Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).
The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…
Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.; Huttunen, Rauno; Syrjala, Leena; Pesonen, Jyri
The article continues the discussion of the five quality principles proposed by Heikkinen, Huttunen, and Syrjala, published in 2007 in "Educational Action Research". In the present article, the authors reconsider the five principles: historical continuity; reflexivity; dialectics; workability; and evocativeness. These five principles are…
Guldi, C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Beitzel, T. A.; Burrell, K. H.
Neutral particle measurements in ASDEX were originally interpreted as evidence that the edge radial electric field Er changes gradually at the L-H transition.(W. Herrmann et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1995) 4401. We have relocated an analyzer to an orientation similar to the ASDEX analyzer: at the outer midplane viewing perpendicular ions midway between toroidal field coils. The electric field is measured by charge-exchange recombination and motional stark effect diagnostics. The passive charge exchange signal from the relocated analyzer is usually undetectable but, in discharges with large E_r, the flux of 5 keV neutrals can resemble ASDEX signals. The combined effects of ripple trapping and E_r× B_φ drifts(J.A. Heikkinen et al.), Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 40 (1998) 679. may explain the results.
Salcedo, A.; Bers, A.; Ram, A. K.
Experimental observations have shown the coupling of SRS and Langmuir decay interaction (LDI), in ICF experiments where the SRS backscattering is dependent on the damping of ion acoustic waves.(Juan P. Fernandez, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.) 77, 2702 (1996); R. K. Kirkwood, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 13, (1996). A model 3-wave interaction equations for LDI with a growing EPW (driven by SRS) and its non-local Landau damping, gives a simple description of the effect of LDI on the saturation of SRS and its dependence on IAW damping. ( A. Salcedo, A. Bers, A. K. Ram, in Proc. 1st IFSA), Bordeaux, France (1999), pp. 343-348. We present results on the extension of this model to include the non-local growth of the SRS driven EPW, and a comparison with simulations of the full five-wave interaction equations for SRS coupled to LDI. (J. A. Heikkinen, J. Karttunen, Phys. Fluids) 29 (4), (1986).
In order to solve numerous practical navigational, geodetic and astro-geodetic problems, it is necessary to transform geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates or vice versa. It is very easy to solve the problem of transforming geodetic coordinates into geocentric cartesian coordinates. On the other hand, it is rather difficult to solve the problem of transforming geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates as it is very hard to define a mathematical relationship between the geodetic latitude (φ) and the geocentric cartesian coordinates (X, Y, Z). In this paper, a new algorithm, the Differential Search Algorithm (DS), is presented to solve the problem of transforming the geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates and its performance is compared with the performances of the classical methods (i.e., Borkowski, 1989; Bowring, 1976; Fukushima, 2006; Heikkinen, 1982; Jones, 2002; Zhang, 2005; Borkowski, 1987; Shu, 2010 and Lin, 1995) and Computational-Intelligence algorithms (i.e., ABC, JDE, JADE, SADE, EPSDE, GSA, PSO2011, and CMA-ES). The statistical tests realized for the comparison of performances indicate that the problem-solving success of DS algorithm in transforming the geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates is higher than those of all classical methods and Computational-Intelligence algorithms used in this paper.
Lehtonen, Aleksi; Heikkinen, Juha
. Lehtonen & Heikkinen 2015. Can. J. For. Res. 45: 1-13 dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2015-0171
Bunce, Diane M.; Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, John V.
The enhancement of chemistry students' skill in problem solving through problem categorization is the focus of this study. Twenty-four students in a freshman chemistry course for health professionals are taught how to solve problems using the explicit method of problem solving (EMPS) (Bunce & Heikkinen, 1986). The EMPS is an organized approach to problem analysis which includes encoding the information given in a problem (Given, Asked For), relating this to what is already in long-term memory (Recall), and planning a solution (Overall Plan) before a mathematical solution is attempted. In addition to the EMPS training, treatment students receive three 40-minute sessions following achievement tests in which they are taught how to categorize problems. Control students use this time to review the EMPS solutions of test questions. Although problem categorization is involved in one section of the EMPS (Recall), treatment students who received specific training in problem categorization demonstrate significantly higher achievement on combination problems (those problems requiring the use of more than one chemical topic for their solution) at (p = 0.01) than their counterparts. Significantly higher achievement for treatment students is also measured on an unannounced test (p = 0.02). Analysis of interview transcripts of both treatment and control students illustrates a Rolodex approach to problem solving employed by all students in this study. The Rolodex approach involves organizing equations used to solve problems on mental index cards and flipping through them, matching units given when a new problem is to be solved. A second phenomenon observed during student interviews is the absence of a link in the conceptual understanding of the chemical concepts involved in a problem and the problem-solving skills employed to correctly solve problems. This study shows that explicit training in categorization skills and the EMPS can lead to higher achievement in complex problem
Afonin, Nikita; Kozlovskaya, Elena
the SPGF corresponds to a narrow region of low S-wave velocities surrounded by rocks with high S-wave velocities. We interpret this low velocity region as a non-healed mechanically weak fault damage zone (FDZ) remained after the last major earthquake that occurred after the last glaciation. Seismic instruments for the DAFNE/FINLAND experiment were provided by the institute of Seismology of the University of Helsinki and by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory. The study was partly funded by Posiva Oy and Geological Survey of Finland. DAFNE/FINLAND Working Group: Ilmo Kukkonen Pekka Heikkinen Kari Komminaho Elena Kozlovskaya Riitta Hurskainen Tero Raita Hanna Silvennoinen
Tiira, T.; Hyvonen, T.; Komminaho, K.; Korja, A.; Heikkinen, P.
Seismic Tomography Structure of the Crust in the Fennoscandian Shield T. Tiira, T. Hyvönen, K. Komminaho, A. Korja and P. Heikkinen Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland A three-dimensional travel time tomography is applied to explosion data in order to derive a crustal velocity model beneath the central Fennoscandian Shield. The observations include first P- and S-wave arrivals from explosions recorded during the DSS (1981, 1982, 1991, 1994), BABEL (1989) and FIRE (2003-2006) experiments and the Europrobe/SVEKALAPKO project (1998-1999). In addition, P- and S-wave arrivals measured from chemical explosions registered at permanent seismic stations are included. In total, 19180 first P-wave and 15146 S-wave crustal travel times from 565 seismic sources inside the study area (59-67N, 18-34E) are used in the inversions. The main objective is to create smooth P- and S-wave velocity models with highest optimal resolution in good agreement with the observed data and error limits. The non-controlled SVEKALAPKO events are relocated using grid search technique using the near-final tomography model. Lateral resolution of the model is estimated to be at least 50 km to the depth of 40 km in the central study area. The distribution of the P- and S-wave velocities and the Vp/Vs-ratio are varying locally in the whole crust. Especially, in the upper 10 km of the crust, the velocity ratio distribution images a complex mosaic of alternating minima and maxima. The anomalous velocity behaviour reveals several distinct bodies and slanting belts, which can be associated with the main geological units. The border zone between the Archean and the Proterozoic terranes can be distinguished as an upper crustal low anomaly zone to the depth of 10 km. An uppermost crustal velocity minimum (Vp <6.1 km/s, Vs <3.6 km/s, Vp/Vs <1.70) is also observed in the Bothnian Schist Belt covering most of the Gulf of Bothnia. Similar low velocity regions are associated with