular dialogue the bacterial NodD transcriptional regulators in conjunction with plant inducers, mostly flavonoids, are responsible for the biosynthesis and secretion of Nod factors which are key molecules for successful nodulation. Other transcriptional regulators related to the symbiotic process have been identified in rhizobial genomes, including negative regulators such as NolR. Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 is an important symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and its genome encompasses intriguing features such as five copies of nodD genes, as well as other possible transcriptional regulators including the NolR protein. Here we describe and characterize a new regulatory gene located in the non-symbiotic plasmid pRtrCIAT899c, that shows homology (46% identity) with the nolR gene located in the chromosome of CIAT 899. The mutation of this gene, named nrcR (nolR-like plasmid c Regulator), enhanced motility and exopolysaccharide production in comparison to the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the number and decoration of Nod Factors produced by this mutant were higher than those detected in the wild-type strain, especially under salinity stress. The nrcR mutant showed delayed nodulation and reduced competitiveness with P. vulgaris, and reduction in nodule number and shoot dry weight in both P. vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. Moreover, the mutant exhibited reduced capacity to induce the nodC gene in comparison to the wild-type CIAT 899. The finding of a new nod-gene regulator located in a non-symbiotic plasmid may reveal the existence of even more complex mechanisms of regulation of nodulation genes in R. tropici CIAT 899 that may be applicable to other rhizobial species. PMID:27096734

  6. Nitrogen-fixing nodules from rose wood legume trees (Dalbergia spp.) endemic to Madagascar host seven different genera belonging to alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rasolomampianina, R; Bailly, X; Fetiarison, R; Rabevohitra, R; Béna, G; Ramaroson, L; Raherimandimby, M; Moulin, L; De Lajudie, P; Dreyfus, B; Avarre, J-C

    2005-11-01

    Although legume biodiversity is concentrated in tropical regions, the majority of studies on legume nodulating bacteria (LNB) are focused on cultivated leguminous plants from temperate regions. However, recent works on tropical regions tend to indicate that the actual diversity of LNB is largely underestimated. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of 68 nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria collected from eight endemic tree species of Dalbergia in Madagascar. The isolates were characterized by (i) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S-IGS rDNA, (ii) 16S rDNA gene sequencing and (iii) nodulation tests. Results revealed a wide diversity of bacteria present in the nodules of Dalbergia. Among the 68 isolated bacteria, 65 belonged to Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Azorhizobium and Phyllobacterium from the alpha-class of Proteobacteria, and three isolates belonged to Burkholderia and Ralstonia from the beta-class of Proteobacteria. Our results also show for the first time that a strain belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex is able to induce efficient nodules on a legume plant.

  7. Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. II. Short term studies with high nitrate supply

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr) were grown in sand culture with 2 millimolar nitrate for 37 days and then supplied with 15 millimolar nitrate for 7 days. Control plants received 2 millimolar nitrate and 13 millimolar chloride and, after the 7-day treatment period, all plants were supplied with nil nitrate. The temporary treatment with high nitrate inhibited nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activity by 80% whether or not Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids had nitrate reductase (NR) activity. The pattern of nitrite accumulation in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ rhizobia was inversely related to the decrease and recovery of nitrogenase activity. However, nitrite concentration in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ rhizobia appeared to be too low to explain the inhibition of nitrogenase. Nodules on plants treated with 15 millimolar nitrate contained higher concentrations of amino N and, especially, ureide N than control nodules and, after withdrawal of nitrate, reduced N content of treated and control nodules returned to similar levels. The accumulation of N/sub 2/ fixation products in nodules in response to high nitrate treatment was observed with three R. japonicum strains, two NR/sup +/ and one NR/sup -/.

  8. Polyploids did not Predate the Evolution of Nodulation in all Legumes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several lines of evidence indicate that polyploidy occurred by around 54 million years ago, early in the history of legume evolution, but it has not been known whether this event was confined to the papilionoid subfamily (Papilionoideae; e.g., beans, medics, lupins) or occurred earlier. Determining...

  9. Localization of superoxide dismutases and hydrogen peroxide in legume root nodules.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Maria C; James, Euan K; Clemente, Maria R; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Fedorova, Maria; Vance, Carroll P; Becana, Manuel

    2004-12-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals to O2 and H2O2 and thus represent a primary line of antioxidant defense in all aerobic organisms. H2O2 is a signal molecule involved in the plant's response to pathogen attack and other stress conditions as well as in nodulation. In this work, we have tested the hypothesis that SODs are a source of H2O2 in indeterminate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and pea (Pisum sativum) nodules. The transcripts and proteins of the major SODs of nodules were localized by in situ RNA hybridization and immunogold electron microscopy, respectively, whereas H2O2 was localized cytochemically by electron microscopy of cerium-perfused nodule tissue. The transcript and protein of cytosolic CuZnSOD are most abundant in the meristem (I) and invasion (II) zones, interzone II-III, and distal part of the N2-fixing zone (III), and those of MnSOD in zone III, especially in the infected cells. At the subcellular level, CuZnSOD was found in the infection threads, cytosol adjacent to cell walls, and apoplast, whereas MnSOD was in the bacteroids, bacteria within infection threads, and mitochondria. The distinct expression pattern of CuZnSOD and MnSOD suggests specific roles of the enzymes in nodules. Large amounts of H2O2 were found at the same three nodule sites as CuZnSOD but not in association with MnSOD. This colocalization led us to postulate that cytosolic CuZnSOD is a source of H2O2 in nodules. Furthermore, the absence or large reduction of H2O2 in nodule tissue preincubated with enzyme inhibitors (cyanide, azide, diphenyleneiodonium, diethyldithiocarbamate) provides strong support to the hypothesis that at least some of the H2O2 originates by the sequential operation of an NADPH oxidase-like enzyme and CuZnSOD. Results also show that there is abundant H2O2 associated with degrading bacteroids in the senescent zone (IV), which reflects the oxidative stress ensued during nodule senescence.

  10. Stress-induced legume root nodule senescence. Physiological, biochemical, and structural alterations.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, M A; Baird, L M; Escuredo, P R; Dalton, D A; Minchin, F R; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, I; Rubio, M C; Moran, J F; Gordon, A J; Becana, M

    1999-09-01

    Nitrate-fed and dark-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pea (Pisum sativum) plants were used to study nodule senescence. In bean, 1 d of nitrate treatment caused a partially reversible decline in nitrogenase activity and an increase in O(2) diffusion resistance, but minimal changes in carbon metabolites, antioxidants, and other biochemical parameters, indicating that the initial decrease in nitrogenase activity was due to O(2) limitation. In pea, 1 d of dark treatment led to a 96% decline in nitrogenase activity and sucrose, indicating sugar deprivation as the primary cause of activity loss. In later stages of senescence (4 d of nitrate or 2-4 d of dark treatment), nodules showed accumulation of oxidized proteins and general ultrastructural deterioration. The major thiol tripeptides of untreated nodules were homoglutathione (72%) in bean and glutathione (89%) in pea. These predominant thiols declined by approximately 93% after 4 d of nitrate or dark treatment, but the loss of thiol content can be only ascribed in part to limited synthesis by gamma-glutamylcysteinyl, homoglutathione, and glutathione synthetases. Ascorbate peroxidase was immunolocalized primarily in the infected and parenchyma (inner cortex) nodule cells, with large decreases in senescent tissue. Ferritin was almost undetectable in untreated bean nodules, but accumulated in the plastids and amyloplasts of uninfected interstitial and parenchyma cells following 2 or 4 d of nitrate treatment, probably as a response to oxidative stress.

  11. Stress-Induced Legume Root Nodule Senescence. Physiological, Biochemical, and Structural Alterations1

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Baird, Lisa M.; Escuredo, Pedro R.; Dalton, David A.; Minchin, Frank R.; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Rubio, Maria C.; Moran, Jose F.; Gordon, Anthony J.; Becana, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Nitrate-fed and dark-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pea (Pisum sativum) plants were used to study nodule senescence. In bean, 1 d of nitrate treatment caused a partially reversible decline in nitrogenase activity and an increase in O2 diffusion resistance, but minimal changes in carbon metabolites, antioxidants, and other biochemical parameters, indicating that the initial decrease in nitrogenase activity was due to O2 limitation. In pea, 1 d of dark treatment led to a 96% decline in nitrogenase activity and sucrose, indicating sugar deprivation as the primary cause of activity loss. In later stages of senescence (4 d of nitrate or 2–4 d of dark treatment), nodules showed accumulation of oxidized proteins and general ultrastructural deterioration. The major thiol tripeptides of untreated nodules were homoglutathione (72%) in bean and glutathione (89%) in pea. These predominant thiols declined by approximately 93% after 4 d of nitrate or dark treatment, but the loss of thiol content can be only ascribed in part to limited synthesis by γ-glutamylcysteinyl, homoglutathione, and glutathione synthetases. Ascorbate peroxidase was immunolocalized primarily in the infected and parenchyma (inner cortex) nodule cells, with large decreases in senescent tissue. Ferritin was almost undetectable in untreated bean nodules, but accumulated in the plastids and amyloplasts of uninfected interstitial and parenchyma cells following 2 or 4 d of nitrate treatment, probably as a response to oxidative stress. PMID:10482665

  12. Partial Purification of a Legume Nodulation Factor Present in Coconut Water 1

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, A. G.; Alexander, M.

    1967-01-01

    The nodulation of adventitious roots growing from segments of bean hypocotyl tissue was used as a bioassay for the material present in coconut water which stimulated nodulation. The active material in coconut water is acidic, but it was not possible to extract it from an acid solution with organic solvents. A purification of approximately 70-fold (on a dry wt basis) was obtained using activated charcoal, but at least 10 different compounds were present in the active fractions. A purified fraction of coconut water, which is stimulatory to the growth of carrot root explants, was active in the nodulation assay at a concentration of 2 μg/ml. This represents a 4000-fold purification of the diffusible fraction of coconut water. The charcoal fractionation procedure can be applied to the active material present in extracts of bean leaves. PMID:16656538

  13. The presence of nodules on legume root systems can alter phenotypic plasticity in response to internal nitrogen independent of nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chooi-Hua; Nicotra, Adrienne B; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    All higher plants show developmental plasticity in response to the availability of nitrogen (N) in the soil. In legumes, N starvation causes the formation of root nodules, where symbiotic rhizobacteria fix atmospheric N2 for the host in exchange for fixed carbon (C) from the shoot. Here, we tested whether plastic responses to internal [N] of legumes are altered by their symbionts. Glasshouse experiments compared root phenotypes of three legumes, Medicago truncatula, Medicago sativa and Trifolium subterraneum, inoculated with their compatible symbiont partners and grown under four nitrate levels. In addition, six strains of rhizobia, differing in their ability to fix N2 in M. truncatula, were compared to test if plastic responses to internal [N] were dependent on the rhizobia or N2 -fixing capability of the nodules. We found that the presence of rhizobia affected phenotypic plasticity of the legumes to internal [N], particularly in root length and root mass ratio (RMR), in a plant species-dependent way. While root length responses of M. truncatula to internal [N] were dependent on the ability of rhizobial symbionts to fix N2 , RMR response to internal [N] was dependent only on initiation of nodules, irrespective of N2 -fixing ability of the rhizobia strains.

  14. Transport and partitioning of CO/sub 2/ fixed by root nodules of ureide and amide producing legumes. [Vigna angularis; Glycine max; Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, C.P.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Maxwell, C.A.; Heichel, G.H.; Hardman, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nodulated and denodulated roots of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), soybean (Glycine max), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were exposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to investigate the contribution of nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. The distribution of radioactivity in xylem sap and partitioning of carbon fixed by nodules to the whole plant were measured. Radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated soybean and adzuki bean was located primarily (70 to 87%) in the acid fraction while the basic (amino acid) fraction contained 10 to 22%. In contrast radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated alfalfa was primarily in amino acids with about 20% in organic acids. Total ureide concentration was 8.1, 4.7, and 0.0 micromoles per milliliter xylem sap for soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa, respectively. While the major nitrogen transport products in soybeans and adzuki beans are ureides, this class of metabolites contained less than 20% of the the total radioactivity. When nodules of plants were removed, radioactivity in xylem sap decreased by 90% or more. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that CO/sub 2/ fixed by nodules was rapidly transported to shoots and incorporated into acid stable constituents. The data are consistent with a role for nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation providing carbon for the assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen in amide-based legumes. In contrast, CO/sub 2/ fixation by nodules of ureide transporting legumes appears to contribute little to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Convergent Evolution of Endosymbiont Differentiation in Dalbergioid and Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade Legumes Mediated by Nodule-Specific Cysteine-Rich Peptides.

    PubMed

    Czernic, Pierre; Gully, Djamel; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Moulin, Lionel; Guefrachi, Ibtissem; Patrel, Delphine; Pierre, Olivier; Fardoux, Joël; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Nguyen, Phuong; Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Rofidal, Valérie; Hem, Sonia; Barrière, Quentin; Arrighi, Jean-François; Mergaert, Peter; Giraud, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Nutritional symbiotic interactions require the housing of large numbers of microbial symbionts, which produce essential compounds for the growth of the host. In the legume-rhizobium nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, thousands of rhizobium microsymbionts, called bacteroids, are confined intracellularly within highly specialized symbiotic host cells. In Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade (IRLC) legumes such as Medicago spp., the bacteroids are kept under control by an arsenal of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, which induce the bacteria in an irreversible, strongly elongated, and polyploid state. Here, we show that in Aeschynomene spp. legumes belonging to the more ancient Dalbergioid lineage, bacteroids are elongated or spherical depending on the Aeschynomene spp. and that these bacteroids are terminally differentiated and polyploid, similar to bacteroids in IRLC legumes. Transcriptome, in situ hybridization, and proteome analyses demonstrated that the symbiotic cells in the Aeschynomene spp. nodules produce a large diversity of NCR-like peptides, which are transported to the bacteroids. Blocking NCR transport by RNA interference-mediated inactivation of the secretory pathway inhibits bacteroid differentiation. Together, our results support the view that bacteroid differentiation in the Dalbergioid clade, which likely evolved independently from the bacteroid differentiation in the IRLC clade, is based on very similar mechanisms used by IRLC legumes.

  16. Convergent Evolution of Endosymbiont Differentiation in Dalbergioid and Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade Legumes Mediated by Nodule-Specific Cysteine-Rich Peptides1

    PubMed Central

    Czernic, Pierre; Gully, Djamel; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Moulin, Lionel; Guefrachi, Ibtissem; Patrel, Delphine; Pierre, Olivier; Fardoux, Joël; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Nguyen, Phuong; Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Rofidal, Valérie; Hem, Sonia; Barrière, Quentin; Arrighi, Jean-François; Mergaert, Peter; Giraud, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional symbiotic interactions require the housing of large numbers of microbial symbionts, which produce essential compounds for the growth of the host. In the legume-rhizobium nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, thousands of rhizobium microsymbionts, called bacteroids, are confined intracellularly within highly specialized symbiotic host cells. In Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade (IRLC) legumes such as Medicago spp., the bacteroids are kept under control by an arsenal of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, which induce the bacteria in an irreversible, strongly elongated, and polyploid state. Here, we show that in Aeschynomene spp. legumes belonging to the more ancient Dalbergioid lineage, bacteroids are elongated or spherical depending on the Aeschynomene spp. and that these bacteroids are terminally differentiated and polyploid, similar to bacteroids in IRLC legumes. Transcriptome, in situ hybridization, and proteome analyses demonstrated that the symbiotic cells in the Aeschynomene spp. nodules produce a large diversity of NCR-like peptides, which are transported to the bacteroids. Blocking NCR transport by RNA interference-mediated inactivation of the secretory pathway inhibits bacteroid differentiation. Together, our results support the view that bacteroid differentiation in the Dalbergioid clade, which likely evolved independently from the bacteroid differentiation in the IRLC clade, is based on very similar mechanisms used by IRLC legumes. PMID:26286718

  17. Rare-earth element variation in phosphate nodules from midcontinent Pennsylvanian cyclothems

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, D.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Eddy-Dilek, C.A. . Savannah River Technology Center)

    1994-07-01

    The rare-earth element (REE) geochemistry of phosphate nodules from eastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma is dominated by patterns that are generally flat or are enriched in middle REE (MREE). Flat patterns are typical of phosphate nodules preserved in thick shales and in nodules from shales deposited nearest to detrital sources. The flat patterns are probably derived from terrigenous constituents in the host shale. MREE enrichment is evident in phosphate found in relatively thin shales and in distal shales. The authors suggest that the MREE-enriched pattern reflects the contribution of MREE-enriched fecal phosphate. The initial MREE enrichment mechanism may have been analogous to that in which some modern algae preferentially extract MREE from water of marine composition. The MREE-enriched signature may be preserved only in phosphate nodules that formed where terrigenous input was so low that it did not mask the characteristic fecal pattern. Rare Ce depletion patterns reflect a primary seawater REE source that has not been obscured by fecal or detrital components.

  18. Woodford Shale (Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian) and associated phosphate nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Siy, S. Inc., Dallas, TX )

    1990-02-01

    A deep-water marine environment is inferred for the Woodford Shale formation (Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian) in the Arbuckle and Ouachita mountains of southern Oklahoma. Black shales and associated phosphate nodules were deposited peripherally to the carbonate shelf adjacent to the North American craton. Analysis indicates that shales and interbedded cherts lack siliciclastic detritus and shallow-water fauna, and that they have an abundance of siliceous organisms. Depletion of Ce in the Woodford Shale relative to average shale compositions suggests the influence of deep oceanic water. Carbon isotope compositions of shales, cherts, and phosphates for {delta}{sup 13}C range from {minus}27.5 to {minus}30.2 {per thousand}. These values are comparable to Devonian-Mississippian values reported for distal marine sediments that get successively lighter farther from shore. In-situ phosphate nodules occurring in the top of the formation are early diagenetic features that formed in the upper few centimeters of organic-rich sediment in a poorly oxygenated subaqueous environment. A hierarchy of apatite morphologies in nodules indicates stages of diagenesis. Structureless collophane probably is representative of primary marine apatite. Higher order apatite phases successively include globular collophane, botryoidal apatite, and apatite crystallites. The latter commonly is associated with silicified nodules. Silicification of phosphate nodules represents the most advanced stage of diagenesis prior to sediment lithification, and it implies that silica diagenesis within the Woodford occurred after nodules formed. Preserved radiolarians and sponge spicules observed in nodules also indicate that apatite precipitated before biogenic silica dissolved.

  19. Cicer canariense, an endemic legume to the Canary Islands, is nodulated in mainland Spain by fast-growing strains from symbiovar trifolii phylogenetically related to Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Flores-Félix, José-David; Menéndez, Esther; Rivas, Raúl; Carro, Lorena; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; León-Barrios, Milagros; Velázquez, Encarna

    2015-07-01

    Cicer canariense is a threatened endemic legume from the Canary Islands where it can be nodulated by mesorhizobial strains from the symbiovar ciceri, which is the common worldwide endosymbiont of Cicer arietinum linked to the genus Mesorhizobium. However, when C. canariense was cultivated in a soil from mainland Spain, where the symbiovar ciceri is present, only fast-growing rhizobial strains were unexpectedly isolated from its nodules. These strains were classified into the genus Rhizobium by analysis of the recA and atpD genes, and they were phylogenetically related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that the isolated strains belonged to the symbiovar trifolii that harbored a nodC allele (β allele) different to that harbored by other strains from this symbiovar. Nodulation experiments carried out with the lacZ-labeled strain RCCHU01, representative of the β nodC allele, showed that it induced curling of root hairs, infected them through infection threads, and formed typical indeterminate nodules where nitrogen fixation took place. This represents a case of exceptional performance between the symbiovar trifolii and a legume from the tribe Cicereae that opens up new possibilities and provides new insights into the study of rhizobia-legume symbiosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of cysteine residues and disulfide bonds in the activity of a legume root nodule-specific, cysteine-rich peptide.

    PubMed

    Haag, Andreas F; Kerscher, Bernhard; Dall'Angelo, Sergio; Sani, Monica; Longhi, Renato; Baloban, Mikhail; Wilson, Heather M; Mergaert, Peter; Zanda, Matteo; Ferguson, Gail P

    2012-03-30

    The root nodules of certain legumes including Medicago truncatula produce >300 different nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides. Medicago NCR antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mediate the differentiation of the bacterium, Sinorhizobium meliloti into a nitrogen-fixing bacteroid within the legume root nodules. In vitro, NCR AMPs such as NCR247 induced bacteroid features and exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. meliloti. The bacterial BacA protein is critical to prevent S. meliloti from being hypersensitive toward NCR AMPs. NCR AMPs are cationic and have conserved cysteine residues, which form disulfide (S-S) bridges. However, the natural configuration of NCR AMP S-S bridges and the role of these in the activity of the peptide are unknown. In this study, we found that either cysteine replacements or S-S bond modifications influenced the activity of NCR247 against S. meliloti. Specifically, either substitution of cysteines for serines, changing the S-S bridges from cysteines 1-2, 3-4 to 1-3, 2-4 or oxidation of NCR247 lowered its activity against S. meliloti. We also determined that BacA specifically protected S. meliloti against oxidized NCR247. Due to the large number of different NCRs synthesized by legume root nodules and the importance of bacterial BacA proteins for prolonged host infections, these findings have important implications for analyzing the function of these novel peptides and the protective role of BacA in the bacterial response toward these peptides.

  1. Phloem Glutamine and the Regulation of O2 Diffusion in Legume Nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Neo, H. H.; Layzell, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the N content or the composition of the phloem sap that supplies nodulated roots may play a role in the feedback regulation of nitrogenase activity by increasing nodule resistance to O2 diffusion. Treating shoots of lupin (Lupinus albus cv Manitoba) or soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Maple Arrow) with 100 [mu]L L-1 NH3 caused a 1.3-fold (lupin) and 2.6-fold (soybean) increase in the total N content of phloem sap without altering its C content. The increase in phloem N was due primarily to a 4.8-fold (lupin) and 10.5-fold (soybean) increase in the concentration of glutamine N. In addition, there was a decline in both the apparent nitrogenase activity and total nitrogenase activity that began within 4 h and reached about 54% of its initial activity within 6 h of the start of the NH3 treatment. However, the potential nitrogenase activity values in the treated plants were not significantly different from those of the control plants. These results provide evidence that changes in the N composition of the phloem sap, particularly the glutamine content, may increase nodule resistance to O2 diffusion and, thereby, down-regulate nodule metabolism and nitrogenase activity by controlling the supply of O2 to the bacteria-infected cells. PMID:12223605

  2. A Legume TOR Protein Kinase Regulates Rhizobium Symbiosis and Is Essential for Infection and Nodule Development.

    PubMed

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Blanco, Lourdes; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Alvarado-Affantranger, Xóchitl; Quinto, Carmen; Sánchez, Federico; Lara, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth, and life span in yeast, animals, and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR's role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-Rhizobium tropici (Rhizobium) symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested bean tissues, with higher transcript levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules. We showed TOR promoter expression along the progressing infection thread and in the infected cells of mature nodules. Posttranscriptional gene silencing of TOR using RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this gene is involved in lateral root elongation and root cell organization and also alters the density, size, and number of root hairs. The suppression of TOR transcripts also affected infection thread progression and associated cortical cell divisions, resulting in a drastic reduction of nodule numbers. TOR-RNAi resulted in reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation and altered CyclinD1 and CyclinD3 expression, which are crucial factors for infection thread progression and nodule organogenesis. Enhanced expression of TOR-regulated ATG genes in TOR-RNAi roots suggested that TOR plays a role in the recognition of Rhizobium as a symbiont. Together, these data suggest that TOR plays a vital role in the establishment of root nodule symbiosis in the common bean. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Recombination and horizontal transfer of nodulation and ACC deaminase (acdS) genes within Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria nodulating legumes of the Cape Fynbos biome.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benny; Van Cauwenberghe, Jannick; Chimphango, Samson; Stirton, Charles; Honnay, Olivier; Smets, Erik; Muasya, A Muthama

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this work is to study the evolution and the degree of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within rhizobial genera of both Alphaproteobacteria (Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium) and Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderia), originating from South African Fynbos legumes. By using a phylogenetic approach and comparing multiple chromosomal and symbiosis genes, we revealed conclusive evidence of high degrees of horizontal transfer of nodulation genes among closely related species of both groups of rhizobia, but also among species with distant genetic backgrounds (Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium), underscoring the importance of lateral transfer of symbiosis traits as an important evolutionary force among rhizobia of the Cape Fynbos biome. The extensive exchange of symbiosis genes in the Fynbos is in contrast with a lack of significant events of HGT among Burkholderia symbionts from the South American Cerrado and Caatinga biome. Furthermore, homologous recombination among selected housekeeping genes had a substantial impact on sequence evolution within Burkholderia and Mesorhizobium. Finally, phylogenetic analyses of the non-symbiosis acdS gene in Mesorhizobium, a gene often located on symbiosis islands, revealed distinct relationships compared to the chromosomal and symbiosis genes, suggesting a different evolutionary history and independent events of gene transfer. The observed events of HGT and incongruence between different genes necessitate caution in interpreting topologies from individual data types.

  4. NopP, a phosphorylated effector of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, is a major determinant of nodulation of the tropical legumes Flemingia congesta and Tephrosia vogelii.

    PubMed

    Skorpil, Peter; Saad, Maged M; Boukli, Nawal M; Kobayashi, Hajime; Ares-Orpel, Florencia; Broughton, William J; Deakin, William J

    2005-09-01

    Rhizobium sp. NGR234 nodulates many plants, some of which react to proteins secreted via a type three secretion system (T3SS) in a positive- (Flemingia congesta, Tephrosia vogelii) or negative- (Crotalaria juncea, Pachyrhizus tuberosus) manner. T3SSs are devices that Gram-negative bacteria use to inject effector proteins into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The only two rhizobial T3SS effector proteins characterized to date are NopL and NopP of NGR234. NopL can be phosphorylated by plant kinases and we show this to be true for NopP as well. Mutation of nopP leads to a dramatic reduction in nodule numbers on F. congesta and T. vogelii. Concomitant mutation of nopL and nopP further diminishes nodulation capacity to levels that, on T. vogelii, are lower than those produced by the T3SS null mutant NGR(Omega)rhcN. We also show that the T3SS of NGR234 secretes at least one additional effector, which remains to be identified. In other words, NGR234 secretes a cocktail of effectors, some of which have positive effects on nodulation of certain plants while others are perceived negatively and block nodulation. NopL and NopP are two components of this mix that extend the ability of NGR234 to nodulate certain legumes.

  5. Novel impacts of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in plants: promotion of nodulation and nitrogenase activity in the rhizobium-legume system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaodong; Zhang, Zhongming; Wang, Xiuping; Li, Li; Cai, Kai; Han, Heyou

    2017-07-20

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis system is critical for nitrogen-cycle balance in agriculture. However, the potential effects of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) on this system remain largely unknown. Herein, we studied the effects of four carbon-based materials (activated carbon (AC), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO)) on the rhizobium-legume symbiosis system consisting of Lotus japonicus and Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099. Under non-symbiotic conditions, the bacterial growth and root development of plants were both clearly inhibited by SWCNTs and GO, while the elongation of plant stems was enhanced by MWCNTs to a certain degree. More importantly, only MWCNTs could increase the number of nodules and enhance the activity of nitrogenase in the rhizobium-plant interaction. Further analyses showed that the average number of nodules in plants treated with 100 μg mL(-1) MWCNTs was significantly increased by 39% at 14 days post inoculation (dpi) and by 41% at 28 dpi. Meanwhile, the biological nitrogen fixation of the nodules was promoted by more than 10% under 100 μg mL(-1) MWCNT treatment, which enhanced the above- and below-ground fresh biomass by 14% and 25% respectively at 28 dpi. Transmission electron microscopy images further indicated that MWCNTs penetrated the cell wall, and pierced through the cell membrane to be transmitted into the cytoplasm. In addition, gene expression analysis showed that the promotion of nodulation by MWCNTs was correlated with the up-regulation of certain genes involved in this signaling pathway. In particular, the expression of NIN, a crucial gene regulating the development of nodules, was significantly elevated 2-fold by MWCNTs at an early stage of nodulation. These findings are expected to facilitate the understanding and future utilization of MWCNTs in agriculture.

  6. Rhizobium cauense sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of the herbaceous legume Kummerowia stipulacea grown in campus lawn soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian Yan; Li, Ying; Liu, Xiao Xiao; Sui, Xin Hua; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Chen, Wen Feng; Puławska, Joanna

    2012-10-01

    Three bacterial isolates (CCBAU 101002(T), CCBAU 101000 and CCBAU 101001) originating from root nodules of the herbaceous legume Kummerowia stipulacea grown in the campus lawn of China Agricultural University were characterized with a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolates shared 99.85-99.92% sequence similarities and had the highest similarities to the type strains of Rhizobium mesoamericanum (99.31%), R. endophyticum (98.54%), R. tibeticum (98.38%) and R. grahamii (98.23%). Sequence similarity of four concatenated housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII, recA and rpoB) between CCBAU 101002(T) and its closest neighbor (R. grahamii) was 92.05%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain CCBAU 101002(T) and the four type strains of the most closely related Rhizobium species were less than 28.4±0.8%. The G+C mol% of the genomic DNA for strain CCBAU 101002(T) was 58.5% (Tm). The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone (Q-10). Summed feature 8 (18:1ω7cis/18:1ω6cis) and 16:0 were the predominant fatty acids. Strain CCBAU 101002(T) contained phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as major polar lipids, and phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin as minor ones. No glycolipid was detected. Unlike other strains, this novel species could utilize dulcite or sodium pyruvate as sole carbon sources and it was resistant to 2% (w/v) NaCl. On the basis of the polyphasic study, a new species Rhizobium cauense sp. nov. is proposed, with CCBAU 101002(T) (=LMG 26832(T)=HAMBI 3288(T)) as the type strain.

  7. Metal uptake via phosphate fertilizer and city sewage in cereal and legume crops in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, G; Javed, W; Hussain, A; Wahid, A; Murtaza, B; Owens, G

    2015-06-01

    Crop irrigation with heavy metal-contaminated effluents is increasingly common worldwide and necessitates management strategies for safe crop production on contaminated soils. This field study examined the phytoavailability of three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) in two cereal (wheat, maize) and legume (chickpea, mungbean) crops in response to the application of either phosphatic fertilizer or sewage-derived water irrigation over two successive years. Five fertilizer treatments, i.e. control, recommended nitrogen (N) applied alone and in combination of three levels of phosphorus (P), half, full and 1.5 times of recommended P designated as N0P0, N1P0, N1P0.5, N1P1.0, and N1P1.5, respectively. Tissue concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, and P were determined in various plant parts, i.e., root, straw, and grains. On the calcareous soils studied while maximum biomass production was obtained with application of P at half the recommended dose, the concentrations of metals in the crops generally decreased with increasing P levels. Tissue metal concentrations increased with the application of N alone. Translocation and accumulation of Zn and Cu were consistently higher than Cd. And the pattern of Cd accumulation differed among plant species; more Cd being accumulated by dicots than monocots, especially in their grains. The order of Cd accumulation in grains was maize > chickpea > mungbean > wheat. Mungbean and chickpea straws also had higher tissue Cd concentration above permissible limits. The two legume species behaved similarly, while cereal species differed from each other in their Cd accumulation. Metal ion concentrations were markedly higher in roots followed by straw and grains. Increasing soil-applied P also increased the extractable metal and P concentrations in the post-harvest soil. Despite a considerable addition of metals by P fertilizer, all levels of applied P effectively decreased metal phytoavailability in sewage-irrigated soils, and applying half of the

  8. Preparation of Artificial Blood from the Extract of Legume Root Nodules, and the Creation of Artificial Latent Fingermarks in Blood Using Artificial Blood().

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungwook; Kim, Chaewon; Jeon, Soyoung; Lee, Eunhye

    2017-03-07

    Distribution of homogeneous fingermarks in blood is essential for conducting proficiency tests in forensic science. Hence, the artificial blood was prepared using the root nodule extract of Glycine max plants. The reactivity of the artificial blood with widely used human blood detection reagents was tested. Artificial latent fingermarks in blood were printed using an inkjet cartridge case filled with artificial blood solution. The artificial latent fingermarks in blood were developed with amino acid-sensitive reagents and could obtain development as prominent as the image of the master fingermark saved on the computer. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the extract of legume root nodules can be used as artificial blood, and the artificial blood can be used for the preparation of artificial latent fingermarks or footmarks in blood. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Single-plant, sterile microcosms for nodulation and growth of the legume plant Medicago truncatula with the rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kathryn M; Mendis, Hajeewaka C; Queiroux, Clothilde

    2013-10-01

    Rhizobial bacteria form symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of compatible host legume plants. One of the most well-developed model systems for studying these interactions is the plant Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 and the rhizobial bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. Repeated imaging of plant roots and scoring of symbiotic phenotypes requires methods that are non-destructive to either plants or bacteria. The symbiotic phenotypes of some plant and bacterial mutants become apparent after relatively short periods of growth, and do not require long-term observation of the host/symbiont interaction. However, subtle differences in symbiotic efficiency and nodule senescence phenotypes that are not apparent in the early stages of the nodulation process require relatively long growth periods before they can be scored. Several methods have been developed for long-term growth and observation of this host/symbiont pair. However, many of these methods require repeated watering, which increases the possibility of contamination by other microbes. Other methods require a relatively large space for growth of large numbers of plants. The method described here, symbiotic growth of M. truncatula/S. meliloti in sterile, single-plant microcosms, has several advantages. Plants in these microcosms have sufficient moisture and nutrients to ensure that watering is not required for up to 9 weeks, preventing cross-contamination during watering. This allows phenotypes to be quantified that might be missed in short-term growth systems, such as subtle delays in nodule development and early nodule senescence. Also, the roots and nodules in the microcosm are easily viewed through the plate lid, so up-rooting of the plants for observation is not required.

  10. Legume genomics: promise versus reality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Legume root nodules, the specialized organs in which symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) occurs, are structurally and metabolically complex organs. Their development and function depends upon coordinated gene expression between the host plant and rhizobial partner. Depending upon the symbiosis, nodule...

  11. Strigolactones in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis: Stimulatory effect on bacterial surface motility and down-regulation of their levels in nodulated plants.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Vico, María A; Bernabéu-Roda, Lydia; Kohlen, Wouter; Soto, María J; López-Ráez, Juan A

    2016-04-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are multifunctional molecules acting as modulators of plant responses under nutrient deficient conditions. One of the roles of SLs is to promote beneficial association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi belowground under such stress conditions, mainly phosphorus shortage. Recently, a role of SLs in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis has been also described. While SLs' function in AM symbiosis is well established, their role in the Rhizobium-legume interaction is still emerging. Recently, SLs have been suggested to stimulate surface motility of rhizobia, opening the possibility that they could also act as molecular cues. The possible effect of SLs in the motility in the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti was investigated, showing that the synthetic SL analogue GR24 stimulates swarming motility in S. meliloti in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, it is known that SL production is regulated by nutrient deficient conditions and by AM symbiosis. Using the model alfalfa-S. meliloti, the impact of phosphorus and nitrogen deficiency, as well as of nodulation on SL production was also assessed. The results showed that phosphorus starvation promoted SL biosynthesis, which was abolished by nitrogen deficiency. In addition, a negative effect of nodulation on SL levels was detected, suggesting a conserved mechanism of SL regulation upon symbiosis establishment.

  12. Effects of Endogenous Salicylic Acid on Nodulation in the Model Legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula1[W

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Gary; McAlvin, Crystal Bickley; Kim, Sung-Yong; Olivares, José; Soto, María José

    2006-01-01

    The exogenous addition of salicylic acid (SA) was previously shown to inhibit indeterminate but not determinate-type nodulation. We sought to extend these results by modulating endogenous levels of SA through the transgenic expression of salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) in both stably transformed Lotus japonicus and composite Medicago truncatula plants. NahG expression in L. japonicus resulted in a marked reduction of SA levels. This reduction correlated with an increase in the number of infections and mean nodule number when compared to controls. However, a complicating factor was that NahG-expressing plants had greater root growth. Spot inoculations of NahG-expressing L. japonicus plants confirmed increased nodulation in these plants. Consistent with the reported inhibitory effects of exogenous SA on indeterminate-type nodulation, NahG expression in M. truncatula plants led to enhanced nodulation and infection. These data point to an important role for SA-mediated plant defense pathways in controlling nodule formation on both determinate and indeterminate nodule-forming hosts. PMID:16798946

  13. A Legume TOR Protein Kinase Regulates Rhizobium Symbiosis and Is Essential for Infection and Nodule Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Lourdes; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth, and life span in yeast, animals, and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR’s role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-Rhizobium tropici (Rhizobium) symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested bean tissues, with higher transcript levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules. We showed TOR promoter expression along the progressing infection thread and in the infected cells of mature nodules. Posttranscriptional gene silencing of TOR using RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this gene is involved in lateral root elongation and root cell organization and also alters the density, size, and number of root hairs. The suppression of TOR transcripts also affected infection thread progression and associated cortical cell divisions, resulting in a drastic reduction of nodule numbers. TOR-RNAi resulted in reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation and altered CyclinD1 and CyclinD3 expression, which are crucial factors for infection thread progression and nodule organogenesis. Enhanced expression of TOR-regulated ATG genes in TOR-RNAi roots suggested that TOR plays a role in the recognition of Rhizobium as a symbiont. Together, these data suggest that TOR plays a vital role in the establishment of root nodule symbiosis in the common bean. PMID:27698253

  14. Leghemoglobin green derivatives with nitrated hemes evidence production of highly reactive nitrogen species during aging of legume nodules.

    PubMed

    Navascués, Joaquín; Pérez-Rontomé, Carmen; Gay, Marina; Marcos, Manuel; Yang, Fei; Walker, F Ann; Desbois, Alain; Abián, Joaquín; Becana, Manuel

    2012-02-14

    Globins constitute a superfamily of proteins widespread in all kingdoms of life, where they fulfill multiple functions, such as efficient O(2) transport and modulation of nitric oxide bioactivity. In plants, the most abundant Hbs are the symbiotic leghemoglobins (Lbs) that scavenge O(2) and facilitate its diffusion to the N(2)-fixing bacteroids in nodules. The biosynthesis of Lbs during nodule formation has been studied in detail, whereas little is known about the green derivatives of Lbs generated during nodule senescence. Here we characterize modified forms of Lbs, termed Lba(m), Lbc(m), and Lbd(m), of soybean nodules. These green Lbs have identical globins to the parent red Lbs but their hemes are nitrated. By combining UV-visible, MS, NMR, and resonance Raman spectroscopies with reconstitution experiments of the apoprotein with protoheme or mesoheme, we show that the nitro group is on the 4-vinyl. In vitro nitration of Lba with excess nitrite produced several isomers of nitrated heme, one of which is identical to those found in vivo. The use of antioxidants, metal chelators, and heme ligands reveals that nitration is contingent upon the binding of nitrite to heme Fe, and that the reactive nitrogen species involved derives from nitrous acid and is most probably the nitronium cation. The identification of these green Lbs provides conclusive evidence that highly oxidizing and nitrating species are produced in nodules leading to nitrosative stress. These findings are consistent with a previous report showing that the modified Lbs are more abundant in senescing nodules and have aberrant O(2) binding.

  15. Leghemoglobin is nitrated in functional legume nodules in a tyrosine residue within the heme cavity by a nitrite/peroxide-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Martha; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Pérez-Rontomé, Carmen; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Abián, Joaquín; Staudinger, Christiana; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Radi, Rafael; Becana, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein Tyr nitration is a post-translational modification yielding 3-nitrotyrosine (NO2-Tyr). Formation of NO2-Tyr is generally considered as a marker of nitroxidative stress and is involved in some human pathophysiological disorders, but it has been poorly studied in plants. Leghemoglobin (Lb) is an abundant hemeprotein of legume nodules that plays an essential role as O2 transporter. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used for a targeted search and quantification of NO2-Tyr in Lbs. For all Lbs examined, Tyr30, located in the distal heme pocket, is the major target of nitration. Lower amounts were found for NO2-Tyr25 and NO2-Tyr133. Nitrated Lb and other as yet unidentified nitrated proteins were also detected in nodules of plants not receiving NO3− and were found to decrease during senescence. This demonstrates formation of nitric oxide (•NO) and NO2− by alternative means to nitrate reductase, probably via a NO synthase-like enzyme, and strongly suggests that nitrated proteins perform biological functions and are not merely metabolic byproducts. In vitro assays with purified Lbs revealed that Tyr nitration requires NO2− + H2O2 and that peroxynitrite is not an efficient inducer of nitration, possibly by isomerizing it to NO3−. Nitrated Lb is formed via oxoferryl Lb, which generates nitrogen dioxide and tyrosyl radicals. This mechanism is distinctly different from that involved in heme nitration. Formation of NO2-Tyr in Lbs is a consequence of active metabolism in functional nodules, where Lbs may act as a sink of toxic peroxynitrite and may play a protective role in the symbiosis. PMID:25603991

  16. Leghemoglobin is nitrated in functional legume nodules in a tyrosine residue within the heme cavity by a nitrite/peroxide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Martha; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Pérez-Rontomé, Carmen; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Abián, Joaquín; Staudinger, Christiana; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Radi, Rafael; Becana, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Protein tyrosine (Tyr) nitration is a post-translational modification yielding 3-nitrotyrosine (NO2 -Tyr). Formation of NO2 -Tyr is generally considered as a marker of nitro-oxidative stress and is involved in some human pathophysiological disorders, but has been poorly studied in plants. Leghemoglobin (Lb) is an abundant hemeprotein of legume nodules that plays an essential role as an O2 transporter. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used for a targeted search and quantification of NO2 -Tyr in Lb. For all Lbs examined, Tyr30, located in the distal heme pocket, is the major target of nitration. Lower amounts were found for NO2 -Tyr25 and NO2 -Tyr133. Nitrated Lb and other as yet unidentified nitrated proteins were also detected in nodules of plants not receiving NO3- and were found to decrease during senescence. This demonstrates formation of nitric oxide (˙NO) and NO2- by alternative means to nitrate reductase, probably via a ˙NO synthase-like enzyme, and strongly suggests that nitrated proteins perform biological functions and are not merely metabolic byproducts. In vitro assays with purified Lb revealed that Tyr nitration requires NO2- + H2 O2 and that peroxynitrite is not an efficient inducer of nitration, probably because Lb isomerizes it to NO3-. Nitrated Lb is formed via oxoferryl Lb, which generates nitrogen dioxide and tyrosyl radicals. This mechanism is distinctly different from that involved in heme nitration. Formation of NO2 -Tyr in Lb is a consequence of active metabolism in functional nodules, where Lb may act as a sink of toxic peroxynitrite and may play a protective role in the symbiosis.

  17. Physiological and morphological adaptations of herbaceous perennial legumes allow differential access to sources of varyingly soluble phosphate.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jiayin; Yang, Jiyun; Lambers, Hans; Tibbett, Mark; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Ryan, Megan H

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of three perennial legume species to access sources of varyingly soluble phosphorus (P) and their associated morphological and physiological adaptations. Two Australian native legumes with pasture potential (Cullen australasicum and Kennedia prostrata) and Medicago sativa cv. SARDI 10 were grown in sand under two P levels (6 and 40 µg P g(-1) ) supplied as Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ·H2 O (Ca-P, highly soluble, used in many fertilizers) or as one of three sparingly soluble forms: Ca10 (OH)2 (PO4 )6 (apatite-P, found in relatively young soils; major constituent of rock phosphate), C6 H6 O24 P6 Na12 (inositol-P, the most common form of organic P in soil) and FePO4 (Fe-P, a poorly-available inorganic source of P). All species grew well with soluble P. When 6 µg P g(-1) was supplied as sparingly soluble P, plant dry weight (DW) and P uptake were very low for C. australasicum and M. sativa (0.1-0.4 g DW) with the exception of M. sativa supplied with apatite-P (1.5 g). In contrast, K. prostrata grew well with inositol-P (1.0 g) and Fe-P (0.7 g), and even better with apatite-P (1.7 g), similar to that with Ca-P (1.9 g). Phosphorus uptake at 6 µg P g(-1) was highly correlated with total root length, total rhizosphere carboxylate content and total rhizosphere acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) activity. These findings provide strong indications that there are opportunities to utilize local Australian legumes in low P pasture systems to access sparingly soluble soil P and increase perennial legume productivity, diversity and sustainability.

  18. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 modulates plant growth, reproduction, senescence, and determinate nodulation in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junwei; Novero, Mara; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Ferrandino, Alessandra; Schubert, Andrea; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Bonfante, Paola; Lovisolo, Claudio; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Cardinale, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are newly identified hormones that regulate multiple aspects of plant development, infection by parasitic weeds, and mutualistic symbiosis in the roots. In this study, the role of SLs was studied for the first time in the model plant Lotus japonicus using transgenic lines silenced for CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 (LjCCD7), the orthologue of Arabidopsis More Axillary Growth 3. Transgenic LjCCD7-silenced plants displayed reduced height due to shorter internodes, and more branched shoots and roots than the controls, and an increase in total plant biomass, while their root:shoot ratio remained unchanged. Moreover, these lines had longer primary roots, delayed senescence, and reduced flower/pod numbers from the third round of flower and pod setting onwards. Only a mild reduction in determinate nodule numbers and hardly any impact on the colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were observed. The results show that the impairment of CCD7 activity in L. japonicus leads to a phenotype linked to SL functions, but with specific features possibly due to the peculiar developmental pattern of this plant species. It is believed that the data also link determinate nodulation, plant reproduction, and senescence to CCD7 function for the first time. PMID:23567864

  19. Expression of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum type III secretion system in legume nodules and analysis of the associated tts box promoter.

    PubMed

    Zehner, Susanne; Schober, Grit; Wenzel, Mandy; Lang, Kathrin; Göttfert, Michael

    2008-08-01

    In Bradyrhizobium japonicum, as in some other rhizobia, symbiotic efficiency is influenced by a type III secretion system (T3SS). Most genes encoding the transport machinery and secreted proteins are preceded by a conserved 30-bp motif, the type-three secretion (tts) box. In this study, we found that regions downstream of 34 tts boxes are transcribed. For nopB, nopL, and gunA2, the transcriptional start sites were found to be 12, 11, and 10 bp downstream of their tts boxes, respectively. The deletion of this motif or modification of two or more conserved residues strongly reduced expression of nopB. This indicates that the tts box is an essential promoter element. Data obtained with lacZ reporter gene fusions of five genes preceded by a tts box (gunA2, nopB, rhcV, nopL, and blr1806) revealed that they are expressed in 4-week-old nodules of Macroptilium atropurpureum. These data suggest that the T3SS is active in mature nitrogen-fixing nodules. The two-component response regulator TtsI is required for the expression of rhcV, nopL, and blr1806 in bacteroids. Staining of inoculated roots showed that nopB is also expressed in early infection stages.

  20. Regulatory nodD1 and nodD2 genes of Rhizobium tropici strain CIAT 899 and their roles in the early stages of molecular signaling and host-legume nodulation.

    PubMed

    del Cerro, Pablo; Rolla-Santos, Amanda Alves Paiva; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Marks, Bettina Berquó; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Miguel Ángel; Nakatani, André Shigueyoshi; Gil-Serrano, Antonio; Megías, Manuel; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Hungria, Mariangela

    2015-03-28

    Nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation are mediated by several genes, both of the host legume and of the bacterium. The rhizobial regulatory nodD gene plays a critical role, orchestrating the transcription of the other nodulation genes. Rhizobium tropici strain CIAT 899 is an effective symbiont of several legumes-with an emphasis on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-and is unusual in carrying multiple copies of nodD, the roles of which remain to be elucidated. Phenotypes, Nod factors and gene expression of nodD1 and nodD2 mutants of CIAT 899 were compared with those of the wild type strain, both in the presence and in the absence of the nod-gene-inducing molecules apigenin and salt (NaCl). Differences between the wild type and mutants were observed in swimming motility and IAA (indole acetic acid) synthesis. In the presence of both apigenin and salt, large numbers of Nod factors were detected in CIAT 899, with fewer detected in the mutants. nodC expression was lower in both mutants; differences in nodD1 and nodD2 expression were observed between the wild type and the mutants, with variation according to the inducing molecule, and with a major role of apigenin with nodD1 and of salt with nodD2. In the nodD1 mutant, nodulation was markedly reduced in common bean and abolished in leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), whereas a mutation in nodD2 reduced nodulation in common bean, but not in the other two legumes. Our proposed model considers that full nodulation of common bean by R. tropici requires both nodD1 and nodD2, whereas, in other legume species that might represent the original host, nodD1 plays the major role. In general, nodD2 is an activator of nod-gene transcription, but, in specific conditions, it can slightly repress nodD1. nodD1 and nodD2 play other roles beyond nodulation, such as swimming motility and IAA synthesis.

  1. Common Bean: A Legume Model on the Rise for Unraveling Responses and Adaptations to Iron, Zinc, and Phosphate Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Guerrero, Norma A.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G.; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was domesticated ∼8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein) and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development, and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals. PMID:27200068

  2. Common Bean: A Legume Model on the Rise for Unraveling Responses and Adaptations to Iron, Zinc, and Phosphate Deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Castro-Guerrero, Norma A; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was domesticated ∼8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein) and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development, and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals.

  3. Phenotypic and biochemical characterization of root nodule bacteria naturally associated with woody tree legumes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alshaharani, Thobayet Safar; Shetta, Nader Desouky

    2015-03-01

    Thirty root-nodulating bacteria isolates were obtained from the roots of Acacia ampliceps (Maslin), A. ehrenbergiana (Hayne.), A. saligna (Labill.), A. seyal (Del.), A. tortilis (Forssk.), A. tortilis subsp. raddiana (Savi.), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and Vicia faba (L.) trees growing in the Riyadh region. The isolates' phenotypic and biochemical properties were characterized by assessing colony appearance, growth rate, resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals, and tolerance to salinity, elevated temperature and pH. All isolates had same colony morphology and grew on yeast extract mannitol and tryptone yeast agar, but not MGS media. The results also revealed considerable diversity among the isolates, which exhibited different patterns of resistance to abiotic stresses. Most isolates tolerated temperatures up to 37 degrees C and could grow from pH 5.5-8.5 and at a high NaCl concentration (2% w/v). The majority of isolates could utilize a variety of carbohydrates. Most of the isolates displayed resistance to antibiotics in the 75 microg ml(-1) range, with approximately 100 pg ml(-1) the maximum concentration at which growth was observed. All isolates were sensitive to aluminum and resistant to other heavy metals tested, and they were able to reduce nitrate and hydrolyze urea.

  4. Phosphate solubilizers enhance NPK fertilizer use efficiency in rice and legume cultivation.

    PubMed

    Duarah, I; Deka, M; Saikia, N; Deka Boruah, H P

    2011-12-01

    It has been reported that phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are the most promising bacteria among the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); which may be used as biofertilizers for plant growth and nutrient use efficiency. Moreover, these soil micro-organisms play a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter decomposition and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and other nutrients. Through this study, the management of nutrient use efficiency by the application of PSB was targeted in order to make the applied nutrients more available to the plants in the rice (Oryza sativa) and yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation. Results have shown that the treatments with PSB alone or in the form of consortia of compatible strains with or without the external application of chemical NPK gave more germination index (G. I.) from 2.5 to 5 in rice and 2.7 to 4.8 in bean seeds. They also showed a higher growth in both shoot and root length and a higher biomass as compared to the control. This gives us an idea about the potentiality of these PSB strains and their application in rice and yardlong bean cultivation to get a better harvest index. Their use will also possibly reduce the nutrient runoff or leaching and increase in the use efficiency of the applied fertilizers. Thus, we can conclude that the NPK uptake and management can be improved by the use of PSB in rice and yardlong bean cultivation, and their application may be much more beneficial in the agricultural field.

  5. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Ensifer sp. PC2, isolated from a nitrogen-fixing root nodule of the legume tree (Khejri) native to the Thar Desert of India

    DOE PAGES

    Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Ardley, Julie; Tak, Nisha; ...

    2016-06-23

    Ensifer sp. PC2 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a nitrogen-fixing nodule of the tree legume P. cineraria (L.) Druce (Khejri), which is a keystone species that grows in arid and semi-arid regions of the Indian Thar desert. Strain PC2 exists as a dominant saprophyte in alkaline soils of Western Rajasthan. It is fast growing, well-adapted to arid conditions and is able to form an effective symbiosis with several annual crop legumes as well as species of mimosoid trees and shrubs. Here we describe the features of Ensifer sp. PC2, together with genome sequence informationmore » and its annotation. The 8,458,965 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged into 171 scaffolds of 171 contigs containing 8,344 protein-coding genes and 139 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project proposal.« less

  6. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Ensifer sp. PC2, isolated from a nitrogen-fixing root nodule of the legume tree (Khejri) native to the Thar Desert of India

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Ardley, Julie; Tak, Nisha; Tian, Rui; Poonar, Neetu; Meghwal, Raju R.; Rathi, Sonam; Tiwari, Ravi; Adnawani, Wan; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Pillay, Manoj; Markowitz, Victor; Baeshen, Mohammed N.; Al-Hejin, Ahmed M.; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2016-06-23

    Ensifer sp. PC2 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a nitrogen-fixing nodule of the tree legume P. cineraria (L.) Druce (Khejri), which is a keystone species that grows in arid and semi-arid regions of the Indian Thar desert. Strain PC2 exists as a dominant saprophyte in alkaline soils of Western Rajasthan. It is fast growing, well-adapted to arid conditions and is able to form an effective symbiosis with several annual crop legumes as well as species of mimosoid trees and shrubs. Here we describe the features of Ensifer sp. PC2, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 8,458,965 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged into 171 scaffolds of 171 contigs containing 8,344 protein-coding genes and 139 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project proposal.

  7. High-Resolution Transcriptomic Analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 Bacteroids in Determinate Nodules of Vigna unguiculata and Indeterminate Nodules of Leucaena leucocephala

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata. PMID:23936444

  8. High-resolution transcriptomic analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 bacteroids in determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata and indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata.

  9. Enamel ribbons, surface nodules, and octacalcium phosphate in C57BL/6 Amelx -/- mice and Amelx +/- lyonization

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Smith, Charles E.; Cai, Zhonghou; ...

    2016-10-05

    Amelogenin is required for normal enamel formation and is the most abundant protein in developing enamel. Methods. Amelx+/+, Amelx+/- and Amelx-/- molars and incisors from C57BL/6 mice were characterized using RT-PCR, Western blotting, dissecting and light microscopy, immunohistochemistry (IHC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered SEM (bSEM), nanohardness testing, and X-ray diffraction. No amelogenin protein was detected by Western blot analyses of enamel extracts from Amelx-/- mice. Amelx-/- incisor enamel averaged 20.3±3.3 μm in thickness, or only 1/6th that of the wild-type (122.3±7.9 μm). Amelx-/- incisor enamel nanohardness was 1.6 Gpa, less than half that of wild-typemore » enamel (3.6 Gpa). Amelx+/- incisors and molars showed vertical banding patterns unique to each tooth. IHC detected no amelogenin in Amelx-/- enamel and varied levels of amelogenin in Amelx+/- incisors, which correlated positively with enamel thickness, strongly supporting lyonization as the cause of the variations in enamel thickness. TEM analyses showed characteristic mineral ribbons in Amelx+/+ and Amelx-/- enamel extending from mineralized dentin collagen to the ameloblast. The Amelx-/- enamel ribbons were not well-separated by matrix and appeared to fuse together, forming plates. Furthermore, x-ray diffraction determined that the predominant mineral in Amelx-/- enamel is octacalcium phosphate (not calcium hydroxyapatite). Amelx-/- ameloblasts were similar to wild-type ameloblasts except no Tomes’ processes extended into the thin enamel. Amelx-/- and Amelx+/- molars both showed calcified nodules on their occlusal surfaces. Histology of D5 and D11 developing molars showed nodules forming during the maturation stage. Amelogenin forms a resorbable matrix that separates and supports, but does not shape early secretory stage enamel ribbons. Amelogenin may facilitate the conversion of enamel ribbons into hydroxyapatite by

  10. The temperature-sensitive brush mutant of the legume Lotus japonicus reveals a link between root development and nodule infection by rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Maekawa-Yoshikawa, Makoto; Müller, Judith; Takeda, Naoya; Maekawa, Takaki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Perry, Jillian; Wang, Trevor L; Groth, Martin; Brachmann, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2009-04-01

    The brush mutant of Lotus japonicus exhibits a temperature-dependent impairment in nodule, root, and shoot development. At 26 degrees C, brush formed fewer nodules, most of which were not colonized by rhizobia bacteria. Primary root growth was retarded and the anatomy of the brush root apical meristem revealed distorted cellular organization and reduced cell expansion. Reciprocal grafting of brush with wild-type plants indicated that this genotype only affected the root and that the shoot phenotype was a secondary effect. The root and nodulation phenotype cosegregated as a single Mendelian trait and the BRUSH gene could be mapped to the short arm of chromosome 2. At 18 degrees C, the brush root anatomy was rescued and similar to the wild type, and primary root length, number of infection threads, and nodule formation were partially rescued. Superficially, the brush root phenotype resembled the ethylene-related thick short root syndrome. However, treatment with ethylene inhibitor did not recover the observed phenotypes, although brush primary roots were slightly longer. The defects of brush in root architecture and infection thread development, together with intact nodule architecture and complete absence of symptoms from shoots, suggest that BRUSH affects cellular differentiation in a tissue-dependent way.

  11. The Temperature-Sensitive brush Mutant of the Legume Lotus japonicus Reveals a Link between Root Development and Nodule Infection by Rhizobia[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa-Yoshikawa, Makoto; Müller, Judith; Takeda, Naoya; Maekawa, Takaki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Perry, Jillian; Wang, Trevor L.; Groth, Martin; Brachmann, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The brush mutant of Lotus japonicus exhibits a temperature-dependent impairment in nodule, root, and shoot development. At 26°C, brush formed fewer nodules, most of which were not colonized by rhizobia bacteria. Primary root growth was retarded and the anatomy of the brush root apical meristem revealed distorted cellular organization and reduced cell expansion. Reciprocal grafting of brush with wild-type plants indicated that this genotype only affected the root and that the shoot phenotype was a secondary effect. The root and nodulation phenotype cosegregated as a single Mendelian trait and the BRUSH gene could be mapped to the short arm of chromosome 2. At 18°C, the brush root anatomy was rescued and similar to the wild type, and primary root length, number of infection threads, and nodule formation were partially rescued. Superficially, the brush root phenotype resembled the ethylene-related thick short root syndrome. However, treatment with ethylene inhibitor did not recover the observed phenotypes, although brush primary roots were slightly longer. The defects of brush in root architecture and infection thread development, together with intact nodule architecture and complete absence of symptoms from shoots, suggest that BRUSH affects cellular differentiation in a tissue-dependent way. PMID:19176723

  12. Harnessing Wharton's jelly stem cell differentiation into bone-like nodule on calcium phosphate substrate without osteoinductive factors.

    PubMed

    Mechiche Alami, S; Rammal, H; Boulagnon-Rombi, C; Velard, F; Lazar, F; Drevet, R; Laurent Maquin, D; Gangloff, S C; Hemmerlé, J; Voegel, J C; Francius, G; Schaaf, P; Boulmedais, F; Kerdjoudj, H

    2017-02-01

    An important aim of bone regenerative medicine is to design biomaterials with controlled chemical and topographical features to guide stem cell fate towards osteoblasts without addition of specific osteogenic factors. Herein, we find that sprayed bioactive and biocompatible calcium phosphate substrates (CaP) with controlled topography induce, in a well-orchestrated manner, Wharton's jelly stem cells (WJ-SCs) differentiation into osteoblastic lineage without any osteogenic supplements. The resulting WJ-SCs commitment exhibits features of native bone, through the formation of three-dimensional bone-like nodule with osteocyte-like cells embedded into a mineralized type I collagen. To our knowledge, these results present the first observation of a whole differentiation process from stem cell to osteocytes-like on a synthetic material. This suggests a great potential of sprayed CaP and WJ-SCs in bone tissue engineering. These unique features may facilitate the transition from bench to bedside and the development of successful engineered bone.

  13. A gene-based map of the Nod factor-independent Aeschynomene evenia sheds new light on the evolution of nodulation and legume genomes

    PubMed Central

    Chaintreuil, Clémence; Rivallan, Ronan; Bertioli, David J.; Klopp, Christophe; Gouzy, Jérôme; Courtois, Brigitte; Leleux, Philippe; Martin, Guillaume; Rami, Jean-François; Gully, Djamel; Parrinello, Hugues; Séverac, Dany; Patrel, Delphine; Fardoux, Joël; Ribière, William; Boursot, Marc; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Czernic, Pierre; Ratet, Pascal; Mournet, Pierre; Giraud, Eric; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Aeschynomene evenia has emerged as a new model legume for the deciphering of the molecular mechanisms of an alternative symbiotic process that is independent of the Nod factors. Whereas most of the research on nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, legume genetics and genomics has so far focused on Galegoid and Phaseolid legumes, A. evenia falls in the more basal and understudied Dalbergioid clade along with peanut (Arachis hypogaea). To provide insights into the symbiotic genes content and the structure of the A. evenia genome, we established a gene-based genetic map for this species. Firstly, an RNAseq analysis was performed on the two parental lines selected to generate a F2 mapping population. The transcriptomic data were used to develop molecular markers and they allowed the identification of most symbiotic genes. The resulting map comprised 364 markers arranged in 10 linkage groups (2n = 20). A comparative analysis with the sequenced genomes of Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of peanut, indicated blocks of conserved macrosynteny. Altogether, these results provided important clues regarding the evolution of symbiotic genes in a Nod factor-independent context. They provide a basis for a genome sequencing project and pave the way for forward genetic analysis of symbiosis in A. evenia. PMID:27298380

  14. A gene-based map of the Nod factor-independent Aeschynomene evenia sheds new light on the evolution of nodulation and legume genomes.

    PubMed

    Chaintreuil, Clémence; Rivallan, Ronan; Bertioli, David J; Klopp, Christophe; Gouzy, Jérôme; Courtois, Brigitte; Leleux, Philippe; Martin, Guillaume; Rami, Jean-François; Gully, Djamel; Parrinello, Hugues; Séverac, Dany; Patrel, Delphine; Fardoux, Joël; Ribière, William; Boursot, Marc; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Czernic, Pierre; Ratet, Pascal; Mournet, Pierre; Giraud, Eric; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2016-08-01

    Aeschynomene evenia has emerged as a new model legume for the deciphering of the molecular mechanisms of an alternative symbiotic process that is independent of the Nod factors. Whereas most of the research on nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, legume genetics and genomics has so far focused on Galegoid and Phaseolid legumes, A. evenia falls in the more basal and understudied Dalbergioid clade along with peanut (Arachis hypogaea). To provide insights into the symbiotic genes content and the structure of the A. evenia genome, we established a gene-based genetic map for this species. Firstly, an RNAseq analysis was performed on the two parental lines selected to generate a F2 mapping population. The transcriptomic data were used to develop molecular markers and they allowed the identification of most symbiotic genes. The resulting map comprised 364 markers arranged in 10 linkage groups (2n = 20). A comparative analysis with the sequenced genomes of Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of peanut, indicated blocks of conserved macrosynteny. Altogether, these results provided important clues regarding the evolution of symbiotic genes in a Nod factor-independent context. They provide a basis for a genome sequencing project and pave the way for forward genetic analysis of symbiosis in A. evenia.

  15. Differential effectiveness of novel and old legume-rhizobia mutualisms: implications for invasion by exotic legumes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Fajardo, Susana; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-09-01

    The degree of specialization in the legume-rhizobium mutualism and the variation in the response to different potential symbionts are crucial factors for understanding the process of invasion by exotic legumes and the consequences for the native resident plants and bacteria. The enhanced novel mutualism hypothesis predicts that exotic invasive legumes would take advantage of native rhizobia present in the invaded soils. However, recent studies have shown that exotic legumes might become invasive by using exotic introduced microsymbionts, and that they could be a source of exotic bacteria for native legumes. To unravel the role of novel and old symbioses in the progress of invasion, nodulation and symbiotic effectiveness were analyzed for exotic invasive plants and native co-occurring legumes in a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem. Although most of the studied species nodulated with bacteria from distant origins these novel mutualisms were less effective in terms of nodulation, nitrogenase activity and plant growth than the interactions of plants and bacteria from the same origin. The relative effect of exotic bradyrhizobia was strongly positive for exotic invasive legumes and detrimental for native shrubs. We conclude that (1) the studied invasive legumes do not rely on novel mutualisms but rather need the co-introduction of compatible symbionts, and (2) since exotic rhizobia colonize native legumes in invaded areas, the lack of effectiveness of these novel symbiosis demonstrated here suggests that invasion can disrupt native belowground mutualisms and reduce native legumes fitness.

  16. A purple acid phosphatase plays a role in nodule formation and nitrogen fixation in Astragalus sinicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyun; Si, Zaiyong; Li, Fang; Xiong, Xiaobo; Lei, Lei; Xie, Fuli; Chen, Dasong; Li, Yixing; Li, Youguo

    2015-08-01

    The AsPPD1 gene from Astragalus sinicus encodes a purple acid phosphatase. To address the functions of AsPPD1 in legume-rhizobium symbiosis, its expression patterns, enzyme activity, subcellular localization, and phenotypes associated with its over-expression and RNA interference (RNAi) were investigated. The expression of AsPPD1 was up-regulated in roots and nodules after inoculation with rhizobia. Phosphate starvation reduced the levels of AsPPD1 transcripts in roots while increased those levels in nodules. We confirmed the acid phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities of recombinant AsPPD1 purified from Pichia pastoris, and demonstrated its ability to hydrolyze ADP and ATP in vitro. Subcellular localization showed that AsPPD1 located on the plasma membranes in hairy roots and on the symbiosomes membranes in root nodules. Over-expression of AsPPD1 in hairy roots inhibited nodulation, while its silencing resulted in nodules early senescence and significantly decreased nitrogenase activity. Furthermore, HPLC measurement showed that AsPPD1 overexpression affects the ADP levels in the infected roots and nodules, AsPPD1 silencing affects the ratio of ATP/ADP and the energy charge in nodules, and quantitative observation demonstrated the changes of AsPPD1 transcripts level affected nodule primordia formation. Taken together, it is speculated that AsPPD1 contributes to symbiotic ADP levels and energy charge control, and this is required for effective nodule organogenesis and nitrogen fixation.

  17. Responses to ultraviolet-B radiation by purely symbiotic and NO3-fed nodulated tree and shrub legumes indigenous to southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimphango, Samson B M; Musil, Charles F; Dakora, Felix D

    2004-02-01

    Purely symbiotic and NO3-fed nodulated seedlings of Virgilia oroboides (Bergius) T.M. Salter, Cyclopia maculata (L.) Vent and Podalyria calyptrata Willd. were exposed to biologically effective ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) to assess the effects of above- and below-ambient UV-B on growth, symbiotic function and metabolite concentrations. Seedlings were grown outdoors either on tables under ambient or 34 or 66% above-ambient UV-B conditions (UV-B100 control, UV-B134 and UV-B166, respectively), or in chambers providing below-ambient (22% of ambient) UV-B (UV-B22) along with a UV-A control and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) control. Exposure of seedlings to UV-B166 radiation reduced (P < or = 0.05) leaf and stem dry mass by 34 and 39%, respectively, in C. maculata, and reduced leaf nitrogen concentration (%N) by 12% in V. oroboides. Nodule %N in C. maculata and stem %N in P. calyptrata also decreased (P < or = 0.05) in response to UV-B22 radiation compared with the UV-A control, but not compared with the PAR control. Concentrations of flavonoids, soluble sugars and starch were unaltered by the UV-B treatments. Application of 1 mM NO3 to UV-B166-treated seedlings increased whole-plant dry mass of V. oroboides and P. calyptrata by 47 and 52%, respectively. Dry mass of organs, nodule %N and total N concentration of these species also increased with NO3 application. However, NO3 supply decreased (P < or = 0.05) nodule dry mass, stem %N and leaf %N as well as root and leaf anthocyanin concentrations in C. maculata. In terms of UV-B x N interactions, dry mass of stems, roots, nodules and total biomass of NO3-fed C. maculata seedlings were reduced, and nodule %N, total N and leaf anthocyanins were depressed by the UV-B134 and UV-B166 treatments relative to UV-B100-treated seedlings. Although we found that above-ambient UV-B had no effects on growth and symbiotic function of V. oroboides and P. calyptrata seedlings, feeding NO3 to these species increased (P < or

  18. Metabolomic Profiling of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens-Induced Root Nodules Reveals Both Host Plant-Specific and Developmental Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Lardi, Martina; Murset, Valérie; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Mesa, Socorro; Ahrens, Christian H.; Zamboni, Nicola; Pessi, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont, which can grow inside root-nodule cells of the agriculturally important soybean and other host plants. Our previous studies described B. diazoefficiens host-specific global expression changes occurring during legume infection at the transcript and protein level. In order to further characterize nodule metabolism, we here determine by flow injection–time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis the metabolome of (i) nodules and roots from four different B. diazoefficiens host plants; (ii) soybean nodules harvested at different time points during nodule development; and (iii) soybean nodules infected by two strains mutated in key genes for nitrogen fixation, respectively. Ribose (soybean), tartaric acid (mungbean), hydroxybutanoyloxybutanoate (siratro) and catechol (cowpea) were among the metabolites found to be specifically elevated in one of the respective host plants. While the level of C4-dicarboxylic acids decreased during soybean nodule development, we observed an accumulation of trehalose-phosphate at 21 days post infection (dpi). Moreover, nodules from non-nitrogen-fixing bacteroids (nifA and nifH mutants) showed specific metabolic alterations; these were also supported by independent transcriptomics data. The alterations included signs of nitrogen limitation in both mutants, and an increased level of a phytoalexin in nodules induced by the nifA mutant, suggesting that the tissue of these nodules exhibits defense and stress reactions. PMID:27240350

  19. The abundance and diversity of legume-nodulating rhizobia in 28-year-old plantations of tropical, subtropical, and exotic tree species: a case study from the Forest Reserve of Bandia, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Sene, Godar; Thiao, Mansour; Samba-Mbaye, Ramatoulaye; Khasa, Damase; Kane, Aboubacry; Mbaye, Mame Samba; Beaulieu, Marie-Ève; Manga, Anicet; Sylla, Samba Ndao

    2013-01-01

    Several fast-growing and multipurpose tree species have been widely used in West Africa to both reverse the tendency of land degradation and restore soil productivity. Although beneficial effects have been reported on soil stabilization, there still remains a lack of information about their impact on soil microorganisms. Our investigation has been carried out in exotic and native tree plantations of 28 years and aimed to survey and compare the abundance and genetic diversity of natural legume-nodulating rhizobia (LNR). The study of LNR is supported by the phylogenetic analysis which clustered the isolates into three genera: Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium. The results showed close positive correlations between the sizes of LNR populations estimated both in the dry and rainy seasons and the presence of legume tree hosts. There were significant increases in Rhizobium spp. population densities in response to planting with Acacia spp., and high genetic diversities and richness of genotypes were fittest in these tree plantations. This suggests that enrichment of soil Rhizobium spp. populations is host specific. The results indicated also that species of genera Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium were lacking in plantations of non-host species. By contrast, there was a widespread distribution of Bradyrhizobium spp. strains across the tree plantations, with no evident specialization in regard to plantation type. Finally, the study provides information about the LNR communities associated with a range of old tree plantations and some aspects of their relationships to soil factors, which may facilitate the management of man-made forest systems that target ecosystem rehabilitation and preservation of soil biota.

  20. Growth and nitrogen fixation in Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula under NaCl stress: nodule carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    López, Miguel; Herrera-Cervera, Jose A; Iribarne, Carmen; Tejera, Noel A; Lluch, Carmen

    2008-04-18

    Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula model legumes, which form determined and indeterminate nodules, respectively, provide a convenient system to study plant-Rhizobium interaction and to establish differences between the two types of nodules under salt stress conditions. We examined the effects of 25 and 50mM NaCl doses on growth and nitrogen fixation parameters, as well as carbohydrate content and carbon metabolism of M. truncatula and L. japonicus nodules. The leghemoglobin (Lb) content and nitrogen fixation rate (NFR) were approximately 10.0 and 2.0 times higher, respectively, in nodules of L. japonicus when compared with M. truncatula. Plant growth parameters and nitrogenase activity decreased with NaCl treatments in both legumes. Sucrose was the predominant sugar quantified in nodules of both legumes, showing a decrease in concentration in response to salt stress. The content of trehalose was low (less than 2.5% of total soluble sugars (TSS)) to act as an osmolyte in nodules, despite its concentration being increased under saline conditions. Nodule enzyme activities of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalase (TRE) decreased with salinity. L. japonicus nodule carbon metabolism proved to be less sensitive to salinity than in M. truncatula, as enzymatic activities responsible for the carbon supply to the bacteroids to fuel nitrogen fixation, such as sucrose synthase (SS), alkaline invertase (AI), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), were less affected by salt than the corresponding activities in barrel medics. However, nitrogenase activity was only inhibited by salinity in L. japonicus nodules.

  1. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of strains nodulating Anthyllis vulneraria in mine tailings, and proposal of Aminobacter anthyllidis sp. nov., the first definition of Aminobacter as legume-nodulating bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maynaud, Géraldine; Willems, Anne; Soussou, Souhir; Vidal, Céline; Mauré, Lucette; Moulin, Lionel; Cleyet-Marel, Jean-Claude; Brunel, Brigitte

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial strains from Zn-Pb mine tailings were isolated by trapping with Anthyllis vulneraria, a legume-host suitable for mine substratum phytostabilisation. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and three housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK and recA) showed that they were related to those of the genus Aminobacter. DNA-DNA relatedness of representative isolates supported the placement of novel strains in Aminobacter as a new species. Phenotypic data emphasize their differentiation from the other related species of Aminobacter and Mesorhizobium. Aminobacter isolates exhibited nodA sequences tightly related with M. loti as the closest nodA relative. By contrast, their nodA sequences were highly divergent from those of M. metallidurans, another species associated with A. vulneraria that carries two complete copies of nodA. Therefore, the novel bacterial strains efficient on A. vulneraria represented the first occurrence of legume symbionts in the genus Aminobacter. They represent a new species for which the name Aminobacter anthyllidis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain STM4645(T)=LMG26462(T)=CFBP7437(T)). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Phylogenetic perspectives on the origins of nodulation.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Jeff J

    2011-11-01

    Recent refinements to the phylogeny of rosid angiosperms support the conclusion that nodulation has evolved several times in the so-called N(2)-fixing clade (NFC), and provide dates for these origins. The hypothesized predisposition that enabled the evolution of nodulation occurred approximately 100 million years ago (MYA), was retained in the various lineages that radiated rapidly shortly thereafter, and was functional in its non-nodulation role for at least an additional 30 million years in each nodulating lineage. Legumes radiated rapidly shortly after their origin approximately 60 MYA, and nodulation most likely evolved several times during this radiation. The major lineages of papilionoid legumes diverged close to the time of origin of nodulation, accounting for the diversity of nodule biology in the group. Nodulation symbioses exemplify the concept of "deep homology," sharing various homologous components across nonhomologous origins of nodulation, largely due to recruitment from existing functions, notably the older arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Although polyploidy may have played a role in the origin of papilionoid legume nodules, it did not do so in other legumes, nor did the prerosid whole-genome triplication lead directly to the predisposition of nodulation.

  3. Rhizobial acyl carrier proteins and their roles in the formation of bacterial cell-surface components that are required for the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules on legume hosts.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Otto; López-Lara, Isabel M

    2002-03-05

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) of Escherichia coli is a small acidic protein which functions as carrier of growing acyl chains during their biosynthesis and as donor of acyl chains during transfer to target molecules. This unique ACP of E. coli is expressed constitutively. In more complex bacteria, multiple ACPs are present, indicating a channeling of pools of multi-carbon units into different biosynthetic routes. In rhizobia, for example, besides the constitutive ACP (AcpP) involved in the biosynthesis and transfer of common fatty acids, three specialized ACPs have been reported: (1) the flavonoid-inducible nodulation protein NodF, (2) AcpXL that transfers 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid to a sugar backbone during lipid A biosynthesis, and (3) the RkpF protein which is required for the biosynthesis of rhizobial capsular polysaccharides. All three of those specialized rhizobial ACPs are required for the biosynthesis of cell-surface molecules that play a role in establishing the symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and their legume hosts. Surprisingly, the recently sequenced genomes from Mesorhizobium loti and Sinorhizobium meliloti suggest even more candidates for ACPs in rhizobia.

  4. Phytohormone regulation of legume-rhizobia interactions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brett J; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2014-07-01

    The symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria called rhizobia leads to the formation of root nodules. Nodules are highly organized root organs that form in response to Nod factors produced by rhizobia, and they provide rhizobia with a specialized niche to optimize nutrient exchange and nitrogen fixation. Nodule development and invasion by rhizobia is locally controlled by feedback between rhizobia and the plant host. In addition, the total number of nodules on a root system is controlled by a systemic mechanism termed 'autoregulation of nodulation'. Both the local and the systemic control of nodulation are regulated by phytohormones. There are two mechanisms by which phytohormone signalling is altered during nodulation: through direct synthesis by rhizobia and through indirect manipulation of the phytohormone balance in the plant, triggered by bacterial Nod factors. Recent genetic and physiological evidence points to a crucial role of Nod factor-induced changes in the host phytohormone balance as a prerequisite for successful nodule formation. Phytohormones synthesized by rhizobia enhance symbiosis effectiveness but do not appear to be necessary for nodule formation. This review provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the roles and interactions of phytohormones and signalling peptides in the regulation of nodule infection, initiation, positioning, development, and autoregulation. Future challenges remain to unify hormone-related findings across different legumes and to test whether hormone perception, response, or transport differences among different legumes could explain the variety of nodules types and the predisposition for nodule formation in this plant family. In addition, the molecular studies carried out under controlled conditions will need to be extended into the field to test whether and how phytohormone contributions by host and rhizobial partners affect the long term fitness of the host and the survival and

  5. Blue light does not inhibit nodulation in Sesbania rostrata.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hayashi, Makoto; Maymon, Maskit; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2017-01-02

    Earlier, we reported that root nodulation was inhibited by blue light irradiation of Lotus japonicus. Because some legumes do not establish nodules exclusively on underground roots, we investigated whether nodule formation in Sesbania rostrata, which forms both root and "stem" nodules following inoculation with Azorhizobium caulinodans, is inhibited by blue light as are L. japonicus nodules. We found that neither S. rostrata nodulation nor nitrogen fixation was inhibited by blue light exposure. Moreover, although A. caulinodans proliferation was not affected by blue light irradiation, bacterial survival was decreased. Therefore, blue light appears to impose different responses depending on the legume-rhizobial symbiosis.

  6. Evidence for carbon flux shortage and strong carbon/nitrogen interactions in pea nodules at early stages of water stress.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Loli; González, Esther M; Arrese-Igor, Cesar

    2005-09-01

    Symbiotic N2 fixation in legume nodules declines under a wide range of environmental stresses. A high correlation between N2 fixation decline and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) activity down-regulation has been reported, although it has still to be elucidated whether a causal relationship between SS activity down-regulation and N2 fixation decline can be established. In order to study the likely C/N interactions within nodules and the effects on N2 fixation, pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Sugar snap) were subjected to progressive water stress by withholding irrigation. Under these conditions, nodule SS activity declined concomitantly with apparent nitrogenase activity. The levels of UDP-glucose, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate decreased in water-stressed nodules compared with unstressed nodules. Drought also had a marked effect on nodule concentrations of malate, succinate, and alpha-ketoglutarate. Moreover, a general decline in nodule adenylate content was detected. NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42) was the only enzyme whose activity increased as a result of water deficit, compensating for a possible C/N imbalance and/or supplying NADPH in circumstances that the pentose phosphate pathway was impaired, as suggested by the decline in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) activity. The overall results show the occurrence of strong C/N interactions in nodules subjected to water stress and support a likely limitation of carbon flux that might be involved in the decline of N2 fixation under drought.

  7. Positioning the nodule, the hormone dictum

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yiliang

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a nitrogen-fixing nodule involves two diverse developmental processes in the legume root: infection thread initiation in epidermal cells and nodule primordia formation in the cortex. Several plant hormones have been reported to positively or negatively regulate nodulation. These hormones function at different stages in the nodulation process and may facilitate the coordinated development of the epidermal and cortical developmental programs that are necessary to allow bacterial infection into the developing nodule. In this paper, we review and discuss how the tissue specific nature of hormonal action dictates where, when and how a nodule is formed. PMID:19649179

  8. Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov., Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov., rhizobial species nodulating the medicinal legume Calliandra grandiflora.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Villalobos-Escobedo, José M; Rogel, Marco A; Martinez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2013-09-01

    Calliandra grandiflora has been used as a medicinal plant for thousands of years in Mexico. Rhizobial strains were obtained from root nodules of C. grandiflora collected from different geographical regions in Chiapas and characterized by BOX-PCR, amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Most isolates corresponded to members of the genus Rhizobium and those not related to species with validly published names were further characterized by recA, atpD, rpoB and nifH gene phylogenies, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Three novel related species of the genus Rhizobium within the 'Rhizobium tropici group' share the same symbiovar that may be named sv. calliandrae. The names proposed for the three novel species are Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE524(T) =ATCC BAA-2435(T) =CIP 110456(T) =LBP2-1(T)), Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE526(T) =ATCC BAA-2446(T) = CIP 110454(T) =NSJP1-1(T)) and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE525(T) =ATCC BAA-2445(T) =CIP 110453(T) =SJP1-2(T)).

  9. Fate map of Medicago truncatula root nodules.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ting Ting; Schilderink, Stefan; Moling, Sjef; Deinum, Eva E; Kondorosi, Eva; Franssen, Henk; Kulikova, Olga; Niebel, Andreas; Bisseling, Ton

    2014-09-01

    Legume root nodules are induced by N-fixing rhizobium bacteria that are hosted in an intracellular manner. These nodules are formed by reprogramming differentiated root cells. The model legume Medicago truncatula forms indeterminate nodules with a meristem at their apex. This organ grows by the activity of the meristem that adds cells to the different nodule tissues. In Medicago sativa it has been shown that the nodule meristem is derived from the root middle cortex. During nodule initiation, inner cortical cells and pericycle cells are also mitotically activated. However, whether and how these cells contribute to the mature nodule has not been studied. Here, we produce a nodule fate map that precisely describes the origin of the different nodule tissues based on sequential longitudinal sections and on the use of marker genes that allow the distinction of cells originating from different root tissues. We show that nodule meristem originates from the third cortical layer, while several cell layers of the base of the nodule are directly formed from cells of the inner cortical layers, root endodermis and pericycle. The latter two differentiate into the uninfected tissues that are located at the base of the mature nodule, whereas the cells derived from the inner cortical cell layers form about eight cell layers of infected cells. This nodule fate map has then been used to re-analyse several mutant nodule phenotypes. This showed, among other things, that intracellular release of rhizobia in primordium cells and meristem daughter cells are regulated in a different manner.

  10. LegumeIP: an integrative database for comparative genomics and transcriptomics of model legumes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Liu, Tingsong; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun

    2012-01-01

    Legumes play a vital role in maintaining the nitrogen cycle of the biosphere. They conduct symbiotic nitrogen fixation through endosymbiotic relationships with bacteria in root nodules. However, this and other characteristics of legumes, including mycorrhization, compound leaf development and profuse secondary metabolism, are absent in the typical model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We present LegumeIP (http://plantgrn.noble.org/LegumeIP/), an integrative database for comparative genomics and transcriptomics of model legumes, for studying gene function and genome evolution in legumes. LegumeIP compiles gene and gene family information, syntenic and phylogenetic context and tissue-specific transcriptomic profiles. The database holds the genomic sequences of three model legumes, Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus plus two reference plant species, A. thaliana and Populus trichocarpa, with annotations based on UniProt, InterProScan, Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. LegumeIP also contains large-scale microarray and RNA-Seq-based gene expression data. Our new database is capable of systematic synteny analysis across M. truncatula, G. max, L. japonicas and A. thaliana, as well as construction and phylogenetic analysis of gene families across the five hosted species. Finally, LegumeIP provides comprehensive search and visualization tools that enable flexible queries based on gene annotation, gene family, synteny and relative gene expression.

  11. Characteristics of bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of the leguminous tree Leucaena glauca.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hironobu; Koriyama, Hiroki; Osawa, Atsushi; Zehirov, Grigor; Yamaura, Masatoshi; Kucho, Ken-ichi; Abe, Mikiko; Higashi, Shiro; Kondorosi, Eva; Mergaert, Peter; Uchiumi, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Rhizobia establish symbiosis with legumes. Bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Inverted Repeat Lacking Clade (IRLC) legumes undergo terminal differentiation caused by Nodule-specific Cysteine-Rich peptides (NCRs). Microscopic observations of bacteroids and the detection of NCRs in indeterminate nodules of the non-IRLC legume Leucaena glauca were performed. A portion of the bacteroids showed moderate cell elongation, loss of membrane integrity, and multiple nucleoids. The symbiosome contained multiple bacteroids and NCR-like peptides were not detectable. These results indicate that bacteroid differentiation in L. glauca is different from that in IRLC legumes although both hosts form indeterminate nodules.

  12. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation is the result of a complex bacterial infection process, which depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial nodulation outer proteins (Nops)...

  13. Symbiosis specificity in the legume: rhizobial mutualism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Zhu, Hongyan

    2012-03-01

    Legume plants are able to engage in root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, collectively called rhizobia. This mutualistic association is highly specific, such that each rhizobial species/strain interacts with only a specific group of legumes, and vice versa. Symbiosis specificity can occur at multiple phases of the interaction, ranging from initial bacterial attachment and infection to late nodule development associated with nitrogen fixation. Genetic control of symbiosis specificity is complex, involving fine-tuned signal communication between the symbiotic partners. Here we review our current understanding of the mechanisms used by the host and bacteria to choose their symbiotic partners, with a special focus on the role that the host immunity plays in controlling the specificity of the legume - rhizobial symbiosis.

  14. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  15. A phytase gene is overexpressed in root nodules cortex of Phaseolus vulgaris-rhizobia symbiosis under phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lazali, Mohamed; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara; Amenc, Laurie; Ounane, Ghania; Abadie, Josiane; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2013-08-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for rhizobial symbioses to convert N2 into NH4 usable for N nutrition in legumes and N cycle in ecosystems. This N2 fixation process occurs in nodules with a high energy cost. Phytate is the major storage form of P and accounts for more than 50 % of the total P in seeds of cereals and legumes. The phytases, a group of enzymes widely distributed in plant and microorganisms, are able to hydrolyze a variety of inositol phosphates. Recently, phytase activity was discovered in nodules. However, the gene expression localization and its role in N2-fixing nodules are still unknown. In this work, two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), selected as contrasting for N2 fixation under P deficiency, namely RILs 115 (P-efficient) and 147 (P-inefficient) were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899, and grown under hydroaeroponic conditions with sufficient versus deficient P supply. With in situ RT-PCR methodology, we found that phytase transcripts were particularly abundant in the nodule cortex and infected zone of both RILs. Under P deficiency, phytase transcripts were significantly more abundant for RIL115 than for RIL147, and more in the outer cortex than in the infected zone. Additionally, the high expression of phytase among nodule tissues for the P-deficient RIL115 was associated with an increase in phytase (33 %) and phosphatase (49 %) activities and efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis (34 %). It is argued that phytase activity in nodules would contribute to the adaptation of the rhizobia-legume symbiosis to low-P environments.

  16. Strigolactones promote nodulation in pea.

    PubMed

    Foo, Eloise; Davies, Noel W

    2011-11-01

    Strigolactones are recently defined plant hormones with roles in mycorrhizal symbiosis and shoot and root architecture. Their potential role in controlling nodulation, the related symbiosis between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria, was explored using the strigolactone-deficient rms1 mutant in pea (Pisum sativum L.). This work indicates that endogenous strigolactones are positive regulators of nodulation in pea, required for optimal nodule number but not for nodule formation per se. rms1 mutant root exudates and root tissue are almost completely deficient in strigolactones, and rms1 mutant plants have approximately 40% fewer nodules than wild-type plants. Treatment with the synthetic strigolactone GR24 elevated nodule number in wild-type pea plants and also elevated nodule number in rms1 mutant plants to a level similar to that seen in untreated wild-type plants. Grafting studies revealed that nodule number and strigolactone levels in root tissue of rms1 roots were unaffected by grafting to wild-type scions indicating that strigolactones in the root, but not shoot-derived factors, regulate nodule number and provide the first direct evidence that the shoot does not make a major contribution to root strigolactone levels.

  17. Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew S; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity.

  18. Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Matthew S.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity. PMID:26191069

  19. Transcriptional networks leading to symbiotic nodule organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Soyano, Takashi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    The symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria leading to root nodules is a relatively recent evolutionary innovation and limited to a distinct order of land plants. It has long been a mystery how plants have invented this complex trait. However, recent advances in molecular genetics of model legumes has elucidated genes involved in the development of root nodules, providing insights into this process. Here we discuss how the de novo assembly of transcriptional networks may account for the predisposition to nodulate. Transcriptional networks and modes of gene regulation from the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, nitrate responses and aspects of lateral root development have likely all contributed to the emergence and development of root nodules.

  20. Nodulation competitiveness of Ensifer meliloti alfalfa nodule isolates and their potential for application as inoculants.

    PubMed

    Marek-Kozaczuk, Monika; Wielbo, Jerzy; Pawlik, Anna; Skorupska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a widely cultivated legume, which enters into nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) spp. In this study, an autochthonous rhizobial population of Ensifer sp. occupying alfalfa nodules grown in arable soil was used as the basis for selection of potential inoculants. Alfalfa nodule isolates were identified as Ensifer meliloti by partial 16S rDNA, recA, atpD and nodC nucleotide sequencing. The sampled isolates displayed different symbiotic performance and diversity in the number of plasmids and molecular weight. Isolates that were the most efficient in symbiotic nitrogen fixation were tagged with a constitutively expressed gusA gene carried by a stable plasmid vector pJBA21Tc and used in competition experiments in soil under greenhouse conditions. Two E. meliloti strains LU09 and LU12, which effectively competed with indigenous soil rhizobia, were selected. The metabolic profiles of these selected strains showed differences in the use of carbon and energy sources. In addition, the LU09 strain exhibited bacteriocin production and LU12 mineral phosphate solubilization, which are valuable traits for soil survival. These strains may be considered as potential biofertilizers for alfalfa cultivation.

  1. Rhizobia from wild legumes: diversity, taxonomy, ecology, nitrogen fixation and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zahran, H H

    2001-10-04

    Wild legumes (herb or tree) are widely distributed in arid regions and actively contribute to soil fertility in these environments. The N2-fixing activity and tolerance to drastic conditions may be higher in wild legumes than in crop legumes. The wild legumes in arid zones harbor diverse and promiscuous rhizobia in their root-nodules. Specificity existed only in few rhizobia from wild legumes, however, the majority of them are with wide host range. Based on phenotypic characteristics and molecular techniques (protein profiles, polysaccharides, plasmids, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16SrRNA, etc.), the root-nodule bacteria that was isolated from wild legumes had been classified into four genera (Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium). The rhizobia of wild legumes in arid zones, exhibit higher tolerance to the prevailing adverse conditions, e.g. salt stress, elevated temperatures and desiccation. These rhizobia may be used to inoculate wild, as well as, crop legumes, cultivated in reclaimed desert lands. Recent reports indicated that the wild-legume rhizobia formed successful symbioses with some grain legumes. Moreover, intercropping of some N2-fixing tree legumes (e.g. Lablab, Leucaena, Sesbania, etc.) to pasture grasses improved biomass yield and herb quality. In recent years, the rhizobia of wild legumes turn the attention of biotechnologists. These bacteria may have specific traits that can be transferred to other rhizobia through genetic engineering tools or used to produce industrially important compounds. Therefore, these bacteria are very important from both economic and environmental points of view.

  2. Genetics and mapping of quantitative traits for nodule number, weight, and size in soybean (Glycine max L. [Merr.])

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Legume studies, including soybean, have reported that nodule traits, especially nodule biomass, are associated with N2 fixation ability. Two genotypes, differing in nodule number and individual nodule weight, KS4895 and Jackson, were mated and used to create 97 F3- and F5-derived RILs. The populatio...

  3. Nodule characterization: subsolid nodules.

    PubMed

    Raad, Roy A; Suh, James; Harari, Saul; Naidich, David P; Shiau, Maria; Ko, Jane P

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the radiologic, clinical, and pathologic aspects primarily of solitary subsolid pulmonary nodules. Particular emphasis will be placed on the pathologic classification and correlative computed tomography (CT) features of adenocarcinoma of the lung. The capabilities of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT and histologic sampling techniques, including CT-guided biopsy, endoscopic-guided biopsy, and surgical resection, are discussed. Finally, recently proposed management guidelines by the Fleischner Society and the American College of Chest Physicians are reviewed.

  4. Molecular characterization and identification of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Mohsin; Hameed, Sohail; Yasmeen, Tahira; Zahid, Mehwish; Zafar, Marriam

    2014-02-01

    Root nodule accommodates various non-nodulating bacteria at varying densities. Present study was planned to identify and characterize the non-nodulating bacteria from the pea plant. Ten fast growing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of cultivated pea plants. These bacterial isolates were unable to nodulate pea plants in nodulation assay, which indicate the non-rhizobial nature of these bacteria. Bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for plant growth promoting properties including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, root colonization and biofilm formation. Six isolates were able to produce IAA at varying level from 0.86 to 16.16 μg ml(-1), with the isolate MSP9 being most efficient. Only two isolates, MSP2 and MSP10, were able to fix nitrogen. All isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphorus ranging from 5.57 to 11.73 μg ml(-1), except MSP4. Bacterial isolates showed considerably better potential for colonization on pea roots. Isolates MSP9 and MSP10 were most efficient in biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride, which indicated their potential to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas the remaining isolates showed a very poor biofilm formation ability. The most efficient plant growth promoting agents, MSP9 and MSP10, were phylogenetically identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Ochrobactrum and Enterobacter, respectively, with 99% similarity. It is suggested the potential endophytic bacterial strains, Ochrobactrum sp. MSP9 and Enterobacter sp. MSP10, can be used as biofertilizers for various legume and non-legume crops after studying their interaction with the host crop and field evaluation.

  5. Specificity in Legume-Rhizobia Symbioses.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Mitchell; Andrews, Morag E

    2017-03-26

    Most species in the Leguminosae (legume family) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N₂) via symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. Here, the literature on legume-rhizobia symbioses in field soils was reviewed and genotypically characterised rhizobia related to the taxonomy of the legumes from which they were isolated. The Leguminosae was divided into three sub-families, the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. Bradyrhizobium spp. were the exclusive rhizobial symbionts of species in the Caesalpinioideae, but data are limited. Generally, a range of rhizobia genera nodulated legume species across the two Mimosoideae tribes Ingeae and Mimoseae, but Mimosa spp. show specificity towards Burkholderia in central and southern Brazil, Rhizobium/Ensifer in central Mexico and Cupriavidus in southern Uruguay. These specific symbioses are likely to be at least in part related to the relative occurrence of the potential symbionts in soils of the different regions. Generally, Papilionoideae species were promiscuous in relation to rhizobial symbionts, but specificity for rhizobial genus appears to hold at the tribe level for the Fabeae (Rhizobium), the genus level for Cytisus (Bradyrhizobium), Lupinus (Bradyrhizobium) and the New Zealand native Sophora spp. (Mesorhizobium) and species level for Cicer arietinum (Mesorhizobium), Listia bainesii (Methylobacterium) and Listia angolensis (Microvirga). Specificity for rhizobial species/symbiovar appears to hold for Galega officinalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. officinalis), Galega orientalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. orientalis), Hedysarum coronarium (Rhizobium sullae), Medicago laciniata (Ensifer meliloti sv. medicaginis), Medicago rigiduloides (Ensifer meliloti sv. rigiduloides) and Trifolium ambiguum (Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii). Lateral gene transfer of specific symbiosis genes within rhizobial genera is an important mechanism allowing legumes to form symbioses with rhizobia adapted to particular soils

  6. Specificity in Legume-Rhizobia Symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Mitchell; Andrews, Morag E.

    2017-01-01

    Most species in the Leguminosae (legume family) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) via symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. Here, the literature on legume-rhizobia symbioses in field soils was reviewed and genotypically characterised rhizobia related to the taxonomy of the legumes from which they were isolated. The Leguminosae was divided into three sub-families, the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. Bradyrhizobium spp. were the exclusive rhizobial symbionts of species in the Caesalpinioideae, but data are limited. Generally, a range of rhizobia genera nodulated legume species across the two Mimosoideae tribes Ingeae and Mimoseae, but Mimosa spp. show specificity towards Burkholderia in central and southern Brazil, Rhizobium/Ensifer in central Mexico and Cupriavidus in southern Uruguay. These specific symbioses are likely to be at least in part related to the relative occurrence of the potential symbionts in soils of the different regions. Generally, Papilionoideae species were promiscuous in relation to rhizobial symbionts, but specificity for rhizobial genus appears to hold at the tribe level for the Fabeae (Rhizobium), the genus level for Cytisus (Bradyrhizobium), Lupinus (Bradyrhizobium) and the New Zealand native Sophora spp. (Mesorhizobium) and species level for Cicer arietinum (Mesorhizobium), Listia bainesii (Methylobacterium) and Listia angolensis (Microvirga). Specificity for rhizobial species/symbiovar appears to hold for Galega officinalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. officinalis), Galega orientalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. orientalis), Hedysarum coronarium (Rhizobium sullae), Medicago laciniata (Ensifer meliloti sv. medicaginis), Medicago rigiduloides (Ensifer meliloti sv. rigiduloides) and Trifolium ambiguum (Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii). Lateral gene transfer of specific symbiosis genes within rhizobial genera is an important mechanism allowing legumes to form symbioses with rhizobia adapted to particular soils

  7. Transcription profiling of soybean nodulation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Legumes interact with nodulating bacteria to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia for plant use. This nitrogen fixation takes place within root nodules that form after infection of root hairs by compatible rhizobium. Using cDNA microarrays, we monitored gene expression in soybean (Glycine max) ...

  8. Landmark Research in Legumes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Legumes are members of family Fabaceae or Leguminosae and include economically important grain legumes, oilseed crops, forage crops, shrubs and tropical or subtropical trees. Many legumes are rich source of quality protein for humans and animals and enrich the soil by producing their own nitrogen i...

  9. MucR Is Required for Transcriptional Activation of Conserved Ion Transporters to Support Nitrogen Fixation of Sinorhizobium fredii in Soybean Nodules.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian; Wu, Li Juan; Zhang, Biliang; Hu, Yue; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xing Xing; Guo, Hui Juan; Liu, Li Xue; Chen, Wen Xin; Zhang, Ziding; Tian, Chang Fu

    2016-05-01

    To achieve effective symbiosis with legume, rhizobia should fine-tune their background regulation network in addition to activating key genes involved in nodulation (nod) and nitrogen fixation (nif). Here, we report that an ancestral zinc finger regulator, MucR1, other than its paralog, MucR2, carrying a frameshift mutation, is essential for supporting nitrogen fixation of Sinorhizobium fredii CCBAU45436 within soybean nodules. In contrast to the chromosomal mucR1, mucR2 is located on symbiosis plasmid, indicating its horizontal transfer potential. A MucR2 homolog lacking the frameshift mutation, such as the one from S. fredii NGR234, can complement phenotypic defects of the mucR1 mutant of CCBAU45436. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the MucR1 regulon of CCBAU45436 within nodules exhibits significant difference compared with that of free-living cells. MucR1 is required for active expression of transporters for phosphate, zinc, and elements essential for nitrogenase activity (iron, molybdenum, and sulfur) in nodules but is dispensable for transcription of key genes (nif/fix) involved in nitrogen fixation. Further reverse genetics suggests that S. fredii uses high-affinity transporters to meet the demand for zinc and phosphate within nodules. These findings, together with the horizontal transfer potential of the mucR homolog, imply an intriguing evolutionary role of this ancestral regulator in supporting nitrogen fixation.

  10. Selection and characterization of coal mine autochthonous rhizobia for the inoculation of herbaceous legumes.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Anabel González; de Moura, Ginaini Doin; Binati, Renato Leal; Nascimento, Francisco Xavier Inês; Londoño, Diana Morales; Mamede, Ana Carolina Peixoto; da Silva, Emanuela Pille; de Armas, Rafael Dutra; Giachini, Admir José; Rossi, Márcio José; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2017-04-05

    Coal open pit mining in the South of Santa Catarina state (Brazil) was inappropriately developed, affecting approximately 6.700 ha. Re-vegetation is an alternative for the recovery of these areas. Furthermore, the use of herbaceous legumes inoculated with nitrogen fixing bacteria is motivated due to the difficulty implementing a vegetation cover in these areas, mainly due to low nutrient availability. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate, among 16 autochthonous rhizobia isolated from the coal mining areas, those with the greatest potential to increase growth of the herbaceous legumes Vicia sativa and Calopogonium mucunoides. Tests were conducted in greenhouse containing 17 inoculation treatments (16 autochthonous rhizobia + Brazilian recommended strain for each plant species), plus two treatments without inoculation (with and without mineral nitrogen). After 60 days, nodulation, growth, N uptake, and symbiotic efficiency were evaluated. Isolates characterization was assessed by the production of indole acetic acid, ACC deaminase, siderophores, and inorganic phosphate solubilization. The classification of the isolates was performed by 16 S rDNA gene sequencing. Only isolates UFSC-M4 and UFSC-M8 were able to nodulate C. mucunoides. Among rhizobia capable of nodulating V. sativa, only UFSC-M8 was considered efficient. It was found the presence of more than one growth-promoting attributes in the same organism, and isolate UFSC-M8 presented all of them. Isolates were classified as belonging to Rhizobium, Burkholderia and Curtobacterium. The results suggest the inoculation of Vicia sativa with strain UFSC-M8, classified as Rhizobium sp., as a promising alternative for the revegetation of coal mining degraded areas.

  11. NPR1 Protein Regulates Pathogenic and Symbiotic Interactions between Rhizobium and Legumes and Non-Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Background Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. Conclusions/Significance We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes. PMID:20027302

  12. Search for Nodulation and Nodule Development-Related Cystatin Genes in the Genome of Soybean (Glycine max)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Songli; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Haifeng; Zhang, Chanjuan; Chen, Limiao; Hao, Qingnan; Shan, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Shuilian; Yang, Zhonglu; Qiu, Dezhen; Zhou, Xinan

    2016-01-01

    Nodulation, nodule development and senescence directly affects nitrogen fixation efficiency, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of some cysteine proteases delay nodule senescence, so their nature inhibitors, cystatin genes, are very important in nodulation, nodule development, and senescence. Although several cystatins are actively transcribed in soybean nodules, their exact roles and functional diversities in legume have not been well explored in genome-wide survey studies. In this report, we performed a genome-wide survey of cystatin family genes to explore their relationship to nodulation and nodule development in soybean and identified 20 cystatin genes that encode peptides with 97–245 amino acid residues, different isoelectric points (pI) and structure characteristics, and various putative plant regulatory elements in 3000 bp putative promoter fragments upstream of the 20 soybean cystatins in response to different abiotic/biotic stresses, hormone signals, and symbiosis signals. The expression profiles of these cystatin genes in soybean symbiosis with rhizobium strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2 revealed that 7 cystatin family genes play different roles in nodulation as well as nodule development and senescence. However, these genes were not root nodule symbiosis (RNS)—specific and did not encode special clade cystatin protein with structures related to nodulation and nodule development. Besides, only two of these soybean cystatins were not upregulated in symbiosis after ABA treatment. The functional analysis showed that a candidate gene Glyma.15G227500 (GmCYS16) was likely to play a positive role in soybean nodulation. Besides, evolutionary relationships analysis divided the cystatin genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, rice, barley and four legume plants into three groups. Interestingly, Group A cystatins are special in legume plants, but only include one of the above-mentioned 7 cystatin genes related to nodulation

  13. Search for Nodulation and Nodule Development-Related Cystatin Genes in the Genome of Soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songli; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Haifeng; Zhang, Chanjuan; Chen, Limiao; Hao, Qingnan; Shan, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Shuilian; Yang, Zhonglu; Qiu, Dezhen; Zhou, Xinan

    2016-01-01

    Nodulation, nodule development and senescence directly affects nitrogen fixation efficiency, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of some cysteine proteases delay nodule senescence, so their nature inhibitors, cystatin genes, are very important in nodulation, nodule development, and senescence. Although several cystatins are actively transcribed in soybean nodules, their exact roles and functional diversities in legume have not been well explored in genome-wide survey studies. In this report, we performed a genome-wide survey of cystatin family genes to explore their relationship to nodulation and nodule development in soybean and identified 20 cystatin genes that encode peptides with 97-245 amino acid residues, different isoelectric points (pI) and structure characteristics, and various putative plant regulatory elements in 3000 bp putative promoter fragments upstream of the 20 soybean cystatins in response to different abiotic/biotic stresses, hormone signals, and symbiosis signals. The expression profiles of these cystatin genes in soybean symbiosis with rhizobium strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2 revealed that 7 cystatin family genes play different roles in nodulation as well as nodule development and senescence. However, these genes were not root nodule symbiosis (RNS)-specific and did not encode special clade cystatin protein with structures related to nodulation and nodule development. Besides, only two of these soybean cystatins were not upregulated in symbiosis after ABA treatment. The functional analysis showed that a candidate gene Glyma.15G227500 (GmCYS16) was likely to play a positive role in soybean nodulation. Besides, evolutionary relationships analysis divided the cystatin genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, rice, barley and four legume plants into three groups. Interestingly, Group A cystatins are special in legume plants, but only include one of the above-mentioned 7 cystatin genes related to nodulation and

  14. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... has grown Another possible treatment is an ethanol (alcohol) injection into the nodule to shrink ... Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, ...

  15. Manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Harff, Jan; Petersen, Sven; Thiede, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    The existence of manganese (Mn) nodules (Fig. 1) has been known since the late 1800s when they were collected during the Challenger expedition of 1873–1876. However, it was not until after WWII that nodules were further studied in detail for their ability to adsorb metals from seawater. Many of the early studies did not distinguish Mn nodules from Mn crusts. Economic interest in Mn nodules began in the late 1950s and early 1960s when John Mero finished his Ph.D. thesis on this subject, which was published...

  16. Growth and foliar nitrogen concentrations of interplanted native woody legumes and pecan

    Treesearch

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; Kenneth L. Hunt

    2008-01-01

    The interplanting and underplanting of nodulated nitrogen-fixing plants in tree plantings can increase early growth and foliage nitrogen content of hardwoods, especially black walnut and pecan. Recent studies have demonstrated that some non-nodulated woody legumes may be capable of fixing significant levels of atmospheric nitrogen. The following nine nurse crop...

  17. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  18. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  19. Flooding tolerance of forage legumes.

    PubMed

    Striker, Gustavo G; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-06-20

    We review waterlogging and submergence tolerances of forage (pasture) legumes. Growth reductions from waterlogging in perennial species ranged from >50% for Medicago sativa and Trifolium pratense to <25% for Lotus corniculatus, L. tenuis, and T. fragiferum For annual species, waterlogging reduced Medicago truncatula by ~50%, whereas Melilotus siculus and T. michelianum were not reduced. Tolerant species have higher root porosity (gas-filled volume in tissues) owing to aerenchyma formation. Plant dry mass (waterlogged relative to control) had a positive (hyperbolic) relationship to root porosity across eight species. Metabolism in hypoxic roots was influenced by internal aeration. Sugars accumulate in M. sativa due to growth inhibition from limited respiration and low energy in roots of low porosity (i.e. 4.5%). In contrast, L. corniculatus, with higher root porosity (i.e. 17.2%) and O2 supply allowing respiration, maintained growth better and sugars did not accumulate. Tolerant legumes form nodules, and internal O2 diffusion along roots can sustain metabolism, including N2 fixation, in submerged nodules. Shoot physiology depends on species tolerance. In M. sativa, photosynthesis soon declines and in the longer term (>10 d) leaves suffer chlorophyll degradation, damage, and N, P, and K deficiencies. In tolerant L corniculatus and L. tenuis, photosynthesis is maintained longer, shoot N is less affected, and shoot P can even increase during waterlogging. Species also differ in tolerance of partial and complete shoot submergence. Gaps in knowledge include anoxia tolerance of roots, N2 fixation during field waterlogging, and identification of traits conferring the ability to recover after water subsides.

  20. Nodulation of Cyclopia spp. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) by Burkholderia tuberum

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Geoffrey N.; Chen, Wen-Ming; Bontemps, Cyril; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Young, J. Peter W.; Sprent, Janet I.; James, Euan K.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Species of the genus Burkholderia, from the Betaproteobacteria, have been isolated from legume nodules, but so far they have only been shown to form symbioses with species of Mimosa, sub-family Mimosoideae. This work investigates whether Burkholderia tuberum strains STM678 (isolated from Aspalathus carnosa) and DUS833 (from Aspalathus callosa) can nodulate species of the South African endemic papilionoid genera Cyclopia (tribe Podalyrieae) and Aspalathus (Crotalarieae) as well as the promiscuous legume Macroptilium atropurpureum (Phaseoleae). Method Bacterial strains and the phylogeny of their symbiosis-related (nod) genes were examined via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Seedlings were grown in liquid culture and inoculated with one of the two strains of B. tuberum or with Sinorhizobium strain NGR 234 (from Lablab purpureus), Mesorhizobium strain DUS835 (from Aspalathus linearis) or Methylobacterium nodulans (from Crotalaria podocarpa). Some nodules, inoculated with green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged strains, were examined by light and electron microscopy coupled with immunogold labelling with a Burkholderia-specific antibody. The presence of active nitrogenase was checked by immunolabelling of nitrogenase and by the acetylene reduction assay. B. tuberum STM678 was also tested on a wide range of legumes from all three sub-families. Key Results Nodules were not formed on any of the Aspalathus spp. Only B. tuberum nodulated Cyclopia falcata, C. galioides, C. genistoides, C. intermedia and C. pubescens. It also effectively nodulated M. atropurpureum but no other species tested. GFP-expressing inoculant strains were located inside infected cells of C. genistoides, and bacteroids in both Cyclopia spp. and M. atropurpureum were immunogold-labelled with antibodies against Burkholderia and nitrogenase. Nitrogenase activity was also shown using the acetylene reduction assay. This is the first demonstration that a β-rhizobial strain can effectively

  1. Host legume-exuded antimetabolites optimize the symbiotic rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tao; Cai, Wentong; Zhang, Jiang; Zheng, Huiming; Tsou, Amy M; Xiao, Lin; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

    2009-08-01

    Rhizobia form symbiotic nodules on host legumes and fix nitrogen for their hosts in exchange for nutrients. In order to establish this mutually beneficial relationship, rhizobia must compete with other soil bacteria in the host legume rhizosphere to colonize plant roots efficiently. A promoter-trap transposon screen in Mesorhizobium tianshanense, a Rhizobium that forms nodules on licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) plants revealed that the expression of msiA, which encodes a putative exporter protein belonging to the LysE family of translocators, is activated by both legume exudates and MsiR, a LysR family transcriptional regulator. Chemical analysis suggests that the msiA-inducing signal in exudates is canavanine, an anti-metabolite present in the seeds and exudates of a variety of legume plants. We show that MsiA serves as a canavanine exporter that is indispensable for canavanine resistance in M. tianshanense. We also show that the expression of MsiA homologues in other rhizobial species is induced by canavanine and is critical for canavanine resistance. Furthermore, rhizobial canavanine resistance is important for root hair adherence as well as for survival in a canavanine-producing legume rhizosphere. Together, these data suggest that host legumes may exude specific antimetabolites into their surroundings to optimize the bacterial population in order to have successful symbiotic events with rhizobia.

  2. [Genetic diversity of rhizobia isolated from common legumes in the Karst area. Northwest Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; He, Xun-yang; Xie, Qiang; Wang, Ke-lin

    2015-12-01

    Legumes, with a strong resistance to the adverse environmental conditions, are pioneer plants in degraded habitats, and play an important role in ecosystem restoration. In this study, the nodulation characteristics of 24 legumes were surveyed in the Karst area of Northwest Guangxi. A total of 39 nodule samples were collected from 15 legumes, the DNA was extracted and the 16S rDNA and nifH gene were amplified. A phylogenetic tree was then constructed to analyze the genetic diversity of rhizobia. The results showed that 15 legumes were nodulated, of which 14 belonged to the Papilionoideae, one to the Mimosaceae, and none to the Caesalpinoideae. No nodules were found on some legumes that were reported as nodulated, which might result from soil water stress in Karst. BLAST result and phylogenetic analyse indicated that most of the legumes were associated with rhizobia that belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium, with the exception of two samples from Callerya nitida that were associated with the genus Mesorhizobium. In the phylogenetic tree, the sequences obtained from the same plot or the sequences from the same host species clustered together in most cases. This finding suggested that host selection and the ecological environment are the major factors that influence the genotype of rhizobia.

  3. Leguminous plants: inventors of root nodules to accommodate symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Takuya; Yoro, Emiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Legumes and a few other plant species can establish a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, which enables them to survive in a nitrogen-deficient environment. During the course of nodulation, infection with rhizobia induces the dedifferentiation of host cells to form primordia of a symbiotic organ, the nodule, which prepares plants to accommodate rhizobia in host cells. While these nodulation processes are known to be genetically controlled by both plants and rhizobia, recent advances in studies on two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, have provided great insight into the underlying plant-side molecular mechanism. In this chapter, we review such knowledge, with particular emphasis on two key processes of nodulation, nodule development and rhizobial invasion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Harff, Jan; Petersen, Sven; Thiede, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    The existence of manganese (Mn) nodules (Figure 1) has been known since the late 1800s when they were collected during the Challenger expedition of 1873–1876. However, it was not until after WWII that nodules were further studied in detail for their ability to adsorb metals from seawater. Many of the early studies did not distinguish Mn nodules from Mn crusts. Economic interest in Mn nodules began in the late 1950s and early 1960s when John Mero finished his Ph.D. thesis on this subject, which was published in the journal Economic Geology (Mero, 1962) and later as a book (Mero, 1965). By the mid-1970s, large consortia had formed to search for and mine Mn nodules that occur between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones (CCZ) in the NE Pacific (Figure 2). This is still the area considered of greatest economic potential in the global ocean because of high nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and Mn contents and the dense distribution of nodules in the area. While the mining of nodules was fully expected to begin in the late 1970s or early 1980s, this never occurred due to a downturn in the price of metals on the global market. Since then, many research cruises have been undertaken to study the CCZ nodules, and now 15 contracts for exploration sites have been given or are pending by the International Seabed Authority (ISA). Many books and science journal articles have been published summarizing the early work (e.g., Baturin, 1988; Halbach et al., 1988), and research has continued to the present day (e.g., ISA, 1999; ISA, 2010). Although the initial attraction for nodules was their high Ni, Cu, and Mn contents, subsequent work has shown that nodules host large quantities of other critical metals needed for high-tech, green-tech, and energy applications (Hein et al., 2013; Hein and Koschinsky, 2014).

  5. Legumes, N2 fixation and the H2 cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layzell, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    Legume plants such as soybean or pea can form symbiotic, N2 fixing associations with bacteria that exist in root nodules. For every N2 fixed, 1 to 3 H2 are produced as a by-product of the nitrogenase reaction. Therefore, a typical N2 fixing legume crop produces about 200,000 L H2 gas (at STP) per hectare per crop season. This paper will summarize our current understanding of the processes leading to H2 production in legumes, the magnitude of H2 production associated with global cropping systems, and the implications for its production and oxidation on both the legumes and the soils in which they grow. Specific points may include: ˜ In symbioses lacking uptake hydrogenase (HUP) activity (thought to be the majority of crop legumes), the H2 diffuses into the soil where it is oxidized by soil microbes that grow up around the legume nodules. The kinetic properties of these microbes are very different (higher Km and Vmax) from that of microbes in soils exposed to normal air (ca. 0.5 ppm H2); ˜ Laboratory studies indicate that 60% of the reducing power from H2 is coupled to O2 uptake, whereas 40% is coupled to autotrophic CO2 fixation. The latter process should increase soil carbon stocks by about 25 kg C/ha/yr; ˜ At the site of the nitrogenase enzyme, H2 production is autocatalytic such that the higher the H2 concentration, the more H2 is produced and the less N2 fixed. The variable O2 diffusion barrier in legumes can act to restrict H2 diffusion from the nodule, thereby increasing the relative magnitude of H2 production versus N2 fixation; ˜ Studies to understand why legume symbioses make such an energy investment in H2 production have led to the discovery that H2 treated soils have improved fertility, supporting the growth and yield of legume and non-legume crops. This observation may account for the benefits of legumes when used in rotation with cereal crops, a phenomenon that has been used by farmers for over 2000 years, but which has remained unexplained. An

  6. Differentially expressed genes in mycorrhized and nodulated roots of common bean are associated with defense, cell wall architecture, N metabolism, and P metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Brenda-Mariana; Blanco, Lourdes; Lara, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Legumes participate in two important endosymbiotic associations, with phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM, soil fungi) and with nitrogen-fixing bacterial rhizobia. These divergent symbionts share a common symbiotic signal transduction pathway that facilitates the establishment of mycorrhization and nodulation in legumes. However, the unique and shared downstream genes essential for AM and nodule development have not been identified in crop legumes. Here, we used ion torrent next-generation sequencing to perform comparative transcriptomics of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots colonized by AM or rhizobia. We analyzed global gene expression profiles to identify unique and shared differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that regulate these two symbiotic interactions, and quantitatively compared DEG profiles. We identified 3,219 (1,959 upregulated and 1,260 downregulated) and 2,645 (1,247 upregulated and 1,398 downregulated) unigenes that were differentially expressed in response to mycorrhizal or rhizobial colonization, respectively, compared with uninoculated roots. We obtained quantitative expression profiles of unique and shared genes involved in processes related to defense, cell wall structure, N metabolism, and P metabolism in mycorrhized and nodulated roots. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that most genes involved in jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling, N metabolism, and inositol phosphate metabolism are variably expressed during symbiotic interactions. These combined data provide valuable information on symbiotic gene signaling networks that respond to mycorrhizal and rhizobial colonization, and serve as a guide for future genetic strategies to enhance P uptake and N-fixing capacity to increase the net yield of this valuable grain legume. PMID:28771548

  7. Differentially expressed genes in mycorrhized and nodulated roots of common bean are associated with defense, cell wall architecture, N metabolism, and P metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Gómez, Brenda-Mariana; Blanco, Lourdes; Lara, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Legumes participate in two important endosymbiotic associations, with phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM, soil fungi) and with nitrogen-fixing bacterial rhizobia. These divergent symbionts share a common symbiotic signal transduction pathway that facilitates the establishment of mycorrhization and nodulation in legumes. However, the unique and shared downstream genes essential for AM and nodule development have not been identified in crop legumes. Here, we used ion torrent next-generation sequencing to perform comparative transcriptomics of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots colonized by AM or rhizobia. We analyzed global gene expression profiles to identify unique and shared differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that regulate these two symbiotic interactions, and quantitatively compared DEG profiles. We identified 3,219 (1,959 upregulated and 1,260 downregulated) and 2,645 (1,247 upregulated and 1,398 downregulated) unigenes that were differentially expressed in response to mycorrhizal or rhizobial colonization, respectively, compared with uninoculated roots. We obtained quantitative expression profiles of unique and shared genes involved in processes related to defense, cell wall structure, N metabolism, and P metabolism in mycorrhized and nodulated roots. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that most genes involved in jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling, N metabolism, and inositol phosphate metabolism are variably expressed during symbiotic interactions. These combined data provide valuable information on symbiotic gene signaling networks that respond to mycorrhizal and rhizobial colonization, and serve as a guide for future genetic strategies to enhance P uptake and N-fixing capacity to increase the net yield of this valuable grain legume.

  8. Phytosulfokine Is Involved in Positive Regulation of Lotus japonicus Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Haixiang; Zhang, Zhongming; Yu, Liangliang; Xu, Xiaoshu; Hong, Zonglie; Luo, Li

    2015-08-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a tyrosine-sulfated peptide that is widely distributed in plants, participating in cell proliferation, differentiation, and innate immunity. The potential role of PSK in nodulation in legumes has not been reported. In this work, five PSK precursor genes were identified in Lotus japonicas, designated as LjPSK1 to LjPSK5. Three of them (LjPSK1, LjPSK4, and LjPSK5) were found to be expressed in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. LjPSK1 and LjPSK4 were not induced at the early stage of nodulation. Interestingly, while the expression of LjPSK4 was also found in spontaneous nodules without rhizobial colonization, LjPSK1 was not induced in these pseudo nodules. Promoter-β-glucuronidase analysis revealed that LjPSK1 was highly expressed in enlarged symbiotic cells of nodules. Exogenous addition of 1 1M synthetic PSK peptide resulted in increased nodule numbers per plant. Consistently, the number of mature nodules but not the events of rhizobial infection and nodule initiation was increased by overexpressing LjPSK1 in transgenic hairy roots, in which the expression of jasmonate-responsive genes was found to be repressed. These results suggest that PSK is a new peptide signal that regulates nodulation in legumes, probably through cross-talking with other phytohormones.

  9. [Milker's nodules].

    PubMed

    Hansen, S K; Mertz, H; Krogdahl, A S; Veien, N K

    1997-01-20

    Milker's nodule is a parapox virus infection seen mostly on the hands of dairy farmers. We saw 15 cases over a period of two years in the County of North Jutland. Clinically, milker's nodule goes through a papular, a nodular and a crusted stage. Most patients were seen when the infection was in the nodular stage, an often painful condition requiring treatment. Three patients developed an erythema multiformelike secondary eruption. Lesions from nine patients were removed for histological examination. The histology of all lesions was consistent with milker's nodule. In three of seven patients parapox virus was demonstrated by electron microscopy. Treatment was commonly curettage followed by cauterization.

  10. Gibberellins Are Involved in Nodulation of Sesbania rostrata1

    PubMed Central

    Lievens, Sam; Goormachtig, Sofie; Den Herder, Jeroen; Capoen, Ward; Mathis, René; Hedden, Peter; Holsters, Marcelle

    2005-01-01

    Upon submergence, Azorhizobium caulinodans infects the semiaquatic legume Sesbania rostrata via the intercellular crack entry process, resulting in lateral root-based nodules. A gene encoding a gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase, SrGA20ox1, involved in GA biosynthesis, was transiently up-regulated during lateral root base nodulation. Two SrGA20ox1 expression patterns were identified, one related to intercellular infection and a second observed in nodule meristem descendants. The infection-related expression pattern depended on bacterially produced nodulation (Nod) factors. Pharmacological studies demonstrated that GAs were involved in infection pocket and infection thread formation, two Nod factor-dependent events that initiate lateral root base nodulation, and that they were also needed for nodule primordium development. Moreover, GAs inhibited the root hair curling process. These results show that GAs are Nod factor downstream signals for nodulation in hydroponic growth. PMID:16258018

  11. Root developmental programs shape the Medicago truncatula nodule meristem.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Henk J; Xiao, Ting Ting; Kulikova, Olga; Wan, Xi; Bisseling, Ton; Scheres, Ben; Heidstra, Renze

    2015-09-01

    Nodules on the roots of legume plants host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Several lines of evidence indicate that nodules are evolutionarily related to roots. We determined whether developmental control of the Medicago truncatula nodule meristem bears resemblance to that in root meristems through analyses of root meristem-expressed PLETHORA genes. In nodules, MtPLETHORA 1 and 2 are preferentially expressed in cells positioned at the periphery of the meristem abutting nodule vascular bundles. Their expression overlaps with an auxin response maximum and MtWOX5, which is a marker for the root quiescent center. Strikingly, the cells in the central part of the nodule meristem have a high level of cytokinin and display MtPLETHORA 3 and 4 gene expression. Nodule-specific knockdown of MtPLETHORA genes results in a reduced number of nodules and/or in nodules in which meristem activity has ceased. Our nodule gene expression map indicates that the nodule meristem is composed of two distinct domains in which different MtPLETHORA gene subsets are expressed. Our mutant studies show that MtPLETHORA genes function redundantly in nodule meristem maintenance. This indicates that Rhizobium has recruited root developmental programs for nodule formation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Diverse Bacteria Affiliated with the Genera Microvirga, Phyllobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium Nodulate Lupinus micranthus Growing in Soils of Northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Msaddak, Abdelhakim; Durán, David; Rejili, Mokhtar; Mars, Mohamed; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Imperial, Juan; Palacios, José; Rey, Luis

    2017-03-15

    The genetic diversity of bacterial populations nodulating Lupinus micranthus in five geographical sites from northern Tunisia was examined. Phylogenetic analyses of 50 isolates based on partial sequences of recA and gyrB grouped strains into seven clusters, five of which belong to the genus Bradyrhizobium (28 isolates), one to Phyllobacterium (2 isolates), and one, remarkably, to Microvirga (20 isolates). The largest Bradyrhizobium cluster (17 isolates) grouped with the B. lupini species, and the other five clusters were close to different recently defined Bradyrhizobium species. Isolates close to Microvirga were obtained from nodules of plants from four of the five sites sampled. We carried out an in-depth phylogenetic study with representatives of the seven clusters using sequences from housekeeping genes (rrs, recA, glnII, gyrB, and dnaK) and obtained consistent results. A phylogeny based on the sequence of the symbiotic gene nodC identified four groups, three formed by Bradyrhizobium isolates and one by the Microvirga and Phyllobacterium isolates. Symbiotic behaviors of the representative strains were tested, and some congruence between symbiovars and symbiotic performance was observed. These data indicate a remarkable diversity of L. micranthus root nodule symbionts in northern Tunisia, including strains from the Bradyrhizobiaceae, Methylobacteriaceae, and Phyllobacteriaceae families, in contrast with those of the rhizobial populations nodulating lupines in the Old World, including L. micranthus from other Mediterranean areas, which are nodulated mostly by Bradyrhizobium strains.IMPORTANCELupinus micranthus is a legume broadly distributed in the Mediterranean region and plays an important role in soil fertility and vegetation coverage by fixing nitrogen and solubilizing phosphate in semiarid areas. Direct sowing to extend the distribution of this indigenous legume can contribute to the prevention of soil erosion in pre-Saharan lands of Tunisia. However

  13. Diverse Bacteria Affiliated with the Genera Microvirga, Phyllobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium Nodulate Lupinus micranthus Growing in Soils of Northern Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Msaddak, Abdelhakim; Durán, David; Rejili, Mokhtar; Mars, Mohamed; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Imperial, Juan; Palacios, José

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic diversity of bacterial populations nodulating Lupinus micranthus in five geographical sites from northern Tunisia was examined. Phylogenetic analyses of 50 isolates based on partial sequences of recA and gyrB grouped strains into seven clusters, five of which belong to the genus Bradyrhizobium (28 isolates), one to Phyllobacterium (2 isolates), and one, remarkably, to Microvirga (20 isolates). The largest Bradyrhizobium cluster (17 isolates) grouped with the B. lupini species, and the other five clusters were close to different recently defined Bradyrhizobium species. Isolates close to Microvirga were obtained from nodules of plants from four of the five sites sampled. We carried out an in-depth phylogenetic study with representatives of the seven clusters using sequences from housekeeping genes (rrs, recA, glnII, gyrB, and dnaK) and obtained consistent results. A phylogeny based on the sequence of the symbiotic gene nodC identified four groups, three formed by Bradyrhizobium isolates and one by the Microvirga and Phyllobacterium isolates. Symbiotic behaviors of the representative strains were tested, and some congruence between symbiovars and symbiotic performance was observed. These data indicate a remarkable diversity of L. micranthus root nodule symbionts in northern Tunisia, including strains from the Bradyrhizobiaceae, Methylobacteriaceae, and Phyllobacteriaceae families, in contrast with those of the rhizobial populations nodulating lupines in the Old World, including L. micranthus from other Mediterranean areas, which are nodulated mostly by Bradyrhizobium strains. IMPORTANCE Lupinus micranthus is a legume broadly distributed in the Mediterranean region and plays an important role in soil fertility and vegetation coverage by fixing nitrogen and solubilizing phosphate in semiarid areas. Direct sowing to extend the distribution of this indigenous legume can contribute to the prevention of soil erosion in pre-Saharan lands of Tunisia

  14. Forage legumes - untrapped resource

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Legumes are important in nutrition, nitrogen fixation and in reducing dependence on nitrogen fertilizers. At a meeting between scientists from Australia, New Zealand and the United States the role of legumes was assessed and coordinated research programs set up to deal with problems such as disease, soil, climate and selective breeding.

  15. Relationship between photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antolín, M Carmen; Fiasconaro, M Laura; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-10-15

    Sewage sludge has been used as N fertilizer because it contains some of inorganic N, principally as nitrate and ammonium ions. However, sewage sludge addition to legumes could result in impaired nodule metabolism due to the presence of inorganic N from sludge. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effects of sewage sludge on growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón). Plants were grown in pots with a mixture of perlite and vermiculite (2:1, v/v). The experiment included three treatments: (1) plants inoculated with rhizobia and amended with sewage sludge at rate of 10% (w/w) (RS); (2) plants inoculated with rhizobia without any amendment (R); and (3) non-inoculated plants fed with ammonium nitrate (N). N(2)-fixing plants had lower growth and sucrose phosphate synthase activity but higher photosynthesis than nitrate-fed plants because they compensated the carbon cost of the rhizobia. However, sewage sludge-treated plants evidenced a loss of carbon sink strength due to N(2) fixation by means of decreased photosynthetic capacity, leaf chlorophylls and N concentration in comparison to untreated plants. Sewage sludge did no affect nodulation but decreased nodule enzyme activities involved in carbon and N metabolisms that may lead to accumulation of toxic N-compounds.

  16. Soybean root nodule acid phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Penheiter, A R; Duff, S M; Sarath, G

    1997-01-01

    Acid phosphatases are ubiquitous enzymes that exhibit activity against a variety of substrates in vitro, although little is known about their intracellular function. In this study, we report the isolation, characterization, and partial sequence of the major acid phosphatase from soybean (Glycine max L.) root nodules. The phosphatase was purified predominantly as a heterodimer with subunits of 28 and 31 kD; homodimers of both subunits were also observed and exhibited phosphatase activity. In addition to the general phosphatase substrate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, the heterodimeric form of the enzyme readily hydrolyzed 5'-nucleotides, flavin mononucleotide, and O-phospho-L-Tyr. Low or negligible activity was observed with ATP or polyphosphate. Purified nodule acid phosphatase was stimulated by magnesium, inhibited by calcium and EDTA, and competitively inhibited by cGMP and cAMP with apparent Ki values of 7 and 12 microM, respectively. Partial N-terminal and internal sequencing of the nodule acid phosphatase revealed homology to the soybean vegetative storage proteins. There was a 17-fold increase in enzyme activity and a noticeable increase in protein levels detected by immunoblotting methods during nodule development. Both of these parameters were low in young nodules and reached a peak in mature, functional nodules, suggesting that this enzyme is important for efficient nodule metabolism. PMID:9193092

  17. A functional-structural modelling approach to autoregulation of nodulation.

    PubMed

    Han, Liqi; Gresshoff, Peter M; Hanan, Jim

    2011-04-01

    Autoregulation of nodulation is a long-distance shoot-root signalling regulatory system that regulates nodule meristem proliferation in legume plants. However, due to the intricacy and subtleness of the signalling nature in plants, molecular and biochemical details underlying mechanisms of autoregulation of nodulation remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to use functional-structural plant modelling to investigate the complexity of this signalling system. There are two major challenges to be met: modelling the 3D architecture of legume roots with nodulation and co-ordinating signalling-developmental processes with various rates. Soybean (Glycine max) was chosen as the target legume. Its root system was observed to capture lateral root branching and nodule distribution patterns. L-studio, a software tool supporting context-sensitive L-system modelling, was used for the construction of the architectural model and integration with the internal signalling. A branching pattern with regular radial angles was found between soybean lateral roots, from which a root mapping method was developed to characterize the laterals. Nodules were mapped based on 'nodulation section' to reveal nodule distribution. A root elongation algorithm was then developed for simulation of root development. Based on the use of standard sub-modules, a synchronization algorithm was developed to co-ordinate multi-rate signalling and developmental processes. The modelling methods developed here not only allow recreation of legume root architecture with lateral branching and nodulation details, but also enable parameterization of internal signalling to produce different regulation results. This provides the basis for using virtual experiments to help in investigating the signalling mechanisms at work.

  18. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    PubMed Central

    Lardi, Martina; de Campos, Samanta Bolzan; Purtschert, Gabriela; Eberl, Leo; Pessi, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria) have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum) to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica) under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro), while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production) and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont. PMID:28861050

  19. Negotiation of mutualism: rhizobia and legumes

    PubMed Central

    Akçay, Erol; Roughgarden, Joan

    2006-01-01

    The evolution and persistence of biological cooperation have been an important puzzle in evolutionary theory. Here, we suggest a new approach based on bargaining theory to tackle the question. We present a mechanistic model for negotiation of benefits between a nitrogen-fixing nodule and a legume plant. To that end, we first derive growth rates for the nodule and plant from metabolic models of each as a function of material fluxes between them. We use these growth rates as pay-off functions in the negotiation process, which is analogous to collective bargaining between a firm and a workers' union. Our model predicts that negotiations lead to the Nash bargaining solution, maximizing the product of players' pay-offs. This work introduces elements of cooperative game theory into the field of mutualistic interactions. In the discussion of the paper, we argue for the benefits of such an approach in studying the question of biological cooperation. PMID:17015340

  20. Strigolactones and the regulation of pea symbioses in response to nitrate and phosphate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Foo, Eloise; Yoneyama, Kaori; Hugill, Cassandra J; Quittenden, Laura J; Reid, James B

    2013-01-01

    New roles for the recently identified group of plant hormones, the strigolactones, are currently under active investigation. One of their key roles is to regulate plant symbioses. These compounds act as a rhizosphere signal in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and as a positive regulator of nodulation in legumes. The phosphorous and nitrogen status of the soil has emerged as a powerful regulator of strigolactone production. However, until now, the potential role of strigolactones in regulating mycorrhizal development and nodulation in response to nutrient deficiency has not been proven. In this paper, the role of strigolactone synthesis and response in regulating these symbioses is examined in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Pea is well suited to this study, since there is a range of well-characterized strigolactone biosynthesis and response mutants that is unique amongst legumes. Evidence is provided for a novel endogenous role for strigolactone response within the root during mycorrhizal development, in addition to the action of strigolactones on the fungal partner. The strigolactone response pathway that regulates mycorrhizal development also appears to differ somewhat from the response pathway that regulates nodulation. Finally, studies with strigolactone-deficient pea mutants indicate that, despite strong regulation of strigolactone production by both nitrogen and phosphate, strigolactones are not required to regulate these symbioses in response to nutrient deficiency.

  1. Nitric oxide detoxification in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Cristina; Cabrera, Juan J; Gates, Andrew J; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Richardson, David J; Delgado, María J

    2011-01-01

    NO (nitric oxide) is a signal molecule involved in diverse physiological processes in cells which can become very toxic under certain conditions determined by its rate of production and diffusion. Several studies have clearly shown the production of NO in early stages of rhizobia-legume symbiosis and in mature nodules. In functioning nodules, it has been demonstrated that NO, which has been reported as a potent inhibitor of nitrogenase activity, can bind Lb (leghaemoglobin) to form LbNOs (nitrosyl-leghaemoglobin complexes). These observations have led to the question of how nodules overcome the toxicity of NO. On the bacterial side, one candidate for NO detoxification in nodules is the respiratory Nor (NO reductase) that catalyses the reduction of NO to nitrous oxide. In addition, rhizobial fHbs (flavohaemoglobins) and single-domain Hbs which dioxygenate NO to form nitrate are candidates to detoxify NO under free-living and symbiotic conditions. On the plant side, sHbs (symbiotic Hbs) (Lb) and nsHbs (non-symbiotic Hbs) have been proposed to play important roles as modulators of NO levels in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis. In the present review, current knowledge of NO detoxification by legume-associated endosymbiotic bacteria is summarized.

  2. Wide distribution range of rhizobial symbionts associated with pantropical sea-dispersed legumes.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Masaru; Nakata, Sayuri; Aoki, Seishiro; Takayama, Koji; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Ito, Motomi; Miya, Masaki; Kajita, Tadashi

    2016-12-01

    To understand the geographic distributions of rhizobia that associated with widely distributed wild legumes, 66 nodules obtained from 41 individuals including three sea-dispersed legumes (Vigna marina, Vigna luteola, and Canavalia rosea) distributed across the tropical and subtropical coastal regions of the world were studied. Partial sequences of 16S rRNA and nodC genes extracted from the nodules showed that only Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium were associated with the pantropical legumes, and some of the symbiont strains were widely distributed over the Pacific. Horizontal gene transfer of nodulation genes were observed within the Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium lineages. BLAST searches in GenBank also identified records of these strains from various legumes across the world, including crop species. However, one of the rhizobial strains was not found in GenBank, which implies the strain may have adapted to the littoral environment. Our results suggested that some rhizobia, which associate with the widespread sea-dispersed legume, distribute across a broad geographic range. By establishing symbiotic relationships with widely distributed rhizobia, the pantropical legumes may also be able to extend their range much further than other legume species.

  3. Immunosuppression during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Lu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobium infects host legumes to elicit new plant organs, nodules where dinitrogen is fixed as ammonia that can be directly utilized by plants. The nodulation factor (NF) produced by Rhizobium is one of the determinant signals for rhizobial infection and nodule development. Recently, it was found to suppress the innate immunity on host and nonhost plants as well as its analogs, chitins. Therefore, NF can be recognized as a microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern (M/PAMP) like chitin to induce the M/PAMP triggered susceptibility (M/PTS) of host plants to rhizobia. Whether the NF signaling pathway is directly associated with the innate immunity is not clear till now. In fact, other MAMPs such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and cyclic-β-glucan, together with type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors are also required for rhizobial infection or survival in leguminous nodule cells. Interestingly, most of them play similarly negative roles in the innate immunity of host plants, though their signaling is not completely elucidated. Taken together, we believe that the local immunosuppression on host plants induced by Rhizobium is essential for the establishment of their symbiosis.

  4. Lung Nodules: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Lung Nodules Lung Nodules Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Kern, MD (June 01, 2016) What is a lung nodule? A lung nodule is also called a ...

  5. Lung Nodules: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Lung Nodules Lung Nodules Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Kern, MD (June 01, 2016) What is a lung nodule? A lung nodule is also called a ...

  6. Transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity shows enhanced growth when grown under N2-fixing conditions.

    PubMed

    Gebril, Sayed; Seger, Mark; Villanueva, Fabiola Muro; Ortega, Jose Luis; Bagga, Suman; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2015-10-01

    Overexpression of SPS in alfalfa is accompanied by early flowering, increased plant growth and an increase in elemental N and protein content when grown under N2-fixing conditions. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.3.1.14) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of sucrose in plants. The outcome of overexpression of SPS in different plants using transgenic approaches has been quite varied, but the general consensus is that increased SPS activity is associated with the production of new sinks and increased sink strength. In legumes, the root nodule is a strong C sink and in this study our objective was to see how increasing SPS activity in a legume would affect nodule number and function. Here we have transformed alfalfa (Medicago sativa, cv. Regen SY), with a maize SPS gene driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Our results showed that overexpression of SPS in alfalfa, is accompanied by an increase in nodule number and mass and an overall increase in nitrogenase activity at the whole plant level. The nodules exhibited an increase in the level of key enzymes contributing to N assimilation including glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase. Moreover, the stems of the transformants showed higher level of the transport amino acids, Asx, indicating increased export of N from the nodules. The transformants exhibited a dramatic increase in growth both of the shoots and roots, and earlier flowering time, leading to increased yields. Moreover, the transformants showed an increase in elemental N and protein content. The overall conclusion is that increased SPS activity improves the N status and plant performance, suggesting that the availability of more C in the form of sucrose enhances N acquisition and assimilation in the nodules.

  7. Lentils: the Forgotten Legumes

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166192.html Lentils: The Forgotten Legumes Beans' little cousins pack in ... 2, 2017 FRIDAY, June 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Lentils may be the least well known members of ...

  8. Shoot-derived cytokinins systemically regulate root nodulation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takema; Suzaki, Takuya; Soyano, Takashi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2014-09-19

    Legumes establish symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules to obtain nitrogen. Legumes control nodule number through long-distance communication between roots and shoots, maintaining the proper symbiotic balance. Rhizobial infection triggers the production of mobile CLE-RS1/2 peptides in Lotus japonicus roots; the perception of the signal by receptor kinase HAR1 in shoots presumably induces the production of an unidentified shoot-derived inhibitor (SDI) that translocates to roots and blocks further nodule development. Here we show that, CLE-RS1/2-HAR1 signalling activates the production of shoot-derived cytokinins, which have an SDI-like capacity to systemically suppress nodulation. In addition, we show that LjIPT3 is involved in nodulation-related cytokinin production in shoots. The expression of LjIPT3 is activated in an HAR1-dependent manner. We further demonstrate shoot-to-root long-distance transport of cytokinin in L. japonicus seedlings. These findings add essential components to our understanding of how legumes control nodulation to balance nutritional requirements and energy status.

  9. Genome Sequence of Micromonospora lupini Lupac 08, Isolated from Root Nodules of Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Vega, Pablo; Normand, Philippe; Bacigalupe, Rodrigo; Pujic, Petar; Lajus, Aurelie; Vallenet, David; Carro, Lorena; Coll, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Micromonospora strains have been isolated from diverse niches, including soil, water, and marine sediments and root nodules of diverse symbiotic plants. In this work, we report the genome sequence of Micromonospora lupini Lupac 08 isolated from root nodules of the wild legume Lupinus angustifolious. PMID:22815450

  10. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation.

  11. Nonnodulating Bradyrhizobium spp. Modulate the Benefits of Legume-Rhizobium Mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Gano-Cohen, Kelsey A.; Stokes, Peter J.; Blanton, Mia A.; Wendlandt, Camille E.; Hollowell, Amanda C.; Regus, John U.; Kim, Deborah; Patel, Seema; Pahua, Victor J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhizobia are best known for nodulating legume roots and fixing atmospheric nitrogen for the host in exchange for photosynthates. However, the majority of the diverse strains of rhizobia do not form nodules on legumes, often because they lack key loci that are needed to induce nodulation. Nonnodulating rhizobia are robust heterotrophs that can persist in bulk soil, thrive in the rhizosphere, or colonize roots as endophytes, but their role in the legume-rhizobium mutualism remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of nonnodulating strains on the native Acmispon-Bradyrhizobium mutualism. To examine the effects on both host performance and symbiont fitness, we performed clonal inoculations of diverse nonnodulating Bradyrhizobium strains on Acmispon strigosus hosts and also coinoculated hosts with mixtures of sympatric nodulating and nonnodulating strains. In isolation, nonnodulating Bradyrhizobium strains did not affect plant performance. In most cases, coinoculation of nodulating and nonnodulating strains reduced host performance compared to that of hosts inoculated with only a symbiotic strain. However, coinoculation increased host performance only under one extreme experimental treatment. Nearly all estimates of nodulating strain fitness were reduced in the presence of nonnodulating strains. We discovered that nonnodulating strains were consistently capable of coinfecting legume nodules in the presence of nodulating strains but that the fitness effects of coinfection for hosts and symbionts were negligible. Our data suggest that nonnodulating strains most often attenuate the Acmispon-Bradyrhizobium mutualism and that this occurs via competitive interactions at the root-soil interface as opposed to in planta. IMPORTANCE Rhizobia are soil bacteria best known for their capacity to form root nodules on legume plants and enhance plant growth through nitrogen fixation. Yet, most rhizobia in soil do not have this capacity, and their effects on this

  12. Nonnodulating Bradyrhizobium spp. Modulate the Benefits of Legume-Rhizobium Mutualism.

    PubMed

    Gano-Cohen, Kelsey A; Stokes, Peter J; Blanton, Mia A; Wendlandt, Camille E; Hollowell, Amanda C; Regus, John U; Kim, Deborah; Patel, Seema; Pahua, Victor J; Sachs, Joel L

    2016-09-01

    Rhizobia are best known for nodulating legume roots and fixing atmospheric nitrogen for the host in exchange for photosynthates. However, the majority of the diverse strains of rhizobia do not form nodules on legumes, often because they lack key loci that are needed to induce nodulation. Nonnodulating rhizobia are robust heterotrophs that can persist in bulk soil, thrive in the rhizosphere, or colonize roots as endophytes, but their role in the legume-rhizobium mutualism remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of nonnodulating strains on the native Acmispon-Bradyrhizobium mutualism. To examine the effects on both host performance and symbiont fitness, we performed clonal inoculations of diverse nonnodulating Bradyrhizobium strains on Acmispon strigosus hosts and also coinoculated hosts with mixtures of sympatric nodulating and nonnodulating strains. In isolation, nonnodulating Bradyrhizobium strains did not affect plant performance. In most cases, coinoculation of nodulating and nonnodulating strains reduced host performance compared to that of hosts inoculated with only a symbiotic strain. However, coinoculation increased host performance only under one extreme experimental treatment. Nearly all estimates of nodulating strain fitness were reduced in the presence of nonnodulating strains. We discovered that nonnodulating strains were consistently capable of coinfecting legume nodules in the presence of nodulating strains but that the fitness effects of coinfection for hosts and symbionts were negligible. Our data suggest that nonnodulating strains most often attenuate the Acmispon-Bradyrhizobium mutualism and that this occurs via competitive interactions at the root-soil interface as opposed to in planta Rhizobia are soil bacteria best known for their capacity to form root nodules on legume plants and enhance plant growth through nitrogen fixation. Yet, most rhizobia in soil do not have this capacity, and their effects on this symbiosis are poorly

  13. Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-02-01

    Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation.

  14. Transport and metabolism in legume-rhizobia symbioses.

    PubMed

    Udvardi, Michael; Poole, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobia in legume root nodules injects approximately 40 million tonnes of nitrogen into agricultural systems each year. In exchange for reduced nitrogen from the bacteria, the plant provides rhizobia with reduced carbon and all the essential nutrients required for bacterial metabolism. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation requires exquisite integration of plant and bacterial metabolism. Central to this integration are transporters of both the plant and the rhizobia, which transfer elements and compounds across various plant membranes and the two bacterial membranes. Here we review current knowledge of legume and rhizobial transport and metabolism as they relate to symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Although all legume-rhizobia symbioses have many metabolic features in common, there are also interesting differences between them, which show that evolution has solved metabolic problems in different ways to achieve effective symbiosis in different systems.

  15. Nodulation genes and type III secretion systems in rhizobia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For establishment of symbiosis, rhizobia and legumes have to communicate. Specific signaling starts with the release of flavonoids by the plant. All rhizobia encode at least one NodD protein, which responds to the presence of specific flavonoids by activation of nodulation genes. In Bradyrhizobium j...

  16. The MicroRNA390/TAS3 Pathway Mediates Symbiotic Nodulation and Lateral Root Growth.

    PubMed

    Hobecker, Karen Vanesa; Reynoso, Mauricio Alberto; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Crespi, Martín; Blanco, Flavio Antonio; Zanetti, María Eugenia

    2017-08-01

    Legume roots form two types of postembryonic organs, lateral roots and symbiotic nodules. Nodule formation is the result of the interaction of legumes with rhizobia and requires the mitotic activation and differentiation of root cells as well as an independent, but coordinated, program that allows infection by rhizobia. MicroRNA390 (miR390) is an evolutionarily conserved microRNA that targets the Trans-Acting Short Interference RNA3 (TAS3) transcript. Cleavage of TAS3 by ARGONAUTE7 results in the production of trans-acting small interference RNAs, which target mRNAs encoding AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR2 (ARF2), ARF3, and ARF4. Here, we show that activation of the miR390/TAS3 regulatory module by overexpression of miR390 in Medicago truncatula promotes lateral root growth but prevents nodule organogenesis, rhizobial infection, and the induction of two key nodulation genes, Nodulation Signaling Pathway1 (NSP1) and NSP2 Accordingly, inactivation of the miR390/TAS3 module, either by expression of a miR390 target mimicry construct or mutations in ARGONAUTE7, enhances nodulation and rhizobial infection, alters the spatial distribution of the nodules, and increases the percentage of nodules with multiple meristems. Our results revealed a key role of the miR390/TAS3 pathway in legumes as a modulator of lateral root organs, playing opposite roles in lateral root and nodule development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. The integral membrane protein SEN1 is required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Lotus japonicus nodules.

    PubMed

    Hakoyama, Tsuneo; Niimi, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Isobe, Sawa; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Kumagai, Hirotaka; Umehara, Yosuke; Brossuleit, Katja; Petersen, Thomas R; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Udvardi, Michael K; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Suganuma, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Legume plants establish a symbiotic association with bacteria called rhizobia, resulting in the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. A Lotus japonicus symbiotic mutant, sen1, forms nodules that are infected by rhizobia but that do not fix nitrogen. Here, we report molecular identification of the causal gene, SEN1, by map-based cloning. The SEN1 gene encodes an integral membrane protein homologous to Glycine max nodulin-21, and also to CCC1, a vacuolar iron/manganese transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and VIT1, a vacuolar iron transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the SEN1 gene was detected exclusively in nodule-infected cells and increased during nodule development. Nif gene expression as well as the presence of nitrogenase proteins was detected in rhizobia from sen1 nodules, although the levels of expression were low compared with those from wild-type nodules. Microscopic observations revealed that symbiosome and/or bacteroid differentiation are impaired in the sen1 nodules even at a very early stage of nodule development. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SEN1 belongs to a protein clade specific to legumes. These results indicate that SEN1 is essential for nitrogen fixation activity and symbiosome/bacteroid differentiation in legume nodules.

  18. Enamel ribbons, surface nodules, and octacalcium phosphate in C57BL/6 Amelx -/- mice and Amelx +/- lyonization

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Smith, Charles E.; Cai, Zhonghou; Donnelly, Lorenza A. -J.; Yang, Jie; Hu, Jan C. -C.; Simmer, James P.

    2016-10-05

    Amelogenin is required for normal enamel formation and is the most abundant protein in developing enamel. Methods. Amelx+/+, Amelx+/- and Amelx-/- molars and incisors from C57BL/6 mice were characterized using RT-PCR, Western blotting, dissecting and light microscopy, immunohistochemistry (IHC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered SEM (bSEM), nanohardness testing, and X-ray diffraction. No amelogenin protein was detected by Western blot analyses of enamel extracts from Amelx-/- mice. Amelx-/- incisor enamel averaged 20.3±3.3 μm in thickness, or only 1/6th that of the wild-type (122.3±7.9 μm). Amelx-/- incisor enamel nanohardness was 1.6 Gpa, less than half that of wild-type enamel (3.6 Gpa). Amelx+/- incisors and molars showed vertical banding patterns unique to each tooth. IHC detected no amelogenin in Amelx-/- enamel and varied levels of amelogenin in Amelx+/- incisors, which correlated positively with enamel thickness, strongly supporting lyonization as the cause of the variations in enamel thickness. TEM analyses showed characteristic mineral ribbons in Amelx+/+ and Amelx-/- enamel extending from mineralized dentin collagen to the ameloblast. The Amelx-/- enamel ribbons were not well-separated by matrix and appeared to fuse together, forming plates. Furthermore, x-ray diffraction determined that the predominant mineral in Amelx-/- enamel is octacalcium phosphate (not calcium hydroxyapatite). Amelx-/- ameloblasts were similar to wild-type ameloblasts except no Tomes’ processes extended into the thin enamel. Amelx-/- and Amelx+/- molars both showed calcified nodules on their occlusal surfaces. Histology of D5 and D11 developing molars showed nodules forming during the maturation stage. Amelogenin forms a resorbable matrix that separates and

  19. Systemic regulation of soybean nodulation by acidic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Han; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2012-12-01

    Mechanisms inhibiting legume nodulation by low soil pH, although highly prevalent and economically significant, are poorly understood. We addressed this in soybean (Glycine max) using a combination of physiological and genetic approaches. Split-root and grafting studies using an autoregulation-of-nodulation-deficient mutant line, altered in the autoregulation-of-nodulation receptor kinase GmNARK, determined that a systemic, shoot-controlled, and GmNARK-dependent mechanism was critical for facilitating the inhibitory effect. Acid inhibition was independent of aluminum ion concentration and occurred early in nodule development, between 12 and 96 h post inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Biological effects were confirmed by measuring transcript numbers of known early nodulation genes. Transcripts decreased on both sides of split-root systems, where only one side was subjected to low-pH conditions. Our findings enhance the present understanding of the innate mechanisms regulating legume nodulation control under acidic conditions, which could benefit future attempts in agriculture to improve nodule development and biological nitrogen fixation in acid-stressed soils.

  20. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium–chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability is a major constraint for efficient nitrogen fixation in legumes, including chickpea. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium–chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31)–chickpea and Mesorhizobium mediterranum SWRI9 (MmSWRI9)–chickpea, were comprehensively studied under both control and low Pi conditions. MmSWRI9–chickpea showed a lower symbiotic efficiency under low Pi availability than McCP-31–chickpea as evidenced by reduced growth parameters and down-regulation of nifD and nifK. These differences can be attributed to decline in Pi level in MmSWRI9-induced nodules under low Pi stress, which coincided with up-regulation of several key Pi starvation-responsive genes, and accumulation of asparagine in nodules and the levels of identified amino acids in Pi-deficient leaves of MmSWRI9-inoculated plants exceeding the shoot nitrogen requirement during Pi starvation, indicative of nitrogen feedback inhibition. Conversely, Pi levels increased in nodules of Pi-stressed McCP-31–inoculated plants, because these plants evolved various metabolic and biochemical strategies to maintain nodular Pi homeostasis under Pi deficiency. These adaptations involve the activation of alternative pathways of carbon metabolism, enhanced production and exudation of organic acids from roots into the rhizosphere, and the ability to protect nodule metabolism against Pi deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the adaptation of symbiotic efficiency under Pi deficiency resulted from highly coordinated processes with an extensive reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism. The findings of this study will enable us to design effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to enhance symbiotic efficiency in legume crops. PMID:27450089

  1. Cupriavidus necator isolates are able to fix nitrogen in symbiosis with different legume species.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Krisle; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; da Silva, Karina Barroso; de Brandt, Evie; Vandamme, Peter; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a collection of 35 Cupriavidus isolates at the species level and to examine their capacity to nodulate and fix N(2). These isolates were previously obtained from the root nodules of two promiscuous trap species, Phaseolus vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala, inoculated with soil samples collected near Sesbania virgata plants growing in Minas Gerais (Brazil) pastures. Phenotypic and genotypic methods applied for this study were SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, and 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequencing. To confirm the ability to nodulate and fix N(2), the presence of the nodC and nifH genes was also determined, and an experiment was carried out with two representative isolates in order to authenticate them as legume nodule symbionts. All 35 isolates belonged to the betaproteobacterium Cupriavidus necator, they possessed the nodC and nifH genes, and two representative isolates were able to nodulate five different promiscuous legume species: Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, L. leucocephala, Macroptilium atropurpureum, P. vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata. This is the first study to demonstrate that C. necator can nodulate legume species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Shaping bacterial symbiosis with legumes by experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Marta; Jauneau, Alain; Capela, Delphine; Remigi, Philippe; Gris, Carine; Batut, Jacques; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbionts of legumes have appeared after the emergence of legumes on earth, approximately 70 to 130 million years ago. Since then, symbiotic proficiency has spread to distant genera of α- and β-proteobacteria, via horizontal transfer of essential symbiotic genes and subsequent recipient genome remodeling under plant selection pressure. To tentatively replay rhizobium evolution in laboratory conditions, we previously transferred the symbiotic plasmid of the Mimosa symbiont Cupriavidus taiwanensis in the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, and selected spontaneous nodulating variants of the chimeric Ralstonia sp. using Mimosa pudica as a trap. Here, we pursued the evolution experiment by submitting two of the rhizobial drafts to serial ex planta-in planta (M. pudica) passages that may mimic alternating of saprophytic and symbiotic lives of rhizobia. Phenotyping 16 cycle-evolved clones showed strong and parallel evolution of several symbiotic traits (i.e., nodulation competitiveness, intracellular infection, and bacteroid persistence). Simultaneously, plant defense reactions decreased within nodules, suggesting that the expression of symbiotic competence requires the capacity to limit plant immunity. Nitrogen fixation was not acquired in the frame of this evolutionarily short experiment, likely due to the still poor persistence of final clones within nodules compared with the reference rhizobium C. taiwanensis. Our results highlight the potential of experimental evolution in improving symbiotic proficiency and for the elucidation of relationship between symbiotic capacities and elicitation of immune responses.

  3. The model legume genomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary model legumes to-date have been Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus. Both species are tractable both genetically and in the greenhouse, and for both, a substantial sets of tools and resources for molecular genetic research have been assembled. As sequencing costs have declined, howev...

  4. Edible grain legumes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible grain legumes including dry bean, dry pea, chickpeas, and lentils, have served as important sources of protein for human diets for thousands of years. In the US, these crops are predominately produced for export markets. The objective of this study was to examine yield gains in these crops ov...

  5. Extrusion cooking: Legume pulses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extrusion is used commercially to produce high value breakfast and snack foods based on cereals such as wheat or corn. However, this processing method is not being commercially used for legume pulses seeds due to the perception that they do not expand well in extrusion. Extrusion cooking of pulses (...

  6. Genetic diversity and distribution of rhizobia associated with the medicinal legumes Astragalus spp. and Hedysarum polybotrys in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Ji, Zhao Jun; Jiao, Yin Shan; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Guo, Bao Lin; Chen, Wen Xin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing cultivation of medicinal legumes in agricultural fields, the rhizobia associated with these plants are facing new stresses, mainly from fertilization and irrigation. In this study, investigations on the nodulation of three cultivated medicinal legumes, Astragalus mongholicus, Astragalus membranaceus and Hedysarum polybotrys were performed. Bacterial isolates from root nodules of these legumes were subjected to genetic diversity and multilocus sequence analyses. In addition, the distribution of nodule bacteria related to soil factors and host plants was studied. A total 367 bacterial isolates were obtained and 13 genospecies were identified. The predominant microsymbionts were identified as Mesorhizobium septentrionale, Mesorhizobium temperatum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium ciceri and Mesorhizobium muleiense. M. septentrionale was found in most root nodules especially from legumes grown in the barren soils (with low available nitrogen and low organic carbon contents), while M. temperatum was predominant in nodules where the plants were grown in the nitrogen-rich fields. A. mongholicus tended to be associated with M. septentrionale, M. temperatum and M. ciceri in different soils, while A. membranaceus and H. polybotrys tended to be associated with M. tianshanense and M. septentrionale, respectively. This study showed that soil fertility may be the main determinant for the distribution of rhizobia associated with these cultured legume plants.

  7. Increasing Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Development in Soybean Requires Complex Adjustments of Nodule Nitrogen Metabolism and Partitioning Processes.

    PubMed

    Carter, Amanda M; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2016-08-08

    Legumes are able to access atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) through a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia that reside within root nodules. In soybean, following N2 fixation by the bacteroids, ammonia is finally reduced in uninfected cells to allantoin and allantoic acid [1]. These ureides present the primary long-distance transport forms of nitrogen (N), and are exported from nodules via the xylem for shoot N supply. Transport of allantoin and allantoic acid out of nodules requires the function of ureide permeases (UPS1) located in cells adjacent to the vasculature [2, 3]. We expressed a common bean UPS1 transporter in cortex and endodermis cells of soybean nodules and found that delivery of N from nodules to shoot, as well as seed set, was significantly increased. In addition, the number of transgenic nodules was increased and symbiotic N2 fixation per nodule was elevated, indicating that transporter function in nodule N export is a limiting step in bacterial N acquisition. Further, the transgenic nodules showed considerable increases in nodule N assimilation, ureide synthesis, and metabolite levels. This suggests complex adjustments of nodule N metabolism and partitioning processes in support of symbiotic N2 fixation. We propose that the transgenic UPS1 plants display metabolic and allocation plasticity to overcome N2 fixation and seed yield limitations. Overall, it is demonstrated that transporter function in N export from nodules is a key step for enhancing atmospheric N2 fixation and nodule function and for improving shoot N nutrition and seed development in legumes.

  8. NODULE INCEPTION Directly Targets NF-Y Subunit Genes to Regulate Essential Processes of Root Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Soyano, Takashi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Hirota, Atsuko; Hayashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The interactions of legumes with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria cause the formation of specialized lateral root organs called root nodules. It has been postulated that this root nodule symbiosis system has recruited factors that act in early signaling pathways (common SYM genes) partly from the ancestral mycorrhizal symbiosis. However, the origins of factors needed for root nodule organogenesis are largely unknown. NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) is a nodulation-specific gene that encodes a putative transcription factor and acts downstream of the common SYM genes. Here, we identified two Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) subunit genes, LjNF-YA1 and LjNF-YB1, as transcriptional targets of NIN in Lotus japonicus. These genes are expressed in root nodule primordia and their translational products interact in plant cells, indicating that they form an NF-Y complex in root nodule primordia. The knockdown of LjNF-YA1 inhibited root nodule organogenesis, as did the loss of function of NIN. Furthermore, we found that NIN overexpression induced root nodule primordium-like structures that originated from cortical cells in the absence of bacterial symbionts. Thus, NIN is a crucial factor responsible for initiating nodulation-specific symbiotic processes. In addition, ectopic expression of either NIN or the NF-Y subunit genes caused abnormal cell division during lateral root development. This indicated that the Lotus NF-Y subunits can function to stimulate cell division. Thus, transcriptional regulation by NIN, including the activation of the NF-Y subunit genes, induces cortical cell division, which is an initial step in root nodule organogenesis. Unlike the legume-specific NIN protein, NF-Y is a major CCAAT box binding protein complex that is widespread among eukaryotes. We propose that the evolution of root nodules in legume plants was associated with changes in the function of NIN. NIN has acquired functions that allow it to divert pathways involved in the regulation of cell division to

  9. Regulatory patterns of a large family of defensin-like genes expressed in nodules of Medicago truncatula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root nodules are the symbiotic organ of legumes that house nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Many genes are specifically induced in nodules during the interactions between the host plant and symbiotic rhizobia. Information regarding the regulation of expression for most of these genes is lacking. One of the...

  10. Nodulation of Mimosa spp. by the beta-proteobacterium Ralstonia taiwanensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; James, Euan K; Prescott, Alan R; Kierans, Martin; Sprent, Janet I

    2003-12-01

    Several beta-proteobacteria have been isolated from legume root nodules and some of these are thought to be capable of nodulating and fixing N2. However, in no case has there been detailed studies confirming that they are the active symbionts. Here, Ralstonia taiwanensis LMG19424, which was originally isolated from Mimosa pudica nodules, was transformed to carry the green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter gene before being used to inoculate axenically-grown seedlings of M. pudica and M. diplotricha. Plants were harvested at various intervals for 56 days after inoculation, then examined for evidence of infection and nodule formation. Nodulation of both Mimosa spp. was abundant, and acetylene reduction assays confirmed that nodules had nitrogenase activity. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that fresh M. pudica nodules with nitrogenase activity had infected cells containing bacteroids expressing gfp. In parallel, fixed and embedded nodules from both Mimosa spp. were sectioned for light and electron microscopy, followed by immunogold labeling with antibodies raised against gfp and nitrogenase Fe (nifH) protein. Significant immunolabeling with these antibodies confirmed that R. taiwanensis LMG19424 is an effective N2-fixing symbiont of Mimosa spp. Both species were infected via root hairs and, in all respects, the nodule ontogeny and development was similar to that described for other mimosoid legumes. The nodules were indeterminate with a persistent meristem, an invasion zone containing host cells being invaded via prominent infection threads, and an N2-fixing zone with infected cells containing membrane-bound symbiosomes.

  11. Crowdsourcing the nodulation gene network discovery environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yupeng; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-26

    The Legumes (Fabaceae) are an economically and ecologically important group of plant species with the conspicuous capacity for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules, specialized plant organs containing symbiotic microbes. With the aim of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to nodulation, many efforts are underway to identify nodulation-related genes and determine how these genes interact with each other. In order to accurately and efficiently reconstruct nodulation gene network, a crowdsourcing platform, CrowdNodNet, was created. The platform implements the jQuery and vis.js JavaScript libraries, so that users are able to interactively visualize and edit the gene network, and easily access the information about the network, e.g. gene lists, gene interactions and gene functional annotations. In addition, all the gene information is written on MediaWiki pages, enabling users to edit and contribute to the network curation. Utilizing the continuously updated, collaboratively written, and community-reviewed Wikipedia model, the platform could, in a short time, become a comprehensive knowledge base of nodulation-related pathways. The platform could also be used for other biological processes, and thus has great potential for integrating and advancing our understanding of the functional genomics and systems biology of any process for any species. The platform is available at http://crowd.bioops.info/ , and the source code can be openly accessed at https://github.com/bioops/crowdnodnet under MIT License.

  12. Drought Stress, Permeability to O2 Diffusion, and the Respiratory Kinetics of Soybean Root Nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Del Castillo, L. D.; Layzell, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    In legume nodules, treatments such as detopping or nitrate fertilization inhibit nodule metabolism and N2 fixation by decreasing the nodule's permeability to O2 diffusion, thereby decreasing the infected cell O2 concentration (Oi) and increasing the degree to which nodule metabolism is limited by O2 availability. In the present study we used nodule oximetry to assess and compare the role of O2 limitation in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) nodules inhibited by either drought or detopping. Compared to detopping, drought caused only minor decreases in Oi, and when the external O2 concentration was increased to raise Oi, the infected cell respiration rate in the drought-stressed plants was not stimulated as much as it was in the nodules of the detopped plants. Unlike those in detopped plants, nodules exposed to moderate drought stress displayed an O2-sufficient respiration rate that was significantly lower than that in control nodules. Despite possible side effects of oximetry in altering nodule metabolism, these results provided direct evidence that, compared to detopping, O2 limitation plays a minor role in the inhibition of nodule metabolism during drought stress and changes in nodule permeability are the effect, not the cause, of a drought-induced inhibition of nodule metabolism and the O2-suffiecient rate of respiration. PMID:12228425

  13. Diversity of rhizobia from nodules of the leguminous tree Gliricidia sepium, a natural host of Rhizobium tropici.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Durán, Carlos; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2002-08-01

    The Rhizobium species that nodulate the legume tree Gliricidia sepium were analyzed by phenotypic characteristics (including nodule formation in different hosts), PCR-RFLP patterns and sequences of 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and plasmid patterns. Strains of Rhizobium tropici type A and B, Sinorhizobium spp., and Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli were encountered in G. sepium nodules and their presence depended on the site sampled.

  14. Proteomics and Metabolomics: Two Emerging Areas for Legume Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Pazhamala, Lekha T.; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important sources of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen) in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signaling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signaling in legumes. In this review, several

  15. Proteomics and Metabolomics: Two Emerging Areas for Legume Improvement.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Pazhamala, Lekha T; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important sources of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen) in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signaling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signaling in legumes. In this review, several

  16. Ethylene, a Hormone at the Center-Stage of Nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Guinel, Frédérique C.

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenous compounds. Furthermore, as they are rich in nitrogen, legumes are considered important as staple foods for humans and fodder for animals. To tightly control this association and keep it mutualistic, the plant uses several means, including hormones. The hormone ethylene has been known as a negative regulator of nodulation for almost four decades. Since then, much progress has been made in the understanding of both the ethylene signaling pathway and the nodulation process. Here I have taken a large view, using recently obtained knowledge, to describe in some detail the major stages of the process. I have not only reviewed the steps most commonly covered (the common signaling transduction pathway, and the epidermal and cortical programs), but I have also looked into steps less understood (the pre-infection step with the plant defense response, the bacterial release and the formation of the symbiosome, and nodule functioning and senescence). After a succinct review of the ethylene signaling pathway, I have used the knowledge obtained from nodulation- and ethylene-related mutants to paint a more complete picture of the role played by the hormone in nodule organogenesis, functioning, and senescence. It transpires that ethylene is at the center of this effective symbiosis. It has not only been involved in most of the steps leading to a mature nodule, but it has also been implicated in host immunity and nodule senescence. It is likely responsible for the activation of other hormonal

  17. Ethylene, a Hormone at the Center-Stage of Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Guinel, Frédérique C

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenous compounds. Furthermore, as they are rich in nitrogen, legumes are considered important as staple foods for humans and fodder for animals. To tightly control this association and keep it mutualistic, the plant uses several means, including hormones. The hormone ethylene has been known as a negative regulator of nodulation for almost four decades. Since then, much progress has been made in the understanding of both the ethylene signaling pathway and the nodulation process. Here I have taken a large view, using recently obtained knowledge, to describe in some detail the major stages of the process. I have not only reviewed the steps most commonly covered (the common signaling transduction pathway, and the epidermal and cortical programs), but I have also looked into steps less understood (the pre-infection step with the plant defense response, the bacterial release and the formation of the symbiosome, and nodule functioning and senescence). After a succinct review of the ethylene signaling pathway, I have used the knowledge obtained from nodulation- and ethylene-related mutants to paint a more complete picture of the role played by the hormone in nodule organogenesis, functioning, and senescence. It transpires that ethylene is at the center of this effective symbiosis. It has not only been involved in most of the steps leading to a mature nodule, but it has also been implicated in host immunity and nodule senescence. It is likely responsible for the activation of other hormonal

  18. Widespread fitness alignment in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Maren L

    2012-06-01

    Although 'cheaters' potentially destabilize the legume-rhizobium mutualism, we lack a comprehensive review of host-symbiont fitness correlations. Studies measuring rhizobium relative or absolute fitness and host benefit are surveyed. Mutant studies are tallied for evidence of pleiotropy; studies of natural strains are analyzed with meta-analysis. Of 80 rhizobium mutations, 19 decrease both partners' fitness, four increase both, two increase host fitness but decrease symbiont fitness and none increase symbiont fitness at the host's expense. The pooled correlation between rhizobium nodulation competitiveness and plant aboveground biomass is 0.65 across five experiments that compete natural strains against a reference, whereas, across 14 experiments that compete rhizobia against soil populations or each other, the pooled correlation is 0.24. Pooled correlations between aboveground biomass and nodule number and nodule biomass are 0.76 and 0.83. Positive correlations between legume and rhizobium fitness imply that most ineffective rhizobia are 'defective' rather than 'defectors'; this extends to natural variants, with only one significant fitness conflict. Most studies involve non-coevolved associations, indicating that fitness alignment is the default state. Rhizobium mutations that increase both host and symbiont fitness suggest that some plants maladaptively restrict symbiosis with novel strains.

  19. Facultative nitrogen fixation by canopy legumes in a lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Barron, Alexander R; Purves, Drew W; Hedin, Lars O

    2011-02-01

    Symbiotic dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation is often invoked to explain the N richness of tropical forests as ostensibly N(2)-fixing trees can be a major component of the community. Such arguments assume N(2) fixers are fixing N when present. However, in laboratory experiments, legumes consistently reduce N(2) fixation in response to increased soil N availability. These contrasting views of N(2) fixation as either obligate or facultative have drastically different implications for the N cycle of tropical forests. We tested these models by directly measuring N(2)-fixing root nodules and nitrogenase activity of individual canopy-dominant legume trees (Inga sp.) across several lowland forest types. Fixation was substantial in disturbed forests and some gaps but near zero in the high N soils of mature forest. Our findings suggest that canopy legumes closely regulate N(2) fixation, leading to large variations in N inputs across the landscape, and low symbiotic fixation in mature forests despite abundant legumes.

  20. The MicroRNA390/TAS3 Pathway Mediates Symbiotic Nodulation and Lateral Root Growth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2017-01-01

    Legume roots form two types of postembryonic organs, lateral roots and symbiotic nodules. Nodule formation is the result of the interaction of legumes with rhizobia and requires the mitotic activation and differentiation of root cells as well as an independent, but coordinated, program that allows infection by rhizobia. MicroRNA390 (miR390) is an evolutionarily conserved microRNA that targets the Trans-Acting Short Interference RNA3 (TAS3) transcript. Cleavage of TAS3 by ARGONAUTE7 results in the production of trans-acting small interference RNAs, which target mRNAs encoding AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR2 (ARF2), ARF3, and ARF4. Here, we show that activation of the miR390/TAS3 regulatory module by overexpression of miR390 in Medicago truncatula promotes lateral root growth but prevents nodule organogenesis, rhizobial infection, and the induction of two key nodulation genes, Nodulation Signaling Pathway1 (NSP1) and NSP2. Accordingly, inactivation of the miR390/TAS3 module, either by expression of a miR390 target mimicry construct or mutations in ARGONAUTE7, enhances nodulation and rhizobial infection, alters the spatial distribution of the nodules, and increases the percentage of nodules with multiple meristems. Our results revealed a key role of the miR390/TAS3 pathway in legumes as a modulator of lateral root organs, playing opposite roles in lateral root and nodule development. PMID:28663332

  1. The identification of novel loci required for appropriate nodule development in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Domonkos, Agota; Horvath, Beatrix; Marsh, John F; Halasz, Gabor; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Kalo, Peter

    2013-10-11

    The formation of functional symbiotic nodules is the result of a coordinated developmental program between legumes and rhizobial bacteria. Genetic analyses in legumes have been used to dissect the signaling processes required for establishing the legume-rhizobial endosymbiotic association. Compared to the early events of the symbiotic interaction, less attention has been paid to plant loci required for rhizobial colonization and the functioning of the nodule. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a number of new genetic loci in Medicago truncatula that are required for the development of effective nitrogen fixing nodules. Approximately 38,000 EMS and fast neutron mutagenized Medicago truncatula seedlings were screened for defects in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mutant plants impaired in nodule development and efficient nitrogen fixation were selected for further genetic and phenotypic analysis. Nine mutants completely lacking in nodule formation (Nod-) represented six complementation groups of which two novel loci have been identified. Eight mutants with ineffective nodules (Fix-) represented seven complementation groups, out of which five were new monogenic loci. The Fix- M. truncatula mutants showed symptoms of nitrogen deficiency and developed small white nodules. Microscopic analysis of Fix- nodules revealed that the mutants have defects in the release of rhizobia from infection threads, differentiation of rhizobia and maintenance of persistence of bacteria in nodule cells. Additionally, we monitored the transcriptional activity of symbiosis specific genes to define what transcriptional stage of the symbiotic process is blocked in each of the Fix- mutants. Based on the phenotypic and gene expression analysis a functional hierarchy of the FIX genes is proposed. The new symbiotic loci of M. truncatula isolated in this study provide the foundation for further characterization of the mechanisms underpinning nodulation, in particular the later

  2. A phylogenetic strategy based on a legume-specific whole genome duplication yields symbiotic cytokinin type-A response regulators.

    PubMed

    Op den Camp, Rik H M; De Mita, Stéphane; Lillo, Alessandra; Cao, Qingqin; Limpens, Erik; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, René

    2011-12-01

    Legumes host their Rhizobium spp. symbiont in novel root organs called nodules. Nodules originate from differentiated root cortical cells that dedifferentiate and subsequently form nodule primordia, a process controlled by cytokinin. A whole-genome duplication has occurred at the root of the legume Papilionoideae subfamily. We hypothesize that gene pairs originating from this duplication event and are conserved in distinct Papilionoideae lineages have evolved symbiotic functions. A phylogenetic strategy was applied to search for such gene pairs to identify novel regulators of nodulation, using the cytokinin phosphorelay pathway as a test case. In this way, two paralogous type-A cytokinin response regulators were identified that are involved in root nodule symbiosis. Response Regulator9 (MtRR9) and MtRR11 in medicago (Medicago truncatula) and an ortholog in lotus (Lotus japonicus) are rapidly induced upon Rhizobium spp. Nod factor signaling. Constitutive expression of MtRR9 results in arrested primordia that have emerged from cortical, endodermal, and pericycle cells. In legumes, lateral root primordia are not exclusively formed from pericycle cells but also require the involvement of the root cortical cell layer. Therefore, the MtRR9-induced foci of cell divisions show a strong resemblance to lateral root primordia, suggesting an ancestral function of MtRR9 in this process. Together, these findings provide a proof of principle for the applied phylogenetic strategy to identify genes with a symbiotic function in legumes.

  3. Casuarina glauca prenodule cells display the same differentiation as the corresponding nodule cells.

    PubMed

    Laplaze, L; Duhoux, E; Franche, C; Frutz, T; Svistoonoff, S; Bisseling, T; Bogusz, D; Pawlowski, K

    2000-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies have implied that all plants able to enter root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria go back to a common ancestor (D.E. Soltis, P.S. Soltis, D.R. Morgan, S.M. Swensen, B.C. Mullin, J.M. Dowd, and P.G. Martin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92:2647-2651, 1995). However, nodules formed by plants from different groups are distinct in nodule organogenesis and structure. In most groups, nodule organogenesis involves the induction of cortical cell divisions. In legumes these divisions lead to the formation of a nodule primordium, while in non-legumes they lead to the formation of a so-called prenodule consisting of infected and uninfected cells. Nodule primordium formation does not involve prenodule cells, and the function of prenodules is not known. Here, we examine the differentiation of actinorhizal prenodule cells in comparison to nodule cells with regard to both symbionts. Our findings indicate that prenodules represent primitive symbiotic organs whose cell types display the same characteristics as their nodule counterparts. The results are discussed in the context of the evolution of root nodule symbioses.

  4. Changes in nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity during germination of nonconventional legumes.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Díaz, María Felicia; Jiménez, Tania; Benítez, Vanesa; Herrera, Teresa; Cuadrado, Carmen; Martín-Pedrosa, Mercedes; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2013-08-28

    The present study describes the effects of germination on nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity in the nonconventional legumes Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean), Lablab purpureus (dolichos), and Stizolobium niveum (mucuna). Protease inhibitors and lectins were detected in raw legumes and were significantly decreased during the germination. Regarding total and individual inositol phosphates (IP5-IP3), important reductions of IP6 and high increases in the rest of inositol phosphates were also detected during this process. In addition, total phenols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins increased, accompanied by an overall rise of antioxidant activity (79.6 μmol of Trolox/g of DW in the case of mucuna). Germination has been shown to be a very effective process to reduce nonnutritional factors and increase bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of these nonconventional legumes. For this reason, they could be used as ingredients to obtain high-value legume flours for food formulation.

  5. The spread of Bradyrhizobium lineages across host legume clades: from Abarema to Zygia.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew A

    2015-04-01

    To analyze macroevolutionary patterns in host use by Bradyrhizobium root-nodule bacteria, 420 strains from 75 legume host genera (sampled in 25 countries) were characterized for portions of six housekeeping genes and the nifD locus in the symbiosis island chromosomal region. Most Bradyrhizobium clades utilized very divergent sets of legume hosts. This suggests that Bradyrhizobium spread across the major legume lineages early in its evolution, with only a few derived clades subsequently developing a narrower pattern of host use. Significant modularity existed in the network structure of recent host jumps (inferred from cases where closely related strain pairs were found on different legume taxa). This implies that recent host switching has occurred most often within particular subgroups of legumes. Nevertheless, the observed link structure would allow a bacterial lineage to reach almost any of the 75 legume host genera in a relatively small number of steps. However, permutation tests also showed that symbionts from certain host plant clades were significantly more similar than would be the case if bacteria were distributed at random on the trees. Related legumes thus harbored related sets of symbionts in some cases, indicating some degree of phylogenetic conservatism in partner selection.

  6. Novel Expression Pattern of Cytosolic Gln Synthetase in Nitrogen-Fixing Root Nodules of the Actinorhizal Host, Datisca glomerata1[w

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Alison M.; Murphy, Terence M.; Okubara, Patricia A.; Jacobsen, Karin R.; Swensen, Susan M.; Pawlowski, Katharina

    2004-01-01

    Gln synthetase (GS) is the key enzyme of primary ammonia assimilation in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of legumes and actinorhizal (Frankia-nodulated) plants. In root nodules of Datisca glomerata (Datiscaceae), transcripts hybridizing to a conserved coding region of the abundant nodule isoform, DgGS1-1, are abundant in uninfected nodule cortical tissue, but expression was not detectable in the infected zone or in the nodule meristem. Similarly, the GS holoprotein is immunolocalized exclusively to the uninfected nodule tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length cDNA of DgGS1-1 indicates affinities with cytosolic GS genes from legumes, the actinorhizal species Alnus glutinosa, and nonnodulating species, Vitis vinifera and Hevea brasilensis. The D. glomerata nodule GS expression pattern is a new variant among reported root nodule symbioses and may reflect an unusual nitrogen transfer pathway from the Frankia nodule microsymbiont to the plant infected tissue, coupled to a distinctive nitrogen cycle in the uninfected cortical tissue. Arg, Gln, and Glu are the major amino acids present in D. glomerata nodules, but Arg was not detected at high levels in leaves or roots. Arg as a major nodule nitrogen storage form is not found in other root nodule types except in the phylogenetically related Coriaria. Catabolism of Arg through the urea cycle could generate free ammonium in the uninfected tissue where GS is expressed. PMID:15247391

  7. Responses of Legume Versus Nonlegume Tropical Tree Seedlings to Elevated CO2 Concentration1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Cernusak, Lucas A.; Winter, Klaus; Martínez, Carlos; Correa, Edwin; Aranda, Jorge; Garcia, Milton; Jaramillo, Carlos; Turner, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated responses of growth, leaf gas exchange, carbon-isotope discrimination, and whole-plant water-use efficiency (WP) to elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in seedlings of five leguminous and five nonleguminous tropical tree species. Plants were grown at CO2 partial pressures of 40 and 70 Pa. As a group, legumes did not differ from nonlegumes in growth response to elevated [CO2]. The mean ratio of final plant dry mass at elevated to ambient [CO2] (ME/MA) was 1.32 and 1.24 for legumes and nonlegumes, respectively. However, there was large variation in ME/MA among legume species (0.92–2.35), whereas nonlegumes varied much less (1.21–1.29). Variation among legume species in ME/MA was closely correlated with their capacity for nodule formation, as expressed by nodule mass ratio, the dry mass of nodules for a given plant dry mass. WP increased markedly in response to elevated [CO2] in all species. The ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2 partial pressures during photosynthesis remained approximately constant at ambient and elevated [CO2], as did carbon isotope discrimination, suggesting that WP should increase proportionally for a given increase in atmospheric [CO2]. These results suggest that tree legumes with a strong capacity for nodule formation could have a competitive advantage in tropical forests as atmospheric [CO2] rises and that the water-use efficiency of tropical tree species will increase under elevated [CO2]. PMID:21788363

  8. Responses of legume versus nonlegume tropical tree seedlings to elevated CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Martínez, Carlos; Correa, Edwin; Aranda, Jorge; Garcia, Milton; Jaramillo, Carlos; Turner, Benjamin L

    2011-09-01

    We investigated responses of growth, leaf gas exchange, carbon-isotope discrimination, and whole-plant water-use efficiency (W(P)) to elevated CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) in seedlings of five leguminous and five nonleguminous tropical tree species. Plants were grown at CO(2) partial pressures of 40 and 70 Pa. As a group, legumes did not differ from nonlegumes in growth response to elevated [CO(2)]. The mean ratio of final plant dry mass at elevated to ambient [CO(2)] (M(E)/M(A)) was 1.32 and 1.24 for legumes and nonlegumes, respectively. However, there was large variation in M(E)/M(A) among legume species (0.92-2.35), whereas nonlegumes varied much less (1.21-1.29). Variation among legume species in M(E)/M(A) was closely correlated with their capacity for nodule formation, as expressed by nodule mass ratio, the dry mass of nodules for a given plant dry mass. W(P) increased markedly in response to elevated [CO(2)] in all species. The ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) partial pressures during photosynthesis remained approximately constant at ambient and elevated [CO(2)], as did carbon isotope discrimination, suggesting that W(P) should increase proportionally for a given increase in atmospheric [CO(2)]. These results suggest that tree legumes with a strong capacity for nodule formation could have a competitive advantage in tropical forests as atmospheric [CO(2)] rises and that the water-use efficiency of tropical tree species will increase under elevated [CO(2)].

  9. Beneficial consequences of a selective glutamine synthetase inhibitor in oats and legumes

    SciTech Connect

    Langston-Unkefer, P.J.; Knight, T.J.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C.

    1988-01-01

    We report on the effects of administering a unique glutamine synthetase inhibitor to cereals and N/sub 2/-fixing legumes. A bacterium (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) delivers this inhibitor to provide extended treatment periods; we inoculated the root systems of oat and legume plants with pv. tabaci to provide for delivery of this inhibitor to their root or root/nodule systems. Inoculation of legumes is accompanied by increased plant growth, total plant nitrogen, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation activity. Inoculation of the oats is accompanied by either of two results depending upon the genotype of the oat plant. One result is inhibition of plant growth followed by plant death as consequences of the loss of all of the glutamine synthetase activities in the plant and the subsequent accumulation of ammonia and cessation of nitrate uptake. The second and opposite result is observed in a small population of oats screened from a commercial cultivar and includes increased plant growth and leaf protein. The effects of this inhibitor can be beneficial when applied to appropriate plant material. In an attempt to effectively communicate these findings to the reader, we first introduce the inhibitor (a novel amino acid) and its bacterial delivery systems, the target of the inhibitor (glutamine synthetase-catalyzed ammonia assimilation), and the two different nitrogen economics in the legume and cereal plants used experimentally. The physiological, biochemical, and molecular genetic consequences of the inhibitor action in cereals and legumes, as we presently understand them, are then presented. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.,

  10. Legume growth-promoting rhizobia: an overview on the Mesorhizobium genus.

    PubMed

    Laranjo, Marta; Alexandre, Ana; Oliveira, Solange

    2014-01-20

    The need for sustainable agricultural practices is revitalizing the interest in biological nitrogen fixation and rhizobia-legumes symbioses, particularly those involving economically important legume crops in terms of food and forage. The genus Mesorhizobium includes species with high geographical dispersion and able to nodulate a wide variety of legumes, including important crop species, like chickpea or biserrula. Some cases of legume-mesorhizobia inoculant introduction represent exceptional opportunities to study the rhizobia genomes evolution and the evolutionary relationships among species. Complete genome sequences revealed that mesorhizobia typically harbour chromosomal symbiosis islands. The phylogenies of symbiosis genes, such as nodC, are not congruent with the phylogenies based on core genes, reflecting rhizobial host range, rather than species affiliation. This agrees with studies showing that Mesorhizobium species are able to exchange symbiosis genes through lateral transfer of chromosomal symbiosis islands, thus acquiring the ability to nodulate new hosts. Phylogenetic analyses of the Mesorhizobium genus based on core and accessory genes reveal complex evolutionary relationships and a high genomic plasticity, rendering the Mesorhizobium genus as a good model to investigate rhizobia genome evolution and adaptation to different host plants. Further investigation of symbiosis genes as well as stress response genes will certainly contribute to understand mesorhizobia-legume symbiosis and to develop more effective mesorhizobia inoculants.

  11. [Study of the root nodules in some species of the Papilionaceae subfamily by scanning electron microscopy].

    PubMed

    Novikova, T I; Gordienko, N Ia

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing nodules from 16 species in 6 tribes of the sub-family Papilionaceae have been examined by scanning electron microscopy. The structure of infection threads was similar in all the studied papilionoid species except Lupinus polyphillus. In this species the infection threads were found in young nodules only. The morphology of bacterioids and the character of their "package" are determined by the host plant genotype. The obtained results are discussed in relation to the evolution of the legumes.

  12. Competition by Bradyrhizobium Strains for Nodulation of the Nonlegume Parasponia andersonii

    PubMed Central

    Trinick, M. J.; Hadobas, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from the nonlegume Parasponia spp. formed a group of strains that were highly competitive for nodulation of P. andersonii when paired with strains isolated from legumes. Strains from legumes, including those of similar effectiveness to NGR231 and CP283, were not able to form nodules as single occupants on P. andersonii in the presence of Parasponia strains. However, NGR86, an isolate from Macroptilium lathyroides, jointly occupied one-third of the nodules formed with each of the three strains isolated from Parasponia spp. Time taken for nodules to appear may have influenced the outcome of competition, since CP283 and all isolates from legumes were slow to nodulate P. andersonii. Among the Parasponia strains, competitiveness for nodulation of P. andersonii was not associated with effectiveness of nitrogen fixation. The highly effective strain CP299 was a poor competitor when paired with the least effective strain NGR231. CP283 was the least competitive of the Parasponia strains but was still able to dominate nodules when paired with legume isolates. Dual occupancy was high, up to 67% when the inoculum contained CP299 and CP273. Both the Muc+ and Muc- types of CP283 form a symbiosis of similar effectiveness and were similarly competitive at high inoculation densities, but the Muc- form was more competitive at low inoculum densities. Both forms frequently occupied the same nodule. Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Parasponia spp. may have specific genetic information that favor their ability to competitively and effectively infect plants in the genus Parasponia (Ulmaceae) outside the Leguminosae. PMID:16347913

  13. Shoot HAR1 mediates nitrate inhibition of nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Satoru; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a major environmental factor in the inhibition of nodulation. In a model legume Lotus japonicus, a CLV1-like receptor kinase, HAR1, mediates nitrate inhibition and autoregulation of nodulation. Autoregulation of nodulation involves root-to-shoot-to-root long-distance communication, and HAR1 functions in shoots. However, it remains elusive where HAR1 functions in the nitrate inhibition of nodulation. We performed grafting experiments with the har1 mutant under various nitrate conditions, and found that shoot HAR1 is critical for the inhibition of nodulation at 10 mM nitrate. Combined with our recent finding that the nitrate-induced CLE-RS2 glycopeptide binds directly to the HAR1 receptor, this result suggests that CLE-RS2/HAR1 long-distance signaling plays an important role in the both nitrate inhibition and the autoregulation of nodulation.

  14. Narrow- and Broad-Host-Range Symbiotic Plasmids of Rhizobium spp. Strains That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Brom, Susana; Martinez, Esperanza; Dávila, Guillermo; Palacios, Rafael

    1988-01-01

    Agrobacterium transconjugants containing symbiotic plasmids from different Rhizobium spp. strains that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris were obtained. All transconjugants conserved the parental nodulation host range. Symbiotic (Sym) plasmids of Rhizobium strains isolated originally from P. vulgaris nodules, which had a broad nodulation host range, and single-copy nitrogenase genes conferred a Fix+ phenotype to the Agrobacterium transconjugants. A Fix− phenotype was obtained with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from P. vulgaris nodules that had a narrow host range and reiterated nif genes, as well as with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from other legumes that presented single nif genes and a broad nodulation host range. This indicates that different types of Sym plasmids can confer the ability to establish an effective symbiosis with P. vulgaris. Images PMID:16347637

  15. New nodulation mutants responsible for infection thread development in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yano, Koji; Tansengco, Myra L; Hio, Taihei; Higashi, Kuniko; Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2006-07-01

    Legume plants develop specialized root organs, the nodules, through a symbiotic interaction with rhizobia. The developmental process of nodulation is triggered by the bacterial microsymbiont but regulated systemically by the host legume plants. Using ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenesis as a tool to identify plant genes involved in symbiotic nodule development, we have isolated and analyzed five nodulation mutants, Ljsym74-3, Ljsym79-2, Ljsym79-3, Ljsym80, and Ljsym82, from the model legume Lotus japonicus. These mutants are defective in developing functional nodules and exhibit nitrogen starvation symptoms after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. Detailed observation revealed that infection thread development was aborted in these mutants and the nodules formed were devoid of infected cells. Mapping and complementation tests showed that Ljsym74-3, and Ljsym79-2 and Ljsym79-3, were allelic with reported mutants of L. japonicus, alb1 and crinkle, respectively. The Ljsym82 mutant is unique among the mutants because the infection thread was aborted early in its development. Ljsym74-3 and Ljsym80 were characterized as mutants with thick infection threads in short root hairs. Map-based cloning and molecular characterization of these genes will help us understand the genetic mechanism of infection thread development in L. japonicus.

  16. Genome Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Ethylene Receptor Genes during Soybean Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youning; Yuan, Jinhong; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Lin; Su, Chao; Wang, Xiaodi; Wu, Haiyan; Sun, Zhengxi; Li, Xia

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that the gaseous plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in nodulation in legumes. The perception of ethylene by a family of five membrane-localized receptors is necessary to trigger the ethylene signaling pathway, which regulates various biological responses in Arabidopsis. However, a systematic analysis of the ethylene receptors in leguminous plants and their roles in nodule development is lacking. In this study, we performed a characterization of ethylene receptor genes based on the latest Glycine max genome sequence and a public microarray database. Eleven ethylene receptor family genes were identified in soybean through homology searches, and they were divided into two subgroups. Exon-intron analysis showed that the gene structures are highly conserved within each group. Further analysis of their expression patterns showed that these ethylene receptor genes are differentially expressed in various soybean tissues and organs, including functional nodules. Notably, the ethylene receptor genes showed different responses to rhizobial infection and Nod factors, suggesting a possible role for ethylene receptors and ethylene signaling in rhizobia-host cell interactions and nodulation in soybean. Together, these data indicate the functional divergence of ethylene receptor genes in soybean, and that some of these receptors mediate nodulation, including rhizobial infection, nodule development, and nodule functionality. These findings provide a foundation for further elucidation of the molecular mechanism by which the ethylene signaling pathway regulates nodulation in soybean, as well as other legumes.

  17. The lipopolysaccharide lipid-a long chain fatty acid is important for rhizobium leguminosarum growth and stress adaptation in free-living and nodule environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizobium bacteria live in soil and plant environments, are capable of inducing symbiotic nodules on legumes, invade these nodules, and develop into bacteroids that fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is anchored in the bacterial outer membrane through a specialized lipi...

  18. The nodule conductance to O₂ diffusion increases with phytase activity in N₂-fixing Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Lazali, Mohamed; Drevon, Jean Jacques

    2014-07-01

    To understand the relationship between phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) and respiration for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in legume nodules, six recombinant inbred lines of common bean (RIL Phaseolus vulgaris L.), contrasting in PUE for SNF, were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and grown under hydroaeroponic culture with sufficient versus deficient P supply (250 versus 75 μmol P plant(-1) week(-1)). At the flowering stage, the biomass of plants and phytase activity in nodules were analyzed after measuring O2 uptake by nodulated roots. Our results show that the P-deficiency significantly increased the phytase activity in nodules of all RILs though with highest extent for RILs 147, 29 and 83 (ca 45%). This increase in phytase activity was associated with an increase in nodule respiration (ca 22%) and in use of the rhizobial symbiosis (ca 21%). A significant correlation was found under P-deficiency between nodule O2 permeability and phytase activity in nodules for RILs 104, 34 and 115. This observation is to our knowledge the first description of a correlation between O2 permeability and phytase activity of a legume nodule. It is concluded that the variation of phytase activity in nodules can increase the internal utilization of P and might be involved in the regulation of nodule permeability for the respiration linked with SNF and the adaptation to P-deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Liao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean. PMID:26432877

  20. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean.

  1. RNA-seq transcriptome profiling reveals that Medicago truncatula nodules acclimate N₂ fixation before emerging P deficiency reaches the nodules.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Ricardo A; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; von Stieglitz, Ilsabe; Neumann, Janice; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    Legume nodules are plant tissues with an exceptionally high concentration of phosphorus (P), which, when there is scarcity of P, is preferentially maintained there rather than being allocated to other plant organs. The hypothesis of this study was that nodules are affected before the P concentration in the organ declines during whole-plant P depletion. Nitrogen (N₂) fixation and P concentration in various organs were monitored during a whole-plant P-depletion process in Medicago truncatula. Nodule gene expression was profiled through RNA-seq at day 5 of P depletion. Until that point in time P concentration in leaves reached a lower threshold but was maintained in nodules. N₂-fixation activity per plant diverged from that of fully nourished plants beginning at day 5 of the P-depletion process, primarily because fewer nodules were being formed, while the activity of the existing nodules was maintained for as long as two weeks into P depletion. RNA-seq revealed nodule acclimation on a molecular level with a total of 1140 differentially expressed genes. Numerous genes for P remobilization from organic structures were increasingly expressed. Various genes involved in nodule malate formation were upregulated, while genes involved in fermentation were downregulated. The fact that nodule formation was strongly repressed with the onset of P deficiency is reflected in the differential expression of various genes involved in nodulation. It is concluded that plants follow a strategy to maintain N₂ fixation and viable leaf tissue as long as possible during whole-plant P depletion to maintain their ability to react to emerging new P sources (e.g. through active P acquisition by roots).

  2. Bradyrhizobium BclA Is a Peptide Transporter Required for Bacterial Differentiation in Symbiosis with Aeschynomene Legumes.

    PubMed

    Guefrachi, Ibtissem; Pierre, Olivier; Timchenko, Tatiana; Alunni, Benoît; Barrière, Quentin; Czernic, Pierre; Villaécija-Aguilar, José-Antonio; Verly, Camille; Bourge, Mickaël; Fardoux, Joël; Mars, Mohamed; Kondorosi, Eva; Giraud, Eric; Mergaert, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Nodules of legume plants are highly integrated symbiotic systems shaped by millions of years of evolution. They harbor nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria called bacteroids. Several legume species produce peptides called nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides in the symbiotic nodule cells which house the bacteroids. NCR peptides are related to antimicrobial peptides of innate immunity. They induce the endosymbionts into a differentiated, enlarged, and polyploid state. The bacterial symbionts, on their side, evolved functions for the response to the NCR peptides. Here, we identified the bclA gene of Bradyrhizobium sp. strains ORS278 and ORS285, which is required for the formation of differentiated and functional bacteroids in the nodules of the NCR peptide-producing Aeschynomene legumes. The BclA ABC transporter promotes the import of NCR peptides and provides protection against the antimicrobial activity of these peptides. Moreover, BclA can complement the role of the related BacA transporter of Sinorhizobium meliloti, which has a similar symbiotic function in the interaction with Medicago legumes.

  3. PII Overexpression in Lotus japonicus Affects Nodule Activity in Permissive Low-Nitrogen Conditions and Increases Nodule Numbers in High Nitrogen Treated Plants.

    PubMed

    D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Valkov, Vladimir Totev; Parlati, Aurora; Omrane, Selim; Barbulova, Ani; Sainz, Maria Martha; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Rogato, Alessandra; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    We report here the first characterization of a GLNB1 gene coding for the PII protein in leguminous plants. The main purpose of this work was the investigation of the possible roles played by this multifunctional protein in nodulation pathways. The Lotus japonicus LjGLB1 gene shows a significant transcriptional regulation during the light-dark cycle and different nitrogen availability, conditions that strongly affect nodule formation, development, and functioning. We also report analysis of the spatial profile of expression of LjGLB1 in root and nodule tissues and of the protein's subcellular localization. Transgenic L. japonicus lines overexpressing the PII protein were obtained and tested for the analysis of the symbiotic responses in different conditions. The uncoupling of PII from its native regulation affects nitrogenase activity and nodule polyamine content. Furthermore, our results suggest the involvement of PII in the signaling of the nitrogen nutritional status affecting the legumes' predisposition for nodule formation.

  4. Mutualism and adaptive divergence: co-invasion of a heterogeneous grassland by an exotic legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephanie S; Stanton, Maureen L; Rice, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Species interactions play a critical role in biological invasions. For example, exotic plant and microbe mutualists can facilitate each other's spread as they co-invade novel ranges. Environmental context may influence the effect of mutualisms on invasions in heterogeneous environments, however these effects are poorly understood. We examined the mutualism between the legume, Medicago polymorpha, and the rhizobium, Ensifer medicae, which have both invaded California grasslands. Many of these invaded grasslands are composed of a patchwork of harsh serpentine and relatively benign non-serpentine soils. We grew legume genotypes collected from serpentine or non-serpentine soil in both types of soil in combination with rhizobium genotypes from serpentine or non-serpentine soils and in the absence of rhizobia. Legumes invested more strongly in the mutualism in the home soil type and trends in fitness suggested that this ecotypic divergence was adaptive. Serpentine legumes had greater allocation to symbiotic root nodules in serpentine soil than did non-serpentine legumes and non-serpentine legumes had greater allocation to nodules in non-serpentine soil than did serpentine legumes. Therefore, this invasive legume has undergone the rapid evolution of divergence for soil-specific investment in the mutualism. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the mutualism was less beneficial for legumes grown on the stressful serpentine soil than on the non-serpentine soil, possibly due to the inhibitory effects of serpentine on the benefits derived from the interaction. The soil-specific ability to allocate to a robust microbial mutualism may be a critical, and previously overlooked, adaptation for plants adapting to heterogeneous environments during invasion.

  5. Mutualism and Adaptive Divergence: Co-Invasion of a Heterogeneous Grassland by an Exotic Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Stephanie S.; Stanton, Maureen L.; Rice, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Species interactions play a critical role in biological invasions. For example, exotic plant and microbe mutualists can facilitate each other's spread as they co-invade novel ranges. Environmental context may influence the effect of mutualisms on invasions in heterogeneous environments, however these effects are poorly understood. We examined the mutualism between the legume, Medicago polymorpha, and the rhizobium, Ensifer medicae, which have both invaded California grasslands. Many of these invaded grasslands are composed of a patchwork of harsh serpentine and relatively benign non-serpentine soils. We grew legume genotypes collected from serpentine or non-serpentine soil in both types of soil in combination with rhizobium genotypes from serpentine or non-serpentine soils and in the absence of rhizobia. Legumes invested more strongly in the mutualism in the home soil type and trends in fitness suggested that this ecotypic divergence was adaptive. Serpentine legumes had greater allocation to symbiotic root nodules in serpentine soil than did non-serpentine legumes and non-serpentine legumes had greater allocation to nodules in non-serpentine soil than did serpentine legumes. Therefore, this invasive legume has undergone the rapid evolution of divergence for soil-specific investment in the mutualism. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the mutualism was less beneficial for legumes grown on the stressful serpentine soil than on the non-serpentine soil, possibly due to the inhibitory effects of serpentine on the benefits derived from the interaction. The soil-specific ability to allocate to a robust microbial mutualism may be a critical, and previously overlooked, adaptation for plants adapting to heterogeneous environments during invasion. PMID:22174755

  6. N2-fixing tropical legume evolution: a contributor to enhanced weathering through the Cenozoic?

    PubMed

    Epihov, Dimitar Z; Batterman, Sarah A; Hedin, Lars O; Leake, Jonathan R; Smith, Lisa M; Beerling, David J

    2017-08-16

    Fossil and phylogenetic evidence indicates legume-rich modern tropical forests replaced Late Cretaceous palm-dominated tropical forests across four continents during the early Cenozoic (58-42 Ma). Tropical legume trees can transform ecosystems via their ability to fix dinitrogen (N2) and higher leaf N compared with non-legumes (35-65%), but it is unclear how their evolutionary rise contributed to silicate weathering, the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Here we hypothesize that the increasing abundance of N2-fixing legumes in tropical forests amplified silicate weathering rates by increased input of fixed nitrogen (N) to terrestrial ecosystems via interrelated mechanisms including increasing microbial respiration and soil acidification, and stimulating forest net primary productivity. We suggest the high CO2 early Cenozoic atmosphere further amplified legume weathering. Evolution of legumes with high weathering rates was probably driven by their high demand for phosphorus and micronutrients required for N2-fixation and nodule formation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. N2-fixing tropical legume evolution: a contributor to enhanced weathering through the Cenozoic?

    PubMed Central

    Hedin, Lars O.; Leake, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Fossil and phylogenetic evidence indicates legume-rich modern tropical forests replaced Late Cretaceous palm-dominated tropical forests across four continents during the early Cenozoic (58–42 Ma). Tropical legume trees can transform ecosystems via their ability to fix dinitrogen (N2) and higher leaf N compared with non-legumes (35–65%), but it is unclear how their evolutionary rise contributed to silicate weathering, the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Here we hypothesize that the increasing abundance of N2-fixing legumes in tropical forests amplified silicate weathering rates by increased input of fixed nitrogen (N) to terrestrial ecosystems via interrelated mechanisms including increasing microbial respiration and soil acidification, and stimulating forest net primary productivity. We suggest the high CO2 early Cenozoic atmosphere further amplified legume weathering. Evolution of legumes with high weathering rates was probably driven by their high demand for phosphorus and micronutrients required for N2-fixation and nodule formation. PMID:28814651

  8. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-08-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti. The primary transcript was processed in the same way as in soybean nodules and the resulting mRNA was translated into Lbc(3) protein. Quantitative determination of the Lbc(3) protein in nodules of transgenic plants indicated that the steady-state level of the soybean protein is comparable to that of endogenous Lotus leghemoglobin.

  9. Nodulation of Sesbania Species by Rhizobium (Agrobacterium) Strain IRBG74 and Other Rhizobia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concatenated sequence analysis with 16S rRNA, rpoB and fusA genes identified a strain (IRBG74) isolated from root nodules of the aquatic legume Sesbania cannabina as a close relative of the plant pathogen Rhizobium radiobacter (syn. Agrobacterium tumefaciens). However, DNA:DNA hybridisation with R. ...

  10. KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX 3: a new regulator of symbiotic nodule development

    PubMed Central

    Azarakhsh, M.; Kirienko, A. N.; Zhukov, V. A.; Lebedeva, M. A.; Dolgikh, E. A.; Lutova, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    KNOX transcription factors (TFs) regulate different aspects of plant development essentially through their effects on phytohormone metabolism. In particular, KNOX TF SHOOTMERISTEMLESS activates the cytokinin biosynthesis ISOPENTENYL TRANSFERASE (IPT) genes in the shoot apical meristem. However, the role of KNOX TFs in symbiotic nodule development and their possible effects on phytohormone metabolism during nodulation have not been studied to date. Cytokinin is a well-known regulator of nodule development, playing the key role in the regulation of cell division during nodule primordium formation. Recently, the activation of IPT genes was shown to take place during nodulation. Therefore, it was hypothesized that KNOX TFs may regulate nodule development and activate cytokinin biosynthesis upon nodulation. This study analysed the expression of different KNOX genes in Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and Pisum sativum L. Among them, the KNOX3 gene was upregulated in response to rhizobial inoculation in both species. pKNOX3::GUS activity was observed in developing nodule primordium. KNOX3 ectopic expression caused the formation of nodule-like structures on transgenic root without bacterial inoculation, a phenotype similar to one described previously for legumes with constitutive activation of the cytokinin receptor. Furthermore, in transgenic roots with MtKNOX3 knockdown, downregulation of A-type cytokinin response genes was found, as well as the MtIPT3 and LONELYGUY2 (MtLOG2) gene being involved in cytokinin activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that KNOX3 gene is involved in symbiotic nodule development and may regulate cytokinin biosynthesis/activation upon nodule development in legume plants. PMID:26351356

  11. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea.

  12. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  13. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Effective and Ineffective Alfalfa Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, J. Stephen; Larson, Ruby J.; Farnham, Mark W.; Pathirana, Sudam M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1992-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) is a key plant enzyme affecting nitrogen and carbon metabolism, particularly in legume root nodules and leaves of C4 species. To ascertain the molecular genetic characteristics and biochemical regulation of AAT, we have isolated a cDNA encoding the nodule-enhanced AAT (AAT-2) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by screening a root nodule cDNA expression library with antibodies. Complementation of an Escherichia coli AAT mutant with the alfalfa nodule AAT-2 cDNA verified the identity of the clone. The deduced amino acid sequence of alfalfa AAT-2 is 53 and 47% identical to animal mitochondrial and cytosolic AATs, respectively. The deduced molecular mass of AAT-2 is 50,959 daltons, whereas the mass of purified AAT-2 is about 40 kilodaltons as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the protein's N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-59) contains many of the characteristics of plastid-targeting peptides. We postulate that AAT-2 is localized to the plastid. Southern blot analysis suggests that AAT-2 is encoded by a small, multigene family. The expression of AAT-2 mRNA in nodules is severalfold greater than that in either leaves or roots. Northern and western blots showed that expression of AAT activity during effective nodule development is accompanied by a sevenfold increase in AAT-2 mRNA and a comparable increase in enzyme protein. By contrast, plant-controlled ineffective nodules express AAT-2 mRNA at much lower levels and have little to no AAT-2 enzyme protein. Expression of root nodule AAT-2 appears to be regulated by at least two events: the first is independent of nitrogenase activity; the second is associated with nodule effectiveness. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:16668758

  14. [The Effect of Cadmium on the Efficiency of Development of Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis].

    PubMed

    Chuhukova, O V; Postrigan, B N; Baimiev, A Kh; Chemeris, A V

    2015-01-01

    Screening of nodule bacteria (rhizobia) forming symbiotic relationships with legumes has been performed in order to isolate strains resistant to cadmium ions in a wide range of concentrations (6-132 mg/kg). The effect ofcadmium salts (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) on the legume-rhizobium symbiosis ofthe pea Pisum sativum L. with Rhizobium leguminosarum and of the fodder galega Galega orientalis Lam. with Rhizobium galegae has been studied under experimental laboratory conditions. No statistically significant differences have been revealed in the growth and biomass of plants with regard to the control in the range of concentrations given above. However, it was found that cadmium inhibited nodulation in P. sativum and stimulated it in G. orientalis.

  15. Iron: an essential micronutrient for the legume-rhizobium symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Brear, Ella M.; Day, David A.; Smith, Penelope M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Legumes, which develop a symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, have an increased demand for iron. Iron is required for the synthesis of iron-containing proteins in the host, including the highly abundant leghemoglobin, and in bacteroids for nitrogenase and cytochromes of the electron transport chain. Deficiencies in iron can affect initiation and development of the nodule. Within root cells, iron is chelated with organic acids such as citrate and nicotianamine and distributed to other parts of the plant. Transport to the nitrogen-fixing bacteroids in infected cells of nodules is more complicated. Formation of the symbiosis results in bacteroids internalized within root cortical cells of the legume where they are surrounded by a plant-derived membrane termed the symbiosome membrane (SM). This membrane forms an interface that regulates nutrient supply to the bacteroid. Consequently, iron must cross this membrane before being supplied to the bacteroid. Iron is transported across the SM as both ferric and ferrous iron. However, uptake of Fe(II) by both the symbiosome and bacteroid is faster than Fe(III) uptake. Members of more than one protein family may be responsible for Fe(II) transport across the SM. The only Fe(II) transporter in nodules characterized to date is GmDMT1 (Glycine max divalent metal transporter 1), which is located on the SM in soybean. Like the root plasma membrane, the SM has ferric iron reductase activity. The protein responsible has not been identified but is predicted to reduce ferric iron accumulated in the symbiosome space prior to uptake by the bacteroid. With the recent publication of a number of legume genomes including Medicago truncatula and G. max, a large number of additional candidate transport proteins have been identified. Members of the NRAMP (natural resistance-associated macrophage protein), YSL (yellow stripe-like), VIT (vacuolar iron transporter), and ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like protein) transport families show enhanced expression in

  16. Rhizobial Factors Required for Stem Nodule Maturation and Maintenance in Sesbania rostrata-Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 Symbiosis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shino; Aono, Toshihiro; Lee, Kyung-Bum; Suzuki, Tadahiro; Liu, Chi-Te; Miwa, Hiroki; Wakao, Seiji; Iki, Taichiro; Oyaizu, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the maturation and maintenance of N2-fixing nodules during development of symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes still remain unclear, although the early events of symbiosis are relatively well understood. Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 is a microsymbiont of the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata, forming N2-fixing nodules not only on the roots but also on the stems. In this study, 10,080 transposon-inserted mutants of A. caulinodans ORS571 were individually inoculated onto the stems of S. rostrata, and those mutants that induced ineffective stem nodules, as displayed by halted development at various stages, were selected. From repeated observations on stem nodulation, 108 Tn5 mutants were selected and categorized into seven nodulation types based on size and N2 fixation activity. Tn5 insertions of some mutants were found in the well-known nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and symbiosis-related genes, such as nod, nif, and fix, respectively, lipopolysaccharide synthesis-related genes, C4 metabolism-related genes, and so on. However, other genes have not been reported to have roles in legume-rhizobium symbiosis. The list of newly identified symbiosis-related genes will present clues to aid in understanding the maturation and maintenance mechanisms of nodules. PMID:17720818

  17. A nodule-specific lipid transfer protein AsE246 participates in transport of plant-synthesized lipids to symbiosome membrane and is essential for nodule organogenesis in Chinese milk vetch.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Ling; Shi, Xiaofeng; Li, Yixing; Wang, Jianyun; Chen, Dasong; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-02-01

    Rhizobia in legume root nodules fix nitrogen in symbiosomes, organelle-like structures in which a membrane from the host plant surrounds the symbiotic bacteria. However, the components that transport plant-synthesized lipids to the symbiosome membrane remain unknown. This study identified and functionally characterized the Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) lipid transfer protein AsE246, which is specifically expressed in nodules. It was found that AsE246 can bind lipids in vitro. More importantly, AsE246 can bind the plant-synthesized membrane lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol in vivo. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that AsE246 and digalactosyldiacylglycerol localize in the symbiosome membrane and are present in infection threads. Overexpression of AsE246 resulted in increased nodule numbers; knockdown of AsE246 resulted in reduced nodule numbers, decreased lipids contents in nodules, diminished nitrogen fixation activity, and abnormal development of symbiosomes. AsE246 knockdown also resulted in fewer infection threads, nodule primordia, and nodules, while AsE246 overexpression resulted in more infection threads and nodule primordia, suggesting that AsE246 affects nodule organogenesis associated with infection thread formation. Taken together, these results indicate that AsE246 contributes to lipids transport to the symbiosome membrane, and this transport is required for effective legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

  18. A Nodule-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein AsE246 Participates in Transport of Plant-Synthesized Lipids to Symbiosome Membrane and Is Essential for Nodule Organogenesis in Chinese Milk Vetch1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Ling; Shi, Xiaofeng; Li, Yixing; Wang, Jianyun; Chen, Dasong; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobia in legume root nodules fix nitrogen in symbiosomes, organelle-like structures in which a membrane from the host plant surrounds the symbiotic bacteria. However, the components that transport plant-synthesized lipids to the symbiosome membrane remain unknown. This study identified and functionally characterized the Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) lipid transfer protein AsE246, which is specifically expressed in nodules. It was found that AsE246 can bind lipids in vitro. More importantly, AsE246 can bind the plant-synthesized membrane lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol in vivo. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that AsE246 and digalactosyldiacylglycerol localize in the symbiosome membrane and are present in infection threads. Overexpression of AsE246 resulted in increased nodule numbers; knockdown of AsE246 resulted in reduced nodule numbers, decreased lipids contents in nodules, diminished nitrogen fixation activity, and abnormal development of symbiosomes. AsE246 knockdown also resulted in fewer infection threads, nodule primordia, and nodules, while AsE246 overexpression resulted in more infection threads and nodule primordia, suggesting that AsE246 affects nodule organogenesis associated with infection thread formation. Taken together, these results indicate that AsE246 contributes to lipids transport to the symbiosome membrane, and this transport is required for effective legume-rhizobium symbiosis. PMID:24367021

  19. Swimming and swarming motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Julio C; Dardanelli, Marta S; Giordano, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Motility allows populations of bacteria to rapidly reach and colonize new microniches or microhabitats. The motility of rhizobia (symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate legume roots) is an important factor determining their competitive success. We evaluated the effects of temperature, incubation time, and seed exudates on swimming and swarming motility of five strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (peanut-nodulating rhizobia). Swimming motility was increased by exudate exposure for all strains except native Pc34. In contrast, swarming motility was increased by exudate exposure for native 15A but unchanged for the other four strains. All five strains displayed the ability to differentiate into swarm cells. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that the length of the swarm cells was variable, but generally greater than that of vegetative cells. Our findings suggest the importance of differential motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobial strains during agricultural inoculation and early steps of symbiotic interaction with the host.

  20. Transcript profiling of common bean nodules subjected to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Mario; Guillén, Gabriel; Fuentes, Sara I; Iñiguez, Luis P; Aparicio-Fabre, Rosaura; Zamorano-Sánchez, David; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio; Panzeri, Dario; Castiglioni, Bianca; Cremonesi, Paola; Strozzi, Francesco; Stella, Alessandra; Girard, Lourdes; Sparvoli, Francesca; Hernández, Georgina

    2013-11-01

    Several environmental stresses generate high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells, resulting in oxidative stress. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is sensitive to damage from oxidative stress. Active nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) exposed to the herbicide paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride hydrate), which stimulates ROS accumulation, exhibited reduced nitrogenase activity and ureide content. We analyzed the global gene response of nodules subjected to oxidative stress using the Bean Custom Array 90K, which includes probes from 30,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 4280 ESTs were differentially expressed in stressed bean nodules; of these, 2218 were repressed. Based on Gene Ontology analysis, these genes were grouped into 42 different biological process categories. Analysis with the PathExpress bioinformatic tool, adapted for bean, identified five significantly repressed metabolic pathways related to carbon/nitrogen metabolism, which is crucial for nodule function. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR analysis of transcription factor (TF) gene expression showed that 67 TF genes were differentially expressed in nodules exposed to oxidative stress. Putative cis-elements recognized by highly responsive TF were detected in promoter regions of oxidative stress regulated genes. The expression of oxidative stress responsive genes and of genes important for SNF in bacteroids analyzed in stressed nodules revealed that these conditions elicited a transcriptional response. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Systemic Regulation of Soybean Nodulation by Acidic Growth Conditions1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng-Han; Gresshoff, Peter M.; Ferguson, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms inhibiting legume nodulation by low soil pH, although highly prevalent and economically significant, are poorly understood. We addressed this in soybean (Glycine max) using a combination of physiological and genetic approaches. Split-root and grafting studies using an autoregulation-of-nodulation-deficient mutant line, altered in the autoregulation-of-nodulation receptor kinase GmNARK, determined that a systemic, shoot-controlled, and GmNARK-dependent mechanism was critical for facilitating the inhibitory effect. Acid inhibition was independent of aluminum ion concentration and occurred early in nodule development, between 12 and 96 h post inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Biological effects were confirmed by measuring transcript numbers of known early nodulation genes. Transcripts decreased on both sides of split-root systems, where only one side was subjected to low-pH conditions. Our findings enhance the present understanding of the innate mechanisms regulating legume nodulation control under acidic conditions, which could benefit future attempts in agriculture to improve nodule development and biological nitrogen fixation in acid-stressed soils. PMID:23054568

  2. Generation of 7137 non-redundant expressed sequence tags from a legume, Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Asamizu, E; Nakamura, Y; Sato, S; Tabata, S

    2000-04-28

    For comprehensive analysis of genes expressed in a model legume, Lotus japonicus, a total of 22,983 5' end expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were accumulated from normalized and size-selected cDNA libraries constructed from young (2 weeks old) plants. The EST sequences were clustered into 7137 non-redundant groups. Similarity search against public non-redundant protein database indicated that 3302 groups showed similarity to genes of known function, 1143 groups to hypothetical genes, and 2692 were novel sequences. Homologues of 5 nodule-specific genes which have been reported in other legume species were contained in the collected ESTs, suggesting that the EST source generated in this study will become a useful tool for identification of genes related to legume-specific biological processes. The sequence data of individual ESTs are available at the web site: http://www.kazusa.or.jp/en/plant/lotus/EST/.

  3. Medicago truncatula and Glycine max: Different Drought Tolerance and Similar Local Response of the Root Nodule Proteome.

    PubMed

    Gil-Quintana, Erena; Lyon, David; Staudinger, Christiana; Wienkoop, Stefanie; González, Esther M

    2015-12-04

    Legume crops present important agronomical and environmental advantages mainly due to their capacity to reduce atmospheric N2 to ammonium via symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). This process is very sensitive to abiotic stresses such as drought, but the mechanism underlying this response is not fully understood. The goal of the current work is to compare the drought response of two legumes with high economic impact and research importance, Medicago truncatula and Glycine max, by characterizing their root nodule proteomes. Our results show that, although M. truncatula exhibits lower water potential values under drought conditions compared to G. max, SNF declined analogously in the two legumes. Both of their nodule proteomes are very similar, and comparable down-regulation responses in the diverse protein functional groups were identified (mainly proteins related to the metabolism of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur). We suggest lipoxygenases and protein turnover as newly recognized players in SNF regulation. Partial drought conditions applied to a split-root system resulted in the local down-regulation of the entire proteome of drought-stressed nodules in both legumes. The high degree of similarity between both legume proteomes suggests that the vast amount of research conducted on M. truncatula could be applied to economically important legume crops, such as soybean.

  4. The Carbon-Nitrogen Balance of the Nodule and Its Regulation under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency. PMID:24987690

  5. The carbon-nitrogen balance of the nodule and its regulation under elevated carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Libault, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  6. Root nodule bacteria from Clitoria ternatea L. are putative invasive nonrhizobial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Aeron, Abhinav; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Dubey, Ramesh Chand; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2015-02-01

    In this study, bacteria (8 species and 5 genera) belonging to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria were isolated from root nodules of the multipurpose legume Clitoria ternatea L. and identified on the basis of partial 16S rRNA sequencing. The root nodule bacteria were subjected to phenotypic clustering and diversity studies using biochemical kits, including Hi-Media Carbokit™, Enterobacteriaceae™ identification kit, ERIC-PCR, and 16S ARDRA. All the strains showed growth on Ashby's N-free media over 7 generations, indicative of presumptive nitrogen fixation and further confirmed by amplification of the nifH gene. None of the strains showed the capability to renodulate the host plant, neither alone nor in combination with standard rhizobial strains, which was further confirmed by the absence of nodC bands in PCR assay. The results clearly indicate the common existence of nonrhizobial microflora inside the root nodules of legumes, which were thought to be colonized only by rhizobia and were responsible for N2 fixation in leguminous crops. However, with the recent discovery of nodule endophytes from a variety of legumes, as also observed here, it can be assumed that symbiotic rhizobia are not all alone and that these invasive endophytes belonging to various bacterial genera are more than just opportunistic colonizers of specialized nodule niche.

  7. Cloning and functional characterization of a homoglutathione synthetase from pea nodules.

    PubMed

    Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Heras, Begoña; Matamoros, Manuel A; Ramos, Javier; Moran, Jose F; Becana, Manuel

    2002-05-01

    The thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH; gammaGlu-Cys-Gly) is very abundant in legume nodules where it performs multiple functions that are critical for optimal nitrogen fixation. Some legume nodules contain another tripeptide, homoglutathione (hGSH; gammaGlu-Cys-betaAla), in addition to or instead of GSH. We have isolated from a pea (Pisum sativum L.) nodule library a cDNA, GSHS2, that is expressed in nodules but not in leaves. This cDNA was overexpressed in insect cells and its protein product was identified as a highly active and specific hGSH synthetase. The enzyme, the first of this type to be completely purified, is predicted to be a homodimeric cytosolic protein. It shows a specific activity of 3400 nmol hGSH min-1 mg-1 protein with a standard substrate concentration (5 mM beta-alanine) and Km values of 1.9 mM for beta-alanine and 104 mM for glycine. The specificity constant (Vmax/Km) shows that the pure enzyme is 57.3-fold more specific for beta-alanine than for glycine. Southern blot analysis revealed that the gene is present as a single copy in the pea genome and that there are homologous genes in other legumes. We conclude that the synthesis of hGSH in pea nodules is catalysed by a specific hGSH synthetase and not by a GSH synthetase with broad substrate specificity.

  8. Disentangling the complexities of how legumes and their symbionts regulate plant nitrogen access and storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Sasha C.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability strongly influences the structure and function of ecosystems (e.g. Vitousek & Howarth, 1991), but only a relatively small number of microbial groups have the ability to convert the N2 in our atmosphere into biologically available forms.This process, N2 fixation, is the dominant source of new N to the biosphere outside of anthropogenic inputs (Vitousek et al., 2013).Some N2-fixing microorganisms live independently on plant leaves, on decomposing organic material, and in soil (Reed et al.,2011), while others have co-evolved with a few higher plant taxa to form symbioses that fix N2 in root nodules (e.g. Sprent & Raven,1985). The relationship between these legumes and their root nodule symbionts (rhizobia) is one of the most well studied plant –microbe symbioses. Yet, many important questions about the controls, interactions, and implications of legume N2 fixation remain unanswered. In this issue of New Phytologist (pp. 690–699),Wolf, Funk, & Menge elegantly address a fundamental set of questions about N2 fixation in their examination of how herbaceous legumes, their symbionts, and external N availability interact to govern legume access and storage of N.

  9. Quantitative trait locus analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Akiyoshi; Gondo, Takahiro; Akashi, Ryo; Zheng, Shao-Hui; Arima, Susumu; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2012-05-01

    Many legumes form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. An elevation of nitrogen fixation in such legumes would have significant implications for plant growth and biomass production in agriculture. To identify the genetic basis for the regulation of nitrogen fixation, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Miyakojima MG-20 × Gifu B-129 in the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and grown for 14 days in pods containing vermiculite. Phenotypic data were collected for acetylene reduction activity (ARA) per plant (ARA/P), ARA per nodule weight (ARA/NW), ARA per nodule number (ARA/NN), NN per plant, NW per plant, stem length (SL), SL without inoculation (SLbac-), shoot dry weight without inoculation (SWbac-), root length without inoculation (RLbac-), and root dry weight (RWbac-), and finally 34 QTLs were identified. ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL showed strong correlations and QTL co-localization, suggesting that several plant characteristics important for symbiotic nitrogen fixation are controlled by the same locus. QTLs for ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL, co-localized around marker TM0832 on chromosome 4, were also co-localized with previously reported QTLs for seed mass. This is the first report of QTL analysis for symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity traits.

  10. A Phylogenetic Strategy Based on a Legume-Specific Whole Genome Duplication Yields Symbiotic Cytokinin Type-A Response Regulators1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Op den Camp, Rik H.M.; De Mita, Stéphane; Lillo, Alessandra; Cao, Qingqin; Limpens, Erik; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, René

    2011-01-01

    Legumes host their Rhizobium spp. symbiont in novel root organs called nodules. Nodules originate from differentiated root cortical cells that dedifferentiate and subsequently form nodule primordia, a process controlled by cytokinin. A whole-genome duplication has occurred at the root of the legume Papilionoideae subfamily. We hypothesize that gene pairs originating from this duplication event and are conserved in distinct Papilionoideae lineages have evolved symbiotic functions. A phylogenetic strategy was applied to search for such gene pairs to identify novel regulators of nodulation, using the cytokinin phosphorelay pathway as a test case. In this way, two paralogous type-A cytokinin response regulators were identified that are involved in root nodule symbiosis. Response Regulator9 (MtRR9) and MtRR11 in medicago (Medicago truncatula) and an ortholog in lotus (Lotus japonicus) are rapidly induced upon Rhizobium spp. Nod factor signaling. Constitutive expression of MtRR9 results in arrested primordia that have emerged from cortical, endodermal, and pericycle cells. In legumes, lateral root primordia are not exclusively formed from pericycle cells but also require the involvement of the root cortical cell layer. Therefore, the MtRR9-induced foci of cell divisions show a strong resemblance to lateral root primordia, suggesting an ancestral function of MtRR9 in this process. Together, these findings provide a proof of principle for the applied phylogenetic strategy to identify genes with a symbiotic function in legumes. PMID:22034625

  11. Novel players in the AP2-miR172 regulatory network for common bean nodulation.

    PubMed

    Íñiguez, Luis P; Nova-Franco, Bárbara; Hernández, Georgina

    2015-01-01

    The intricate regulatory network for floral organogenesis in plants that includes AP2/ERF, SPL and AGL transcription factors, miR172 and miR156 along with other components is well documented, though its complexity and size keep increasing. The miR172/AP2 node was recently proposed as essential regulator in the legume-rhizobia nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Research from our group contributed to demonstrate the control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) nodulation by miR172c/AP2-1, however no other components of such regulatory network have been reported. Here we propose AGLs as new protagonists in the regulation of common bean nodulation and discuss the relevance of future deeper analysis of the complex AP2 regulatory network for nodule organogenesis in legumes.

  12. Rhizobial synthesized cytokinins contribute to but are not essential for the symbiotic interaction between photosynthetic Bradyrhizobia and Aeschynomene legumes.

    PubMed

    Podlešáková, Kateřina; Fardoux, Joel; Patrel, Delphine; Bonaldi, Katia; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Giraud, Eric; Spíchal, Lukáš; Nouwen, Nico

    2013-10-01

    Cytokinins (CK) play an important role in the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. It has been known for years that rhizobia secrete CK in the extracellular medium but whether they play a role in nodule formation is not known. We have examined this question using the photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285 which is able to nodulate Aeschynomene afraspera and A. indica using a Nod-dependent or Nod-independent symbiotic process, respectively. CK profiling showed that the most abundant CK secreted by Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285 are the 2MeS (2-methylthiol) derivatives of trans-zeatin and isopentenyladenine. In their pure form, these CK can activate legume CK receptors in vitro, and their exogenous addition induced nodule-like structures on host plants. Deletion of the miaA gene showed that transfer RNA degradation is the source of CK production in Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285. In nodulation studies performed with A. indica and A. afraspera, the miaA mutant had a 1-day delay in nodulation and nitrogen fixation. Moreover, A. indica plants formed considerably smaller but more abundant nodules when inoculated with the miaA mutant. These data show that CK produced by Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285 are not the key signal triggering nodule formation during the Nod-independent symbiosis but they contribute positively to nodule development in Aeschynomene plants.

  13. A translationally controlled tumor protein gene Rpf41 is required for the nodulation of Robinia pseudoacacia.

    PubMed

    Chou, Minxia; Xia, Congcong; Feng, Zhao; Sun, Yali; Zhang, Dehui; Zhang, Mingzhe; Wang, Li; Wei, Gehong

    2016-03-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is fundamental for the regulation of development and general growth in eukaryotes. Its multiple functions have been deduced from its involvement in several cell pathways, but its potential involvement in symbiotic nodulation of legumes cannot be suggested a priori. In the present work, we identified and characterized from the woody leguminous tree Robinia pseudoacacia a homolog of TCTP, Rpf41, which was up-regulated in the infected roots at 15 days post-inoculation but decreased in the matured nodules. Subcellular location assay showed that Rpf41 protein was located in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and also maybe in cytoskeleton. Knockdown of Rpf41 via RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in the impaired development of both nodule and root hair. Compared with wild plants, the root and stem length, fresh weight and nodule number per plant was decreased dramatically in Rpf41 RNAi plants. The number of ITs or nodule primordia was also significantly reduced in the Rpf41 RNAi roots. The analyses of nodule ultrastructure showed that the infected cell development in Rpf41 RNAi nodules remained in zone II, which had fewer infected cells. Furthermore, the symbiosomes displayed noticeable shrinkage of bacteroid and peribacteroid space enlargement in the infected cells of Rpf41 RNAi nodules. In the deeper cell layers, a more remarkable aberration of the infected cell ultrastructure was observed, and electron-transparent lesions in the bacteroid cytoplasm were detected. These results identify TCTP as an important regulator of symbiotic nodulation in legume for the first time, and it may be involved in symbiotic cell differentiation and preventing premature aging of the young nodules in R. pseudoacacia.

  14. Legume genomics: understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approx. 17 000 species. A few of these species, including, but not limited to, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing protein for approx. 300 million people worldwide. Additional species, including soybean (Glycine max) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), are important crops utilized mainly in animal feed. In addition, legumes are important contributors to biological nitrogen, forming symbiotic relationships with rhizobia to fix atmospheric N2 and providing up to 30 % of available nitrogen for the next season of crops. The application of high-throughput genomic technologies including genome sequencing projects, genome re-sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) by the legume research community has provided major insights into genome evolution, genomic architecture and domestication. Scope and Conclusions This review presents an overview of the current state of legume genomics and explores the role that next-generation sequencing technologies play in advancing legume genomics. The adoption of next-generation sequencing and implementation of associated bioinformatic tools has allowed researchers to turn each species of interest into their own model organism. To illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing, an in-depth overview of the transcriptomes of both soybean and white lupin (Lupinus albus) is provided. The soybean transcriptome focuses on analysing seed development in two near-isogenic lines, examining the role of transporters, oil biosynthesis and nitrogen utilization. The white lupin transcriptome analysis examines how phosphate deficiency alters gene expression patterns, inducing the formation of cluster roots. Such studies illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in elucidating the gene networks underlying biological processes. PMID:24769535

  15. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Benign nodules generally fall into two categories making up 90% of all benign lesions. These are infectious granulomas incorporating 80% of benign...nodules and hamartomas comprising 10% of the remainder. Infectious granulomas are generally caused by fungi endemic to the environment or

  16. Explaining coexistence of nitrogen fixing and non-fixing rhizobia in legume-rhizobia mutualism using mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Moyano, G; Marco, D; Knopoff, D; Torres, G; Turner, C

    2017-10-01

    In the mutualism established between legumes and soil bacteria known as rhizobia, bacteria from soil infect plants roots and reproduce inside root nodules where they fix atmospheric N2 for plant nutrition, receiving carbohydrates in exchange. Host-plant sanctions against non N2 fixing, cheating bacterial symbionts have been proposed to act in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, to preserve the mutualistic relationship. Sanctions include decreased rhizobial survival in nodules occupied by cheating rhizobia. Previously, a simple population model experimentally based showed that the coexistence of fixing and cheating rhizobia strains commonly found in field conditions is possible, and that the inclusion of sanctions leads to the extinction of cheating strains in soil. Here, we extend the previous model to include other factors that could complicate the sanction scenario, like horizontal transmission of symbiotic plasmids, turning non-nodulating strains into nodulating rhizobia, and competition between fixing and cheating strains for nodulation. In agreement with previous results, we show that plant populations persist even in the presence of cheating rhizobia without incorporating any sanction against the cheater populations in the model, under the realistic assumption that plants can at least get some amount of fixed N2 from the effectively mutualistic rhizobia occupying some nodules. Inclusion of plant sanctions leads to the unrealistic extinction of cheater strains in soil. Our results agree with increasing experimental evidence and theoretical work showing that mutualisms can persist in presence of cheating partners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxicity testing of heavy metals with the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis: High sensitivity to cadmium and arsenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Neumann, H; Bode-Kirchhoff, A; Madeheim, A; Wetzel, A

    1998-01-01

    Legume root nodules are the site of biological nitrogen fixation in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Nodules are structures unique to this symbiosis and they are morphologically as well as physiologically distinct from other plant organs. Organic substances affecting the macro- or microsymbionts vitality, such as PAHs (WETZEL: et al., 1991), reduce nodulation even before visible damage to the plant can be detected. We present data that the formation of nodules (nodulation) may also serve for ecotoxicological evaluation of heavy metals in different binding states. Tests were performed in petri dishes with alfalfa (lucerne) seedlings inoculated with Rhizobium meliloti. Cultivation took place in growth cabinets with carefully standardized and documented growth conditions. Data from stressed plants was recorded after 14 days of cultivation on contaminated substrate. A dose responsive decrease in nodulation was found after application of cadmium acetate, cadmium iodide, cadmium chloride, sodium salts of arsenate and arsenite, arsenic pentoxide, and lead nitrate, whereas lead acetate showed no effect up to a concentration of 3 microM. The dose response curves were used to calculate EC10, EC50 and EC90 values. EC50 values for cadmium compounds range from 1.5 to 9.5 pM. Testing different arsenic compounds results in EC50 from 2.6 to 20.1 microM. EC50 of lead nitrate is 2.2 microM. The sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability of this test system is discussed compared to established biotests.

  18. Bradyrhizobium sp. Strains That Nodulate the Leguminous Tree Acacia albida Produce Fucosylated and Partially Sulfated Nod Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Myriam; Lorquin, Jean; Ba, Salif; Sanon, Kadidia; Promé, Jean-Claude; Boivin, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    We determined the structures of Nod factors produced by six different Bradyrhizobium sp. strains nodulating the legume tree Acacia albida (syn. Faidherbia albida). Compounds from all strains were found to be similar, i.e., O-carbamoylated and substituted by an often sulfated methyl fucose and different from compounds produced by Rhizobium-Mesorhizobium-Sinorhizobium strains nodulating other species of the Acaciae tribe. PMID:11055966

  19. [Pulmonary nodules and arachnophobia].

    PubMed

    Colinet, B; Dargent, J-L; Fremault, A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary nodules are a common reason for consultation and their investigation must always exclude a possible neoplastic cause. This means that, in addition to a thorough history, investigations may be necessary which are sometimes invasive and therefore potentially a cause of iatrogenic harm. The toxic aetiologies for pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of a patient with pulmonary nodules occurring predominantly in the right lung, about 1cm in diameter, non-cavitating without calcification, and sometimes surrounded by a peripheral halo. The nodules were a chance finding during preoperative evaluation. After a comprehensive review, a reaction to an inhaled irritant was the preferred hypothesis, specifically overuse of a compound insecticide containing, in addition to the propellant gas and solvent type hydrocarbon - a mixture of piperonyl butoxide, of esbiothrine and permethrin. Removal of this led to the complete disappearance of nodules. Pathological examination identified bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pneumonia accompanied by non-necrotizing granulomas and lipid vacuoles.

  20. The role of nodules in the tolerance of common bean to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Slatni, Tarek; Ben Salah, Imen; Kouas, Saber; Abdelly, Chedly

    2014-05-01

    Iron is vital for the establishment and function of symbiotic root nodules of legumes. Although abundant in the environment, Fe is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth due to its low solubility and availability in some soils. We have studied the mechanism of iron uptake in the root nodules of common bean to evaluate the role of nodules in physiological responses to iron deficiency. Based on experiments using full or partial submergence of nodulated roots in the nutrient solution, our results show that the nodules were affected only slightly under iron deficiency, especially when the nodules were submerged in nutrient solution in the tolerant cultivar. In addition, fully submerged root nodules showed enhanced acidification of the nutrient solution and showed higher ferric chelate reductase activity than that of partially submerged roots in plants cultivated under Fe deficiency. The main results obtained in this work suggest that in addition to preferential Fe allocation from the root system to the nodules, this symbiotic organ probably develops some mechanisms to respond to iron deficiency. These mechanisms were implied especially in nodule Fe absorption efficiency and in the ability of this organ to take up Fe directly from the medium.

  1. microRNA160 dictates stage-specific auxin and cytokinin sensitivities and directs soybean nodule development.

    PubMed

    Nizampatnam, Narasimha Rao; Schreier, Spencer John; Damodaran, Suresh; Adhikari, Sajag; Subramanian, Senthil

    2015-10-01

    Legume nodules result from coordinated interactions between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The phytohormone cytokinin promotes nodule formation, and recent findings suggest that the phytohormone auxin inhibits nodule formation. Here we show that microRNA160 (miR160) is a key signaling element that determines the auxin/cytokinin balance during nodule development in soybean (Glycine max). miR160 appears to promote auxin activity by suppressing the levels of the ARF10/16/17 family of repressor ARF transcription factors. Using quantitative PCR assays and a fluorescence miRNA sensor, we show that miR160 levels are relatively low early during nodule formation and high in mature nodules. We had previously shown that ectopic expression of miR160 in soybean roots led to a severe reduction in nodule formation, coupled with enhanced sensitivity to auxin and reduced sensitivity to cytokinin. Here we show that exogenous cytokinin restores nodule formation in miR160 over-expressing roots. Therefore, low miR160 levels early during nodule development favor cytokinin activity required for nodule formation. Suppression of miR160 levels using a short tandem target mimic (STTM160) resulted in reduced sensitivity to auxin and enhanced sensitivity to cytokinin. In contrast to miR160 over-expressing roots, STTM160 roots had increased nodule formation, but nodule maturation was significantly delayed. Exogenous auxin partially restored proper nodule formation and maturation in STTM160 roots, suggesting that high miR160 activity later during nodule development favors auxin activity and promotes nodule maturation. Therefore, miR160 dictates developmental stage-specific sensitivities to auxin and cytokinin to direct proper nodule formation and maturation in soybean.

  2. Diffusion Limitation of Oxygen Uptake and Nitrogenase Activity in the Root Nodules of Parasponia rigida Merr. and Perry 1

    PubMed Central

    Tjepkema, John D.; Cartica, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    Parasponia is the first non-legume genus proven to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules induced by rhizobia. Infiltration with India ink demonstrated that intercellular air spaces are lacking in the inner layers of the nodule cortex. Oxygen must diffuse through these layers to reach the cells containing the rhizobia, and it was calculated that most of the gradient in O2 partial pressure between the atmosphere and rhizobia occurs at the inner cortex. This was confirmed by O2 microelectrode measurements which showed that the O2 partial pressure was much lower in the zone of infected cells than in the cortex. Measurements of nitrogenase activity and O2 uptake as a function of temperature and partial pressure of O2 were consistent with diffusion limitation of O2 uptake by the inner cortex. In spite of the presumed absence of leghemoglobin in nodules of Parasponia rigida Merr. and Perry, energy usage for nitrogen fixation was similar to that in legume nodules. The results demonstrate that O2 regulation in legume and Parasponia nodules is very similar and differs from O2 regulation in actionorhizal nodules. Images PMID:16662284

  3. Genetic diversity of root nodule bacteria nodulating Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2011-06-01

    Very little is known about the genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia nodulating Lotus species in northern temperate regions. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity among a total of 61 root nodule bacteria isolated from Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria from different geographic sites and habitats in Sweden by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer between their 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA (IGS) region. A high diversity consisting of 26 IGS types from 54 L. corniculatus isolates and five IGS types from seven A. vulneraria isolates was found. The 16S rRNA sequences and phylogeny of representatives of the different IGS types showed four interesting exceptions from the majority of the isolates belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium: Two isolates were both found to be closely related to Rhodococcus spp., and two other isolates showed close relationship with Geobacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp., respectively. The nodA sequences and phylogeny showed that all the isolates, including those not belonging to the traditional rhizobia genera, harbored nodA sequences which were typical of Mesorhizobium loti. Generally, the 16S rRNA and nodA phylogenetic trees were not congruent in that isolates with similar 16S rRNA sequences were associated with isolates harboring different nodA sequences. All the isolates were confirmed to nodulate L. corniculatus in an inoculation test. This is the first report of members of these non-rhizobia genera being able to nodulate legumes, and we suggest that they may have acquired their nodulating properties through lateral gene transfer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of S-nitrosothiol and nitrosylated proteins in Arachis hypogaea functional nodule: response of the nitrogen fixing symbiont.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Debasis; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    To detect the presence of NO, ROS and RNS in nodules of crack entry legumes, we used Arachis hypogaea functional nodule. The response of two cognate partner rhizobia was compared towards NO and GSNO using S. meliloti and Bradyrhizobium sp NC921001. ROS, NO, nitrosothiol and bacteroids were detected by fluorescence microscopy. Redox enzymes and thiol pools were detected biochemically. Nitrosothiols were found to be present but ROS and NO were absent in A. hypogaea nodule. A number of S-nitrosylated proteins were also detected. The total thiol pool and most of the redox enzymes were low in nodule cytosolic extract but these were found to be high in the partner microorganisms indicating partner rhizobia could protect the nodule environment against the nitrosothiols. Both S. meliloti and Bradyrhizobium sp NC921001 were found to contain GSNO reductase. Interestingly, there was a marked difference in growth pattern between S. meliloti and Bradyrhizobium sp in presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Bradyrhizobium sp was found to be much more tolerant to NO donor compounds than the S. meliloti. In contrast, S. meliloti showed resistance to GSNO but was sensitive to SNP. Together our data indicate that nodule environment of crack entry legumes is different than the nodules of infection mode entry in terms of NO, ROS and RNS. Based on our biochemical characterization, we propose that exchange of redox molecules and reactive chemical species is possible between the bacteroid and nodule compartment.

  5. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  6. Aeschynomene evenia, a model plant for studying the molecular genetics of the nod-independent rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Brown, Spencer C; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Boursot, Marc; Fardoux, Joel; Patrel, Delphine; Gully, Djamel; Fabre, Sandrine; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Giraud, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Research on the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis has been focused, thus far, on two model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, which use a sophisticated infection process involving infection thread formation. However, in 25% of the legumes, the bacterial entry occurs more simply in an intercellular fashion. Among them, some Aeschynomene spp. are nodulated by photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium spp. that do not produce Nod factors. This interaction is believed to represent a living testimony of the ancestral state of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. To decipher the mechanisms of this Nod-independent process, we propose Aeschynomene evenia as a model legume because it presents all the characteristics required for genetic and molecular analysis. It is a short-perennial and autogamous species, with a diploid and relatively small genome (2n=20; 460 Mb/1C). A. evenia 'IRFL6945' is nodulated by the well-characterized photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS278 and is efficiently transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Aeschynomene evenia is genetically homozygous but polymorphic accessions were found. A manual hybridization procedure has been set up, allowing directed crosses. Therefore, it should be relatively straightforward to unravel the molecular determinants of the Nod-independent process in A. evenia. This should shed new light on the evolution of rhizobium-legume symbiosis and could have important agronomic implications.

  7. Evolution of a symbiotic receptor through gene duplications in the legume-rhizobium mutualism.

    PubMed

    De Mita, Stéphane; Streng, Arend; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, René

    2014-02-01

    The symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia co-opted pre-existing endomycorrhizal features. In particular, both symbionts release lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) that are recognized by LysM-type receptor kinases. We investigated the evolutionary history of rhizobial LCO receptor genes MtLYK3-LjNFR1 to gain insight into the evolutionary origin of the rhizobial symbiosis. We performed a phylogenetic analysis integrating gene copies from nonlegumes and legumes, including the non-nodulating, phylogenetically basal legume Cercis chinensis. Signatures of differentiation between copies were investigated through patterns of molecular evolution. We show that two rounds of duplication preceded the evolution of the rhizobial symbiosis in legumes. Molecular evolution patterns indicate that the resulting three paralogous gene copies experienced different selective constraints. In particular, one copy maintained the ancestral function, and another specialized into perception of rhizobial LCOs. It has been suggested that legume LCO receptors evolved from a putative ancestral defense-related chitin receptor through the acquisition of two kinase motifs. However, the phylogenetic analysis shows that these domains are actually ancestral, suggesting that this scenario is unlikely. Our study underlines the evolutionary significance of gene duplication and subsequent neofunctionalization in MtLYK3-LjNFR1 genes. We hypothesize that their ancestor was more likely a mycorrhizal LCO receptor, than a defense-related receptor kinase.

  8. Evolutionary signals of symbiotic persistence in the legume-rhizobia mutualism.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Cornwell, William K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    Understanding the origins and evolutionary trajectories of symbiotic partnerships remains a major challenge. Why are some symbioses lost over evolutionary time whereas others become crucial for survival? Here, we use a quantitative trait reconstruction method to characterize different evolutionary stages in the ancient symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, asking how labile is symbiosis across different host clades. We find that more than half of the 1,195 extant nodulating legumes analyzed have a high likelihood (>95%) of being in a state of high symbiotic persistence, meaning that they show a continued capacity to form the symbiosis over evolutionary time, even though the partnership has remained facultative and is not obligate. To explore patterns associated with the likelihood of loss and retention of the N2-fixing symbiosis, we tested for correlations between symbiotic persistence and legume distribution, climate, soil and trait data. We found a strong latitudinal effect and demonstrated that low mean annual temperatures are associated with high symbiotic persistence in legumes. Although no significant correlations between soil variables and symbiotic persistence were found, nitrogen and phosphorus leaf contents were positively correlated with legumes in a state of high symbiotic persistence. This pattern suggests that highly demanding nutrient lifestyles are associated with more stable partnerships, potentially because they "lock" the hosts into symbiotic dependency. Quantitative reconstruction methods are emerging as a powerful comparative tool to study broad patterns of symbiont loss and retention across diverse partnerships.

  9. EFD Is an ERF transcription factor involved in the control of nodule number and differentiation in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Vernié, Tatiana; Moreau, Sandra; de Billy, Françoise; Plet, Julie; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Rogers, Christian; Oldroyd, Giles; Frugier, Florian; Niebel, Andreas; Gamas, Pascal

    2008-10-01

    Mechanisms regulating legume root nodule development are still poorly understood, and very few regulatory genes have been cloned and characterized. Here, we describe EFD (for ethylene response factor required for nodule differentiation), a gene that is upregulated during nodulation in Medicago truncatula. The EFD transcription factor belongs to the ethylene response factor (ERF) group V, which contains ERN1, 2, and 3, three ERFs involved in Nod factor signaling. The role of EFD in the regulation of nodulation was examined through the characterization of a null deletion mutant (efd-1), RNA interference, and overexpression studies. These studies revealed that EFD is a negative regulator of root nodulation and infection by Rhizobium and that EFD is required for the formation of functional nitrogen-fixing nodules. EFD appears to be involved in the plant and bacteroid differentiation processes taking place beneath the nodule meristem. We also showed that EFD activated Mt RR4, a cytokinin primary response gene that encodes a type-A response regulator. We propose that EFD induction of Mt RR4 leads to the inhibition of cytokinin signaling, with two consequences: the suppression of new nodule initiation and the activation of differentiation as cells leave the nodule meristem. Our work thus reveals a key regulator linking early and late stages of nodulation and suggests that the regulation of the cytokinin pathway is important both for nodule initiation and development.

  10. nip, a symbiotic Medicago truncatula mutant that forms root nodules with aberrant infection threads and plant defense-like response.

    PubMed

    Veereshlingam, Harita; Haynes, Janine G; Penmetsa, R Varma; Cook, Douglas R; Sherrier, D Janine; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, we isolated and studied a novel symbiotic mutant of the model legume Medicago truncatula, designated nip (numerous infections and polyphenolics). When grown on nitrogen-free media in the presence of the compatible bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nip mutant showed nitrogen deficiency symptoms. The mutant failed to form pink nitrogen-fixing nodules that occur in the wild-type symbiosis, but instead developed small bump-like nodules on its roots that were blocked at an early stage of development. Examination of the nip nodules by light microscopy after staining with X-Gal for S. meliloti expressing a constitutive GUS gene, by confocal microscopy following staining with SYTO-13, and by electron microscopy revealed that nip initiated symbiotic interactions and formed nodule primordia and infection threads. The infection threads in nip proliferated abnormally and very rarely deposited rhizobia into plant host cells; rhizobia failed to differentiate further in these cases. nip nodules contained autofluorescent cells and accumulated a brown pigment. Histochemical staining of nip nodules revealed this pigment to be polyphenolic accumulation. RNA blot analyses demonstrated that nip nodules expressed only a subset of genes associated with nodule organogenesis, as well as elevated expression of a host defense-associated phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene. nip plants were observed to have abnormal lateral roots. nip plant root growth and nodulation responded normally to ethylene inhibitors and precursors. Allelism tests showed that nip complements 14 other M. truncatula nodulation mutants but not latd, a mutant with a more severe nodulation phenotype as well as primary and lateral root defects. Thus, the nip mutant defines a new locus, NIP, required for appropriate infection thread development during invasion of the nascent nodule by rhizobia, normal lateral root elongation, and normal regulation of host defense-like responses

  11. Assessing genotypic diversity and symbiotic efficiency of five rhizobial legume interactions under cadmium stress for soil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Guefrachi, I; Rejili, M; Mahdhi, M; Mars, M

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of soil phytoremediation using local legume plants coupled with their native root-nodulating bacteria to increase forage yields and preserve contaminated soils in arid regions of Tunisia, we investigated the diversity of bacteria from root nodules of Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris, Medicago marina, M. truncatula, and M. minima and the symbiotic efficiency of these five legume symbiosis under Cadmium stress. Fifty bacterial strains were characterized using physiological and biochemical features such heavy metals resistant, and PCR-RFLP of 16S rDNA. Taxonomically, the isolates nodulating L. sativus, and L. culinaris are species within the genera Rhizobium and the ones associated to Medicago sp, within the genera Sinorhizobium. The results revealed also that the cadmium tolerance of the different legumes-rhizobia interaction was as follows: M. minima < M. truncatula < M. marina < L. sativus < L. culinaris indicating that the effect of Cadmium on root nodulation and biomass production is more deleterious on M. minima-S. meliloti and M. truncatula-S. meliloti than in other symbiosis. Knowledge on genetic and functional diversity of M. marina, L. sativus and L. culinaris microsymbiotes is very useful for inoculant strain selection and can be selected to develop inoculants for soil phytoremediation.

  12. Cell- and Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Analyses of Medicago truncatula Root Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Limpens, Erik; Moling, Sjef; Hooiveld, Guido; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Bisseling, Ton; Becker, Jörg D.; Küster, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Legumes have the unique ability to host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria as symbiosomes inside root nodule cells. To get insight into this key process, which forms the heart of the endosymbiosis, we isolated specific cells/tissues at different stages of symbiosome formation from nodules of the model legume Medicago truncatula using laser-capture microdissection. Next, we determined their associated expression profiles using Affymetrix Medicago GeneChips. Cells were collected from the nodule infection zone divided into a distal (where symbiosome formation and division occur) and proximal region (where symbiosomes are mainly differentiating), as well as infected cells from the fixation zone containing mature nitrogen fixing symbiosomes. As non-infected cells/tissue we included nodule meristem cells and uninfected cells from the fixation zone. Here, we present a comprehensive gene expression map of an indeterminate Medicago nodule and selected genes that show specific enriched expression in the different cells or tissues. Validation of the obtained expression profiles, by comparison to published gene expression profiles and experimental verification, indicates that the data can be used as digital “in situ”. This digital “in situ” offers a genome-wide insight into genes specifically associated with subsequent stages of symbiosome and nodule cell development, and can serve to guide future functional studies. PMID:23734198

  13. Lignin modification leads to increased nodule numbers in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Bhattarai, Kishor; Pislariu, Catalina I; Nakashima, Jin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Udvardi, Michael K; Monteros, Maria J; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Reduction of lignin levels in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by down-regulation of the monolignol biosynthetic enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) results in strongly increased digestibility and processing ability of lignocellulose. However, these modifications are often also associated with dwarfing and other changes in plant growth. Given the importance of nitrogen fixation for legume growth, we evaluated the impact of constitutively targeted lignin modification on the belowground organs (roots and nodules) of alfalfa plants. HCT down-regulated alfalfa plants exhibit a striking reduction in root growth accompanied by an unexpected increase in nodule numbers when grown in the greenhouse or in the field. This phenotype is associated with increased levels of gibberellins and certain flavonoid compounds in roots. Although HCT down-regulation reduced biomass yields in both the greenhouse and field experiments, the impact on the allocation of nitrogen to shoots or roots was minimal. It is unlikely, therefore, that the altered growth phenotype of reduced-lignin alfalfa is a direct result of changes in nodulation or nitrogen fixation efficiency. Furthermore, HCT down-regulation has no measurable effect on carbon allocation to roots in either greenhouse or 3-year field trials.

  14. Root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus drives the establishment of distinctive rhizosphere, root, and nodule bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Jensen, Dorthe Bodker; Koprivova, Anna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Radutoiu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lotus japonicus has been used for decades as a model legume to study the establishment of binary symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that trigger root nodule organogenesis for bacterial accommodation. Using community profiling of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we reveal that in Lotus, distinctive nodule- and root-inhabiting communities are established by parallel, rather than consecutive, selection of bacteria from the rhizosphere and root compartments. Comparative analyses of wild-type (WT) and symbiotic mutants in Nod factor receptor5 (nfr5), Nodule inception (nin) and Lotus histidine kinase1 (lhk1) genes identified a previously unsuspected role of the nodulation pathway in the establishment of different bacterial assemblages in the root and rhizosphere. We found that the loss of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis dramatically alters community structure in the latter two compartments, affecting at least 14 bacterial orders. The differential plant growth phenotypes seen between WT and the symbiotic mutants in nonsupplemented soil were retained under nitrogen-supplemented conditions that blocked the formation of functional nodules in WT, whereas the symbiosis-impaired mutants maintain an altered community structure in the nitrogen-supplemented soil. This finding provides strong evidence that the root-associated community shift in the symbiotic mutants is a direct consequence of the disabled symbiosis pathway rather than an indirect effect resulting from abolished symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Our findings imply a role of the legume host in selecting a broad taxonomic range of root-associated bacteria that, in addition to rhizobia, likely contribute to plant growth and ecological performance. PMID:27864511

  15. Conservation of nodulation genes between Rhizobium meliloti and a slow-growing Rhizobium strain that nodulates a nonlegume host

    PubMed Central

    Marvel, Deborah J.; Kuldau, Gretchen; Hirsch, Ann; Richards, Eric; Torrey, John G.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    1985-01-01

    Parasponia, a woody member of the elm family, is the only nonlegume genus whose members are known to form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with a Rhizobium species. The bacterial strain RP501 is a slow-growing strain of Rhizobium isolated from Parasponia nodules. Strain RP501 also nodulates the legumes siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Using a cosmid clone bank of RP501 DNA, we isolated a 13.4-kilobase (kb) EcoRI fragment that complemented insertion and point mutations in three contiguous nodulation genes (nodABC) of Rhizobium meliloti, the endosymbiont of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The complemented R. meliloti nod mutants induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on alfalfa seedlings but not on siratro, cowpeas, or Parasponia. The cloned RP501 nodulation locus hybridized to DNA fragments carrying the R. meliloti nodABC genes. A 3-kb cluster of Tn5 insertion mutations on the RP501 13.4-kb EcoRI fragment prevented complementation of R. meliloti nodABC mutations. Images PMID:16593600

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of rhizobia from diverse geographical origin that nodulate Pachyrhizus species.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Navarro, Dulce N; Camacho, María; Leidi, Eduardo O; Rivas, Raúl; Velázquez, Encarna

    2004-11-01

    Legumes from the genus Pachyrhizus, commonly known as yam bean, are cultivated in several countries from the American continent and constitute an alternative source for sustainable starch, oil and protein production. The endosymbionts of these legumes have been poorly studied although it is known that this legume is nodulated by fast and slow growing rhizobia. In this study we have analyzed a collection of strains isolated in several countries using different phenotypic and molecular methods. The results obtained by SDS-PAGE analysis, LPS profiling and TP-RAPD fingerprinting showed the high diversity of the strains analyzed, although all of them presented slow growth in yeast mannitol agar (YMA) medium. These results were confirmed using 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, showing that most strains analyzed belong to different species of genus Bradyrhizobium. Three strains were closely related to B. elkanii and the rest of the strains were related to the phylogenetic group constituted by B. japonicum, B. liaoningense, B. yuanmingense and B. betae. These results support that the study of rhizobia nodulating unexplored legumes in different geographical locations will allow the discovery of new species able to establish legume symbioses.

  17. Functional Implication of β-Carotene Hydroxylases in Soybean Nodulation1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun-Kyoung; Kim, Sunghan; Um, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyunga; Choi, Sun-Kang; Um, Byung-Hun; Kang, Suk-Woo; Kim, Jee-Woong; Takaichi, Shinichi; Song, Seok-Bo; Lee, Choon-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Seung; Kim, Ki Woo; Nam, Kyoung Hee; Lee, Suk-Ha; Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Hyang-Mi; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Verma, Desh Pal S.; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2013-01-01

    Legume-Rhizobium spp. symbiosis requires signaling between the symbiotic partners and differential expression of plant genes during nodule development. Previously, we cloned a gene encoding a putative β-carotene hydroxylase (GmBCH1) from soybean (Glycine max) whose expression increased during nodulation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In this work, we extended our study to three GmBCHs to examine their possible role(s) in nodule development, as they were additionally identified as nodule specific, along with the completion of the soybean genome. In situ hybridization revealed the expression of three GmBCHs (GmBCH1, GmBCH2, and GmBCH3) in the infected cells of root nodules, and their enzymatic activities were confirmed by functional assays in Escherichia coli. Localization of GmBCHs by transfecting Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplasts with green fluorescent protein fusions and by electron microscopic immunogold detection in soybean nodules indicated that GmBCH2 and GmBCH3 were present in plastids, while GmBCH1 appeared to be cytosolic. RNA interference of the GmBCHs severely impaired nitrogen fixation as well as nodule development. Surprisingly, we failed to detect zeaxanthin, a product of GmBCH, or any other carotenoids in nodules. Therefore, we examined the possibility that most of the carotenoids in nodules are converted or cleaved to other compounds. We detected the expression of some carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (GmCCDs) in wild-type nodules and also a reduced amount of zeaxanthin in GmCCD8-expressing E. coli, suggesting cleavage of the carotenoid. In view of these findings, we propose that carotenoids such as zeaxanthin synthesized in root nodules are cleaved by GmCCDs, and we discuss the possible roles of the carotenoid cleavage products in nodulation. PMID:23700351

  18. Small RNA pathways and diversity in model legumes: lessons from genomics

    PubMed Central

    Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Bazin, Jérémie; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin; Lelandais-Brière, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (smRNA) participate in the regulation of development, cell differentiation, adaptation to environmental constraints and defense responses in plants. They negatively regulate gene expression by degrading specific mRNA targets, repressing their translation or modifying chromatin conformation through homologous interaction with target loci. MicroRNAs (miRNA) and short-interfering RNAs (siRNA) are generated from long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) that are cleaved into 20–24-nucleotide dsRNAs by RNase III proteins called DICERs (DCL). One strand of the duplex is then loaded onto effective complexes containing different ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins. In this review, we explored smRNA diversity in model legumes and compiled available data from miRBAse, the miRNA database, and from 22 reports of smRNA deep sequencing or miRNA identification genome-wide in three legumes: Medicago truncatula, soybean (Glycine max) and Lotus japonicus. In addition to conserved miRNAs present in other plant species, 229, 179, and 35 novel miRNA families were identified respectively in these 3 legumes, among which several seems legume-specific. New potential functions of several miRNAs in the legume-specific nodulation process are discussed. Furthermore, a new category of siRNA, the phased siRNAs, which seems to mainly regulate disease-resistance genes, was recently discovered in legumes. Despite that the genome sequence of model legumes are not yet fully completed, further analysis was performed by database mining of gene families and protein characteristics of DCLs and AGOs in these genomes. Although most components of the smRNA pathways are conserved, identifiable homologs of key smRNA players from non-legumes, like AGO10 or DCL4, could not yet be detected in M. truncatula available genomic and expressed sequence (EST) databases. In contrast to Arabidopsis, an important gene diversification was observed in the three legume models (for DCL2, AGO4, AGO2, and AGO10) or

  19. Growth responses, biomass partitioning, and nitrogen isotopes of prairie legumes in response to elevated temperature and varying nitrogen source in a growth chamber experiment.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Heather R; Deede, Laura; Powers, Jennifer S

    2012-05-01

    Because legumes can add nitrogen (N) to ecosystems through symbiotic fixation, they play important roles in many plant communities, such as prairies and grasslands. However, very little research has examined the effect of projected climate change on legume growth and function. Our goal was to study the effects of temperature on growth, nodulation, and N chemistry of prairie legumes and determine whether these effects are mediated by source of N. We grew seedlings of Amorpha canescens, Dalea purpurea, Lespedeza capitata, and Lupinus perennis at 25/20°C (day/night) or 28/23°C with and without rhizobia and mineral N in controlled-environment growth chambers. Biomass, leaf area, nodule number and mass, and shoot N concentration and δ(15)N values were measured after 12 wk of growth. Both temperature and N-source affected responses in a species-specific manner. Lespedeza showed increased growth and higher shoot N content at 28°C. Lupinus showed decreases in nodulation and lower shoot N concentration at 28°C. The effect of temperature on shoot N concentration occurred only in individuals whose sole N source was N(2)-fixation, but there was no effect of temperature on δ(15)N values in these plants. Elevated temperature enhanced seedling growth of some species, while inhibiting nodulation in another. Temperature-induced shifts in legume composition or nitrogen dynamics may be another potential mechanism through which climate change affects unmanaged ecosystems.

  20. Growth, photosynthetic acclimation and yield quality in legumes under climate change simulations: an updated survey.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, J J; Goicoechea, N; Antolín, M C; Pascual, I; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Aguirreolea, J; Morales, F

    2014-09-01

    Continued emissions of CO2, derived from human activities, increase atmospheric CO2 concentration. The CO2 rise stimulates plant growth and affects yield quality. Effects of elevated CO2 on legume quality depend on interactions with N2-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi. Growth at elevated CO2 increases photosynthesis under short-term exposures in C3 species. Under long-term exposures, however, plants generally acclimate to elevated CO2 decreasing their photosynthetic capacity. An updated survey of the literature indicates that a key factor, perhaps the most important, that characteristically influences this phenomenon, its occurrence and extent, is the plant source-sink balance. In legumes, the ability of exchanging C for N at nodule level with the N2-fixing symbionts creates an extra C sink that avoids the occurrence of photosynthetic acclimation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots may also result in increased C sink, preventing photosynthetic acclimation. Defoliation (Anthyllis vulneraria, simulated grazing) or shoot cutting (alfalfa, usual management as forage) largely increases root/shoot ratio. During re-growth at elevated CO2, new shoots growth and nodule respiration function as strong C sinks that counteracts photosynthetic acclimation. In the presence of some limiting factor, the legumes response to elevated CO2 is weakened showing photosynthetic acclimation. This survey has identified limiting factors that include an insufficient N supply from bacterial strains, nutrient-poor soils, low P supply, excess temperature affecting photosynthesis and/or nodule activity, a genetically determined low nodulation capacity, an inability of species or varieties to increase growth (and therefore C sink) at elevated CO2 and a plant phenological state or season when plant growth is stopped.

  1. Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium tropiciagri Strain CNPSo 1112T, Isolated from a Root Nodule of Neonotonia wightii

    PubMed Central

    Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Chueire, Ligia Maria Oliveira; Souza, Renata Carolini; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    CNPSo 1112T is a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of perennial soybean, a tropical legume forage. Its draft genome indicates a large genome with a circular chromosome and 9,554 coding sequences (CDSs). Operons of nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and uptake hydrogenase were present in the symbiotic island, and the genome encompasses several CDSs of stress tolerance. PMID:26679591

  2. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Staehelin, Christian; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-09-15

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial Nops (nodulation outer proteins) play a crucial symbiotic role in many strain-host combinations. Nops are defined as proteins secreted via a rhizobial T3SS (type III secretion system). Functional T3SSs have been characterized in many rhizobial strains. Nops have been identified using various genetic, biochemical, proteomic, genomic and experimental approaches. Certain Nops represent extracellular components of the T3SS, which are visible in electron micrographs as bacterial surface appendages called T3 (type III) pili. Other Nops are T3 effector proteins that can be translocated into plant cells. Rhizobial T3 effectors manipulate cellular processes in host cells to suppress plant defence responses against rhizobia and to promote symbiosis-related processes. Accordingly, mutant strains deficient in synthesis or secretion of T3 effectors show reduced symbiotic properties on certain host plants. On the other hand, direct or indirect recognition of T3 effectors by plant cells expressing specific R (resistance) proteins can result in effector triggered defence responses that negatively affect rhizobial infection. Hence Nops are double-edged swords that may promote establishment of symbiosis with one legume (symbiotic factors) and impair symbiotic processes when bacteria are inoculated on another legume species (asymbiotic factors). In the present review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of Nops. We summarize their symbiotic effects, their biochemical properties and their possible modes of action. Finally, we discuss future perspectives in the field of T3 effector research. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. Metabolic responses in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa exposed to the imazamox herbicide.

    PubMed

    García-Garijo, A; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C; Palma, F

    2014-05-01

    Alterations on growth, amino acids metabolism and some antioxidant enzyme activities as result of imazamox treatment were examined in determinate and indeterminate nodules, formed by Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa, respectively. Young seedlings of both legumes were inoculated with their respective microsymbionts and grown under controlled conditions. At vegetative growth, plants were treated with imazamox (250μM) in the nutrient solution and harvested 7days after. Imazamox was mainly accumulated in V. sativa where concentrations were more than six fold higher than those detected in P. vulgaris. Nodule dry weight and total nitrogen content were reduced by the herbicide treatment: the highest decrease of nodule biomass (50%) and nitrogen content (40%) were registered in V. sativa and P. vulgaris, respectively. The concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) did not change in neither determinate nor indeterminate nodules even though the acetohydroxyacid synthase activity decreased in root and nodules of both symbioses with the herbicide application. Based on this last result and taking into account that total free amino acids increased in roots but not in nodules of common vetch, a possible BCAA translocation from root to nodule could occur. Our results suggest that the maintenance of BCAA balance in nodule become a priority for the plant in such conditions. The involvement of activities glutathione-S-transferase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the response of the symbioses to imazamox are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Mimosa spp. in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes of Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Fábio Bueno; Simon, Marcelo F; Gross, Eduardo; Boddey, Robert M; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Neto, Nicolau E; Loureiro, M de Fatima; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Scotti, Maria Rita; Chen, Wen-Ming; Norén, Agneta; Rubio, Maria C; de Faria, Sergio M; Bontemps, Cyril; Goi, Silvia R; Young, J Peter W; Sprent, Janet I; James, Euan K

    2010-06-01

    *An extensive survey of nodulation in the legume genus Mimosa was undertaken in two major biomes in Brazil, the Cerrado and the Caatinga, in both of which there are high degrees of endemicity of the genus. *Nodules were collected from 67 of the 70 Mimosa spp. found. Thirteen of the species were newly reported as nodulating. Nodules were examined by light and electron microscopy, and all except for M. gatesiae had a structure typical of effective Mimosa nodules. The endosymbiotic bacteria in nodules from all of the Mimosa spp. were identified as Burkholderia via immunolabelling with an antibody against Burkholderia phymatum STM815. *Twenty of the 23 Mimosa nodules tested were shown to contain nitrogenase by immunolabelling with an antibody to the nitrogenase Fe- (nifH) protein, and using the delta(15)N ((15)N natural abundance) technique, contributions by biological N(2) fixation of up to 60% of total plant N were calculated for Caatinga Mimosa spp. *It is concluded that nodulation in Mimosa is a generic character, and that the preferred symbionts of Brazilian species are Burkholderia. This is the first study to demonstrate N(2) fixation by beta-rhizobial symbioses in the field.

  5. Nitric oxide (NO): a key player in the senescence of Medicago truncatula root nodules.

    PubMed

    Cam, Yvan; Pierre, Olivier; Boncompagni, Eric; Hérouart, Didier; Meilhoc, Eliane; Bruand, Claude

    2012-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signalling and defence molecule involved in diverse plant developmental processes, as well as in the plant response to pathogens. NO has also been detected at different steps of the symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. NO is required for an optimal establishment of the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic interaction, but little is known about the role of NO in mature nodules. Here, we investigate the role of NO in the late steps of symbiosis. Genetic and pharmacological approaches were conducted to modulate the NO level inside root nodules, and their effects on nitrogen fixation and root nodule senescence were monitored. An increase in endogenous NO levels led to a decrease in nitrogen fixation and early nodule senescence, characterized by cytological modifications of the nodule structure and the early expression of a specific senescence marker. By contrast, a decrease in NO levels led to a delay in nodule senescence. Together, our results strongly suggest that NO is a signal in developmental as well as stress-induced nodule senescence. In addition, this work demonstrates the pivotal role of the bacterial NO detoxification response in the prevention of early nodule senescence, and hence the maintenance of efficient symbiosis.

  6. NODULES WITH ACTIVATED DEFENSE 1 is required for maintenance of rhizobial endosymbiosis in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Haixiang; Luo, Li; Duan, Liujian; Cai, Liuyang; He, Xinxing; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Li, Guoliang; Xiao, Aifang; Duanmu, Deqiang; Cao, Yangrong; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming

    2016-10-01

    The symbiotic interaction between legume plants and rhizobia results in the formation of root nodules, in which symbiotic plant cells host and harbor thousands of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. Here, a Medicago truncatula nodules with activated defense 1 (nad1) mutant was identified using reverse genetics methods. The mutant phenotype was characterized using cell and molecular biology approaches. An RNA-sequencing technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic reprogramming of nad1 mutant nodules. In the nad1 mutant plants, rhizobial infection and propagation in infection threads are normal, whereas rhizobia and their symbiotic plant cells become necrotic immediately after rhizobia are released from infection threads into symbiotic cells of nodules. Defense-associated responses were detected in nad1 nodules. NAD1 is specifically present in root nodule symbiosis plants with the exception of Morus notabilis, and the transcript is highly induced in nodules. NAD1 encodes a small uncharacterized protein with two predicted transmembrane helices and is localized at the endoplasmic reticulum. Our data demonstrate a positive role for NAD1 in the maintenance of rhizobial endosymbiosis during nodulation.

  7. Abscisic acid coordinates nod factor and cytokinin signaling during the regulation of nodulation in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yiliang; Kalo, Peter; Yendrek, Craig; Sun, Jongho; Liang, Yan; Marsh, John F; Harris, Jeanne M; Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2008-10-01

    Nodulation is tightly regulated in legumes to ensure appropriate levels of nitrogen fixation without excessive depletion of carbon reserves. This balance is maintained by intimately linking nodulation and its regulation with plant hormones. It has previously been shown that ethylene and jasmonic acid (JA) are able to regulate nodulation and Nod factor signal transduction. Here, we characterize the nature of abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of nodulation. We show that application of ABA inhibits nodulation, bacterial infection, and nodulin gene expression in Medicago truncatula. ABA acts in a similar manner as JA and ethylene, regulating Nod factor signaling and affecting the nature of Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. However, this action is independent of the ethylene signal transduction pathway. We show that genetic inhibition of ABA signaling through the use of a dominant-negative allele of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 leads to a hypernodulation phenotype. In addition, we characterize a novel locus of M. truncatula, SENSITIVITY TO ABA, that dictates the sensitivity of the plant to ABA and, as such, impacts the regulation of nodulation. We show that ABA can suppress Nod factor signal transduction in the epidermis and can regulate cytokinin induction of the nodule primordium in the root cortex. Therefore, ABA is capable of coordinately regulating the diverse developmental pathways associated with nodule formation and can intimately dictate the nature of the plants' response to the symbiotic bacteria.

  8. Intracellular catalytic domain of symbiosis receptor kinase hyperactivates spontaneous nodulation in absence of rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sudip; Dutta, Ayan; Bhattacharya, Avisek; DasGupta, Maitrayee

    2014-12-01

    Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SYMRK), a member of the Nod factor signaling pathway, is indispensible for both nodule organogenesis and intracellular colonization of symbionts in rhizobia-legume symbiosis. Here, we show that the intracellular kinase domain of a SYMRK (SYMRK-kd) but not its inactive or full-length version leads to hyperactivation of the nodule organogenic program in Medicago truncatula TR25 (symrk knockout mutant) in the absence of rhizobia. Spontaneous nodulation in TR25/SYMRK-kd was 6-fold higher than rhizobia-induced nodulation in TR25/SYMRK roots. The merged clusters of spontaneous nodules indicated that TR25 roots in the presence of SYMRK-kd have overcome the control over both nodule numbers and their spatial position. In the presence of rhizobia, SYMRK-kd could rescue the epidermal infection processes in TR25, but colonization of symbionts in the nodule interior was significantly compromised. In summary, ligand-independent deregulated activation of SYMRK hyperactivates nodule organogenesis in the absence of rhizobia, but its ectodomain is required for proper symbiont colonization.

  9. Immunolocalization of antioxidant enzymes in high-pressure frozen root and stem nodules of Sesbania rostrata.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Maria C; Becana, Manuel; Kanematsu, Sumio; Ushimaru, Takashi; James, Euan K

    2009-01-01

    The activities and localizations of superoxide dismutases (SODs) were compared in root and stem nodules of the semi-aquatic legume Sesbania rostrata using gel-activity assays and immunogold labelling, respectively. Nodules were fixed by high-pressure freezing and dehydrated by freeze substitution. Stem nodules showed more total and specific SOD activities than root nodules because of the presence of chloroplastic CuZnSOD. Most of the total SOD activity of stem and root nodules resulted from 'cytosolic' CuZnSOD, localized in the cytoplasm and chromatin, and from MnSOD in the bacteroids and in the mitochondria of vascular tissue. FeSOD was present in nodule plastids and in leaf chloroplasts, and was found to be associated with chromatin. Superoxide production was detected histochemically in the vascular bundles and in the infected tissue of stem and root nodules, whereas peroxide accumulation was observed in the cortical cell walls and intercellular spaces, as well as within the infection threads of both nodule types. These data suggest a role of CuZnSOD and FeSOD in protecting nuclear DNA from reactive oxygen species and/or in modulating gene activity. The enhanced levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD and superoxide production in vascular bundle cells are consistent with a role of CuZnSOD and superoxide in the lignification of xylem vessels, but also suggest additional functions in coping with superoxide production by the high respiratory activity of parenchyma cells.

  10. Shoot-applied polyamines suppress nodule formation in soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Terakado, Junko; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Fujihara, Shinsuke

    2006-03-01

    In legumes, the number of root nodules is controlled by a mechanism called autoregulation. Recently, we found that the foliar brassinosteroid (BR), a plant growth-regulating hormone, systemically regulates the nodule number in soybean plants. In the present study we report that such down-regulation of root nodule formation by a BR may occur through a change of the polyamine contents, with the experimental evidence as follows. The foliar contents of both spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) in the super-nodulating soybean mutant, En6500, were always lower than those in its parent line, Enrei. This lower Spd and Spm content accompanied a striking accumulation of putrescine (Put) in the former plant. This finding indicates that Spd and Spm biosynthesis from their precursor Put is repressed in En6500. The foliar treatments with Spd or Spm of En6500 led to a reduction of both nodule number and root growth. On the other hand, foliar treatment with MDL74038, a specific inhibitor of Spd biosynthesis, apparently increased the root nodule number in Enrei. Foliar application of brassinolide (BL) of En6500 increased the leaf Spd level and reduced the nodule number. These results suggested that BL-induced Spd synthesis in shoots might suppress the root nodule formation.

  11. Asparagine: an amide of particular distinction in the regulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of legumes.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, Saad; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2013-09-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is tightly regulated by a range of fine processes at the nodule level, over which the host plant has overall control through the whole life of the plant. The operation of this control at the nodule level is not yet fully understood, but greater knowledge will ultimately lead to a better improvement of N2 fixation through the use of crop legumes and genetic engineering of crop plants for higher performance. It has been suggested that, nodule responses to the nutritional complexity of the rhizosphere environment involve a great deal of coordination of sensing and signal transduction. This regulation can be achieved through several mechanisms, including changes in carbon metabolism, oxygen supply and/or overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Recently, the cycling of amino acids observed between the plant and bacteroid fractions suggests a new and important regulatory mechanism involved in nodule responses. Most of the recent transcriptional findings are consistent with the earlier biochemical and physiological reports. Current research revealed unique advances for nodule metabolism, especially on the regulation of asparagine synthetase gene expression and the control of asparagine (ASN) to N2 fixing activity. A large amount of ASN is found accumulating in the root nodules of the symbiotic plants under restricted environments, such as drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Exceptionally, ASN phloem feeding has resulted in an increased concentration of the ASN amide in nodules followed by a remarkable decrease in nodule activity. In this review, recent progress concerning the possible role of ASN in whole-plant-based down-regulation of symbiotic N2 fixation will be reviewed.

  12. Effector-Triggered Immunity Determines Host Genotype-Specific Incompatibility in Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Michiko; Miwa, Hiroki; Masuda, Sachiko; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Okazaki, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia leads to the formation of N2-fixing root nodules. In soybean, several host genes, referred to as Rj genes, control nodulation. Soybean cultivars carrying the Rj4 gene restrict nodulation by specific rhizobia such as Bradyrhizobium elkanii We previously reported that the restriction of nodulation was caused by B. elkanii possessing a functional type III secretion system (T3SS), which is known for its delivery of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis for the T3SS-dependent nodulation restriction in Rj4 soybean. Inoculation tests revealed that soybean cultivar BARC-2 (Rj4/Rj4) restricted nodulation by B. elkanii USDA61, whereas its nearly isogenic line BARC-3 (rj4/rj4) formed nitrogen-fixing nodules with the same strain. Root-hair curling and infection threads were not observed in the roots of BARC-2 inoculated with USDA61, indicating that Rj4 blocked B. elkanii infection in the early stages. Accumulation of H2O2 and salicylic acid (SA) was observed in the roots of BARC-2 inoculated with USDA61. Transcriptome analyses revealed that inoculation of USDA61, but not its T3SS mutant in BARC-2, induced defense-related genes, including those coding for hypersensitive-induced responsive protein, which act in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that B. elkanii T3SS triggers the SA-mediated ETI-type response in Rj4 soybean, which consequently blocks symbiotic interactions. This study revealed a common molecular mechanism underlying both plant-pathogen and plant-symbiont interactions, and suggests that establishment of a root nodule symbiosis requires the evasion or suppression of plant immune responses triggered by rhizobial effectors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE3 Maintains Cytokinin Homeostasis during Root and Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Heckmann, Anne B.; Kelly, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinins are required for symbiotic nodule development in legumes, and cytokinin signaling responses occur locally in nodule primordia and in developing nodules. Here, we show that the Lotus japonicus Ckx3 cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene is induced by Nod factor during the early phase of nodule initiation. At the cellular level, pCkx3::YFP reporter-gene studies revealed that the Ckx3 promoter is active during the first cortical cell divisions of the nodule primordium and in growing nodules. Cytokinin measurements in ckx3 mutants confirmed that CKX3 activity negatively regulates root cytokinin levels. Particularly, tZ and DHZ type cytokinins in both inoculated and uninoculated roots were elevated in ckx3 mutants, suggesting that these are targets for degradation by the CKX3 cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase. The effect of CKX3 on the positive and negative roles of cytokinin in nodule development, infection and regulation was further clarified using ckx3 insertion mutants. Phenotypic analysis indicated that ckx3 mutants have reduced nodulation, infection thread formation and root growth. We also identify a role for cytokinin in regulating nodulation and nitrogen fixation in response to nitrate as ckx3 phenotypes are exaggerated at increased nitrate levels. Together, these findings show that cytokinin accumulation is tightly regulated during nodulation in order to balance the requirement for cell divisions with negative regulatory effects of cytokinin on infection events and root development. PMID:26644503

  14. Diversifying selection by Desmodiinae legume species on Bradyrhizobium symbionts.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew A; Jankowiak, Jennifer G; Landrigan, Grace K

    2015-07-01

    Desmodium and Hylodesmum (Papilionoideae Subtribe Desmodiinae) are among the most common herbaceous perennial legumes native to eastern North America. To analyze the population structure of their Bradyrhizobium sp. root-nodule bacteria, 159 isolates were sampled from ten host species across a 1000 km region. Phylogenetic analysis of four housekeeping loci (2164 bp) and two loci in the symbiosis island (SI) chromosomal region (1374 bp) indicated extensive overlap in symbiont utilization, with each common bacterial clade found on 2-7 species of these legume genera. However, host species differed considerably in the relative proportion of symbionts belonging to different Bradyrhizobium clades. High phylogenetic incongruence between trees for housekeeping loci and SI loci suggested that diversification of these Bradyrhizobium lineages involved substantial horizontal gene transfer. Plant inoculation with strains from six Bradyrhizobium clades revealed marked disparity in relative bacterial reproductive success across four Desmodium species. Estimated yield of Bradyrhizobium progeny cells per plant ranged from zero to >10(9), and strains with high fitness on one host sometimes reproduced poorly on other host species. Diversifying selection on bacteria, arising from differential success in habitats with different Desmodium and Hylodesmum taxa, is therefore likely to affect Bradyrhizobium diversity patterns at the landscape level. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [Characterization of rhizobia causing nodules on leguminous trees native to Uruguay using the rep-PCR technique].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Frioni, L

    2003-01-01

    Methods for identifying and following microorganisms in the environment such as soils, water and plant association have been highly developed in recent years. In this study, we used rep-PCR for the characterization of Rhizobium bacteria isolated from legume trees native of Uruguay which permitted to follow them in plant inoculation assays. Among the primers used, ERIC and BOX1AR, the latter allowed the differentiation of isolates from different legumes and the finding of a high level of homology among rhizobia that nodulate the same legume species. Besides, it demonstrated that the profiles of the isolates recovered from nodules of Acacia caven, were identical to the ones used as inoculants; this confirmed the efficiency of these methods to follow these diazotrophs in the environment.

  16. Nodule-Specific Polypeptides from Effective Alfalfa Root Nodules and from Ineffective Nodules Lacking Nitrogenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Lang-Unnasch, Naomi; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to leghemoglobin, at least nine nodule-specific polypeptides from the alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-Rhizobium meliloti symbiosis were identified by immune assay. Some of these polypeptides may be subunits of larger proteins but none appeared to be subunits of the same multimeric protein. All nine of the nodule-specific polypeptides were localized to within the plant cytosol; they were not found in extracts of bacteroids or in the peribacteroid space. At least one of these nodule-specific polypeptides was found to be antigenically related to nodule-specific polypeptides in pea and/or soybean. Ineffective nodules elicited by R. meliloti strains containing mutations in four different genes required for nitrogenase synthesis contained reduced concentrations of leghemoglobin and of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. Other nodule-specific polypeptides were unaltered or actually enriched in the ineffective nodules. Many of the differences between the ineffective and effective nodules were apparent in nodules harvested shortly after the nodules became visible. These differences were greatly amplified in older nodules. When the four ineffective nodule types were compared to one another, there were clear quantitative differences in the concentrations of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. These differences suggest that lack of a functional nitrogenase does not have a single direct effect on nodule development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664146

  17. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic properties of Genista tinctoria bradyrhizobia.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Michał; Stepkowski, Tomasz; Łotocka, Barbara; Małek, Wanda

    2006-08-01

    Pairwise comparisons of Genista tinctoria (dyer's weed) rhizobium nodA, nodC, and nodZ gene sequences to those available in databanks revealed their highest sequence identities to nodulation loci of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) strains and rhizobia from other genistoid legumes. On phylogenetic trees, genistoid microsymbionts were grouped together in monophyletic clusters, which suggested that their nodulation genes evolved from a common ancestor. G. tinctoria nodulators formed symbioses not only with the native host, but also with other plants of Genisteae tribe such as: Lupinus luteus, Sarothamnus scoparius, and Chamaecytisus ratisbonensis, and they were classified as the genistoid cross-inoculation group. The dyer's weed root nodules were designated as indeterminate with apical meristem consisting of infected and uninfected cells.

  18. Effect of Co-Inoculation with Mycorrhiza and Rhizobia on the Nodule Trehalose Content of Different Bean Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros-Almanza, L; Altamirano-Hernandez, J; Peña-Cabriales, J.J; Santoyo, G; Sanchez-Yañez, J.M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Macias-Rodriguez, L; Lopez-Bucio, J; Cardenas-Navarro, R; Farias-Rodriguez, R

    2010-01-01

    Studies on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis show that trehalose content in nodules under drought stress correlates positively with an increase in plant tolerance to this stress. Fewer reports describe trehalose accumulation in mycorrhiza where, in contrast with rhizobia, there is no flux of carbohydrates from the microsymbiont to the plant. However, the trehalose dynamics in the Mycorrhiza-Rhizobium-Legume tripartite symbiosis is unknown. The present study explores the role of this tripartite symbiosis in the trehalose content of nodules grown under contrasting moisture conditions. Three wild genotypes (P. filiformis, P. acutifolis and P. vulgaris) and two commercial genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto villa and Flor de Mayo) were used. Co-inoculation treatments were conducted with Glomus intraradices and a mixture of seven native rhizobial strains, and trehalose content was determined by GC/MS. The results showed a negative effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on nodule development, as mycorrhized plants showed fewer nodules and lower nodule dry weight compared to plants inoculated only with Rhizobium. Mycorrhizal colonization was also higher in plants inoculated only with Glomus as compared to plants co-inoculated with both microsymbionts. In regard to trehalose, co-inoculation negatively affects its accumulation in the nodules of each genotype tested. However, the correlation analysis showed a significantly positive correlation between mycorrhizal colonization and nodule trehalose content. PMID:21253462

  19. Cowpea and peanut in southern Africa are nodulated by diverse Bradyrhizobium strains harboring nodulation genes that belong to the large pantropical clade common in Africa.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Emma T; Stepkowski, Tomasz; Przymusiak, Anna; Botha, Wilhelm J; Law, Ian J

    2008-09-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in southern Africa are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the identity of these bacteria, a collection of 22 isolates originating from the root nodules of both hosts in Botswana and South Africa was investigated using the combined sequences for the core genome genes rrs, recA, and glnII. These data separated the majority of the isolates into one of three unique lineages that most likely represent novel Bradyrhizobium species. Some isolates were also conspecific with B. yuanmingense and with B. elkanii, although none grouped with B. japonicum, B. canariense or B. liaoningense. To study the evolution of nodulation genes in these bacteria, the common nodulation gene, nodA, and host-specific nodulation genes, nodZ, noeE, and noeI, were analyzed. The nodA phylogeny showed that the cowpea and peanut Bradyrhizobium isolates represent various locally adapted groups or ecotypes that form part of Clade III of the seven known BradyrhizobiumnodA clades. This large and highly diverse clade comprises all strains from sub-Saharan Africa, as well as some originating from the Americas, Australia, Indonesia, China and Japan. Some similar groupings were supported by the other nodulation genes, although the overall phylogenies for the nodulation genes were incongruent with that inferred from the core genome genes, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer significantly influences the evolution of cowpea and peanut root-nodule bacteria. Furthermore, identification of the nodZ, noeI, and noeE genes in the isolates tested indicates that African Bradyrhizobium species may produce highly decorated nodulation factors, which potentially represent an important adaptation enabling nodulation of a great variety of legumes inhabiting the African continent.

  20. RNA-seq transcriptome profiling reveals that Medicago truncatula nodules acclimate N2 fixation before emerging P deficiency reaches the nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; von Stieglitz, Ilsabe; Neumann, Janice; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legume nodules are plant tissues with an exceptionally high concentration of phosphorus (P), which, when there is scarcity of P, is preferentially maintained there rather than being allocated to other plant organs. The hypothesis of this study was that nodules are affected before the P concentration in the organ declines during whole-plant P depletion. Nitrogen (N2) fixation and P concentration in various organs were monitored during a whole-plant P-depletion process in Medicago truncatula. Nodule gene expression was profiled through RNA-seq at day 5 of P depletion. Until that point in time P concentration in leaves reached a lower threshold but was maintained in nodules. N2-fixation activity per plant diverged from that of fully nourished plants beginning at day 5 of the P-depletion process, primarily because fewer nodules were being formed, while the activity of the existing nodules was maintained for as long as two weeks into P depletion. RNA-seq revealed nodule acclimation on a molecular level with a total of 1140 differentially expressed genes. Numerous genes for P remobilization from organic structures were increasingly expressed. Various genes involved in nodule malate formation were upregulated, while genes involved in fermentation were downregulated. The fact that nodule formation was strongly repressed with the onset of P deficiency is reflected in the differential expression of various genes involved in nodulation. It is concluded that plants follow a strategy to maintain N2 fixation and viable leaf tissue as long as possible during whole-plant P depletion to maintain their ability to react to emerging new P sources (e.g. through active P acquisition by roots). PMID:25151618

  1. Policing the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis: a critical test of partner choice.

    PubMed

    Westhoek, Annet; Field, Elsa; Rehling, Finn; Mulley, Geraldine; Webb, Isabel; Poole, Philip S; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2017-05-03

    In legume-Rhizobium symbioses, specialised soil bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen in return for carbon. However, ineffective strains can arise, making discrimination essential. Discrimination can occur via partner choice, where legumes prevent ineffective strains from entering, or via sanctioning, where plants provide fewer resources. Several studies have inferred that legumes exercise partner choice, but the rhizobia compared were not otherwise isogenic. To test when and how plants discriminate ineffective strains we developed sets of fixing and non-fixing strains that differed only in the expression of nifH - essential for nitrogen fixation - and could be visualised using marker genes. We show that the plant is unable to select against the non-fixing strain at the point of entry, but that non-fixing nodules are sanctioned. We also used the technique to characterise mixed nodules (containing both a fixing and a non-fixing strain), whose frequency could be predicted using a simple diffusion model. We discuss that sanctioning is likely to evolve in preference to partner choice in any symbiosis where partner quality cannot be adequately assessed until goods or services are actively exchanged.

  2. Genome sequence of Ensifer medicae strain WSM1369; an effective microsymbiont of the annual legume Medicago sphaerocarpos.

    PubMed

    Terpolilli, Jason; Garau, Giovanni; Hill, Yvette; Tian, Rui; Howieson, John; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2013-12-20

    Ensifer medicae WSM1369 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Medicago. WSM1369 was isolated in 1993 from a nodule recovered from the roots of Medicago sphaerocarpos growing at San Pietro di Rudas, near Aggius in Sardinia (Italy). WSM1369 is an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes M. polymorpha and M. sphaerocarpos. Here we describe the features of E. medicae WSM1369, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,402,557 bp standard draft genome is arranged into 307 scaffolds of 307 contigs containing 6,656 protein-coding genes and 79 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  3. Genome sequence of Ensifer medicae strain WSM1369; an effective microsymbiont of the annual legume Medicago sphaerocarpos

    PubMed Central

    Terpolilli, Jason; Garau, Giovanni; Hill, Yvette; Tian, Rui; Howieson, John; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer medicae WSM1369 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Medicago. WSM1369 was isolated in 1993 from a nodule recovered from the roots of Medicago sphaerocarpos growing at San Pietro di Rudas, near Aggius in Sardinia (Italy). WSM1369 is an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes M. polymorpha and M. sphaerocarpos. Here we describe the features of E. medicae WSM1369, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,402,557 bp standard draft genome is arranged into 307 scaffolds of 307 contigs containing 6,656 protein-coding genes and 79 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:24976897

  4. Ectopic expression of miR160 results in auxin hypersensitivity, cytokinin hyposensitivity, and inhibition of symbiotic nodule development in soybean.

    PubMed

    Turner, Marie; Nizampatnam, Narasimha Rao; Baron, Mathieu; Coppin, Stéphanie; Damodaran, Suresh; Adhikari, Sajag; Arunachalam, Shivaram Poigai; Yu, Oliver; Subramanian, Senthil

    2013-08-01

    Symbiotic root nodules in leguminous plants result from interaction between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria. There are two major types of legume nodules, determinate and indeterminate. Determinate nodules do not have a persistent meristem, while indeterminate nodules have a persistent meristem. Auxin is thought to play a role in the development of both these types of nodules. However, inhibition of rootward auxin transport at the site of nodule initiation is crucial for the development of indeterminate nodules but not determinate nodules. Using the synthetic auxin-responsive DR5 promoter in soybean (Glycine max), we show that there is relatively low auxin activity during determinate nodule initiation and that it is restricted to the nodule periphery subsequently during development. To examine if and what role auxin plays in determinate nodule development, we generated soybean composite plants with altered sensitivity to auxin. We overexpressed microRNA393 to silence the auxin receptor gene family, and these roots were hyposensitive to auxin. These roots nodulated normally, suggesting that only minimal/reduced auxin signaling is required for determinate nodule development. We overexpressed microRNA160 to silence a set of repressor auxin response factor transcription factors, and these roots were hypersensitive to auxin. These roots were not impaired in epidermal responses to rhizobia but had significantly reduced nodule primordium formation, suggesting that auxin hypersensitivity inhibits nodule development. These roots were also hyposensitive to cytokinin and had attenuated expression of key nodulation-associated transcription factors known to be regulated by cytokinin. We propose a regulatory feedback loop involving auxin and cytokinin during nodulation.

  5. Flavones and flavonols play distinct critical roles during nodulation of Medicago truncatula by Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Subramanian, Senthil; Stacey, Gary; Yu, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Flavonoids play critical roles in legume-rhizobium symbiosis. However, the role of individual flavonoid compounds in this process has not yet been clearly established. We silenced different flavonoid-biosynthesis enzymes to generate transgenic Medicago truncatula roots with different flavonoid profiles. Silencing of chalcone synthase, the key entry-point enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis led to flavonoid-deficient roots. Silencing of isoflavone synthase and flavone synthase led to roots deficient for a subset of flavonoids, isoflavonoids (formononetin and biochanin A) and flavones (7,4'-dihydroxyflavone), respectively. When tested for nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti, flavonoid-deficient roots had a near complete loss of nodulation, whereas flavone-deficient roots had reduced nodulation. Isoflavone-deficient roots nodulated normally, suggesting that isoflavones might not play a critical role in M. truncatula nodulation, even though they are the most abundant root flavonoids. Supplementation of flavone-deficient roots with 7, 4'-dihydroxyflavone, a major inducer of S. meliloti nod genes, completely restored nodulation. However, the same treatment did not restore nodulation in flavonoid-deficient roots, suggesting that other non-nod gene-inducing flavonoid compounds are also critical to nodulation. Supplementation of roots with the flavonol kaempferol (an inhibitor of auxin transport), in combination with the use of flavone pre-treated S. meliloti cells, completely restored nodulation in flavonoid-deficient roots. In addition, S. meliloti cells constitutively producing Nod factors were able to nodulate flavone-deficient roots, but not flavonoid-deficient roots. These observations indicated that flavones might act as internal inducers of rhizobial nod genes, and that flavonols might act as auxin transport regulators during nodulation. Both these roles of flavonoids appear critical for symbiosis in M. truncatula.

  6. Knockdown of LjIPT3 influences nodule development in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaping; Chen, Wei; Li, Xueliu; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Pingzhi; Xia, Kuaifei; Yang, Yali; Wu, Guojiang

    2014-01-01

    Cytokinins play important roles in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Here we report isolation of six genes encoding isopentenyl transferase (IPT) from Lotus japonicus, which catalyze the rate-limiting step of cytokinin biosynthesis. The LjIPT3 gene was found to be up-regulated in infected roots and mature nodules. Histochemical analysis demonstrated expression of Pro(LjIPT3):GUS (β-glucuronidase) in vegetative and reproductive organs, and was especially high in the vascular bundles of roots. When inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, LjIPT3 was undetectable in the nodule primordia and developing nodules, and later it was expressed only in the vascular bundles of mature nodules. In addition, knockdown of LjIPT3 (LjIPT3i) by RNA interference reduced levels of endogenous cytokinins, affected plant development and accelerated Chl degradation during dark-induced leaf senescence. Compared with the wild type, LjIPT3i plants produced fewer infection threads and nodules. In addition, expression of downstream nodulation-related transcription factor genes LjNSP1, LjNSP2 and LjNIN decreased dramatically in LjIPT3i plants. These results suggest that LjIPT3 regulates the CRE1-dependent cytokinin pathway, affecting nodule initiation and thereby influencing the number of infection threads and nodules. Detection of nitrogenase activity and observation of nodule structure showed that endogenous cytokinins are required for full development of the infected cells in mature nodules by preventing early senescence. Therefore, our results indicate that the LjIPT3 gene product is required for nodule initiation and development, and does not appear to be involved in early infection events.

  7. Colonization and plant growth promoting characterization of endophytic Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Zong1 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Long Fei; Xu, Ya Jun; Ma, Zhan Qiang; Deng, Zhen Shan; Shan, Chang Juan; Wei, Ge Hong

    2013-01-01

    The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC) and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 ºC after placed at 4–60 ºC for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.0–11.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (μg/mL): Phosphonomycin (100), Penicillin (100) and Ampicillin (100). It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v) methylene blue and 0.1–0.2% (w/v) methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp.) showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plant-growth promoting agent. PMID:24294262

  8. Colonization and plant growth promoting characterization of endophytic Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Zong1 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long Fei; Xu, Ya Jun; Ma, Zhan Qiang; Deng, Zhen Shan; Shan, Chang Juan; Wei, Ge Hong

    2013-01-01

    The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC) and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 ºC after placed at 4-60 ºC for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.0-11.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (μg/mL): Phosphonomycin (100), Penicillin (100) and Ampicillin (100). It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v) methylene blue and 0.1-0.2% (w/v) methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp.) showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plant-growth promoting agent.

  9. Characterization of the plant growth promoting bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae MSR1, isolated from roots of non-nodulating Medicago sativa

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Ashraf Y.Z.; Alsyeeh, Abdel-Moneium; Almalki, Mohammed A.; Saleh, Farag A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the endophytic bacterial strain designated MSR1 that was isolated from inside the non-nodulating roots of Medicago sativa after surface-sterilization. MSR1 was identified as Enterobacter cloacae using both 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and API20E biochemical identification system (Biomerieux, France). Furthermore, this bacterium was characterized using API50CH kit (Biomerieux, France) and tested for antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens. The results showed that E. cloacae consumed certain carbohydrates such as glycerol, d-xylose, d-maltose and esculin melibiose as a sole carbon source and certain amino acids such as arginine, tryptophan ornithine as nitrogen source. Furthermore, MSR1 possessed multiple plant-growth promoting characteristics; phosphate solubility, production of phytohormones acetoin and bioactive compounds. Inoculation of Pisum sativum with MSR1 significantly improved the growth parameters (the length and dry weight) of this economically important grain legume compared to the non-treated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing E. cloacae which exist in roots of alfalfa growing in Al-Ahsaa region. The results confirmed that E. cloacae exhibited traits for plant growth promoting and could be developed as an eco-friendly biofertilizer for P. sativum and probably for other important plant species in future. PMID:26858542

  10. Characterization of the plant growth promoting bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae MSR1, isolated from roots of non-nodulating Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Ashraf Y Z; Alsyeeh, Abdel-Moneium; Almalki, Mohammed A; Saleh, Farag A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the endophytic bacterial strain designated MSR1 that was isolated from inside the non-nodulating roots of Medicago sativa after surface-sterilization. MSR1 was identified as Enterobacter cloacae using both 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and API20E biochemical identification system (Biomerieux, France). Furthermore, this bacterium was characterized using API50CH kit (Biomerieux, France) and tested for antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens. The results showed that E. cloacae consumed certain carbohydrates such as glycerol, d-xylose, d-maltose and esculin melibiose as a sole carbon source and certain amino acids such as arginine, tryptophan ornithine as nitrogen source. Furthermore, MSR1 possessed multiple plant-growth promoting characteristics; phosphate solubility, production of phytohormones acetoin and bioactive compounds. Inoculation of Pisum sativum with MSR1 significantly improved the growth parameters (the length and dry weight) of this economically important grain legume compared to the non-treated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing E. cloacae which exist in roots of alfalfa growing in Al-Ahsaa region. The results confirmed that E. cloacae exhibited traits for plant growth promoting and could be developed as an eco-friendly biofertilizer for P. sativum and probably for other important plant species in future.

  11. Determinants of nodulation competitiveness in Rhizobium etli. Final report for period September 30, 1996--September 29, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Handelsman, Jo

    2000-01-04

    Nitrogen is a major limiting nutrient in crop production. Chemical fertilizers, which are used extensively to meet crop nitrogen requirements, contribute to the high energy inputs of modern agriculture and cause human health and environmental problems. Legumes and their bacterial associates have long been used in crop rotations to replenish soil nitrogen, but effective and reliable biological nitrogen fixation for beans is prevented by the lack of nodulation competitiveness of many Rhizobium strains used as inoculants. The result is that the inoculant strains will not occupy the host's nodules and no benefit will be derived from inoculation. Many indigenous soil strains of Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli, the symbiont of bean, nodulate but fix little or no nitrogen, and therefore the nodulation competitiveness problem is significant for achieving maximum nitrogen benefit from bean crops. This project was directed toward developing an understanding of the basis of nodulation competitiveness.

  12. Taxonomic and symbiotic diversity of bacteria isolated from nodules of Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana in arid soils of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Fterich, A; Mahdhi, M; Lafuente, A; Pajuelo, E; Caviedes, M A; Rodriguez-Llorente, I D; Mars, M

    2012-06-01

    A collection of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana nodules from various arid soils in Tunisia was analyzed for their diversity at both taxonomic and symbiotic levels. The isolates were found to be phenotypically diverse. The majority of the isolates tolerated 3% NaCl and grew at 40 °C. Genetic characterization emphasized that most of the strains (42/50) belong to the genus Ensifer, particularly the species Ensifer meliloti, Ensifer garamanticus, and Ensifer numidicus. Symbiotic properties of isolates showed diversity in their capacity to nodulate their host plant and to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The most effective isolates were closely related to E. garamanticus. Nodulation tests showed that 3 strains belonging to Mesorhizobium genus failed to renodulate their host plant, which is surprising for symbiotic rhizobia. Furthermore, our results support the presence of non-nodulating endophytic bacteria belonging to the Acinetobacter genus in legume nodules.

  13. The importance of nodule CO2 fixation for the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea at vegetative growth and during pod formation.

    PubMed

    Fischinger, Stephanie Anastasia; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation is of pivotal importance for N2 fixation. The process provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for nitrogen assimilation. The hypothesis of the present paper was that grain legume nodules would adapt to higher plant N demand and more restricted carbon availability at pod formation through increased nodule CO2 fixation and a more efficient N2 fixation. Growth, N2 fixation, and nodule composition during vegetative growth and at pod formation were studied in pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). In parallel experiments, 15N2 and 13CO2 uptake, as well as nodule hydrogen and CO2 release, was measured. Plants at pod formation showed higher growth rates and N2 fixation per plant when compared with vegetative growth. The specific activity of active nodules was about 25% higher at pod formation. The higher nodule activity was accompanied by higher amino acid concentration in nodules and xylem sap with a higher share of asparagine. Nodule 13CO2 fixation was increased at pod formation, both per plant and per 15N2 fixed unit. However, malate concentration in nodules was only 40% of that during vegetative growth and succinate was no longer detectable. The data indicate that increased N2 fixation at pod formation is connected with strongly increased nodule CO2 fixation. While the sugar concentration in nodules at pod formation was not altered, the concentration of organic acids, namely malate and succinate, was significantly lower. It is concluded that strategies to improve the capability of nodules to fix CO2 and form organic acids might prolong intensive N2 fixation into the later stages of pod formation and pod filling in grain legumes.

  14. The importance of nodule CO2 fixation for the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea at vegetative growth and during pod formation

    PubMed Central

    Fischinger, Stephanie Anastasia; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation is of pivotal importance for N2 fixation. The process provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for nitrogen assimilation. The hypothesis of the present paper was that grain legume nodules would adapt to higher plant N demand and more restricted carbon availability at pod formation through increased nodule CO2 fixation and a more efficient N2 fixation. Growth, N2 fixation, and nodule composition during vegetative growth and at pod formation were studied in pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). In parallel experiments, 15N2 and 13CO2 uptake, as well as nodule hydrogen and CO2 release, was measured. Plants at pod formation showed higher growth rates and N2 fixation per plant when compared with vegetative growth. The specific activity of active nodules was about 25% higher at pod formation. The higher nodule activity was accompanied by higher amino acid concentration in nodules and xylem sap with a higher share of asparagine. Nodule 13CO2 fixation was increased at pod formation, both per plant and per 15N2 fixed unit. However, malate concentration in nodules was only 40% of that during vegetative growth and succinate was no longer detectable. The data indicate that increased N2 fixation at pod formation is connected with strongly increased nodule CO2 fixation. While the sugar concentration in nodules at pod formation was not altered, the concentration of organic acids, namely malate and succinate, was significantly lower. It is concluded that strategies to improve the capability of nodules to fix CO2 and form organic acids might prolong intensive N2 fixation into the later stages of pod formation and pod filling in grain legumes. PMID:20363863

  15. A Sinorhizobium meliloti-specific N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal increases nodule numbers in Medicago truncatula independent of autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Veliz-Vallejos, Debora F; van Noorden, Giel E; Yuan, Mengqi; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) act as quorum sensing signals that regulate cell-density dependent behaviors in many gram-negative bacteria, in particular those important for plant-microbe interactions. AHLs can also be recognized by plants, and this may influence their interactions with bacteria. Here we tested whether the exposure to AHLs affects the nodule-forming symbiosis between legume hosts and rhizobia. We treated roots of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, with a range of AHLs either from its specific symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, or from the potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium vitis. We found increased numbers of nodules formed on root systems treated with the S. meliloti-specific AHL, 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone, at a concentration of 1 μM, while the other AHLs did not result in significant changes to nodule numbers. We did not find any evidence for altered nodule invasion by the rhizobia. Quantification of flavonoids that could act as nod gene inducers in S. meliloti did not show any correlation with increased nodule numbers. The effects of AHLs were specific for an increase in nodule numbers, but not lateral root numbers or root length. Increased nodule numbers following 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone treatment were under control of autoregulation of nodulation and were still observed in the autoregulation mutant, sunn4 (super numeric nodules4). However, increases in nodule numbers by 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone were not found in the ethylene-insensitive sickle mutant. A comparison between M. truncatula with M. sativa (alfalfa) and Trifolium repens (white clover) showed that the observed effects of AHLs on nodule numbers were specific to M. truncatula, despite M. sativa nodulating with the same symbiont. We conclude that plant perception of the S. meliloti-specific 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone influences nodule numbers in M. truncatula via an ethylene-dependent, but autoregulation-independent mechanism.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhiza maintains nodule function during external NH4+ supply in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.).

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Peter E; Pérez-Fernández, Maria A; Valentine, Alex J

    2012-04-01

    The synergistic benefits of the dual inoculation of legumes with nodule bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are well established, but the effect of an external NH(4)(+) supply on this tripartite relationship is less clear. This effect of NH(4)(+) supply was investigated with regards to the growth and function of the legume host and both symbionts. Nodulated Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings with and without AM, were grown in a sand medium with either 0 N, 1 mM or 3 mM NH(4)(+). Plants were harvested at 30 days after emergence and measurements were taken for biomass, N(2) fixation, photosynthesis, asparagine concentration, construction costs and N nutrition. The addition of NH(4)(+) led to a decline in the percentage AM colonization and nodule dry weights, although AM colonization was affected to a lesser extent. NH(4)(+) supply also resulted in a decrease in the reliance on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF); however, the AM roots maintained higher levels of NH(4)(+) uptake than their non-AM counterparts. Furthermore, the non-AM plants had a higher production of asparagine than the AM plants. The inhibitory effects of NH(4)(+) on nodule function can be reduced by the presence of AM at moderate levels of NH(4)(+) (1 mM), via improving nodule growth or relieving the asparagine-induced inhibition of BNF. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  17. Nod factor supply under water stress conditions modulates cytokinin biosynthesis and enhances nodule formation and N nutrition in soybean.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Marion; Salon, Christophe; Smith, Donald L; Emery, R J Neil

    2016-09-01

    Nod factors (NF) are molecules produced by rhizobia which are involved in the N2-fixing symbiosis with legume plants, enabling the formation of specific organs called nodules. Under drought conditions, nitrogen acquisition by N2-fixation is depressed, resulting in low legume productivity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of NF supply on nitrogen acquisition and on cytokinin biosynthesis of soybean plants grown under drought. NF supply to water stressed soybeans increased the CK content of all organs. The profile of CK metabolites also shifted from t-Z to cis-Z and an accumulation of nucleotide and glucoside conjugates. The changes in CK coincided with enhanced nodule formation with sustained nodule specific activity, which ultimately increased the total nitrogen fixed by the plant.

  18. An experimental and modelling exploration of the host-sanction hypothesis in legume-rhizobia mutualism.

    PubMed

    Marco, Diana E; Carbajal, Juan P; Cannas, Sergio; Pérez-Arnedo, Rebeca; Hidalgo-Perea, Angeles; Olivares, José; Ruiz-Sainz, José E; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-08-07

    Despite the importance of mutualism as a key ecological process, its persistence in nature is difficult to explain since the existence of exploitative, "cheating" partners that could erode the interaction is common. By analogy with the proposed policing strategy stabilizing intraspecific cooperation, host sanctions against non-N(2) fixing, cheating symbionts have been proposed as a force stabilizing mutualism in legume-Rhizobium symbiosis. Following this proposal, penalizations would include decreased nodular rhizobial viability and/or early nodule senescence in nodules occupied by cheating rhizobia. In this work, we analyse the stability of Rhizobium-legume symbiosis when non-fixing, cheating strains are present, using an experimental and modelling approach. We used split-root experiments with soybean plants inoculated with two rhizobial strains, a cooperative, normal N(2) fixing strain and an isogenic non-fixing, "perfect" cheating mutant derivative that lacks nitrogenase activity but has the same nodulation abilities inoculated to split-root plants. We found no experimental evidence of functioning plant host sanctions to cheater rhizobia based on nodular rhizobia viability and nodule senescence and maturity molecular markers. Based on these experiments, we developed a population dynamic model with and without the inclusion of plant host sanctions. We show that plant populations persist in spite of the presence of cheating rhizobia without the need of incorporating any sanction against the cheater populations in the model, under the realistic assumption that plants can at least get some amount of fixed N(2) from the effectively mutualistic rhizobia occupying some nodules. Inclusion of plant sanctions leads to the unrealistic effect of ultimate extinction of cheater strains in soil. Our simulation results are in agreement with increasing experimental evidence and theoretical work showing that mutualisms can persist in presence of cheating partners.

  19. Symbiotic diversity of Ensifer meliloti strains recovered from various legume species in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mnasri, Bacem; Badri, Yazid; Saïdi, Sabrine; de Lajudie, Philippe; Mhamdi, Ridha

    2009-12-01

    Ensifer meliloti (formerly Sinorhizobium meliloti) was first considered as a specific microsymbiont of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella. However, strains of E. meliloti were recovered from root nodules of various legume species and their symbiotic status still remains unclear. Here, we further investigate the specificity of these strains. A collection of 47 E. meliloti strains isolated in Tunisia from root nodules of Medicago truncatula, Medicago sativa, Medicago ciliaris, Medicago laciniata, Medicago marina, Medicago scutellata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Argyrolobium uniflorum, Lotus creticus, Lotus roudairei, Ononis natrix, Retama raetam, Genista saharae, Acacia tortilis, Hedysarum carnosum and Hippocrepis bicontorta were examined by REP-PCR fingerprinting, PCR-RFLPs of the 16S-23S rDNA IGS, the nifH gene and nifD-K intergenic spacer, and sequencing of 16S rRNA and nodA genes. Their nodulation range was also assessed by cross-inoculation experiments. No clear correlation was found between chromosomal backgrounds and host plants of origin. The nodulation polyvalence of the species E. meliloti was associated with a high symbiotic heterogeneity. On the basis of PCR-RFLP data from the nifH gene and nifD-K intergenic spacer, E. meliloti strains isolated from non-Medicago legumes harboured distinct genes and possessed wider host ranges. Some strains did not nodulate Medicago species. On the basis of nodA phylogeny, the majority of the Tunisian strains, including strains from Medicago, harboured distinct nodA alleles more related to those found in E. medicae than those found in E. meliloti. However, more work is still needed to characterize this group further. The diversity observed among M. laciniata isolates, which was supported by nodA phylogeny, nifH typing and the efficiency profile on M. ciliaris, indicated that what was thought to be bv. medicaginis is certainly heterogeneous.

  20. A Peptidoglycan-Remodeling Enzyme Is Critical for Bacteroid Differentiation in Bradyrhizobium spp. During Legume Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Gully, Djamel; Gargani, Daniel; Bonaldi, Katia; Grangeteau, Cédric; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Fardoux, Joël; Nguyen, Phuong; Marchetti, Roberta; Nouwen, Nico; Molinaro, Antonio; Mergaert, Peter; Giraud, Eric

    2016-06-01

    In response to the presence of compatible rhizobium bacteria, legumes form symbiotic organs called nodules on their roots. These nodules house nitrogen-fixing bacteroids that are a differentiated form of the rhizobium bacteria. In some legumes, the bacteroid differentiation comprises a dramatic cell enlargement, polyploidization, and other morphological changes. Here, we demonstrate that a peptidoglycan-modifying enzyme in Bradyrhizobium strains, a DD-carboxypeptidase that contains a peptidoglycan-binding SPOR domain, is essential for normal bacteroid differentiation in Aeschynomene species. The corresponding mutants formed bacteroids that are malformed and hypertrophied. However, in soybean, a plant that does not induce morphological differentiation of its symbiont, the mutation does not affect the bacteroids. Remarkably, the mutation also leads to necrosis in a large fraction of the Aeschynomene nodules, indicating that a normally formed peptidoglycan layer is essential for avoiding the induction of plant immune responses by the invading bacteria. In addition to exopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, and lipopolysaccharides, whose role during symbiosis is well defined, our work demonstrates an essential role in symbiosis for yet another rhizobial envelope component, the peptidoglycan layer.

  1. N-fixation in legumes--An assessment of the potential threat posed by ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, D K L; Mills, G; Hayes, F; Norris, D; Coyle, M; Wilkinson, S; Davies, W

    2016-01-01

    The growth, development and functioning of legumes are often significantly affected by exposure to tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution. However, surprisingly little is known about how leguminous Nitrogen (N) fixation responds to ozone, with a scarcity of studies addressing this question in detail. In the last decade, ozone impacts on N-fixation in soybean, cowpea, mung bean, peanut and clover have been shown for concentrations which are now commonly recorded in ambient air or are likely to occur in the near future. We provide a synthesis of the existing literature addressing this issue, and also explore the effects that may occur on an agroecosystem scale by predicting reductions in Trifolium (clovers) root nodule biomass in United Kingdom (UK) pasture based on ozone concentration data for a "high" (2006) and "average" ozone year (2008). Median 8% and 5% reductions in clover root nodule biomass in pasture across the UK were predicted for 2006 and 2008 respectively. Seasonal exposure to elevated ozone, or short-term acute concentrations >100 ppb, are sufficient to reduce N-fixation and/or impact nodulation, in a range of globally-important legumes. However, an increasing global burden of CO2, the use of artificial fertiliser, and reactive N-pollution may partially mitigate impacts of ozone on N-fixation.

  2. Rhizobium cellulase CelC2 is essential for primary symbiotic infection of legume host roots

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, M.; Jiménez-Zurdo, J. I.; Velázquez, E.; Trujillo, M. E.; Zurdo-Piñeiro, J. L.; Ramírez-Bahena, M. H.; Ramos, B.; Díaz-Mínguez, J. M.; Dazzo, F.; Martínez-Molina, E.; Mateos, P. F.

    2008-01-01

    The rhizobia–legume, root-nodule symbiosis provides the most efficient source of biologically fixed ammonia fertilizer for agricultural crops. Its development involves pathways of specificity, infectivity, and effectivity resulting from expressed traits of the bacterium and host plant. A key event of the infection process required for development of this root-nodule symbiosis is a highly localized, complete erosion of the plant cell wall through which the bacterial symbiont penetrates to establish a nitrogen-fixing, intracellular endosymbiotic state within the host. This process of wall degradation must be delicately balanced to avoid lysis and destruction of the host cell. Here, we describe the purification, biochemical characterization, molecular genetic analysis, biological activity, and symbiotic function of a cell-bound bacterial cellulase (CelC2) enzyme from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, the clover-nodulating endosymbiont. The purified enzyme can erode the noncrystalline tip of the white clover host root hair wall, making a localized hole of sufficient size to allow wild-type microsymbiont penetration. This CelC2 enzyme is not active on root hairs of the nonhost legume alfalfa. Microscopy analysis of the symbiotic phenotypes of the ANU843 wild type and CelC2 knockout mutant derivative revealed that this enzyme fulfils an essential role in the primary infection process required for development of the canonical nitrogen-fixing R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii-white clover symbiosis. PMID:18458328

  3. Burkholderia species associated with legumes of Chiapas, Mexico, exhibit stress tolerance and growth in aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    de León-Martínez, José A; Yañez-Ocampo, Gustavo; Wong-Villarreal, Arnoldo

    2017-08-29

    Leguminous plants have received special interest for the diversity of β-proteobacteria in their nodules and are promising candidates for biotechnological applications. In this study, 15 bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules of the following legumes: Indigofera thibaudiana, Mimosa diplotricha, Mimosa albida, Mimosa pigra, and Mimosa pudica, collected in 9 areas of Chiapas, Mexico. The strains were grouped into four profiles of genomic fingerprints through BOX-PCR and identified based on their morphology, API 20NE biochemical tests, sequencing of the 16S rRNA, nifH and nodC genes as bacteria of the Burkholderia genus, genetically related to Burkholderia phenoliruptrix, Burkholderia phymatum, Burkholderia sabiae, and Burkholderia tuberum. The Burkholderia strains were grown under stress conditions with 4% NaCl, 45°C, and benzene presence at 0.1% as the sole carbon source. This is the first report on the isolation of these nodulating species of the Burkholderia genus in legumes in Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Stimulation of nodulation in Medicago truncatula by low concentrations of ammonium: quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis of selected genes.

    PubMed

    Fei, Houman; Vessey, J Kevin

    2009-03-01

    Although mineral nitrogen generally has negative effects on nodulation in legume-rhizobia symbioses, low concentrations of ammonium stimulate nodulation in some legumes. In this study, the effects of ammonium and nitrate on growth, nodulation and expression of 2 nitrogen transport and 12 putative nodulation-related genes of the model symbiosis of Medicago truncatula - Sinorhizobium meliloti are investigated. After 3 weeks of hydroponic growth, whole-plant nodulation was enhanced in all the ammonium treatments and up to three-fold in the 0.5 mM treatment compared with the zero-nitrogen control. Specific nodulation (nodules g(-1) root dry weight) was greatly stimulated in the 0.1 and 0.5 mM NH4+ treatments, to a lower extent in the 0.1 mM NO3- treatment, and inhibited in all other treatments. Expression of the 14 selected genes was observed at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h after exposure to rhizobia and nitrogen. Expression of nitrogen transporter genes increased significantly, but responses of the three genes putatively associated with symbiosis signaling/nodule initiation were mixed. There were infrequent responses of genes coding for an ABA-activated protein kinase or a gibberellin-regulated protein, but an ethylene-responsive element-binding factor showed increased expression in various treatments and sampling times. Three auxin-responsive genes and three cytokinin-responsive genes showed varied responses to ammonium and nitrate. This study indicates that low concentrations of ammonium stimulate nodulation in M. truncatula, but the data were inconclusive in verifying the hypothesis that a relatively high ratio of cytokinin to auxin in roots may be an underlying mechanism in this stimulation of nodulation.

  5. Transient Nod factor-dependent gene expression in the nodulation-competent zone of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Satomi; Reid, Dugald E; Lorenc, Michał T; Stiller, Jiri; Edwards, David; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2012-10-01

    All lateral organ development in plants, such as nodulation in legumes, requires the temporal and spatial regulation of genes and gene networks. A total mRNA profiling approach using RNA-seq to target the specific soybean (Glycine max) root tissues responding to compatible rhizobia [i.e. the Zone Of Nodulation (ZON)] revealed a large number of novel, often transient, mRNA changes occurring during the early stages of nodulation. Focusing on the ZON enabled us to discard the majority of root tissues and their developmentally diverse gene transcripts, thereby highlighting the lowly and transiently expressed nodulation-specific genes. It also enabled us to concentrate on a precise moment in early nodule development at each sampling time. We focused on discovering genes regulated specifically by the Bradyrhizobium-produced Nod factor signal, by inoculating roots with either a competent wild-type or incompetent mutant (nodC(-) ) strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Collectively, 2915 genes were identified as being differentially expressed, including many known soybean nodulation genes. A number of unknown nodulation gene candidates and soybean orthologues of nodulation genes previously reported in other legume species were also identified. The differential expression of several candidates was confirmed and further characterized via inoculation time-course studies and qRT-PCR. The expression of many genes, including an endo-1,4-β-glucanase, a cytochrome P450 and a TIR-LRR-NBS receptor kinase, was transient, peaking quickly during the initiation of nodule ontogeny. Additional genes were found to be down-regulated. Significantly, a set of differentially regulated genes acting in the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis pathway was discovered, suggesting a novel role of GAs in nodulation. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Importance of rhizobia in Agriculture: potential of the commercial inoculants and native strains for improving legume yields in different land-use systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesueur, D.; Atieno, M.; Mathu, S.; Herrmann, L.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes play an important role in the traditional diets of many regions throughout the world because they provide a multitude of benefits to both the soil and other crops grown in combination with them or following them in several cropping systems. The ability of legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen in association with rhizobia gives them the capacity to grow in very degraded soils. But do we have to systematically inoculate legumes? For example our results suggested that the systematic inoculation of both cowpea and green gram in Kenya with commercial inoculants to improve yields is not really justified, native strains performing better than inoculated strains. But when native rhizobia nodulating legumes are not naturally present, application of rhizobial inoculants is very commonly used. Our results showed that the utilization of effective good-quality rhizobial inoculants by farmers have a real potential to improve legume yields in unfertile soils requesting high applications of mineral fertilizers. For example an effective soybean commercial inoculants was tested in different locations in Kenya (in about 150 farms in 3 mandate areas presenting different soil characteristics and environmental conditions). Application of the rhizobial inoculant significantly increased the soybean yields in all mandate areas (about 75% of the farms). Nodule occupancy analysis showed that a high number of nodules occupied by the inoculated strain did not obviously lead to an increase of soybean production. Soil factors (pH, P, C, N…) seemed to affect the inoculant efficiency whether the strain is occupying the nodules or not. Our statistic analysis showed that soil pH significantly affected nodulation and yield, though the effect was variable depending on the region. We concluded that the competitiveness of rhizobial strains might not be the main factor explaining the effect (or lack of) of legumes inoculation in the field. Another study was aiming to assess if several factors

  7. Nitrate inhibits soybean nodulation by regulating expression of CLE genes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Young Woo; Lee, Sung Chul; Hwang, Cheol Ho

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen compounds such as nitrate act as a potential inhibitor for legume nodulation. In this study, we isolated a new CLE gene, GmNIC2, from nitrate-treated roots, which shares high sequence homology with nitrate-induced CLE gene GmNIC1. Similar to GmNIC1, the expression level of GmNIC2 was not significantly altered in roots by rhizobial inoculation and was much higher in young nodules than in roots. In addition, overexpression of GmNIC2 led to similar nodulation inhibition of transgenic hairy roots to that of GmNIC1, which occurred in GmNARK-dependent manner and at the local level. By analyzing GmNARK loss-of-function mutant, SS2-2, it was found that expression levels of GmNIC1 and GmNIC2 in the SS2-2 roots were lower than in the wild type (WT) roots in response to nitrate. In contrast to GmNIC1 and GmNIC2, expressions of GmRIC1 and GmRIC2 genes that are related to the autoregulation of nodulation (AON) were strongly suppressed both of the soybeans during all periods of nitrate treatment and even were not induced by additional inoculation with rhizobia. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that GmNIC2, as an active homologous gene located in chromosome 13, acts locally to suppress nodulation, like GmNIC1, and nitrate inhibition of nodulation is led by fine-tuned regulation of both nitrate-induced CLEs and rhizobia-induced CLEs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Phosphate import at the arbuscule: just a nutrient?

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Yi; Paszkowski, Uta

    2011-11-01

    Central to the mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is the arbuscule, the site where symbiotic phosphate is delivered. Initial investigations in legumes have led to the exciting observation that symbiotic phosphate uptake not only enhances plant growth but also regulates arbuscule dynamics and is, furthermore, required for maintenance of the symbiosis. This review evaluates the possible role of the phosphate ion, not only as a nutrient but also as a signal that is necessary for reprogramming the host cortex cell for symbiosis.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:7618891

  10. High diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from several legume species and land uses in Brazilian tropical ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Alves Almeida, Kize; Lebbe, Liesbeth; Barroso Silva, Karina; Willems, Anne; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2015-09-01

    The genus Bradyrhizobium stands out among nitrogen-fixing legume-nodulating bacteria because it predominates among the efficient microsymbionts of forest, forage, and green manure legume species, as well as important species of grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, and peanut. Therefore, the diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains is a relevant resource from environmental and economic perspectives, and strains isolated from diverse legume species and land uses in Brazilian tropical ecosystems were assessed in this study. To accomplish this, sequences of four housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, gyrB, and recA) were individually analysed, with the first three also being considered using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The sensitivity of the strains to different antibiotics, their tolerance to different levels of salinity, and their ability to nodulate soybean plants were also measured. The phylogenetic trees based on each individual gene, and on the concatenated housekeeping genes, revealed several strain clusters separated from any currently described species. The Bradyrhizobium strains studied were generally resistant to antibiotics. All strains were able to grow at salinity levels of up to 0.5% NaCl, whereas only strains UFLA03-142, UFLA03-143, UFLA03-145, and UFLA03-146 grew in the presence of 1% NaCl. Together, the results indicated that some of the strains studied were potential novel species, indicating that the various soils and ecosystems in Brazil may harbour an as yet unknown diversity of rhizobia.

  11. Inoculation of Woody Legumes with Selected Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobia To Recover Desertified Mediterranean Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, M. A.; Salamanca, C. P.; Barea, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Revegetation strategies, either for reclamation or for rehabilitation, are being used to recover desertified ecosystems. Woody legumes are recognized as species that are useful for revegetation of water-deficient, low-nutrient environments because of their ability to form symbiotic associations with rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, which improve nutrient acquisition and help plants to become established and cope with stress situations. A range of woody legumes used in revegetation programs, particularly in Mediterranean regions, were assayed. These legumes included both exotic and native species and were used in a test of a desertified semiarid ecosystem in southeast Spain. Screening for the appropriate plant species-microsymbiont combinations was performed previously, and a simple procedure to produce plantlets with optimized mycorrhizal and nodulated status was developed. The results of a 4-year trial showed that (i) only the native shrub legumes were able to become established under the local environmental conditions (hence, a reclamation strategy is recommended) and (ii) biotechnological manipulation of the seedlings to be used for revegetation (by inoculation with selected rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi) improved outplanting performance, plant survival, and biomass development. PMID:16348838

  12. Diversity and relationships of bradyrhizobia from legumes native to eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew A; Kennedy, David A

    2006-12-01

    DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays with lineage-specific primers were used to analyze the diversity of 276 isolates of Bradyrhizobium sp. nodule bacteria associated with 13 native legumes species in the northeastern United States, representing eight genera in six legume tribes. A PCR screen with two primer pairs in the rRNA region indicated that seven of the legume species were exclusively associated with strains having markers resembling Bradyrhizobium elkanii, while the remaining six host species harbored strains related to both B. elkanii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Sequence analysis of 22 isolates for portions of 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA yielded congruent phylogenetic trees and showed that isolates from different legume genera often shared similar or identical sequences. However, trees inferred from portions of two other genes (alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase gene (tfdA), the alpha-subunit of nitrogenase (nifD)) differed significantly from the rRNA phylogeny. Thus, for Bradyrhizobium populations in this region, lateral gene transfer events appear to have altered genealogical relationships of different portions of the genome. These results extend the number of likely cases of gene transfer between divergent taxa of Bradyrhizobium (from members of the B. elkanii lineage to the B. japonicum group) and suggest that transfers have also occurred among separate subgroups of the B. elkanii lineage.

  13. [Evolution of legume-rhizobium symbiosis for an improved ecological efficiency and genotypic specificity of partner interactions].

    PubMed

    Provorov, N A; Vorob'ev, N I

    2011-03-01

    Mathematical simulation of the evolution of polymorphic legume-rhizobium symbiosis showed that co-evolution of the partners for an improved ecological efficiency of symbiosis is greatly stimulated when low-active N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing strains of nodule bacteria are prohibited from colonizing nodules. The results of analysis of the model were collated with the comparative morphology of the infection process in various legumes, and its was assumed that mechanisms controlling bacterial reproduction in nodules arose in early evolution of symbiosis in primitive legumes owing to a transition from mixed to clonal infection. The development of such mechanisms was associated with adaptively valuable macroevolutionary transformations of symbiosis and directed its microevolution towards a parallel increase in the specificity and efficiency of mutualism. The increase was due to a reorganization of selective processes in endosymbiotic bacterial populations, which was based on changes in their genetic and spatial structures and optimized metabolic feedbacks between the partners (preferential allocation of photosynthesis products to the most active N2-fixing strains).

  14. Legume Information System (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working o...

  15. Characterization of Rhizobia from Ineffective Alfalfa Nodules: Ability to Nodulate Bean Plants [Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) Savi.] †

    PubMed Central

    Eardly, Bertrand D.; Hannaway, David B.; Bottomley, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    This study was initiated to characterize Rhizobium isolates obtained from root nodules of ineffectively nodulated, field-grown alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants. The purpose was to determine if these isolates possessed characteristics which would explain either their ineffectiveness in N2 fixation or their apparent ability to tolerate the moderately acid soil conditions from which they originated. Isolates were characterized by analysis of growth rate, 39°C tolerance, acid production on conventional media, and symbiotic performance. All isolates were ineffective in N2 fixation on alfalfa, and they contained one or more anomalous characteristics. These included either slow growth rate, lack of 39°C tolerance, or lack of acid production on conventional media. Infectiveness tests on a broad range of legumes revealed that the isolates formed root nodules on M. sativa, Medicago lupulina L., and Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) Savi. (common bean). These results provide evidence that, in some situations, ineffective nodulation of M. sativa in the field may be due to the presence of promiscuous, native Rhizobium species. PMID:16346942

  16. A Medicago truncatula NADPH oxidase is involved in symbiotic nodule functioning

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Daniel; Andrio, Emilie; Danchin, Etienne G J; Oger, Elodie; Gucciardo, Sébastien; Lambert, Annie; Puppo, Alain; Pauly, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Summary The plant plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), appear to play crucial roles in plant growth and development. They are involved in important processes, such as root hair growth, plant defence reactions and abscisic acid signalling.Using sequence similarity searches, we identified seven putative RBOH-encoding genes in the Medicago truncatula genome. A phylogenetic reconstruction showed that Rboh gene duplications occurred in legume species. We analysed the expression of these MtRboh genes in different M. truncatula tissues: one of them, MtRbohA, was significantly up-regulated in Sinorhizobium meliloti-induced symbiotic nodules.MtRbohA expression appeared to be restricted to the nitrogen-fixing zone of the functional nodule. Moreover, using S. meliloti bacA and nifH mutants unable to form efficient nodules, a strong link between nodule nitrogen fixation and MtRbohA up-regulation was shown. MtRbohA expression was largely enhanced under hypoxic conditions. Specific RNA interference for MtRbohA provoked a decrease in the nodule nitrogen fixation activity and the modulation of genes encoding the microsymbiont nitrogenase.These results suggest that hypoxia, prevailing in the nodule-fixing zone, may drive the stimulation of MtRbohA expression, which would, in turn, lead to the regulation of nodule functioning. PMID:21155825

  17. The Effects of Salinity and Sodicity upon Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    PubMed Central

    RAO, D. L. N.; GILLER, K. E.; YEO, A. R.; FLOWERS, T. J.

    2002-01-01

    Production of grain legumes is severely reduced in salt‐affected soils because their ability to form and maintain nitrogen‐fixing nodules is impaired by both salinity and sodicity (alkalinity). Genotypes of chickpea, Cicer arietinum, with high nodulation capacity under stress were identified by field screening in a sodic soil in India and subsequently evaluated quantitatively for nitrogen fixation in a glasshouse study in a saline but neutral soil in the UK. In the field, pH 8·9 was the critical upper limit for most genotypes studied but genotypes with high nodulation outperformed all others at pH 9·0–9·2. The threshold limit of soil salinity for shoot growth was at ECe 3 dS m–1, except for the high‐nodulation selection for which it was ECe 6. Nodulation was reduced in all genotypes at salinities above 3 dS m–1 but to a lesser extent in the high‐nodulation selection, which proved inherently superior under both non‐saline and stress conditions. Nitrogen fixation was also much more tolerant of salinity in this selection than in the other genotypes studied. The results show that chickpea genotypes tolerant of salt‐affected soil have better nodulation and support higher rates of symbiotic nitrogen fixation than sensitive genotypes. PMID:12099530

  18. New aspect of plant–rhizobia interaction: Alkaloid biosynthesis in Crotalaria depends on nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Irmer, Simon; Podzun, Nora; Langel, Dorothee; Heidemann, Franziska; Kaltenegger, Elisabeth; Schemmerling, Brigitte; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Zörb, Christian; Ober, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Infection of legume hosts by rhizobial bacteria results in the formation of a specialized organ, the nodule, in which atmospheric nitrogen is reduced to ammonia. Nodulation requires the reprogramming of the plant cell, allowing the microsymbiont to enter the plant tissue in a highly controlled manner. We have found that, in Crotalaria (Fabaceae), this reprogramming is associated with the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). These compounds are part of the plant’s chemical defense against herbivores and cannot be regarded as being functionally involved in the symbiosis. PAs in Crotalaria are detectable only when the plants form nodules after infection with their rhizobial partner. The identification of a plant-derived sequence encoding homospermidine synthase (HSS), the first pathway-specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis, suggests that the plant and not the microbiont is the producer of PAs. Transcripts of HSS are detectable exclusively in the nodules, the tissue with the highest concentration of PAs, indicating that PA biosynthesis is restricted to the nodules and that the nodules are the source from which the alkaloids are transported to the above ground parts of the plant. The link between nodulation and the biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing alkaloids in Crotalaria highlights a further facet of the effect of symbiosis with rhizobia on the ecologically important trait of the plant’s chemical defense. PMID:25775562

  19. Medicago truncatula root nodule proteome analysis reveals differential plant and bacteroid responses to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Ladrera, Rubén; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; González, Esther M

    2007-07-01

    Drought is one of the environmental factors most affecting crop production. Under drought, symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the physiological processes to first show stress responses in nodulated legumes. This inhibition process involves a number of factors whose interactions are not yet understood. This work aims to further understand changes occurring in nodules under drought stress from a proteomic perspective. Drought was imposed on Medicago truncatula 'Jemalong A17' plants grown in symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 2011. Changes at the protein level were analyzed using a nongel approach based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Due to the complexity of nodule tissue, the separation of plant and bacteroid fractions in M. truncatula root nodules was first checked with the aim of minimizing cross contamination between the fractions. Second, the protein plant fraction of M. truncatula nodules was profiled, leading to the identification of 377 plant proteins, the largest description of the plant nodule proteome so far. Third, both symbiotic partners were independently analyzed for quantitative differences at the protein level during drought stress. Multivariate data mining allowed for the classification of proteins sets that were involved in drought stress responses. The isolation of the nodule plant and bacteroid protein fractions enabled the independent analysis of the response of both counterparts, gaining further understanding of how each symbiotic member is distinctly affected at the protein level under a water-deficit situation.

  20. Two Direct Targets of Cytokinin Signaling Regulate Symbiotic Nodulation in Medicago truncatula[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, Federico; Brault-Hernandez, Marianne; Laffont, Carole; Huault, Emeline; Brault, Mathias; Plet, Julie; Moison, Michael; Blanchet, Sandrine; Ichanté, Jean Laurent; Chabaud, Mireille; Carrere, Sébastien; Crespi, Martin; Chan, Raquel L.; Frugier, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinin regulates many aspects of plant development, and in legume crops, this phytohormone is necessary and sufficient for symbiotic nodule organogenesis, allowing them to fix atmospheric nitrogen. To identify direct links between cytokinins and nodule organogenesis, we determined a consensus sequence bound in vitro by a transcription factor (TF) acting in cytokinin signaling, the nodule-enhanced Medicago truncatula Mt RR1 response regulator (RR). Among genes rapidly regulated by cytokinins and containing this so-called RR binding site (RRBS) in their promoters, we found the nodulation-related Type-A RR Mt RR4 and the Nodulation Signaling Pathway 2 (NSP2) TF. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that RRBS cis-elements in the RR4 and NSP2 promoters are essential for expression during nodule development and for cytokinin induction. Furthermore, a microRNA targeting NSP2 (miR171 h) is also rapidly induced by cytokinins and then shows an expression pattern anticorrelated with NSP2. Other primary targets regulated by cytokinins depending on the Cytokinin Response1 (CRE1) receptor were a cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX1) and a basic Helix-Loop-Helix TF (bHLH476). RNA interference constructs as well as insertion of a Tnt1 retrotransposon in the bHLH gene led to reduced nodulation. Hence, we identified two TFs, NSP2 and bHLH476, as direct cytokinin targets acting at the convergence of phytohormonal and symbiotic cues. PMID:23023168

  1. Production of 3-indolylacetic acid in root nodules and culture by a Rhizobium species isolated from root nodules of the leguminous pulse Phaseolus mungo.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Sengupta, C; Maiti, T K; Basu, P S

    2008-01-01

    The root nodules of Phaseolus mungo (a herbaceous leguminous pulse) contained a high amount of 3-indolylacetic acid (IAA). A tryptophan pool present in the nodule might play the role of precursor for IAA production. From the root nodule a Rhizobium sp. was isolated. The symbiont produced a large amount of IAA (142 microg/mL) from L-tryptophan-supplemented basal medium. The production of IAA by the symbiont was much increased over the control when a L-tryptophan (2 mg/mL) supplemented C-free mineral medium was enriched with mannitol (1 %), L-asparagine (0.3 %) and thiamine hydrochloride (1 microg/mL). The possible role of the rhizobial production of IAA on the rhizobia-legume symbiosis is discussed.

  2. A sustainable legume biomass energy farming system

    SciTech Connect

    Neathery, J.; Rubel, A.; Stencel, J.; Collins, M.

    1996-12-31

    Before environmentally sensitive areas are converted to biomass energy production, the production, the potential for sustainability of such systems must be assessed. The focus has been on woody or grass crops because of their high potential yields; however, yield sustainability is dependent on the application of fertilizer and lining materials, which in turn contribute to large costs. Growing legumes or mixtures of legumes with grasses could lower or alleviate the need for nitrate fertilizers. The incorporation of legumes into energy cropping systems could: (1) add soil organic matter; (2) introduce biologically fixed N; (3) improve soil structure and texture; (4) reduce soil erosion; (5) reduce production costs; and (6) decrease nitrate run-off in surface waters. Through the {open_quotes}rotation effect{close_quotes}, legumes cause increases in yield of subsequent non-legume crops beyond that accounted for by biologically-fixed N alone. In this paper, we describe a biomass energy system combining legume and grass biomass energy with fertilizer production from these same materials. Preliminary agronomic and engineering assessments for this type of biomass system are presented. The technologies needed to integrate nitrate production with legume energy farming and energy production through legume energy conversion are identified.

  3. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  4. Choice of hydrogen uptake (Hup) status in legume-rhizobia symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Henry; Golding, Amber-Leigh; Zhao, Yinping; Dong, Zhongmin

    2012-01-01

    The H2 is an obligate by-product of N-fixation. Recycling of H2 through uptake hydrogenase (Hup) inside the root nodules of leguminous plants is often considered an advantage for plants. However, many of the rhizobium-legume symbioses found in nature, especially those used in agriculture are shown to be Hup−, with the plants releasing H2 produced by nitrogenase activity from root nodules into the surrounding rhizosphere. Recent studies have suggested that, H2 induces plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, which may explain the widespread of Hup− symbioses in spite of the low energy efficiency of such associations. Wild legumes grown in Nova Scotia, Canada, were surveyed to determine if any plant-growth characteristics could give an indication of Hup choice in leguminous plants. Out of the plants sampled, two legumes, Securigera varia and Vicia cracca, showed Hup+ associations. Securigera varia exhibited robust root structure as compared with the other plants surveyed. Data from the literature and the results from this study suggested that plants with established root systems are more likely to form the energy-efficient Hup+ symbiotic relationships with rhizobia. Conversely, Hup− associations could be beneficial to leguminous plants due to H2-oxidizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria that allow plants to compete successfully, early in the growing season. However, some nodules from V. cracca tested Hup+, while others were Hup−. This was similar to that observed in Glycine max and Pisum sativum, giving reason to believe that Hup choice might be affected by various internal and environmental factors. PMID:23139886

  5. Evaluating the nodulation status of leguminous species from the Amazonian forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Sergio M; Diedhiou, Abdala G; de Lima, Haroldo C; Ribeiro, Robson D; Galiana, Antoine; Castilho, Alexandre F; Henriques, João C

    2010-06-01

    Numerous leguminous species are used or have potential uses for timber production, pharmacological products, or land reclamation. Through N(2)-fixation, many leguminous trees contribute to the N-balance of tropical wetlands and rainforests. Therefore, studies of the N(2)-fixation ability of leguminous species appear to be crucial for the better use and conservation of these resources. The global nodulation inventory in the Leguminosae family is constantly being enriched with new records, suggesting the existence of undiscovered nodulated species, especially in tropical natural ecosystems and other hot spots of biodiversity. In this respect, the nodulation of leguminous species from the Amazonian forest of Porto Trombetas (Brazil) was surveyed. Overall, 199 leguminous species from flooded and non-flooded areas, were examined for their nodulation status by combining field observations, seedling inoculations, and screening of N(2)-fixing bacterial strains from the collected nodules. The results revealed a tendency for a higher relative frequency of nodulation in the species from the flooded areas (74%) compared with those from the non-flooded areas (67%). Nodulation was observed in the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae, with 25, 88, and 84% of the examined species in each subfamily, respectively. Of the 137 nodulated leguminous species, 32 including three Caesalpinoideae, 19 Mimosoideae, and 10 Papilionoideae are new records. One new nodulated genus (Cymbosema) was found in the Papilionoideae. Twelve non-nodulating leguminous species were also observed for the first time. The results are discussed based on the systematics of the Leguminosae family and the influence of available nutrients to the legume-bacteria symbiosis.

  6. The REL3-mediated TAS3 ta-siRNA pathway integrates auxin and ethylene signaling to regulate nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Lei, Mingjuan; Yan, Zhongyuan; Wang, Qi; Chen, Aimin; Sun, Jie; Luo, Da; Wang, Yanzhang

    2014-01-01

    The ta-siRNA pathway is required for lateral organ development, including leaf patterning, flower differentiation and lateral root growth. Legumes can develop novel lateral root organs--nodules--resulting from symbiotic interactions with rhizobia. However, ta-siRNA regulation in nodule formation remains unknown. To explore ta-siRNA regulation in nodule formation, we investigated the roles of REL3, a key component of TAS3 ta-siRNA biogenesis, during nodulation in Lotus japonicus. We characterized the symbiotic phenotypes of the TAS3 ta-siRNA defective rel3 mutant, and analyzed the responses of the rel3 mutant to auxin and ethylene in order to gain insight into TAS3 ta-siRNA regulation of nodulation. The rel3 mutant produced fewer pink nitrogen-fixing nodules, with substantially decreased infection frequency and nodule initiation. Moreover, the rel3 mutant was more resistant than wild-type to 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) in root growth, and exhibited insensitivity to auxins but greater sensitivity to auxin transport inhibitors during nodulation. Furthermore, the rel3 mutant has enhanced root-specific ethylene sensitivity and altered responses to ethylene during nodulation; the low-nodulating phenotype of the rel3 mutant can be restored by ethylene synthesis inhibitor L-α-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)-glycine (AVG) or action inhibitor Ag(+). The REL3-mediated TAS3 ta-siRNA pathway regulates nodulation by integrating ethylene and auxin signaling.

  7. A Genomic Encyclopedia of the Root Nodule Bacteria: assessing genetic diversity through a systematic biogeographic survey.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Eshragi, Leila; Yoon, Je Won; Ngamwisetkun, Pinyaruk; Seshadri, Rekha; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    Root nodule bacteria are free-living soil bacteria, belonging to diverse genera within the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, that have the capacity to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with legumes. The symbiosis is specific and is governed by signaling molecules produced from both host and bacteria. Sequencing of several model RNB genomes has provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of symbiosis. However, the small number of sequenced RNB genomes available does not currently reflect the phylogenetic diversity of RNB, or the variety of mechanisms that lead to symbiosis in different legume hosts. This prevents a broad understanding of symbiotic interactions and the factors that govern the biogeography of host-microbe symbioses. Here, we outline a proposal to expand the number of sequenced RNB strains, which aims to capture this phylogenetic and biogeographic diversity. Through the Vavilov centers of diversity (Proposal ID: 231) and GEBA-RNB (Proposal ID: 882) projects we will sequence 107 RNB strains, isolated from diverse legume hosts in various geographic locations around the world. The nominated strains belong to nine of the 16 currently validly described RNB genera. They include 13 type strains, as well as elite inoculant strains of high commercial importance. These projects will strongly support systematic sequence-based studies of RNB and contribute to our understanding of the effects of biogeography on the evolution of different species of RNB, as well as the mechanisms that determine the specificity and effectiveness of nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation by RNB with diverse legume hosts.

  8. A Genomic Encyclopedia of the Root Nodule Bacteria: assessing genetic diversity through a systematic biogeographic survey

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Root nodule bacteria are free-living soil bacteria, belonging to diverse genera within the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, that have the capacity to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with legumes. The symbiosis is specific and is governed by signaling molecules produced from both host and bacteria. Sequencing of several model RNB genomes has provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of symbiosis. However, the small number of sequenced RNB genomes available does not currently reflect the phylogenetic diversity of RNB, or the variety of mechanisms that lead to symbiosis in different legume hosts. This prevents a broad understanding of symbiotic interactions and the factors that govern the biogeography of host-microbe symbioses. Here, we outline a proposal to expand the number of sequenced RNB strains, which aims to capture this phylogenetic and biogeographic diversity. Through the Vavilov centers of diversity (Proposal ID: 231) and GEBA-RNB (Proposal ID: 882) projects we will sequence 107 RNB strains, isolated from diverse legume hosts in various geographic locations around the world. The nominated strains belong to nine of the 16 currently validly described RNB genera. They include 13 type strains, as well as elite inoculant strains of high commercial importance. These projects will strongly support systematic sequence-based studies of RNB and contribute to our understanding of the effects of biogeography on the evolution of different species of RNB, as well as the mechanisms that determine the specificity and effectiveness of nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation by RNB with diverse legume hosts. PMID:25685260

  9. Rj (rj) genes involved in nitrogen-fixing root nodule formation in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masaki; Saeki, Yuichi; Haga, Michiyo; Harada, Kyuya; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Umehara, Yosuke

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that formation of symbiotic root nodules in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is controlled by several host genes referred to as Rj (rj) genes, but molecular cloning of these genes has been hampered by soybean’s complicated genome structure and large genome size. Progress in molecular identification of legume genes involved in root nodule symbiosis have been mostly achieved by using two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, that have relatively simple and small genomes and are capable of molecular transfection. However, recent development of resources for soybean molecular genetic research, such as genome sequencing, large EST databases, and high-density linkage maps, have enabled us to isolate several Rj genes. This progress has been achieved in connection with systematic utilization of the information obtained from molecular genetics of the model legumes. In this review, we summarize the current status of knowledge of host-controlled nodulation in soybean based on information from recent studies on Rj genes, and discuss the future research prospects. PMID:23136493

  10. Diversity of rhizobia nodulating wild shrubs of Sicily and some neighbouring islands.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Lanza, Angela; Bonnì, Maria Laura; Marsala, Salvatore; Puglia, Anna Maria; Quatrini, Paola

    2008-10-01

    Legume shrubs have great potential for rehabilitation of semi-arid degraded soils in Mediterranean ecosystems as they establish mutualistic symbiosis with N-fixing rhizobia. Eighty-eight symbiotic rhizobia were isolated from seven wild legume shrubs native of Sicily (Southern Italy) and grouped in operational taxonomic units (OTU) by analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) polymorphism. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates of each OTU revealed that most Genisteae symbionts are related to Bradyrhizobium canariense, B. japonicum and B. elkanii. Teline monspessulana was the only Genistea nodulated by Mesorhizobium strains, and Anagyris foetida (Thermopsideae) was promiscuosly nodulated by Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Bradyrhizobium strains. Analysis of the nodulation gene nodA assigned most Mediterranean Genisteae bradyrhizobia to clade II but also to clades IV, I and III, which included, so far, sequences of (sub)tropical and Australian isolates. The high diversity and low host specificity observed in most wild legumes isolates suggest that preferential associations may establish in the field depending on differences in the benefits conferred to the host and on competition ability. Once identified, these beneficial symbiosis can be exploited for rehabilitation of arid, low productive and human-impacted soils of the Mediterranean countries.

  11. A nonRD receptor-like kinase prevents nodule early senescence and defense-like reactions during symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Berrabah, Fathi; Bourcy, Marie; Eschstruth, Alexis; Cayrel, Anne; Guefrachi, Ibtissem; Mergaert, Peter; Wen, Jiangqi; Jean, Viviane; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal

    2014-09-01

    Rhizobia and legumes establish symbiotic interactions leading to the production of root nodules, in which bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen for the plant's benefit. This symbiosis is efficient because of the high rhizobia population within nodules. Here, we investigated how legumes accommodate such bacterial colonization. We used a reverse genetic approach to identify a Medicago truncatula gene, SymCRK, which encodes a cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase that is required for rhizobia maintenance within the plant cells, and performed detailed phenotypic analyses of the corresponding mutant. The Medicago truncatula symCRK mutant developed nonfunctional and necrotic nodules. A nonarginine asparate (nonRD) motif, typical of receptors involved in innate immunity, is present in the SymCRK kinase domain. Similar to the dnf2 mutant, bacteroid differentiation defect, defense-like reactions and early senescence were observed in the symCRK nodules. However, the dnf2 and symCRK nodules differ by their degree of colonization, which is higher in symCRK. Furthermore, in contrast to dnf2, symCRK is not a conditional mutant. These results suggest that in M. truncatula at least two genes are involved in the symbiotic control of immunity. Furthermore, phenotype differences between the two mutants suggest that two distinct molecular mechanisms control suppression of plant immunity during nodulation.

  12. Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order) by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the β-1,2-cyclic glucan from R. tropici CIAT 899 was co

  13. The evolutionary dynamics of ancient and recent polyploidy in the African semiaquatic species of the legume genus Aeschynomene.

    PubMed

    Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gully, Djamel; Hervouet, Catherine; Tittabutr, Panlada; Randriambanona, Herizo; Brown, Spencer C; Lewis, Gwilym P; Bourge, Mickaël; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Boursot, Marc; Ramanankierana, Heriniaina; D'Hont, Angélique; Teaumroong, Neung; Giraud, Eric; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2016-08-01

    The legume genus Aeschynomene is notable in the ability of certain semiaquatic species to develop nitrogen-fixing stem nodules. These species are distributed in two clades. In the first clade, all the species are characterized by the use of a unique Nod-independent symbiotic process. In the second clade, the species use a Nod-dependent symbiotic process and some of them display a profuse stem nodulation as exemplified in the African Aeschynomene afraspera. To facilitate the molecular analysis of the symbiotic characteristics of such legumes, we took an integrated molecular and cytogenetic approach to track occurrences of polyploidy events and to analyze their impact on the evolution of the African species of Aeschynomene. Our results revealed two rounds of polyploidy: a paleopolyploid event predating the African group and two neopolyploid speciations, along with significant chromosomal variations. Hence, we found that A. afraspera (8x) has inherited the contrasted genomic properties and the stem-nodulation habit of its parental lineages (4x). This study reveals a comprehensive picture of African Aeschynomene diversification. It notably evidences a history that is distinct from the diploid Nod-independent clade, providing clues for the identification of the specific determinants of the Nod-dependent and Nod-independent symbiotic processes, and for comparative analysis of stem nodulation.

  14. Heart of endosymbioses: transcriptomics reveals a conserved genetic program among arbuscular mycorrhizal, actinorhizal and legume-rhizobial symbioses.

    PubMed

    Tromas, Alexandre; Parizot, Boris; Diagne, Nathalie; Champion, Antony; Hocher, Valérie; Cissoko, Maïmouna; Crabos, Amandine; Prodjinoto, Hermann; Lahouze, Benoit; Bogusz, Didier; Laplaze, Laurent; Svistoonoff, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    To improve their nutrition, most plants associate with soil microorganisms, particularly fungi, to form mycorrhizae. A few lineages, including actinorhizal plants and legumes are also able to interact with nitrogen-fixing bacteria hosted intracellularly inside root nodules. Fossil and molecular data suggest that the molecular mechanisms involved in these root nodule symbioses (RNS) have been partially recycled from more ancient and widespread arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. We used a comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes involved in establishing these 3 endosymbioses and their functioning. We analysed global changes in gene expression in AM in the actinorhizal tree C. glauca. A comparison with genes induced in AM in Medicago truncatula and Oryza sativa revealed a common set of genes induced in AM. A comparison with genes induced in nitrogen-fixing nodules of C. glauca and M. truncatula also made it possible to define a common set of genes induced in these three endosymbioses. The existence of this core set of genes is in accordance with the proposed recycling of ancient AM genes for new functions related to nodulation in legumes and actinorhizal plants.

  15. A mechanistic molecular test of the plant-sanction hypothesis in legume-rhizobia mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Diana E.; Pérez-Arnedo, Rebeca; Hidalgo-Perea, Ángeles; Olivares, José; Ruiz-Sainz, José E.; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-09-01

    The origin and persistence of mutualism is difficult to explain because of the widespread occurrence of exploitative, 'cheating' partners. As a policing strategy stabilising intraspecific cooperation, host sanctions against non-N 2 fixing, cheating symbionts have been proposed to stabilise mutualism in legume-rhizobium symbiosis. Mechanism of penalisations would include decreased nodular rhizobial viability and/or early nodule senescence. We tested these potential mechanisms of penalisations in split-root experiments using two soybean varieties and two rhizobial strains, a cooperative, normal N 2-fixing strain and an isogenic non-fixing derivative. We found no differences in the number of viable rhizobia recovered from nodules and no differential expression of a nodular senescence molecular marker. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of plant sanctions acting against cheating rhizobia in our experimental conditions.

  16. Failure of self-control: defense-like reactions during legume/rhizobia symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Bourcy, Marie; Berrabah, Fathi; Ratet, Pascal; Gourion, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti form a symbiotic association resulting in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. In this organ, symbiotic cells contain large numbers of bacteroids. Remarkably, this chronic infection does not trigger visible defense reactions. Despite the importance of this phenomenon for potential transfer of the symbiotic capacity to non-legume plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying this tolerance are not understood. We have characterized the dnf2 M. truncatula mutant blocked in the symbiotic process after bacterial infection of the symbiotic cells. Nodules formed by the mutant contain only few layers of infected cells. Furthermore, they exhibit defense-like reactions which clearly contrast with premature senescence frequently observed during inefficient symbioses. This atypical phenotype raises DNF2 as an exciting starting point to investigate the molecular basis of symbiotic repression of plant defenses.

  17. Identification of a dominant gene in Medicago truncatula that restricts nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti strain Rm41

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leguminous plants are able to form a root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia. This symbiotic association shows a high level of specificity. Beyond the specificity for the legume family, individual legume species/genotypes can only interact with certain restricted group of bacterial species or strains. Specificity in this system is regulated by complex signal exchange between the two symbiotic partners and thus multiple genetic mechanisms could be involved in the recognition process. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms controlling symbiotic specificity could enable genetic improvement of legume nitrogen fixation, and may also reveal the possible mechanisms that restrict root nodule symbiosis in non-legumes. Results We screened a core collection of Medicago truncatula genotypes with several strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti and identified a naturally occurring dominant gene that restricts nodulation by S. meliloti Rm41. We named this gene as Mt-NS1 (for M.truncatulanodulation specificity 1). We have mapped the Mt-NS1 locus within a small genomic region on M. truncatula chromosome 8. The data reported here will facilitate positional cloning of the Mt-NS1 gene. Conclusions Evolution of symbiosis specificity involves both rhizobial and host genes. From the bacterial side, specificity determinants include Nod factors, surface polysaccharides, and secreted proteins. However, we know relatively less from the host side. We recently demonstrated that a component of this specificity in soybeans is defined by plant NBS-LRR resistance (R) genes that recognize effector proteins delivered by the type III secretion system (T3SS) of the rhizobial symbionts. However, the lack of a T3SS in many sequenced S. meliloti strains raises the question of how the specificity is regulated in the Medicago-Sinorhizobium system beyond Nod-factor perception. Thus, cloning and characterization of Mt-NS1 will add a new dimension to our knowledge about

  18. Effect of salinity on root-nodule conductance to the oxygen diffusion in the Cicer arietinum-Mesorhizobium ciceri symbiosis.

    PubMed

    L'taief, Boulbaba; Sifi, Bouaziz; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara; Drevon, Jean-Jacques; Lachaâl, Mokhtar

    2007-08-01

    Nodule conductance to O2 diffusion has been involved as a major factor of the inhibition of N2 fixation by soil salinity that severely reduces the production of grain legumes. In order to determine the effect of this constraint on the nodule conductance, oxygen uptake by the nodulated roots of Cicer arietinum was measured by recording the concentration of O2 as a function of pO2 in a gas-tight incubator. After germination and inoculation with the strain Mesorhizobium ciceri UPMCa7, the varieties Amdoun 1 and INRAT 93-1 were hydroponically grown in a glasshouse on 1L glass bottles filled with nutrient solution containing 25 mM NaCl. Salinity induced a marked decrease in shoot (30% versus 14%), root (43% versus 20%), and nodule biomass (100% versus 43%) for Amdoun 1 relative to INRAT 93-1. Although salinity completely prevented nodule formation in the sensitive variety Amdoun 1, nodule number and biomass were higher in the first than in the second variety in the absence of salt. This effect was associated with a significantly higher O2 uptake by nodulated root (510 versus 255 micromol O2 plant(-1)h(-1)) and nodule conductance (20 versus 5 microm s(-1)) in Amdoun 1 than in INRAT 93-1. Salinity did not significantly change the nodule conductance and nodule permeability for INRAT 93-1. Thus, the salt tolerance of this variety appears to be associated with stability in nodule conductance and the capacity to form nodules under salt constraint.

  19. Split-root systems applied to the study of the legume-rhizobial symbiosis: what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; González, Esther M; Marino, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Split-root system (SRS) approaches allow the differential treatment of separate and independent root systems, while sharing a common aerial part. As such, SRS is a useful tool for the discrimination of systemic (shoot origin) versus local (root/nodule origin) regulation mechanisms. This type of approach is particularly useful when studying the complex regulatory mechanisms governing the symbiosis established between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria. The current work provides an overview of the main insights gained from the application of SRS approaches to understand how nodule number (nodulation autoregulation) and nitrogen fixation are controlled both under non-stressful conditions and in response to a variety of stresses. Nodule number appears to be mainly controlled at the systemic level through a signal which is produced by nodule/root tissue, translocated to the shoot, and transmitted back to the root system, involving shoot Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases. In contrast, both local and systemic mechanisms have been shown to operate for the regulation of nitrogenase activity in nodules. Under drought and heavy metal stress, the regulation is mostly local, whereas the application of exogenous nitrogen seems to exert a regulation of nitrogen fixation both at the local and systemic levels.

  20. Impact of thermal processing on legume allergens.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-12-01

    Food induced allergic manifestations are reported from several parts of the world. Food proteins exert their allergenic potential by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and can even induce life threatening anaphylaxis reactions. Among all food allergens, legume allergens play an important role in induction of allergy because legumes are a major source of protein for vegetarians. Most of the legumes are cooked either by boiling, roasting or frying before consumption, which can be considered a form of thermal treatment. Thermal processing may also include autoclaving, microwave heating, blanching, pasteurization, canning, or steaming. Thermal processing of legumes may reduce, eliminate or enhance the allergenic potential of a respective legume. In most of the cases, minimization of allergenic potential on thermal treatment has generally been reported. Thus, thermal processing can be considered an important tool by indirectly prevent allergenicity in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing treatment costs and reducing industry/office/school absence in case of working population/school going children. The present review attempts to explore various possibilities of reducing or eliminating allergenicity of leguminous food using different methods of thermal processing. Further, this review summarizes different methods of food processing, major legumes and their predominant allergenic proteins, thermal treatment and its relation with antigenicity, effect of thermal processing on legume allergens; also suggests a path that may be taken for future research to reduce the allergenicity using conventional/nonconventional methods.

  1. Determining the Site of Action of Strigolactones during Nodulation.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Erin L; Hugill, Cassandra; Fort, Sebastien; Samain, Eric; Cottaz, Sylvain; Davies, Noel W; Reid, James B; Foo, Eloise

    2017-09-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) influence the ability of legumes to associate with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In this study, we determine the precise stage at which SLs influence nodulation. We show that SLs promote infection thread formation, as a null SL-deficient pea (Pisum sativum) mutant forms significantly fewer infection threads than wild-type plants, and this reduction can be overcome by the application of the synthetic SL GR24. We found no evidence that SLs influence physical events in the plant before or after infection thread formation, since SL-deficient plants displayed a similar ability to induce root hair curling in response to rhizobia or Nod lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) and SL-deficient nodules appear to fix nitrogen at a similar rate to those of wild-type plants. In contrast, an SL receptor mutant displayed no decrease in infection thread formation or nodule number, suggesting that SL deficiency may influence the bacterial partner. We found that this influence of SL deficiency was not due to altered flavonoid exudation or the ability of root exudates to stimulate bacterial growth. The influence of SL deficiency on infection thread formation was accompanied by reduced expression of some early nodulation genes. Importantly, SL synthesis is down-regulated by mutations in genes of the Nod LCO signaling pathway, and this requires the downstream transcription factor NSP2 but not NIN This, together with the fact that the expression of certain SL biosynthesis genes can be elevated in response to rhizobia/Nod LCOs, suggests that Nod LCOs may induce SL biosynthesis. SLs appear to influence nodulation independently of ethylene action, as SL-deficient and ethylene-insensitive double mutant plants display essentially additive phenotypes, and we found no evidence that SLs influence ethylene synthesis or vice versa. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Genotype delimitation in the Nod-independent model legume Aeschynomene evenia.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Brown, Spencer; Boursot, Marc; Giraud, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Research on the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis has been so far focused on two model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, which use a sophisticated infection process involving infection thread formation. However, in 25% of the legumes, the bacterial entry occurs more simply in an intercellular fashion. Among them, some semi-aquatic Aeschynomene species present the distinctive feature to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on both roots and stems following elicitation by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia that do not produce Nod factors. This interaction is believed to represent a living testimony of the ancestral state of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. To decipher the molecular mechanisms of this unique Nod-independent nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, we previously identified A. evenia C. Wright as an appropriate model legume, because it displays all the requisites for molecular and genetic approaches. To advance the use of this new model legume species, here we characterized the intraspecific diversity found in A. evenia. For this, the accessions available in germplasm banks were collected and subjected to morphological investigations, genotyping with RAPD and SSR markers, molecular phylogenies using ITS and single nuclear gene sequences, and cross-compatibility tests. These combined analyses revealed an important intraspecific differentiation that led us to propose a new taxonomic classification for A. evenia comprising two subspecies and four varieties. The A. evenia ssp. evenia contains var. evenia and var. pauciciliata whereas A. evenia ssp. serrulata comprises var. serrulata and var. major. This study provides information to exploit efficiently the diversity encountered in A. evenia and proposes subsp. evenia as the most appropriate subspecies for future projects aimed at identifying plant determinants of the Nod-independent symbiotic process.

  3. Genotype Delimitation in the Nod-Independent Model Legume Aeschynomene evenia

    PubMed Central

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Brown, Spencer; Boursot, Marc; Giraud, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Research on the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis has been so far focused on two model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, which use a sophisticated infection process involving infection thread formation. However, in 25% of the legumes, the bacterial entry occurs more simply in an intercellular fashion. Among them, some semi-aquatic Aeschynomene species present the distinctive feature to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on both roots and stems following elicitation by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia that do not produce Nod factors. This interaction is believed to represent a living testimony of the ancestral state of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. To decipher the molecular mechanisms of this unique Nod-independent nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, we previously identified A. evenia C. Wright as an appropriate model legume, because it displays all the requisites for molecular and genetic approaches. To advance the use of this new model legume species, here we characterized the intraspecific diversity found in A. evenia. For this, the accessions available in germplasm banks were collected and subjected to morphological investigations, genotyping with RAPD and SSR markers, molecular phylogenies using ITS and single nuclear gene sequences, and cross-compatibility tests. These combined analyses revealed an important intraspecific differentiation that led us to propose a new taxonomic classification for A. evenia comprising two subspecies and four varieties. The A. evenia ssp. evenia contains var. evenia and var. pauciciliata whereas A. evenia ssp. serrulata comprises var. serrulata and var. major. This study provides information to exploit efficiently the diversity encountered in A. evenia and proposes subsp. evenia as the most appropriate subspecies for future projects aimed at identifying plant determinants of the Nod-independent symbiotic process. PMID:23717496

  4. Rhizobium-legume symbiosis in the absence of Nod factors: two possible scenarios with or without the T3SS.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shin; Tittabutr, Panlada; Teulet, Albin; Thouin, Julien; Fardoux, Joël; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gully, Djamel; Arrighi, Jean-François; Furuta, Noriyuki; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Nouwen, Nico; Teaumroong, Neung; Giraud, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of alternative Nod factor (NF)-independent symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia was first demonstrated in some Aeschynomene species that are nodulated by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia lacking the canonical nodABC genes. In this study, we revealed that a large diversity of non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, including B. elkanii, was also able to induce nodules on the NF-independent Aeschynomene species, A. indica. Using cytological analysis of the nodules and the nitrogenase enzyme activity as markers, a gradient in the symbiotic interaction between bradyrhizobial strains and A. indica could be distinguished. This ranged from strains that induced nodules that were only infected intercellularly to rhizobial strains that formed nodules in which the host cells were invaded intracellularly and that displayed a weak nitrogenase activity. In all non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, the type III secretion system (T3SS) appears required to trigger nodule organogenesis. In contrast, genome sequence analysis revealed that apart from a few exceptions, like the Bradyrhizobium ORS285 strain, photosynthetic bradyrhizobia strains lack a T3SS. Furthermore, analysis of the symbiotic properties of an ORS285 T3SS mutant revealed that the T3SS could have a positive or negative role for the interaction with NF-dependent Aeschynomene species, but that it is dispensable for the interaction with all NF-independent Aeschynomene species tested. Taken together, these data indicate that two NF-independent symbiotic processes are possible between legumes and rhizobia: one dependent on a T3SS and one using a so far unknown mechanism.

  5. Rhizobium–legume symbiosis in the absence of Nod factors: two possible scenarios with or without the T3SS

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Shin; Tittabutr, Panlada; Teulet, Albin; Thouin, Julien; Fardoux, Joël; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gully, Djamel; Arrighi, Jean- François; Furuta, Noriyuki; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Nouwen, Nico; Teaumroong, Neung; Giraud, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of alternative Nod factor (NF)-independent symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia was first demonstrated in some Aeschynomene species that are nodulated by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia lacking the canonical nodABC genes. In this study, we revealed that a large diversity of non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, including B. elkanii, was also able to induce nodules on the NF-independent Aeschynomene species, A. indica. Using cytological analysis of the nodules and the nitrogenase enzyme activity as markers, a gradient in the symbiotic interaction between bradyrhizobial strains and A. indica could be distinguished. This ranged from strains that induced nodules that were only infected intercellularly to rhizobial strains that formed nodules in which the host cells were invaded intracellularly and that displayed a weak nitrogenase activity. In all non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, the type III secretion system (T3SS) appears required to trigger nodule organogenesis. In contrast, genome sequence analysis revealed that apart from a few exceptions, like the Bradyrhizobium ORS285 strain, photosynthetic bradyrhizobia strains lack a T3SS. Furthermore, analysis of the symbiotic properties of an ORS285 T3SS mutant revealed that the T3SS could have a positive or negative role for the interaction with NF-dependent Aeschynomene species, but that it is dispensable for the interaction with all NF-independent Aeschynomene species tested. Taken together, these data indicate that two NF-independent symbiotic processes are possible between legumes and rhizobia: one dependent on a T3SS and one using a so far unknown mechanism. PMID:26161635

  6. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  7. Sesbania herbacea-Rhizobium huautlense Nodulation in Flooded Soils and Comparative Characterization of S. herbacea-Nodulating Rhizobia in Different Environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, E T; Martínez-Romero, E

    2000-07-01

    The nodulation of S. herbacea was compared under flooded and non-flooded conditions in two different soils. One soil was from a flooded field in Sierra de Huautla, the native habitat of this legume, while the other soil was from a well-drained field in Cuernavaca, where rhizobia were found to nodulate the introduced S. herbacea plants. Nodulation of the plants was completely eliminated by flooding in the Cuernavaca soil, whereas nodules were obtained in the same soil under non-flooded conditions. In contrast, nodules were formed in Huautla soil under both flooded and non-flooded conditions. Most isolates, except isolate HS2, from Huautla soil and water were identified as R. huautlense by colony morphology, growth rate, PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA genes, MLEE, cellular plasmid contents, and RFLP of nifH and nodDAB genes. Isolate HS2 was identified as Mesorhizobium sp. Isolates from Cuernavaca soil were different from R. huautlense in many aspects and were classified into five rDNA types within the genera Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, and Sinorhizobium by PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA genes. R. huautlense is a water Rhizobium species. Growth by denitrification under oxygen limitation or with ethanol was observed for R. huautlense bacteria but not for the isolates from Cuernavaca. In an interstrain nodulation competitive assay under both flooded and non-flooded conditions, R. huautlense strain S02 completely inhibited the nodulation of Mesorhizobium sp. Sn2, an isolate from Cuernavaca. From these results, we conclude that R. huautlense has the unique ability to nodulate S. herbacea not only in flooded soils, but in non-flooded soils as well.

  8. Modulation of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in bacteroids within Medicago sativa nodules.

    PubMed

    Bianco, C; Senatore, B; Arbucci, S; Pieraccini, G; Defez, R

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the dose-response effects of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on Medicago plant growth and dry weight production, we increased the synthesis of IAA in both free-living and symbiosis-stage rhizobial bacteroids during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. For this purpose, site-directed mutagenesis was applied to modify an 85-bp promoter sequence, driving the expression of iaaM and tms2 genes for IAA biosynthesis. A positive correlation was found between the higher expression of IAA biosynthetic genes in free-living bacteria and the increased production of IAA under both free-living and symbiotic conditions. Plants nodulated by RD65 and RD66 strains, synthetizing the highest IAA concentration, showed a significant (up to 73%) increase in the shoot fresh weight and upregulation of nitrogenase gene, nifH, compared to plants nodulated by the wild-type strain. When these plants were analyzed by confocal microscopy, using an anti-IAA antibody, the strongest signal was observed in bacteroids of Medicago sativa RD66 (Ms-RD66) plants, even when they were located in the senescent nodule zone. We show here a simple system to modulate endogenous IAA biosynthesis in bacteria nodulating legumes suitable to investigate which is the maximum level of IAA biosynthesis, resulting in the maximal increase of plant growth.

  9. Genetic characterization of fast-growing rhizobia able to nodulate Prosopis alba in North Spain.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Olga; Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Abril, Adriana; Mateos, Pedro F; Martinez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2007-12-01

    Prosopis is a Mimosaceae legume tree indigenous to South America and not naturalized in Europe. In this work 18 rhizobial strains nodulating Prosopis alba roots were isolated from a soil in North Spain that belong to eight different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA groups phylogenetically related to Sinorhizobium medicae, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium giardinii according to their intergenic spacer and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The nodC genes of isolates close to S. medicae and S. meliloti were identical to those of S. medicae USDA 1,037(T) and S. meliloti LMG 6,133(T) and accordingly all these strains were able to nodulate both alfalfa and Prosopis. These nodC genes were phylogenetically divergent from those of the isolates close to R. giardinii that were identical to that of R. giardinii H152(T) and therefore all these strains formed nodules in common beans and Prosopis. The nodC genes of the strains isolated in Spain were phylogenetically divergent from that carried by Mesorhizobium chacoense Pr-5(T) and Sinorhizobium arboris LMG 1,4919(T) nodulating Prosopis in America and Africa, respectively. Therefore, Prosopis is a promiscuous host which can establish symbiosis with strains carrying very divergent nodC genes and this promiscuity may be an important advantage for this legume tree to be used in reforestation.

  10. New Betaproteobacterial Rhizobium Strains Able To Efficiently Nodulate Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan

    PubMed Central

    Taulé, Cecilia; Zabaleta, María; Mareque, Cintia; Platero, Raúl; Sanjurjo, Lucía; Sicardi, Margarita; Frioni, Lillian; Battistoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Among the leguminous trees native to Uruguay, Parapiptadenia rigida (Angico), a Mimosoideae legume, is one of the most promising species for agroforestry. Like many other legumes, it is able to establish symbiotic associations with rhizobia and belongs to the group known as nitrogen-fixing trees, which are major components of agroforestry systems. Information about rhizobial symbionts for this genus is scarce, and thus, the aim of this work was to identify and characterize rhizobia associated with P. rigida. A collection of Angico-nodulating isolates was obtained, and 47 isolates were selected for genetic studies. According to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their nifH and 16S rRNA genes, the isolates could be grouped into seven genotypes, including the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium, among which the Burkholderia genotypes were the predominant group. Phylogenetic studies of nifH, nodA, and nodC sequences from the Burkholderia and the Cupriavidus isolates indicated a close relationship of these genes with those from betaproteobacterial rhizobia (beta-rhizobia) rather than from alphaproteobacterial rhizobia (alpha-rhizobia). In addition, nodulation assays with representative isolates showed that while the Cupriavidus isolates were able to effectively nodulate Mimosa pudica, the Burkholderia isolates produced white and ineffective nodules on this host. PMID:22226956

  11. SUBFOVEAL NODULE IN COATS' DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Daruich, Alejandra L.; Moulin, Alexandre P.; Tran, Hoai V.; Matet, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics and nature of subfoveal nodules in Coats' disease and the associated impact on the long-term visual outcome. Methods: Consecutive cases of Coats' disease with foveal exudation were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of a subfoveal nodule or macular fibrosis was recorded. Clinical characteristics, retinal imaging, and outcome were analyzed by comparative analysis. The histopathological description of an enucleated eye with subfoveal nodule was performed. Results: Among 40 patients presenting unilateral Stage 2B or 3A1 Coats' disease, a subfoveal nodule was detected in 21 patients (52.5%). The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Nineteen patients (47.5%) did not present a subfoveal nodule. Three patients (15.8%) without subfoveal nodule and 21 patients (100%) with subfoveal nodule progressed to a macular fibrotic scar (P < 0.0001), and the mean time of macular fibrosis onset was 11.0 ± 2.6 months. Final visual acuity was significantly worse in patients who presented a subfoveal nodule at diagnosis (P = 0.01). Of 18 cases with subfoveal nodule who underwent fluorescein angiography, retinal–retinal anastomosis and neovascularization were detected in 13 (72.2%) and 2 eyes (11.1%), respectively. Histopathological analysis of a subfoveal nodule revealed an aggregate of proteinaceous material including fibrin, spindle cells, macrophages, and pigmented cells. Conclusion: The presence of a subfoveal nodule at presentation is a predictive factor for macular fibrosis development and worse visual outcome in patients with Coats' disease. These observations suggest an updated classification introducing two subcategories within Stage 2B: without subfoveal nodule (Stage 2B1) and with subfoveal nodule (Stage 2B2). PMID:28030429

  12. Deletion of the SACPD-C locus alters the symbiotic relationship between Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 and soybean, resulting in elicitation of plant defense response and nodulation defects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen int...

  13. The role of the plant cytoskeleton in the interaction between legumes and rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Timmers, A C J

    2008-08-01

    The study of the symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legumes represents a major theme in plant biology. This interaction results in the formation of nodules, root organs in which the bacteria reduce atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which can subsequently be utilized by the plant. The execution of the different developmental stages observed during nodule ontogenesis involves many cellular processes with significant roles for the plant cytoskeleton. A challenging question in cell biology is how the cytoskeleton organizes itself into the dynamic arrays required for cell differentiation and functioning. Nodulation is, particularly, well qualified as an experimental system for cytoskeleton research because an early essential step of the plant/microbe interaction takes place in surface-exposed root hairs, well suited for cell biological in vivo experimentation. Moreover, the changes in the organization of the cytoskeleton can be elicited by a well-defined molecule, the Nod factor, or by bacterial inoculation, thus providing the researcher with the possibility of controlling the cytoskeletal changes in target cells. In addition, the well-known cytology of the symbiotic interaction facilitates the correlation between the changes in the organization of the plant cytoskeleton with both histological and cellular changes. In this review, the current knowledge on the role of the plant cytoskeleton during nodulation is summarized, with emphasis on the interaction between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti.

  14. Synergism of VAM and Rhizobium on production and metabolism of IAA in roots and root nodules of Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Jayanta; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Sisir; Chatterjee, Narayan Chandra; Dutta, Sikha

    2010-09-01

    Mature and healthy root nodules of Vigna mungo appeared to contain higher amount of indole-acetic acid (IAA) than non-nodulated roots. Dual effect of VAM fungus, Glomus fasciculatum and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Rhizobium sp. on the nodulation of roots of V. mungo was studied. It was recorded that the roots which were inoculated simultaneously with both the symbionts i.e., G. fasciculatum and Rhizobium exhibited greater amount of IAA production than the non-inoculated roots. A tryptophan pool present in the mature nodules and young leaves might serve as a precursor for IAA production in the roots and in the nodules. Activity of IAA-metabolizing enzymes, such as IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase was investigated which indicates the active metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules. The Rhizobium symbiont isolated from fresh nodules of V. mungo produced significant amount of IAA under in vitro condition when tryptophan was added to the medium as precursor. Present study represents some beneficial effects of Rhizobium and G. fasciculatum on the production and metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules of V. mungo. The important physiological implication of the study on IAA production and its metabolism in Rhizobium-Legume-VAM tripartite symbiosis is certainly representing a new approach to satisfy the hormonal balance in the host plant.

  15. Multiple Autoregulation of Nodulation (AON) Signals Identified through Split Root Analysis of Medicago truncatula sunn and rdn1 Mutants.

    PubMed

    Kassaw, Tessema; Jr, William Bridges; Frugoli, Julia

    2015-04-27

    Nodulation is energetically costly to the host: legumes balance the nitrogen demand with the energy expense by limiting the number of nodules through long-distance signaling. A split root system was used to investigate systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON) in Medicago truncatula and the role of the AON genes RDN1 and SUNN in the regulatory circuit. Developing nodule primordia did not trigger AON in plants carrying mutations in RDN1 and SUNN genes, while wild type plants had fully induced AON within three days. However, despite lacking an early suppression response, AON mutants suppressed nodulation when roots were inoculated 10 days or more apart, correlated with the maturation of nitrogen fixing nodules. In addition to correlation between nitrogen fixation and suppression of nodulation, suppression by extreme nutrient stress was also observed in all genotypes and may be a component of the observed response due to the conditions of the assay. These results suggest there is more than one systemic regulatory circuit controlling nodulation in M. truncatula. While both signals are present in wild type plants, the second signal can only be observed in plants lacking the early repression (AON mutants). RDN1 and SUNN are not essential for response to the later signal.

  16. Multiple Autoregulation of Nodulation (AON) Signals Identified through Split Root Analysis of Medicago truncatula sunn and rdn1 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Kassaw, Tessema; Bridges, William; Frugoli, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is energetically costly to the host: legumes balance the nitrogen demand with the energy expense by limiting the number of nodules through long-distance signaling. A split root system was used to investigate systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON) in Medicago truncatula and the role of the AON genes RDN1 and SUNN in the regulatory circuit. Developing nodule primordia did not trigger AON in plants carrying mutations in RDN1 and SUNN genes, while wild type plants had fully induced AON within three days. However, despite lacking an early suppression response, AON mutants suppressed nodulation when roots were inoculated 10 days or more apart, correlated with the maturation of nitrogen fixing nodules. In addition to correlation between nitrogen fixation and suppression of nodulation, suppression by extreme nutrient stress was also observed in all genotypes and may be a component of the observed response due to the conditions of the assay. These results suggest there is more than one systemic regulatory circuit controlling nodulation in M. truncatula. While both signals are present in wild type plants, the second signal can only be observed in plants lacking the early repression (AON mutants). RDN1 and SUNN are not essential for response to the later signal. PMID:27135324

  17. Competition among rhizobium species for nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala in two tropical soils

    SciTech Connect

    Moawad, H.; Bohlool, B.B.

    1984-07-01

    The successful nodulation of legumes by a Rhizobium strain is determined by the competitve ability of that strain against the mixture of other native and inoculant rhizobia. Competition among six Leucaena rhizobial strains in single and multistrain inoculants were studied. Field inoculation trials were conducted in an oxisol and a mollisol soil, both of which contained indigenous Leucaena-nodulating rhizobia. Strain-specific fluorescent antibodies were used for the identification of the strains in Leucaena nodules. Mixtures of three recommended inoculum strains for Leucaena species (TAL82, TAL582, and TAL1145) were used in peat-based inocula either alone or with one of the three other strains isolated from the sites, B213, B214, and B215. Each of these latter three strains was also used as single-strain inocula to study their competition with the native rhizobia in the two soil systems. In the oxisol soil, strains B213 and B215, when used as single-strain inocula, outcompeted the native rhizobia and formed 92 and 62% of the nodules, respectively. Strain B214 was the least competitive in oxisol soil, where it formed 30% of the nodules, and the best in mollisol soil, where it formed 70% of the nodules. The most successful competitor for nodulation in multistrain inocula was strain TAL1145, which outcompeted native and other inoculum Leucaena rhizobia is both soils. None of the strains in single or multistrain inoculants was capable of completely overcoming the resident rhizobia, which formed 4 to