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Sample records for leguminosa vigna sinensis

  1. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a new species from Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao P.; Randive, Sonali D.; Garad, Krushnadeoray U.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat. PMID:25589877

  2. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    PubMed

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated.

  3. Vigna (Leguminosae) sensu lato: the names and identities of the American segregate genera.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Thulin, Mats; Pasquet, Rémy; Weeden, Norm; Lavin, Matt

    2011-10-01

    The legume genus Vigna and close relatives have highly elaborated floral morphologies that involve the coiling, bending, and intricate connection of flower parts. Banners, levers, platforms, and pumps have evolved that attract pollinators and then manipulate their movement. Given this three-dimensional floral complexity, the taxonomy of Vigna and relatives has been confounded by the study of mostly two-dimensional museum specimens. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was undertaken in the effort to resolve long-standing taxonomic questions centered on floral morphology. The phylogenetic analysis included cpDNA trnK and nuclear ribosomal ITS/5.8S (ITS) sequence variation. The American species were comprehensively sampled and outgroups included Old World relatives. The trnK and ITS data analyses concurred in resolving six well-supported clades of American Vigna that are most closely related to other American genera: Dolichopsis, Macroptilium, Mysanthus, Oryxis, Oxyrhynchus, Phaseolus, Ramirezella, and Strophostyles. These 14 American clades ranked here as genera are resolved as sister to a clade comprising the mainly Old World species of Vigna. American Vigna clades were reassigned to the genera Ancistrotropis, Cochliasanthus, Condylostylis, Leptospron, Sigmoidotropis, and the newly described Helicotropis. Vigna sensu stricto in the Americas now includes relatively few and mostly pantropical species. Elaborate floral asymmetries are readily used to apomorphically diagnose nearly all of the American genera. The age estimates of the extant diversification of the American and its Old World sister clade are approximately coeval at ca. 6-7 million yr, which belies much greater floral variation in the Americas.

  4. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  5. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments.

  6. Plant regeneration from protoplasts of immature Vigna sinensis cotyledons via somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, X B; Xu, Z H; Wei, Z M

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from immature cotyledons of Vigna sinensis and cultured in a modified MS Liquid medium containing 0. 2 mg/l 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), 1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0. 5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the dark at a density of 1 × 10(5)/ml. The protoplasts began to divide in 3-5 days. Sustained cell division resulted in formation of cell clusters and small calli, with the cell division frequency and plating efficiency of cell colonies reaching 27. 7% and 1. 7% respectively. When calli of 2 mm in size were transferred onto MSB medium (MS salts and B5 vitamins) containing 500mg/l NaCl, 500 mg/ 1 casein hydrolysate (CH), 2 mg/l 2,4-D and 0. 5 mg/l BAP for further growth, approximately 5% of the calli developed embryogenically. The embryogenic calli were selected and subcultured on the same composition of MSB medium and were able to maintain somatic embryogenesis capacity in subculture for a long time. When the calli were moved to MSB medium with 0. 1 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 0. 5mg/l kinetin(KT), 3-5% mannitol and 2% sucrose in the light, many somatic embryos formed from the calli. Only part of the embryoids developed further to the cotyledonary stage, and the others died at the globular, heart-shaped or torpedo stages. Finally, some cotyledonary embryoids germinated and developed into plants or shoots. The shoots were readily rooted on 1/2 strength MS medium with 0. 1-0.3 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The plants grew well in soil and were fertile.

  7. [Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].

    PubMed

    Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina

    2008-09-01

    Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Ceratotropis (genus Vigna, Leguminosae) reveals three eco-geographical groups and Late Pliocene-Pleistocene diversification: evidence from four plastid DNA region sequences.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Firouzeh; Tun, Ye Tun; Kawase, Makoto; Guan, Kaiyun; Yamaguchi, Hirofumi

    2011-08-01

    The subgenus Ceratotropis in the genus Vigna is widely distributed from the Himalayan highlands to South, Southeast and East Asia. However, the interspecific and geographical relationships of its members are poorly understood. This study investigates the phylogeny and biogeography of the subgenus Ceratotropis using chloroplast DNA sequence data. Sequence data from four intergenic spacer regions (petA-psbJ, psbD-trnT, trnT-trnE and trnT-trnL) of chloroplast DNA, alone and in combination, were analysed using Bayesian and parsimony methods. Divergence times for major clades were estimated with penalized likelihood. Character evolution was examined by means of parsimony optimization and MacClade. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses on the combined data demonstrated well-resolved species relationships in which 18 Vigna species were divided into two major geographical clades: the East Asia-Southeast Asian clade and the Indian subcontinent clade. Within these two clades, three well-supported eco-geographical groups, temperate and subtropical (the East Asia-Southeast Asian clade) and tropical (the Indian subcontinent clade), are recognized. The temperate group consists of V. minima, V. nepalensis and V. angularis. The subtropical group comprises the V. nakashimae-V. riukiuensis-V. minima subgroup and the V. hirtella-V. exilis-V. umbellata subgroup. The tropical group contains two subgroups: the V. trinervia-V. reflexo-pilosa-V. trilobata subgroup and the V. mungo-V. grandiflora subgroup. An evolutionary rate analysis estimated the divergence time between the East Asia-Southeast Asia clade and the Indian subcontinent clade as 3·62 ± 0·3 million years, and that between the temperate and subtropical groups as 2·0 ± 0·2 million years. The findings provide an improved understanding of the interspecific relationships, and ecological and geographical phylogenetic structure of the subgenus Ceratotropis. The quaternary diversification of the subgenus Ceratotropis

  9. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Ceratotropis (genus Vigna, Leguminosae) reveals three eco-geographical groups and Late Pliocene–Pleistocene diversification: evidence from four plastid DNA region sequences

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Firouzeh; Tun, Ye Tun; Kawase, Makoto; Guan, Kaiyun; Yamaguchi, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The subgenus Ceratotropis in the genus Vigna is widely distributed from the Himalayan highlands to South, Southeast and East Asia. However, the interspecific and geographical relationships of its members are poorly understood. This study investigates the phylogeny and biogeography of the subgenus Ceratotropis using chloroplast DNA sequence data. Methods Sequence data from four intergenic spacer regions (petA-psbJ, psbD-trnT, trnT-trnE and trnT-trnL) of chloroplast DNA, alone and in combination, were analysed using Bayesian and parsimony methods. Divergence times for major clades were estimated with penalized likelihood. Character evolution was examined by means of parsimony optimization and MacClade. Key Results Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses on the combined data demonstrated well-resolved species relationships in which 18 Vigna species were divided into two major geographical clades: the East Asia–Southeast Asian clade and the Indian subcontinent clade. Within these two clades, three well-supported eco-geographical groups, temperate and subtropical (the East Asia–Southeast Asian clade) and tropical (the Indian subcontinent clade), are recognized. The temperate group consists of V. minima, V. nepalensis and V. angularis. The subtropical group comprises the V. nakashimae–V. riukiuensis–V. minima subgroup and the V. hirtella–V. exilis–V. umbellata subgroup. The tropical group contains two subgroups: the V. trinervia–V. reflexo-pilosa–V. trilobata subgroup and the V. mungo–V. grandiflora subgroup. An evolutionary rate analysis estimated the divergence time between the East Asia–Southeast Asia clade and the Indian subcontinent clade as 3·62 ± 0·3 million years, and that between the temperate and subtropical groups as 2·0 ± 0·2 million years. Conclusions The findings provide an improved understanding of the interspecific relationships, and ecological and geographical phylogenetic structure of the subgenus

  10. Isoflavonoids of the leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Nigel C

    2013-07-01

    This account describes 275 new isoflavonoids published between 2008 and 2011 as constituents of the Leguminosae, commenting on their source, identification, biological activity, synthesis, and ecological or chemosystematic significance. Applications of hyphenated analytical techniques to the characterisation of Leguminosae isoflavonoids are also reviewed, together with advances in biosynthetic studies. A checklist of new compounds by species is given, and 226 references are cited.

  11. Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of two common Gleditsia sinensis fruits using HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Zhonggui; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Guo, Ava J Y; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Zhan, Janis Y X; Dong, Tina T X; Su, Ziren; Tsim, Karl W K

    2013-12-01

    Gleditsiae Fructus Abnormalis and Gleditsiae Sinensis Fructus are obtained from different developmental stages of fruits from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (Leguminosae). The possible interchangeable usage of the two fruits, however, has long been very controversial. Here, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was developed to explore their chemical fingerprinting profiles. Besides, the amounts of aglycones of saponin compounds, echinocystic acid and oleanolic acid in both fruits were quantified. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the content of aglycones from the two types of fruits. However, their chromatographic fingerprints showed distinct characteristics. Therefore, the interchangeable application of these fruits has to be taken with a specific precaution.

  12. Anatomical diversity of funicles in Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the diversity in funicular internal structures in Leguminosae, 59 legume species (classified into 46 genera, 20 tribes, and 3 subfamilies) were examined by a paraffin-sectioning method. The vascular bundles of legume funicles were clarified as collateral, amphicribral, or amphivasal. In species in which the funicular vascular bundle was collateral throughout the funicle, the xylem is positioned at the pericarpial side in the basal part of the funicle, and the xylem was always positioned at the micropylar side of the phloem in the apical end of the funicles. Whenever the seed direction (from hilum to the micropyle) faces the stylar side, the funicular vascular bundle appears to twist between the basal and the apical part of the funicle. This twist would involve a rotation of the seeds (ovules) during seed (ovule) development. This also may mean that the direction (from hilum to the micropyle) of legume seeds originally faces the pericarp.

  13. [Chemical constituents from seeds of Vigna umbellata].

    PubMed

    Ning, Ying; Sun, Jian; Lv, Hai-Ning; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation was carried out on the seeds of Vigna umbellata. The 70% ethanol extract of the seeds of V. umbellata was subjected to silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatographies and preparative HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data Eight compounds were obtained and identified as carboxyatractyligenin (1), 2beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-15alpha-hydroxy-kaur-16-ene-18,19-dicarboxylic acid (2), 2beta-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl) atractyligenin (3), 3R-O-[beta-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl] oct-1-ene-3-ol (4), (6S, 7E, 9R) -roseoside (5), liriodendrin (6), resveratrol (7) and maltol (8). Compounds 1-7 were isolated from Vigna genus for the first time, and compound 8 was isolated from V. umbellata for the first time.

  14. Anti-dermatophyte activity of Leguminosae plants from Southern Brazil with emphasis on Mimosa pigra (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    de Morais, C B; Scopel, M; Pedrazza, G P R; da Silva, F K; Dalla Lana, D F; Tonello, M L; Miotto, S T S; Machado, M M; De Oliveira, L F S; Fuentefria, A M; Zuanazzi, J A S

    2017-08-16

    Intensive prophylactic use of antifungals leads to the increase of drug resistance and the need for new and more effective treatments are real. Plants from Leguminosae family are rich in flavonoids, for which numerous biological activities have been described, including antifungal effects. To screen methanolic extracts from Leguminosae species looking for alternative sources for antifungal agents (anti-dermatophyte and anti-Candida) and their innocuity. Antifungal activity was evaluated using the strains Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and, Microsporum gypseum in the broth microdilution method. Later, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Mimosa pigra, Eriosema heterophyllum, and Chamaecrista nictitans was determined. The most promising extract was fractionated and cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the most active fraction were also assayed. Fungicide and/or fungistatic activity against dermatophyte strains were presented by 60% of the methanolic extracts assayed. M. pigra, E. heterophyllum, and C. nictitans methanolic extracts could inhibit dermatophyte strains at concentrations ranging from 1.9 to 1000μg/mL. M. pigra showed the lowest MIC values for a dichloromethane fraction (1.9μg/mL) without DNA damage at 10 and 50μg/mL and 100% of cell viability of human leukocytes. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts from Leguminosae plants are potential sources of antifungal compounds, mainly the extract and fractions from M. pigra. The dichloromethane fraction from M. pigra did not showed in vitro toxicity according to the applied assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    PubMed

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  16. Papilionoid inflorescences revisited (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Prenner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The inflorescence structure determines the spatiotemporal arrangement of the flowers during anthesis and is therefore vital for reproductive success. The Leguminosae are among the largest angiosperm plant families and they include some important crop plants. In papilionoid legumes, the raceme is the most common type of inflorescence. However, a range of other inflorescence types have evolved via various developmental processes. A (re-)investigation of inflorescences in Swainsona formosa, Cicer arietinum, Abrus precatorius, Hardenbergia violacea and Kennedia nigricans leads to new insights into reduction mechanisms and to a new hypothesis on the evolution of the papilionoid pseudoraceme. Methods Inflorescence morphology and ontogeny were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Key Results The inflorescence in S. formosa is an umbel with a rare type of pendulum symmetry which may be triggered by the subtending leaf. Inflorescences in C. arietinum are reduced to a single flower. An early formed adaxial bulge is the sterile apex of the inflorescence (i.e. the inflorescence is open and not terminated by a flower). In partial inflorescences of A. precatorius, the axis is reduced and its meristem is relocated towards the main inflorescence. Flower initiation follows a peculiar pendulum pattern. Partial inflorescences in H. violacea and in K. nigricans show reduction tendencies. In both taxa, initiated but early reduced bracteoles are present. Conclusions Pendulum symmetry in S. formosa is probably associated with distichous phyllotaxis. In C. arietinum, strong reduction tendencies are revealed. Based on studies of A. precatorius, the papilionoid pseudoraceme is reinterpreted as a compound raceme with condensed lateral axes. From an Abrus-like inflorescence, other types can be derived via reduction of flower number and synchronization of flower development. A plea is made for uniform usage of inflorescence terminology. PMID:23235698

  17. Papilionoid inflorescences revisited (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae).

    PubMed

    Prenner, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    The inflorescence structure determines the spatiotemporal arrangement of the flowers during anthesis and is therefore vital for reproductive success. The Leguminosae are among the largest angiosperm plant families and they include some important crop plants. In papilionoid legumes, the raceme is the most common type of inflorescence. However, a range of other inflorescence types have evolved via various developmental processes. A (re-)investigation of inflorescences in Swainsona formosa, Cicer arietinum, Abrus precatorius, Hardenbergia violacea and Kennedia nigricans leads to new insights into reduction mechanisms and to a new hypothesis on the evolution of the papilionoid pseudoraceme. Inflorescence morphology and ontogeny were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The inflorescence in S. formosa is an umbel with a rare type of pendulum symmetry which may be triggered by the subtending leaf. Inflorescences in C. arietinum are reduced to a single flower. An early formed adaxial bulge is the sterile apex of the inflorescence (i.e. the inflorescence is open and not terminated by a flower). In partial inflorescences of A. precatorius, the axis is reduced and its meristem is relocated towards the main inflorescence. Flower initiation follows a peculiar pendulum pattern. Partial inflorescences in H. violacea and in K. nigricans show reduction tendencies. In both taxa, initiated but early reduced bracteoles are present. Pendulum symmetry in S. formosa is probably associated with distichous phyllotaxis. In C. arietinum, strong reduction tendencies are revealed. Based on studies of A. precatorius, the papilionoid pseudoraceme is reinterpreted as a compound raceme with condensed lateral axes. From an Abrus-like inflorescence, other types can be derived via reduction of flower number and synchronization of flower development. A plea is made for uniform usage of inflorescence terminology.

  18. Flavonoids and rotenoids from Tephrosieae and related tribes of leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Menichini, F; Delle Monache, F; Marini Bettolo, G B

    1982-08-01

    Seeds and/or roots of eleven species of Leguminosae, mainly Tephrosiae, were examined. Prenylated chalcones and flavanones were isolated from Lonchocarpus nitidus and L. neuroscapha seeds; rotenoids from Lonchocarpus spruceanus, Piscidia mollis and a Tephrosia sp.; demethylhomopterocarpin from Canavalia bonariensis (Phaseoleae). No flavonoids or rotenoids were found in L. nelsii, L. rugosus, T. multijuga (seeds), Millettia grandis (Tephrosieae) and in Xeroderris stuhlmanii (Dalbergieae).

  19. Bioactive complex triterpenoid saponins from the Leguminosae family.

    PubMed

    Parente, José P; da Silva, Bernadete P

    2009-01-01

    Many classes of phytochemical products are finding therapeutic use, for example, complex triterpenoid saponins containing in their structures monoterpene moieties. Some of these compounds possess cytotoxic, anti-HIV and adjuvant activities. This review aims to give an overview of these complex triterpenoid saponins with biological activity from the Leguminosae.

  20. Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of Leguminosae plants.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Hyun; Kim, Taehyeong; Ahn, Soyun; Kim, Yoon Jung; Kim, Hyun Young; Piao, Xiang Lan; Park, Jeong Hill

    2005-03-01

    The plant extracts of the Leguminosae family were screened for their estrogenic activity with the Ishikawa cell system. Of the tested plants, Desmodium oxyphyllum, Dunbaria villosa, Kummerowia striata, Lespedeza bicolor, Maackia amurensis, Maackia fauriei, Pueraria thunbergiana, and Sophora flavescens were highly estrogenic with EC50 values of less than 10 microg/ml.

  1. Vignayadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a new species from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao P; Gore, Ramchandra D; Randive, Sonali D; Garad, Krushnadeoray U

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc., Vignayadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vignadalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat.

  2. Meroterpenoid enantiomers from Ganoderma sinensis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wen-Wen; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Yong-Xian; Wang, Shu-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Zizhines A-F (1-6), six pairs of new meroterpenoid enantiomers and a known meroterpenoid (7) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sinensis. The structures and absolute configurations of the new substances were assigned by spectroscopic and computational methods. All the compounds apart from 7 were evaluated for their inhibition on extracellular matrix component (fibronectin) generation by using TGF-β1-induced rat kidney tubular epithelial cells. Although none of them was found to be active in these cells, the present findings add new facets for the chemistry of Ganoderma. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF GASTRIC WALL IN CHINESE ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR SINENSIS INFECTED WITH ORTLEPPASCARIS SINENSIS (NEMATODA: ASCARIDOIDEA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Shaosheng; Tu, Genjun; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing; Li, Chaopin

    2015-09-01

    Crocodiles are susceptible to infection with a wide array of external and internal gastrointestinal helminths, yet little is known on the histopathology following infection or the effects of these parasites. The present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of infection by Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) on the stomach of captive Alligator sinensis. The histological examination of the stomach revealed presence of superficial ulcer in mucous layer and granulomatous inflammation in submucous layer at entire gastric walls of the Alligator sinensis. Our findings also confirm that development of Ortleppascaris sinensis is in close association with the wall of the stomach. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Positive selection sites in tertiary structure of Leguminosae chalcone isomerase 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, R K; Zhan, S F; Zhao, T J; Zhou, X L; Wang, C E

    2015-03-20

    Isoflavonoids and the related synthesis enzyme, chalcone isomerase 1 (CHI1), are unique in the Leguminosae, with diverse biological functions. Among the Leguminosae, the soybean is an important oil, protein crop, and model plant. In this study, we aimed to detect the generation pattern of Leguminosae CHI1. Genome-wide sequence analysis of CHI in 3 Leguminosae and 3 other closely related model plants was performed; the expression levels of soybean chalcone isomerases were also analyzed. By comparing positively selected sites and their protein structures, we retrieved the evolution patterns for Leguminosae CHI1. A total of 28 CHI and 7 FAP3 (CHI4) genes were identified and separated into 4 clades: CHI1, CHI2, CHI3, and FAP3. Soybean genes belonging to the same chalcone isomerase subfamily had similar expression patterns. CHI1, the unique chalcone isomerase subfamily in Leguminosae, showed signs of significant positive selection as well as special expression characteristics, indicating an accelerated evolution throughout its divergence. Eight sites were identified as undergoing positive selection with high confidence. When mapped onto the tertiary structure of CHI1, these 8 sites were observed surrounding the enzyme substrate only; some of them connected to the catalytic core of CHI. Thus, we inferred that the generation of Leguminosae CHI1 is dependent on the positively selected amino acids surrounding its catalytic substrate. In other words, the evolution of CHI1 was driven by specific selection or processing conditions within the substrate.

  5. Cholecystolithiasis Is Associated with Clonorchis sinensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to analyze gallbladder stones for direct evidence of a relationship between Clonorchis sinensis infection and gallbladder stones formation. Methodology We investigated one hundred eighty-three gallbladder stones for the presence of Clonorchis sinensis eggs using microscopy, and analyzed their composition using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We confirmed the presence of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in the gallbladder stones using real-time fluorescent PCR and scanning electron microscopy. Principal Findings Clonorchis sinensis eggs were detected in 122 of 183 gallbladder stones based on morphologic characteristics and results from real-time fluorescent PCR. The proportion of pigment stones, cholesterol stones and mixed gallstones in the egg-positive stones was 79.5% (97/122), 3.3% (4/122) and 17.2% (21/122), respectively, while 29.5% (18/61), 31.1% (19/61) and 39.3% (24/61) in the egg-negative stones. The proportion of pigment stone in the Clonorchis sinensis egg-positive stones was higher than in egg-negative stones (P<0.0001). In the 30 egg-positive stones examined by scanning electron microscopy, dozens or even hundreds of Clonorchis sinensis eggs were visible (×400) showing a distinct morphology. Many eggs were wrapped with surrounding particles, and in some, muskmelon wrinkles was seen on the surface of the eggs. Also visible were pieces of texture shed from some of the eggs. Some eggs were depressed or without operculum while most eggs were adhered to or wrapped with amorphous particles or mucoid matter (×3000). Conclusion Clonorchis sinensis eggs were detected in the gallbladder stones which suggests an association between Clonorchis sinensis infection and gallbladder stones formation, especially pigment stones. PMID:22905137

  6. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Somta, Prakit; Muto, Chiaki; Iseki, Kohtaro; Naito, Ken; Pandiyan, Muthaiyan; Natesan, Senthil; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna (Fabaceae) consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed. PMID:26800459

  7. [Indiscriminate use of Latin name for natural Cordyceps sinensis insect-fungi complex and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungi].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Sang; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Natural Cordyceps sinensis(Dongchongxiacao) is an insect-fungi complex containing multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis(≡Cordyceps sinensis) fungi and dead body of larva of the family of Hepialidae. But natural C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi use the same Latin name, resulting in uncertainty of the specific meaning, even disturbing the formulation and implementation of governmental policies and regulations, and influencing consumer psychology onthe market. This paper reviews the history and current status of the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O. sinensis for both the natural insect-fungi complex C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi and lists the rename suggetions. Some scholars suggested using the term O. sinensis for the fungi and renaming the natural C. sinensis "Chinese cordyceps". Others suggested renaming the natural C. sinensis "Ophiocordyceps & Hepialidae". Both suggestions have not reached general consensus due to various academic concerns. This paper also reviews the exacerbation of the academic uncertainties when forcing implementing the 2011 Amsterdam Declaration "One Fungus=One Name" under the academic debate. Joint efforts of mycological, zoological and botany-TCM taxonomists and properly initiating the dispute systems offered by International Mycology Association may solve the debate on the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O.sinensis for the natural insect-fungi complex,the teleomorph and anamorph(s) of O. sinensis fungi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  9. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-02-22

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  10. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-02-22

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  11. Molecular and biochemical studies on the effect of gamma rays on lead toxicity in cowpea (Vigna sinensis) plants.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2011-12-01

    The effect of lead acetate in the presence or absence of cowpea seeds irradiated with gamma rays on morphological criteria, protein electrophoresis, isozymes, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) of leaves was investigated. A highly significant decrease in shoot and root length was observed upon lead acetate exposure (300 and 600 μM). On the other hand, in seeds irradiated with gamma rays (2, 5, and 8 krad), these morphological parameters were increased after lead acetate treatments. Meanwhile, all treatments (lead acetate and gamma rays) caused variations in number, intensity, and/or density of SDS electrophoretic bands of proteins. In addition, electrophoretic studies of esterase, acid phosphatase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase isozyme activities were increased with increasing the concentrations of lead acetate and gamma ray doses. The variation in DNA profile in response to lead acetate and gamma irradiation treatments was detected by RAPD-PCR technique. The result of RAPD analysis using the five primers indicated the appearance and disappearance of DNA polymorphic bands at all treatments (gamma rays and lead stress). The relatively high concentrations of lead acetate (600 μM) induced more changes in genomic DNA pattern.

  12. A new generic system for the pantropical Caesalpinia group (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Edeline; Bruneau, Anne; Hughes, Colin E.; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci; Lewis, Gwilym P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Caesalpinia group is a large pantropical clade of ca. 205 species in subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae) in which generic delimitation has been in a state of considerable flux. Here we present new phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid and one nuclear ribosomal marker, with dense taxon sampling including 172 (84%) of the species and representatives of all previously described genera in the Caesalpinia group. These analyses show that the current classification of the Caesalpinia group into 21 genera needs to be revised. Several genera (Poincianella, Erythrostemon, Cenostigma and Caesalpinia sensu Lewis, 2005) are non-monophyletic and several previously unclassified Asian species segregate into clades that merit recognition at generic rank. In addition, the near-completeness of our taxon sampling identifies three species that do not belong in any of the main clades and these are recognised as new monospecific genera. A new generic classification of the Caesalpinia group is presented including a key for the identification of genera, full generic descriptions, illustrations (drawings and photo plates of all genera), and (for most genera) the nomenclatural transfer of species to their correct genus. We recognise 26 genera, with reinstatement of two previously described genera (Biancaea Tod., Denisophytum R. Vig.), re-delimitation and expansion of several others (Moullava, Cenostigma, Libidibia and Erythrostemon), contraction of Caesalpinia s.s. and description of four new ones (Gelrebia, Paubrasilia, Hererolandia and Hultholia), and make 75 new nomenclatural combinations in this new generic system. PMID:28814915

  13. Dispersal of mimetic seeds of three species of Ormosia (Leguminosae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.; DeLay, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds with 'imitation arils' appear wholly or partially covered by pulp or aril but actually carry no fleshy material. The mimetic seed hypothesis to explain this phenomenon proposes a parasitic relationship in which birds are deceived into dispersing seeds that resemble bird-dispersed fruits, without receiving a nutrient reward. The hard-seed for grit hypothesis proposes a mutualistic relationship in which large, terrestrial birds swallow the exceptionally hard 'mimetic' seeds as grit for grinding the softer seeds on which they feed. They defecate, dispersing the seeds, and abrade the seed surface, enhancing germination. Any fruit mimicry is incidental. Fruiting trees of Ormosia spp. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) were observed to ascertain mechanisms of seed dispersal and the role of seemingly mimetic characteristics of the seeds in that dispersal. Seed predation and seed germination were also examined. Ormosia isthamensis and O. macrocalyx (but not O. bopiensis) deceived arboreally-foraging frugivorous birds into taking their mimetic seeds, although rates of seed dispersal were low. These results are consistent with the mimetic seed hypothesis. On the other hand, the rates of disappearance of seeds from the ground under the Ormosia trees, hardness of the seeds, and enhancement of germination with the abrasion of the seed coat are all consistent with the hard-seed for grit hypothesis.

  14. Patterns and development of floral asymmetry in Senna (Leguminosae, Cassiinae).

    PubMed

    Marazzi, Brigitte; Endress, Peter K

    2008-01-01

    The buzz-pollinated genus Senna (Leguminosae) is outstanding for including species with monosymmetric flowers and species with diverse asymmetric, enantiomorphic (enantiostylous) flowers. To recognize patterns of homology, we dissected the floral symmetry character complex and explored corolla morphology in 60 Senna species and studied floral development of four enantiomorphic species. The asymmetry morph of a flower is correlated with the direction of spiral calyx aestivation. We recognized five patterns of floral asymmetry, resulting from different combinations of six structural elements: deflection of the carpel, deflection of the median abaxial stamen, deflection or modification in size of one lateral abaxial stamen, and modification in shape and size of one or both lower petals. Prominent corolla asymmetry begins in the earl-stage bud (unequal development of lower petals). Androecium asymmetry begins either in the midstage bud (unequal development of thecae in median abaxial stamen; twisting of androecium) or at anthesis (stamen deflection). Gynoecium asymmetry begins in early bud (primordium off the median plane, ventral slit laterally oriented) or midstage to late bud (carpel deflection). In enantiostylous flowers, pronouncedly concave and robust petals of both monosymmetric and asymmetric corollas likely function to ricochet and direct pollen flow during buzz pollination. Occurrence of particular combinations of structural elements of floral symmetry in the subclades is shown.

  15. A new generic system for the pantropical Caesalpinia group (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Edeline; Bruneau, Anne; Hughes, Colin E; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci; Lewis, Gwilym P

    2016-01-01

    The Caesalpinia group is a large pantropical clade of ca. 205 species in subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae) in which generic delimitation has been in a state of considerable flux. Here we present new phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid and one nuclear ribosomal marker, with dense taxon sampling including 172 (84%) of the species and representatives of all previously described genera in the Caesalpinia group. These analyses show that the current classification of the Caesalpinia group into 21 genera needs to be revised. Several genera (Poincianella, Erythrostemon, Cenostigma and Caesalpinia sensu Lewis, 2005) are non-monophyletic and several previously unclassified Asian species segregate into clades that merit recognition at generic rank. In addition, the near-completeness of our taxon sampling identifies three species that do not belong in any of the main clades and these are recognised as new monospecific genera. A new generic classification of the Caesalpinia group is presented including a key for the identification of genera, full generic descriptions, illustrations (drawings and photo plates of all genera), and (for most genera) the nomenclatural transfer of species to their correct genus. We recognise 26 genera, with reinstatement of two previously described genera (Biancaea Tod., Denisophytum R. Vig.), re-delimitation and expansion of several others (Moullava, Cenostigma, Libidibia and Erythrostemon), contraction of Caesalpinia s.s. and description of four new ones (Gelrebia, Paubrasilia, Hererolandia and Hultholia), and make 75 new nomenclatural combinations in this new generic system.

  16. [AFLP analysis on genetic diversity of Angelica sinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yi; Liao, Wen-Bo

    2014-04-01

    To explore the genetic diversity and relationship of different germplasm of Angelica sinensis. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were developed to analyze genetic polymorphism in 12 populations 117 samples of Angelica sinensis. The amplified fragments were used for cluster analysis among the different germplasm of Angelica sinensis and to construct the genetic phylogenetic tree with NTSYSpc 2. 11 software. Eight primer combinations selected from 64 primer combinations were used for amplification and a total of 815 fragments were obtained. Analysis identified 812 polymorphic fragments, accounting for 99.63% of the total detected fragments. Different phenotypes and germplasm of Angelica sinensis could be divided by genetic phylogenetic tree analysis. AFLP molecular markers can indicate the significant polymorphism and genetic diversity among germplasm resources of Angelica sinensis. The cultivated purple-stemmed and green-stemmed phenotypes of Angelica sinensis may have different genotypes. The results can provide theoretical evidence for reasonable utilization and breeding new cultivar in molecular level.

  17. Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their transferability to other Vigna species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2010-07-01

    Unigene sequences available in public databases provide a cost-effective and valuable source for the development of molecular markers. In this study, the identification and development of unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is presented. A total of 1071 SSRs were identified in 15 740 cowpea unigene sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The most frequent SSR motifs present in the unigenes were trinucleotides (59.7%), followed by dinucleotides (34.8%), pentanucleotides (4%), and tetranucleotides (1.5%). The copy number varied from 6 to 33 for dinucleotide, 5 to 29 for trinucleotide, 5 to 7 for tetranucleotide, and 4 to 6 for pentanucleotide repeats. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 803 SSR motifs and 102 SSR markers were finally characterized and validated. Putative function was assigned to 64.7% of the unigene SSR markers based on significant homology to reported proteins. About 31.7% of the SSRs were present in coding sequences and 68.3% in untranslated regions of the genes. About 87% of the SSRs located in the coding sequences were trinucleotide repeats. Allelic variation at 32 SSR loci produced 98 alleles in 20 cowpea genotypes. The polymorphic information content for the SSR markers varied from 0.10 to 0.83 with an average of 0.53. These unigene SSR markers showed a high rate of transferability (88%) across other Vigna species, thereby expanding their utility. Alignment of unigene sequences with soybean genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in amplified products of some of the SSR markers. This study presents the distribution of SSRs in the expressed portion of the cowpea genome and is the first report of the development of functional unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea. These SSR markers would play an important role in molecular mapping, comparative genomics, and marker-assisted selection strategies in cowpea and other Vigna species.

  18. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Vanitharani, R; Karthikeyan, A S; Anbalagan, S; Veluthambi, K

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5'-TGTATCGGTGT-3') iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5'-ATCGGTGT-3') had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMVVig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  19. Diversity and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in the Genus Vigna

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Kohtaro; Takahashi, Yu; Muto, Chiaki; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae) is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations. The accessions were clustered into four groups: the most tolerant, tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. From the most tolerant group, we selected six accessions, all of which were wild accessions adapted to coastal environments, as promising sources of salt tolerance because of their consistently high relative shoot biomass and relative quantum yield. Interestingly, variations in leaf Na+ concentration were observed between the accessions in the most tolerant group, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for their salt tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis with nuclear DNA sequences revealed that salt tolerance had evolved independently at least four times in the genus Vigna, within a relatively short period. The findings suggested that simple genetic changes in a few genes might have greatly affected salt tolerances. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms of salt tolerances in the selected accessions may contribute to improving the poor salt tolerance in legume crops. PMID:27736995

  20. Vigna pandeyana (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao; Randive, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Vigna subg. Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc. represents a homogenous and distinct group of species with highly specialized complex floral characters. It is most diverse in Asia. India, with 24 species, represents a secondary center of species diversity of the subgenus. New information A new species, Vigna pandeyana RD Gore, SP Gaikwad & SD Randive, is described from hill slopes of the northern Western Ghats of India. It resembles Vigna yadavii Gaikwad et al. and Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs from the latter in its dimorphic shoots (some subterranean, with cleistogamous flowers) and densely hairy pods, from the former by its curved style, flattened style beak, foveolate seed coat and absence of standard protuberance and horn-like keel pocket in cleistogamous flowers. PMID:25829861

  1. A new sesquilignan glucoside from Uraria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingda; Hu, Zhengxi; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yonghui

    2014-01-17

    A new sesquilignan glucoside, urariasinoside A (1), together with eight known compounds, including two lignans, a sesquilignan, a dilignan, and four flavonoid derivatives were isolated from the aerial parts of Uraria sinensis. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. Compound 1 was evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity activity against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A549, MCF-7, SW480, and BEAS-2B cell lines.

  2. Constituents from Vigna vexillata and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liou, Kun-Pei; Huang, Bow-Shin; Chen, Guo-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Vigna genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of V. vexillata demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of V. vexillata. One new sterol (1) and two new isoflavones (2,3) were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23), abscisic acid (25), and quercetin (40) displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release. PMID:22949828

  3. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  4. [Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Paecilomyces hepiali and Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ling; Xiao, Wei; He, Hui-Xia; Zhu, Hui-Xin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Cheng, Ke-Di; Zhu, Ping

    2008-04-01

    Phylogenetic relationship between Paecilomyces hepiali and Cordyceps sinensis was studied by analyzing the sequence of rDNA-ITS. The samples of C. sinensis were collected from Hualong County in Qinghai Province and Kangding County in Sichuan Province in May and June, respectively. The rDNA-ITS fragments were obtained by PCR amplification with the template genomic DNA of the fresh stroma or caterpillar body of the collected samples and the cultured mycelium of P. hepiali, with the universal fungal primers ITS1/ITS4. The amplified fragments were cloned into pMD18-T Vector and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed with these sequences and those from GenBank. The result showed that all of the 46 clones randomly chosen from the amplification of C. sinensis shared identical or almost identical rDNA-ITS regions and had over 99% identity with some rDNA-ITS sequences of Hirsutella sinensis and C. sinensis registered in GenBank, but all of them had only about 72% identity with that of P. hepiali. Two pairs of specific primers were designed based on the rDNA-ITS sequence of P. hepiali, then PCR and Nest-PCR were performed with the template genomic DNA of the stroma or caterpillar body of C. sinensis samples mentioned above. The apparent bands amplified by Nest-PCR were obtained from all of the samples, and the sequences showed 100% identity with the rDNA-ITS sequence of P. hepiali. In addition, another pair of specific primers were designed based on the rDNA-ITS sequence registered in GenBank as the marker of C. sinensis (accession no. AB067740) but the latter only shared 87.3% identity with that of H. sinensis (accession no. AJ309353). This pair of primers was used to amplify the C. sinensis samples by PCR, and the amplified sequence showed 100% identity with that of AB067740. The result indicated that H. sinensis is the main body of C. sinensis, while some other endoparasitic fungi such as P. hepiali commonly exist in the natural C. sinensis.

  5. [Analysis of varieties and standards of Leguminosae plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lan; Du, Xiao-lang; Zhong, Wei-hong; Zhong, Wei-jin; He, Jun-wei; Mu, Ze-jing; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the domestic varieties and quality standard of Leguminosae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine were analyzed. The results showed that there were 36 genera and 142 species (including varieties), as well as 64 medicinal materials varieties of Leguminosae plants were recorded in relevant literatures. In relevant Tibetan standards and literatures, there are great differences in varieties, sources, used parts, and efficacy of medicinal plants. Among them, about 38.0% (including 54 species) of the endemic plants, about 25.4% (including 36 species) of the original plants have medicinal standard legal records, except 9 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine general quality standard more fairly completed, the most varieties have only description about characters, identification, etc. Therefore it is necessary to reinforce study for the herbal textual, resources and the use present situation, chemical components and biological activity, quality standard, medicinal terms specification, to promote establishment of quality standard system for variety-terminologies-sources of Tibetan medicinal plants.

  6. Diverse patterns of cell wall mannan/galactomannan occurrence in seeds of the Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Bento, João Francisco; Mazzaro, Irineu; de Almeida Silva, Lia Magalhães; de Azevedo Moreira, Renato; Ferreira, Marília Locatelli Correa; Reicher, Fany; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2013-01-30

    Endosperms from seeds of different subfamilies of Leguminosae were submitted to sequential aqueous and alkaline aqueous extractions. The extractions from species belonging to the Mimosoideae and Faboideae subfamilies yielded galactomannans with constant Man:Gal ratios, whereas the extractions from Caesalpinioideae seeds gave rise to galactomannans with increasing values of the Man:Gal ratio. The presence of a family of galactomannans within the same species may be a trait found only in Caesalpinioideae subfamily. The final insoluble residues that were obtained after the removal of galactomannans from the Caesalpinioideae and Faboideae subfamilies are composed of pure mannans and do not contain cellulose, while those from the Mimosoideae subfamily are composed of cellulose. A mannan was isolated from the unripe endosperm of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, suggesting no developmental relationship between galactomannan and mannan. These results are consistent with the presence of a distinctive cell wall pattern in the endosperms of Leguminosae species.

  7. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chatan, Wannachai

    2013-01-01

    A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25-35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10-13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  8. A Homoploid Hybrid Between Wild Vigna Species Found in a Limestone Karst

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Iseki, Kohtaro; Kitazawa, Kumiko; Muto, Chiaki; Somta, Prakit; Irie, Kenji; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Genus Vigna comprise several domesticated species including cowpea and mungbean, and diverse wild species. We found an introgressive hybrid population derived from two wild species, Vigna umbellata and Vigna exilis, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand. The hybrid was morphologically similar to V. umbellata but habituated in a limestone rock mountain, which is usually dominated by V. exilis. Analyzing simple sequence repeat loci indicated the hybrid has undergone at least one round of backcross by V. umbellata. We found the hybrid acquired vigorous growth from V. umbellata and drought tolerance plus early flowering from V. exilis, and thus has taken over some habitats of V. exilis in limestone karsts. Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. PMID:26648953

  9. Structural analysis and immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Meng, Meng; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yang; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-03-01

    The parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces sinensis, is used to produce Cordyceps materials as a succedaneum of natural Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) in China. In this work, a glycopeptide (CPS-II) was isolated and purified from Paecilomyces sinensis. The result of HPLC indicated that CPS-II was a glycopeptide. The estimated average molecular weight of CPS-II was 2 × 10(6) Da. FTIR, methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and CD were used for its structural analysis. The glycopeptide CPS-II was mainly composed of (1 → 3), (1 → 4) connected glucose and galactose as the backbone, there are (1 → 2,3,6) connected glucose, (1 → 3,6) connected mannose, and (1 → 6) connected galactose. Cell proliferation assay and morphological observations indicated that in a certain range of concentrations and time, CPS-II can significantly improve the proliferation activity of RAW264.7 cells.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-07-07

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  12. Developmental Transcriptomic Features of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Pyo Yun; Kim, Tae Im; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Park, Hong-Seog; Kim, Tong-Soo; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development, bile chemotaxis, and

  13. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Angelica sinensis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-hui; Song, Chun-qing

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the chemical components of Agelica sinensis. Chromatographic technologies were used for separation and purification, while spectral analysis was measured for structure elucidation. Five compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as Homosenkyunolide H (1), Homosenkyunolide I(2), Neoligustilide (3), 6-methoxycoumarin (4), Hypoxanthine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside (5). Compounds 1 and 2 are new compounds. Compounds 3, 4 and 5 were isolated from Agelica sinensis for the first time.

  14. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-11-22

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas.

  15. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas. PMID:27874103

  16. [NIR Fingerprints of Different Medicinal Parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-ya; Gu, Zhi-rong; Ding, Jun-xia; Wang, Yao-peng; Sun, Yu-jing; Wang, Ya-li

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the spectrum characteristics of near-intrared dittuse retlectance spectroscopy (NIR) fingerprint of different medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. 96 batches of samples were collected from 14 counties of Gansu Province and Yunnan Province. The NIR fingerprints were collected by integrated sphere. Similarity analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were used to analyze the fingerprint. The average spectrum of NIR fingerprint of different medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix showed some differences; the absorbance in characteristic absorption was in a decreasing order of body > tail > head > whole. Most NIR fingerprint similarities of different medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix exceeded 0. 95. The established model of PLS-DA could be used to accurately classify the medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. The differences of NIR fingerprints of different medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix were mainly existing in the wave number ranges of 8,443 - 8,284 cm -1, 7,003 - 6,896 cm-1, 6,102 - 5,864 cm-1, 4,847 - 4,674 cm-1, and 4,386 - 4,208 cm-1. The different medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix have some differences in chemical components.

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.

  18. Genistein from Vigna angularis Extends Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Ahn, Dalrae; Kim, Ban Ji; Lee, So Yeon; Seo, Hyun Won; Cha, Youn-Soo; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Cha, Dong Seok; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-01-01

    The seed of Vigna angularis has long been cultivated as a food or a folk medicine in East Asia. Genistein (4′,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), a dietary phytoestrogen present in this plant, has been known to possess various biological properties. In this study, we investigated the possible lifespan-extending effects of genistein using Caenorhabditis elegans model system. We found that the lifespan of nematode was significantly prolonged in the presence of genistein under normal culture condition. In addition, genistein elevated the survival rate of nematode against stressful environment including heat and oxidative conditions. Further studies demonstrated that genistein-mediated increased stress tolerance of nematode could be attributed to enhanced expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). Moreover, we failed to find genistein-induced significant change in aging-related factors including reproduction, food intake, and growth, indicating genistein exerts longevity activity independent of affecting these factors. Genistein treatment also led to an up-regulation of locomotory ability of aged nematode, suggesting genistein affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. Our results represent that genistein has beneficial effects on the lifespan of C. elegans under both of normal and stress condition via elevating expressions of stress resistance proteins. PMID:25593647

  19. The Genetics of Domestication of the Azuki Bean (Vigna angularis)

    PubMed Central

    Kaga, Akito; Isemura, Takehisa; Tomooka, Norihiko; Vaughan, Duncan A.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic differences between azuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) and its presumed wild ancestor (V. angularis var. nipponensis) were resolved into QTL for traits associated with adaptation to their respective distinct habits. A genetic linkage map constructed using progenies from a cross between Japanese cultivated and wild azuki beans covers 92.8% of the standard azuki bean linkage map. A reciprocal translocation between cultivated and wild azuki bean parents was identified on the basis of the linkage map having a pseudolinkage group and clustering of seed productivity-related QTL with large effect near the presumed breakpoints. In total, 162 QTL were identified for 46 domestication-related traits. Domestication of azuki bean has involved a trade-off between seed number and seed size: fewer but longer pods and fewer but larger seeds on plants with shorter stature in cultivated azuki bean being at the expense of overall seed yield. Genes found related to germination and flowering time in cultivated azuki bean may confer a selective advantage to the hybrid derivatives under some ecological conditions and may explain why azuki bean has evolved as a crop complex in Japan. PMID:18245368

  20. Chromosomes of the liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gab-Man; Im, Kyung-il; Huh, Sun

    2000-01-01

    A karyological study was carried out in order to compared the chromosome numbers, chromosome morphologies and karyotypes of the oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae), collected from Korea and China. Chromosome preparations were made by means of air-drying method. The chromosome number was 2n=56 in both Korean and Chinese flukes, and chromosomes were divided into two groups based on this size; consisting of 8 pairs of large and 20 pairs of small chromosomes. However, the karyotypes showed some differences between Korean and Chinese flukes. The karyotype of liver flukes from Korea consisted of three metacentric pairs, one meta-/submetacentric pair, 16 submetacentric pairs and eight subtelocentric pairs of chromosomes. On the other hand, liver flukes from China consisted of two metacentric pairs, two meta-/submetacentric pairs, 16 submetacentric pairs and eight subtelocentric pairs of chromosomes. PMID:11002660

  1. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  2. The genetics of domestication of rice bean, Vigna umbellata

    PubMed Central

    Isemura, Takehisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Shimizu, Takehiko; Vaughan, Duncan Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The Asian genus Vigna, to which four cultivated species (rice bean, azuki bean, mung bean and black gram) belong, is suitable for comparative genomics. The aims were to construct a genetic linkage map of rice bean, to identify the genomic regions associated with domestication in rice bean, and to compare these regions with those in azuki bean. Methods A genetic linkage map was constructed by using simple sequence repeat and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in the BC1F1 population derived from a cross between cultivated and wild rice bean. Using this map, 31 domestication-related traits were dissected into quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The genetic linkage map and QTLs of rice bean were compared with those of azuki bean. Key Results A total of 326 markers converged into 11 linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid number of rice bean chromosomes. The domestication-related traits in rice bean associated with a few major QTLs distributed as clusters on LGs 2, 4 and 7. A high level of co-linearity in marker order between the rice bean and azuki bean linkage maps was observed. Major QTLs in rice bean were found on LG4, whereas major QTLs in azuki bean were found on LG9. Conclusions This is the first report of a genetic linkage map and QTLs for domestication-related traits in rice bean. The inheritance of domestication-related traits was so simple that a few major QTLs explained the phenotypic variation between cultivated and wild rice bean. The high level of genomic synteny between rice bean and azuki bean facilitates QTL comparison between species. These results provide a genetic foundation for improvement of rice bean; interchange of major QTLs between rice bean and azuki bean might be useful for broadening the genetic variation of both species. PMID:20880934

  3. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chatan, Wannachai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed. PMID:24194667

  5. New cassane-type diterpenoids of Caesalpinia echinata (Leguminosae) exhibiting NF-κB inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Taichi; Ishihara, Risa; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Sunadome, Mitsuhisa; Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Seven new cassane-type diterpenoids, echinalides A-G (1-7), were isolated from the stem of Caesalpinia echinata LAM. (Leguminosae). The structures were established on the basis of their chemical properties and spectroscopic evidence, including two dimensional (2D)-NMR analysis. These compounds were assessed for inhibitory activity against nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Echinalides C and D, in particular, significantly inhibited NF-κB-responsive reporter gene expression at 5.0 µM, an effect almost equivalent to that of parthenolide, a known potent inhibitor of NF-κB.

  6. Development of microsatellite markers for Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae), a widespread tree from the Brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Souza, Helena A V; Collevatti, Rosane G; Lemos-Filho, José P; Santos, Fabrício R; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2012-03-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed for Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae), a widespread tree in the Brazilian cerrado (a savanna-like vegetation). Microsatellite markers were developed from an enriched library. The analyses of polymorphism were based on 56 individuals from three populations. Nine microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 10 across populations. The observed and expected heterozygosities per locus and population ranged from 0.062 to 0.850 and from 0.062 to 0.832, respectively. These microsatellites provide an efficient tool for population genetics studies and will be used to assess the genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of D. mollis.

  7. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  8. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-15

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30cms(-1). The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis.

  9. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30 cm s- 1. The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis.

  10. Pharmacological effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis (Danggui) on cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Radix Angelica Sinensis, the dried root of Angelica sinensis (Danggui), is a herb used in Chinese medicine to enrich blood, promote blood circulation and modulate the immune system. It is also used to treat chronic constipation of the elderly and debilitated as well as menstrual disorders. Research has demonstrated that Danggui and its active ingredients, as anti-arthrosclerotic, anti-hypertensive, antioxidant anti-inflammatory agents which would limit platelet aggregation, are effective in reducing the size of cerebral infarction and improving neurological deficit scores. PMID:21867503

  11. Light and nutrient effects on growth and allocation of Inga vera(Leguminosae), a successional tree of Puerto Rico.

    Treesearch

    R. W. Myster

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of acquiring a better understanding of ecological growth and biomass allocation of Neotropical trees, I inoculated Inga vera Willd. (Leguminosae) plants from cuttings with Rhizobium spp. and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and grew them in a greenhouse for 8 months under varying light (L), phosphorus (P), and nitrogen (N) treatments. I obtained the following...

  12. Characterization and systematic implications of the diversity in timing of programmed cell death of the suspensors in Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yasuhiko

    2012-08-01

    In angiosperm seeds, the developing embryo acquires nutrients via a suspensor that typically undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) at the early cotyledon stage. However, in Leguminosae (the third largest angiosperm family), the suspensors can disappear at the heart-shaped stage (i.e., prior to the cotyledon stage) or still persist at the cotyledon stage. Here, in a comprehensive survey of legume suspensors and embryos, the variation and the evolutionary direction of timing of suspensor PCD in Leguminosae were characterized, and systematic implications were evaluated. Suspensor development and morphology for 66 leguminous species from 49 genera, 21 tribes, and 3 subfamilies were comparatively studied using standard paraffin sectioning and light microscopy. Three patterns of suspensor PCD were observed at the early cotyledon stage. (A) The suspensor persisted. (B) The suspensor separated from the wall of the embryo sac and persisted as a vestige at the radicle apex. (C) The suspensor disappeared completely, and the absorption of nutrients by embryo was carried out via a "contact zone" between the embryo and the endosperm. Pattern C of early suspensor PCD was found only in the tribe Fabeae. An ancestral character reconstruction revealed that the long-lived suspensors of pattern A represented a plesiomorphic condition in Leguminosae and that the suspensors of pattern C evolved only once in the common ancestor of Fabeae. In Leguminosae, short-lived suspensors have thus evolved multiple times from long-lived suspensors. It remains largely unknown, however, how the embryo acquires nutrients after the early suspensor PCD.

  13. An efficient protocol for tissue sampling and DNA isolation from the stem bark of Leguminosae trees.

    PubMed

    Novaes, R M L; Rodrigues, J G; Lovato, M B

    2009-02-03

    Traditionally, molecular studies of plant species have used leaves as the source of DNA. However, sampling leaves from tall tree species can be quite difficult and expensive. We developed a sequence of procedures for using stem bark as a source of DNA from Leguminosae trees of the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado. Leguminosae is an important species-rich family in these two highly diverse and endangered biomes. A modified CTAB protocol for DNA isolation is described, and details of the procedures for sampling and storage of the bark are given. The procedures were initially developed for three species, and then their applicability for 15 other species was evaluated. DNA of satisfactory quality was obtained from the bark of all species. The amounts of DNA obtained from leaves were slightly higher than from bark samples, while its purity was the same. Storing the bark frozen or by drying in silica gel yielded similar results. Polymerase chain reaction amplification worked for both plastid and nuclear genomes. This alternative for isolating DNA from bark samples of trees facilitates field work with these tree species.

  14. In vitro acetylcholinesterase activity of peptide derivatives isolated from two species of Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Alves, Clayton Q; Lima, Luciano S; David, Jorge M; Lima, Marcos V B; David, Juceni P; Lima, Fernanda W M; Pedroza, Kelly C M C; Queiroz, Luciano P

    2013-07-01

    Cratylia mollis Martius ex Benth. and Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. (Leguminosae) are both endemic Brazilian plants and they are used by the natives as medicinal plants, and the leaves of C. mollis are also employed as forage for cattle during the dry season of region. Isolation of the compounds responsible for the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition from the CHCl3 active extract. Two peptidic compounds were isolated by chromatographic techniques from the CHCl3 extract of the leaves of C. mollis and C. macrophyllum. They were identified by spectrometric data analysis (MS and NMR) and they were subjected to AChE inhibition employing Ellman's test. The peptides were identified as N-benzoylphenylalaninoyl-phenlyalaninolacetate (aurentiamide acetate) (1) and N-benzoylphenylalaninyl-N-benzoylphenylalaninate (2). Both peptides 1 and 2 exhibit AChE inhibition, with IC50 values equal to 111.34 µM and 137.6 µM, respectively. Compound 1 (aurentiamide acetate) has rarely been isolated from the Leguminosae family, and N-benzoylphenylalaninyl-N-benzoylphenylalaninate (2) is a compound that has never previously been isolated from this family. Compound 1 is shown to be a potent inhibitor of AChE, with IC50 values similar to the physostigmine control (141.51 µM).

  15. Comparative development of rare cases of a polycarpellate gynoecium in an otherwise monocarpellate family, Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Juliana Villela; Prenner, Gerhard; Mansano, Vidal Freitas; Teixeira, Simone Pádua

    2014-04-01

    Apocarpy (i.e., free carpels) is considered to be the basal condition for ovary development in angiosperms. Yet it only occurs in 10% of angiosperm species, of which another 10% are monocarpellate. Most legume flowers are monocarpellate. Species with polycarpellate gynoecia occur in about 15 genera with most representatives in Mimosoideae. In the present study, we analyze legumes with polycarpellate flowers with the aim of improving our understanding of gynoecium evolution. Flowers of nine legume species from five genera were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In Leguminosae, carpels usually form as individual primordia or protuberances. Inga congesta differs slightly from this pattern in that the central apex bulges outward before the formation of individual carpel primordia. While legumes usually develop entirely plicate carpels, flowers of Acacia celastrifolia and Inga bella show an intermediate type of carpel morphology with a distal plicate zone and a small proximal ascidiate zone. Carpels in Inga congesta and Archidendron glabrum are sometimes slightly fused at the ovary base. The orientation of carpel clefts seems to reflect the floral symmetry. They are directed to the floral center in mimosoids and caesalpinioids, whereas in Swartzia dipetala carpel clefts are oriented to the adaxial side. Polycarpelly arose at least seven times independently in Leguminosae. The polycarpellate condition appears to be correlated with polyandry, and in most instances, it is accompanied by a profound change in floral organization from a closed to an open system.

  16. Development of a black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] linkage map and its comparison with an azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] linkage map.

    PubMed

    Chaitieng, B; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Isemura, T; Kuroda, Y; Vaughan, D A

    2006-11-01

    The Asian Vigna group of grain legumes consists of six domesticated species, among them black gram is widely grown in South Asia and to a lesser extent in Southeast Asia. We report the first genetic linkage map of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper], constructed using a BC(1)F(1) population consisting of 180 individuals. The BC(1)F(1) population was analyzed in 61 SSR primer pairs, 56 RFLP probes, 27 AFLP loci and 1 morphological marker. About 148 marker loci could be assigned to the 11 linkage groups, which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of black gram. The linkage groups cover a total of 783 cM of the black gram genome. The number of markers per linkage group ranges from 6 to 23. The average distance between adjacent markers varied from 3.5 to 9.3 cM. The results of comparative genome mapping between black gram and azuki bean show that the linkage order of markers is highly conserved. However, inversions, insertions, deletions/duplications and a translocation were detected between the black gram and azuki bean linkage maps. The marker order on parts of linkage groups 1, 2 and 5 is reversed between the two species. One region on black gram linkage group 10 appears to correspond to part of azuki bean linkage group 1. The present study suggests that the azuki bean SSR markers can be widely used for Asian Vigna species and the black gram genetic linkage map will assist in improvement of this crop.

  17. Computational Identification of Novel MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongzhong; Yang, Xiaoyun

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, noncoding, short RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. High conservation of miRNAs in plant provides the foundation for identification of new miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Here, previous known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and Genomic Survey Sequence (GSS) databases of Vigna unguiculata, and according to a series of filtering criteria, a total of 47 miRNAs belonging to 13 miRNA families were identified, and 30 potential target genes of them were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode transcription factors or enzymes participating in regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Overall, our findings lay the foundation for further researches of miRNAs function in Vigna unguiculata.

  18. [Cordyceps sinensis, a fungi used in the Chinese traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-12-31

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is an ascomycete fungus known in China since antiquity, which is still being used today. A summary, showing relevant papers about this fungus, regarding habitat, history, marketing, consumption, nomenclature, pharmacological composition, culture and medical use, is presented.

  19. Three phenylethanoid glucosides of unusual structure from Chirita sinensis (Gesneriaceae).

    PubMed

    Damtoft, S; Jensen, S R

    1994-09-01

    From Chirita sinensis (Gesneriaceae) was isolated six phenylethanoid glucosides, namely the previously known positional isomers plantainoside A, calceolarioside A and calceolarioside B together with three new compounds named chiritoside A, B and C. It was proved by analysis of the NMR data that the chiritosides were the 4"-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-derivatives of the first three compounds.

  20. Alernaria undulata, a new species from Citrus sinensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species belonging to the Alternaria infectoria species-group, A undulata, is described from imported fruit of Citrus sinensis (navel Orange). A. undulata was associated with visible lesions that appeared to originate from the peduncular scars of several fruits purchased from a retail display ...

  1. Bioavailable Citrus sinensis Extract: Polyphenolic Composition and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Giacomo; Pagano, Francesco; Adesso, Simona; Sommella, Eduardo; Ostacolo, Carmine; Manfra, Michele; Chieppa, Marcello; Sala, Marina; Russo, Mariateresa; Marzocco, Stefania; Campiglia, Pietro

    2017-04-15

    Citrus plants contain large amounts of flavonoids with beneficial effects on human health. In the present study, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of bioavailable polyphenols from Citrus sinensis was evaluated in vitro and ex vivo, using the murine macrophages cell line J774A.1 and primary peritoneal macrophages. Following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the in vitro bioavailability of Citrus sinensis polyphenolic extract was assessed using the human cell line Caco-2 grown as monolayers on a transwell membrane. Data demonstrated a relative permeation of its compounds (8.3%). Thus, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenolic Citrus sinensis fraction (Cs) was compared to the bioavailable one (CsB). Results revealed that Citrus extract were able to reduce macrophages pro-inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, iNOS, COX-2 and different cytokines. Moreover, the effect of Citrus sinensis polyphenols was associated with antioxidant effects, such as a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) increased expression. Our results provide evidence that the bioavailable polyphenolic constituents of the Citrussinensis extract accumulate prevalently at intestinal level and could reach systemic circulation exerting their effect. The bioavailable fraction showed a higher anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential compared to the initial extract, thus highlighting its potential nutraceutical value.

  2. A new monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Noorwala, M; Mohammad, F V; Ahmad, V U

    1995-07-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D- galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-soyaspogeno l B [1] was isolated along with cycloartenol, stigmasterol, 3-O-acetyloleanolic acid, and sitosterol 3-beta-D-glucoside from a methanolic extract of the seeds of Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical means.

  3. Inheritance of resistance to yellow mosaic virus in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    PubMed

    Singh, D P

    1980-09-01

    The inheritance of resistance to mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) was studied in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper). The highly resistant donors Pant U-84 and UPU-2 and a highly susceptible line, UL-2, their F1's, F2's and backcrosses were grown with spreader located every 5 to 6 rows. The resistance was found to be digenic and recessive in all the crosses and free from cytoplasmic effect.

  4. Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation.

    PubMed

    Difo, V H; Onyike, E; Ameh, D A; Njoku, G C; Ndidi, U S

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were analyzed using standard procedures. The protein content was increased by 12.41 ± 1.73 % during open fermentation while it decreased by 29.42 ± 0.1 % during controlled fermentation. The lipids, carbohydrates, crude fibre and ash content were all reduced in both types of fermentation except the moisture content which increased in controlled fermentation. Apart from calcium, the other elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Zn, and K) suffered reduction in both types of fermentation. The phytate, tannin, alkaloids, hydrogen cyanide, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and oxalate content all had drastic reductions in both types of fermentation. Open and controlled fermentation reduced the levels of both raffinose and stachyose. The percentages of reduction due to controlled fermentation were higher than those of open fermentation in the antinutrients studied. Fermentation is an efficient method for detoxifying the antinutrients in the Vigna racemosa studied in this work.

  5. De novo transcriptomic analysis of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) for genic SSR marker development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Liangliang; Wang, Suhua; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2017-07-11

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most important legumes in tropical and semi-arid regions. However, there is relatively little genomic information available for genetic research on and breeding of cowpea. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. Approximately 54 million high-quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from cowpea based on Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and were de novo assembled to generate 47,899 unigenes with an N50 length of 1534 bp. Sequence similarity analysis revealed 36,289 unigenes (75.8%) with significant similarity to known proteins in the non-redundant (Nr) protein database, 23,471 unigenes (49.0%) with BLAST hits in the Swiss-Prot database, and 20,654 unigenes (43.1%) with high similarity in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Further analysis identified 5560 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) as potential genic molecular markers. Validating a random set of 500 SSR markers yielded 54 polymorphic markers among 32 cowpea accessions. This transcriptomic analysis of cowpea provided a valuable set of genomic data for characterizing genes with important agronomic traits in Vigna unguiculata and a new set of genic SSR markers for further genetic studies and breeding in cowpea and related Vigna species.

  6. Investigation and analysis of microbiological communities in natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Guo, Lian-Xian; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2015-02-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that parasitizes caterpillars, and more than 30 species of filamentous fungi have been isolated from its fruiting body. However, its microbiological diversity remains unclear. Based on the clone library and quantitative PCR techniques, the bacterial flora and mycobiota of 3 different samples (larva, stromata/sclerotia, and surface soil) from natural O. sinensis specimens were investigated using primer sets that targeted the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. The results showed that the abundance of bacterial and fungal communities in the soil attached to the surface of O. sinensis was (6.4 ± 1.4) × 10(6) and (6.0 ± 0.3) × 10(7) copies/g dry matter, respectively, which was the highest compared with that in the larva and stromal samples. The main groups of bacteria in the O. sinensis samples were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while Ascomycota was the most dominant fungal group in the 3 samples. At the genus level, Geomyces, Phoma, and Trichocladium were the dominant genera in the larval sample, while Geomyces and Cladosporium were the dominant genera in the stromal sample. In conclusion, a great number of bacterial and fungal species were present in naturally occurring O. sinensis specimens, and there was a high diversity of bacterial and fungal communities. These findings contribute to the understanding of the bacterial and fungal community structure of this valuable medicinal fungus and lay the foundation for the future discovery of new medicinal microorganism resources.

  7. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar.

  8. Current status and perspectives of Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, omics, prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ze-Li; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-Bing

    2016-07-06

    Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is an important food-borne parasitic disease and one of the most common zoonoses. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of C. sinensis infection, and over 15 million are infected worldwide. C. sinensis infection is closely related to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), fibrosis and other human hepatobiliary diseases; thus, clonorchiasis is a serious public health problem in endemic areas. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, disease burden and treatment of clonorchiasis as well as summarizes the techniques for detecting C. sinensis infection in humans and intermediate hosts and vaccine development against clonorchiasis. Newer data regarding the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis and the genome, transcriptome and secretome of C. sinensis are collected, thus providing perspectives for future studies. These advances in research will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

  9. Genome relationship among nine species of Millettieae (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

    PubMed

    Acharya, Laxmikanta; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Panda, Pratap Chandra

    2004-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker was used to establish intergeneric classification and phylogeny of the tribe Millettieae sensu Geesink (1984) (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) and to assess genetic relationship between 9 constituent species belonging to 5 traditionally recognized genera under the tribe. DNA from pooled leaf samples was isolated and RAPD analysis performed using 25 decamer primers. The genetic similarities were derived from the dendrogram constructed by the pooled RAPD data using a similarity index, which supported clear grouping of species under their respective genera, inter- and intra-generic classification and phylogeny and also merger of Pongamia with Millettia. Elevation of Tephrosia purpurea var. pumila to the rank of a species (T. pumila) based on morphological characteristics is also supported through this study of molecular markers.

  10. l-Canavanine Metabolism in Jack Bean, Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. (Leguminosae) 1

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Gerald A.

    1982-01-01

    l-Canavanine, a highly toxic arginine antimetabolite, is the principal nonprotein amino acid of many leguminous plants. Labeled-precursor feeding studies, conducted primarily with [14C]carbamoyl phosphate, and utilization of the seedlings of jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. (Leguminosae), have provided evidence for l-canavanine biosynthesis from l-canaline via O-ureido-l-homoserine. This reaction pathway appears to constitute an important in vivo route of canavanine production. Canavanine cleavage to canaline may represent a degradative phase of canavanine metabolism distinct from the anabolic reactions described above. Thus, while these reactions of canavanine metabolism bear analogy to the mammalian Krebs-Henseleit ornithine-urea cycle, no evidence has been obtained at present for the reutilization of canaline in ureidohomoserine formation. PMID:16662346

  11. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of the plants of genus Flemingia Roxb. et Ait. (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Zhai, Fengyan; Liu, Zhongdong

    2012-09-01

    The genus Flemingia Roxb. et Ait. (Leguminosae) has been used for disease prevention and therapy in China since ancient times. So the material basis of the pharmacological activity in the genus Flemingia should be clear for how to use this kind of traditional Chinese medicines more reasonably in pharmacology. Therefore, this review gives an account of the current knowledge on the chemical constituents, biological activities and pharmacological properties of the plants of the genus. Several different classes of compounds were previously isolated, which the main groups are flavones, particularly prenylated flavones, and triterpenes accompanied with sterols, anthraquinones, and others. The names and structures of the chemical constituents are given in this review. In addition, the pharmacological effects of the extracts and individual compounds (mainly for flavones) derived from the genus plants have been found, including neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, cytotoxicity, hormone-like effects, antimicrobial activities, and so on.

  12. Diphasic effects of Astragalus membranaceus BUNGE (Leguminosae) on vascular tone in rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bi-Qi; Hu, Shen-Jiang; Qiu, Li-Hong; Shan, Qi-Xian; Sun, Jian; Xia, Qiang; Bian, Ka

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the aqueous ethanol extract of Astragalus membranaceus BUNGE (Leguminosae) on rat thoracic aorta. Isometric tension was recorded in response to drugs in organ bath. In endothelium-intact aortic rings, A. membranaceus extract induced a significant dose-dependent relaxation of the rings precontracted by phenylephrine, which could be inhibited by preincubation with L-N(omega)-nitro-arginine methyl ester or methylthioninium chloride. In endothelium-denuded ones, the extract could dose-dependently relax the rings contracted by phenylephrine, not by KCl; and it could also attenuate contractile response to phenylephrine, not to caffeine or phorbol-12,13-diacetate in Ca(2+)-free medium; but it failed to affect the CaCl(2)-induced enhancement of contractile response to phenylephrine in Ca(2+)-free medium. These results indicate that nitric oxide signaling and Ca(2+)-handling pathway are involved in the A. membranaceus extract-induced vasodilatation.

  13. Is the butterfly Tomares ballus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) a potential pest of Lens culinaris (Leguminosae)?

    PubMed

    Cano, José Martín; Gurrea, Pilar; Montalbán, Blanca; Ureña, Leticia; Iglesias, Javier

    2009-09-01

    The lentil (Lens culinaris) is identified as a new host plant of the lepidopteran Tomares ballus. Five larvae of T. ballus were found on 19 May, 2007 in a crop of "castellana" lentils in Toledo Province, Spain and reared in the laboratory. The larval brown spiracles are slightly darker than the rest of the pupa. Traditional cultural practices reduce the insect's probability of completing its life-cycle. We present flight phenology data for T. ballus from the unedited Atlamar database (1,073 records from 1887 to 2003), based on the 438 records for which the year, month and day are known. This period coincides with the flowering and formation of the legumes of various species of leguminosae, such as lentils. The peak activity of the imagos occurs in the second half of March and the first half of April, and the last larvae must be present in the field until the beginning of June.

  14. Habitats and Distribution of Anopheles Sinensis and Associated Anopheles Hyrcanus Group in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    SCIENTIFIC NOTE HABITATS AND DISTRffiUTION OF ANOPHELES SINENSIS AND ASSOCIATED ANOPHELES HYRCANUS GROUP IN JAPAN LEOPOLDO M. RUEDA.’ MASASHIRO IWAKAMI.2.b...collections were carried out in August 2002 and July 2003 in Japan . Anopheles sinensis of the Hyrcanus Group. Myzomyia Series of Anopheles. was the...Anopheles sinensis. Hyrcanus Group, Aedes, Clllex, Uranotaenia. Japan . Culicidae The Anopheles Hyrcanus Group consists of sev- eral species that are vectors

  15. Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity of 23 Plant Species of Leguminosae Family

    PubMed Central

    Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Ahvazi, Maryam; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Taghizadeh, Mitra; Yazdani, Darab; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Shahram; Bidel, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have been focused on natural anticarcinogenic agents. Many antioxidants have been identified as anticarcinogens. Antimutagens have also been proposed as cancer chemopreventive agents. The use of natural products as anticancer has a long history that began with traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of twenty-three plant species of Leguminosae family from different regions of Iran. Twenty-three plant species of Leguminosae family were collected in May-June 2009 from different regions of Iran.Methanol extracts of these species were tested through the brine shrimp lethality assay in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic compounds. The total antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH free radical-scavenging method. The extracts of twelve species showed moderate cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (LC50 between 30 and 50 μg/mL). The extracts of Taverniera spartea and Tephrosia persica showed significant cytotoxicity (LC50 < 30 μg/mL) with LC50 values of 0.34 and 2.43 μg/mL, respectively, whereas the positive control, thymol showed a LC50 value of 1.37 μg/mL. The chloroform fractions of the latter two species were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality assay with LC50 values of 113.79 and 1.23 μg/mL, respectively. In comparing antioxidant capacities, Gleditschia caspica and Taverniera spartea showed significant antioxidant activity (IC50 < 50 μg/mL) with LC50 values of 14.54 and 20.32 μg/mL, respectively. It could be seen among 23 tested plant species that Taverniera spartea had the most cytotoxic and antioxidant activity and was the best candidate for these effects. Further investigations are necessary for chemical characterization of the active compounds and more comprehensive biological assays. PMID:24250452

  16. Isolation, Culture and Characterization of Hirsutella sinensis Mycelium from Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yun-Fei; Liau, Jian-Ching; Lee, Chien-Sheng; Chiu, Chen-Yaw; Martel, Jan; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Ojcius, David M.; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production. However, O. sinensis fruiting bodies harvested in nature harbor several fungal contaminants, a phenomenon that led to the isolation and characterization of a large number of incorrect mycelium strains. We report here the isolation of a mycelium from a fruiting body of O. sinensis and we identify the isolate as O. sinensis’ anamorph (also called Hirsutella sinensis) based on multi-locus sequence typing of several fungal genes (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2, MCM7, β-tubulin, TEF-1α, and ATP6). The main characteristics of the isolated mycelium, including its optimal growth at low temperature (16°C) and its biochemical composition, are similar to that of O. sinensis fruiting bodies, indicating that the mycelium strain characterized here may be used as a substitute for the rare and expensive O. sinensis fruiting bodies found in nature. PMID:28046129

  17. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Swain, Kailash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended. PMID:21731381

  18. Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, S P; Yang, F Q; Tsim, Karl W K

    2006-08-28

    Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed.

  19. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-05-13

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption.

  20. Regulatory mechanism of Toona sinensis on mouse leydig cell steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poon, Song Ling; Leu, Sew-Fen; Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Liu, Ming-Yie; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2005-02-11

    Toona sinensis (TS), a kind of arbor, widely distributes nowadays in Asia. The leaves of TS have been used as an effective nutritious food in Chinese society for a long time. It was reported that Toona sinensis can induce apoptosis of cancer cells, reduce plasma glucose in diabetic rats, and improve lipolysis of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocyte and its uptake of glucose. It has also been shown that TS may increase dynamic activity of human sperm. Thus, we are interested to investigate whether Toona sinensis has any effect on mouse Leydig cell testosterone production, which correlates to sperm activity. Primary mouse Leydig cells were purified to conduct the in vitro experiments. Different concentrations of crude Toona sinensis were added to primary mouse Leydig cells and the testosterone production was determined. The results showed that crude TS significantly inhibited both basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated testosterone productions in dose dependent manner, respectively (P<0.05). Crude TS also reduced the forskolin- and dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP)-stimulated testosterone production (P<0.05), which indicated that crude TS might affect protein kinase A (PKA) signal transduction pathway at the site after the formation of cyclic AMP. Moreover, TS inhibited Leydig cell steroidogenesis by suppressing the activity of steroidogenic enzymes including P450 side chain cleavage enzyme, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, 20 alpha-hydroxylase and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P<0.05). In summary, these results suggested that TS inhibited steroidogenesis by suppressing the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in normal mouse Leydig cells.

  1. Anthocyanins from red flower tea (Benibana-cha), Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Terahara, N; Takeda, Y; Nesumi, A; Honda, T

    2001-02-01

    Three anthocyanins were isolated from the leaves of red flower tea (Benibana-cha), Camellia sinensis, and their structures were determined by means of chemical and spectroscopic analyses. Two are the anthocyanins, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactosides, respectively. Whereas the third, delphinidin 3-0-beta-D-(6-(E)-p-coumaryl)galactopyranoside. The anthocyanins were also contained in the flowers of Benibana-cha in different compositions.

  2. Chemical Examination of Citrus sinensis Flavedo Variety Pineapple

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Geeta; Yadav, Lalita; Kalidhar, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical examination of Citrus sinensis flavedo var. Pineapple resulted in the isolation of six compounds characterized as tetracosane, ethyl pentacosanoate, tetratriacontanoic acid, tangertin, β-sitosteryl-β-D-glucoside and 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxy flavanone 3-O-β-glucoside. Of these 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxy flavanone 3-O-β-glucoside is a hitherto unreported compound. PMID:20376223

  3. Molecular identification, immunolocalization, and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juanjuan; Liao, Hua; Li, Shan; Zhou, Chenhui; Huang, Yan; Li, Xuerong; Liang, Chi; Yu, Xinbing

    2015-08-01

    Clonorchis sinensis triosephosphate isomerase (CsTIM) is a key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, which catalyzes the interconversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. In this study, the biochemical characterizations of CsTIM have been examined. A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA; Cs105350) sequence encoding CsTIM was obtained from our C. sinensis cDNA library. The open reading frame of CsTIM contains 759 bp which encodes 252 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of CsTIM shares 60-65% identity with other species. Western blot analysis displayed that recombinant CsTIM (rCsTIM) can be probed by anti-rCsTIM rat serum and anti-C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (anti-CsESPs) rat serum. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blotting analysis revealed that CsTIM messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were differentially expressed in development cycle stages of the parasite, including adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria, and egg. In addition, immunolocalization assay showed that CsTIM was located in the seminal vesicle, eggs, and testicle. Moreover, rCsTIM exhibited active enzyme activity in catalytic reactions. The Michaelis constant (K m) of rCsTIM was 0.33 mM, when using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as the substrate. The optimal temperature and pH of CsTIM were 37 °C and 7.5-9.5, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that CsTIM is an important protein involved in glycometabolism, and CsTIM possibly take part in many biological functions in the growth and development of C. sinensis.

  4. Assessment of antioxidant activity of extracts from unique Greek varieties of Leguminosae plants using in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Spanou, C; Stagos, D; Tousias, L; Angelis, A; Aligiannis, N; Skaltsounis, A L; Kouretas, D

    2007-01-01

    It is believed that legumes are a very good source of micronutrients and phytochemicals that present chemopreventive activity against diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and colon cancer. Methanolic and aqueous extracts from 11 unique varieties of Leguminosae family plants cultured in Greece were tested using three different in vitro assays in order to investigate the mechanisms by which phytochemicals present in these legumes exert their chemoprevention. The extracts were tested by the 1, -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, the hydroxyl radical- and the peroxyl radical-induced DNA strand scission assays. Hydroxyl (OH*) and peroxyl (ROO*) radicals were generated from ultraviolet (UV) photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH) respectively. In the DPPH assay, all the tested extracts displayed potent radical scavenging efficiency. Furthermore, most of the Leguminosae family plant extracts exerted significant protective activity against DNA damage induced by both reactive oxygen species, although they were more effective in inhibiting ROO*-induced rather than OH*-induced DNA strand scission. The results suggest that the free radical scavenging activity of Leguminosae plants may be one of the mechanisms accounting for their chemoprevention.

  5. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Tingjin; Kong, Xiangzhan; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown. Principal Findings Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels. Conclusions/Significance Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine. PMID:27348302

  6. Interleukin-13 is involved in the formation of liver fibrosis in Clonorchis sinensis-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanquan; Liang, Pei; Bian, Meng; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Jinsi; Shang, Mei; Qu, Hongling; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-07-01

    Clonorchiasis is a chronic infection disease often accompanied by formation of liver fibrosis. Previous study has identified that Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs) infection and CsRNASET2 (a member of CsESPs) immunization can drive Th2 immune response. IL-13, a multifunctional Th2 cytokine, has been widely confirmed to be profibrotic mediator. We want to determine whether IL-13 is involved in the generation of liver fibrosis during C. sinensis infection. A part of mice were infected with C. sinensis or immunized with CsRNASET2, respectively. Another part of mice were intravenously injected with rIL-13. Liver tissues of C. sinensis-infected mice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome, respectively. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of infected mice and rIL-13-treated mice were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, splenocytes of C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice were isolated, respectively. The levels of IL-13 in splenocytes were detected by ELISA. Our results displayed that the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice had serious chronic inflammation and collagen deposition. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice were obviously increased. Splenocytes from both C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice expressed high levels of IL-13. Moreover, rIL-13 treatment markedly promoted the transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1. These data implied that hepatic fibrosis was formed in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice, and IL-13 induced by C. sinensis infection and CsRNASET2 immunization might favor this progression.

  7. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    DOE PAGES

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; ...

    2015-04-23

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how theymore » interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. In conclusion, different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis.« less

  8. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Di; Yang, Rui-Heng; Hsiang, Tom; Wang, Ke; Liang, De-Quan; Liang, Fan; Cao, De-Ming; Zhou, Fan; Wen, Ge; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    As part of a genome sequencing project for Ophiocordyceps sinensis, strain 1229, a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome was assembled as a single circular dsDNA of 157,510 bp, one of the largest reported for fungi. Conserved genes including the large and small rRNA subunits, 27 tRNA and 15 protein-coding genes, were identified. In addition, 58 non-conserved open reading frames (ncORFs) in the intergenic and intronic regions were also identified. Transcription analyses using RNA-Seq validated the expression of most conserved genes and ncORFs. Fifty-two introns (groups I and II) were found within conserved genes, accounting for 68.5% of the genome. Thirty-two homing endonucleases (HEs) with motif patterns LAGLIDADG (21) and GIY-YIG (11) were identified in group I introns. The ncORFs found in group II introns mostly encoded reverse transcriptases (RTs). As in other hypocrealean fungi, gene contents and order were found to be conserved in the mt genome of O. sinensis, but the genome size was enlarged by longer intergenic regions and numerous introns. Intergenic and intronic regions were composed of abundant repetitive sequences usually associated with mobile elements. It is likely that intronic ncORFs, which encode RTs and HEs, may have contributed to the enlarged mt genome of O. sinensis. PMID:26370521

  10. Characterization of microsatellites and gene contents from genome shotgun sequences of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mungbean is an important economical crop in Asia. However, genomic research has lagged behind other crop species due to the lack of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. The objective of this work is to develop and characterize microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from genome shotgun sequencing of mungbean. Result We have generated and characterized a total of 470,024 genome shotgun sequences covering 100.5 Mb of the mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) genome using 454 sequencing technology. We identified 1,493 SSR motifs that could be used as potential molecular markers. Among 192 tested primer pairs in 17 mungbean accessions, 60 loci revealed polymorphism with polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranging from 0.0555 to 0.6907 with an average of 0.2594. Majority of microsatellite markers were transferable in Vigna species, whereas transferability rates were only 22.90% and 24.43% in Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max, respectively. We also used 16 SSR loci to evaluate phylogenetic relationship of 35 genotypes of the Asian Vigna group. The genome survey sequences were further analyzed to search for gene content. The evidence suggested 1,542 gene fragments have been sequence tagged, that fell within intersected existing gene models and shared sequence homology with other proteins in the database. Furthermore, potential microRNAs that could regulate developmental stages and environmental responses were discovered from this dataset. Conclusion In this report, we provided evidence of generating remarkable levels of diverse microsatellite markers and gene content from high throughput genome shotgun sequencing of the mungbean genomic DNA. The markers could be used in germplasm analysis, accessing genetic diversity and linkage mapping of mungbean. PMID:19930676

  11. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for a new source of resistance to bruchids in the wild species Vigna nepalensis Tateishi & Maxted (Vigna subgenus Ceratotropis).

    PubMed

    Somta, Prakit; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2008-08-01

    Azuki bean breeders have long been interested in producing azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi] varieties with bruchid resistance. A new bruchid (Callosobruchus spp.) resistance source was found in V. nepalensis Tateishi & Maxted, a species that is cross compatible with azuki bean. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis for resistance to C. chinensis (L.) and C. maculatus (F.) was conducted using F2 (V. nepalensisxV. angularis) and BC1F1 [(V. nepalensisxV. angularis)xV. angularis] populations derived from crosses between the bruchid resistant species V. nepalensis and bruchid susceptible species V. angularis. Resistance was measured using two traits, percentage of seeds damaged by bruchids and the time taken for adult bruchids to emerge from seeds. Based on the results from both populations seven QTLs were detected for bruchid resistance; five QTLs for resistance to C. chinensis and two QTLs for resistance to C. maculatus. The different locations found for some resistance QTL to the two bruchid species suggests different resistance mechanisms. QTLs on linkage group (LG) 1 and LG2 for bruchid resistance to C. chinensis co-localized with seed size QTLs suggesting that incremental increase in seed size accompanied susceptibility to C. chinensis. Based on linked markers the QTL on these two linkage groups appear to be the same as previously reported in other Asian Vigna. However, several other QTLs were newly detected including one on LG4 that appears unrelated to seed size. Transfer of these new sources of bruchid resistance from V. nepalensis to azuki bean will be aided by the progress being made in azuki genome mapping.

  12. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-01-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

  13. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  14. Characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of the endangered species Carya sinensis (Juglandaceae)

    Treesearch

    Yiheng Hu; Xi Chen; Xiaojia Feng; Keith E. Woeste; Peng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Carya sinensis (Chinese Hickory, beaked walnut, or beaked hickory) is an endangered species that needs urgent conservation action. Here, we reported the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence and the genomic features of the C. sinensis cp, which is the first complete cp genome of any member of Carya. The...

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sesarmops sinensis reveals gene rearrangements and phylogenetic relationships in Brachyura

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Zhang, Hua-Bin; Chai, Xin-Yue; Zhou, Chun-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is very important to understand molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Herein, in this study, the complete mitogenome of Sesarmops sinensis was reported. The mitogenome was 15,905 bp in size, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The AT skew and the GC skew are both negative in the mitogenomes of S. sinensis. The nucleotide composition of the S. sinensis mitogenome was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (75.7%). All tRNA genes displayed a typical mitochondrial tRNA cloverleaf structure, except for the trnS1 gene, which lacked a dihydroxyuridine arm. S. sinensis exhibits a novel rearrangement compared with the Pancrustacean ground pattern and other Brachyura species. Based on the 13 PCGs, the phylogenetic analysis showed that S. sinensis and Sesarma neglectum were clustered on one branch with high nodal support values, indicating that S. sinensis and S. neglectum have a sister group relationship. The group (S. sinensis + S. neglectum) was sister to (Parasesarmops tripectinis + Metopaulias depressus), suggesting that S. sinensis belongs to Grapsoidea, Sesarmidae. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid sequences and nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs using BI and ML respectively indicate that section Eubrachyura consists of four groups clearly. The resulting phylogeny supports the establishment of a separate subsection Potamoida. These four groups correspond to four subsections of Raninoida, Heterotremata, Potamoida, and Thoracotremata. PMID:28622362

  16. Metabolic characterization of natural and cultured Ophicordyceps sinensis from different origins by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianshuang; Zhong, Xin; Li, Shaosong; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2015-11-10

    Ophicordyceps sinensis is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and cultured mycelium is a substitute for wild O. sinensis. Metabolic profiles of wild O. sinensis from three geographical locations and cultivated mycelia derived from three origins were investigated using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis combined with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 56 primary metabolites were identified and quantified from O. sinensis samples. The principle component analysis (PCA) showed significant differences between natural O. sinensis and fermentation mycelia. Seven metabolites responsible for differentiation were screened out by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The concentrations of mannitol, trehalose, arginine, trans-4-hydroxyproline, alanine and glucitol were significantly different between wild and cultured groups. The variation in metabolic profiling among artificial mycelia was greater than that among wild O. sinensis. Furthermore, wild samples from different origins were clearly distinguished by the levels of mannitol, trehalose and some amino acids. This study indicates that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is useful for fingerprinting and discriminating O. sinensis of different geographical regions and cultivated mycelia of different strains. The present study provided an efficient approach for investigating chemical compositions and evaluating the quality of medicine and health food derived from O. sinensis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Khawia sinensis belongs among platyhelminths, cestodes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Feng, Han-Li; Fang, Yi-Hui; Su, Ying-Bing

    2017-06-01

    Khawia sinensis is an important species in freshwater fish causing considerable economic losses to the breeding industry. This is the first mt genome of a caryophyllidean cestode characterised. The entire mt genome of K. sinensis is 13,759 bp in length. This mt genome contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and two non-coding regions. The arrangement of the K. sinensis mt genome is the same as other tapeworms, however, the incomplete stop codon (A) is more frequent that other species. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino-acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes of 17 tapeworms including K. sinensis were conducted to assess the relationship of K. sinensis with other species, the result indicated K. sinensis was closely related with cestode species. This complete mt genome of K. sinensis will enrich the mitochondrial genome databases of tapeworms and provide important molecular markers for ecology, diagnostics, population variation and evolution of K. sinensis and other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effects of Different Altitudes and Sowing Dates on Direct Sowing Angelica sinensis Yield and Quality].

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Lin, Hai-ming; Deng, Ji-cheng; Qi, Ju-tao; Ma, Zhan-chuan; Jin, Ling; Wang, Wan-sheng

    2015-09-01

    To study the effects of different altitudes and sowing dates on direct sowing Angelica sinensis biomass, yield and quality, and to provide a theoretical basis for Angelica sinensis direct sowing cultivation techniques. Two factors trials were used to research the influence of altitude and sowing dates on yield and quality of direct sowing Angelica sinensis. The altitudes were located at 2500, 2000 and 1500 m, and the sowing dates were set up at autumn August 29, and Spring April 3 and April 24. The experiments were designed with split plot. Under the same altitude, roots and aboveground biomass of direct sowing Angelica sinensis were higher when sowing earlier. In the same sowing date, the root and aboveground biomass was the maximum at 2 000 m altitude, followed by elevation of 1 500 m. At 2 500 m altitude, Angelica sinensis root and aboveground biomass was the minimum. Sowing at 2 000 m altitude at August 29 direct sowing Angelica sinensis showed the highest biomass and yield, reaching 13 840.95 kg/hm2, significantly higher than the other treatments. Compared with transplanting Angelica sinensis in this region, the production of direct sowing Angelica sinensis was also 15. 3% higher. Angelica sinensis medicinal grade was significantly higher than the rest of the process. Angelica sinensis extract, volatile oil and ferulic acid content had reached the standard of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Angelica sinensis sowed in late August at 2000 m altitude has the best yield and quality on root length, root diameter, plant height, leaf number, dry and fresh matter accumulation, followed by 1500 m altitude, and 2500 m worst. Therefore, altitude range of Angelica sinensis direct sowing cultivation area can be reduced to 1500-2000 m. Angelica sinensis sowed in late August, at 2000 m altitude, the indicators like root length,root diameter,plant height,leaf number,and dry and fresh matter accumulation showed the best, followed by 1500 m altitude, 2500 m worst. Therefore, altitude

  19. [Study on prediction model of Angelicae sinensis yield per unit in Min County].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao; Wang, Rui-Qi; Guo, Zeng-Xiang; Qian, Da-Wei; Song, Bing-Sheng; He, Zi-Qing; Gao, Hong-Ying

    2012-04-01

    To establish a prediction model of Angelicae sinensis yield per unit in Min County, and the forecasting information can be provided to correlated department and organization. With the basis of the Angelicae sinensis yield statistics in Min County from 1995 to 2009 and weather data of development phase of each ten days, polynomial forecasting modeling was used and the stimulation forecasting of Angelicae sinensis yield in Min County was carried out. The results showed that the average accuracy of prediction model was reached to 97.2%, which basically met the demand for yield prediction. The prediction model of Angelicae sinensis yield per unit in Min County has good accuracy and relatively correct forecasting information about Angelicae sinensis yield, which provides methodology and important references for dynamic forecasting in the progress of Chinese medicinal materials production.

  20. [Study on quality standard of oil-processed Radix Angelica sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Shen; Hua, Yong-Li; Guo, Yan-Sheng; Du, Tian-Xi; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Qinh, Liang; Qu, Ya-Ling; Wei, Yan-Ming

    2010-06-01

    To establish the quality standard of oil-processed Radix Angelica sinensis. Combined traditional identification, TLC and fingerprints of wine-processed Radix Angelica sinensis to control quality of oil-processed Radix Angelica sinensis. And referring to China Pharmacopoeia of 2005 edition, water, ash, and extract were also detected. The content of water, total ash, extract representatively was 7.30%, 8.70% and 50.9%. Eleven fingerprint peaks were defined, The eleven common peaks were appointed as fingerprint peaks by analyzing 14 representative samples, all the fingerprint peaks were quantified grounded on the peak of Ferulic acid. and quantified rested on the peak of ferulic acid. A multicomponent quantitative method for oil-processed Radix Angelica sinensis is established. The established method is feasible. The quality control standards of the oil-processed Radix Angelica sinensis is normative, systematic and accurate.

  1. Clonorchis sinensis Infestation Promotes Three-Dimensional Aggregation and Invasion of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jihee; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Sun Min; Shin, Yoojin; Chung, Seok; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infestation and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the role of C. sinensis in the increased invasiveness and proliferation involved in the malignancy of CCA has not been addressed yet. Here, we investigated the possibility that C. sinensis infestation promotes expression of focal and cell-cell adhesion proteins in CCA cells and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Adhesion proteins help maintain cell aggregates, and MMPs promote the three-dimensional invasion of cells into the neighboring extracellular matrix (ECM). Using a novel microfluidic assay, we quantitatively addressed the role of excretory-secretory products (ESPs) gradients from C. sinensis in promoting the invasion of cells into the neighboring ECM. PMID:25340585

  2. Title A de novo synthesis citrate transporter VuMATE confers aluminum resistance in rice bean (vigna umbellata)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Al-activated organic acid anion efflux from roots is an important Al resistance mechanism in plants. We have conducted the homologous cloning and isolation of VuMATE (Vigna umbellata multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), a gene encoding a de novo citrate transporter from rice bean. Al treatment u...

  3. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  4. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  5. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  6. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa.

    PubMed

    Kaur Sawhney, R; Shekhawat, N S; Galston, A W

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  7. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  8. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  9. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  10. A Phylogenomic Investigation of CYCLOIDEA-Like TCP Genes in the Leguminosae1

    PubMed Central

    Citerne, Hélène L.; Luo, Da; Pennington, R. Toby; Coen, Enrico; Cronk, Quentin C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous TCP genes (transcription factors with a TCP domain) occur in legumes. Genes of this class in Arabidopsis (TCP1) and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus; CYCLOIDEA) have been shown to be asymmetrically expressed in developing floral primordia, and in snapdragon, they are required for floral zygomorphy (bilaterally symmetrical flowers). These genes are therefore particularly interesting in Leguminosae, a family that is thought to have evolved zygomorphy independently from other zygomorphic angiosperm lineages. Using a phylogenomic approach, we show that homologs of TCP1/CYCLOIDEA occur in legumes and may be divided into two main classes (LEGCYC group I and II), apparently the result of an early duplication, and each class is characterized by a typical amino acid signature in the TCP domain. Furthermore, group I genes in legumes may be divided into two subclasses (LEGCYC IA and IB), apparently the result of a duplication near the base of the papilionoid legumes or below. Most papilionoid legumes investigated have all three genes present (LEGCYC IA, IB, and II), inviting further work to investigate possible functional difference between the three types. However, within these three major gene groups, the precise relationships of the paralogs between species are difficult to determine probably because of a complex history of duplication and loss with lineage sorting or heterotachy (within-site rate variation) due to functional differentiation. The results illustrate both the potential and the difficulties of orthology determination in variable gene families, on which the phylogenomic approach to formulating hypotheses of function depends. PMID:12644657

  11. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial.

  12. Genetic diversity and mating system of Copaifera langsdorffii (Leguminosae/Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Gonela, A; Sebbenn, A M; Soriani, H H; Mestriner, M A; Martinez, C A; Alzate-Marin, A L

    2013-02-27

    Copaifera langsdorffii, locally known as copaíba, is a valuable tropical tree with medicinal properties of its oil. We studied the genetic variation, genetic structure, and the mating system of trees in stands of C. langsdorffii (Leguminosae/Caesalpinioideae) located in an extensive area between the Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu basins in São Paulo State, Brazil, and their offspring, conserved in an ex situ germplasm bank at the University of São Paulo in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, using six microsatellite loci. Leaves were collected from 80 seed trees and from 259 offspring and their DNA extracted. A total of 140 and 175 alleles were found in the seed trees and their offspring, respectively. Low genetic differentiation was observed between stands, indicating intense gene flow due to efficient pollen dispersion vectors. An estimation of the outcrossing rate showed that these stands are outcrossed (tm = 0.98, P > 0.05). The mean variance of the effective population size of each family in two of the stands was 3.69 and 3.43, while the total effective population size retained in the germplasm bank was between 81 and 96. The paternity correlation was low, ranging from 0.052 to 0.148, demonstrating that the families implanted in this germplasm bank are composed predominantly of half-sibs.

  13. Ecological interpretations of the leaf anatomy of amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae).

    PubMed

    Leme, F M; Scremin-Dias, E

    2014-02-01

    We present the leaf anatomy of seven amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae), interpreting their structures and ecological functions, and also, providing information on which their taxonomy can be based, especially of morphologically similar species. We evaluated Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis and A. sensitiva. The anatomy corroborates the separation of the series Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae and Sensitivae, with the shape of the petiole, types of trichomes and quantity of vascular units in the petiole as main characteristics to delimit the species. The petiole shape varies from cylindric in A. americana, A. sensitiva and A. fluminensis, to triangular in A. evenia and quadrangular in A. rudis, A. denticulata and A. ciliata. We observed four types of trichomes: hydathode trichome, long conic trichome, short conic trichome and bulb-based trichome. The hydathode trichome was the most common, except for A. americana and A. fluminensis. Species with higher affinity with water share similar adaptive characteristics, including hydathode trichomes described for the first time for the genus. This article adds unseen descriptions for the genus and on the adaptation factors of the amphibious species.

  14. Intraspecific and interspecific polyploidy of Brazilian species of the genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, M F; Bruno, R L A; Barros e Silva, A E; Nascimento, S; Oliveira, I G; Felix, L P

    2014-04-29

    We investigated the karyotypes of 13 species of six sections of the genus Inga (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) from Brazil. We used conventional Giemsa staining to identify numerical chromosomal variations and looked for karyotypic evolutionary patterns. The karyotypes generally had small chromosomes, varying from metacentric to submetacentric, with a basic number x=13. Nine of the species showed 2n=2x=26 (I. thibaudiana, I. cayennensis, I. ingoides, I. edulis, I. vera, I. subnuda, I. striata, I. bollandii, and Inga sp), while 2n=4x=52 was seen in a population of Inga cylindrical and of I. capitata, and in five populations of I. laurina. Additionally, 2n=8x=104 was observed in a population of I. cayennensis. Eight of these counts were new, while the counts of 2n=52 for I. laurina and 2n=26 for I. marginata, I. vera, I. subnuda, and I. edulis confirmed previous studies. We did not find cytological stability among the sections studied, with occurrence of significant intra- and inter-specific numerical variations. We conclude that polyploidy has played a significant role in karyotypic evolution in this group and that it occurred independently in several sections of the genus.

  15. Fruits and foliage of Pueraria (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) from the Neogene of Eurasia and their biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Manchester, Steven R; Dilcher, David L

    2010-12-01

    Pueraria (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) is native in East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania and is well known as a rampant invasive weed in the southeastern United States (P. montana; better known as kudzu), but relatively little is known about its early evolution and biogeographic origin. • On the basis of comparative analyses of the fruit and leaflet architecture of closely related extant and fossil taxa, we studied the fossil history and biogeography of Pueraria. • Fossil Pueraria is recognized on the basis of distinctive fruit and foliage from the Mio-Pliocene of middle latitudes in China, Japan, Abkhazia, and Croatia. Recognition of P. miothunbergiana from the Mio-Pliocene of China and Japan is reinforced by a trifoliolate leaf as well as isolated lateral and terminal leaflets. Pueraria shanwangensis sp. nov. represents the first recognition of fossil Pueraria fruits. This fruit species co-occurs with P. miothunbergiana in the Middle Miocene Shanwang flora and possibly represents the same population. Pueraria maxima (Unger) comb. nov., previously named as Dolichites maximus or Desmodium maximum, is recognized on the basis of leaflets from the Miocene of Croatia and Abkhazia. Other prior fossil reports of Pueraria and Dolichites are reevaluated. • Pueraria had begun to diversify by at least the Middle Miocene and had spread into the Mio-Pliocene subtropical and temperate floras of the Balkan Peninsula, the Caucasus, and eastern Asia, which suggests the present diversity of this genus in tropical Asia and Oceania might have originated from the mid-latitudes of Eurasia.

  16. Hybrid origin of "Bauhinia blakeana" (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae), inferred using morphological, reproductive, and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carol P Y; Ramsden, Lawrence; Saunders, Richard M K

    2005-03-01

    Bauhinia blakeana (Leguminosae subfam. Caesalpinioideae tribe Cercideae), or the Hong Kong Orchid Tree, is of great horticultural value. It is completely sterile and is shown here to be the result of hybridization between the largely sympatric species, B. purpurea and B. variegata. Although the analysis of patterns of morphological variation revealed only a few examples of phenotypic intermediacy, study of intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers enabled unequivocal identification of the parental species due to the presence of additive inheritance of alleles and the absence of any bands that are unique to B. blakeana. Investigation of aspects of the reproductive biology of the taxa furthermore revealed that the parental species are largely xenogamous, have flowering periods that overlap seasonally and temporally, and share common pollinators. Evidence is provided to show that B. blakeana is not naturally stabilized and is only maintained horticulturally by artificial propagation. It is therefore recommended that the hybrid be regarded as a horticultural cultivar rather than a naturally occurring species; a new cultivar name, Bauhinia 'Blakeana', is accordingly validated.

  17. Self-sterility in two Cytisus species (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) due to early-acting inbreeding depression.

    PubMed

    Valtueña, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Espinosa, Francisco; Ortega-Olivencia, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In most angiosperms, the endosperm develops before the embryo, but with harmony between the two structures until final seed formation. In an embryological study, we show that inbreeding depression causes disharmony in development of the two structures in two Leguminosae shrubs, Cytisus multiflorus and C. striatus. Our main objective was to test the causes of self-sterility in the two species by comparing the embryological development of the self seeds with that of cross seeds. In developing selfed seeds of C. multiflorus, the embryo reaches at most the globular stage and never forms mature seeds, while in C. striatus a few mature selfed seeds are formed. In both species, the main cause of abortion of developing selfed seeds is diminished endosperm development (low values of the ratio of endosperm to embryo), which triggers collapse of the endosperm and embryo. The results indicate that self-sterility in C. striatus is postzygotic because of strong, early inbreeding depression, while in C. multiflorus there exists a mixed pre- and postzygotic mechanism; the prezygotic mechanism causes rejection of some self-pollen tubes in the style/ovary, and the early inbreeding depression triggers abortion of fertilized ovules that escaped that action.

  18. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed. PMID:25009440

  19. Release of soluble protein from peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) and its adsorption by activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Randall; Van, Trang; Kim, Ara; Helm, Ricki

    2011-01-12

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. The potential use of activated charcoal (AC) to adsorb and reduce the bioavailability of peanut protein allergens for use in the moderation of hypersensitivity reactions was investigated. The rate and extent of protein release from peanut and the adsorption of the solubilized protein by AC was determined under physiological pH values and confirmed in vivo using a porcine animal model system. Peanut proteins were adsorbed with equal efficiency at pH 2 and 7 and are completely removed from solution by an AC/protein ratio of approximately 80:1. This suggests that AC can bind protein under gastric (pH 2) or intestinal (pH 7) conditions. The rapid adsorption of soluble peanut allergens and the continuous binding of allergens released from peanut particulate material suggest the potential efficacy of using AC for gastric decontamination and possible elimination of a biphasic allergic reaction.

  20. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  1. Does aridity influence the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)?

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon L; Warwick, Nigel W M; Prychid, Christina J

    2013-12-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals are a common natural feature of many plant families, including the Leguminosae. The functional role of crystals and the mechanisms that underlie their deposition remain largely unresolved. In several species, the seasonal deposition of crystals has been observed. To gain insight into the effects of rainfall on crystal formation, the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in phyllodes of the leguminous Acacia sect. Juliflorae (Benth.) C. Moore & Betche from four climate zones along an aridity gradient, was investigated. The shapes of crystals, which include rare Rosanoffian morphologies, were constant between species from different climate zones, implying that morphology was not affected by rainfall. The distribution and accumulation of CaOx crystals, however, did appear to be climate-related. Distribution was primarily governed by vein density, an architectural trait which has evolved in higher plants in response to increasing aridity. Furthermore, crystals were more abundant in acacias from low rainfall areas, and in phyllodes containing high concentrations of calcium, suggesting that both aridity and soil calcium levels play important roles in the precipitation of CaOx. As crystal formation appears to be calcium-induced, we propose that CaOx crystals in Acacia most likely function in bulk calcium regulation.

  2. Vigna unguiculata modulates cholesterol induced cardiac markers, genotoxicity and gene expressions profile in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-04-25

    Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves are edible and used as a leafy vegetable in cuisine from traditional times in India. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of VU in cholesterol fed rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each and the experimental period was 3 months. Group I-ND [normal diet 40 g feed], Group II-ND + FVU [flavanoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg kg (-1) per body weight)], Group III-ND + CH [cholesterol (400 mg)] and Group IV-ND + CH (400 mg) +FVU (150 mg kg(-1) per body weight). After the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the various parameters, such as cardiac markers, toxicity parameters, genotoxicity and gene expression, were investigated. Cholesterol feeding causes a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, namely lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospokinase (CPK), atherogenic index, toxicity parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were elevated. Antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, lipid peroxidation products in heart tissue and inflammatory markers, namely cyclooxygenase (COX2) and lipooxygenase (LOX15) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs), were significantly increased. A genotoxicity study using a Comet assay and gene expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) from heart tissue showed an altered expression in the disease group. The supplementation of the flavonoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata leaves (FVU) in the CH + FVU group caused the reversal of the above parameters and cardiotoxicity to near normal when compared with the CH group and FVU. This study revealed the cardioprotective nature of Vigna unguiculata in preventing cardiovascular diseases and this effect is attributed to the presence of antioxidants and the antihyperlipidemic properties of the

  3. Spectroscopic Study of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, A.; Suryanti, V.; Virgynia, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the analysis of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf extract in two different solvent systems (chloroform and ethyl acetate). In those solvents, two different peaks characterizing green tea are observed at different wavelengths, namely 296 nm and 329 nm (extracted in chloroform) and 391 nm and 534 nm (extracted in ethyl acetate). We then investigated the absorption spectra change as function of green tea concentration in both solvents. We found that light absorption increases linearly with the increase of green tea concentration. Different wavelengths, however, respond this change differently. However, the way it changes is wavelength dependence.

  4. An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.

    PubMed

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-02-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding.

  5. Clonorchis sinensis, an oriental liver fluke, as a human biological agent of cholangiocarcinoma: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Pak, Jhang Ho; Kim, Jong-Bo; Bahk, Young Yil

    2016-11-01

    Parasitic diseases remain an unarguable public health problem worldwide. Liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis is a high risk pathogenic parasitic helminth which is endemic predominantly in Asian countries, including Korea, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the far eastern parts of Russia, and is still actively transmitted. According to the earlier 8th National Survey on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in 2012, C. sinensis was revealed as the parasite with highest prevalence of 1.86% in general population among all parasite species surveyed in Korea. This fluke is now classified under one of the definite Group 1 human biological agents (carcinogens) by International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC) along with two other parasites, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma haematobium. C. sinensis infestation is mainly linked to liver and biliary disorders, especially cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). For the purposes of this mini-review, we will only focus on C. sinensis and review pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of clonorchiasis, disease condition by C. sinensis infestation, and association between C. sinensis infestation and CCA. In this presentation, we briefly consider the current scientific status for progression of CCA by heavy C. sinensis infestation from the food-borne trematode and development of CCA. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(11): 590-597].

  6. Clonorchis sinensis, an oriental liver fluke, as a human biological agent of cholangiocarcinoma: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Pak, Jhang Ho; Kim, Jong-Bo; Bahk, Young Yil

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases remain an unarguable public health problem worldwide. Liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis is a high risk pathogenic parasitic helminth which is endemic predominantly in Asian countries, including Korea, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the far eastern parts of Russia, and is still actively transmitted. According to the earlier 8th National Survey on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in 2012, C. sinensis was revealed as the parasite with highest prevalence of 1.86% in general population among all parasite species surveyed in Korea. This fluke is now classified under one of the definite Group 1 human biological agents (carcinogens) by International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC) along with two other parasites, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma haematobium. C. sinensis infestation is mainly linked to liver and biliary disorders, especially cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). For the purposes of this mini-review, we will only focus on C. sinensis and review pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of clonorchiasis, disease condition by C. sinensis infestation, and association between C. sinensis infestation and CCA. In this presentation, we briefly consider the current scientific status for progression of CCA by heavy C. sinensis infestation from the food-borne trematode and development of CCA. PMID:27418285

  7. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  8. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-05-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil.

  9. On the reliability of fungal materials used in studies on Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Dong, C-H; Yao, Y-J

    2011-08-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡Cordyceps sinensis) is one of the best known traditional Chinese medicines, with great benefits to human health and huge economic value. The reliability of fungal materials used in studies of the species is particularly important because contradictory results have been found in various studies in the past decades. Examination of fungal materials specified in reports on O. sinensis showed great variation in both sources and culture conditions of living strains. To test the reliability of the materials used, experiments were carried out to study the effect of culture conditions on the growth of living strains of O. sinensis by using six reliable strains representing the major production regions of the fungus on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that O. sinensis is a slow-growing fungus at comparatively low temperature, and that temperature and growth period are crucial factors which can be verified by experiment. Analyses of fungal materials used in 152 papers on O. sinensis from PubMed since 1998 showed that 41 papers lacked detailed information on the fungal materials; 26 used natural products, 11 used artificially cultivated fruit bodies, and 80 used fermentation products from living strains. Of the latter category (using fermentation products), 64 of the papers were found to use unreliable (45) or uncertain (19) strains for fermentation products based on the temperature and growth period for O. sinensis strains verified in this study. Apart from the natural products of O. sinensis, which require scientific identification, a total of at least 116 papers (over three-quarters) used unreliable, uncertain or unspecified materials, including so-called cultivated fruit bodies which were apparently from other species. The reliability of materials or living strains used in studies on O. sinensis is discussed in this paper, and suggestions are made for use of reliable fungal materials in further studies of this fungus.

  10. [Discrimination of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ji, Peng; Wei, Yan-Ming; Hua, Yong-Li; Zhang, Wen-quan

    2014-05-01

    A new rapid and nondestructive method for identifying polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products was developed, and this method was based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In the clinic of traditional Chinese medicine, unprocessed Angelica sinensis(UAS) is of ten used after processed, the common processed products are Angelica sinensis parched with wine(WAS), Angelica sinensis parched with soil(SAS), Angelica sinensis parched with oil(OAS) and Charred Angelica sinensis(CAS). In order to use polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its processed products effectively and reasonably in clinic, it is very necessary to identify them. FTIR of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products was determined, and then it was decomposed by discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The high frequency information in scale 2, 3 and 4 was selected as feature information, from which the each wavelet entropy was extracted as characteristic value. BP neural network was trained with these characteristic values. The trained BP neural network was used to identify polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products. According to 30 prediction samples, the correct rate for recognition was 93. 3%, which indicates that: it has better feasibility to identify polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products by this method, which is based on FTIR, discrete wavelet transform and BP neural network

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)).

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Zhao, Lei; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Linjun; Ding, Shibo

    2017-10-05

    Flowering is a critical and complicated process in plant development, involving interactions of numerous endogenous and environmental factors, but little is known about the complex network regulating flower development in tea plants. In this study, de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis using Illumina sequencing technology were performed. Transcriptomic analysis assembles gene-related information involved in reproductive growth of C. sinensis. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the annotated unigenes revealed that the majority of sequenced genes were associated with metabolic and cellular processes, cell and cell parts, catalytic activity and binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and plant hormone signal transduction were enriched among the DEGs. Furthermore, 207 flowering-associated unigenes were identified from our database. Some transcription factors, such as WRKY, ERF, bHLH, MYB and MADS-box were shown to be up-regulated in floral transition, which might play the role of progression of flowering. Furthermore, 14 genes were selected for confirmation of expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in C. sinensis. Our data also provided a useful database for further research of tea and other species of plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fish tapeworm Khawia sinensis: an indicator of environmental microcystins?

    PubMed

    Palikova, Miroslava; Adamovsky, Ondrej; Blaha, Ludek; Mares, Jan; Kopp, Radovan; Navratil, Stanislav; Cutakova, Zdenka; Soukupova, Zdenka; Pikula, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Parasites have recently been recognized as accumulation indicators that take up and bio-concentrate substances from environmental pollution. Interestingly, helminths of fish are known to accumulate metals from the ambient environment and to contain several orders of magnitude higher concentrations than hosts. While the majority of reports mention inorganic toxin accumulation in parasites, studies concerning effects of organic pollution are infrequent and little is known about the potential of parasites to bio-accumulate microcystins. The parasite-host system of tapeworm Khawia sinensis and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was used to address this issue. Both the tapeworms and livers were dissected from experimental carps orally exposed to cyanobacterial biomass for 20 days. The total dose of microcystins amounted to 27 mg/kg of feed, i.e., 0.4 mg/kg of fish mass a day. Microcystin concentrations in tapeworms and carp liver tissues were measured using the LC-MS/MS method. Considering the three measured microcystin variants LR, YR and RR, only MC-RR was detected and its concentrations in tapeworms and carp liver tissue amounted to 5.78±3.78 ng/g and 2.11±0.74 ng/g fresh weight (p<0.05), respectively. Here we show accumulation of microcystin MC-RR in the tapeworm Khawia sinensis, a parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). As this is the first report addressing this issue, further studies will be necessary to examine this specific parasite-host system.

  13. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on the hemocyte apoptosis of Eriocheir sinensis *

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai-sheng; Lyu, Sun-jian; Xu, Jie-hao; Lu, Bin-jie; Zhao, Jing; Li, Song; Li, Yi-qun; Chen, Yu-yin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possible toxicity mechanism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from Gram-negative bacteria in Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes. Apoptotic hemocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by the LPS were monitored by the combination of flow cytometry and microscope observation. It was shown that LPS induced serious damage on the DNA and morphological changes in hemocytes, including cell shrinkage, fracture of nucleus membrane, margination, condensation and fragmentation of chromatin, and formation of apoptotic bodies indicating obvious hemocyte apoptosis. As compared with the control group, the apoptotic cell ratio increased to 30.61% and 39.01% after 1-h exposure and 57.72% and 75.01% after 2-h exposure to 1 and 10 μg/ml LPS, respectively (P<0.05). Significant outburst of ROS production was observed in LPS-treated hemocytes with approximately 176.6% of relative dichlorofluorescein mean fluorescence at 1-h exposure, followed by a drastic decline (P<0.05). These results indicated that LPS would induce oxidative stress on hemocytes from E. sinensis and cause ROS burst, DNA damage, and subsequently apoptosis. The process of ROS-mediated apoptosis might be one of the potential toxicity mechanisms of LPS on crustacean hemocytes. PMID:26642180

  14. A newly found cadmium accumulator--Malva sinensis Cavan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shirong; Chen, Mingying; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun; Deng, Liangji

    2010-01-15

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg(-1)) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg(-1), respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg(-1). The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 microg pot(-1), respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  15. Effects of Citrus sinensis juice on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Keshvari, Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    Citrus sinensis juice (CSJ) is a rich source of dietary flavonoids which reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine the effects of four-week intake of natural and commercial orange (Citrus sinensis) juice on blood pressure in healthy volunteers. In this single-blind randomized crossover study, 22 healthy subjects (age: 18-59 years old) were included and randomly divided into two groups of 11. Group A consumed commercial CSJ during the first four-week period. After a two-week washout period, they consumed natural CSJ for another four weeks. The procedure was reversed in group B. The participants were asked to drink 500 ml/day of either natural or commercial CSJ twice a day with breakfast and dinner. The effects of orange juice on blood pressure were evaluated. After drinking commercial CSJ, diastolic and systolic blood pressure were significantly decreased (5.13%; P = 0.03 and -5.91%; P = 0.003, respectively). However, consumption of natural CSJ did not have significant effects on either diastolic or systolic blood pressure. Commercial CSJ significantly decreased blood pressure. Higher flavonoid, pectin, and essential oils content of concentrated products compared to natural juice might have been responsible for this finding. Nevertheless, further studies to focus on dose-response effects are recommended.

  16. Painless Jaundice Caused by Clonorchis sinensis Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuhua; Bao, Wanguo; Jin, Meishan; Li, Yuxiang; Wang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    A man with only yellowing of the skin and eye sclera was diagnosed with clonorchiasis, which rarely manifested jaundice as the initial symptom. However, because of a lack of evidence for a diagnostic gold standard, the time until definitive diagnosis was more than a week. The diagnostic process relied on inquiring about the patient's history, including the place of residence, dietary habits, and symptoms, as well as on serological findings, an imaging examination, and pathological findings. MRCP and CT results showed mild dilatation of intrahepatic ducts and increased periductal echogenicity. The eggs were ultimately found in stool by water sedimentation method after the negative report through direct smear. DNA sequencing of PCR production of the eggs demonstrated 98-100% homology with ITS2 of Clonorchis sinensis. After anti-parasite medical treatment, the patient's symptoms were gradually relieved. Throughout the diagnostic procedure, besides routine examinations, the sedimentation method or concentration method could be used as a sensitive way for both light and heavy C. sinensis infection in the definite diagnosis.

  17. A transcriptome analysis of mitten crab testes (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wan, Haolei; Jiang, Hui; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

    2011-01-01

    The identification of expressed genes involved in sexual precocity of the mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is critical for a better understanding of its reproductive development. To this end, we constructed a cDNA library from the rapid developmental stage of testis of E. sinensis and sequenced 3,388 randomly picked clones. After processing, 2,990 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered into 2,415 unigenes including 307 contigs and 2,108 singlets, which were then compared to the NCBI non-redundant (nr) protein and nucleotide (nt) database for annotation with Blastx and Blastn, respectively. After further analysis, 922 unigenes were obtained with concrete annotations and 30 unigenes were found to have functions possibly related to the process of reproduction in male crabs – six transcripts relevant to spermatogenesis (especially Cyclin K and RecA homolog DMC1), two transcripts involved in nuclear protein transformation, two heat-shock protein genes, eleven transcription factor genes (a series of zinc-finger proteins), and nine cytoskeleton protein-related genes. Our results, besides providing valuable information related to crustacean reproduction, can also serve as a base for future studies of reproductive and developmental biology. PMID:21637557

  18. Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Avani; Patel, Amit; Patel, Amit; Patel, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC50values, all the extracts’ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:21808558

  19. Hepatoencephalopathy syndrome due to Cassia occidentalis (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) seed ingestion in horses.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, J P; Cagnini, D Q; Badial, P R; Pessoa, M A; Del Piero, F; Borges, A S

    2013-03-01

    Cassia occidentalis is a bush from the Leguminosae family, subfamily Caesalpinoideae, and is a toxic plant of veterinary interest due to the occasional contamination of animal rations. This report describes the clinical and histopathological findings of an outbreak of C. occidentalis poisoning in horses. Twenty mares were poisoned after consuming ground corn contaminated with 8% of C. occidentalis seeds. Of the 20 animals affected, 12 died: 8 mares were found dead, 2 died 6 h after the onset of clinical signs compatible with hepatic encephalopathy and the 2 other animals were subjected to euthanasia 12 h after the onset of the clinical signs. The remaining 8 mares presented with mild depression and decreased appetite, but improved with treatment and no clinical sequelae were observed. In 6 animals that underwent a necropsy, an enhanced hepatic lobular pattern was noted and within the large intestine, a large number of seeds were consistently observed. Hepatocellular pericentrolobular necrosis and cerebral oedema were the main histological findings. In one mare, there was mild multifocal semimembranosus rhabdomyocytic necrosis and haemorrhage. Seeds collected from intestinal contents and sifted from the culpable feedstuff were planted. Examination of the leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds of the resultant plants identified C. occidentalis. Horses poisoned by C. occidentalis seeds demonstrate clinical signs associated with hepatoencephalopathy and frequently die suddenly. Lesions primarily involve the liver and secondarily, the central nervous system. Cassia occidentalis poisoning should be considered a differential diagnosis in horses with hepatoencephalopathy and special caution should be taken with horse rations to avoid contamination with seeds of this toxic plant.

  20. Unexpected Irregular Monoterpene "Yomogi Alcohol" in the Volatiles of the Lathyrus L. species (Leguminosae) of Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-01-01

    Lathyrus species including L. ochrus and L. sativus are known for their food, feed and horticultural uses. Despite their widespread uses and cultivation, there is limited information on their chemistry. Previously, only the essential oil composition of L. rotundifolius, L. vernus and volatiles of L. odoratus have been reported. In the present research, volatiles of seven Lathyrus L. species, namely, L. aphaca, L. ochrus, L. cicera, L. sativus, L. gorgonei, L. saxatilis and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius were analyzed by SPME GC-MS for the first time. Plant materials were collected from five different locations in Cyprus (February-March 2012). The main components of L. aphaca volatiles from four locations were yomogi alcohol 26.1-16.5%, camphor 21.6-10.1%, tetradecane 14.3-0%; L. cicera from five locations were yomogi alcohol 20.3-3.0%, camphor 18.7-2.0%; L. gorgonei from two locations were yomogi alcohol 24.5-13.1%, camphor 17.1-9.0% and L. sativus was yomogi alcohol 11.4%, camphor 9.0%. Yomogi alcohol was not present as the major compound in L. ochrus (2-methyl butanoic acid 7.2%), L. saxatilis (hexanal 7.7%) and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius ((Z)-3-hexenal 8.6%) volatiles. The volatiles of the Lathyrus species were also compared with each other quantitative and qualitatively using AHC analysis to find out differences among the species. The irregular monoterpene yomogi alcohol is reported from the Lathyrus and the Leguminosae family for the first time. The existence of yomogi alcohol in Lathyrus volatiles points out that the irregular monoterpenes are not restricted solely to Asteraceae family.

  1. Evolution of petal epidermal micromorphology in Leguminosae and its use as a marker of petal identity

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Isidro; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Cronk, Quentin C. B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The legume flower is highly variable in symmetry and differentiation of petal types. Most papilionoid flowers are zygomorphic with three types of petals: one dorsal, two lateral and two ventral petals. Mimosoids have radial flowers with reduced petals while caesalpinioids display a range from strongly zygomorphic to nearly radial symmetry. The aims are to characterize the petal micromorphology relative to flower morphology and evolution within the family and assess its use as a marker of petal identity (whether dorsal, lateral or ventral) as determined by the expression of developmental genes. Methods Petals were analysed using the scanning electron microscope and light microscope. A total of 175 species were studied representing 26 tribes and 89 genera in all three subfamilies of the Leguminosae. Key Results The papilionoids have the highest degree of variation of epidermal types along the dorsiventral axis within the flower. In Loteae and genistoids, in particular, it is common for each petal type to have a different major epidermal micromorphology. Papillose conical cells are mainly found on dorsal and lateral petals. Tabular rugose cells are mainly found on lateral petals and tabular flat cells are found only in ventral petals. Caesalpinioids lack strong micromorphological variation along this axis and usually have only a single major epidermal type within a flower, although the type maybe either tabular rugose cells, papillose conical cells or papillose knobby rugose cells, depending on the species. Conclusions Strong micromorphological variation between different petals in the flower is exclusive to the subfamily Papilionoideae. Both major and minor epidermal types can be used as micromorphological markers of petal identity, at least in papilionoids, and they are important characters of flower evolution in the whole family. The molecular developmental pathway between specific epidermal micromorphology and the expression of petal identity

  2. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP. PMID:26506375

  3. l-Canavanine Transport and Utilization in Developing Jack Bean, Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. [Leguminosae] 1

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Gerald A.; Rhodes, David

    1984-01-01

    l-Canavanine, the guanidinooxy structural analog of l-arginine, is an important nonprotein amino acid of many leguminous plants with nitrogen storage a major proported role. l-[Guanidinooxy-14C]canavanine, [14C] urea, and [15N]urea were injected separately into the fleshy, green cotyledons of 9-day old jack bean plants, Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. [Leguminosae]. There was significant transport of canavanine from the cotyledons to the aboveground portions of the plant, but not to the roots. Within 1.5 hours of isotope administration, the remaining labeled canavanine was divided equally between the cotyledons and the aboveground portions of the plant. During the 48-hour postinjection period, the contribution of l-[guanidinooxy-14C]canavanine to the total 14carbon of the cotyledons decreased rapidly while it increased in the aboveground portions of the plant. [14C]Urea is degraded very rapidly; only 4.4% of the initial dose remained after 1.5 hours. Urea is catabolized so effectively within the cotyledons that not even 2% of the administered urea can be detected in tissues outside of these storage organs. [15N]Urea supplied to the developing coytledons leads to rapid 15N incorporation into the amino nitrogen of glutamic acid and/or glutamine (28% 15N abundance after 3 hours). Other amino acids are labeled but less heavily. The data are consistent with the proported role for l-canavanine of nitrogen storage within the developing cotyledons and cotyledonary canavanine is transported very effectively to the aboveground portions of the plant. It is not yet clear how efficiently this transported canavanine supports the nitrogen metabolism of the developing plant. PMID:16663877

  4. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-10-21

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  5. Evolution in African tropical trees displaying ploidy-habitat association: The genus Afzelia (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Donkpegan, Armel S L; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Migliore, Jérémy; Duminil, Jérôme; Dainou, Kasso; Piñeiro, Rosalía; Wieringa, Jan J; Champluvier, Dominique; Hardy, Olivier J

    2017-02-01

    Polyploidy has rarely been documented in rain forest trees but it has recently been found in African species of the genus Afzelia (Leguminosae), which is composed of four tetraploid rain forest species and two diploid dry forest species. The genus Afzelia thus provides an opportunity to examine how and when polyploidy and habitat shift occurred in Africa, and whether they are associated. In this study, we combined three plastid markers (psbA, trnL, ndhF), two nuclear markers (ribosomal ITS and the single-copy PEPC E7 gene), plastomes (obtained by High Throughput Sequencing) and morphological traits, with an extensive taxonomic and geographic sampling to explore the evolutionary history of Afzelia. Both nuclear DNA and morphological vegetative characters separated diploid from tetraploid lineages. Although the two African diploid species were well differentiated genetically and morphologically, the relationships among the tetraploid species were not resolved. In contrast to the nuclear markers, plastid markers revealed that one of the diploid species forms a well-supported clade with the tetraploids, suggesting historical hybridisation, possibly in relation with genome duplication (polyploidization) and habitat shift from dry to rain forests. Molecular dating based on fossil-anchored gene phylogenies indicates that extant Afzelia started diverging c. 14.5 or 20Ma while extant tetraploid species started diverging c. 7.0 or 9.4Ma according to plastid and nuclear DNA, respectively. Additional studies of tropical polyploid plants are needed to assess whether the ploidy-habitat association observed in African Afzelia would reflect a role of polyploidization in niche divergence in the tropics.

  6. Diversity and biogeographical patterns of legumes (Leguminosae) indigenous to southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Trytsman, Marike; Westfall, Robert H; Breytenbach, Philippus J J; Calitz, Frikkie J; van Wyk, Abraham E

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to establish biogeographical patterns in the legume flora of southern Africa so as to facilitate the selection of species with agricultural potential. Plant collection data from the National Herbarium, South Africa, were analysed to establish the diversity and areas covered by legumes (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) indigenous to South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. A total of 27,322 records from 1,619 quarter degree grid cells, representing 1,580 species, 122 genera and 24 tribes were included in the analyses. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was applied to the presence or absence of legume species in quarter degree grid cells, the resultant natural biogeographical regions (choria) being referred to as leguminochoria. The description of the 16 uniquely formed leguminochoria focuses on defining the associated bioregions and biomes, as well as on the key climate and soil properties. Legume species with a high occurrence in a leguminochorion are listed as key species. The dominant growth form of key species, species richness and range within each leguminochorion is discussed. Floristic links between the leguminochoria are established, by examining and comparing key species common to clusters, using a vegetation classification program. Soil pH and mean annual minimum temperature were found to be the main drivers for distinguishing among legume assemblages. This is the first time that distribution data for legumes has been used to identify biogeographical areas covered by leguminochoria on the subcontinent. One potential application of the results of this study is to assist in the selection of legumes for pasture breeding and soil conservation programs, especially in arid and semi-arid environments.

  7. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae) against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Shagun; Walter, Neha Sylvia; Bagai, Upma

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae) has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL). Methods: EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (MRC2) and CQ resistant (RKL9) strains. Cytotoxicity (CC50) of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD50) was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg) and preventive (100-750 mg/kg) activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg) of extract was also evaluated. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC50 of 8.2 μg/ml (MRC2) and 5.1 μg/ml (RKL9). CC50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 μg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI) of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant (P<0.001) schizonticidal activity at 1000 mg/kg with ED50 >100 mg/kg. Significant (P<0.001) curative and repository activities were exhibited by 750 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. Interpretation & conclusions: The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further. PMID:26905234

  8. The Unique Pollen Morphology of Duparquetia (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae): Developmental Evidence of Aperture Orientation Using Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    BANKS, HANNAH; FEIST-BURKHART, SUSANNE; KLITGAARD, BENTE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The phylogenetic affinities of the aberrant monotypic genus Duparquetia (subfamily Caesalpinioideae) are at present unresolved. Preliminary results from molecular analyses suggest a basal, isolated position among legumes. A study of Duparquetia pollen was carried out to provide further morphological characters to contribute to multi-data set analyses. Understanding the development of Duparquetia pollen was necessary to clarify the orientation of the apertures. • Methods Pollen grains and developing microspores were examined using light microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Evidence for the orientation of the apertures was provided by the examination of microspores within developing tetrads, using (a) confocal microscopy to locate the position of the ectoapertures, and (b) light microscopy and Alcian blue stain to locate the position of the endoapertures. • Key Results Confocal microscopy has been used for the first time to examine developing microspores in order to obtain information on ectoapertures that was unavailable using other techniques. Pollen in Duparquetia develops in tetrahedral tetrads as in other eudicots, with the apertures arranged in a modified pattern following Fischer's rule. Pollen grains are asymmetrical and have one equatorial-encircling ectoaperture with two equatorial endoapertures, a unique feature in Leguminosae, and in eudicots. • Conclusions The pollen morphology of Duparquetia is so unusual that it provides little information to help determine its closest relatives. However, it does fit with a pattern of greater pollen morphological diversity in the first-branching caesalpinioid legume groups than in the more derived clades. The latitudinal ectoaperture of Duparquetia is unique within the Fabales and eudicot clades, resembling more closely the monosulcate pollen found in monocots and basal angiosperms; however, developmental patterns are recognizably similar to those of all other

  9. Evolution of petal epidermal micromorphology in Leguminosae and its use as a marker of petal identity.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Isidro; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2009-11-01

    The legume flower is highly variable in symmetry and differentiation of petal types. Most papilionoid flowers are zygomorphic with three types of petals: one dorsal, two lateral and two ventral petals. Mimosoids have radial flowers with reduced petals while caesalpinioids display a range from strongly zygomorphic to nearly radial symmetry. The aims are to characterize the petal micromorphology relative to flower morphology and evolution within the family and assess its use as a marker of petal identity (whether dorsal, lateral or ventral) as determined by the expression of developmental genes. Petals were analysed using the scanning electron microscope and light microscope. A total of 175 species were studied representing 26 tribes and 89 genera in all three subfamilies of the Leguminosae. The papilionoids have the highest degree of variation of epidermal types along the dorsiventral axis within the flower. In Loteae and genistoids, in particular, it is common for each petal type to have a different major epidermal micromorphology. Papillose conical cells are mainly found on dorsal and lateral petals. Tabular rugose cells are mainly found on lateral petals and tabular flat cells are found only in ventral petals. Caesalpinioids lack strong micromorphological variation along this axis and usually have only a single major epidermal type within a flower, although the type maybe either tabular rugose cells, papillose conical cells or papillose knobby rugose cells, depending on the species. Strong micromorphological variation between different petals in the flower is exclusive to the subfamily Papilionoideae. Both major and minor epidermal types can be used as micromorphological markers of petal identity, at least in papilionoids, and they are important characters of flower evolution in the whole family. The molecular developmental pathway between specific epidermal micromorphology and the expression of petal identity genes has yet to be established.

  10. Diversity and biogeographical patterns of legumes (Leguminosae) indigenous to southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Trytsman, Marike; Westfall, Robert H.; Breytenbach, Philippus J. J.; Calitz, Frikkie J.; van Wyk, Abraham E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The principal aim of this study was to establish biogeographical patterns in the legume flora of southern Africa so as to facilitate the selection of species with agricultural potential. Plant collection data from the National Herbarium, South Africa, were analysed to establish the diversity and areas covered by legumes (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) indigenous to South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. A total of 27,322 records from 1,619 quarter degree grid cells, representing 1,580 species, 122 genera and 24 tribes were included in the analyses. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was applied to the presence or absence of legume species in quarter degree grid cells, the resultant natural biogeographical regions (choria) being referred to as leguminochoria. The description of the 16 uniquely formed leguminochoria focuses on defining the associated bioregions and biomes, as well as on the key climate and soil properties. Legume species with a high occurrence in a leguminochorion are listed as key species. The dominant growth form of key species, species richness and range within each leguminochorion is discussed. Floristic links between the leguminochoria are established, by examining and comparing key species common to clusters, using a vegetation classification program. Soil pH and mean annual minimum temperature were found to be the main drivers for distinguishing among legume assemblages. This is the first time that distribution data for legumes has been used to identify biogeographical areas covered by leguminochoria on the subcontinent. One potential application of the results of this study is to assist in the selection of legumes for pasture breeding and soil conservation programs, especially in arid and semi-arid environments. PMID:27829799

  11. Influence of extremely low-frequency electric fields on the growth of Vigna radiata seedlings.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Evelina

    2011-10-01

    The biological effects of extremely low-frequency electric fields (ELF) on living organisms have been explored in many studies, but the results are controversial and only a few studies investigated the influence of the intensity of the applied field on seedling growth. Here we assess the effects of a 50 Hz sinusoidal electric field on the early growth of Vigna radiata seedlings while varying the field intensity. Experiments performed in a dark, constant-climate chamber on several thousands of seedlings show that the field produces an inhibitory effect at a low field intensity and an enhancing one at a higher intensity. The maximum negative effect occurs at about 450 V/m, which is an intensity much lower than the exposure limits currently in force in the safety regulations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The inhibitory effect of metals and other ions on acid phosphatase activity from Vigna aconitifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pramod Kumar; Anand, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity of acid phosphatase from Vigna aconitifolia seeds to metal ions, fluoride, and phosphate was examined. All the effectors had different degree of inhibitory effect on the enzyme. Among metal ions, molybdate and ferric ion were observed to be most potent inhibitors and both exhibited mixed type of inhibition. Acid phosphatase activity was inhibited by Cu2+ in a noncompetitive manner. Zn and Mn showed mild inhibition on the enzyme activity. Inhibition kinetics analysis explored molybdate as a potent inhibitor for acid phosphatase in comparison with other effectors used in this study. Fluoride was the next most strong inhibitor for the enzyme activity, and caused a mixed type of inhibition. Phosphate inhibited the enzyme competitively, which demonstrates that inhibition due to phosphate is one of the regulatory factors for enzyme activity.

  13. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  14. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  15. Purification and characterization of high salt-soluble vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Biswas, B B

    1990-01-01

    We report a method for the purification of vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata) mainly on the basis of solubility of mung bean vicilin even in high salt. Mung bean vicilin remains in solution even after 90% relative saturation of ammonium sulphate. The resulting supernatant after dialysis was subjected to gel filtration (Sephadex G-150) to remove other contaminant polypeptides, and finally the protein was purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. This purified fraction exhibited 3 bands on SDS-PAGE compared with vicilin from other legumes which exhibite more than 3 bands generally. The results raise the possibility that the presence of the two small polypeptides in vicilin preparations is the breakdown product of the major larger one of mol.wt. 52 K and that vicilin may be a tetramer of four subunits of Mr 52000. That the high salt-soluble protein containing 52 K subunit is vicilin has been determined by several criteria.

  16. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-03-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean.

  17. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-01-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean. PMID:25774112

  18. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant.

    PubMed

    Silva, F V; Simões-Araújo, J L; Silva Júnior, J P; Xavier, G R; Rumjanek, N G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  19. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops.

  20. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of wireless technologies, particularly of cell phones, has increased the health risks among living organisms including plants. We investigated the impact of cell phone electromagentic field (EMF) radiations (power density, 8.55 microW cm(-2)) on germination, early growth, proteins and carbohydrate contents, and activities of some enzymes in Vigna radiata. Cell phone EMF radiations significantly reduced the seedling length and dry weight of V radiata after exposure for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. Furthermore, the contents of proteins and carbohydrates were reduced in EMF-exposed plants. However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. The study concludes that cell phone EMFs impair early growth of V radiata seedlings by inducing biochemical changes.

  1. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-05-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes.

  2. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    PubMed

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Analysis and enhancement of nutritional and antioxidant properties of Vigna aconitifolia sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kestwal, Rakesh M; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2012-06-01

    Vigna aconitifolia sprouts (Moth bean sprouts, MBS) were analyzed for their nutritional and antioxidant properties during sprouting. Sprouting for six days led to a 7.0 fold increase in fresh weight, 2.4 fold increase in soluble proteins, 3.0 fold increase in carbohydrates, and a 5.5 fold increase in mineral content. Phenolic content also increased by 28% during germination. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and kaempferol were the predominant phenolic compounds detected in the ethanolic extracts of MBS by HPLC. Following supplementation with metal ions (200 μg ml⁻¹), the sprouts demonstrated a considerable increase in metal ion uptake, with improved phenolic content. MBS ethanolic extracts also reduced intracellular oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

  4. Biology and host specificity of Coelocephalapion gandolfoi Kissinger (Brentidae) a promising candidate for the biological control of invasive Prosopis species (Leguminosae) in South Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive Prosopis species (Leguminosae) (mesquite) pose a significant threat to biodiversity, pasture production, and water resources in South Africa. In an attempt to contain the spread of this noxious weed the South African authorities have supported the introduction of host-specific and damaging...

  5. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K. P.; Meena, H. S.; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  6. Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop Vigna reflexo-pilosa (créole bean), and genetic structure of diploid species based on newly developed EST-SSR markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Chankaew, Sompong; Isemura, Takehisa; Isobe, Sachiko; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-01-01

    Vigna reflexo-pilosa, which includes a neglected crop, is the only one tetraploid species in genus Vigna. The ancestral species that make up this allotetraploid species have not conclusively been identified, although previous studies suggested that a donor genome of V. reflexo-pilosa is V. trinervia. In this study, 1,429 azuki bean EST-SSR markers were developed of which 38 EST-SSR primer pairs that amplified one product in diploid species and two discrete products in tetraploid species were selected to analyze 268 accessions from eight taxa of seven Asian Vigna species including V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra, V. reflexo-pilosa var. reflexo-pilosa, V. exilis, V. hirtella, V. minima, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. tenuicaulis and V. trinervia to identify genome donor of V. reflexo-pilosa. Since both diploid and tetraploid species were analyzed and each SSR primer pair detected two loci in the tetraploid species, we separated genomes of the tetraploid species into two different diploid types, viz. A and B. In total, 445 alleles were detected by 38 EST-SSR markers. The highest gene diversity was observed in V. hirtella. By assigning the discrete PCR products of V. reflexo-pilosa into two distinguished genomes, we were able to identify the two genome donor parents of créole bean. Phylogenetic and principal coordinate analyses suggested that V. hirtella is a species complex and may be composed of at least three distinct taxa. Both analyses also clearly demonstrated that V. trinervia and one taxon of V. hirtella are the genome donors of V. reflexo-pilosa. Gene diversity indicates that the evolution rate of EST-SSRs on genome B of créole bean might be faster than that on genome A. Species relationship among the Vigna species in relation to genetic data, morphology and geographical distribution are presented.

  7. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg and Evolution Analysis within the Malvales Order.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhan, Di-Feng; Jia, Xian; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg is an important medicinal woody plant producing agarwood, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast (cp) genomes enhanced the understanding about evolutionary relationships within plant families. In this study, we determined the complete cp genome sequences for A. sinensis. The size of the A. sinensis cp genome was 159,565 bp. This genome included a large single-copy region of 87,482 bp, a small single-copy region of 19,857 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb) of 26,113 bp each. The GC content of the genome was 37.11%. The A. sinensis cp genome encoded 113 functional genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 27 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Seven genes were duplicated in the protein-coding genes, whereas 11 genes were duplicated in the RNA genes. A total of 45 polymorphic simple-sequence repeat loci and 60 pairs of large repeats were identified. Most simple-sequence repeats were located in the noncoding sections of the large single-copy/small single-copy region and exhibited high A/T content. Moreover, 33 pairs of large repeat sequences were located in the protein-coding genes, whereas 27 pairs were located in the intergenic regions. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome bias ended with A/T on the basis of codon usage. The distribution of codon usage in A. sinensis cp genome was most similar to that in the Gonystylus bancanus cp genome. Comparative results of 82 protein-coding genes from 29 species of cp genomes demonstrated that A. sinensis was a sister species to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome presented the highest sequence similarity of >90% with the G. bancanus cp genome by using CGView Comparison Tool. This finding strongly supports the placement of A. sinensis as a sister to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. The complete A. sinensis cp genome information will be highly beneficial for further studies on this traditional medicinal

  8. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg and Evolution Analysis within the Malvales Order

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Zhan, Di-Feng; Jia, Xian; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg is an important medicinal woody plant producing agarwood, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast (cp) genomes enhanced the understanding about evolutionary relationships within plant families. In this study, we determined the complete cp genome sequences for A. sinensis. The size of the A. sinensis cp genome was 159,565 bp. This genome included a large single-copy region of 87,482 bp, a small single-copy region of 19,857 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb) of 26,113 bp each. The GC content of the genome was 37.11%. The A. sinensis cp genome encoded 113 functional genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 27 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Seven genes were duplicated in the protein-coding genes, whereas 11 genes were duplicated in the RNA genes. A total of 45 polymorphic simple-sequence repeat loci and 60 pairs of large repeats were identified. Most simple-sequence repeats were located in the noncoding sections of the large single-copy/small single-copy region and exhibited high A/T content. Moreover, 33 pairs of large repeat sequences were located in the protein-coding genes, whereas 27 pairs were located in the intergenic regions. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome bias ended with A/T on the basis of codon usage. The distribution of codon usage in A. sinensis cp genome was most similar to that in the Gonystylus bancanus cp genome. Comparative results of 82 protein-coding genes from 29 species of cp genomes demonstrated that A. sinensis was a sister species to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome presented the highest sequence similarity of >90% with the G. bancanus cp genome by using CGView Comparison Tool. This finding strongly supports the placement of A. sinensis as a sister to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. The complete A. sinensis cp genome information will be highly beneficial for further studies on this traditional medicinal

  9. Variation of theanine, phenolic, and methylxanthine compounds in 21 cultivars of Camellia sinensis harvested in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui; Redfern, Sally P; Kirkup, Don; Porter, Elaine A; Kite, Geoffrey C; Terry, Leon A; Berry, Mark J; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2017-04-01

    This is the first study to use chemometric methods to differentiate among 21 cultivars of Camellia sinensis from China and between leaves harvested at different times of the year using 30 compounds implicated in the taste and quality of tea. Unique patterns of catechin derivatives were observed among cultivars and across harvest seasons. C. sinensis var. pubilimba (You 510) differed from the cultivars of C. sinensis var. sinensis, with higher levels of theobromine, (+)-catechin, gallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate and theasinensin B, and lower levels of (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), respectively. Three cultivars of C. sinensis var. sinensis, Fuyun 7, Qiancha 7 and Zijuan contained significantly more caffeoylquinic acids than others cultivars. A Linear Discriminant Analysis model based on the abundance of 12 compounds was able to discriminate amongst all 21 tea cultivars. Harvest time impacted the abundance of EGC, theanine and afzelechin gallate.

  10. Studies on Anopheles sinensis, the vector species of vivax malaria in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Extensive previous studies on taxonomy, behavior/bionomics and control of Anopheles sinensis are reviewed and summarized. Recent molecular identification revealed that the population of An. sinensis complex includes An. sinensis, An. pullus, An. lesteri and at least two new species, and An. yatsushiroensis is synonmy of An. pullus. An. sinensis is the main vector specie of vivax malaria in Korea. Larvae of An. sinensis breed in wide range of habitats which are naturally-made clean water, stagnant or flowing; main habitats include rice fields, ditches, streams, irrigation cannals, marshes, ponds, ground pools, etc. Their host preferences are highly zoophilic. Human blood rate is very low (0.7-1.7%); nevertheless An. sinensis readily feeds on man when domestic animals are not found near by. They feed on hosts throughout the night from dusk to dawn with a peak period of 02:00-04:00 hours; they are slightly more exophagic (biting outdoors); much larger numbers come into the room when light is on. Main resting places are outdoors such as grasses, vegetable fields and rice fields. A mark-release-recapture study resulted that 37.1% was recaptured within 1 km, 29.4% at 1-3 km, 21.1% at 3-6 km, 10.3% at 6-9 km and 2.1% at 9-12 km distance. An. sinensis hibernate outdoors (mostly under part of dense grasses) during October-March. At the end of the hibernation period (March-April) they feed on cows at daytime. Until today any single measure to effectively control An. sinensis population has not been found. Indoor residual spray with a long-lasting insecticide can not reduce vector population densities, but shorten their life spans in some degree, so contributes to malaria control. PMID:16192749

  11. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Taurocyamine Kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: A Candidate Chemotherapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Jarilla, Blanca R.; Nomura, Haruka; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK) constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. Methology/Principal findings A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK) of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK) gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. Conclusion CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart, creatine. PMID:24278491

  12. Mitochondrial genomic comparison of Clonorchis sinensis from South Korea with other isolates of this species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daxi; Young, Neil D; Koehler, Anson V; Tan, Patrick; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Korhonen, Pasi K; Gasser, Robin B

    2017-02-22

    Clonorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects >35 million people mainly in China, Vietnam, South Korea and some parts of Russia. The disease-causing agent, Clonorchis sinensis, is a liver fluke of humans and other piscivorous animals, and has a complex aquatic life cycle involving snails and fish intermediate hosts. Chronic infection in humans causes liver disease and associated complications including malignant bile duct cancer. Central to control and to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of the specific identity of the causative agent as well as genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite. Although most published molecular studies seem to suggest that C. sinensis represents a single species and that genetic variation within the species is limited, karyotypic variation within C. sinensis among China, Korea (2n=56) and Russian Far East (2n=14) suggests that this taxon might contain sibling species. Here, we assessed and applied a deep sequencing-bioinformatic approach to sequence and define a reference mitochondrial (mt) genome for a particular isolate of C. sinensis from Korea (Cs-k2), to confirm its specific identity, and compared this mt genome with homologous data sets available for this species. Comparative analyses revealed consistency in the number and structure of genes as well as in the lengths of protein-coding genes, and limited genetic variation among isolates of C. sinensis. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences predicted from mt genes showed that representatives of C. sinensis clustered together, with absolute nodal support, to the exclusion of other liver fluke representatives, but sub-structuring within C. sinensis was not well supported. The plan now is to proceed with the sequencing, assembly and annotation of a high quality draft nuclear genome of this defined isolate (Cs-k2) as a basis for a detailed investigation of molecular variation within C. sinensis from disparate

  13. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  14. [Investigation of metabolic action of Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on Escherichia coli by microcalorimetry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan-Lei; Yan, Dan; Li, Bao-Cai; Wu, Yan-Shu; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2009-06-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli, and microcalorimetric method was carried out to evaluate its biological activity. The study will provide the basis for the quality control of Cordyceps sinensis. Experimental result will show the effect of natural Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli, with index of P(1max) and effective rate (E) by microcalorimetry, the data of experiment were studied by cluster analysis. The results showed that Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia not only can promote growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli but also can regulate the balance of intestinal microecology efficiently. When the concentrations of samples > 6.0 mg mL(-1), natural Cordyceps sinensis can promote the growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli efficiently (P < 0.05) compared with the control group, and have better dose-effect relationship with concentration (r > 0.9), its cultured mycelia does not show conspicuous auxoaction (P > 0.05) and have not dose-effect relationship with concentration (r < 0.6); when the concentration of samples < 6.0 mg mL(-1), all samples does not show conspicuous auxoaction (P > 0.05). Natural Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia can be distinguished by cluster analysis. Microcalorimetry has a good prospect on the quality evaluation of the traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. in Vietnam: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham N; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are clinically important small liver flukes because of their known association with development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Vietnam, high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans was previously reported in northern provinces, and O. viverrini infection has been detected in several central provinces. However, diagnosis of C. sinensis and O. viverrini infections in the past was merely based on faecal egg examination. This method alone can lead to misidentification at the species level because of morphological similarity between the eggs of these liver flukes and minute intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae. In fact, recent surveys in Vietnam revealed that infection with several minute intestinal flukes, such as Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui, are much more common than infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini, and they often co-infect humans. Thus, previously reported prevalence of small liver fluke infection in Vietnam was likely over-estimated due to mis identification of parasites in copro-parasitological examinations. In addition, there is some confusion about identification of cercariae, metacercariae and also adults of C. sinensis and O. viverrini in intermediate and definitive hosts. The aim of this review is, therefore, to draw realistic pictures of the past and present scientific reports on the epidemiology and biology of C. sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. infection in Vietnam.

  16. Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, have found to be the dreadful diseases worldwide and therapeutic interventions using plant sources have wide therapeutic value. Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves have been used as food and therapeutics. Hence, our study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic as well as anti-atherogenic potential of VU leaves in normalizing atherogenic gene expression, cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme system on cholesterol fed rabbit model. For the study New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and experimental period was three months; group -i - ND [normal diet (40 g feed)], group-ii- ND (normal diet) +EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)], group -iii- ND [normal diet ]+ CFD [cholesterol fed diet (cholesterol 1 % of 40 g feed and cholic acid 0.5 % of 40 g feed)] and group-iv - ND [normal diet] +CFD [cholesterol fed diet ]+EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)]. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the rabbit with cholesterol (1 % of 40 g feed) and cholic acid (0.5 % of 40 g feed). Supplementation of EAVU normalized cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products like thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), antioxidant system and important genes of cardiovascular diseases like interleukin-10 (IL 10), paraoxanase-1 (PON I), interleukin-6 (IL 6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2) to near normal level as compared with normal diet. The result obtained showed the antioxidant as well as anti-atherogenic potential of Vigna unguiculata leaves in ameliorating cholesterol induced atherosclerosis, and thus it is good task to include VU leaves in daily diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis.

  17. The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis

    PubMed Central

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Methods Two linkage maps were developed from BC1F1 and F2 populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Key Results Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. Conclusions This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna. PMID:22419763

  18. Purification, properties and alternate substrate specificities of arginase from two different sources: Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Arginase was purified from Vigna catjang cotyledons and buffalo liver by chromatographic separations using Bio-Gel P-150, DEAE-cellulose and arginine AH Sepharose 4B affinity columns. The native molecular weight of an enzyme estimated on Bio-Gel P-300 column for Vigna catjang was 210 kDa and 120 kDa of buffalo liver, while SDS-PAGE showed a single band of molecular weight 52 kDa for cotyledon and 43 kDa for buffalo liver arginase. The kinetic properties determined for the purified cotyledon and liver arginase showed an optimum pH of 10.0 and pH 9.2 respectively. Optimal cofactor Mn++ ion concentration was found to be 0.6 mM for cotyledon and 2 mM for liver arginase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for cotyledon arginase and hepatic arginase were found to be 42 mM and 2 mM respectively. The activity of guanidino compounds as alternate substrates for Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver arginase is critically dependent on the length of the amino acid side chain and the number of carbon atoms. In addition to L-arginine cotyledon arginase showed substrate specificity towards agmatine and L-canavanine, whereas the liver arginase showed substrate specificity towards only L-canavanine. PMID:16094464

  19. Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata forms a highly stable dimeric structure.

    PubMed

    Rao, K N; Suresh, C G

    2007-10-01

    Different protease inhibitors including Bowman-Birk type (BBI) have been reported from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata. Protease isoinhibitors of double-headed Bowman-Birk type from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata have been purified and characterized. The BBI from Vigna unguiculata (Vu-BBI) has been found to undergo self-association to form very stable dimers and more complex oligomers, by size-exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE in the presence of urea. Many BBIs have been reported to undergo self-association to form homodimers or more complex oligomers in solution. Only one dimeric crystal structure of a BBI (pea-BBI) is reported to date. We report the three-dimensional structure of a Vu-BBI determined at 2.5 A resolution. Although, the inhibitor has a monomer fold similar to that found in other known structures of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitors, its quaternary structure is different from that commonly observed in this family. The structural elements responsible for the stability of monomer molecule and dimeric association are discussed. The Vu-BBI may use dimeric or higher quaternary association to maintain the physiological state and to execute its biological function.

  20. Systematic revelation of the protective effect and mechanism of Cordycep sinensis on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocellular carcinoma with proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Wen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Li, Wen-Tai; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Pan, Tai-Long

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has been reported to treat liver diseases. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of C. sinensis on hepatocarcinoma in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model with functional proteome tools. In the DEN-exposed group, levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were increased while C. sinensis application remarkably inhibited the activities of these enzymes. Histopathological analysis also indicated that C. sinensis could substantially restore hypertrophic hepatocytes caused by DEN, suggesting that C. sinensis is effective in preventing DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. We therefore comprehensively delineated the global protein alterations using a proteome platform. The most meaningful changes were found among proteins involved in oxidative stress and detoxification. Meanwhile, C. sinensis application could attenuate the carbonylation level of several enzymes as well as chaperone proteins. Network analysis implied that C. sinensis could obviously alleviate hepatocarcinoma via modulating redox imbalance, protein ubiquitination and tumor growth–associated transcription factors. Our findings provide new insight into the potential effects of C. sinensis in preventing carcinogenesis and might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against chemical-induced hepatocarcinoma. PMID:27531890

  1. [Evaluating the quality of Angelica sinensis with fuzzy matter-element model based on variation coefficient weight].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xia, Peng-Fei; Ma, Xiao; Fan, Qin; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Ya-Li; Liu, Xiong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the utilization of fuzzy matter-element model in evaluating the quality of Angelica sinensis. The quality of Angelica sinensis from different habitats was evaluated by determining six main compositions contained in the samples with fuzzy matter-element model based on variation coefficient weight. Angelica sinensis collected from 22 hatitats were divided into three ranges based on the values of approach degrees. Fuzzy matter-element model based on variation coefficient weight can judge the quality of Angelica sinensis objectively and feasibly.

  2. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  3. Glucosinolate Diversity in Bretschneidera sinensis of Chinese Origin.

    PubMed

    Montaut, Sabine; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; De Nicola, Gina R; Rollin, Patrick

    2015-08-28

    The glucosinolate (GL) profile in several plant parts (leaf, branch, bark, root, and fruit) of Bretschneidera sinensis from three geographical regions of the People's Republic of China was established for the first time by HPLC. During this investigation, benzyl GL (1), 4-hydroxybenzyl GL (2), 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl GL (3), and 4-methoxybenzyl GL (4) were identified. In addition, one new GL, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl GL (5), was isolated in a minor amount from the fruit and characterized by spectroscopic data interpretation. Furthermore, traces of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile were detected by GC-MS analysis in the fruits, thus confirming the presence of the regioisomeric 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl GL (6). GLs 1-5 were also quantified for the first time by HPLC in the various plant organs.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaolin; Tian, Hua; Zhu, Bin; Chang, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) was determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The Chinese sturgeon mitochondrial DNA is a circular molecule (16,688 bp in length) with the typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mtDNA, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. Its control region contains 4.5 copies of unit with 82 bp long at 5' end, which has been reported before for this species. Phylogenetic tree based on 13 protein-coding genes confirmed that the complete mtDNA sequence of Chinese sturgeon was reported here for the first time.

  5. Acoustic signals of Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis): social communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianyan; Wang, Ding; Wu, Xiaobing; Wang, Renping; Wang, Chaolin

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports the first systematic study of acoustic signals during social interactions of the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis). Sound pressure level (SPL) measurements revealed that Chinese alligators have an elaborate acoustic communication system with both long-distance signal-bellowing-and short-distance signals that include tooting, bubble blowing, hissing, mooing, head slapping and whining. Bellows have high SPL and appear to play an important role in the alligator's long range intercommunion. Sounds characterized by low SPL are short-distance signals used when alligators are in close spatial proximity to one another. The signal spectrographic analysis showed that the acoustic signals of Chinese alligators have a very low dominant frequency, less than 500 Hz. These frequencies are consistent with adaptation to a habitat with high density vegetation. Low dominant frequency sound attenuates less and could therefore cover a larger spatial range by diffraction in a densely vegetated environment relative to a higher dominant frequency sound.

  6. Anti-TB Polyynes from the roots of Angelica sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shixin; Wang, Yuehong; Inui, Taichi; Chen, Shao-Nong; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Cho, Sanghyun; Franzblau, Scott G.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2008-01-01

    Following chemotaxonomic evidence, the PE and CHCl3 extracts of the roots of the botanical Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Dang Gui) were investigated for in vitro anti-TB activity, in parallel to studying their serotonergic and GABAergic potential. The activities were confirmed to chemically overlap with the neurotropic active principles present in medium lipophilic fractions. Phytochemical investigations led to the isolation of five polyynes: falcarindiol (1), 9Z,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol,1-acetate (2), oplopandiol (3), heptadeca-1-ene-9,10-epoxy-4,6-diyne-3,8-diol (4), and the new polyyne 8-hydroxy-1-methoxy-(Z)-9-heptadecene-4,6-diyn-3-one (5), as characterized by spectroscopic techniques including 1D, 2D NMR and HR-MS. All compounds were tested against two pathogenic strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv and Erdman) in vitro in a microplate Alamar Blue assay (MABA). The most potent anti-TB constituents were 1 and 2, exhibiting MIC values of 1.4-26.7 μg/ml; 3 showed moderate MICs (49.5 and 50.2 μg/ml, respectively) while 4 and 5 were weakly active (MIC> 60 μg/ml). Notably, none of the five compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity against VERO cells. These findings not only reveal a new potential area of therapeutic value for A. sinensis, but also underline the role of polyynes as anti-TB active principles in ethnobotanical preparations, and as lead compounds. PMID:18567055

  7. Acylated flavonol tri- and tetraglycosides in the flavonoid metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Rowe, Emily R; Lewis, Gwilym P; Veitch, Nigel C

    2011-04-01

    The foliar metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae) contains a complex mixture of flavonoids including acylated derivatives of the 3-O-rhamnosyl(1→2)[rhamnosyl(1→6)]-galactosides of kaempferol and quercetin and their 7-O-rhamnosides, together with an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. Thirteen of the acylated flavonoids, 12 of which had not been reported previously, were characterised by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Eight of these were the four isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) and their 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosides, and three were isomers of quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) - the remaining 4Z isomer was identified by LC-UV-MS analysis of a crude extract. The final two acylated flavonoids characterised by NMR were the 3E and 4E isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E-feruloyl-β-d-galactopyranoside)-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside while the 3Z and 4Z isomers were again detected by LC-UV-MS. Using the observed fragmentation behaviour of the isolated compounds following a variety of MS experiments, a further 18 acylated flavonoids were given tentative structures by LC-MS analysis of a crude extract. Acylated flavonoids were absent from the flowers of C. kentukea, which contained an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin glycosides. Immature fruits contained kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranoside and its 7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside as the major flavonoids with acylated flavonoids, different from those in the leaves, only present as minor constituents. The presence of acylated flavonoids distinguishes the foliar flavonoid metabolome of C. kentukea from that of a closely related legume, Styphnolobium japonicum, which contains a similar

  8. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  9. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  10. Genome-wide characterization of microsatellites and marker development in the carcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T B; Arimatsu, Yuji; Hong, Sung-Jong; Brindley, Paul J; Blair, David; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-06-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is an important carcinogenic human liver fluke endemic in East and Southeast Asia. There are several conventional molecular markers that have been used for identification and genetic diversity; however, no information about microsatellites of this liver fluke is published so far. We here report microsatellite characterization and marker development for a genetic diversity study in C. sinensis, using a genome-wide bioinformatics approach. Based on our search criteria, a total of 256,990 microsatellites (≥12 base pairs) were identified from a genome database of C. sinensis, with hexanucleotide motif being the most abundant (51%) followed by pentanucleotide (18.3%) and trinucleotide (12.7%). The tetranucleotide, dinucleotide, and mononucleotide motifs accounted for 9.75, 7.63, and 0.14%, respectively. The total length of all microsatellites accounts for 0. 72% of 547 Mb of the whole genome size, and the frequency of microsatellites was found to be one microsatellite in every 2.13 kb of DNA. For the di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide, the repeat numbers redundant are six (28%), four (45%), and three (76%), respectively. The ATC repeat is the most abundant microsatellites followed by AT, AAT, and AC, respectively. Within 40 microsatellite loci developed, 24 microsatellite markers showed potential to differentiate between C. sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini. Seven out of 24 loci showed to be heterozygous with observed heterozygosity that ranged from 0.467 to 1. Four primer sets could amplify both C. sinensis and O. viverrini DNA with different sizes. This study provides basic information of C. sinensis microsatellites, and the genome-wide markers developed may be a useful tool for the genetic study of C. sinensis.

  11. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad

    2016-08-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3-100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis.

  12. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding ribosome inactivating protein from Dianthus sinensis L.

    PubMed

    Cho, H J; Lee, S J; Kim, S; Kim, B D

    2000-04-30

    To isolate a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) gene, six plant species were surveyed for antiviral activity. Crude proteins extracted from these plants were tested for the antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Nicotiana glutinosa. All the plants, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Dianthus superbus, Dianthus sinensis and Celosia cristata, with an exception of Oenanthe stolonifera, presented 70-90% inhibition of viral infectivity. In an attempt to search for the RIP gene from D. sinensis, partial cDNA was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the poly(A)+ RNA from D. sinensis leaves. DNA gel blot analysis showed that D. sinensis has multi-copy RIP genes. The expression of RIP gene was investigated in the flower, leaf, root and stem of D. sinensis, and was found to be most abundant in the leaf. Using the partial cDNA as a probe, seven full-length cDNAs were isolated from a library prepared from D. sinensis leaves. They were divided into three groups on the basis of their nucleotide sequence homology. The three representative clones, cDsRIP1, cDsRIP2 and cDsRIP3 were completely sequenced. They all had an open reading frame of 882 bp. The cDsRIP2 showed 79% homology with dianthin 30 and saporin genes; 59% with PAP and Mirabilis antiviral protein MAP genes. From the analysis of deduced amino acid sequences, it was predicted that D. sinensis RIP cDNAs might have a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues at their N-terminus. When the cDNA was expressed in E. coli, the bacteria was unable to grow upon IPTG induction, suggesting that expression of the gene renders toxicity to E. coli cells.

  13. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    GJERDE, Bjørn; HILALI, Mosaad

    2016-01-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8–10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3–100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  14. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Zhang, Y; Na, L; Wang, W T; Xu, W W; Gao, D Z; Liu, Z X; Wang, C R; Zhu, X Q

    2014-08-29

    The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes was surveyed in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, between August 2011 and September 2013. Thirteen species of freshwater fish (n=3221) and one species of shrimp (n=93) were collected from Songhua river, Nenjiang river and other lakes or ponds in 37 sites of 15 representative cities in Heilongjiang Province. They were individually examined by digestion technique, and the C. sinensis metacercariae were identified morphologically followed by confirmation using sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. Ten of the 13 examined species of freshwater fishes were infected with C. sinensis metacercariae, while all shrimps were negative. The overall prevalence of C. sinensis infection in 3221 examined freshwater fishes was 19.96%, with 42.57% (272/639) in Pseudorasbora parva, 22.55% (83/368) in Hemicculter leuciclus, 20.44% (121/592) in Carassius auratus, 17.71% (68/384) in Saurogobio dabryi, 10.85% (23/212) in Rhodeus ocellatus, 10.54% (48/455) in Phoxinus lagowskii, 8.20% (21/256) in Perccottus glehnii, 6.25% (5/80) in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, 4.55% (1/22) in Xenocypris davidi, and 1.49% (1/67) in Cyprinus carpio. The average infection intensity in P. parva was 103.3 encysted metacercariae per gram of fish meat in Zhaoyuan city. The average prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Songhua river, Nenjiang river and lakes or ponds were 31.96% (503/1574), 11.30% (102/903) and 7.93% (59/744), respectively. The prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Zhaoyuan city (43.68%) was the highest among all sampling locations. These results revealed a high-prevalence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, posing significant public health concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fruit consumption and seed dispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae) by the lowland tapir in the cerrado of Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bizerril, M X A; Rodrigues, F H G; Hass, A

    2005-08-01

    Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae) were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  16. Cassane-type diterpenoids from Caesalpinia echinata (Leguminosae) and their NF-κB signaling inhibition activities.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Taichi; Ishihara, Risa; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Akashi, Haruo; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Fourteen cassane-type diterpenoids, echinalides H-U, were isolated from the stem of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae). The structures of the echinalides were elucidated by spectroscopic investigation, including 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The structures of echinalide H and echinalide T were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The absolute configurations of echinalides H, I, J and K were determined by CD spectroscopy. Additionally, the absolute configurations of echinalide L and M were determined by chemical conversion from echinalide H. These compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Echinalide M showed the most potent inhibitory activity (47±11% at 5μM) toward NF-κB-responsive gene expression.

  17. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  18. Floral Morphology and Development in Quillajaceae and Surianaceae (Fabales), the Species-poor Relatives of Leguminosae and Polygalaceae

    PubMed Central

    Bello, M. A.; Hawkins, J. A.; Rudall, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Molecular phylogenies have suggested a new circumscription for Fabales to include Leguminosae, Quillajaceae, Surianaceae and Polygalaceae. However, recent attempts to reconstruct the interfamilial relationships of the order have resulted in several alternative hypotheses, including a sister relationship between Quillajaceae and Surianaceae, the two species-poor families of Fabales. Here, floral morphology and ontogeny of these two families are investigated to explore evidence of a potential relationship between them. Floral traits are discussed with respect to early radiation in the order. Method Floral buds of representatives of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae were dissected and observed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Quillajaceae and Surianaceae possess some common traits, such as inflorescence morphology and perianth initiation, but development and organization of their reproductive whorls differ. In Quillaja, initiation of the diplostemonous androecium is unidirectional, overlapping with the petal primordia. In contrast, Suriana is obdiplostemonous, and floral organ initiation is simultaneous. Independent initiation of five carpels is common to both Quillaja and Suriana, but subsequent development differs; the antesepalous carpels of Quillaja become fused proximally and exhibit two rows of ovules, and in Suriana the gynoecium is apocarpous, gynobasic, with antepetalous biovulate carpels. Conclusions Differences in the reproductive development and organization of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae cast doubt on their potential sister relationship. Instead, Quillaja resembles Leguminosae in some floral traits, a hypothesis not suggested by molecular-based phylogenies. Despite implicit associations of zygomorphy with species-rich clades and actinomorphy with species-poor families in Fabales, this correlation sometimes fails due to high variation in floral symmetry. Studies considering specific derived clades and

  19. Floral morphology and development in Quillajaceae and Surianaceae (Fabales), the species-poor relatives of Leguminosae and Polygalaceae.

    PubMed

    Bello, M A; Hawkins, J A; Rudall, P J

    2007-12-01

    Molecular phylogenies have suggested a new circumscription for Fabales to include Leguminosae, Quillajaceae, Surianaceae and Polygalaceae. However, recent attempts to reconstruct the interfamilial relationships of the order have resulted in several alternative hypotheses, including a sister relationship between Quillajaceae and Surianaceae, the two species-poor families of Fabales. Here, floral morphology and ontogeny of these two families are investigated to explore evidence of a potential relationship between them. Floral traits are discussed with respect to early radiation in the order. Floral buds of representatives of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae were dissected and observed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Quillajaceae and Surianaceae possess some common traits, such as inflorescence morphology and perianth initiation, but development and organization of their reproductive whorls differ. In Quillaja, initiation of the diplostemonous androecium is unidirectional, overlapping with the petal primordia. In contrast, Suriana is obdiplostemonous, and floral organ initiation is simultaneous. Independent initiation of five carpels is common to both Quillaja and Suriana, but subsequent development differs; the antesepalous carpels of Quillaja become fused proximally and exhibit two rows of ovules, and in Suriana the gynoecium is apocarpous, gynobasic, with antepetalous biovulate carpels. Differences in the reproductive development and organization of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae cast doubt on their potential sister relationship. Instead, Quillaja resembles Leguminosae in some floral traits, a hypothesis not suggested by molecular-based phylogenies. Despite implicit associations of zygomorphy with species-rich clades and actinomorphy with species-poor families in Fabales, this correlation sometimes fails due to high variation in floral symmetry. Studies considering specific derived clades and reproductive biology could address more precise

  20. Floral morphology and development in Quillajaceae and Surianaceae (Fabales), the species-poor relatives of Leguminosae and Polygalaceae.

    PubMed

    Bello, M A; Hawkins, J A; Rudall, P J

    2008-06-01

    Molecular phylogenies have suggested a new circumscription for Fabales to include Leguminosae, Quillajaceae, Surianaceae and Polygalaceae. However, recent attempts to reconstruct the interfamilial relationships of the order have resulted in several alternative hypotheses, including a sister relationship between Quillajaceae and Surianaceae, the two species-poor families of Fabales. Here, floral morphology and ontogeny of these two families are investigated to explore evidence of a potential relationship between them. Floral traits are discussed with respect to early radiation in the order. Floral buds of representatives of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae were dissected and observed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Quillajaceae and Surianaceae possess some common traits, such as inflorescence morphology and perianth initiation, but development and organization of their reproductive whorls differ. In Quillaja, initiation of the diplostemonous androecium is unidirectional, overlapping with the petal primordia. In contrast, Suriana is obdiplostemonous, and floral organ initiation is simultaneous. Independent initiation of five carpels is common to both Quillaja and Suriana, but subsequent development differs; the antesepalous carpels of Quillaja become fused proximally and exhibit two rows of ovules, and in Suriana the gynoecium is apocarpous, gynobasic, with antepetalous biovulate carpels. Differences in the reproductive development and organization of Quillajaceae and Surianaceae cast doubt on their potential sister relationship. Instead, Quillaja resembles Leguminosae in some floral traits, a hypothesis not suggested by molecular-based phylogenies. Despite implicit associations of zygomorphy with species-rich clades and actinomorphy with species-poor families in Fabales, this correlation sometimes fails due to high variation in floral symmetry. Studies considering specific derived clades and reproductive biology could address more precise

  1. Digestive enzyme activities in mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris and Chinese black sleeper Bostrichthys sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renxie; Hong, Wanshu; Zhang, Qiyong

    2010-07-01

    The mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris and Chinese black sleeper Bostrichthys sinensis occupy the intertidal zone. However, both species have their own unique diet. The former is an herbivore and the latter is a carnivore. In order to reveal the relationship between digestive enzyme activities and diets in the two species, the activities of protease (P), non-specific bile salt-activated lipase (BAL) and α-amylase (A) were determined in the stomach and intestine of adult mudskipper B. pectinirostris and Chinese black sleeper B. sinensis. The results showed that the activities of protease, BAL and α-amylase in the intestine of B. pectinirostris were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those in the stomach. In B. sinensis, gastric protease activity was not different from the intestinal protease ( P>0.05), while BAL and α-amylase activities of the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those of the stomach. The activity of gastric protease in B. sinensis was significantly ( P<0.05) higher than that in B. pectinirostris, while the activities of intestinal protease were not different between the two fish species ( P>0.05). BAL activities of the stomach and intestine in B. sinensis were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those in B. pectinirostris, while α-amylase activities of the stomach and intestine in B. pectinirostris were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those in B. sinensis. The ratios of P/BAL, A/P and A/BAL of the digestive tract in B. pectinirostris were 1.5, 107.3 and 158.6, respectively; and those in B. sinensis were 0.2, 1.6 and 0.2, respectively. It can be concluded that food digestion in the adult B. pectinirostris is mainly carried out in the intestine, whereas in the adult B. sinensis it is initiated in the stomach and finishes in the intestine. The activities of BAL and α-amylase in B. pectinirostris and B. sinensis are well correlated with their diets. However, a clear-cut correlation between protease activity and diets is

  2. Angelica sinensis in China-A review of botanical profile, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Long; Zeng, Rui; Gu, Cai-Mei; Qu, Yan; Huang, Lin-Fang

    2016-08-22

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, known as Dang Gui (in Chinese), is a traditional medicinal and edible plant that has long been used for tonifying, replenishing, and invigorating blood as well as relieving pain, lubricating the intestines, and treating female irregular menstruation and amenorrhea. A. sinensis has also been used as a health product and become increasingly popular in China, Japan, and Korea. This paper aims to provide a systemic review of traditional uses of A. sinensis and its recent advances in the fields of phytochemistry, analytical methods and toxicology. In addition, possible trends, therapeutic potentials, and perspectives for future research of this plant are also briefly discussed. An extensive review of the literature was conducted, and electronic databases including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Reaxys were used to assemble the data. Ethnopharmacological literature and digitalised sources of academic libraries were also systematically searched. In addition, information was obtained from local books and The Plant List (TPL, www.theplantlist.org). This study reviews the progress in chemical analysis of A. sinensis and its preparations. Previously and newly established methods, including spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra-performance liquid chromatography(UPLC), and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (NMR), are summarized. Moreover, identified bioactive components such as polysaccharides, ligustilide and ferulic acid were reviewed, along with analytical methods for quantitative and qualitative determination of target analytes, and fingerprinting authentication, quality evaluation of A. sinensis, and toxicology and pharmacodynamic studies. Scientific reports on crude extracts and pure compounds and formulations revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory activity

  3. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; Toma, Yo; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup; Jørgensen, Uffe; Zhao, Hua; Peng, Junhua; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1–39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6–27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars. PMID:25618143

  4. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; ...

    2015-01-24

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicatedmore » a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1-39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6-27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. Ultimately, these results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars.« less

  5. Importance of wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang, a traditional herbal formula for treating women's ailments.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Janis Y X; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Du, Crystal Y Q; Dong, Tina T X; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

    2013-05-01

    Si Wu Tang (Four Agents Decoction), a traditional Chinese decoction composed of Angelica Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, has been used to treat women's diseases for more than a thousand years. According to the original description of Si Wu Tang, Angelica Sinensis Radix should be treated with wine. However, the importance of this wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang's function has not been identified. In this article, the chemical and biological properties of two decoctions processed in different ways (Si Wu Tang with crude Angelica Sinensis Radix and Si Wu Tang with wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix) were compared for examination. The herbal decoction Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix contained much different amounts of its active compounds. Compared with Si Wu Tang using crude Angelica Sinensis Radix, Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix had better biological responses. Therefore, these findings accentuate the functional importance of herbs treated with wine in the Chinese decoction.

  6. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) INTRODUCED TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...

  7. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) INTRODUCED TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...

  8. Genomic Analysis of Detoxification Supergene Families in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. The recently published An. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Analysis of the An. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 31 glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and 50 choline/carboxylesterases (CCEs). The gene number was similar to that in An. gambiae, but represented a decrease of 29% and 42% compared with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The considerable contraction in gene number in Anopheles mosquitoes mainly occurred in two detoxification supergene families, P450s and CCEs. The available An. sinensis transcriptome was also re-analyzed to further identify key resistance-associated detoxification genes. Among 174 detoxification genes, 124 (71%) were detected. Several candidate genes overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) were identified as belonging to the CYP4 or CYP6 family of P450s and the Delta GST class. These generated data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated genes of An. sinensis at the molecular level. PMID:26588704

  9. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65, (P<0.05), while MPO activity was also significantly reduced. Proinflammatory cytokine level was also reduced in treated group as compared to both other groups. On the basis of this study we concluded that the use of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats.

  10. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65, (P<0.05), while MPO activity was also significantly reduced. Proinflammatory cytokine level was also reduced in treated group as compared to both other groups. On the basis of this study we concluded that the use of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats. PMID:26261562

  11. [The mechanical wound transcriptome of three-year-old Aquilaria sinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Gao, Zhi-hui; Wei, Jian-he; Xu, Yan-hong; Li, Ying; Yang, Yun; Meng, Hui; Sui, Chun; Wang, Meng-xi

    2012-08-01

    Chinese agarwood is formed in the aromatic resinous wood formed in Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg (botanical family: Thymelaeaceae). Only when suffering stress of wound, etc, can A. sinensis produce sesquiterpenes etc. compounds of agarwood around wounds. However, little is known about how wound induced the biosynthesis pathway of sesquiterpenes. To reveal the molecular mechanism of wound-induced agarwood formation, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was used to investigate the profile of gene expression in A. sinensis treated by mechanical wounding and elucidate its functional gene. A total of 40,295 ESTs with an average read length of 305 bp were generated and 22 095 unigenes were formed by initial gene splicing. 61.6% of these unigenes (13 611) were annotated using BLAST searches against the SwissProt, KEGG, Nr and Nt databases. Twenty-six unigenes (encoding 7 enzymes) were found to be involved in sesquiterpene of agarwood biosynthesis by bioinformatic tools of Gene Ontology and KEGG. Novel genes that are potentially involved in sesquiterpenes biosynthesis were identified in A. sinensis, providing data for further sesquiterpenes biosynthesis pathway by molecular methods and the EST data establish a foundation for future studies in the molecular mechanisms of wound-induce agarwood formation in A. sinensis.

  12. [Research on chemotherapy measures in different Clonorchis sinensis infectiosity endemic areas].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yue-yi; Ruan, Cai-wen; Gao, Xiang-xiong; Tan, Tan; Chen, Rao-rao; Hao, Yang

    2014-06-01

    To explore the suitable chemotherapy measures in different Clonorchis sinensis infectiosity endemic areas. The interventional groups and control groups were set up in the heavy, moderate and light C. sinensis infectiosity areas in Guangdong Province, respectively. In the intervention groups, the chemotherapy was administered among all the residents aged above 3 years in the heavy endemic areas, the chemotherapy was given among the focus populations in the moderate endemic areas, and the chemotherapy was administered among the residents infected with C. sinensis confirmed by stool examinations in the light endemic areas. No measures were carried out in the control groups. One year after the interventions, the C. sinensis infection rates of the interventional groups decreased by 47.90%, 86.52% and 100%, the abnormal rates of liver B ultrasonic examinations decreased by 26.50%, 31.00% and 100%, the ALT abnormal rates decreased by 48.70%, 62.30% and 100%, and the AST abnormal rates decreased by 55.50%, 39.90% and 100% in the heavy, moderate and light endemic areas, respectively. There was no decreasing trend of above-mentioned indexes in the control groups. In the different C. sinensis infectiosity endemic areas, the different chemotherapy measures should be carried out.

  13. Development of Ophiocordyceps sinensis through Plant-Mediated Interkingdom Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Zhang, Guren; Peng, Qingyun; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a well-known entomogenous and medicinal fungus. After its anamorphs parasitize the larvae of the genus Thitarodes, fruit-bodies may form to be used as medicine. However, its developmental mechanisms remain unknown. The distribution of O. sinensis was determined in different tissues of the Thitarodes larvae and the dominant plant species using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, respectively. We found that more fungal material was located in plants than in larvae, especially in Ranunculus tanguticus. A considerable amount was detected in larval intestinal-wall and plant roots. It is suggested that plants are the potential hosts of O. sinensis, which modifies our understanding of the life cycle of O. sinensis and indicates that the phytophagous larvae may become infected as they feed. Our research may contribute to the study of systematic evolution and population ecology of O. sinensis, elucidate its developmental mechanism and promote sustainable harvesting. PMID:26263972

  14. [Cordyceps sinensis enhances lymphocyte proliferation and CD markers expression in simulated microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Hao, Tong; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Yan-Meng; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity.

  15. IDENTIFCATION AND VALIDATION OF NOVEL microRNA MOLECULE FROM THE PELODISCUS SINENSIS BY BIOINFORMATICS APPROACHES.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Ren, Hong Tao; Wang, Zhan Bin; Sun, Xi Hong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous, short non-coding RNAs with the length of about 22 nt, which mediate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through mRNA degradation or translational repression. Among them, some are highly evolutionally conserved in the animal kingdom; this provides a powerful strategy for identifying miRNAs in new species. The Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) is one of the most important freshwater aquaculture reptilian species in China, but related miRNAs have not been identified up to now. In the present study, a total of 10 Pelodiscus sinensis miRNAs were identified according to Pelodiscus sinensis ESTs and GSSs information in NCBI database by bioinformatics approaches. The RT-PCR-based assays were performed and found that 10 Pelodiscus sinensis miRNAs were expressed. Using these miRNAs, 22 target genes were identified. These genes encode 22 proteins involved in metabolism, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, and development. These miRNAs and their targets will serve as useful resources for their, functional analyses in miRNA-regulated processes in Pelodiscus sinensis breeding and genetic research.

  16. Limnoithona sinensis as refuge for bacteria: protection from UV radiation and chlorine disinfection in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Cai, Bo; Chen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we tested the potential of Limnoithona sinensis to provide its attached bacteria refuge against disinfection. The experimental results indicated that in water devoid of zooplankton, both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection significantly decreased the viability of free-living bacteria. In the presence of L. sinensis, however, the attached bacteria could survive and rapidly recover from disinfection. This demonstrated that L. sinensis provided protection from external damage to various aquatic bacteria that were attached to its body. The surviving bacteria remained on L. sinensis after disinfection exposure, which enabled a rapid increase in the bacterial population followed by their subsequent release into the surrounding water. Compared with UV radiation, chlorine disinfection was more effective in terms of inactivating attached bacteria. Both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection had little effect in terms of preventing the spread of undesirable bacteria, due to the incomplete inactivation of the bacteria associated with L. sinensis.

  17. Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

  18. Evaluation of anti-osteoarthritic activity of Vigna mungo in papain induced osteoarthritis model

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhaval V.; Sawant, Mrunal Ghag; Kaur, Ginpreet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Vigna mungo hydroalcoholic extract (VMHA) by papain induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the rat model. Materials and Methods: OA was induced by intra-articular injection of papain (4% w/v) along with cysteine (0.03 M) on day 1, 4 and 7 in rats and VMHA was administered orally in three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) after last papain injection. The anti-osteoarthritic activity was evaluated by measuring knee joint diameter, grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time. Histopathological analysis and acute toxicity study were also performed. Results: VMHA improved inflammatory condition with all the doses, but significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of inflammation was present only with 400 mg/kg dose. The grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time were also significantly (P < 0.05) improved at dose level of 100 mg/kg however other two doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) were not found to be effective. VMHA did not show any mortality or any toxic clinical signs after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose. Conclusion: VMHA improved arthritic condition by significantly reducing pain and inflammation. PMID:25821313

  19. Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development.

    PubMed

    de Lima, André Suêldo Tavares; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreirab; de Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira; de Paula Oliveira, José; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Figueiredo Márcia do Vale Barreto

    2011-07-01

    The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

  20. Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

  1. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = −0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. PMID:25505908

  2. Photochemical modulation of biosafe manganese nanoparticles on Vigna radiata: a detailed molecular, biochemical, and biophysical study.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Das, Sumistha; Chandra, Sourov; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Akbar, Shirin; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2013-11-19

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for plants which intervenes mainly in photosynthesis. In this study we establish that manganese nanoparticles (MnNP) work as a better micronutrient than commercially available manganese salt, MnSO4 (MS) at recommended doses on leguminous plant mung bean (Vigna radiata) under laboratory condition. At higher doses it does not impart toxicity to the plant unlike MS. MnNP-treated chloroplasts show greater photophosphorylation, oxygen evolution with respect to control and MS-treated chloroplasts as determined by biophysical and biochemical techniques. Water splitting by an oxygen evolving complex is enhanced by MnNP in isolated chloroplast as confirmed by polarographic and spectroscopic techniques. Enhanced activity of the CP43 protein of a photosystem II (PS II) Mn4Ca complex influenced better phosphorylation in the electron transport chain in the case of MnNP-treated chloroplast, which is evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and corresponding Western blot analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report to augment photosynthesis using MnNP and its detailed correlation with different molecular, biochemical and biophysical parameters of photosynthetic pathways. At effective dosage, MnNP is found to be biosafe both in plant and animal model systems. Therefore MnNP would be a novel potential nanomodulator of photochemistry in the agricultural sector.

  3. Biological effect of audible sound control on mung bean (Vigna radiate) sprout.

    PubMed

    Cai, W; He, H; Zhu, S; Wang, N

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20-20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000-1500 Hz, 1500-2000 Hz, and 2000-2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean.

  4. Immobilization of acid phosphatase from Vigna aconitifolia seeds on chitosan beads and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pramod Kumar; Anand, Asha

    2014-03-01

    Acid phosphatase isolated from Vigna aconitifolia seeds was immobilized onto glutaraldehyde activated chitosan beads by crosslinking method. Chitosan beads activated with 2% of glutaraldehyde have demonstrated maximum immobilization yield (∼ 83%). The immobilized enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 7.0, while soluble form was maximally active in acidic range (pH 5.0). With respect to free form, immobilized acid phosphatase showed better activity in alkaline range. On the other side, immobilization does not affect the optimum temperature range i.e., both, soluble and immobilized acid phosphatase exhibited maximum activity at 60 °C. The Km and Vmax values for the immobilized enzyme were calculated to be 0.37 mM and 13.5 U/mg. The immobilization on chitosan beads enhanced the shelf life of acid phosphatase. The immobilized enzyme retained its more than 50% hydrolytic activity for approximately two months. The immobilized acid phosphatase was reusable for more than 40 cycles of reaction.

  5. Rhizobium vignae sp. nov., a symbiotic bacterium isolated from multiple legume species.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da Wei; Chen, Wen Feng; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-03-01

    A group of rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of multiple legume species grown in different geographical regions of China had identical 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strains formed a subclade in the genus Rhizobium together with Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium huautlense and Rhizobium alkalisoli, with 99.8  % gene sequence similarity between the strains. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between the representative strain CCBAU 05176(T) and R. galegae ATCC 43677(T), R. huautlense S02(T) and R. alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T) were 22.6  %, 8.9  % and 15.9  %, respectively. The novel strains were distinguished from recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by using a polyphasic approach, including PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS), phenotypic and physiological tests, sequence comparisons of housekeeping genes and cellular fatty acid profiles. Therefore, it is suggested that this group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Rhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCBAU 05176(T) (=HAMBI 3039(T)=LMG 25447(T)).

  6. The identification of starch phosphorylase in the developing mungbean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Yuan-Tih; Chang, Jin-Yi; Lee, Ya-Ting; Wu, Yi-Hui

    2005-07-13

    Starch phosphorylase (SP) in immature mungbean (Vigna radiata L. cv KPS1) seed soluble extract was detected by in situ activity staining and identified by MALDI-TOF mass analysis. After in situ SP assay on native-PAGE, a major starch-enzyme complex was located on the gel zymogram in a dose-dependent manner. This complex depicted two major SP-activity related proteins, 105 kDa and 55 kDa, by SDS-PAGE. The mass and predicted sequence of the tryptic fragments of the isolated 105 kDa protein, analyzed by MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and bioinformatic analysis, confirmed it to be mungbean SP as a result of high similarity to the L-SP of known plant. Polyclonal antibodies raised from the 55 kDa recognized both the 105 kDa and the 55 kDa proteins on the Western blot and neutralized partial SP activity, indicating that the two proteins were immunologically related. The 55 kDa protein possess high similarity to the N-terminal half of the 105 kDa SP was further confirmed. The SP activity and the activity stained protein density in mungbean soluble extract decreased as the seed size increased during early seed growth. These data indicate that mungbean 105 kDa SP and SP activity-related 55 kDa were identified in the developing mungbean.

  7. Detection of proteins related to starch synthase activity in the developing mungbean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Yuan-Tih; Pan, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Ya-Ting; Chang, Jin-Yi

    2005-06-15

    Proteins associated with starch synthase (SS) activities were identified in immature mungbeans (Vigna radiata L. cv KPS1). Seed soluble extract was separated by native-PAGE and subjected to in situ activity staining. The gel zymogram located starch-enzyme complex bands. The soluble extract was also partitioned by preparative-IEF and screened for SS activity using radioactive assay. IEF fractions eluted within pH 4-6 revealed enriched SS activity of 145-fold. Parallel comparison of the protein profiles among the activity stained enzyme complex and the active isoelectric focused fractions on SDS-PAGE depicted three SS-activity-related proteins with molecular size of 32, 53, and 85 kDa. The 85 kDa protein, however, was identified to be methionine synthase by MALDI-TOF analysis and should be a protein physically associated with the active SS. Polyclonal antibodies raised from eluted native enzyme complex neutralized up to 90% activity and antigenically recognize the other 53 and 32 kDa proteins on Western blot. Antibodies raised from the two individual denatured proteins were able to neutralize SS activities near 60% separately, indicating that the 53 kDa and 32 proteins associated with SS activity are potentially involved in starch biosynthesis during mungbean seed development.

  8. Biological Effect of Audible Sound Control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Sprout

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W.; He, H.; Zhu, S.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20–20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000–1500 Hz, 1500–2000 Hz, and 2000–2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean. PMID:25170517

  9. Biofortification of mungbean (Vigna radiata) as a whole food to enhance human health.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Yang, Ray-Yu; Easdown, Warwick J; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A; Keatinge, J D H Dyno

    2013-06-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in South, East and Southeast Asia. It provides significant amounts of protein (240 g kg(-1)) and carbohydrate (630 g kg(-1)) and a range of micronutrients in diets. Mungbean protein and carbohydrate are easily digestible and create less flatulence than proteins derived from other legumes. In addition, mungbean is lower in phytic acid (72% of total phosphorus content) than pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and cereals; phytic acid is commonly found in cereal and legume crops and has a negative impact on iron and zinc bioavailability in plant-based diets. Owing to its palatable taste and nutritional quality, mungbean has been used as an iron-rich whole food source for baby food. The wide genetic variability of mineral concentrations (e.g. 0.03-0.06 g Fe kg(-1), 0.02-0.04 g Zn kg(-1)) in mungbean indicates possibilities to improve its micronutrient content through biofortification. Therefore biofortification of existing mungbean varieties has great potential for enhancing the nutritional quality of diets in South and Southeast Asia, where protein and micronutrient malnutrition are among the highest in the world. This review paper discusses the importance of mungbean in agricultural production and traditional diets and the potential of enhancing the nutritional quality of mungbean through breeding and other means, including agronomic practices.

  10. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  11. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties.

  12. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant

    PubMed Central

    Silva, F.V.; Simões-Araújo, J.L.; Silva Júnior, J.P.; Xavier, G.R.; Rumjanek, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium. PMID:24031880

  13. Lifespan Extending and Stress Resistant Properties of Vitexin from Vigna angularis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; Cha, Youn-Soo; Kim, Mina; Song, Seuk Bo; Cha, Dong Seok; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Han, Sooncheon; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-01-01

    Several theories emphasize that aging is closely related to oxidative stress and disease. The formation of excess ROS can lead to DNA damage and the acceleration of aging. Vigna angularis is one of the important medicinal plants in Korea. We isolated vitexin from V. angularis and elucidated the lifespan-extending effect of vitexin using the Caenorhabditis elegans model system. Vitexin showed potent lifespan extensive activity and it elevated the survival rates of nematodes against the stressful environments including heat and oxidative conditions. In addition, our results showed that vitexin was able to elevate antioxidant enzyme activities of worms and reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of vitexin-mediated nematode could be attributed to increased expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). In this work, we also studied whether vitexin-mediated longevity activity was associated with aging-related factors such as progeny, food intake, growth and movement. The data revealed that these factors were not affected by vitexin treatment except movement. Vitexin treatment improved the body movement of aged nematode, suggesting vitexin affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. These results suggest that vitexin might be a probable candidate which could extend the human lifespan. PMID:26535084

  14. Bruchid egg induced transcript dynamics in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo).

    PubMed

    Baruah, Indrani K; Panda, Debashis; M V, Jagadale; Das, Deba Jit; Acharjee, Sumita; Sen, Priyabrata; Sarmah, Bidyut Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds are a rich source of digestible proteins, however, during storage these seeds are severely damaged by bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.), reducing seed quality and yield losses. Most of the cultivated genotypes of black gram are susceptible to bruchids, however, few tolerant genotypes have also been identified but the mechanism of tolerance is poorly understood. We employed Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) to identify specifically, but rarely expressed bruchid egg induced genes in black gram. In this study, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) library was constructed to study the genes involved in defense response in black gram against bruchid infestation. An EST library of 277 clones was obtained for further analyses. Based on CAP3 assembly, 134 unigenes were computationally annotated using Blast2GOPRO software. In all, 20 defense related genes were subject to quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR) out of which 12 genes showed up-regulation in developing seeds of the pods oviposited by bruchids. Few major defense genes like defensin, pathogenesis related protein (PR), lipoxygenase (LOX) showed high expression levels in the oviposited population when compared with the non-oviposited plants. This is the first report on defense related gene transcript dynamics during the bruchid-black gram interaction using SSH library. This library would be useful to clone defense related gene(s) such as defensin as represented in our library for crop improvement.

  15. Zinc and copper induced changes in physiological characteristics of Vigna mungo (L.).

    PubMed

    Solanki, Radha; Anju; Poonam; Dhankhar, R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of deleterious concentration of zinc and copper provided either individually or in combination in the nutrient media was investigated in order to assess the effect of metal interaction in Vigna mungo (L.). Both metals showed negative effect and led to a marked decrease in seed germination (20%), seedling growth (91.7%) and nitrate reductase activity (85.7%) with the increase in metal concentrations. The present study also emphasizes on the response of catalase and peroxidase enzyme under zinc and copper stress. Both antioxidant enzymes exhibited an increasing trend under different treatment conditions but it was reverse at highly toxic metal concentration. The results showed active involvement of peroxidase enzyme in regulating oxidative stress rather than catalase enzyme, as the specific activity of peroxidase enzyme got increased by 8.94% under the combined metals stress whereas catalase activity got declined by 60.97% in comparison to control due to excessive stress. The combined effect of copper and zinc metal was more pronounced in comparison to their individual effects.

  16. Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, André Suêldo Tavares; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreirab; de Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira; de Paula Oliveira, José; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Figueiredo, Márcia do Vale Barreto

    2011-01-01

    The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI – 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI – 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis – 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs. PMID:24031707

  17. Crystal structure of Vigna radiata cytokinin-specific binding protein in complex with zeatin.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Oliwia; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Jelen, Filip; Otlewski, Jacek; Sikorski, Michal M; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2006-10-01

    The cytosolic fraction of Vigna radiata contains a 17-kD protein that binds plant hormones from the cytokinin group, such as zeatin. Using recombinant protein and isothermal titration calorimetry as well as fluorescence measurements coupled with ligand displacement, we have reexamined the K(d) values and show them to range from approximately 10(-6) M (for 4PU30) to 10(-4) M (for zeatin) for 1:1 stoichiometry complexes. In addition, we have crystallized this cytokinin-specific binding protein (Vr CSBP) in complex with zeatin and refined the structure to 1.2 A resolution. Structurally, Vr CSBP is similar to plant pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) proteins, despite low sequence identity (<20%). This unusual fold conservation reinforces the notion that classic PR-10 proteins have evolved to bind small-molecule ligands. The fold consists of an antiparallel beta-sheet wrapped around a C-terminal alpha-helix, with two short alpha-helices closing a cavity formed within the protein core. In each of the four independent CSBP molecules, there is a zeatin ligand located deep in the cavity with conserved conformation and protein-ligand interactions. In three cases, an additional zeatin molecule is found in variable orientation but with excellent definition in electron density, which plugs the entrance to the binding pocket, sealing the inner molecule from contact with bulk solvent.

  18. Antioxidant and Myocardial Preservation Activities of Natural Phytochemicals from Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Chang, Jiawei; Xu, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Liu, Hongxin; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-06-08

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds (MBS) contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This study was aimed to isolate key bioactive components from MBS with antioxidant and myocardial preservation activities. A new flavonoid C-glycoside, isovitexin-6″-O-α-l-glucoside, and 14 known compounds were obtained. Their structures were identified by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and FT-ICR-MS spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1-5 and 7-10 displayed 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, but only 5 and 7 exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity. The myocardial preservation effect of 2, 3, and MBS were investigated by measuring the serum levels of LDH, CK, and AST as well as the tissue level of MDA and SOD. The results demonstrated that 2, 3, and MBS had a significant protective effect against ISO-induced myocardial ischemia. MBS can be regarded as a potential new source of antioxidants and myocardial preservation agents.

  19. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae))

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  20. Isolation and Partial Characterization of a Subtilisin Inhibitor from the Mung Bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Kapur, R; Tan-Wilson, A L; Wilson, K A

    1989-09-01

    The subtilisin inhibitor (MBSI-A) from the mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seed has been purified to homogeneity. MBSI-A consists of a single polypeptide chain of 119 residues, with a high content of glutamic acid/glutamine, aspartic acid/asparagine, valine, threonine, and proline (19, 12, 10, 9, and 8 residue percent, respectively). MBSI-A is a potent inhibitor of subtilisin Carlsberg, but is inactive toward bovine trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin and the plant cysteinyl proteinase papain. The MBSI is located exclusively in the cytosol of the seed cotyledon cell, unlike the mung bean trypsin inhibitor (MBTI), which is located primarily in the protein bodies. Both MBSI and MBTI accumulate in the seed during the most active period of reserve protein accumulation, 12 to 18 days after flowering. During germination MBSI, like MBTI, is broken down beginning 2 to 3 days after seed imbibition. The disappearance of MBSI-A is accompanied by the transient appearance of a new inhibitor species, MBSI-D. The amino acid composition of MBSI-D suggests that it may be produced by the loss of approximately 20 amino acid residues from MBSI-A.

  1. Metabolomic analysis of the polyphenols in germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata) seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongyan; Dong, Yinmao; Guo, Na; Li, Li; Ren, Hankun

    2014-06-01

    The mung bean (Vigna radiata) is a key food crop in much of Asia and contains plentiful biological activities to prevent human disease. Mung bean sprouts have more plentiful metabolites and activities after germination. The metabolite profile of polyphenols in the germination process was described using the methods of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Sprouts from different periods were clearly discriminated from each other. Eight flavonoids - vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, isoquercitrin, genistein, daidzein and isorhamnetin - and two phenolic acids - shikimic acid and caffeic acid - were thought to be chemical markers of the sprouts. The method of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was established to quantitatively analyze the eight chemical markers of flavonoids, and provides good linearity, repeatability, intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy and recovery. The main metabolic and transformation pathways of the polyphenols in the germination process were discussed. The proposed method is sensitive, rapid and robust. Understanding the complete profile of polyphenol metabolites in the germination process may be useful for better utilizing mung beans sprouts as the raw materials of functional food, health products and cosmetics. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effects of Nano Silver Oxide and Silver Ions on Growth of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Kumar, Arun

    2015-09-01

    Transformation of silver oxide nanoparticles (nano-Ag2O) to silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) and silver ions in environment is possible which might pose toxicity to plants and other species. The objective of this study was to study effects of nano-Ag2O and silver ions on growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. V. radiata seeds were exposed to nano-Ag2O and silver ions (concentration range: 4.3 × 10(-7), 4.3 × 10(-6), 4.3 × 10(-5), 4.3 × 10(-4), and 4.3 × 10(-3) mol/L) for 6 days. Root length, shoot length and dry weight of seedlings were found to decrease due to exposure of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. These findings indicate silver ions to be more toxic to V. radiata seeds than nano-Ag2O. Silver content in seedlings was found to increase with increasing concentrations of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. Overall, findings of the present study add to the existing knowledge of phytotoxicity of silver-based nanoparticles of different chemical compositions to V. radiata seeds and need to be considered during use of nanoparticles-contaminated water for irrigation purposes.

  3. Characterization of seed storage proteins in high protein genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prachi; Singh, Rohtas; Malhotra, S; Boora, K S; Singal, H R

    2010-01-01

    Twenty one genotypes and two check varieties viz. CS-88 and V-240 of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ] were screened for total proteins. The total protein content ranged from 22.4 (HC-3) to 27.9 % (HC-98-64) in 21 genotypes whereas in check varieties it was 25.6 (V-240) and 26.0 % (CS-88). Seven genotypes viz. HC-6, HC-5, CP-21, LST-II-C-12, CP-16, COVU-702 and HC-98-64 having high protein content (26.7 to 27.9 %) were selected for further characterization of their seed storage proteins. Globulins were the major protein fraction ranging from 55.6 (LST-II-C-12) to 58.8 % (CP-16 and HC-6) of total protein. Glutelins was the second major fraction ranging from 14.4 to 15.6 % followed by albumins (8.2 to 11.9 %) and prolamins (2.3 to 5.0 %). Content of free amino acids also showed variations amongst genotypes with COVU-702 having maximum and LST-II-C-12 having minimum content. Essential amino acid analysis revealed that S-amino acids (cysteine and methionine) were the first limiting amino acids followed by tryptophan. From the results presented here it could be suggested that two genotypes viz. LST-II-C-12 and HC-5 be used in breeding programmes aimed at developing high protein moth bean varieties with good quality.

  4. Purification and characterization of catalase from sprouted black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kandukuri, Sai Srikar; Noor, Ayesha; Ranjini, S Shiva; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-03-15

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a legume which belongs to Fabaceae family. It is a rich source of protein. It has been known to have interesting small molecule antioxidant activity. However, its enzymatic antioxidant properties have not been explored much. In the present work we studied catalase, a principal antioxidant enzyme from black gram seeds. Day four sprouted black gram seeds were found to have a significant catalase content approximately of 15,240 U/g seeds. IMAC (Seph 4B-IDA-Zn(II)) was used for purifying this catalase, a purification fold of 106 and a high specific activity of 25,704 U/mg was obtained. The K(m) and V(max) of the purified catalase were found to be 16.2 mM and 2.5 μmol/min. The effect of inhibitors like Sodium azide (NaN(3)) and EDTA and different metal ions on catalase activity were studied. NaN(3), Fe(3+)and Cu(2+) were found to have profound inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. Other metal ions like Ni(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) had both enhancing and inhibitory effects. The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 40°C and pH 7.0. It was stable over a broad range of pH 6.0-10.0 and had a half life of 7h 30 min at 50°C.

  5. Flower morphology, pollination biology and mating system of the complex flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae).

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-09-01

    Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3.75-5.25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a 'brush type'). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity.

  6. Screening three cultivars of Vigna mungo L. against ozone by application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, M

    2010-10-01

    Three Indian black gram cultivars (Vigna mungo L. cv. Barkha, Shekhar and TU-94-2) were grown at a tropical suburban site in Varanasi, India to evaluate the varietal differences in response to ambient O(3) under field conditions using ethylenediurea (EDU). EDU (400 ppm) was given as soil drench at 10-day intervals during the growth period of the cultivars. O(3) monitoring data clearly showed high concentrations with a mean value ranging between 41.3 and 59.9 ppb. EDU treatment caused significant increases in various growth parameters and total biomass accumulation in Barkha and Shekhar. EDU caused retention of more biomass in leaves during vegetative period and translocated more photosynthates towards reproductive parts, which resulted into yield enhancement. Weight of seeds plant(-1) was higher by 36.4% and 35.6% in Barkha and Shekhar, respectively, treated with EDU compared to non-EDU-treated plants. However, TU-94-2 did not exhibit any significant difference in weight of seeds plant(-1). Starch, total sugar, amino acids and K contents increased in seeds of EDU-treated plants leading to improvement in quality response index (QRI) of seeds. EDU helped in identifying the cultivar susceptibility to O(3) stress and therefore is very useful as a monitoring tool to assess the impact of ambient O(3) on plants under natural field conditions particularly in areas experiencing moderate concentrations of O(3).

  7. Protein quality and antinutritional factors in wild and cultivated species of Vigna spp.

    PubMed

    Carnovale, E; Lugaro, E; Marconi, E

    1991-01-01

    The nutritional quality of wild and cultivated species of Vigna has been evaluated. Wild species showed significantly higher protein content (P less than 0.01), antitryptic activity (P less than 0.005) and tannin content (P less than 0.025) and significantly lower protein digestibility (P less than 0.005). No significant differences were found with regard to protein quality, measured as chemical score corrected by the digestibility; sulphur amino acids turned out to be limiting in both groups. In addition no correlations were found between sulphur amino acids and protein levels, or between sulphur amino acid and trypsin inhibitor levels. Selected lines showed an improvement from the nutritional point of view linked to lower antitryptic factors and tannin content, which may give rise to a decreased resistance to pests. For all the properties considered, whether physical or biochemical, wild samples presented wider variations and the types considered most primitive were those that differed most from the cultivated ones, whose properties were altogether more consistent. In vitro protein digestibility turned out to be a useful parameter in evaluating wild and improved samples.

  8. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  9. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) pods biomass.

    PubMed

    Guyo, Upenyu; Sibanda, Kudakwashe; Sebata, Edith; Chigondo, Fidelis; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-01

    The potential to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using a biosorbent prepared from Vigna unguiculata pods (VUPs) was investigated in batch experiments. The batch mode experiments were conducted utilising the independent variables of pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g), nickel(II) concentrations (10 to 80 mg L(-1)) and temperature (20 to 50°C). The biosorption data fitted best to the Freundlich biosorption model with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.993 and lowest chi-squared value of 31.89. The maximum sorption capacity of the VUP for nickel(II) was 27.70 mg g(-1). Kinetics studies revealed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error value (0.808) and correlation coefficient close to unity (R(2) = 0.998). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Consequently, the study demonstrated that VUP biomass could be used as a biosorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution.

  10. Partial alleviation of oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in Vigna radiata by polyamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mandar; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2017-08-01

    Environmental changes generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in abiotic stress in plants. This causes alterations in germination, morphology, growth and development ultimately leading to yield loss. Gamma irradiation was used to experimentally induce oxidative damage in an important pulse crop Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek or mung bean. Our research was aimed towards augmentation of oxidative stress tolerance through treatment with a group of aliphatic amines known as polyamines. We used sub-lethal doses of gamma irradiation to generate oxidative damage which was evaluated using Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining, total antioxidant activity, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, proline content and lipid peroxidation. Changes in internal free polyamines and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of key rate-limiting S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) enzyme in polyamine biosynthetic pathway was studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed increased oxidative damage with higher irradiation dose which was partially alleviated by putrescine treatment. Internal levels of putrescine and spermidine increased with 1 mM (50 and 100 Gy) and 2 mM putrescine treatment. Expression of SAMDC also increased with putrescine treatment. This study shows that treatment with putrescine can partially alleviate oxidative damage caused by gamma rays.

  11. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  12. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, A.; Thio, B.; Kiemde, S.; Drabo, I.; Dabire, C.; Ouedraogo, J.; Mullens, T. R.; Ehlers, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus. PMID:22661784

  13. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit.

  14. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies.

  15. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    PubMed

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection.

  16. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus.

  17. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26726262

  18. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Genetic relationship of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties from Senegal based on SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Badiane, F A; Gowda, B S; Cissé, N; Diouf, D; Sadio, O; Timko, M P

    2012-02-08

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 22 local cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties and inbred lines collected throughout Senegal were evaluated using simple sequence repeat molecular markers. A set of 49 primer combinations were developed from cowpea genomic/expressed sequence tags and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms among the various cowpea genotypes. Forty-four primer combinations detected polymorphisms, with the remaining five primer sets failing to yield PCR amplification products. From one to 16 alleles were found among the informative primer combinations; their frequencies ranged from 0.60 to 0.95 (mean = 0.79). The genetic diversity of the sample varied from 0.08 to 0.42 (mean = 0.28). The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.33 (mean = 0.23). The local varieties clustered in the same group, except 53-3, 58-53, and 58-57; while Ndoute yellow pods, Ndoute violet pods and Baye Ngagne were in the second group. The photosensitive varieties (Ndoute yellow pods and Ndoute violet pods) were closely clustered in the second group and so were inbred line Mouride and local cultivar 58-57, which is also one of the parents for inbred line Mouride. These molecular markers could be used for selection and identification of elite varieties for cowpea improvement and germplasm management in Senegal.

  20. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  2. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    PubMed

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  3. Bruchid egg induced transcript dynamics in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo)

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Indrani K.; Panda, Debashis; M.V, Jagadale; Das, Deba Jit; Acharjee, Sumita; Sen, Priyabrata; Sarmah, Bidyut Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds are a rich source of digestible proteins, however, during storage these seeds are severely damaged by bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.), reducing seed quality and yield losses. Most of the cultivated genotypes of black gram are susceptible to bruchids, however, few tolerant genotypes have also been identified but the mechanism of tolerance is poorly understood. We employed Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) to identify specifically, but rarely expressed bruchid egg induced genes in black gram. In this study, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) library was constructed to study the genes involved in defense response in black gram against bruchid infestation. An EST library of 277 clones was obtained for further analyses. Based on CAP3 assembly, 134 unigenes were computationally annotated using Blast2GOPRO software. In all, 20 defense related genes were subject to quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR) out of which 12 genes showed up-regulation in developing seeds of the pods oviposited by bruchids. Few major defense genes like defensin, pathogenesis related protein (PR), lipoxygenase (LOX) showed high expression levels in the oviposited population when compared with the non-oviposited plants. This is the first report on defense related gene transcript dynamics during the bruchid-black gram interaction using SSH library. This library would be useful to clone defense related gene(s) such as defensin as represented in our library for crop improvement. PMID:28448540

  4. Flower Morphology, Pollination Biology and Mating System of the Complex Flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Methods Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. Key Results The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3·75–5·25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a ‘brush type’). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Conclusions Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity. PMID:18587133

  5. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = -0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  6. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: A case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Moray, C.; Game, E. T.; Maxted, N.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  7. The extract of Cordyceps sinensis inhibited airway inflammation by blocking NF-κB activity.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Ya-Ling; Lin, Ching-Yuang

    2012-06-01

    Aiming the extract of Cordyceps sinensis significantly inhibits airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and the infiltration of eosinophils in the airway of rats and may be related to the modulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cells functions. The mechanisms of C. sinensis involved in modulation of suppression inflammation are not yet determined. In this study, the mechanism involved in the extract of C. sinensis-C.S.3-modulated suppression of inflammation was investigated in vivo and in vitro systems. The results showed that C.S.3 reduced airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice. Furthermore, we found C.S.3 could decrease extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway to suppress activity of nuclear factor-κB in lung cells and cultured airway smooth muscle cells. Conclusion C.S.3 may provide clinical applications for asthma in the future.

  8. Metabolic fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis during growth using UPLC-TOFMS and chemometrics data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The radix of Angelica sinensis is widely used as a medicinal herbal and metabolomics research of this plant during growth is necessary. Results Principal component analysis of the UPLC-QTOFMS data showed that these 27 samples could be separated into 4 different groups. The chemical markers accounting for these separations were identified from the PCA loadings plot. These markers were further verified by accurate mass tandem mass and retention times of available reference standards. The study has shown that accumulation of secondary metabolites of Angelica sinensis is closely related to the growth periods. Conclusions The UPLC-QTOFMS based metabolomics approach has great potential for analysis of the alterations of secondary metabolites of Angelica sinensis during growth. PMID:23453085

  9. Development of 12 genic microsatellite loci for a biofuel grass, Miscanthus sinensis (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Ho, Chuan-Wen; Wu, Tai-Han; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Huang, Jao-Ching; Huang, Chi-Chun; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2011-08-01

    Miscanthus, a nonfood plant with high potential as a biofuel, has been used in Europe and the United States. The selection of a cultivar with high biomass, photosynthetic efficiency, and stress resistance from wild populations has become an important issue. New genic microsatellite markers will aid the assessment of genetic diversity for different strains. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from the transcriptome of Miscanthus sinensis fo. glaber were identified and screened on 80 individuals of M. sinensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 12, and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.75. Cross-taxa transferability revealed that all loci can be applied to all varieties of M. sinensis, as well as the closely related species M. floridulus. These new genic microsatellite markers are useful for characterizing different traits in breeding programs or to select genes useful for biofuel.

  10. Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones improves rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

    2013-08-01

    To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were "fresh" and in the gallbladder stones were "old." Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma.

  11. Morphologic analysis of atretic follicles in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Caiyan; Yu, Jianfeng; Jiang, Zhen; Si, Yuexiu; Yin, Shangjun; Qian, Guoying

    2013-12-01

    The Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and its eggs have been utilized as both a source of nutrition and medicine for thousands of years. In the present study, follicular atresia was investigated by morphological analysis as an important factor affecting clutch size. Results showed that follicular atresia can be divided into four stages: (1) development of follicular cell disorder; (2) massive cellular proliferation in the ooplasm with elimination of yolk granules; (3) large amounts of erythrocytes appearing in the ooplasm; (4) gradual degeneration of atretic follicles. For the first time, we have shown follicular atresia to be a dynamic process in P. sinensis and found that yolk granules are eliminated by both liquefaction as well as non-liquefaction processes. The present study may provide detailed morphologic analysis for further research into egg quality and clutch size in P. sinensis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The zoonotic, fish-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus and Opisthorchis viverrini.

    PubMed

    Petney, Trevor N; Andrews, Ross H; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Wenz-Mücke, Alexandra; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2013-11-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus and Opisthorchis viverrini are the three most important liver flukes involved in human health, infecting more than 45 million people worldwide. Both C. sinensis and O. viverrini, and possibly O. felineus, can induce human cholangiocarcinoma as well as inducing other hepatobiliary pathology. Although the life cycles of all three species are similar, only that of O. felineus in Europe remains predominantly zoonotic, while O. felineus in Asia and C. sinensis have a stronger mixture of zoonotic and anthroponotic components in their life cycles. Opisthorchis viverrini from the Mekong area of southeastern Asia is predominantly anthroponotic. Here we discuss the comparative epidemiology of these three taxa comparing in detail the use of first, second and final animal hosts, and consider the potential role of humans in spreading these pathogens. In addition we discuss the genetic structure of all three species in relation to potentially cryptic species complexes.

  13. Review of Naturopathy of Medical Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps Sinensis, in Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders are increasing worldwide due to etiological factors and aging. Several types of treatment are claimed in modern medicine, but they have serious side effects and higher costs. In fact, alternative approaches, such as the intake of plants, fungi, and insects, or their extracts, have also been practiced to enhance sexuality and ameliorate illness with notable successes. However, the scientific evidence related to the mechanisms and efficacy of these alternative medicines is both scarce and all too often unconvincing. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is an Ascomycetes fungus parasitic to Lepidoptera larvae, and has long been used as medicine to treat many illnesses and promote longevity in Chinese society. Previous investigations have shown that O. sinensis has many pharmacological activities. This review has focused on illustrating that O. sinensis can enhance libido and sexual performance, and can restore impaired reproductive functions, such as impotency or infertility, in both sexes. PMID:27041868

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese bamboo rat, Rhizomys sinensis and species divergence comparison.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Liu, Xiaohua; Tu, Feiyun

    2016-05-01

    The Chinese bamboo rat Rhizomys sinensis belongs to family Spalacidae, and is distributed in China, Myanmar, and Vietnam. In this study, the entire mitochondrial genome of R. sinensis was firstly determined. The genome is 16,564 bases in length, containing 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a putative control region. The composition and arrangement of its genes are identical to most other mammals. The whole base composition of the mitogenome is A 31.9%, G 12.0%, T 31.2% and C 24.9%, with an A+T rich pattern. The species divergence between R. sinensis and R. pruinosus is 0.113, in accordance with a "10× rule", as the intraspecific barcode variation averaged 1%. The mitogenome data of R. sumatrensis is required to better understand the phylogenetic relationships within Rhizomys.

  15. Spermiogenesis in soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Han, Xiang-Kun; Li, Mei-Ying; Bao, Hui-Jun; Chen, Qiu-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    Spermiogenesis in the soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The process includes nuclear elongation, chromatin condensation, acrosomal and flagellar development, and elimination of excess cytoplasm. In stage I, the proacrosomal vesicle occurs next to a shallow fossa of the nucleus, and a dense acrosomal granule forms beneath it. A smaller subacrosomal granule in the middle of the fibrous layer is related to the development of intranuclear tubules. The nucleus begins to move eccentrically. In stage II, the round proacrosomal vesicle is flattened by protrusion of the nuclear fossa, and the dense acrosomal granule diffuses into the vesicle, as the fibrous layer forms the subacrosomal cone. Circular manchettes develop around the nucleus, and the chromatin coagulates into small granules. The movement of the nucleus causes rearrangement of the cytoplasm. In stage III, the front of the elongating nucleus protrudes out of the spermatid and is covered by the flat acrosome; coarse granules replace the small ones within the nucleus. At the posterior pole of the head, mitochondria move backward. Numerous microtubules begin to assemble the axoneme of flagellum. In stage IV, the chromatin concentrates to dense homogeneous phase. The circular manchette is reorganized longitudinally. The Sertoli process covers the acrosome and the residues of the cytoplasmic lobes are eliminated. In stage V, the sperm head matures. After dissolution of the longitudinal manchette, the mitochondria arrange themselves around the proximal and distal centrioles. Caudal to the mitochondrial mass, a fibrous sheath surrounds the proximal portion of the flagellum.

  16. Draft genome of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Linsheng; Bian, Chao; Luo, Yongju; Wang, Lingling; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Qiu, Ying; Ma, Xingyu; Zhu, Zhifei; Ma, Liang; Wang, Zhaogen; Lei, Ying; Qiang, Jun; Li, Hongxia; Yu, Juhua; Wong, Alex; Xu, Junmin; Shi, Qiong; Xu, Pao

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is one of the most studied and economically important crustaceans in China. Its transition from a swimming to a crawling method of movement during early development, anadromous migration during growth, and catadromous migration during breeding have been attractive features for research. However, knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate these processes is still very limited. A total of 258.8 gigabases (Gb) of raw reads from whole-genome sequencing of the crab were generated by the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. The final genome assembly (1.12 Gb), about 67.5 % of the estimated genome size (1.66 Gb), is composed of 17,553 scaffolds (>2 kb) with an N50 of 224 kb. We identified 14,436 genes using AUGUSTUS, of which 7,549 were shown to have significant supporting evidence using the GLEAN pipeline. This gene number is much greater than that of the horseshoe crab, and the annotation completeness, as evaluated by CEGMA, reached 66.9 %. We report the first genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the Chinese mitten crab. The assembled draft genome will provide a valuable resource for the study of essential developmental processes and genetic determination of important traits of the Chinese mitten crab, and also for investigating crustacean evolution.

  17. Functional Characterization of a New Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flavonoid Glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianqian; Wang, Peiqiang; Li, Mingzhuo; Wang, Yeru; Jiang, Xiaolan; Cui, Lilan; Qian, Yumei; Zhuang, Juhua; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2017-03-15

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important commercial crop, in which the high content of flavonoids provides health benefits. A flavonoid glycosyltransferase (CsUGT73A20), belonging to cluster IIIa, was isolated from tea plant. The recombinant CsUGT73A20 in Escherichia coli exhibited a broad substrate tolerance toward multiple flavonoids. Among them, kaempferol was the optimal substrate compared to quercetin, myricetin, naringenin, apigenin, and kaempferide. However, no product was detected when UDP-galactose was used as the sugar donor. The reaction assay indicated that rCsUGT73A20 performed multisite glycosidation toward flavonol compounds, mainly forming 3-O-glucoside and 7-O-glucoside in vitro. The biochemical characterization analysis of CsUGT73A20 showed more K7G product accumulated at pH 8.0, but K3G was the main product at pH 9.0. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that high pH repressed the glycosylation reaction at the 7-OH site in vitro. Besides, the content of five flavonol-glucosides was increased in CsUGT73A20-overexpressing tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum).

  18. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Moore, Rosalind J; Jackson, Kim G; Minihane, Anne M

    2009-12-01

    The health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins are becoming increasingly recognised. Amongst the proposed benefits are the maintenance of endothelial function and vascular homeostasis and an associated reduction in atherogenesis and CVD risk. The mounting evidence for the influential effect of green tea catechins on vascular function from epidemiological, human intervention and animal studies is subject to review together with exploration of the potential mechanistic pathways involved. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, one of the most abundant and widely studied catechin found in green tea, will be prominent in the present review. Since there is a substantial inconsistency in the published data with regards to the impact of green tea catechins on vascular function, evaluation and interpretation of the inter- and intra-study variability is included. In conclusion, a positive effect of green tea catechins on vascular function is becoming apparent. Further studies in animal and cell models using physiological concentrations of catechins and their metabolites are warranted in order to gain some insight into the physiology and molecular basis of the observed beneficial effects.

  19. Neuroprotective and Cytotoxic Phthalides from Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenxia; Zhou, Yuzhi; Li, Xiao; Gao, Xiaoxia; Tian, Junsheng; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2016-04-26

    Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7), were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, HCT-8, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Riligustilide (4) showed cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 13.82, 6.79, and 7.92 μM, respectively. Tokinolide A (6) and tokinolide C (6) exerted low cytotoxicity in these cancer cell lines, while the remaining compounds were inactive. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to evaluate the possible mechanism of cytotoxic action of riligustilide (4). We observed that compound 4 was able to arrest the cell cycle in the G1, S phases and induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in HCT-8 cell lines. In addition, these compounds were evaluated for neuroprotective effect against SH-SY5Y cells injured by glutamate. The result showed that ligustilide (1), Z-butylidenephthalide (3) and tokinolide A (6) exhibited significant neuroprotective effects.

  20. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  1. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  2. The distribution of glutathione and homoglutathione in leaf, root and seed tissue of 73 species across the three sub-families of the Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Colville, Louise; Sáez, Clara M Blanco; Lewis, Gwilym P; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-07-01

    Homoglutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-β-alanine) is a homologue of glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine), which is a ubiquitous and indispensable tripeptide in eukaryotes with multi-facetted functions, many of which relate to cellular redox regulation. Homoglutathione is unique to the Leguminosae family, but studies of its occurrence have been restricted to the Papilionoideae subfamily, and almost exclusively to crop species. To determine whether the distribution of homoglutathione in the Leguminosae has a phylogenetic basis the occurrence of homoglutathione was investigated in the leaves, roots and seeds of 73 wild species of Leguminosae, representing 30 tribes across the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae subfamilies. Homoglutathione was found only in the Papilionoideae, and was generally restricted to the 'Old World Clade'. It is proposed that homoglutathione may have arisen following a whole genome duplication event after the divergence of the Old World Clade. Homoglutathione is believed to fulfil the same functional roles as glutathione, but this study showed that homoglutathione and glutathione have different tissue-specific distribution patterns. Homoglutathione tended to occur more frequently in root tissue, and higher concentrations were found in leaves and roots, whereas glutathione tended to be present at the highest concentrations in seeds. This may reflect a distinct role for homoglutathione, particularly in roots, or an inability of homoglutathione to functionally replace glutathione in reproductive tissues. However, no relationships with environmental factors or nodulation were observed. Greater understanding of the factors that influence homoglutathione distribution may help to elucidate its unique function in some legume species.

  3. African origin of Bradyrhizobium populations nodulating Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) in Ghanaian and South African soils.

    PubMed

    Puozaa, Doris K; Jaiswal, Sanjay K; Dakora, Felix D

    2017-01-01

    Flavonoids secreted by legumes play a major role as signal molecules for attracting compatible rhizobia. The aim of this study was to assess and understand the diversity of microsymbionts nodulating Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) landraces of different seedcoat colours using restriction fragment length polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis. Seedcoat pigmentation of landraces had effect on the diversity of microsymbionts of Bambara groundnut. Even when planted together in one hole, nodulating bradyrhizobia clustered differently. For example, 16S rDNA-RFLP typing of rhizobial samples TUTVSBLM.I, TUTVSCRM.I and TUTVSRDM.I originating respectively from Black, Cream and Red landraces that were co-planted in the same hole at Manga in the Sudano-sahelian savanna, as well as TUTVSCRK.I and TUTVSRDK.I respectively from Cream and Red landraces co-planted at Kpalisogu in the Guinea savanna, revealed different 16S rDNA- RFLP types. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA, glnII, recA and atpD sequences showed that Vigna subterranea was nodulated specifically by a diverse group of Bradyrhizobium species (e.g. Bradyrhizobium vignae, and a novel group of Bradyrhizobium spp.) in soils from Ghana and South Africa. The recA gene phylogeny showed incongruency with the other housekeeping genes, indicating the possibility of lateral gene transfer and/or recombination events. The grouping of isolates according to symbiotic gene (nifH and nodD) phylogenies revealed inter- and intra-specific symbiotic plasmid transfer and different evolutionary history. The results also showed that a cropping history and physico-chemical environment of soils increased bradyrhizobial diversity in Ghana and South Africa.

  4. Identification of chemical markers in Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hankun; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Baogen; Wei, Xin; Ellis, Alexis; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Authentication and quality assessment of Cordyceps sinensis, a precious and pricey natural product that offers a variety of health benefits, is highly significant. To identify effective chemical markers, authentic C. sinensis was thoroughly screened by using HPLC-MS/MS. In addition to many previously reported ingredients, two glycosides, i.e., cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose and Phe-o-glucose, were detected for the first time in this material. Six ingredients detected, including cordycepin, D-mannitol, Phe, Phe-o-glucose, cyclo-Gly-Pro, and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were selected as a collection of chemical markers. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously quantify them with sensitivity and specificity. The method had limits of detection ranging from 0.008 μg mL(-1) for cordycepin to 0.75 μg mL(-1) for cyclo-Gly-Pro. Recovery was found between 96 and 103 % in all tests. To evaluate the effectiveness of the marker collection proposed, five authentic C. sinensis samples and five samples of its substitutes were analyzed. Cordycepin, D-mannitol, and Phe were found present in all samples. The contents ranged from 0.0076 to 0.029 % (w/w) for cordycepin, 0.33 to 18.9 % for mannitol, and 0.0013 to 0.642 % for Phe. Interestingly, the two glycosides, Phe-o-glucose and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were detected only in authentic C. sinensis samples. These results indicated that the proposed protocol based on HPLC-MS/MS quantification of the markers might have a great potential in authentication and quality assessment of C. sinensis. Graphical abstract Chemical markers of C. sinensis identified in this work.

  5. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiang-Yu; Peng, Heng; Ma, Ya-Jun

    2017-10-02

    Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of Plasmodium vivax and Brugia malayi in most regions of China. In addition, its phylogenetic relationship with the cryptic species of the Hyrcanus Group is complex and remains unresolved. Mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers for phylogenetic studies of mosquito species complexes, of which mitochondrial genome data of An. sinensis is not available. An. sinensis samples was collected from Shandong, China, and identified by molecular marker. Genomic DNA was extracted, followed by the Illumina sequencing. Two complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled and annotated using the mitochondrial genome of An. gambiae as reference. The mitochondrial genomes sequences of the 28 known Anopheles species were aligned and reconstructed phylogenetic tree by Maximum Likelihood (ML) method. The length of complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis was 15,076 bp and 15,138 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and an AT-rich control region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the J strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the N strand. The bootstrap value was set as 1000 in ML analyses. The topologies restored phylogenetic affinity within subfamily Anophelinae. The ML tree showed four major clades, corresponding to the subgenera Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia of the genus Anopheles. The complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis were obtained. The number, order and transcription direction of An. sinensis mitochondrial genes were the same as in other species of family Culicidae.

  6. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  7. Contents and digestibility of carbohydrates of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) as affected by domestic processing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M

    1988-01-01

    Effects of common processing and cooking methods on sugar and starch contents and starch digestibility (in vitro) of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) were investigated. Soaking reduced the level of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch and improved starch digestibility, significantly. Cooking (both ordinary and pressure cooking) increased the concentrations of the sugars and digestibility of starch of soaked as well a unsoaked seeds. Starch contents, however, were decreased. Germination decreased starch thereby raising the level of the soluble sugars. Starch digestibility was increased appreciably.

  8. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongyan; Dong, Yinmao; Ren, Hankun; Li, Li; He, Congfen

    2014-01-17

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine.

  9. Transcriptome Sequencing of Chemically Induced Aquilaria sinensis to Identify Genes Related to Agarwood Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wei; Wu, Hongqing; He, Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Weimin; Li, Haohua; Fan, Yunfei; Tan, Guohui; Liu, Taomei; Gao, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Background Agarwood is a traditional Chinese medicine used as a clinical sedative, carminative, and antiemetic drug. Agarwood is formed in Aquilaria sinensis when A. sinensis trees are threatened by external physical, chemical injury or endophytic fungal irritation. However, the mechanism of agarwood formation via chemical induction remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the transcriptome of different parts of a chemically induced A. sinensis trunk sample with agarwood. The Illumina sequencing platform was used to identify the genes involved in agarwood formation. Methodology/Principal Findings A five-year-old Aquilaria sinensis treated by formic acid was selected. The white wood part (B1 sample), the transition part between agarwood and white wood (W2 sample), the agarwood part (J3 sample), and the rotten wood part (F5 sample) were collected for transcriptome sequencing. Accordingly, 54,685,634 clean reads, which were assembled into 83,467 unigenes, were obtained with a Q20 value of 97.5%. A total of 50,565 unigenes were annotated using the Nr, Nt, SWISS-PROT, KEGG, COG, and GO databases. In particular, 171,331,352 unigenes were annotated by various pathways, including the sesquiterpenoid (ko00909) and plant–pathogen interaction (ko03040) pathways. These pathways were related to sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and defensive responses to chemical stimulation. Conclusions/Significance The transcriptome data of the different parts of the chemically induced A. sinensis trunk provide a rich source of materials for discovering and identifying the genes involved in sesquiterpenoid production and in defensive responses to chemical stimulation. This study is the first to use de novo sequencing and transcriptome assembly for different parts of chemically induced A. sinensis. Results demonstrate that the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis pathway and WRKY transcription factor play important roles in agarwood formation via chemical induction. The comparative analysis of

  10. Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the critically endangered crocodile Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Hong; Li, Liang; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia) is considered as one of the most critically endangered species of the 23 extant crocodiles. However, our knowledge of the helminth parasites of this rare animal is completely lacking. During a helminthological survey of reptiles in China, we found a new ascaridoid nematode, Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. from A. sinensis. The morphology of D. gigantea sp. n. was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species was also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the small ribosomal DNA (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2).

  11. Isosmotic points and their ecological significance for juvenile Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F; Zhuang, P; Zhang, T; Wang, Y; Hou, J; Liu, J; Zhang, L

    2015-04-01

    Serum osmolality and ion concentrations were measured in juvenile Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis at different salinities to determine the isosmotic point. Isosmotic and isoionic concentrations were calculated from the regressions for serum and ambient osmolality, with Na(+) , Cl(-) and K(+) as salinities 9·19, 8·17, 7·89 and 9·70, respectively. These values were consistent with the salinity of the habitat where juvenile A. sinensis occur in the Yangtze Estuary, suggesting that an isosmotic salinity is an important factor driving their habitat choice.

  12. Functional study of Cordyceps sinensis and cordycepin in male reproduction: A review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chia; Chen, Ying-Hui; Pan, Bo-Syong; Chang, Ming-Min; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has various biological and pharmacological functions, and it has been claimed as a tonic supplement for sexual and reproductive dysfunctions for a long time in oriental society. In this article, the in vitro and in vivo effects of C. sinensis and cordycepin on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis are briefly described, the stimulatory mechanisms are summarized, and the recent findings related to the alternative substances regulating male reproductive functions are also discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Citrus essential oil of Nigeria. Part V: Volatile constituents of sweet orange leaf oil (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Kasali, Adeleke A; Lawal, Oladipupo A; Eshilokun, Adeolu O; Olaniyan, Abayomi A; Opoku, Andy R; Setzer, William N

    2011-06-01

    The volatile oils extracted from leaves of eight cultivars of Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck were comprehensively analysed by a combination of GC and GC-MS. Fifty four constituents accounting for 82.3-98.2% were identified. Sabinene (20.9-49.1%), delta-3-carene (0.3-14.3%), (E)-beta-ocimene (4.4-12.6%), linalool (3.7-11.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (1.7-12.5%) were the major constituents that are common to all the volatile oils. In addition, a cluster analysis was carried out and indicated at least four different chemotypes for the C. sinensis cultivars.

  14. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Mohammad M.; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties. PMID:27428960

  15. Effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Extract on Physico-Chemical Properties of Emulsion-Type Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract on the physicochemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages during storage at 10°C for 4 wk. Treatments were as follows: (C, control; T1, sodium ascorbate 0.05%; T2, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.05%; T3, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1%; T4, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.2%; T5, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1% + sodium ascorbate 0.05%). The values of pH, moisture content, lightness, redness, and sensory attributes were all significantly decreased, while the yellowness, chroma, hue angle, and texture properties were increased during storage with increase of the Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract added. In addition, the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity in the sausages displayed significant increases (p<0.05). Therefore, although it was concluded that the addition of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract is not effective for improvement of the physical properties compared to chemical additives in sausages, it could be applied to meat products as a natural preservatives. PMID:28515651

  16. Immune-Modulating Activity of Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Hyonseok; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild O. sinensis is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitats, and its price is out of reach for clinical practice. For these reasons, development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of O. sinensis as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild O. sinensis, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 in mice. Oral administration of CBG-CS-2 supported splenocyte stimulation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression from the splenocytes. Importantly, the same treatment significantly enhanced the natural killer cell activity of the splenocytes. Finally, oral administration of CBG-CS-2 enhanced the potential for inflammatory responses. Together, these findings indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from O. sinensis exhibited immune-modulating activity and suggest its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function.

  17. Anti-diabetic properties of non-polar Toona sinensis Roem extract prepared by supercritical-CO2 fluid.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Tsai, Yi-Hong; Liao, Min-Chun; Du, Ying-Chi; Lien, Pei-Jung; Sun, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2012-03-01

    Toona sinensis Roem (T. sinensis) leaves have been used as a nutritious vegetable and been suggested for medical applications; however, the reported bioactive compounds of T. sinensis leaves are, so far, from high to mid-high polar extracts. Our aims in this study were to reveal the non-polar constituents of the T. sinensis leave extract that were prepared by a method of using a supercritical-CO2 fluid and to investigate the anti-diabetic potential of this extract. Through a GC/MS analysis, we revealed 24 major components of the non-polar T. sinensis leave extract, the most abundant of which was phytol. The non-polar T. sinensis leave extract showed to prevent the progression of diabetes and hepatosteatosis, the rise of triglycerol levels and the decrease of adiponectin levels in the type 2 diabetic mice. Our results suggest that the non-polar extract of T. sinensis leaves prepared using the supercritical-CO2 fluid may contain effective constituents to prevent type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunomodulation by Hibiscus rosa-sinensis: effect on the humoral and cellular immune response of Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nidhi; Tandon, Vijay Lakshmi; Gupta, Rekha

    2012-03-15

    In West India, the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) is traditionally used as tea as a natural diuretic. Extract of this plant contains Vitamin C and is used traditionally as a mild medicine. In spite of a long history of traditional medicinal value of H. rosa-sinensis still no data are available for immunomodulatory activity. In present investigation, aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis (AEHrs) (500 mg kg(-1) BW) was intraperitoneally (IP) injected to the male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) to evaluate the immunomodulatory property of extract. In addition for evaluation of phytochemical constituents of flowers of H. rosa-sinensis HPTLC was performed. The crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis has immunomodulatory activity. After the 15 days treatment, the number of plaque forming cells increased by 0.6%, antibody titre was increased 38.15% and significant increase of 52% was observed in DTH response. At the same concentration of dose the level of serum IL-1alpha enhanced significantly (14.27%) whereas a considerable decrease (32.70%) in the concentration of IL-2 was observed among AEHrs treated mice in comparison to the control mice. HPTLC chromatogram revealed that H. rosa-sinensis posses alkaloid (Rf 0.93) and flavonoids (Rf 0.02, 0.06, 0.14) on the basis of Rf values. Results of investigation supports for the immunomodulatory activity of H. rosa-sinensis aqueous extract.

  19. Population structure analysis and association mapping of seed antioxidant content in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is an important legume and the antioxidants in cowpea seeds have been recognized as health-promoting compounds for human. The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure of cowpea collections using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to...

  20. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short term (48 h) experiments were conducted using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solution...

  1. Improvement of the antioxidant and hypolipidaemic effects of cowpea flours (Vigna unguiculata) by fermentation: results of in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Andrade, Ana M; López Chaves, Carlos; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cañizares, Francisco J; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesús M

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant capacity and hypolipidaemic effects of Vigna unguiculata, as well as their potential improvement by different fermentation and thermal processes were studied using in vitro and in vivo methods. Phenolic content and reducing capacity of legume acetone extract were significantly increased by different fermentation processes, and by the thermal treatment of fermented legume flours. TBARS inhibiting capacity was increased by fermentation but not by thermal treatment. A higher ability to decrease Cu(2+)/H2O2-induced electrophoretic mobility of LDL was found in fermented when compared to raw legume extracts, and a higher protective effect on short term metabolic status of HT-29 cells was found for raw and lactobacillus-fermented Vigna followed by naturally fermented Vigna extracts. Significant improvements in plasma antioxidant capacity and hepatic activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in rats that consumed fermented legume flours when compared to the untreated legume or a casein-methionine control diet. In addition, liver weight and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were also positively affected by untreated or naturally fermented Vigna. V. unguiculata has demonstrated its potential as a functional food with interesting antioxidant and lipid lowering properties, which can be further augmented by fermentation processes associated or not to thermal processing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effects of the legume Vigna unguiculata crop on carbon and nitrogen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Fernández, Juan; Faz Cano, Ángel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a legume crop (Vigna unguiculata) on soil properties related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, taking into account different management practices (conventional and organic) and two genotypes. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. The crop cycle spanned from 29 May 2014 to 13 August 2014. We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) from each plot at the beginning and at the end of the cycle to measure soil total N, organic C, recalcitrant C, organic C labile fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC) and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase. We collected plant samples (seeds, pods, roots and stem/leaves) at two different maturity stages (fresh and dry pods) to assess the influence of management practices and genotype in the accumulation of N, as indicative of the content of proteins in the crop. In the final plant sampling, we also determined crop production. The results showed that no significant differences were observed between management practices and genotypes in any of the soil properties measured. However, total N, recalcitrant C, most labile C fraction, MBC and β-glucosidase increased at the final sampling compared to initial values. We observed that genotype had a significant effect on the concentration of the second fraction of labile C under organic management. N content in the different plant tissues was significantly higher in the intermediate sampling than in the final harvest, without significant differences between management practices and genotypes. We observed a significant positive correlation between N content in roots, seeds and pods. N content was always higher in seeds, indicating the high quantity of proteins in this crop. C content was significantly lower in stem/leaves than in the rest of tissues, without significant differences among them. No effect of management practice, maturity stage or genotype was observed with regard to C

  3. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tao; Zhang, Minghua; Fan, Junming

    2015-10-12

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Rising ESKD prevalence has substantially increased numbers of kidney transplants performed. Maintenance immunosuppression is long-term treatment to prevent acute rejection and deterioration of graft function. Although immunosuppressive treatment using drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) or tacrolimus) reduce acute rejection rates, long-term allograft survival rates are not significantly enhanced. CNI-related adverse effects contribute to reduced quality of life among kidney transplant recipients. Adjuvant immunosuppressive therapies that could offer a synergetic immunosuppressive effect, while minimising toxicity and reducing side effects, have been explored recently. Cordyceps sinensis, (Cordyceps) a traditional Chinese medicine, is used as an adjuvant immunosuppressive agent in maintenance treatment for kidney transplantation recipients in China, but there is no consensus about its use as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplantation recipients. This review aimed to evaluate the benefits and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplant recipients. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator to 7 September 2015 using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched Chinese language databases and other resources. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the benefits and potential side effects of Cordyceps sinensis for kidney transplant recipients, irrespective of blinding or publication language. An inclusion criterion was that baseline immunosuppressive therapy must be the same in all study arms. Two authors extracted data. We derived risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) for continuous data with 95

  4. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems—biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  5. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  6. Functional associations between the metabolome and manganese tolerance in Vigna unguiculata

    PubMed Central

    Führs, Hendrik; Specht, André; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Horst, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Genotypic- and silicon (Si)-mediated differences in manganese (Mn) tolerance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) arise from a combination of symplastic and apoplastic traits. A detailed metabolomic inspection could help to identify functional associations between genotype- and Si-mediated Mn tolerance and metabolism. Two cowpea genotypes differing in Mn tolerance (TVu 91, Mn sensitive; TVu 1987, Mn tolerant) were subjected to differential Mn and Si treatments. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profiling of leaf material was performed. Detailed evaluation of the response of metabolites was combined with gene expression and physiological analyses. After 2 d of 50 μM Mn supply TVu 91 expressed toxicity symptoms first in the form of brown spots on the second oldest trifoliate leaves. Silicon treatment suppressed symptom development in TVu 91. Despite higher concentrations of Mn in leaves of TVu 1987 compared with TVu 91, the tolerant genotype did not show symptoms. From sample cluster formation as identified by independent component analysis (ICA) of metabolite profiles it is concluded that genotypic differences accounted for the highest impact on variation in metabolite pools, followed by Mn and Si treatments in one of two experiments. Analysis of individual metabolites corroborated a comparable minor role for Mn and Si treatments in the modulation of individual metabolites. Mapping individual metabolites differing significantly between genotypes onto biosynthetic pathways and gene expression studies on the corresponding pathways suggest that genotypic Mn tolerance is a consequence of differences (i) in the apoplastic binding capacity; (ii) in the capability to maintain a high antioxidative state; and (iii) in the activity of shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism. PMID:21934118

  7. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels.

  8. Functional associations between the metabolome and manganese tolerance in Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Führs, Hendrik; Specht, André; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Horst, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    Genotypic- and silicon (Si)-mediated differences in manganese (Mn) tolerance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) arise from a combination of symplastic and apoplastic traits. A detailed metabolomic inspection could help to identify functional associations between genotype- and Si-mediated Mn tolerance and metabolism. Two cowpea genotypes differing in Mn tolerance (TVu 91, Mn sensitive; TVu 1987, Mn tolerant) were subjected to differential Mn and Si treatments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profiling of leaf material was performed. Detailed evaluation of the response of metabolites was combined with gene expression and physiological analyses. After 2 d of 50 μM Mn supply TVu 91 expressed toxicity symptoms first in the form of brown spots on the second oldest trifoliate leaves. Silicon treatment suppressed symptom development in TVu 91. Despite higher concentrations of Mn in leaves of TVu 1987 compared with TVu 91, the tolerant genotype did not show symptoms. From sample cluster formation as identified by independent component analysis (ICA) of metabolite profiles it is concluded that genotypic differences accounted for the highest impact on variation in metabolite pools, followed by Mn and Si treatments in one of two experiments. Analysis of individual metabolites corroborated a comparable minor role for Mn and Si treatments in the modulation of individual metabolites. Mapping individual metabolites differing significantly between genotypes onto biosynthetic pathways and gene expression studies on the corresponding pathways suggest that genotypic Mn tolerance is a consequence of differences (i) in the apoplastic binding capacity; (ii) in the capability to maintain a high antioxidative state; and (iii) in the activity of shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  9. Activity of recombinant and natural defensins from Vigna unguiculata seeds against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Géssika Silva; do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; de Carvalho, Laís Pessanha; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Fernandes, Keysson Vieira; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Retamal, Claudio Andres; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Carvalho, André de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are differentiated from other antibiotic peptides, such as gramicidins and polymyxins, because they are synthesized by large enzymatic complex and bear modified amino acids including d-amino acids, are short polymers of l-amino acids synthesized by ribosomes upon which all living organisms rely to defend themselves from invaders or competitor microorganisms. AMPs have received a great deal of attention from the scientific community as potential new drugs for neglected diseases such as Leishmaniasis. In plants, they include several families of compounds, including the plant defensins. The aim of the present study was to improve the expression of recombinant defensin from Vigna unguiculata seeds (Vu-Defr) and to test its activity against Leishmania amazonensis promatigotes. Recombinant expression was performed in LB and TB media and under different conditions. The purification of Vu-Defr was achieved by immobilized metal ion affinity and reversed-phase chromatography. The purified Vu-Defr was analyzed by circular dichroism (CD), and its biological activity was tested against L. amazonenis promastigotes. To demonstrate that the recombinant production of Vu-Defr did not interfere with its fold and biological activity, the results of all experiments were compared with the results from the natural defensin (Vu-Def). The CD spectra of both peptides presented good superimposition indicating that both peptides present very similar secondary structure and that the Vu-Defr was correctly folded. L. amazonensis treated with Vu-Defr led to the elimination of 54.3% and 46.9% of the parasites at 24 and 48h of incubation time, respectively. Vu-Def eliminated 50% and 54.8% of the parasites at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Both were used at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. These results suggested the potential for plant defensins to be used as new antiparasitic substances.

  10. Cloning and characterization of drought-stimulated phosphatidic acid phosphatase genes from Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; Matos, Ana Rita; D'arcy-Lameta, Agnès; Passaquet, Chantal; Lichtlé, Christiane; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Pham-Thi, Anh Thu

    2008-12-01

    Under environmental stresses, several lipolytic enzymes are known to be activated and to contribute to membrane lipid turnover and generation of second messengers. In animal cells, phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, EC 3.1.3.4), which dephosphorylates phosphatidic acid generating diacylglycerol, is long known as an enzyme involved in lipid synthesis and cell signalling. However, knowledge on PAP in plants remains very limited. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize PAP genes in the tropical legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), and to study their expression under different stress conditions. Two cDNAs designated as VuPAPalpha and VuPAPbeta were cloned from the leaves of cowpea. Both proteins share sequence homology to animal type 2 PAP, namely, the six transmembrane regions and the consensus sequences corresponding to the catalytic domain of the phosphatase family, like the recently described Arabidopsis LPP (Lipid Phosphate Phosphatase) proteins. The recombinant protein VuPAPalpha expressed in Escherichia coli cells was able to convert phosphatidic acid into diacylglycerol. Unlike VuPAPbeta, VuPAPalpha has an N-terminal transit peptide and was addressed to chloroplast in vitro. Both genes are expressed in several cowpea organs and their transcripts accumulate in leaves in response to water deficit, including progressive dehydration of whole plants and rapid desiccation of detached leaves. No changes in expression of both genes were observed after wounding or by treatment with jasmonic acid. Furthermore, the in silico analysis of VuPAPalpha promoter allowed the identification of several putative drought-related regulatory elements. The possible physiological role of the two cloned PAPs is discussed.

  11. Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage-a review.

    PubMed

    Murevanhema, Yvonne Y; Jideani, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc) (BGN) is a legume; its origin have been traced back to Africa, and it is the third important legume; however, it is one of the neglected crops. It is highly nutritious, and has been termed a complete food. Its seed consist of 49%-63.5% carbohydrate, 15%-25% protein, 4.5%-7.4% fat, 5.2%-6.4% fiber, 3.2%-4.4% ash and 2% mineral compared to whole fresh cow milk 88% moisture, 4.8% carbohydrate, 3.2% proteins, 3.4% fat, 0.7% ash, and 0.01% cholesterol. Its chemical composition is comparable to that of soy bean. Furthermore, BGN has been reported to be a potential crop, owing to its nutritional composition, functional properties, antioxidant potential, and a drought resistant crop. Bambara groundnut milk (BGNM) had been rated higher in acceptability than milk from other legumes like soybean and cowpea. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. These benefits have been reported to be therapeutic, suppressing the growth and activity in conditions like infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The nutritional profile of BGNM is high enough to sustain the growth of probiotics. BGNs are normally boiled and salted, eaten as a relish or roasted, and eaten as a snack. Hence, BGNM can also be fermented with lactic acid bacteria to make a probiotic beverage that not only increase the economic value of the nutritious legume but also help in addressing malnutrition.

  12. Effect of mercury on seedling growth, nodulation and ultrastructural deformation of Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Naba Kumar; Das, Chittaranjan; Datta, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals are major environmental pollutant when they present in high concentration in soil and have toxic effects on growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of legumes and development of plants. Mercury stress triggers disturbances in cellular structure, and metabolismn is poorly understood. The response of seedling growth and nodulation of Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek to different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ppm) of mercury (Hg) salt solutions were studied. Morphological parameters like root and shoot length, dry weight, nodule number, total leaf area and biochemical constituents (chlorophyll, malondialdehyde and leghaemoglobin) of bean plants were recorded at an interval of 30 days. The successive growth deformaties in seedlings and nodules were recorded at lower concentration (0.1 ppm), but marginal (0.5 ppm) and higher (1.0 ppm) level of Hg salt solution showed significant suppression. The maximum level of Hg concentration (1.5 ppm) shows high level of tolerance index without any nodule. The control treatment shows maximum level of leghaemoglobin (0.219 mM) and all other morpho-physiological and bio-chemical properties of roots and shoots excepting tolerance index (0.00) and chlorophyll 'a' (7.52 mg g(-1) FW). Mercury accumulation pattern follows the sequences: leaf > nodule > root ≈ shoot at lower level of Hg (0.1 and 0.5 ppm). However, higher level of Hg (1.0 and 1.5 ppm) showed shoot > root > leaf > nodule. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of root also highlights the deleterious effect of Hg salt at higher concentration.

  13. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems-biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions.

  14. Quality evaluation of beef patties formulated with bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.) seed flour.

    PubMed

    Alakali, J S; Irtwange, S V; Mzer, M T

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated composite beef-bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.) seed flour patties to determine the effect of bambara groundnut flour (BGF) inclusion on the quality and acceptability of the products. The effect of different levels of BGF (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) on the proximate composition and pH indicate that BGF had no significant (p0.05) effect on moisture, protein and carbohydrate of raw patties except ash and pH whereas there was significant (p0.05) effect on all the parameters for the cooked patties. BGF significantly (p0.05) reduced the shrinkage of the cooked patties from 9.13% to 6.76%, while percentage cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention increased significantly (p0.05) with increasing BGF levels from 79.1% to 87.2%, 67.51% to 78.05% and 73.51% to 88.34%, respectively. The use of BGF significantly (p0.05) increased the pH of cooked patties from 6.16 to 6.23. Beef patties extended with BGF up to 5% addition exhibited good quality attributes most acceptable to the consumers. The pH of the 0% BGF-beef patties decreased significantly during storage, up to day 14, and increased thereafter. However, the pH of the patties with BGF consistently decreased significantly up to day 21. The TBA values of both (0% and 5% BGF-beef patties) increased significantly (p0.05) from 0.054 to 0.25 and from 0.05 to 0.24mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively. All sensory attributes decreased significantly (p0.05) as storage time progressed. The physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the patties were found to be acceptable after 21days refrigerated storage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes response to multiple abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shardendu K; Kakani, Vijaya Gopal; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Reddy, K Raja

    2010-09-02

    The carbon dioxide concentration [CO(2)], temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) are concomitant factors projected to change in the future environment, and their possible interactions are of significant interest to agriculture. The objectives of this study were to evaluate interactive effects of atmospheric [CO(2)], temperature, and UVB radiation on growth, physiology and reproduction of cowpea genotypes and to identify genotypic tolerance to multiple stressors. Six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes differing in their sites of origin were grown in sunlit, controlled environment chambers. The treatments consisted of two levels each of atmospheric [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micromol mol(-1)), UVB [0 and 10 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) and temperatures [30/22 and 38/30 degrees C] from 8 days after emergence to maturity. The ameliorative effects of elevated [CO(2)] on increased UVB radiation and temperature effects were observed for most of the vegetative and photosynthetic traits but not for pollen production, pollen viability and yield attributes. The combined stress response index (C-TSRI) derived from vegetative (V-TSRI) and reproductive (R-TSRI) parameters revealed that the genotypes responded negatively with varying magnitude of responses to the stressors. Additionally, in response to multiple abiotic stresses, the vegetative traits diverged from that of reproductive traits, as deduced from the positive V-TSRI and negative R-TSRI observed in most of the genotypes and poor correlation between these two processes. The UVB in combination with increased temperature caused the greatest damage to cowpea vegetative growth and reproductive potential. The damaging effects of high temperature on seed yield was not ameliorated by elevated [CO(2)]. The identified tolerant genotypes and groups of plant attributes could be used to develop genotypes with multiple abiotic stress tolerance.

  16. Effects of biochar on enhanced nutrient use efficiency of green bean, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Songkrit; Tawinteung, Nukoon

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is the carbonized material produced from biomass and is used in several environmental applications. The biochar characteristics depend on the carbonization conditions and feedstock. The suitability of a given biochar for soil improvement depends on the biochar characteristics, soil properties, and target plants. Biochar has been applied at 1-20% (w/w) in the soil, but currently there is a lack of information on what type and concentration of biochar are most suitable for a specific plant and soil quality. Too much biochar will reduce plant growth because of the high alkalinity of biochar, which will cause long-term soil alkalinity. In contrast, too little biochar might be insufficient to enhance plant productivity. In this study, a suitable concentration of cassava stem (an abundant agricultural waste in Thailand) biochar produced at 350 °C was evaluated for green bean (Vigna radiata L.) growth from germination to seed production in pots over 8 weeks. The soil fertility was increased with increasing biochar concentration. At 5% (w/w) biochar, the soil fertility and plant growth were significantly enhanced, while 10% (w/w) biochar significantly enhanced bean growth and bean pod production. The increased biochar concentration in the soil significantly increased the soil total nitrogen and extractable potassium (K) levels but did not affect the amount of available phosphorous. Biochar at 10% (w/w) significantly induced the accumulation of K in the stems, leaves, nut shells, and roots but not in nut seeds. Moreover, biochar not only increased the K concentration in soil but also increased the plant nutrient use efficiency of K, which is important for plant growth. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  17. [Response of photosynthesis and growth to weak light regime in different Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) varieties].

    PubMed

    Zou, Chang-ming; Wang, Yun-qing; Cao, Wei-dong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Tang, Shan

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine the adaptability of Adzuki beans as the interplanting crops in fruit yards, field and pot experimental treatments with full natural light and weak light (48% of full natural light) regimes were conducted to test the shade tolerance and physiological responses of three Adzuki bean varieties including Funan green Vigna angularis (FGVA), early-mature black V. angularis (EBVA) and late-mature black V. angularis (LBVA). The leaf photosynthetic characteristic parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents and the activity of RuBPCase were measured during the first bloom stage. The response of growth to weak light was likewise studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic characteristic parameters, i.e., the maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and light compensation point of the three Adzuki bean varieties under the weak light stress changed differently. The weak light stress induced the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and RuBPCase activity of the three Adzuki bean varieties significantly. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in leaves of FGVA increased significantly, while Chl a/b and carotenoid content in the leaves decreased significantly after shading. But the other two varieties did not change obviously in photosynthetic pigments content after shading. The weak light changed the growth of the three Adzuki bean varieties, such as decreasing dry matter yield and dry matter accumulation efficiency, reducing root nodule and root-shoot ratio, debasing leaves quantity and leaf area index. The first bloom stage and maturing stage of FGVA advanced, while that of EBVA delayed under weak light. However, flowers were not strong enough to seed for LBVA under the weak light. In conclusion, according to the photosynthetic characteristics changes after shading, as well as the growth status, we concluded that the shade tolerance of the three Adzuki beans was ranked as FGVA>EBVA>LBVA.

  18. Superoxide and its metabolism during germination and axis growth of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Khangembam Lenin; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulation of plant growth and development is recently being demonstrated with various results depending on the experimental system and plant species. Role of superoxide and its metabolism in germination and axis growth was investigated in case of Vigna radiata seeds, a non-endospermous leguminous species having epigeal germination, by studying the effect of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, distribution of O2•ˉ and H2O2 and ROS enzyme profile in axes. Germination percentage and axis growth were determined under treatment with ROS inhibitors and scavengers. Localization of O2•ˉ and H2O2 was done using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl benzidine dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB), respectively. Apoplastic level of O2•ˉ was monitored by spectrophotometric analysis of bathing medium of axes. Profiles of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied by in-gel assay. Germination was retarded by treatments affecting ROS level except H2O2 scavengers, while axis growth was retarded by all. Superoxide synthesis inhibitor and scavenger prevented H2O2 accumulation in axes in later phase as revealed from TMB staining. Activity of Cu/Zn SOD1 was initially high and declined thereafter. Superoxide being produced in apoplast possibly by NADPH oxidase activity is further metabolized to •OH via H2O2. Germination process depends possibly on •OH production in the axes. Post-germinative axis growth requires O2•ˉ while the differentiating zone of axis (radicle) requires H2O2 for cell wall stiffening. PMID:25763616

  19. Fate of ZnO nanoparticles in soils and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A; Johannessen, Bernt; Glover, Chris J; Kappen, Peter; Kopittke, Peter M

    2013-12-03

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in various commercial products is prompting detailed investigation regarding the fate of these materials in the environment. There is, however, a lack of information comparing the transformation of ZnO-NPs with soluble Zn(2+) in both soils and plants. Synchrotron-based techniques were used to examine the uptake and transformation of Zn in various tissues of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) exposed to ZnO-NPs or ZnCl2 following growth in either solution or soil culture. In solution culture, soluble Zn (ZnCl2) was more toxic than the ZnO-NPs, although there was substantial accumulation of ZnO-NPs on the root surface. When grown in soil, however, there was no significant difference in plant growth and accumulation or speciation of Zn between soluble Zn and ZnO-NP treatments, indicating that the added ZnO-NPs underwent rapid dissolution following their entry into the soil. This was confirmed by an incubation experiment with two soils, in which ZnO-NPs could not be detected after incubation for 1 h. The speciation of Zn was similar in shoot tissues for both soluble Zn and ZnO-NPs treatments and no upward translocation of ZnO-NPs from roots to shoots was observed in either solution or soil culture. Under the current experimental conditions, the similarity in uptake and toxicity of Zn from ZnO-NPs and soluble Zn in soils indicates that the ZnO-NPs used in this study did not constitute nanospecific risks.

  20. Biogenic synthesis and spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in the legume mungbean plant (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rima; Singh, Jay Shankar; Singh, Devendra Pratap

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the in vivo synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the legume Vigna radiata. The level of plant metabolites such as total phenolics, lipid, terpenoids, alkaloids and amino acid increased by 65%, 133%, 19%, 67% and 35%, respectively, in AgNO3 (100 mg L(-1)) treated plants compared to control. Whereas protein and sugar contents in the treated plants were reduced by 38% and 27%, respectively. FTIR analysis of AgNO3 (20-100 mg L(-1)) treated plants exhibited changes in the IR regions between 3297 and 3363 cm(-1), 1635-1619 cm(-1), 1249-1266 cm(-1) and that corresponded to alterations in OH groups of carbohydrates, OH and NH groups of amide I and II regions of protein, when compared with the control. Transmission electron micrographs showed the spatial distribution of AgNPs in the chloroplast, cytoplasmic spaces, vacuolar and nucleolar plant regions. Metal quantification in different tissues of plants exposed to 20-100 mg L(-1) AgNO3 showed about a 22 fold accumulation of Ag in roots as compared to shoots. The phytotoxic parameters such as percent seed germination and shoot elongation remained almost unaltered at low AgNO3 doses (20-50 mg L(-1)). However, at higher levels of exposure (100 mg L(-1)), the percent seed germination as well as root and shoot elongation exhibited concentration dependent decline. In conclusion, synthesis of AgNPs in V. radiata particularly at lower doses of AgNO3, could be used as a sustainable and environmentally safe technology for large scale production of metal nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Superoxide and its metabolism during germination and axis growth of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Khangembam Lenin; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulation of plant growth and development is recently being demonstrated with various results depending on the experimental system and plant species. Role of superoxide and its metabolism in germination and axis growth was investigated in case of Vigna radiata seeds, a non-endospermous leguminous species having epigeal germination, by studying the effect of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, distribution of O2(•)- and H2O2 and ROS enzyme profile in axes. Germination percentage and axis growth were determined under treatment with ROS inhibitors and scavengers. Localization of O2(•)- and H2O2 was done using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl benzidine dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB), respectively. Apoplastic level of O2(•)- was monitored by spectrophotometric analysis of bathing medium of axes. Profiles of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied by in-gel assay. Germination was retarded by treatments affecting ROS level except H2O2 scavengers, while axis growth was retarded by all. Superoxide synthesis inhibitor and scavenger prevented H2O2 accumulation in axes in later phase as revealed from TMB staining. Activity of Cu/Zn SOD1 was initially high and declined thereafter. Superoxide being produced in apoplast possibly by NADPH oxidase activity is further metabolized to (•)OH via H2O2. Germination process depends possibly on (•)OH production in the axes. Post-germinative axis growth requires O2(•)- while the differentiating zone of axis (radicle) requires H2O2 for cell wall stiffening.

  3. rDNA-targeted PCR primers and FISH probe in the detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis hyphae and conidia.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Peng, Qingyun; Qi, Lili; Lei, Wei; Liu, Xin

    2010-11-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sung, Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora (syn. Cordyceps sinensis) one of the entomopathogenic fungi, is a rare Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods are necessary to identify the mycelia or spores of O. sinensis from its habitat and to monitor its dispersal, colonization and infectivity. To develop both primers and probe specific to O. sinensis, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplified with universal primers from O. sinensis genomic DNA and seven closely related fungi were sequenced. According to these sequences, the upper and lower primers (OsT-F and OsT-R) were designed within internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and flanked by universal primers ITS5 and ITS4, respectively. The designed primers were used for general PCR, touchdown PCR, or both together with the universal primers for nested-touchdown PCR. The results showed that only the extracted DNA of O. sinensis was specifically amplified. The sensitivity of nested-touchdown PCR with extracted DNA of O. sinensis is as low as 10(-14)g (10 fg) and at least 1000 times higher than the other PCR methods. In addition, Cy5-labeled probe (OsLSU) for cytoplasmic LSU rRNA was hybridized with the ascospores of O. sinensis. It showed a strong red fluorescence throughout the whole cell but did not cross-react with other entomopathogenic fungi. Taken together, these methods were useful for studying the biology and ecology of O. sinensis.

  4. Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many medicinal plants from Leguminosae family can be found easily in Malaysia. These plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups, where they are prepared as decoction, pastes for wound infections, and some have been eaten as salad. This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant potential, antibacterial activity and classes of phytochemicals of nine plants from the Leguminosae family. Methods Acacia auriculiformis, Bauhinia kockiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calliandra tergemina, Cassia surattensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Samanea saman were extracted with aqueous methanol and dichloromethane:methanol mixture to test for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was conducted to quantify the total phenolic content and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the free radical quenching capacity. Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) assay. Screening for major classes of phytochemical was done using standard chemical tests. Results B. kockiana flowers and C. pulcherrima leaves contained high total phenolic content (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging ability with TPC of 8280 ± 498 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 27.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL and TPC of 5030 ± 602 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 50.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL respectively. Positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. Most extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria at 1 mg, while none showed activity against Gram negative bacteria at the same dose. All extracts (except Samanea saman flower) showed antibacterial activity against two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MID values ranging between 100 μg/disc and 500 μg/disc. Conclusion The potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infection treatments were found in B. kockiana, C

  5. Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yik Ling; Chan, Elaine Wan Ling; Tan, Pei Ling; Lim, Yau Yan; Stanslas, Johnson; Goh, Joo Kheng

    2011-02-10

    Many medicinal plants from Leguminosae family can be found easily in Malaysia. These plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups, where they are prepared as decoction, pastes for wound infections, and some have been eaten as salad. This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant potential, antibacterial activity and classes of phytochemicals of nine plants from the Leguminosae family. Acacia auriculiformis, Bauhinia kockiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calliandra tergemina, Cassia surattensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Samanea saman were extracted with aqueous methanol and dichloromethane:methanol mixture to test for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was conducted to quantify the total phenolic content and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the free radical quenching capacity. Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) assay. Screening for major classes of phytochemical was done using standard chemical tests. B. kockiana flowers and C. pulcherrima leaves contained high total phenolic content (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging ability with TPC of 8280 ± 498 mg GAE/100 g, IC(50) of 27.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL and TPC of 5030 ± 602 mg GAE/100 g, IC(50) of 50.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL respectively. Positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. Most extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria at 1 mg, while none showed activity against Gram negative bacteria at the same dose. All extracts (except Samanea saman flower) showed antibacterial activity against two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MID values ranging between 100 μg/disc and 500 μg/disc. The potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infection treatments were found in B. kockiana, C. pulcherrima, C. tergemina and P. pterocarpum

  6. Global transcriptome profiles of Camellia sinensis during cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Chao; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Ma, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Zong-Hong; Cao, Hong-Li; Kong, Yi-Meng; Yue, Chuan; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Chen, Liang; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Li, Xuan; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2013-06-22

    Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic health beverage in the world. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) needs to undergo a cold acclimation process to enhance its freezing tolerance in winter. Changes that occur at the molecular level in response to low temperatures are poorly understood in tea plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation, we employed RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) technologies to the study of genome-wide expression profiles during cold acclimation in tea plants. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 57.35 million RNA-Seq reads. These reads were assembled into 216,831 transcripts, with an average length of 356 bp and an N50 of 529 bp. In total, 1,770 differentially expressed transcripts were identified, of which 1,168 were up-regulated and 602 down-regulated. These include a group of cold sensor or signal transduction genes, cold-responsive transcription factor genes, plasma membrane stabilization related genes, osmosensing-responsive genes, and detoxification enzyme genes. DGE and quantitative RT-PCR analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq analysis. Pathway analysis indicated that the "carbohydrate metabolism pathway" and the "calcium signaling pathway" might play a vital role in tea plants' responses to cold stress. Our study presents a global survey of transcriptome profiles of tea plants in response to low, non-freezing temperatures and yields insights into the molecular mechanisms of tea plants during the cold acclimation process. It could also serve as a valuable resource for relevant research on cold-tolerance and help to explore the cold-related genes in improving the understanding of low-temperature tolerance and plant-environment interactions.

  7. [Sterol extracts from Begonia Sinensis Rhizome against respiratory inflammation].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yong; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yu-shan

    2015-08-01

    The acute and chronic respiratory tract inflammation models were made to investigate the effect and mechanism of sterol extracts from Begonia Sinensis Rhizome (BSR). The first model of acute lung injury was made with Kunming mice by inhaling cigarette smoke, then the mice were treated with different concentrations of BSR sterol extracts. Lung tissue morphology was detected by HE staining, TNF-alpha/MPO were detected by Elisa, and cPLA2 protein were, detected by Western blotting respectively. Results showed that in model group, lung sheet became real, alveolar space shrank or disappeared, alveolar septum was thickened, plenty of inflammatory cells were infiltrated, capillary blood vessels were congestive and the expression of TNF-α, MPO, cPLA2 increased; after administration, a small amount of inflammatory cells were infiltrated, alveolar septum became obvious, capillary congestion status was significantly relieved and the expression of TNF-α, MPO, cPLA2 decreased (P < 0.05). The second model of chronic respiratory tract inflammation in BALB/c mice with bronchial asthma was induced by OVA, then the mice were treated with different concentrations of BSR sterol extracts. Lung tissue morphology was detected by HE staining, indexes such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 were detected by Elisa, and the cPLA2 protein expression was detected by Western blotting respectively. Results showed that in model group, a lot of inflammatory cells around lung vessels and bronchi exuded, bronchial goblet cells proliferated and the expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, cPLA2 increased; after administration, inflammatory and goblet cell hyperplasia reduced, the expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, cPLA2 also decreased (P < 0.05). The above results showed BSR sterol extracts could resist against respiratory inflammation by inhibiting cPLA2 in a dose-dependent manner.

  8. Evaluation of Hirsutella sinensis mycelium for antifatigue effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lung-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Fang; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Liu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Chen, Yung-Liang; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Yeh, Chun; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Jia-You; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM) has any antifatigue effect, using a forced swimming model in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups, each containing eight animals. The control group received 2 ml/kg body weight of distilled water and a positive control group was administered 1.13 ml/kg Quaker Essence of Chicken. The treated swimming groups were administered HSM powder manufactured by Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation, Ltd., at doses of 63 mg/kg, 189 mg/kg or 378 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively for a period of six weeks. The above experiment was repeated with another 40 rats but for a period of eight weeks. At the end of the experiments, rats were placed in a swimming apparatus and the total swimming time until exhaustion was recorded. Pre-/post-exercise concentrations of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid were also determined. There were no deaths during the study. Physical and behavioral examinations did not reveal any treatment-related adverse effects after dosing. Changes in lactate levels were dose-dependent for the 8- but not the 6-week treatment. BUN levels were more affected by the 8-week treatment of HSM but not significantly altered in the 6-week treatment groups. The 8-week treatment groups showed a significant increase in swimming time to exhaustion compared to the control groups, which was not dose-dependent. For the 6-week treatment, only the middle and high doses increased swimming time to exhaustion. Conjugated diene contents were significantly higher in rats treated at any HSM dose for 8-weeks than the control groups. Swimming did not alter levels of liver glycogen when compared to the control sub-groups. Results of this study demonstrate that HSM improves physical endurance, which may be beneficial in treating conditions where fatigue is a factor and other antifatigue treatments are contraindicated.

  9. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada )

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  10. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  11. A SNP and SSR Based Genetic Map of Asparagus Bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and Comparison with the Broader Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D.; Close, Timothy J.; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as ‘long beans’ or ‘asparagus beans’. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level. PMID:21253606

  12. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean. PMID:26069442

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium mesophilicum Strain SR1.6/6, Isolated from Citrus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Marinho Almeida, Diogo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Camargo Neves, Aline Aparecida; Jucá Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Oliveira de Souza Lima, André; Caracciolo Gomes de Sá, Pablo Henrique; Ribeiro Barbosa, Maria Silvanira

    2013-01-01

    Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from a surface-sterilized Citrus sinensis branch. Ecological and biotechnological aspects of this bacterium, such as the genes involved in its association with the host plant and the primary oxidation of methanol, were annotated in the draft genome. PMID:23788544

  14. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant unde...

  15. Genetic and nongenetic factors influencing callus induction in Miscanthus sinensis (Anderss.) anther cultures.

    PubMed

    Glowacka, K; Jezowski, S

    2009-01-01

    Miscanthus sinensis is a promising species for biomass production. Influences of genetic and nongenetic factors on androgenesis induction efficiency were investigated. This is the first report on successful induction of pollen-derived callus in M. sinensis. The callus yield was strongly affected by genotype. A beneficial influence of cold pretreatment of spikes on androgenesis induction was observed. The highest yield of calli was obtained in cultures on a modified C17 medium. The results suggest that the high callus yield might be caused by the late culture initiation. The beginning of anther culture at the end of the flowering season caused a 17-fold increase in callus yield, in comparison to culture initiated at the height of the flowering season (August). It is likely, however, that the efficiency of androgenesis induction in the case of M. sinensis anther culture beginning in October could be related to a positive influence of growing donor plants in conditions of cooler and shorter day, i.e. 11-h day with temperature around 11xC and 13-h night with temperature around 5xC. Results of this study can significantly support the development of effective methods of M. sinensis haploidization, which could be used in crop improvement by breeding.

  16. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels-derived dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Sun, Jianghao; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Chen, Pei

    2013-05-01

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels ("Danggui" in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism, and cardiovascular diseases. There are a number of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements in the US markets. However, no study have been conducted to investigate the quality of these dietary supplements. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprints were both evaluated to assess the consistency of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements. Similarity analysis was carried out on the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprints. Meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained from flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints, which can analyze each sample in 2 min, compared with 30 min required for the chromatographic fingerprint. Both methods show significant chemical differences between samples that may be due to differences in growing locations, growing conditions, harvesting times, and/or botanical processing. The loading plots obtained from PCA singled out the discriminatory ions that were responsible for chemical differences of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements.

  17. Volatile compounds of healthy and insect-damaged Hippophae rhamnoides sinensis in natural and planted forests.

    PubMed

    Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Zhou, Jiao; Liu, Shujing

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds of healthy and insect-damaged stems of Hippophae rhamnoides sinensis were analysed using dynamic headspace and thermal-desorption cold-trap injector gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (TCT-GC/MS). Sixteen compounds, belonging to alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, and ethers, were identified in the stems of healthy H. rhamnoides sinensis; the compounds in H. rhamnoides sinensis occurring naturally or cultivated in plantations were similar, but the relative contents were significantly different. In plants damaged by Holcocerus hippophaecolus, the nature and content of the volatile compounds were greatly changed. Butanedione and butyl glyoxylate were newly generated after damage by the pest, and the relative levels of pentanal, heptanal, eucalyptol, terpineol, and camphor were sharply increased in both naturally occurring and plantation-grown plants. n-Decane, trans-2-nonen-1-ol, and n-hexadecane levels increased in plants cultivated in the plantation and decreased in natural forests, whereas the levels of other types were reduced. Thus, both the nature and the content of volatile compounds of H. rhamnoides sinensis are affected by H. hippophaecolus damage, providing a theoretical basis to identify the mechanism of pest destruction.

  18. Inflorescence architecture affects pollinator behaviour and mating success in Spiranthes sinensis (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Iwata, Tatsunori; Nagasaki, Osamu; Ishii, Hiroshi S; Ushimaru, Atushi

    2012-01-01

    • Despite the wide inflorescence diversity among angiosperms, the effects of inflorescence architecture (three-dimensional flower arrangement) on pollinator behaviour and mating success have not been sufficiently studied in natural plant populations. • Here, we investigated how inflorescence architecture affected inter- and intra-plant pollinator movements and consequent mating success in a field population of Spiranthes sinensis var. amoena (S. sinensis). In this species, the flowers are helically arranged around the stem, and the degree of twisting varies greatly among individuals. The large variation in inflorescence architecture in S. sinensis results from variation in a single structural parameter, the helical angle (the angular distance between neighbour-flower directions). • The numbers of visits per inflorescence and successive probes per visit by leaf-cutting bees decreased with helical angle, indicating that individual flowers of tightly twisted inflorescences received less visitations. As expected from pollinator behaviour, pollinia removal and fruit set of individual flowers decreased with helical angle. Meanwhile, geitonogamy decreased in tightly twisted inflorescences. • Our novel findings demonstrate that natural variation in inflorescence architecture significantly affects pollinator behaviour and reproductive success, suggesting that inflorescence architecture can evolve under pollinator-mediated natural selection in plant populations. We also discuss how diverse inflorescence architectures may have been maintained in S. sinensis populations. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Hematology and plasma biochemistry values of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nestlings.

    PubMed

    Minias, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Markowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Hematology and plasma biochemistry values were determined in 92 free-living Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) chicks at Jeziorsko reservoir, central Poland. Percentage distribution of leukocytes, packed cell volume, plasma concentrations of hemoglobin and basic biochemical parameters were evaluated. These values may be treated as reference ranges for free-living Great Cormorant nestlings.

  20. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Infection among Residents along 5 Major Rivers in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Il; Shin, Hee-Eun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Park, Mi Yeoun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong

    2016-04-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is currently the most important parasite affecting public health problems in the Republic of Korea. We investigated the prevalence of C. sinensis infection among residents living along 5 major rivers in Korea. A total of 42,562 individual stool samples were collected from 37 localities and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Helminth eggs were detected in 4,052 (9.5%) residents and 3,586 (8.4%) were infected with C. sinensis. The egg positive rate of C. sinensis in Nakdong, Seomjin, Geum, Yeongsan, and Han River was 11.7%, 9.9%, 6.5%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The overall prevalence of clonorchiasis by sex was 11.2% in males and 6.2% in females. The age-prevalence was the highest in the 50-59 years band. It has been reconfirmed that the endemicity of clonorchiasis is higher in southern areas of Korea, especially along Nakdong and Seomjin Rivers. A combination of continuous control programs with health education initiatives is urgently required in these highly endemic areas of clonorchiasis in Korea.

  1. Unlocking the Transcriptomes of Two Carcinogenic Parasites, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini

    PubMed Central

    Young, Neil D.; Campbell, Bronwyn E.; Hall, Ross S.; Jex, Aaron R.; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Laha, Thewarach; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J.; Gasser, Robin B.

    2010-01-01

    The two parasitic trematodes, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, have a major impact on the health of tens of millions of humans throughout Asia. The greatest impact is through the malignant cancer ( = cholangiocarcinoma) that these parasites induce in chronically infected people. Therefore, both C. sinensis and O. viverrini have been classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as Group 1 carcinogens. Despite their impact, little is known about these parasites and their interplay with the host at the molecular level. Recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics provide unique opportunities to gain improved insights into the biology of parasites as well as their relationships with their hosts at the molecular level. The present study elucidates the transcriptomes of C. sinensis and O. viverrini using a platform based on next-generation (high throughput) sequencing and advanced in silico analyses. From 500,000 sequences, >50,000 sequences were assembled for each species and categorized as biologically relevant based on homology searches, gene ontology and/or pathway mapping. The results of the present study could assist in defining molecules that are essential for the development, reproduction and survival of liver flukes and/or that are linked to the development of cholangiocarcinoma. This study also lays a foundation for future genomic and proteomic research of C. sinensis and O. viverrini and the cancers that they are known to induce, as well as novel intervention strategies. PMID:20582164

  2. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of angelica sinensis (Oliv.) diels dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (“Danggui” in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and cardiovascular diseases. There are a lo...

  3. Identification of miRNAs and their targets in tea (Camellia sinensis)#

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Quan-wu; Luo, Yao-ping

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs playing a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. Among them, some are highly evolutionally conserved in the plant kingdom, this provide a powerful strategy for identifying miRNAs in a new species. Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most important commercial beverage crops in the world, but only a limited number of miRNAs have been identified. In the present study, a total of 14 new C. sinensis miRNAs were identified by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis from 47 452 available C. sinensis ESTs. These miRNAs potentially target 51 mRNAs, which can act as transcription factors, and participate in stress response, transmembrane transport, and signal transduction. Analysis of gene ontology (GO), based on these targets, suggested that 37 biological processes were involved, such as oxidation-reduction process, stress response, and transport. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis inferred that the identified miRNAs took part in 13 metabolic networks. Our study will help further understanding of the essential roles of miRNAs in C. sinensis growth and development, and stress response. PMID:24101208

  4. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-10-26

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis.

  5. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U.; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates.” We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens PMID:25719410

  6. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis. PMID:27782129

  7. De Novo Assembly and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Provide Insight into Lysine Biosynthesis in Toona sinensis Roem

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Song, Zhenqiao; Liu, Tian; Guo, Linlin; Li, Xingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Toona sinensis Roem is a popular leafy vegetable in Chinese cuisine and is also used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, leaf samples were collected from the same plant on two development stages and then used for high-throughput Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). 125,884 transcripts and 54,628 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly. A total of 25,570 could be annotated with known biological functions, which indicated that the T. sinensis leaves and shoots were undergoing multiple developmental processes especially for active metabolic processes. Analysis of differentially expressed unigenes between the two libraries showed that the lysine biosynthesis was an enriched KEGG pathway, and candidate genes involved in the lysine biosynthesis pathway in T. sinensis leaves and shoots were identified. Our results provide a primary analysis of the gene expression files of T. sinensis leaf and shoot on different development stages and afford a valuable resource for genetic and genomic research on plant lysine biosynthesis. PMID:27376077

  8. A Nucleotide Signature for the Identification of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui) and Its Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lili; Han, Jianping; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to identify Angelicae sinensis radix (Danggui) when it is processed into Chinese patent medicines. The proposed internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is not sufficient to resolve heavily processed materials. Therefore, a short barcode for the identification of processed materials is urgently needed. In this study, 265 samples of Angelicae sinensis radix and adulterants were collected. The ITS2 region was sequenced, and based on one single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) site unique to Angelica sinensis, a nucleotide signature consisting of 37-bp (5′-aatccgcgtc atcttagtga gctcaaggac ccttagg-3′) was developed. It is highly conserved and specific within Angelica sinensis while divergent among other species. Then, we designed primers (DG01F/DG01R) to amplify the nucleotide signature region from processed materials. 15 samples procured online were analysed. By seeking the signature, we found that 7 of them were counterfeits. 28 batches of Chinese patent medicines containing Danggui were amplified. 19 of them were found to contain the signature, and adulterants such as Ligusticum sinense, Notopterygium incisum, Angelica decursiva and Angelica gigas were detected in other batches. Thus, this nucleotide signature, with only 37-bp, will broaden the application of DNA barcoding to identify the components in decoctions, Chinese patent medicines and other products with degraded DNA. PMID:27713564

  9. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.

  10. Validation and characterization of Citrus sinensis microRNAs and their target genes.

    PubMed

    Song, Changnian; Yu, Mingliang; Han, Jian; Wang, Chen; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Yanping; Fang, Jinggui

    2012-05-15

    MicroRNAs play vital role in plant growth and development by changeable expression of their target genes with most plant microRNAs having perfect or near-perfect complementarities with their target genes but miRNAs in Citrus sinensis (csi-miRNAs) and their function have not been widely studied. In this study, 15 potential microRNAs in Citrus sinensis (csi-miRNAs) were identified and bioinformatically validated using miR-RACE, a newly developed method for determination of miRNAs prediction computationally. The expression of these fifteen C. sinensis miRNAs can be detected in leaves, stems, flowers and fruits of C. sinensis by QRT-PCR with some of them showed tissue-specific expression. Six potential target genes were identified for six csi-miRNAs and also experimentally verified by Poly (A) polymerase -mediated 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (PPM-RACE) and RNA ligase-mediated 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) which mapped the cleavage site of target mRNAs and detected expression patterns of cleaved fragments that indicate the regulatory function of the miRNAs on their target genes. Our results confirm that small RNA-mediated regulation whereby all csi-miRNAs regulate their target genes by degradation.

  11. Clonorchis sinensis infection and co-infection with the hepatitis B virus are important factors associated with cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunliang; Jiang, Zhihua; Yang, Yichao; Zheng, Peiqiu; Wei, Haiyan; Lin, Yuan; Lv, Guoli; Yang, Qingli

    2017-08-12

    To evaluate the contributions of Clonorchis sinensis and hepatitis B virus to the development of cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), C. sinensis and hepatitis B virus infections in 20 clinical liver cancer cases from a C. sinensis- and hepatitis B virus-epidemic region were detected. Eight cases of ICC, 11 cases of HCC and one mixed ICC and HCC case were verified by CT, pathological section and (or) observations during surgery. The C. sinensis infection was detected by stool microscopy and ELISA, and the worms and eggs found during surgery and in pathological sections also allowed for diagnoses. Hepatitis B virus infections were detected by ELISA. In the 20 cases, 18 patients were diagnosed with C. sinensis infections. Eight of the 20 patients were infected with the hepatitis B virus, and seven were co-infected with C. sinensis. In the eight ICC patients, seven were diagnosed with C. sinensis infection, and two had mixed infections with the hepatitis B virus. In the 11 HCC patients, 10 were diagnosed with C. sinensis, four had mixed infections with the hepatitis B virus, and only one HCC patient presented a single infection by the hepatitis B virus. These clinical observations revealed that C. sinensis infection and C. sinensis co-infection with the hepatitis B virus are important factors in ICC and HCC.

  12. Sarcocystis sinensis is an ultrastructurally distinct parasite of water buffalo that can cause foodborne illness but cannot complete its life-cycle in human beings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinwen; Zuo, Yangxian; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; He, Yongshu; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2011-05-31

    In this study, we compared the morphology of Sarcocystis sinensis and Sarcocystis hominis, and assessed the infectiousness of S. sinensis for human volunteers. The cysts of S. sinensis were from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and those of S. hominis were from cattle (Bos taurus). Transmission electron microscopy of S. sinensis cysts revealed that the cyst wall had leaning, finger-like protrusions measuring 1.44-5.08 μm in length and without invaginations on the tip surface of the protrusions. In contrast, the cyst wall of S. hominis had upright, finger-like protrusions measuring 9.43 μm×2.42 μm and with vesicle-like invaginations on the tip surface of the protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that surface of the protrusions was arranged as rectangles in S. sinensis, as compared to tongue-shaped in S. hominis. Other distinguishing features of S. sinensis include a thin ground substrate (GS) zone with microtubules and small, circle-like structures located at the base of the protrusions. Human volunteers, after consuming S. sinensis cysts, produced no sporocysts or oocysts in feces, suggesting that humans could not serve as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. By contrast, many sporocysts and oocysts were passed in feces of a human volunteer 11-29 days after ingestion of S. hominis cysts. These results showed that S. sinensis and S. hominis are separate species and S. sinensis cannot use human being as the definitive host.

  13. Epidemiological study on Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area of Zhujiang delta in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renli; Gao, Shitong; Geng, Yijie; Huang, Dana; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Shunxiang; Cheng, Jingquan; Fu, Yucai

    2007-06-01

    To study the transmission route and epidemiological features of Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area, which is the biggest immigration city in the south of China, we examined 1,473 individuals (710 males and 763 females) to assess the current status of C. sinensis infection among the people in a village of Shenzhen in Zhujiang delta of Guangdong province, China. Freshwater snails, 630, of different species known as the first intermediate host of C. sinensis were collected and examined for cercaria infection, and 430 freshwater fishes of different species as the second intermediate host were examined for metacercaria infection. Among 1,473 people examined, 70 (4.75%) were found infected with C. sinensis. By counting eggs per gram feces (EPG), it was found that the intensity of infection in males was stronger than that of females, and the average EPG was 41.87 in all population. Snails, 1.15%, were infected with cercariae of C. sinensis. The average infection rate of freshwater fishes of 15 species with metacercariae of C. sinensis was 16.97%, and the carps reached the highest infection rate (40.74%). A questionnaire was designed with 12 questions covering socioeconomic conditions and human behavior, contamination of the environment, and fishponds. Of 1,473 interviewees, 54% did not know about fluke disease or its transmission route, 12% of those who knew about the fluke believed that the infection causes no harm or only slight harm to their health. Of the interviewees, 27%, ate raw fish at least one to two times per month. Of families, 5% used the same utensils for both raw fish and cooked food. Of the fishpond owners, 40% fed their fishes with feces of domestic animals and humans. All these factors of unhealthy behaviors, poor knowledge, inappropriate farming/fishery practices, and eating raw fish have made the prevalence of clonorchiasis increase in humans in the Shenzhen area. It is urgent to perform a control program, including health education

  14. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Clonorchis sinensis of human health significance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis is a zoonotic parasite causing clonorchiasis-associated human disease such as biliary calculi, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, and it is currently classified as carcinogenic to humans for cholangiocarcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, regulating small RNA molecules which are essential for the complex life cycles of parasites and are involved in parasitic infections. To identify and characterize miRNAs expressed in adult C. sinensis residing chronically in the biliary tract, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing and bioinformatic predictions with stem-loop real-time PCR analysis. Results Here we report the use of this approach to identify and clone 6 new and 62,512 conserved C. sinensis miRNAs which belonged to 284 families. There was strong bias on families, family members and sequence nucleotides in C. sinensis. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 14 and 22, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle and end of conserved miRNAs. There was no significant "seed region" at the first and ninth positions which were commonly found in human, animals and plants. Categorization of conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs of C. sinensis were still innovated and concentrated along three branches of the phylogenetic tree leading to bilaterians, insects and coelomates. There were two miRNA strategies in C. sinensis for its parasitic life: keeping a large category of miRNA families of different animals and keeping stringent conserved seed regions with high active innovation in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end, which were perfect for the parasite to perform its complex life style and for host changes. Conclusions The present study represented the first large scale characterization of C. sinensis miRNAs, which have implications for understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as miRNA studies of other related species such as

  15. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Clonorchis sinensis of human health significance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min-Jun; Liu, Quan; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Cai, Xian-Quan; Yan, Chao; Lin, Rui-Qing; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Song, Hui-Qun; He, Xian-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-09-28

    Clonorchis sinensis is a zoonotic parasite causing clonorchiasis-associated human disease such as biliary calculi, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, and it is currently classified as carcinogenic to humans for cholangiocarcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, regulating small RNA molecules which are essential for the complex life cycles of parasites and are involved in parasitic infections. To identify and characterize miRNAs expressed in adult C. sinensis residing chronically in the biliary tract, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing and bioinformatic predictions with stem-loop real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify and clone 6 new and 62,512 conserved C. sinensis miRNAs which belonged to 284 families. There was strong bias on families, family members and sequence nucleotides in C. sinensis. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 14 and 22, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle and end of conserved miRNAs. There was no significant "seed region" at the first and ninth positions which were commonly found in human, animals and plants. Categorization of conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs of C. sinensis were still innovated and concentrated along three branches of the phylogenetic tree leading to bilaterians, insects and coelomates. There were two miRNA strategies in C. sinensis for its parasitic life: keeping a large category of miRNA families of different animals and keeping stringent conserved seed regions with high active innovation in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end, which were perfect for the parasite to perform its complex life style and for host changes. The present study represented the first large scale characterization of C. sinensis miRNAs, which have implications for understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as miRNA studies of other related species such as Opisthorchis viverrini and

  16. Insect herbivores associated with an evergreen tree Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Silva, J O; Neves, F S

    2014-08-01

    Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem.

  17. Floral ontogeny in Astragalus compactus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Galegeae): variable occurrence of bracteoles and variable patterns of sepal initiation.

    PubMed

    Naghiloo, Somayeh; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza; Movafeghi, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Comparative studies of floral ontogeny represent a growing field that promise to provide new insights on floral evolution. Floral ontogenetic information has been used successfully in Leguminosae for re-examining phylogenetic relationships at different levels. Using epi-illumination light microscopy, we present original ontogenetic data in Astragalus compactus, which was chosen because of its unusual arrangement of inflorescence and variable occurrence of bracteoles on flowers. Based on our results, uncommon ontogeny of the inflorescence led to the arrangement of flowers in four different positions. Variation was observed not only in the presence of bracteoles, but also in the order of sepal initiation in flowers of the same inflorescence. Surprisingly, besides the widely stated unidirectional pattern, bidirectional, sequential and an atypical unreported order were observed. High degree of overlapping between whorls and formation of two types of common primordia also were found. The variable occurrence of bracteoles suggests that the species is in an intermediate state towards fully lacking of bracteoles. We propose that the variability of the sequence of sepal initiation is possibly a consequence of the function of mechanical forces generated by surrounding leaves. Relationships between mechanical force and auxin signalling are discussed.

  18. Phylogenetic properties of 50 nuclear loci in Medicago (Leguminosae) generated using multiplexed sequence capture and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Filipe; Bertrand, Yann J K; Nylinder, Stephan; Oxelman, Bengt; Eriksson, Jonna S; Pfeil, Bernard E

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology has increased the capacity to generate molecular data for plant biological research, including phylogenetics, and can potentially contribute to resolving complex phylogenetic problems. The evolutionary history of Medicago L. (Leguminosae: Trifoliae) remains unresolved due to incongruence between published phylogenies. Identification of the processes causing this genealogical incongruence is essential for the inference of a correct species phylogeny of the genus and requires that more molecular data, preferably from low-copy nuclear genes, are obtained across different species. Here we report the development of 50 novel LCN markers in Medicago and assess the phylogenetic properties of each marker. We used the genomic resources available for Medicago truncatula Gaertn., hybridisation-based gene enrichment (sequence capture) techniques and Next-Generation Sequencing to generate sequences. This alternative proves to be a cost-effective approach to amplicon sequencing in phylogenetic studies at the genus or tribe level and allows for an increase in number and size of targeted loci. Substitution rate estimates for each of the 50 loci are provided, and an overview of the variation in substitution rates among a large number of low-copy nuclear genes in plants is presented for the first time. Aligned sequences of major species lineages of Medicago and its sister genus are made available and can be used in further probe development for sequence-capture of the same markers.

  19. Phylogenetic Properties of 50 Nuclear Loci in Medicago (Leguminosae) Generated Using Multiplexed Sequence Capture and Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Filipe; Bertrand, Yann J. K.; Nylinder, Stephan; Oxelman, Bengt; Eriksson, Jonna S.; Pfeil, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology has increased the capacity to generate molecular data for plant biological research, including phylogenetics, and can potentially contribute to resolving complex phylogenetic problems. The evolutionary history of Medicago L. (Leguminosae: Trifoliae) remains unresolved due to incongruence between published phylogenies. Identification of the processes causing this genealogical incongruence is essential for the inference of a correct species phylogeny of the genus and requires that more molecular data, preferably from low-copy nuclear genes, are obtained across different species. Here we report the development of 50 novel LCN markers in Medicago and assess the phylogenetic properties of each marker. We used the genomic resources available for Medicago truncatula Gaertn., hybridisation-based gene enrichment (sequence capture) techniques and Next-Generation Sequencing to generate sequences. This alternative proves to be a cost-effective approach to amplicon sequencing in phylogenetic studies at the genus or tribe level and allows for an increase in number and size of targeted loci. Substitution rate estimates for each of the 50 loci are provided, and an overview of the variation in substitution rates among a large number of low-copy nuclear genes in plants is presented for the first time. Aligned sequences of major species lineages of Medicago and its sister genus are made available and can be used in further probe development for sequence-capture of the same markers. PMID:25329401

  20. Pollen:ovule ratio and its relationship with other floral traits in Papilionoideae (Leguminosae): an evaluation with Argentine species.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, A V; Alemán, M M; Figueroa-Fleming, T; López-Spahr, D; Gómez, C A; Yáñez, C; Figueroa-Castro, D M; Ortega-Baes, P

    2012-01-01

    The pollen:ovule ratio (P/O) has traditionally been used as a rough estimator of plant breeding systems. It has been shown that plant breeding systems are associated with particular floral traits. In this study, we determined the P/O in 21 Leguminosae species from Argentina and explored relationships between P/O and taxonomic position, flower size, floral rewards, pollen presentation and pollination mechanisms. According to the results, 15 out of the 21 species classified were obligate xenogamous, although some of them have been recorded as facultative xenogamous in previous studies. There was a significant effect of taxonomic position (genus), reward type and pollination mechanism on P/O. Species offering only nectar as a floral reward (which were species with a brush mechanism) had a significantly lower P/O than species offering pollen or pollen and nectar. Species with the brush pollination mechanism had the lowest P/O, while species with valvular and pump mechanism had the highest P/O. However, pollen presentation (primary and secondary) and flower size did not have a significant effect on P/O. Our results demonstrate that P/O variability is determined by taxonomic position and pollination mechanism in this plant group.

  1. Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Erythrinapoeppigiana (Leguminosae) and Cytotoxic Activity Against Breast Cancer Cells Line MCF-7 In Silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlina, T.; Mardianingrum, R.; Gaffar, S.; Supratman, U.

    2017-02-01

    Erythrinapoeppigiana(Leguminosae) is a higher plant that has been used as a folk for the treatment of infection, fever, and inflammation. In the course of our continuing search for novel cytotoxic compounds from genus Erythrina, the methanol extract of E. poeppigiana showed a significant cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells line MCF-7 in silico. The compounds in methanol extract of the E. poeppigiana was separated using a bioassay-guided fractionation. By using a cytotoxic activity to follow separation, the methylene chloride was separated by several column chromatography techniques on silica gel and ODS to yield three active compounds (1-3). The chemical structures of active compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with those identical compounds that previously reported and identified as a 10,11-dihydroxyerysodine (1) 6,7-dihydro-17-hydroxyerysotrine (2) 6,7-dihydro-11-methoxyerysotrine (3). Compounds (1-3) showed cytotoxic activity inhibits EGFR 2 against breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in silico molecular docking method with bond Gibbs free energy (ΔG) (kcal/mol) and inhibition constants (Ki) (nM) of value (-8.61121, 4.84×10-7) (-8.1145, 1.12×10-6) and (-7.3394, 4.14×10-6), respectively.

  2. Lupinalbin A as the most potent estrogen receptor α- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist in Eriosema laurentii de Wild. (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Ateba, Sylvin Benjamin; Njamen, Dieudonné; Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Zehl, Martin; Kaehlig, Hanspeter; Jungbauer, Alois; Krenn, Liselotte

    2014-08-09

    Eriosema laurentii De Wild. (Leguminosae) is a plant used in Cameroon against infertility and gynecological or menopausal complaints. In our previous report, a methanol extract of its aerial parts was shown to exhibit estrogenic and aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonistic activities in vitro and to prevent menopausal symptoms in ovariectomized Wistar rats. In order to determine the major estrogen receptor α (ERα) agonists in the extract, an activity-guided fractionation was performed using the ERα yeast screen. To check whether the ERα active fractions/compounds also accounted for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonistic activity of the crude methanol extract, they were further tested on the AhR yeast screen. This study led to the identification of 2'-hydroxygenistein, lupinalbin A and genistein as major estrogenic principles of the extract. 2'-hydroxygenistein and lupinalbin A were, for the first time, also shown to possess an AhR agonistic activity, whereas genistein was not active in this assay. In addition, it was possible to deduce structure-activity relationships. These results suggest that the identified compounds are the major active principles responsible for the estrogenic and AhR agonistic activities of the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Eriosema laurentii.

  3. Phylogeny, biogeography, and rates of diversification of New World Astragalus (Leguminosae) with an emphasis on South American radiations.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Rosa A; Vidal, Rodrigo; Sanderson, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    This study uses phylogenetic relationships of New World representatives of the species-rich genus Astragalus (Leguminosae; Papilionoideae) to follow up on recent evidence pointing to rapid and recent plant diversification patterns in the Andes. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were done using nuclear rDNA ITS and chloroplast spacers trnD-trnT and trnfM-trnS1, either separately or in combination. The effect of using partitioned vs. nonpartitioned analyses in a Bayesian approach was evaluated. Highest resolution was obtained when the data were combined in partitioned or nonpartitioned Bayesian analyses. All phylogenies support two clades of South American species nested within the North American species, implying two separate invasions from North to South America. These two clades correspond to the original morphological classification of Johnston (1947 Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 28: 336-409). The mean ages of the South American clades were very recent but still significantly different (1.89 and 0.98 Ma). Upper and lower bounds on rates of diversification varied between 2.01 and 0.65 species/Ma for the older clade and 2.06 and 1.24 species/Ma for the younger clade. Even the lower bounds are still very high, reasserting Neo-Astragalus in the growing list of recent rapid radiations of plants, especially in areas with a high physiographic diversity, such as the Andes.

  4. Investigation on oxidative stress of nitric oxide synthase interacting protein from Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Bian, Meng; Xu, Qingxia; Xu, Yanquan; Li, Shan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Sheng, Jiahe; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Numerous evidences indicate that excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from liver flukes trigger the generation of free radicals that are associated with the initial pathophysiological responses in host cells. In this study, we first constructed a Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs)-infected BALB/c mouse model and examined relative results respectively at 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) gradually decreased with lastingness of infection, while the transcriptional level of inducible NOS (iNOS) significantly increased. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in sera of infected mouse significantly increased versus the healthy control group. These results showed that the liver of C. sinensis-infected mouse was in a state with elevated levels of oxidation stress. Previously, C. sinensis NOS interacting protein coding gene (named CsNOSIP) has been isolated and recombinant CsNOSIP (rCsNOSIP) has been expressed in Escherichia coli, which has been confirmed to be a component present in CsESPs and confirmed to play important roles in immune regulation of the host. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of rCsNOSIP on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated RAW264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. We found that endotoxin-free rCsNOSIP significantly promoted the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) after pretreated with rCsNOSIP, while the level of SOD decreased. Furthermore, rCsNOSIP could also increase the level of lipid peroxidation MDA. Taken together, these results suggested that CsNOSIP was a key molecule which was involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates, and played an important role in oxidative stress during C. sinensis infection.

  5. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  6. [Potential Ecological Suitability Regionalization Analysis of Angelica sinensis Based on GIS and Fuzzy Matter Element Model].

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhong-hui; Wei, Hai-yan; Gu, Wei; Mao, Ya-juan; Zhu, Li-nan; Sang, Man-jie

    2015-07-01

    To study the potential ecological suitability regionalization of Angelica sinensis, for protecting wild resources and selecting cultivation location and designing rational production layout. Based on fuzzy matter element model, the relationship of fuzzy membership function between ferulic acid content and 14 ecological factors, including climate, topography and soil,were established. Then information entropy theory was used to determine the relative importance of each environmental factor, and thus to determine the most limiting habitat criteria. Finally, the probable spatial distribution of Angelica sinensis across ten provinces in Western China was determined based on GIS spatial analysis of habitat conditions. Meanwhile, the optimal index range of ecological factors was quantified. It was showed that the percentage of moderately and highly suitable habitats for Angelica sinensis in the study area was 9. 64%, its area was 306,768. 01 km2. The moderately and highly suitable habitats were mainly located in the southeast of Gansu ind Tibet,the north of Sichuan and the northwest of Yunnan. The results also showed that six dominant ecological factors controlling the distribution of Angelica sinensis. These six dominant features were as follows: (1) mean temperature of wettest quarter, (2) altitude, (3) precipitation of growth, (4) annual relative humidity, (5) average temperature of growth period, and (6) annual )recipitation. The habitat suitability assessment model based on GIS and fuzzy matter element model theory can accurately valuate the habitat suitability of Angelica sinensis, quantify the area of suitable habitat and analyze the spatial distribution. This informaion is of value to provide insight for choosing the most suitable cultivation sites,as well as the habitat protection zones.

  7. Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Gonadal Transcriptome of the Endangered Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    PubMed

    Yue, Huamei; Li, Chuangju; Du, Hao; Zhang, Shuhuan; Wei, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is endangered through anthropogenic activities including over-fishing, damming, shipping, and pollution. Controlled reproduction has been adopted and successfully conducted for conservation. However, little information is available on the reproductive regulation of the species. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of the gonad tissue to create a comprehensive dataset for A. sinensis. The Illumina sequencing platform was adopted to obtain 47,333,701 and 47,229,705 high quality reads from testis and ovary cDNA libraries generated from three-year-old A. sinensis. We identified 86,027 unigenes of which 30,268 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,281 were annotated in the Swiss-prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 26,152 and 7,734 unigenes, respectively, were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups. In addition, 12,557 unigenes were mapped to 231 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. A total of 1,896 unigenes, potentially differentially expressed between the two gonad types, were found, with 1,894 predicted to be up-regulated in ovary and only two in testis. Fifty-five potential gametogenesis-related genes were screened in the transcriptome and 34 genes with significant matches were found. Besides, more paralogs of 11 genes in three gene families (sox, apolipoprotein and cyclin) were found in A. sinensis compared to their orthologs in the diploid Danio rerio. In addition, 12,151 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. This study provides the first de novo transcriptome analysis currently available for A. sinensis. The transcriptomic data represents the fundamental resource for future research on the mechanism of early gametogenesis in sturgeons. The SSRs identified in this work will be valuable for assessment of genetic diversity of wild fish and genealogy management of cultured fish.

  8. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    PubMed

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  9. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  10. Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Gonadal Transcriptome of the Endangered Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Shuhuan; Wei, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is endangered through anthropogenic activities including over-fishing, damming, shipping, and pollution. Controlled reproduction has been adopted and successfully conducted for conservation. However, little information is available on the reproductive regulation of the species. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of the gonad tissue to create a comprehensive dataset for A. sinensis. Results The Illumina sequencing platform was adopted to obtain 47,333,701 and 47,229,705 high quality reads from testis and ovary cDNA libraries generated from three-year-old A. sinensis. We identified 86,027 unigenes of which 30,268 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,281 were annotated in the Swiss-prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 26,152 and 7,734 unigenes, respectively, were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups. In addition, 12,557 unigenes were mapped to 231 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. A total of 1,896 unigenes, potentially differentially expressed between the two gonad types, were found, with 1,894 predicted to be up-regulated in ovary and only two in testis. Fifty-five potential gametogenesis-related genes were screened in the transcriptome and 34 genes with significant matches were found. Besides, more paralogs of 11 genes in three gene families (sox, apolipoprotein and cyclin) were found in A. sinensis compared to their orthologs in the diploid Danio rerio. In addition, 12,151 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. Conclusions This study provides the first de novo transcriptome analysis currently available for A. sinensis. The transcriptomic data represents the fundamental resource for future research on the mechanism of early gametogenesis in sturgeons. The SSRs identified in this work will be valuable for assessment of genetic diversity of wild fish and genealogy

  11. The oldest record of Alligator sinensis from the Late Pliocene of Western Japan, and its biogeographic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Masaya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    The late Cenozoic fossil record of alligators in East Asia is crucial in understanding the origin and past distribution of Asian alligators that are now represented by a single species, Alligator sinensis. This study reports a partial skeleton of A. sinensis from the Late Pliocene (approximately 3.0 Ma) of western Japan. This Japanese A. sinensis is large in size (>200 cm total length), comparable to the maximum size of extant individuals. It demonstrates the oldest record of A. sinensis and wider distribution of this species in the past. Tectonic and geographic history of East Asia suggests that alligators presumably dispersed into Japan before 25 Ma or after 10 Ma, yet finally were wiped out from Japan due to the semi-isolated condition of the Japanese island arc and the deteriorated climate during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  12. Anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shastry, Rajeshwari; Ullal, Sheetal Dinkar; Karkala, Shreyas; Rai, Seema; Gadgade, Akash

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate anxiolytic effect of Camellia sinensis (CS) and possible mechanism on acute and chronic administration in rats. Materials and Methods: Eight groups of rats with six in each group were used. Group I served as control. Group II received diazepam (1 mg/kg). Groups III, IV, and V received CS in doses of 3.3, 16.5, and 33 mg/kg, respectively. Three pharmacologically validated experimental models – elevated plus maze (EPM), light and dark box (LDB), and open field tests (OFT) – were employed. Each animal was tested initially in the EPM and then in the LDB, followed by the OFT in a single setting. In EMP, number of entries into, time spent in, and number of rears in each arm in a 5-min period were noted. In LDB, number of entries and time spent in bright arena, number of rears, and duration of immobility were noted. In OFT, number of peripheral and central squares crossed, time spent, and number of rears in central squares were observed for a 5-min period. One-way ANOVA followed by post hoc least significant difference test was performed. Results: In EPM and LDB, CS at 3.3, 16.5, and 33 mg/kg (acute and chronic models) increased the number of entries and time spent and rearing in the open arms and bright arena, respectively, compared to control. In the OFT, CS at 16.5 and 33 mg/kg significantly increased the number of squares crossed, time spent, and the number of rears in the central squares compared to control. Anxiolytic effect was dose dependent in EPM and LDB and CS at 33 mg/kg showed better anxiolytic activity compared to diazepam (1 mg/kg) in all models. Flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg) and bicuculline (1 mg/kg) completely inhibited while picrotoxin (1 mg/kg) partially inhibited the anxiolytic effect of CS. Diazepam and CS at 33 mg/kg reduced the locomotor activity in rats. Conclusion: CS has dose-dependent anxiolytic activity which is comparable to diazepam. Anxiolytic action of CS is likely mediated through GABAA

  13. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lindsay V; Stewart, J Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; Toma, Yo; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup; Jørgensen, Uffe; Zhao, Hua; Peng, Junhua; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko; Sacks, Erik J

    2015-07-01

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1-39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6-27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Sequences and gene organization of the mitochondrial genomes of the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis (Trematoda).

    PubMed

    Cai, X Q; Liu, G H; Song, H Q; Wu, C Y; Zou, F C; Yan, H K; Yuan, Z G; Lin, R Q; Zhu, X Q

    2012-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are important trematodes infecting humans and animals, belonging to the family Opisthorchiidae. In the present study, we sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA (mtDNA) sequences of O. viverrini from Laos, obtained the complete mtDNA sequences of C. sinensis from China and Korea, and revealed their gene annotations and genome organizations. The mtDNA sequences of O. viverrini, C. sinensis (China isolate), C. sinensis (Korea isolate) were 13,510, 13,879, and 13,877 bp in size, respectively. Each of the three mt genomes comprises 36 genes, consisting of 12 genes coding for proteins, two genes for rRNA, and 20 genes (O. viverrini) or 22 genes (C. sinensis) for tRNA. The gene content and arrangement are identical to that of Fasciola hepatica, and Paragonimus westermani, but distinct from Schistosoma spp. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in T. The contents of A + T of the mt genomes were 59.39% for O. viverrini, 60.03% for C. sinensis (China isolate), and 59.99% for C. sinensis (Korea isolate). Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms [maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis], all revealed distinct groups with high statistical support, indicating that O. viverrini and C. sinensis represent sister taxa. These data provide additional novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of the two liver flukes and should have implications for the molecular diagnosis, prevention, and control of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in humans and animals.

  15. Association analysis of salt tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) at germination and seedling stages.

    PubMed

    Ravelombola, Waltram; Shi, Ainong; Weng, Yuejin; Mou, Beiquan; Motes, Dennis; Clark, John; Chen, Pengyin; Srivastava, Vibha; Qin, Jun; Dong, Lingdi; Yang, Wei; Bhattarai, Gehendra; Sugihara, Yuichi

    2017-09-25

    This is the first report on association analysis of salt tolerance and identification of SNP markers associated with salt tolerance in cowpea. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is one of the most important cultivated legumes in Africa. The worldwide annual production in cowpea dry seed is 5.4 million metric tons. However, cowpea is unfavorably affected by salinity stress at germination and seedling stages, which is exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The lack of knowledge on the genetic underlying salt tolerance in cowpea limits the establishment of a breeding strategy for developing salt-tolerant cowpea cultivars. The objectives of this study were to conduct association mapping for salt tolerance at germination and seedling stages and to identify SNP markers associated with salt tolerance in cowpea. We analyzed the salt tolerance index of 116 and 155 cowpea accessions at germination and seedling stages, respectively. A total of 1049 SNPs postulated from genotyping-by-sequencing were used for association analysis. Population structure was inferred using Structure 2.3.4; K optimal was determined using Structure Harvester. TASSEL 5, GAPIT, and FarmCPU involving three models such as single marker regression, general linear model, and mixed linear model were used for the association study. Substantial variation in salt tolerance index for germination rate, plant height reduction, fresh and dry shoot biomass reduction, foliar leaf injury, and inhibition of the first trifoliate leaf was observed. The cowpea accessions were structured into two subpopulations. Three SNPs, Scaffold87490_622, Scaffold87490_630, and C35017374_128 were highly associated with salt tolerance at germination stage. Seven SNPs, Scaffold93827_270, Scaffold68489_600, Scaffold87490_633, Scaffold87490_640, Scaffold82042_3387, C35069468_1916, and Scaffold93942_1089 were found to be associated with salt tolerance at seedling stage. The SNP markers were consistent across the three models and

  16. Transcriptome sequencing of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) genes and the identification of EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liu, Chunji; Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek) is an important traditional food legume crop, with high economic and nutritional value. It is widely grown in China and other Asian countries. Despite its importance, genomic information is currently unavailable for this crop plant species or some of its close relatives in the Vigna genus. In this study, more than 103 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from mung bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The processed reads were assembled into 48,693 unigenes with an average length of 874 bp. Of these unigenes, 25,820 (53.0%) and 23,235 (47.7%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases, respectively. Furthermore, 19,242 (39.5%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 18,316 (37.6%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 10,918 (22.4%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 6,585 (8.3%) were mapped onto 244 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. Among the unigenes, 10,053 sequences contained a unique simple sequence repeat (SSR), and 2,303 sequences contained more than one SSR together in the same expressed sequence tag (EST). A total of 13,134 EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers, with mono-nucleotide A/T repeats being the most abundant motif class and G/C repeats being rare. In this SSR analysis, we found five main repeat motifs: AG/CT (30.8%), GAA/TTC (12.6%), AAAT/ATTT (6.8%), AAAAT/ATTTT (6.2%) and AAAAAT/ATTTTT (1.9%). A total of 200 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by PCR amplification as EST-SSR markers. Of these, 66 marker primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 31 mung bean accessions selected from diverse geographical locations. The large number of SSR-containing sequences found in this study will be valuable for the construction of a high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or

  17. Transcriptome Sequencing of Mung Bean (Vigna radiate L.) Genes and the Identification of EST-SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liu, Chunji; Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek) is an important traditional food legume crop, with high economic and nutritional value. It is widely grown in China and other Asian countries. Despite its importance, genomic information is currently unavailable for this crop plant species or some of its close relatives in the Vigna genus. In this study, more than 103 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from mung bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The processed reads were assembled into 48,693 unigenes with an average length of 874 bp. Of these unigenes, 25,820 (53.0%) and 23,235 (47.7%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases, respectively. Furthermore, 19,242 (39.5%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 18,316 (37.6%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 10,918 (22.4%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 6,585 (8.3%) were mapped onto 244 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. Among the unigenes, 10,053 sequences contained a unique simple sequence repeat (SSR), and 2,303 sequences contained more than one SSR together in the same expressed sequence tag (EST). A total of 13,134 EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers, with mono-nucleotide A/T repeats being the most abundant motif class and G/C repeats being rare. In this SSR analysis, we found five main repeat motifs: AG/CT (30.8%), GAA/TTC (12.6%), AAAT/ATTT (6.8%), AAAAT/ATTTT (6.2%) and AAAAAT/ATTTTT (1.9%). A total of 200 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by PCR amplification as EST-SSR markers. Of these, 66 marker primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 31 mung bean accessions selected from diverse geographical locations. The large number of SSR-containing sequences found in this study will be valuable for the construction of a high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or

  18. Waterlogging-induced increase in sugar mobilization, fermentation, and related gene expression in the roots of mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Sairam, Raj K; Dharmar, Kumutha; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Meena, Ramesh C

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role of root carbohydrate levels and metabolism in the waterlogging tolerance of contrasting mung bean genotypes. An experiment was conducted with two cultivated mung bean (Vigna radiata) genotypes viz., T44 (tolerant) and Pusa Baisakhi (PB) (susceptible), and a wild Vigna species Vigna luteola under pot-culture to study the physiological and molecular mechanism of waterlogging tolerance. Waterlogging resulted in decrease in relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) in root and leaf tissues, and chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves, while the Chl a/b ratio increased. Waterlogging-induced decline in RWC, MSI, Chl and increase in Chl a/b ratio was greater in PB than V. luteola and T44. Waterlogging caused decline in total and non-reducing sugars in all the genotypes and reducing sugars in PB, while the content of reducing sugar increased in V. luteola and T44. The pattern of variation in reducing sugar content in the 3 genotypes was parallel to sucrose synthase (SS) activity. V. luteola and T44 also showed fewer declines in total and non-reducing sugars and greater increase in reducing sugar and SS activity than PB. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) increased up to 8d of waterlogging in V. luteola and T44, while in PB a marginal increase was observed only up to 4d of treatment. Gene expression studies done by RT-PCR in 24h waterlogged plants showed enhanced expression of ADH and SS in the roots of V. luteola and T44, while in PB there was no change in expression level in control or treated plants. PCR band products were cloned and sequenced, and partial cDNAs of 531, 626, and 667; 702, 736, and 744bp of SS and ADH, respectively were obtained. The partial cDNA sequences of cloned SS genes showed 93-100 homologies among different genotypes and with D10266, while in case of ADH the similarity was in the range of 97-100% amongst each other and with Z23170. The results suggest that the availability of

  19. Stable Carbon Isotope Composition of the Lipids in Natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis from Major Habitats in China and Its Substitutes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lian-Xian; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Hong, Yue-Hui; Li, Yan; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2017-09-18

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one rare medicinal fungus produced in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Its quality and price varies hugely with different habitat, and its numerous substitutes have sprung up in functional food markets. This paper aims to discriminate the geographic origin of wild O. sinensis and its substitutes via element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ(13)C values of major fatty acids in the lipids of O. sinensis are characterized unanimously by the variation relation C18:0 < C18:2 ≈ C16:0 < C18:1, while their fluctuation intervals are notably different between those of neutral and polar lipids. The comparative analysis of the δ(13)C ratios of major fatty acids in lipids of O. sinensis suggests that the δ(13)C patterns may be sensitive potential indicators to discriminate its geographical origin. The δ(13)C values of individual major fatty acids of lipids from the cultivated stromata of Cordyceps militaris (SCM), the fermented mycelia of Hirsurella sinensis (FMH) and Paecilomyces epiali (FMP) range from -31.2‰ to -29.7‰, -16.9‰ to -14.3‰, and -26.5‰ to -23.9‰, respectively. Their δ(13)C pattern of individual major fatty acids may be used as a potential indicator to discriminate the products of natural O. sinensis and its substitutes.

  20. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613

  1. Development of a polymerase chain reaction applicable to rapid and sensitive detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in human stool samples

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Mi Choi, Kyung; Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lim, Sung-Bin; Cha, Seok Ho; Park, Yun-Kyu; Pak, Jhang Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Hong, Sung-Jong; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic examination of eggs of parasitic helminths in stool samples has been the most widely used classical diagnostic method for infections, but tiny and low numbers of eggs in stool samples often hamper diagnosis of helminthic infections with classical microscopic examination. Moreover, it is also difficult to differentiate parasite eggs by the classical method, if they have similar morphological characteristics. In this study, we developed a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular diagnostic method for detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in stool samples. Nine primers were designed based on the long-terminal repeat (LTR) of C. sinensis retrotransposon1 (CsRn1) gene, and seven PCR primer sets were paired. Polymerase chain reaction with each primer pair produced specific amplicons for C. sinensis, but not for other trematodes including Metagonimus yokogawai and Paragonimus westermani. Particularly, three primer sets were able to detect 10 C. sinensis eggs and were applicable to amplify specific amplicons from DNA samples purified from stool of C. sinensis-infected patients. This PCR method could be useful for diagnosis of C. sinensis infections in human stool samples with a high level of specificity and sensitivity. PMID:23916334

  2. Biology, Bionomics and Molecular Biology of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann 1828 (Diptera: Culicidae), Main Malaria Vector in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinyu; Zhang, Shaosen; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Li; Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Hejun; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Shuisen

    2017-01-01

    China has set a goal to eliminate all malaria in the country by 2020, but it is unclear if current understanding of malaria vectors and transmission is sufficient to achieve this objective. Anopheles sinensis is the most widespread malaria vector specie in China, which is also responsible for vivax malaria outbreak in central China. We reviewed literature from 1954 to 2016 on An. sinensis with emphasis on biology, bionomics, and molecular biology. A total of 538 references were relevant and included. An. sienesis occurs in 29 Chinese provinces. Temperature can affect most life-history parameters. Most An. sinensis are zoophilic, but sometimes they are facultatively anthropophilic. Sporozoite analysis demonstrated An. sinensis efficacy on Plasmodium vivax transmission. An. sinensis was not stringently refractory to P. falciparum under experimental conditions, however, sporozoite was not found in salivary glands of field collected An. sinensis. The literature on An. sienesis biology and bionomics was abundant, but molecular studies, such as gene functions and mechanisms, were limited. Only 12 molecules (genes, proteins or enzymes) have been studied. In addition, there were considerable untapped omics resources for potential vector control tools. Existing information on An. sienesis could serve as a baseline for advanced research on biology, bionomics and genetics relevant to vector control strategies.

  3. Molecular differentiation of Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis eggs by multiplex real-time PCR with high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are parasites known to be carcinogenic and causative agents of cholangiocarcinoma in Asia. The standard method for diagnosis for those parasite infections is stool examination to detect parasite eggs. However, the method has low sensitivity, and eggs of O. viverrini and C. sinensis are difficult to distinguish from each other and from those of some other trematodes. Here, we report a multiplex real-time PCR coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the differentiation of O. viverrini and C. sinensis eggs in fecal samples. Using 2 pairs of species-specific primers, DNA sequences from a portion of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad 2) gene, were amplified to generate 209 and 165 bp products for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were analyzed, and the melting temperatures peaked at 82.4±0.09℃ and 85.9±0.08℃ for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. This technique was able to detect as few as 1 egg of O. viverrini and 2 eggs of C. sinensis in a 150 mg fecal sample, which is equivalent to 7 and 14 eggs per gram of feces, respectively. The method is species-specific, rapid, simple, and does not require fluorescent probes or post-PCR processing for discrimination of eggs of the 2 species. It offers a new tool for differentiation and detection of Asian liver fluke infections in stool specimens.

  4. Studies on the Biochemical Formation Pathway of the Amino Acid l-Theanine in Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Other Plants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sihua; Fu, Xiumin; Wang, Xiaoqin; Liao, Yinyin; Zeng, Lanting; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-08-23

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water. The flavor of tea is conferred by certain metabolites, especially l-theanine, in C. sinensis. To determine why more l-theanine accumulates in C. sinensis than in other plants, we compare l-theanine contents between C. sinensis and other plant species (Camellia nitidissima, Camellia japonica, Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Solanum lycopersicum) and use a stable isotope labeling approach to elucidate its biosynthetic route. We quantify relevant intermediates and metabolites by mass spectrometry. l-Glutamic acid, a precursor of l-theanine, is present in most plants, while ethylamine, another precursor of l-theanine, specifically accumulates in Camellia species, especially C. sinensis. Most plants contain the enzyme/gene catalyzing the conversion of ethylamine and l-glutamic acid to l-theanine. After supplementation with [(2)H5]ethylamine, all the plants produce [(2)H5]l-theanine, which suggests that ethylamine availability is the reason for the difference in l-theanine accumulation between C. sinensis and other plants.

  5. Biology, Bionomics and Molecular Biology of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann 1828 (Diptera: Culicidae), Main Malaria Vector in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinyu; Zhang, Shaosen; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Li; Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Hejun; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Shuisen

    2017-01-01

    China has set a goal to eliminate all malaria in the country by 2020, but it is unclear if current understanding of malaria vectors and transmission is sufficient to achieve this objective. Anopheles sinensis is the most widespread malaria vector specie in China, which is also responsible for vivax malaria outbreak in central China. We reviewed literature from 1954 to 2016 on An. sinensis with emphasis on biology, bionomics, and molecular biology. A total of 538 references were relevant and included. An. sienesis occurs in 29 Chinese provinces. Temperature can affect most life-history parameters. Most An. sinensis are zoophilic, but sometimes they are facultatively anthropophilic. Sporozoite analysis demonstrated An. sinensis efficacy on Plasmodium vivax transmission. An. sinensis was not stringently refractory to P. falciparum under experimental conditions, however, sporozoite was not found in salivary glands of field collected An. sinensis. The literature on An. sienesis biology and bionomics was abundant, but molecular studies, such as gene functions and mechanisms, were limited. Only 12 molecules (genes, proteins or enzymes) have been studied. In addition, there were considerable untapped omics resources for potential vector control tools. Existing information on An. sienesis could serve as a baseline for advanced research on biology, bionomics and genetics relevant to vector control strategies. PMID:28848504

  6. [Effect of altitudes on the photosynthate accumulation and distribution pattern of Angelic sinensis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Zhen; Jin, Ling; Zhang, En-He

    2012-08-01

    To study the effect of altitudes on the photosynthate accumulation and distribution pattern of Angelic sinensis in Gansu province and provide theontical for its expanding ecological planting region. Used field test to study the photosynthate accumulation and distribution pattern of Angelic sinensis on three different altitudinal gradients from 2 300 m to 2 800 m. Before September 25, total photosynthate accumulation were decreased with the increasing of elevation, which amaunt was 176 g/plant, 166 g/plant and 128 g/plant, respectively. The total photosynthate of low-altitude and middle-altitude were significantly higher than that of high-altitude (P < 0.05). After September 25, middle-altitude was significantly higher than the other two altitudes (P < 0.05), respectively, by 13.9% and 11.1%. The photosynthate accumulation rate existed the altitude effects, there was no significant difference between high-altitude (46.7%) and middle-altitude (43.7%), but they were even significantly higher than that of low-altitude (33.1%). The root distribution proportion (> 30%) existed the difference, that of high-altitude was 10 days earlier than the other two altitudes, and later that of high-altitude (about 54%) was higher than the other two altitudes (49.8% - 50.9%), it laid the foundation for yield formation. Yield of Angelic sinensis was as follows: middle-altitude (28.4 g/ plant), high-altitude (26.6 g/plant) and low-altitude (21.8 g/plant). Yield of Angelic sinensis middle-altitude and high-altitude were higher than that of low-altitude, respectively, by 30.2% and 22.2%, and it had a significant difference (P < 0.05), this result was consistent with the photosynthate accumulation rate. Altitudinal gradients affect yield formation of Angelic sinensis by changing the photosynthate distribution pattern and dry matter accumulation rate. So by appropriately increasing altitude, the root distribution proportion and yield are improved, this provides theoretical reference for

  7. Using Molecular Docking Analysis to Discovery Dregea sinensis Hemsl. Potential Mechanism of Anticancer, Antidepression, and Immunoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiujie; Shi, Yu; Deng, Yulin; Dai, Rongji

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dregea sinensis Hemsl. plant of the genus Dregea volubilis (Asclepiadaceae), plays a vital role in anticancer, antidepression, and immunoregulation. Steroidal glycosides are the main constituents of this herb, which were significant biological active ingredients. Objective: The objective of this study is to recognize the mechanism of anticancer, antidepression, and immunoregulation of D. sinensis Hemsl. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two steroidal glycosides of D. sinensis Hemsl. were evaluated on the docking behavior of tumor-associated proteins (PI3K, Akt, mTOR), depression-related proteins (MAO-A, MAO-B) and immune-related proteins (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 [TNFR2], interleukin-2Rα [IL-2Rα]) using Discovery Studio version 3.1 (Accelrys, San Diego, USA). Results: The molecular docking analysis revealed that mostly steroidal glycosides of D. sinensis Hemsl. exhibited powerful interaction with the depression-related protein (MAO-A) and the immune-related proteins (TNFR2, IL-2Rα). Some ligands exhibited high binding energy for the tumor-associated proteins (PI3K, Akt, mTOR) and the immune-related protein (TNF-α), but MAO-B showed none interaction with the ligands. Conclusion: This study has paved better understanding of steroidal glycosides from D. sinensis Hemsl. as potential constituents to the prevention of associated cancer, depression and disorders of immunoregulation. SUMMARY The ligand database was consist of 72 steroidal glycosides from Dregea sinensis HemslSteroidal glycosides had the potential to dock with the tumor-associated proteins (PI3K, Akt, mTOR)Steroidal glycosides were bounded with MAO-A rather than MAO-B, accorded with the inhibitor selectivity of MAOs, can be considered as potent candidate inhibitors of MAO-A72 ligands got high interaction with TNFR2 and IL-2Rα, regard the steroidal glycoside as powerful candidate inhibitors of TNFR2 and IL-2Rα. Abbreviations used: PI3K: Phosphatidyl

  8. Using Molecular Docking Analysis to Discovery Dregea sinensis Hemsl. Potential Mechanism of Anticancer, Antidepression, and Immunoregulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiujie; Shi, Yu; Deng, Yulin; Dai, Rongji

    2017-01-01

    Dregea sinensis Hemsl. plant of the genus Dregea volubilis (Asclepiadaceae), plays a vital role in anticancer, antidepression, and immunoregulation. Steroidal glycosides are the main constituents of this herb, which were significant biological active ingredients. The objective of this study is to recognize the mechanism of anticancer, antidepression, and immunoregulation of D. sinensis Hemsl. Seventy-two steroidal glycosides of D. sinensis Hemsl. were evaluated on the docking behavior of tumor-associated proteins (PI3K, Akt, mTOR), depression-related proteins (MAO-A, MAO-B) and immune-related proteins (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 [TNFR2], interleukin-2Rα [IL-2Rα]) using Discovery Studio version 3.1 (Accelrys, San Diego, USA). The molecular docking analysis revealed that mostly steroidal glycosides of D. sinensis Hemsl. exhibited powerful interaction with the depression-related protein (MAO-A) and the immune-related proteins (TNFR2, IL-2Rα). Some ligands exhibited high binding energy for the tumor-associated proteins (PI3K, Akt, mTOR) and the immune-related protein (TNF-α), but MAO-B showed none interaction with the ligands. This study has paved better understanding of steroidal glycosides from D. sinensis Hemsl. as potential constituents to the prevention of associated cancer, depression and disorders of immunoregulation. The ligand database was consist of 72 steroidal glycosides from Dregea sinensis HemslSteroidal glycosides had the potential to dock with the tumor-associated proteins (PI3K, Akt, mTOR)Steroidal glycosides were bounded with MAO-A rather than MAO-B, accorded with the inhibitor selectivity of MAOs, can be considered as potent candidate inhibitors of MAO-A72 ligands got high interaction with TNFR2 and IL-2Rα, regard the steroidal glycoside as powerful candidate inhibitors of TNFR2 and IL-2Rα. Abbreviations used: PI3K: Phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase; Akt: Protein kinase B; mTOR: Mammalian target of

  9. Cordyceps sinensis preserves intestinal mucosal barrier and may be an adjunct therapy in endotoxin-induced sepsis rat model: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Guo-Sheng; Ren, Jian-An; Li, Guan-Wei; Yuan, Yu-Jie; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis), a traditional Chinese medicine, exhibits various pharmacological activities such as reparative, antioxidant, and apoptosis inhibitory effects. Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression of sepsis. We aimed to explore the effect of C. sinensis on the gut barrier and evaluate its efficacy in sepsis. Methods: A murine model of gut barrier dysfunction was created by intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin. C. sinensis or saline was administered orally after the induction of sepsis. Alterations of intestinal barrier were evaluated and compared in terms of epithelial cell apoptosis, proliferation index (PI), intercellular tight junction (TJ) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results: C. sinensis significantly decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells and promoted mucosal cells proliferation indicated by enhanced PI and PCNA expression in the intestinal mucosa compared to control group. The TJs between epithelial cells which were disrupted in septic rats were also restored by treatment of C. sinensis. In survival studies, C. sinensis was demonstrated to confer a protection against the lethal effect of sepsis. Conclusion: These results suggest that C. sinensis has gut barrier-protection effect in endotoxin-induced sepsis by promoting the proliferation and inhibiting the apoptosis of intestinal mucosal cells, as well as restoring the TJs of intestinal mucosa. C. sinensis may have the potential to be a useful adjunct therapy for sepsis. PMID:26221273

  10. Morphological Observations and Fatty Acid Composition of Indoor-Cultivated Cordyceps sinensis at a High-Altitude Laboratory on Sejila Mountain, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lian-Xian; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Liang, Fu-Rui; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a caterpillar entomopathogenic fungus-host larva complex, is a rare medicinal herb found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding high-altitude areas. The alternation of generations in the life cycle, whatever the fungus or its host insect, requires special growth conditions. However, it is difficult to simulate the growth conditions of C. sinensis, which hinders its artificial cultivation. In this work, the life cycle from the host larva to C. sinensis was observed in an indoor-cultivation laboratory at 4,200 m a.s.l. on Sejila Mountain, Tibet. Comparative examinations between indoor-cultivated and wild C. sinensis demonstrated that the indoor-cultivated C. sinensis preferred to germinate multiple long, slim stromata at diverse positions on dead larvae, including but not limited to their heads. Their fatty acid composition shows a significant difference in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In indoor-cultivated C. sinensis, PUFAs constituted 24.59% and 49.43%, respectively, of neutral and polar lipids; meanwhile, in wild C. sinensis, PUFAs represented 34.34% and 61.25% of neutral and polar lipids, respectively. These observations and fatty acid data suggest that environmental factors, particularly temperature, soil pressure and light intensity, strongly affect the growth of C. sinensis. Our new findings may provide important information for improving techniques for the large-scale artificial cultivation of C. sinensis. PMID:25938484

  11. Ionizing radiation induced changes in phenotype, photosynthetic pigments and free polyamine levels in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mandar; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2013-05-01

    Effects of gamma rays on the free polyamine (PA) levels were studied in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Seeds exposed to different doses of gamma rays were checked for damage on phenotype, germination frequency and alteration in photosynthetic pigments. Free polyamine levels were estimated from seeds irradiated in dry and water imbibed conditions. Polyamine levels of seedlings grown from irradiated seeds, and irradiated seedlings from unexposed seeds were also measured. Damage caused by gamma irradiation resulted in decrease in final germination percentage and seedling height. Photosynthetic pigments decreased in a dose dependent manner as marker of stress. Polyamines decreased in irradiated dry seeds and in seedlings grown from irradiated seeds. Radiation stress induced increase in free polyamines was seen in irradiated imbibed seeds and irradiated seedlings. Response of polyamines towards gamma rays is dependent on the stage of the life cycle of the plant.

  12. Effect of exogenous sucrose on the enzymes of starch degradation and sucrose metabolism in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Narinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Gupta, Anil K

    2005-10-01

    Addition of exogenous sucrose and mannitol in the growth medium decreased the germination and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. cv C-88) seedlings. The reduced seedling growth appeared to be due to the decreased acid invertase activity in growing parts of the seedlings. An exogenous supply of sucrose upregulated the sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity in different parts of seedlings. Decreased amylase activity in cotyledons and the mobilization of starch from cotyledons to the growing axis was observed in the presence of exogenous sucrose and mannitol. High sucrose content observed in different tissues in the presence of exogenous sucrose and mannitol was possibly due to high SPS and low acid invertase activities and reduced conversion of sucrose to starch. It appears that exogenous sucrose acts mainly as an osmoticum, rather than a source of carbon for the growing seedlings.

  13. Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) powder on chicken breast meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Ali, Jamshed

    2014-07-01

    Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) was investigated on meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics. Results showed that treatment of aqueous extract obtained from sprouted mung powder and mung powder have beneficial effect (P < 0.05) on tenderness of chicken breast meat. These extracts also showed (P < 0.05) antibacterial activity for meat bacteria; values of TPC and PPC (log cfu/gm) at 24 h of marination were also lower than initial values in SMP and MP groups thus SMP and MP may contain some antibacterial substances which have beneficial effect on meat bacterial count. There was better (P < 0.05) cooking and sensory scores observed for marinated meat samples than control groups.

  14. Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Acamovic, T; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2001-02-01

    Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials.

  15. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on germination, metabolism and early growth of green gram, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Yuan, Haiyan; Liu, Haijun; Yu, Chan; Cai, Minmin

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on the leguminous plant, Vigna radiata L. Seed germination, metabolism and early growth performance of V. radiata L. were studied as parameters by applying a combined approach. The employed combined method which included microcalorimetry and analysis of the root cross section revealed dose dependent effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on V. radiata L. for most parameters. Although significant reductions in measured parameters were observed even at low total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels such as 1 % and 1.5 %, calculated inhibitions, IC50 values and metabolic heat emission-time curves inferred that substantial negative effects can be expected on V. radiata L. in soils with comparatively high contamination levels, such as 2.5 % TPH and higher.

  16. Antioxidant activity of the extracts of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shakeel; Amarowicz, Ryszard; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-02-05

    The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  17. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L

    2002-12-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  18. Evaluation of Nano Structured Slow Release Fertilizer on the Soil Fertility, Yield and Nutritional Profile of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Mala, Rajendran; Selvaraj, Ruby Celsia Arul; Sundaram, Vidhya Barathi; Rajan, Raja Blessina Siva Shanmuga; Gurusamy, Uma Maheswari

    2017-01-01

    The excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides has distorted soil composition, fertility and integrity with non-desirable environmental and ecological consequences. A strategy was designed to prepare a nano structured slow release fertilizer system that delivers nutrients and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria simultaneously. Slow release nano phosphate and potash fertilizer was prepared by blending the nano emulsion of fertilizer with neem cake and PGPR. Slow release nano phosphate and potash fertilizer was prepared by blending the nano emulsion of fertilizer with neem cake and PGPR. Few patents relevant to the topic have been reviewed and cited. The influence of nano structured slow release fertilizer on the biochemical characteristics, soil and yield attributes of Vigna radiata was studied in the field by randomized block design. The treatments used to evaluate the effect of nano SRF were a control (without any fertilizer), neem cake, chemical fertilizer, PGPR and nano SRF. Germination, specific activity of enzymes, carbohydrates, protein, photosynthetic pigments, root nodule number and microbial population were assessed by standard methods. The size of the nano urea slow release fertilizer ranged from 52.41 nm to 69.86 nm, and the size of the phosphate and potash fertilizer ranged from 81.85 nm to 87 nm. The weights of 1000 grains were 31.8 g, 33.28 g, 33.39 g, 36.65 g and 44.90 g in the control, neem cake, chemical fertilizer, PGPR and nano SRF, respectively. The protein concentrations were 162 mg g-1 in the control, 231 mg g-1 in the neem cake, 192 mg g-1 in the chemical fertilizer, 285 mg g-1 in the PGPR and 336 mg g-1 in the nano SRF. Nano slow release fertilizer treatment has stimulated germination and biochemical characteristics in Vigna radiata that are positively reflected in the yield attributes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  20. Production of intraspecific F1 hybrids between wild and cultivated accessions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) using conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Lelou, B; Van Damme, P

    2006-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important food legume in the tropics. It belongs to the Phaseoleae (L.) tribe (Fabaceae family), it is diploid and its chromosome number is 22. Its gene pool includes the cultivated cowpea and its wild relatives, which are connected with Vigna subgenus, Catiang section. Cowpea has a great potential in increasing food legume production. The cowpea varieties, however, are susceptible to a number of insect pests, especially the pod borer Maruca testulalis and a pod sucking-bug complex (e.g.: Clavigralla tomentosicollis, Anoplocnemis curvipes and Riptortus dentipes), which cause severe damage. The crossing programme presented here exploits the variability existing in the wild African germplasm of V. unguiculata and cultivated cowpea. To incorporate the insect pest resistance into the cultivated cowpea economically, reciprocal crosses between wild forms and cowpea varieties were performed, using the stigmatic pollination methods at anthesis. Some barriers were found in these intraspecific crosses. In the majority of reciprocal crosses, the growth of the pollen tubes was arrested in the stigmatic tissue. Only 16.01% of the ovules were fertilised. In these ovules, embryo development was normal at about 20-25 days after pollination. The failure of the intraspecific crosses in about 80.7% of the cases is thus the result of the lack of fertilisation and the unfertilised ovules. There seems to exist considerable incompatibility within the primary cowpea gene pool. The breeding programme carried out under controlled conditions has proved to be less successful in developed cowpea intraspecific F1 hybrids. Further studies should concentrate on germplasm from Africa with documented resistance to major insect pests. In addition, the application of techniques for bypassing barriers to hybridisation of parent genotypes should enable these embryos to grow to plants.

  1. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  2. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of indigenous slow-growing rhizobia nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a promiscuous grain legume, capable of establishing efficient symbiosis with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous cowpea rhizobia in European soils. In the present study, the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous rhizobia isolated from field-grown cowpea nodules in three geographically different Greek regions were studied. Forty-five authenticated strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into seven groups and representative strains of each group were further analyzed. The analysis of the rrs gene showed that the strains belong to different species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. The analysis of the 16S-23S IGS region showed that the strains from each geographic region were characterized by distinct IGS types which may represent novel phylogenetic lineages, closely related to the type species of Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi, Bradyrhizobium ferriligni and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense. MLSA analysis of three housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, and gyrB) showed the close relatedness of our strains with B. pachyrhizi PAC48(T) and B. liaoningense USDA 3622(T) and confirmed that the B. liaoningense-related isolate VUEP21 may constitute a novel species within Bradyrhizobium. Moreover, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC and nifH genes, showed that the B. pachyrhizi-related isolates belonged to symbiovar vignae, whereas the B. liaoningense-related isolates may represent a novel symbiovar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, James A.; Pennington, R. Toby; Koenen, Erik J. M.; Hughes, Colin E.; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G.; Stone, Graham N.; Kidner, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2–10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies. PMID:26442024

  4. Phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) based on duplicated copies of the sucrose synthase gene and plastid markers.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla, Vincent; Bruneau, Anne

    2012-10-01

    The Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) forms a morphologically and ecologically diverse group of mostly tropical tree species with a complex evolutionary history. This grade comprises several distinct lineages, but the exact delimitation of the group relative to subfamily Mimosoideae and other members of subfamily Caesalpinioideae, as well as phylogenetic relationships among the lineages are uncertain. With the aim of better resolving phylogenetic relationships within the Caesalpinieae grade, we investigated the utility of several nuclear markers developed from genomic studies in the Papilionoideae. We cloned and sequenced the low copy nuclear gene sucrose synthase (SUSY) and combined the data with plastid trnL and matK sequences. SUSY has two paralogs in the Caesalpinieae grade and in the Mimosoideae, but occurs as a single copy in all other legumes tested. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses suggest the two nuclear markers are congruent with plastid DNA data. The Caesalpinieae grade is divided into four well-supported clades (Cassia, Caesalpinia, Tachigali and Peltophorum clades), a poorly supported clade of Dimorphandra Group genera, and two paraphyletic groups, one with other Dimorphandra Group genera and the other comprising genera previously recognized as the Umtiza clade. A selection analysis of the paralogs, using selection models from PAML, suggests that SUSY genes are subjected to a purifying selection. One of the SUSY paralogs, under slightly stronger positive selection, may be undergoing subfunctionalization. The low copy SUSY gene is useful for phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae despite the presence of duplicate copies. This study confirms that the Caesalpinieae grade is an artificial group, and highlights the need for further analyses of lineages at the base of the Mimosoideae.

  5. Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Christopher S; Eastwood, Ruth J; Miotto, Silvia T S; Hughes, Colin E

    2012-05-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth-death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18-0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48-1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89-3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36-1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for "replicate adaptive radiations" in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different clades, these

  6. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Nicholls, James A; Pennington, R Toby; Koenen, Erik J M; Hughes, Colin E; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G; Stone, Graham N; Kidner, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  7. In the interface of caesalpinioids and mimosoids: Comparative floral development elucidates shared characters in Dimorphandra mollis and Pentaclethra macroloba (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    De Barros, Thais C; Pedersoli, Giseli D; Paulino, Juliana V; Teixeira, Simone P

    2017-02-01

    Pentaclethra and Dimorphandra (Leguminosae) have long been considered a possible enigmatic link between caesalpinioids and mimosoids because they both have an imbricate calyx and heteromorphic androecium, floral features that are rare among mimosoids but common among caesalpinioids. This study compared the developing flowers of Dimorphandra mollis and Pentaclethra macroloba to determine whether the shared floral conditions also have the same ontogenetic origin. Buds of different sizes and flowers were processed for surface (scanning electron microscopy) and histological (light microscopy) examination. The floral meristem initiates five sepal primordia in a modified helical order in both species. The median sagittal sepal is adaxial. The overlap of the sepals during elongation culminates with the formation of the imbricate calyx. Heteromorphic androecia arise in the intermediate stages of development. In P. macroloba, the fertile pollen-bearing stamens are antesepalous, robust and short, and the anthers carry a robust apical gland; the staminodes are long and white with a vestigial apical gland. In contrast, in D. mollis the fertile pollen-bearing stamens are antepetalous without glands and as long as the staminodes. The staminodes are thinner with an expanded apical region. The imbricate calyx and the heteromorphic androecium in the studied species originated via distinct pathways, favoring the hypothesis of homoplasy of these conditions. The pathways observed in P. macroloba are more similar to those observed in caesalpinioids than to those observed in mimosoids, indicating that although the floral development differs between the species studied, it supports the basal placement of Pentaclethra among mimosoids. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Eriosema laurentii De Wild (Leguminosae) methanol extract has estrogenic properties and prevents menopausal symptoms in ovariectomized Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ateba, Sylvin Benjamin; Njamen, Dieudonné; Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Jungbauer, Alois; Krenn, Liselotte

    2013-10-28

    Eriosema laurentii De Wild (Leguminosae) is a medicinal plant used in West and Central Africa for different diseases. In Cameroon, this plant is used as a treatment for infertility, and various gynecological and menopausal complaints. However, despite this use as a natural remedy, the biological activity of Eriosema laurentii has not been studied until now. In order to determine the potential use of this plant in gynecological conditions/disorders, we evaluated the estrogenic properties of a methanol extract of its aerial parts and its ability to prevent different menopausal health problems induced by bilateral oophorectomy. Two approaches were used. In vitro, recombinant yeast systems were applied, featuring either the respective human receptors (ERα, AR, and PR) or into chromosome III integrated human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the respective reporter plasmid. In vivo, the investigation was carried out using the 3 days uterotrophic assay and 9 weeks oral treatment in ovariectomized rats. The results showed that the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Eriosema laurentii transactivated the estrogen receptor-α and displayed AhR agonistic activity but was neither androgenic nor progesteronic. In rats, the extract did not induce endometrium proliferation either in the 3-day or the 9-week treatment regimens, but induced vaginal stratification and cornification, prevented loss of femur bone mass, increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and reduced total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). These results suggest that the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Eriosema laurentii does not seem to have an undesirable influence on the endometrium but might prevent vaginal dryness and bone mass loss and improve the lipid profile. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The protein-protein interaction network of eyestalk, Y-organ and hepatopancreas in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The protein-protein interaction network (PIN) is an effective information tool for understanding the complex biological processes inside the cell and solving many biological problems such as signaling pathway identification and prediction of protein functions. Eriocheir sinensis is a highly-commercial aquaculture species with an unclear proteome background which hinders the construction and development of PIN for E. sinensis. However, in recent years, the development of next-generation deep-sequencing techniques makes it possible to get high throughput data of E. sinensis tanscriptome and subsequently obtain a systematic overview of the protein-protein interaction system. Results In this work we sequenced the transcriptional RNA of eyestalk, Y-organ and hepatopancreas in E. sinensis and generated a PIN of E. sinensis which included 3,223 proteins and 35,787 interactions. Each protein-protein interaction in the network was scored according to the homology and genetic relationship. The signaling sub-network, representing the signal transduction pathways in E. sinensis, was extracted from the global network, which depicted a global view of the signaling systems in E. sinensis. Seven basic signal transduction pathways were identified in E. sinensis. By investigating the evolution paths of the seven pathways, we found that these pathways got mature in different evolutionary stages. Moreover, the functions of unclassified proteins and unigenes in the PIN of E. sinensis were predicted. Specifically, the functions of 549 unclassified proteins related to 864 unclassified unigenes were assigned, which respectively covered 76% and 73% of all the unclassified proteins and unigenes in the network. Conclusions The PIN generated in this work is the first large-scale PIN of aquatic crustacean, thereby providing a paradigmatic blueprint of the aquatic crustacean interactome. Signaling sub-network extracted from the global PIN depicts the interaction of different

  10. Worm recovery and precipitin antibody response in guinea pigs and rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Su, K E; Wang, F Y; Chi, P Y

    1998-12-01

    Guinea pigs (Hartley strain) and rats (Wistar strain) were each fed 200 and 100 Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae, respectively. Five animals from each species were sacrificed weekly between 1-8 weeks postinfection (WPI) and then at 12, 16, 20 and 30 WPI for collection of worms, bile and sera. The overall worm recovery rates for guinea pigs and rats were 18.7% and 12.4%, respectively. Only one of the five rats examined at 20 WPI still harbored one worm, while all were worm-free at 30 WPI. By a double diffusion test, no antibodies were detected against C. sinensis adult antigens in the bile juice. Serum antibodies were detected in at least 95% of the infected guinea pigs between 4-30 WPI and rats between 3-16 WPI. Precipitin antibodies seemed to be correlated with the presence of live worms in rats that had been infected for more than 12 weeks.

  11. Gliocyte and Synapse Analyses in Cerebral Ganglia of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir Sinensis: Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Yu, P.; Zhong, S.; Ge, T.; Peng, S.; Zhou, Z.; Guo, X.

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an economically important aquatic species in China. Many studies on gene structure, breeding, and diseases of the crab have been reported. However, knowledge about the organization of the nerve system of the crab remains largely unknown. To study the ultrastructure of the cerebral ganglia of E. sinensis and to compare the histological findings regarding the nerve systems of crustaceans, the cerebral ganglia were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that four types of gliocytes, including type I, II, III, and IV gliocytes were located in the cerebral ganglia. In addition, three types of synapses were present in the cerebral ganglia, including unidirectional synapses, bidirectional synapses, and combined type synapses. PMID:27734995

  12. [Effect of wound to growth of larva of host to Ophiocordyceps sinensis during artificial breeding].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, De-li; Zeng, Wei; Li, Li; Luo, Qing-ming; Tu, Yong-qin; Chen, Shi-jiang; Yin, Ding-hua

    2015-01-01

    To clear the effect of the wound to the growth of the larva of the host to the Ophiocordyceps sinensis, the wounds of same severity at the same position were made artificially to the larva and which were artificial fed at the same environment and condition. The results indicated that, over the winter, the survival rate of the wounded of the infection larva was lower than that of the healthy larva, but the weight had no significant difference between the wounded and the healthy larva. The survival rate of the wounded of the no infection larva was lower than that of the healthy larva, but except with black skin, the wounded larva with offwhite and dusty red had no influence on the variety of the weight. In summery, wound had no advantage to the survival rate, but had no influence to the weight. The result had provided theoretical basis to the reforming of the system of the artificial culture O. sinensis.

  13. [Detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in the ground gallbladder stones by microscopy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Qiao, Tie; Luo, Xiao-Bing

    2012-08-30

    Sera, feces, bile and gallbladder stones were collected from 179 patients who accepted gallbladder-preserving cholelithotomy during the period of January to June 2010 at the general surgery department in the Second People's Hospital of Panyu District in Guangzhou. Rapid colloidal gold immunochromatography was used to detect IgG against Clonorchis sinensis. C. sinensis eggs were examined by fecal direct smear, and in bile sediments and ground gallbladder stones. The results showed that the positive rate of rapid colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay for IgG was 51.4%, and the egg positive rate in feces, bile sediments and gallbladder stones was 30.7%, 44.7% and 69.8%, respectively. The detection rate of fecal direct smear was the lowest, while that of the gallbladder stone examination was the highest (P < 0.05). Those patients with egg-positive feces and/or bile sediments were all with egg-positive gallbladder stones.

  14. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  15. Potential anthelmintics: polyphenols from the tea plant Camellia sinensis L. are lethally toxic to Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Daisuke; Matsuda, Noriko; Yoshioka, Yu; Sato, Masashi; Yamasaki, Toru

    2008-04-01

    A novel gallate of tannin, (-)-epigallocatechin-(2 beta-->O-->7',4 beta-->8')-epicatechin-3'-O-gallate (8), together with (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (4), (-)-epigallocatechin (5), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (6), and (+)-gallocatechin-(4 alpha-->8')-epigallocatechin (7), were isolated from the tea plant Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze var. sinensis (cv., Yabukita). The structure of 8, including stereochemistry, was elucidated by spectroscopic methods and hydrolysis. The compounds, along with commercially available pyrogallol (1), (+)-catechin (2), and (-)-epicatechin (3), were examined for toxicity towards egg-bearing adults of Caenorhabditis elegans. The anthelmintic mebendazole (9) was used as a positive control. Neither 2 nor 3 were toxic but the other compounds were toxic in the descending order 8, 7 approximately 6, 9, 4, 5, 1. The LC(50) (96 h) values of 8 and 9 were evaluated as 49 and 334 micromol L(-1), respectively. These data show that many green tea polyphenols may be potential anthelmintics.

  16. [Genomics and transcriptomics of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (Opisthorchiidae, Trematoda)].

    PubMed

    Chelomina, G N

    2017-01-01

    The review summarizes the results of first genomic and transcriptomic investigations of the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (Opisthorchiidae, Trematoda). The studies mark the dawn of the genomic era for opisthorchiids, which cause severe hepatobiliary diseases in humans and animals. Their results aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of adaptation to parasitism, parasite survival in mammalian biliary tracts, and genome dynamics in the individual development and the development of parasite-host relationships. Special attention is paid to the achievements in studying the codon usage bias and the roles of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Interspecific comparisons at the genomic and transcriptomic levels revealed molecular differences, which may contribute to understanding the specialized niches and physiological needs of the respective species. The studies in C. sinensis provide a basis for further basic and applied research in liver flukes and, in particular, the development of efficient means to prevent, diagnose, and treat clonorchiasis.

  17. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the endangered species Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Chen, H F; Wang, Z F; Zhang, S

    2016-08-19

    Bretschneidera sinensis is an endangered species that is mainly distributed in South China. As a tertiary relict and the single species in the Bretschneideraceae family, it has a high conservation value. To investigate the influence of human disturbance on its mating system, 63 new microsatellites were developed using restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing and their polymorphisms were tested on 30 samples from one population. Among the 63 microsatellites, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 16. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.133 to 0.967 and from 0.127 to 0.912, respectively. These microsatellites may be used for studying the mating system of B. sinensis as well as the within-population hereditary structure.

  18. A novel sesquiterpene alcohol from Fimetariella rabenhorstii, an endophytic fungus of Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Mei-Hua; Yan, Jian; Wei, Xiao-Yi; Li, Dong-Li; Zhang, Wei-Min; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2011-06-01

    A novel sesquiterpene alcohol, named frabenol (1), was isolated from liquid cultures of Fimetariella rabenhorstii A20, an endophytic fungus of the agarwood-forming plant Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The finding of a sesquiterpenoid compound in F. rabenhorstii A20 implied that endophytic fungi of agarwood-producing plants could also contribute to the generation of fragrant chemicals during the agarwood formation processes.

  19. Four new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives from withered wood of Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yagura, Toru; Ito, Michiho; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Honda, Gisho; Shimada, Yasuo

    2003-05-01

    Four new chromone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (1), 6-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)chromone (2), 8-chloro-2-(2-phenylethyl)-5,6,7-trihydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromone (3), 6,7-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromone (4) were isolated from the MeOH extract of withered wood of Aquilaria sinensis, together with seven known constituents of agarwood.

  20. Qinanmer, a new compound from Chinese agarwood 'Qi-Nan' originating from Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hang; Kong, Fan-Dong; Wang, Hao; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2017-01-02

    Qinanmer (1), a new compound comprising 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone and sesquiterpene moieties, together with two known 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives (2-3), was isolated from the high-quality Chinese agarwood "Qi-Nan" originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Glig. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR), MS analyses, ECD spectra analyses, and quantum (13)C NMR calculations.

  1. Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, W. L. N. V. Vara; Srilatha, Ch.; Sailaja, N.; Raju, N. K. B.; Jayasree, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) (lindane) and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum. γ-HCH was gavaged at 20 mg/kg b.wt. using olive oil as vehicle to Groups II. C. sinensis at 100 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally in distilled water to Group IV in addition to γ-HCH 20 mg/kg b.wt. up to 45 days to study ameliorative effects. Groups I and III were treated with distilled water and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg b.wt.), respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at fortnight intervals. Serum was collected for creatinine estimation. The kidney tissues were collected in chilled phosphate buffer saline for antioxidant profile and in also 10% buffered formalin for histopathological studies. Results: γ-HCH treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and significantly reduced the renal antioxidative enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Grossly, severe congestion was noticed in the kidneys. Microscopically, kidney revealed glomerular congestion, atrophy, intertubular hemorrhages, degenerative changes in tubular epithelium with vacuolated cytoplasm, desquamation of epithelium and urinary cast formation. A significant reduction in serum creatinine levels, significant improvement in renal antioxidant enzyme activities and near to normal histological appearance of kidneys in Group IV indicated that the green tea ameliorated the effects of γ-HCH, on renal toxicity. Conclusion: This study suggested that C. sinensis extract combined with γ-HCH could enhance antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduced the oxidative stress thus potentially reducing γ-HCH toxicity and tissue damage. PMID:27956790

  2. Transcriptome using Illumina sequencing reveals the traits of spermatogenesis and developing testes in Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has the spermatozoa with typical aflagellate, decondensed chromatin, cup-shaped nuclei, and radial arms. However, the mechanism of spermatogenesis during which the specific spermatozoa are generated in this species is yet unclear. Here, the transcriptome of developing testis in E. sinensis was analyzed using the ways of RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis to identify candidate genes potentially involved in development of testis and spermatogenesis. The Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing of three replicons of samples produced a total of 145.19 M clean reads representing with a total of 21.34 Gb bases and 45.48% GC content. 56.30% clean reads were mapped to the draft genome of E. sinensis. The assembly of the transcriptome yielded contigs of 5691802 sequences and unigenes of 406527 sequences. Total 24246 and 40793 transcripts were annotated using Swissprot and Nr database, respectively. There were 48213 (70.31%) and 7858 (46.25%) transcripts with identity of more than 99 matching to mature testis unigenes in the databases of Nr and EST, respectively. The analytic results of KOG, GO and KEGG showed wide potential molecular functions of transcripts in the developing testes. KEGG analysis of unigenes yielded total 9422 predicted genes. Those predicted genes were involved in total 216 KEGG pathways related to the physiological activities of developing testis. 1975 predicted genes were involved in cellular and subcellular structural alteration of male germ cells. There were important roles of some pathways in the processes of morphological and structural biogenesis pertaining to testis development and spermatogenesis. Other 583 unigenes encoding the genetic and epigenetic factors also be found, which might contribute to the decondensation and stability of decondensed nuclei in the spermatozoa. These predicted events provide a view of the potential molecular mechanisms of development of testis and spermatogenesis in E. sinensis. PMID

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases.

  4. Comparative biochemical and functional properties of two leucine aminopeptidases of Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ju, Jung-Won; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Tong-Soo; Bahk, Young-Yil; Hong, Sung-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAP; EC 3.4.11.1) are a group of metalloexopeptidases, which catalyze the sequential removal of leucine amino acids from the N-termini of the polypeptides or proteins. In this study, we identified two novel genes that encode LAPs of Clonorchis sinensis (CsLAP1 and CsLAP2) and characterized their biochemical and functional properties. Multiple sequence alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 with those of other organisms revealed that typical metal-binding coordinating and active site residues for LAPs were well conserved in CsLAP1 and CsLAP2. Recombinant CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 showed similar biochemical properties such as pH optima at pH 8.0 and stability at neutral pHs. Both enzymes were specifically inhibited by bestatin and showed preferential substrate specificity for Leu-MCA. However, the enzymes differed in that they required different metal ions for maximum activity. Expressions of CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 were detected throughout the various developmental stages of C. sinensis, and their transcription levels increased gradually in accordance with the maturation of the parasite. Both enzymes were identified in soluble worm extract of C. sinensis, but not in excretory and secretory products. Immunolocalization studies showed that both enzymes were co-localized to the intestinal epithelial cells and gastrodermis of the parasite. These results collectively suggest that CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 are synthesized in the intestinal epithelial and gastrodermal cells of C. sinensis and may be involved in the final digestion of peptides that hydrolyzed within intestinal lumen followed by absorbed into gastrodermal cells of the parasite.

  5. [Effects of integrated pest control techniques to growth of host larvae Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Wu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Wei; Zhang, De-li; Chen, Shi-jiang; Yin, Ding-hua

    2008-12-01

    To study the effects of the integrated pest control techniques on growth of host larvae of Cordyceps sinensis. The integrated pest control techniques were compared with conventional techniques to evaluate the effects on growth of host larvae. The results showed that the techniques had broken the balance of the microbial living in the material, produced effective inhibition on the pests, raised the survival rate and promoted the growth of the host larvae at the same time.

  6. Therapeutic Effect of Captopril, Pentoxifylline, and Cordyceps Sinensis in Pre-Hepatic Portal Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed F.; El-Maraghy, Nabila N.; Ghaney, Rasha H. Abdel; Elshazly, Shimaa M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Portal hypertension is an important and potentially fatal complication of liver disease whereby cellular and fibrotic alterations manifest to increase portal venous pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of captopril, pentoxifylline (PTX), and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Settings and Design: Wister male rats were divided at random into 3 main groups: the first group: control rats. The second group: sham-operated rats and the third group: prehepatic portal hypertensive rats (PHPHT) induced by regulated pre-hepatic portal vein ligation. After 14 days, Group 3 was subdivided into 5 subgroups. Subgroup (1): portal vein-ligated (PVL) was killed at once; Subgroup (2): received distilled water for 30 days (untreated PVL group); subgroups 3-5 were treated with captopril (60 mg/kg, orally); PTX (100 mg/kg, orally); and C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, orally), respectively, as a single daily dose for 30 days. Patients and Methods: Portal pressure, nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant enzymes, Liver enzymes, and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the status of the liver state. Results: Portal vein ligation produced significant increments in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure concomitant with significant decrements in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity. Treatment with captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure and observable increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions: captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis have promising effect in controlling PHPHT and reducing hyperdynamic circulatory state through reduction of portal pressure and NO level. PMID:22626797

  7. Vigna mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants sampled in different agronomical-ecological-climatic regions of India are nodulated by Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense.

    PubMed

    Appunu, Chinnaswamy; N'Zoue, Angèle; Moulin, Lionel; Depret, Géraldine; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2009-10-01

    Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata are important legume crops cultivated in India, but little is known about the genetic resources in native rhizobia that nodulate these species. To identify these bacteria, a core collection of 76 slow-growing isolates was built from root nodules of V. mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants grown at different sites within three agro-ecological-climatic regions of India. The genetic diversity of the bacterial collection was assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region, and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. One rDNA IGS type grouped 91% of isolates, but more diversity was found at the symbiotic loci (17 symbiotic genotypes). Overall, no host plant specificity was shown, the three host plant species sharing common bradyrhizobial genotypes that represented 62% of the collection. Similarly, the predominant genotypes were found at most sampling sites and in all agro-ecological-climatic regions. Phylogenies inferred from IGS sequencing and multi-locus sequence analysis of the dnaK, glnII and recA genes indicated that all isolates but one were clustered with the Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense species. The nifH phylogeny also grouped the different nif haplotypes within a cluster including B. yuanmingense, except for one infrequent nif haplotype which formed a new lineage within the Bradyrhizobium genus. These results may reflect a long history of co-evolution between B. yuanmingense and Vigna spp. in India, while intra-species polymorphism detected in the symbiotic loci may be linked with the long history of diversification of B. yuanmingense coinciding with that of its host legumes.

  8. Chasing ghosts: Allopolyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) from its only diploid congener and an unknown ancestor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Hu, Quanjun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Qian; Abbott, Richard J; Liu, Jianquan

    2017-03-12

    Reconstructing the origin of a polyploid species is particularly challenging when an ancestor has become extinct. Under such circumstances the extinct donor of a genome found in the polyploid may be treated as a 'ghost' species in that its prior existence is recognised through the presence of its genome in the polyploid. In this study, we aimed to determine the polyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (2n=40) for which only one congeneric species is known, i.e. diploid O. digyna (2n=14). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), transcriptome, phylogenetic and demographic analyses, and ecological niche modeling were conducted for this purpose. GISH revealed that O. sinensis comprised 14 chromosomes from O. digyna and 26 chromosomes from an unknown ancestor. Transcriptome analysis indicated that following divergence from O. digyna, involving genome duplication around 12 million years ago (Ma), a second genome duplication occurred approximately 6 Ma to give rise to O. sinensis. Oxyria sinensis was shown to contain homologous gene sequences divergent from those present in O. digyna in addition to a set that clustered with those in O. digyna. Coalescent simulations indicated that O. sinensis expanded its distribution approximately 6-7 Ma, possibly following the second polyploidization event, whereas O. digyna expanded its range much later. It was also indicated that the distributions of both species contracted and re-expanded during the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Ecological niche modeling similarly suggested that both species experienced changes in their distributional ranges in response to Quaternary climatic changes. The extinction of the unknown 'ghost' tetraploid species implicated in the origin of O. sinensis could have resulted from superior adaptation of O. sinensis to repeated climatic changes in the region where it now occurs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Insecticide resistance of Anopheles sinensis and An. vagus in Hainan Island, a malaria-endemic area of China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qian; Li, Yiji; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Ning; Chang, Xuelian; Li, Chunyuan; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2014-03-03

    Malaria is one of the most important public health problems in Southeast Asia, including Hainan Island, China. Vector control is the main malaria control measure, and insecticide resistance is a major concern for the effectiveness of chemical insecticide control programs. The objective of this study is to determine the resistance status of the main malaria vector species to pyrethroids and other insecticides recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for indoor residual sprays. The larvae and pupae of Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled from multiple sites in Hainan Island, and five sites yielded sufficient mosquitoes for insecticide susceptibility bioassays. Bioassays of female adult mosquitoes three days after emergence were conducted in the two most abundant species, Anopheles sinensis and An. vagus, using three insecticides (0.05% deltamethrin, 4% DDT, and 5% malathion) and following the WHO standard tube assay procedure. P450 monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities were measured. Mutations at the knockdown resistance (kdr) gene and the ace-1 gene were detected by DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis, respectively. An. sinensis and An. vagus were the predominant Anopheles mosquito species. An. sinensis was found to be resistant to DDT and deltamethrin. An. vagus was susceptible to deltamethrin but resistant to DDT and malathion. Low kdr mutation (L1014F) frequency (<10%) was detected in An. sinensis, but no kdr mutation was detected in An. vagus populations. Modest to high (45%-75%) ace-1 mutation frequency was found in An. sinensis populations, but no ace-1 mutation was detected in An. vagus populations. Significantly higher P450 monooxygenase and carboxylesterase activities were detected in deltamethrin-resistant An. sinensis, and significantly higher P450 monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities were found in malathion-resistant An. vagus mosquitoes. Multiple insecticide resistance was

  10. The Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, decreases nitrogenous excretion, reduces urea synthesis and suppresses ammonia production during emersion.

    PubMed

    Ip, Yuen K; Lee, Serene M L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 6 days of emersion on nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis. Despite having a soft shell with a cutaneous surface that is known to be water permeable, P. sinensis lost only ~2% of body mass and was able to maintain its hematocrit and plasma osmolality, [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] during 6 days of emersion. During emersion, it ameliorated water loss by reducing urine output, which led to a reduction (by 29-76%) in ammonia excretion. In comparison, there was a more prominent reduction (by 82-99%) in urea excretion during emersion due to a lack of water to flush the buccopharyngeal epithelium, which is known to be the major route of urea excretion. Consequently, emersion resulted in an apparent shift from ureotely to ammonotely in P. sinensis. Although urea concentration increased in several tissues, the excess urea accumulated could only account for 13-22% of the deficit in urea excretion. Hence, it can be concluded that a decrease (~80%) in urea synthesis occurred in P. sinensis during the 6 days of emersion. Indeed, emersion led to significant decreases in the activity of some ornithine-urea cycle enzymes (argininosuccinate synthetase/argininosuccinate lyase and arginase) from the liver of P. sinensis. As a decrease in urea synthesis occurred without the accumulation of ammonia and total free amino acids, it can be deduced that ammonia production through amino acid catabolism was suppressed with a proportional reduction in proteolysis in P. sinensis during emersion. Indeed, calculated results revealed that there could be a prominent decrease (~88%) in ammonia production in turtles after 6 days of emersion. In summary, despite being ureogenic and ureotelic in water, P. sinensis adopted a reduction in ammonia production, instead of increased urea synthesis, as the major strategy to ameliorate ammonia toxicity and problems associated with dehydration during

  11. The draft genome of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Huang, Yan; Sun, Jiufeng; Men, Jingtao; Liu, Hailiang; Luo, Fang; Guo, Lei; Lv, Xiaoli; Deng, Chuanhuan; Zhou, Chenhui; Fan, Yongxiu; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Lisi; Hu, Yue; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2011-10-24

    Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that is widespread in Asian countries. Increasing infection rates of this neglected tropical disease are leading to negative economic and public health consequences in affected regions. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma and the infection rate of C. sinensis. To aid research into this organism, we have sequenced its genome. We combined de novo sequencing with computational techniques to provide new information about the biology of this liver fluke. The assembled genome has a total size of 516 Mb with a scaffold N50 length of 42 kb. Approximately 16,000 reliable protein-coding gene models were predicted. Genes for the complete pathways for glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and fatty acid metabolism were found, but key genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis are missing from the genome, reflecting the parasitic lifestyle of a liver fluke that receives lipids from the bile of its host. We also identified pathogenic molecules that may contribute to liver fluke-induced hepatobiliary diseases. Large proteins such as multifunctional secreted proteases and tegumental proteins were identified as potential targets for the development of drugs and vaccines. This study provides valuable genomic information about the human liver fluke C. sinensis and adds to our knowledge on the biology of the parasite. The draft genome will serve as a platform to develop new strategies for parasite control.

  12. Oral Administration of a Hot Water Extract of the Softshell Turtle (Trionyx sinensis) Improves Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harwanto, Dicky; Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater softshell turtle (Trionyx sinensis) extract has been used traditionally as a tonic soup, and to recover from physical fatigue. To support these claims, the forelimb grip strength of mice was measured after feeding a soft-shell turtle extract for 7 days. The T. sinensis extract significantly increased the grip strength to 1.25±0.07 N (P<0.01), which is 16.8% higher than the force on day 0. After exercising, the blood glucose levels in extract-fed mice were 202% higher and urea levels were 73% lower, which were both significantly different than the levels observed after control treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher by 314%, and glutathione peroxidase increased by 165%. In addition, the obesity markers, serum triglyceride and cholesterol, decreased to 62% and 49%, respectively, after mice were fed the extract. These data show that the T. sinensis extract provided more energy for forelimb exercise, prevented protein catabolism and muscle fatigue, and decreased the oxidative stress caused by an exhaustive workout. PMID:26176001

  13. Extraction of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides using ultrasound-assisted way and its bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yongyong; Yang, Huixin; Mao, Lijuan

    2016-07-01

    In the present article, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis were investigated. The aim of the study is to examine the extraction parameters such as ultrasound power (140-180W), the ratio of liquid to solid (5-7), extraction time (40-50min) and extraction temperature (80-100°C) and to obtain the best possible combinations of these parameters through response surface methodology (RSM). Based on contour plots and variance analysis, optimum operational conditions for maximizing polysaccharides yield were found to be 180w, 7, 45min and 90°C. Under the optimum operating conditions determined, 6.96% polysaccharides were achieved. In addition, the results showed that A. sinensis polysaccharides (ASP) could increase antioxidant enzymes activities and decrease the MDA levels in the skeletal muscle of exhaustive exercise rats. This study provides strong evidence that A. sinensis polysaccharides supplementation possessed protective effects against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. De novo assembly, characterization and annotation for the transcriptome of Sarcocheilichthys sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuankun; Pan, Zhengjun; Wang, Hui; Chang, Guoliang; Wu, Nan; Ding, Huaiyu

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese lake gudgeon Sarcocheilichthys sinensis is a small cyprinid fish with great aquaculture potential both for its edible and ornamental values. Nevertheless, available genomic and transcriptomic information for this fish is extremely deficient. In this study, a normalized cDNA library was constructed using 13 mixed tissues of an adult male S. sinensis, and was sequenced by the Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. De novo assembly was performed using 38,911,511 obtained clean reads, and a total of 147,282 unigenes with an average length of 900 bp were finally achieved. 96.2% of these unigenes were annotated in 9 public databases, and 16 segments of growth-related genes were identified for future studies. In addition, 28,493 unigenes were assigned to 61 subcategories of Gene Ontology (GO), and 10,483 unigenes were assigned to 25 categories of Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG). Moreover, 14,943 unigenes were classified into 225 pathways of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. A total of 30,666 microsatellites were detected from 17,627 unigenes with an average distribution density of 1:2405 bp. This transcriptome data set will be valuable for researches on discovery, expression and evolution on genes of interest. Meanwhile, the identified microsatellites would be useful tools for genetic and genomic studies in S. sinensis. PMID:28196101

  15. In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, P; Gajalakshmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development. PMID:23569938

  16. Production of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina by Camellia sinensis L suspension culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutini, Sodiq, Mochamad; Muslihatin, Wirdhatul; Indra, Mochamad Rasjad

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive trimethyl xanthina can be obtained from the plant Camellia sinensis L. To obtain bioactive plant of which there are several hurdles for instance to wait up to five years to be harvested, also it needs land at a certain height from the sea level. Therefore, the production of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina need to be developed with suspense culture techniques. The purpose of this study obtained the production of bioactive trimethyl xanthina way culturally suspense in large scale with a relatively short time, potentially as anti-oxidants. Research methods include: (1) initiation of callus from pieces of leaves, shoots the youngest of the plant Camellia sinensis L in the media MS with the optimization of the addition of growth regulators, (2) the subculture of callus on media and plant growth regulator that is equal to the stage of initiation, (3) initiation of suspension culture using explants of callus Camellia sinensis L, (4) Analysis of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina growth in suspension culture, (5) the isolation and identification of trimethyl xanthina qualitatively and quantitatively using thin layer chromatography/high performance chromatography column. The results of the study suspension cultures containing bioactive trimethyl xanthina candidates that can be used as an antioxidant.

  17. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  18. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Huang, Yunxuan; Qin, Chuixin; Liang, Ming; Mao, Xinliang; Li, Shuiming; Zou, Yongdong; Jia, Weizhang; Li, Haifeng; Ma, Chung Wah; Huang, Zebo

    2016-01-01

    Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa) was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps), which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps) are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction. PMID:26941890

  19. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future.

  20. Computational identification and analysis of MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Madhurjya; Borchetia, Sangeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Tanoy

    2015-01-01

    MADS (Minichromosome Maintenance1 Agamous Deficiens Serum response factor) box genes encode transcription factors and they play a key role in growth and development of flowering plants. There are two types of MADS box genes- Type I (serum response factor (SRF)-like) and Type II (myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-like). Type II MADS box genes have a conserved MIKC domain (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and c-terminal domain) and these were extensively studied in plants. Compared to other plants very little is known about MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis. The present study aims at identifying and analyzing the MADS-box genes present in Camellia sinensis. A comparative bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of the Camellia sinensis sequences along with Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box sequences available in the public domain databases led to the identification of 16 genes which were orthologous to Type II MADS box gene family members. The protein sequences were classified into distinct clades which are associated with the conserved function of flower and seed development. The identified genes may be used for gene expression and gene manipulation studies to elucidate their role in the development and flowering of tea which may pave the way to improve the crop productivity. PMID:25914445

  1. [Cloning and expression analysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase from Aquilaria sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Wei, Jian-He; Liu, Juan; Xu, Yan-Hong

    2013-10-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) is one of the key rate-limiting enzymes in the sesquiterpene metabolic pathways. In this study, the open reading frame (ORF) of FPS was cloned by PCR based on the transcript sequence of AsFPS1 from the Aquilaria sinensis transcriptome database and sequenced. Total RNA was extracted from the root, stem and leaves of three-year-old A. sinensis, and from healthy and wounded A. sinensis calli, and then reverse-transcribed into single-stranded cDNA as a template for real-time PCR, to detect the expression specificity of AsFPSI in different tissues and its expression profile in responding to different treatments. The result showed that the full length of AsFPS1 was 1 342 bp with the ORF 1 029 bp, encoding 342 amino acids. Tissue expression analysis indicated that AsFPS1 was mainly expressed in root and stem, and was lower in leaves. Inducible-experiments showed that the genes was induced by mechanical wound as well as chemical liquid induction, and reached the highest expression level at 6 h and 12 h, respectively. The full-length cDNA clone of AsFPSI and its expression patterns analysis will provide a foundation for follow-up study on its biological function and agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis mechanism.

  2. Comparison of the functional features of the pump organs of Anopheles sinensis and Aedes togoi

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Young-Ran; Lee, Seung-Chul; Seo, Seung-Jun; Ryu, Jeongeun; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as vectors for severe tropical diseases. Mosquito-borne diseases are affected by various factors such as environmental conditions, host body susceptibility, and mosquito feeding behavior. Among these factors, feeding behavior is affected by the feeding pump system located inside the mosquito head and also depends on the species of mosquito. Therefore, the 3D morphological structures of the feeding pumps of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis were comparatively investigated using synchrotron X-ray microscopic computed tomography. In addition, the feeding behaviors of their pumping organs were also investigated using a 2D X-ray micro-imaging technique. An. sinensis, a malarial vector mosquito, had a larger feeding pump volume than Ae. togoi in the static or resting position. Interestingly, the two species of mosquitoes exhibited different feeding behaviors. Ae. togoi had a higher feeding frequency and expansion ratio than An. sinensis. Ae. togoi also exhibited F-actin localization more clearly. These distinctive variations in feeding volumes and behaviors provide essential insight into the blood-feeding mechanisms of female mosquitoes as vectors for tropical diseases. PMID:26464043

  3. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-04-23

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. In conclusion, different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis.

  4. Conservation genetics of Annamocarya sinensis (Dode) Leroy, an endangered endemic species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Pang, X M; Han, J W; Wang, Y; Li, Y Y

    2013-03-11

    The endangered perennial plant Annamocarya sinensis (Dode) Leroy is a tertiary relict tree restricted to southeastern China and northern Vietnam. To explore endangerment mechanisms, develop protection strategies, and guide reintroduction efforts for this species, we investigated genetic diversity and population structure by surveying 70 individuals from three distinct populations using 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We found high genetic diversity for A. sinensis as indicated by high allelic diversity (allelic number = 4.667 ± 0.436, effective number of alleles = 2.913 ± 0.249), excess heterozygosity (observed heterozygosity = 0.586 ± 0.039, expected heterozygosity = 0.582 ± 0.029), and low fixation index (-0.028 ± 0.057). Our research revealed low genetic differentiation (FST = 0.066 ± 0.011) and no correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. Analysis of molecular variance attributed 87% of the variance to differences within the population, whereas 13% was distributed among populations. The protection strategy should aim to protect as many populations as possible. Promoting sexual reproduction among various genotypes and establishing an outcrossing program are advisable for A. sinensis.

  5. Determination of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content using visible and near infrared spectroscopy in Miscanthus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaoling; Shi, Chunhai; Li, Mei; Guan, Yajing; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko; Sacks, Erik J; Peng, Junhua

    2017-10-01

    Lignocellulosic components including hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are the three major components of plant cell walls, and their proportions in biomass crops, such as Miscanthus sinensis, greatly impact feed stock conversion to liquid fuels or bio-products. In this study, the feasibility of using visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy to rapidly quantify hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in M. sinensis was investigated. Initially, prediction models were established using partial least squares (PLS), least squares support vector machine regression (LSSVR), and radial basis function neural network (RBF_NN) based on whole wavelengths. Subsequently, 23, 25 and 27 characteristic wavelengths for hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively, were found to show significant contribution to calibration models. Three determination models were eventually built by PLS, LS-SVM and ANN based on the characteristic wavelengths. Calibration models for lignocellulosic components were successfully developed, and can now be applied to assessment of lignocellulose contents in M. sinensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computational identification and analysis of MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Madhurjya; Borchetia, Sangeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Tanoy

    2015-01-01

    MADS (Minichromosome Maintenance1 Agamous Deficiens Serum response factor) box genes encode transcription factors and they play a key role in growth and development of flowering plants. There are two types of MADS box genes- Type I (serum response factor (SRF)-like) and Type II (myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-like). Type II MADS box genes have a conserved MIKC domain (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and c-terminal domain) and these were extensively studied in plants. Compared to other plants very little is known about MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis. The present study aims at identifying and analyzing the MADS-box genes present in Camellia sinensis. A comparative bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of the Camellia sinensis sequences along with Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box sequences available in the public domain databases led to the identification of 16 genes which were orthologous to Type II MADS box gene family members. The protein sequences were classified into distinct clades which are associated with the conserved function of flower and seed development. The identified genes may be used for gene expression and gene manipulation studies to elucidate their role in the development and flowering of tea which may pave the way to improve the crop productivity.

  7. The draft genome of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that is widespread in Asian countries. Increasing infection rates of this neglected tropical disease are leading to negative economic and public health consequences in affected regions. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma and the infection rate of C. sinensis. To aid research into this organism, we have sequenced its genome. Results We combined de novo sequencing with computational techniques to provide new information about the biology of this liver fluke. The assembled genome has a total size of 516 Mb with a scaffold N50 length of 42 kb. Approximately 16,000 reliable protein-coding gene models were predicted. Genes for the complete pathways for glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and fatty acid metabolism were found, but key genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis are missing from the genome, reflecting the parasitic lifestyle of a liver fluke that receives lipids from the bile of its host. We also identified pathogenic molecules that may contribute to liver fluke-induced hepatobiliary diseases. Large proteins such as multifunctional secreted proteases and tegumental proteins were identified as potential targets for the development of drugs and vaccines. Conclusions This study provides valuable genomic information about the human liver fluke C. sinensis and adds to our knowledge on the biology of the parasite. The draft genome will serve as a platform to develop new strategies for parasite control. PMID:22023798

  8. A Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression by Cordyceps sinensis, Rich in Vanadium.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-You; Han, Chun-Chao; Liu, Yong-Mei

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hormonal and neurochemical changes that can be associated with anxiety and depression. Both diabetes and depression negatively interact, in that depression leads to poor metabolic control and hyperglycemia exacerbates depression. We hypothesize one novel vanadium complex of vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS), which is beneficial in preventing depression in diabetes, and influences the long-term course of glycemic control. Vanadium compounds have the ability to imitate the action of insulin, and this mimicry may have further favorable effects on the level of treatment satisfaction and mood. C. sinensis has an antidepressant-like activity, and attenuates the diabetes-induced increase in blood glucose concentrations. We suggest that the VECS may be a potential strategy for contemporary treatment of depression and diabetes through the co-effect of C. sinensis and vanadium. The validity of the hypothesis can most simply be tested by examining blood glucose levels, and swimming and climbing behavior in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats.

  9. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Ali, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired plant fruits of family Rutaceae revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins. The fruits of C. sinensis and C. anrantifolia exhibited the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins, while the fruits of C. limonum indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, terpinedes, and tannins. The fruits of selected plants were also subjected to antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay against ascorbic acid at various concentrations. Among the tested plants, C. sinensis showed promising antiradical effect (84.81%) which was followed by C. Anrantifolia (80.05%) at 100 μg/ml against ascorbic acid (96.36%). The C. limonum showed low antioxidant activity among the three selected plants of family Rutaceae. The current finding is baseline information in the use of the fruits of selected plants as food supplement which may be due to the presence of antioxidant molecules in the family Rutaceae. Further research is needed in this area to isolate the phenolic constituents which possess ideal antiradical potential.

  10. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired plant fruits of family Rutaceae revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins. The fruits of C. sinensis and C. anrantifolia exhibited the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins, while the fruits of C. limonum indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, terpinedes, and tannins. The fruits of selected plants were also subjected to antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay against ascorbic acid at various concentrations. Among the tested plants, C. sinensis showed promising antiradical effect (84.81%) which was followed by C. Anrantifolia (80.05%) at 100 μg/ml against ascorbic acid (96.36%). The C. limonum showed low antioxidant activity among the three selected plants of family Rutaceae. Conclusions The current finding is baseline information in the use of the fruits of selected plants as food supplement which may be due to the presence of antioxidant molecules in the family Rutaceae. Further research is needed in this area to isolate the phenolic constituents which possess ideal antiradical potential. PMID:25024932

  11. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sapna B; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil-Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja; Devang-Divakar, Darshan

    2016-02-01

    Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus.

  12. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia.

    PubMed

    Toscano-Garibay, J D; Arriaga-Alba, M; Sánchez-Navarrete, J; Mendoza-García, M; Flores-Estrada, J J; Moreno-Eutimio, M A; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J; González-Ávila, M; Ruiz-Pérez, N J

    2017-09-13

    The essential oils of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia showed antimycotic activity against Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity; they are neither mutagenic on the Ames test nor cytotoxic. Their main components are R-(+)-limonene, β-thujene, α-myrcene and γ-terpinene. The aim of this work was to evaluate their antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities. Antimutagenic properties were evaluated against MNNG and ENNG on S. typhimurium TA100; against 2AA on strain TA98 and in front of 4NQO and NOR on strain TA102. Both were antimutagenic against MNNG (p < 0.001) but only C. latifolia was antimutagenic against ENNG (p < 0.001). Both presented antimutagenic activity against 2AA (p < 0.001). They were antioxidant against the ROS-generating compound 4NQO (p < 0.001) and the antibiotic NOR (p < 0.001). In the antioxidant evaluation, the activity in DPPH assay was in a range of 6-23% for C. sinensis and of 22-71% for C. latifolia. Both were antioxidant compared with BHT in β-carotene bleaching assay and were able to decreased apoptosis in HaCat cells stimulated with H2O2. The levels of intracellular superoxide ion were lower in the presence of both oils. In conclusion, the essential oils of C. sinensis and C. latifolia are antimutagenic against at least three types of mutagens and have antioxidants properties.

  13. A Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression by Cordyceps sinensis, Rich in Vanadium

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian-You; Han, Chun-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hormonal and neurochemical changes that can be associated with anxiety and depression. Both diabetes and depression negatively interact, in that depression leads to poor metabolic control and hyperglycemia exacerbates depression. We hypothesize one novel vanadium complex of vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS), which is beneficial in preventing depression in diabetes, and influences the long-term course of glycemic control. Vanadium compounds have the ability to imitate the action of insulin, and this mimicry may have further favorable effects on the level of treatment satisfaction and mood. C. sinensis has an antidepressant-like activity, and attenuates the diabetes-induced increase in blood glucose concentrations. We suggest that the VECS may be a potential strategy for contemporary treatment of depression and diabetes through the co-effect of C. sinensis and vanadium. The validity of the hypothesis can most simply be tested by examining blood glucose levels, and swimming and climbing behavior in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. PMID:19948751

  14. Antimicrobial effects of citrus sinensis peel extracts against periodontopathic bacteria: an in vitro study.