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Sample records for lehtsaar lle kerner

  1. LLE Review

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January--March 1992, contains articles on the use of diffraction gratings in laser applications, and the fabrication of gratings for use in these applications. there are two articles on the use of lasers to explore fundamental physics issues and an article on the use of a solid-state diode array for x-ray imaging. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

  2. LLE review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. K.

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October to December 1989, contains an article discussing saturation effects and power-balance considerations in the design of high-power lasers and an article describing numerical modeling of the effects of power imbalances on target behavior. The advanced technology section reports on the development of a liquid crystal laser-beam apodizer and an experiment to study the high-intensity ionization of noble gases. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized. The highlights of this issue are: The problem of achieving power balance in high-efficiency, multibeam lasers has been studied in terms of gain-saturation effects and the nonlinear nature of harmonic frequency conversion. It is shown that power imbalance can be minimized by balancing the gains and losses in equivalent amplification stages in each beamline. The effects of target implosion behavior of various power-imbalance sources in the OMEGA laser system have been studied using the two-dimensional hydrodynamics code ORCHID. The simulations show good agreement with an experiment in which a deliberate power imbalance was applied to the target drive. Laser-beam apodizers with large clear apertures have been fabricated using cholesteric liquid crystals.

  3. LLE review

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October--December 1989, contains an article discussing saturation effects and power-balance considerations in the design of high-power lasers and an article describing numerical modeling of the effects of power imbalances on target behavior. The advanced technology section reports on the development of a liquid crystal laser-beam apodizer and an experiment to study the high-intensity ionization of noble gases. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized. The highlights of this issue are: The problem of achieving power balance in high-efficiency, multibeam lasers has been studied in terms of gain-saturation effects and the nonlinear nature of harmonic frequency conversion. It is shown that power imbalance can be minimized by balancing the gains and losses in equivalent amplification stages in each beamline. The effects of target implosion behavior of various power-imbalance sources in the OMEGA laser system have been studied using the two-dimensional hydrodynamics code ORCHID. The simulations show good agreement with an experiment in which a deliberate power imbalance was applied to the target drive. Laser-beam apodizers with large clear apertures have been fabricated using cholesteric liquid crystals. A soft-edge profile has been achieved by filling a cell with two separate liquid crystals with different selective-reflection bands, and allowing them to partially mix at the interface. A study of the ionization of noble gases in the tunneling regime using high- intensity, 1-ps pulses from the tabletop terawatt laser (T{sup 3}) has been carried out. The measured ion production is well predicted by a Coulomb barrier suppression ionization theory.

  4. Global Bifurcation Diagram for the Kerner-Konhäuser Traffic Flow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Joaquín; Saavedra, Patricia

    We study traveling wave solutions of the Kerner-Konhäuser PDE for traffic flow. By a standard change of variables, the problem is reduced to a dynamical system in the plane with three parameters. In a previous paper [Carrillo et al., 2010] it was shown that under general hypotheses on the fundamental diagram, the dynamical system has a surface of critical points showing either a fold or cusp catastrophe when projected under a two-dimensional plane of parameters named qg-vg. In either case, a one parameter family of Takens-Bogdanov (TB) bifurcation takes place, and therefore local families of Hopf and homoclinic bifurcation arising from each TB point exist. Here, we prove the existence of a degenerate Takens-Bogdanov bifurcation (DTB) which in turn implies the existence of Generalized Hopf or Bautin bifurcations (GH). We describe numerically the global lines of bifurcations continued from the local ones, inside a cuspidal region of the parameter space. In particular, we compute the first Lyapunov exponent, and compare with the GH bifurcation curve. We present some families of stable limit cycles which are taken as initial conditions in the PDE leading to stable traveling waves.

  5. LLE Review 101 (October-December 2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Shmayda, W. T.

    2005-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October to December 2004, highlights the significance of shaped adiabats to inertial confinement fusion. Theory suggests that inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules compressed by shaped adiabats will exhibit improved hydrodynamic stability.

  6. Cellular-automaton model with velocity adaptation in the framework of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Shou-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong; Wu, Qing-Song

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a cellular automata (CA) model for traffic flow in the framework of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. We mainly consider the velocity-difference effect on the randomization of vehicles. The presented model is equivalent to a combination of two CA models, i.e., the Kerner-Klenov-Wolf (KKW) CA model and the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) CA model with slow-to-start effect. With a given probability, vehicle dynamical rules are changed over time randomly between the rules of the NS model and the rules of the KKW model. Due to the rules of the KKW model, the speed adaptation effect of three-phase traffic theory is automatically taken into account and our model can show synchronized flow. Due to the rules of the NS model, our model can show wide moving jams. The effect of "switching" from the rules of the KKW model to the rules of the NS model provides equivalent effects to the "acceleration noise" in the KKW model. Numerical simulations are performed for both periodic and open boundaries conditions. The results are consistent with the well-known results of the three-phase traffic theory published before.

  7. Modeling the effect of microscopic driving behaviors on Kerner's time-delayed traffic breakdown at traffic signal using cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Yan-Yan

    2016-12-01

    The signalized traffic is considerably complex due to the fact that various driving behaviors have emerged to respond to traffic signals. However, the existing cellular automaton models take the signal-vehicle interactions into account inadequately, resulting in a potential risk that vehicular traffic flow dynamics may not be completely explored. To remedy this defect, this paper proposes a more realistic cellular automaton model by incorporating a number of the driving behaviors typically observed when the vehicles are approaching a traffic light. In particular, the anticipatory behavior proposed in this paper is realized with a perception factor designed by considering the vehicle speed implicitly and the gap to its preceding vehicle explicitly. Numerical simulations have been performed based on a signal controlled road which is partitioned into three sections according to the different reactions of drivers. The effects of microscopic driving behaviors on Kerner's time-delayed traffic breakdown at signal (Kerner 2011, 2013) have been investigated with the assistance of spatiotemporal pattern and trajectory analysis. Furthermore, the contributions of the driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown have been statistically examined. Finally, with the activation of the anticipatory behavior, the influences of the other driving behaviors on the formation of platoon have been investigated in terms of the number of platoons, the averaged platoon size, and the averaged flow rate.

  8. LLE Review 83, Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering April-June 2000, features an article by F. J. Marshall, T. Ohki, D. McInnis, Z. Ninkov, and J. Carbone, who detail the conversion of the OMEGA time-integrated x-ray diagnostics to electronic readout using direct-detection x-ray cameras [charge-injection devices (CID's)]. Pinhole and x-ray microscope images are shown along with inferred calibration measurements of the CID cameras. Currently, the same cameras are being used to obtain x-ray spectra in a TIM-based spectrometer, extending their use to all time-integrated imaging and spectroscopic x-ray instruments used on OMEGA. Additional highlights of the research presented in this issue are: (1) V. A. Smalyuk, B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, and D. D. Meyerhofer investigate the spatial structure of the temperature and density of target-shell plasmas at peak compression (stagnation). This is accomplished by examining the energy dependence of the x-ray emission using narrow-band x-ray filters and the known absorption properties of the shell dopant (Ti). (2) F. Sequin, C. K. Ll, D. G. Hicks, J. A. Frenje, K. M. Green, R. D. Petrasso, J. M. Soures, V. Yu. Glebov, C. Stoeckl, P. B. Radha, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. Roberts, C. Sorce, T. C. Sangster, M. D. Cable, S. Padalino, and K. Fletcher detail the physics and instrumentation used to obtain and interpret secondary D-{sup 3}He proton spectra from current gas-filled-target and future cryogenic-target experiments. Through a novel extension of existing charged-particle detection techniques with track detectors, the authors demonstrate the ability to obtain secondary proton spectra with increased sensitivity. (3) M. Guardelben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. Battaglia, and K. Marshall compare the utility of a novel liquid-crystal-based, point-diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) with the commercial standard phase-shifting interferometer and conclude that the LCPDI is a viable low-cost alternative. (4) A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F

  9. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1984). Volume 21

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.

    1984-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on upgrade of the GDL system, theoretical advances in the laser fusion effort, improved target fabrication capabilities, x-ray laser research, developments in the picosecond optics research of the LLE advanced technology program, and on the National Laser Users Facility activities for October-December 1984.

  10. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1984). Volume 18

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, L.

    1984-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the operations of the GDL and OMEGA facilities, energy measurement and beam characterization in the ultraviolet (UV), theoretical calculations of thermal self-focusing in laser plasmas, two aspects of the picosecond optics activities at the LLE, and the NLUF activities during this quarter (January through March 1984).

  11. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1985). Volume 22

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.

    1985-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on completion of frequency conversion of the OMEGA system, recent progress in the laser-fusion effort, certain aspects of the LLE advanced technology program, and the National Laser Users Facility activities for January-March 1985.

  12. LLE Review 120 (July-September 2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Edgell, D.H., editor

    2001-02-19

    This issue has the following articles: (1) The Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop; (2) The Effect of Condensates and Inner Coatings on the Performance of Vacuum Hohlraum Targets; (3) Zirconia-Coated-Carbonyl-Iron-Particle-Based Magnetorheological Fluid for Polishing Optical Glasses and Ceramics; (4) All-Fiber Optical Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Faraday Rotation in Highly Terbium Doped Fiber; (5) Femtosecond Optical Pump-Probe Characterization of High-Pressure-Grown Al{sub 0.86}Ga{sub 0.14}N Single Crystals; (6) LLE's Summer High School Research Program; (7) Laser Facility Report; and (8) National Laser Users Facility and External Users Programs.

  13. LLE (Laboratory for Laser Energetics) review

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpan, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1990, contains articles in two main sections: the OMEGA Upgrade and Advanced Technology Developments. The first article in Section 1 describes the changes in the overall system design of the 60-beam OMEGA Upgrade since the release of the OMEGA Upgrade Preliminary Design Document in October 1989. It is followed by an article that presents results of an investigation into stimulated rotational Raman scattering as it relates to the propagation of high-fluence ultraviolet laser beams in the OMEGA Upgrade. The third article is a report on the energy-transport measurements made on the multisegmented amplifier (MSA), built as a prototype amplifier for the original OMEGA Upgrade system configuration. The final article in Section 1 describes the design of the 20-cm-clear-aperture, single-segmented amplifier (SSA), which will be the final amplifier in the current OMEGA Upgrade system configuration. Section 2 presents the results to date of an intensive in-house effort at LLE to develop the various optical coatings required for the OMEGA Upgrade.

  14. LLE Review 117 (October-December 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Bittle, W., editor

    2009-05-28

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October-December 2008, features 'Demonstration of the Shock-Timing Technique for Ignition Targets at the National Ignition Facility' by T. R. Boehly, V. N. Goncharov, S. X. Hu, J. A. Marozas, T. C. Sangster, D. D. Meyerhofer (LLE), D. Munro, P. M. Celliers, D. G. Hicks, G. W. Collins, H. F. Robey, O. L. Landen (LLNL), and R. E. Olson (SNL). In this article (p. 1) the authors report on a technique to measure the velocity and timing of shock waves in a capsule contained within hohlraum targets. This technique is critical for optimizing the drive profiles for high-performance inertial-confinement-fusion capsules, which are compressed by multiple precisely timed shock waves. The shock-timing technique was demonstrated on OMEGA using surrogate hohlraum targets heated to 180 eV and fitted with a re-entrant cone and quartz window to facilitate velocity measurements using velocity interferometry. Cryogenic experiments using targets filled with liquid deuterium further demonstrated the entire timing technique in a hohlraum environment. Direct-drive cryogenic targets with multiple spherical shocks were also used to validate this technique, including convergence effects at relevant pressures (velocities) and sizes. These results provide confidence that shock velocity and timing can be measured in NIF ignition targets, thereby optimizing these critical parameters.

  15. LLE Review 116 (July-September 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Marozas, J.A., editor

    2010-03-12

    This issue has the following articles: (1) Optimizing Electron-Positron Pair Production on kJ-Class High-Intensity Lasers for the Purpose of Pair-Plasma Creation; (2) Neutron Yield Study of Direct-Drive, Low-Adiabat Cryogenic D2 Implosions on OMEGA; (3) Al 1s-2p Absorption Spectroscopy of Shock-Wave Heating and Compression in Laser-Driven Planar Foil; (4) A Measurable Lawson Criterion and Hydro-Equivalent Curves for Inertial Confinement Fusion; (5) Pulsed-THz Characterization of Hg-Based, High-Temperature Superconductors; (6) LLE's Summer High School Research Program; (7) FY08 Laser Facility Report; and (8) National Laser Users Facility and External Users Programs.

  16. Long-range correlations of density fluctuations in the Kerner-Klenov-Wolf cellular automata three-phase traffic flow model.

    PubMed

    Wu, J J; Sun, H J; Gao, Z Y

    2008-09-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a useful tool to measure the long-range power-law correlations in 1f noise. In this paper, we investigate the power-law dynamics behavior of the density fluctuation time series generated by the famous Kerner-Klenov-Wolf cellular automata model in road traffic. Then the complexities of spatiotemporal, average speed, and the average density have been analyzed in detail. By introducing the DFA method, our main observation is that the free flow and wide moving jam phases correspond to the long-range anticorrelations. On the contrary, at the synchronized flow phase, the long-range correlated property is observed.

  17. LLE 2008 annual report, October 2007 - September 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-31

    The research program at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) focuses on inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research supporting the goal of achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This program includes the full use of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Within the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), LLE is the lead laboratory for the validation of the performance of cryogenic target implosions, essential to all forms of ICF ignition. LLE has taken responsibility for a number of critical elements within the Integrated Experimental Teams (IET’s) supporting the demonstration of indirect-drive ignition on the NIF and is the lead laboratory for the validation of the polardrive approach to ignition on the NIF. LLE is also developing, testing, and building a number of diagnostics to be deployed on the NIF for the NIC.

  18. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1986). Volume 26

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, A.

    1986-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains reports on OMEGA and GDL laser activities; characterization of laser-generated x-ray sources for nuclear level excitation; the physics of parametric instabilities driven by two pump beams in laser-produced plasmas; developments in advanced technology areas at LLE, specifically ultra-high-speed opto-electronic devices and methods and the modeling of thin-film features in physical vapor deposition; and the National Laser Users Facility activities for January- March 1986.

  19. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1985). Volume 25

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, A.

    1985-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review comprises reports on the performance of the active-mirror-boosted glass development laser (GDL) single-beam system; the implementation of multichannel, soft x-ray diagnostic instrumentation; computer simulation of recent OMEGA laser implosion experiments; materials and ultrafast technology developments in the LLE advanced technology program; and the National Laser Users Facility activities for October-December 1985.

  20. Long-range correlations in vehicular traffic flow studied in the framework of Kerner's three-phase theory based on rescaled range analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yu; Jia, Li-Si; Teng, Wei-Zhong; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a study on the characteristics of synchronized traffic flow in a two-lane case with partial reduced lane based on the Kerner-Klenov-Wolf (KKW) cellular automaton model in the framework of Kerner' three-phase theory is reported by using the rescaled range analysis. The local fundamental diagram and the cross correlation near the entry of the reduced lane have been analyzed. The typical two-dimensional scatter diagram in the local fundamental diagram and the non-correlation of the cross correlation between the local density and the flow reveal the characteristics of synchronized traffic flow near the entry of the reduced lane. By using the rescaled range analysis (R/S) method to calculate the Hurst exponent, we can obtain the long-range correlated characteristics of the synchronized flow at a traffic bottleneck. We have found that the larger the length of bottleneck, the higher the Hurst's exponent does as well as the stronger the correlations of the system. Applying our correlation analysis to traffic flow simulations with the NaSch model, which cannot reproduce synchronized flow of the three-phase theory, we have indeed found that the NaSch model does not exhibit long-range correlation characteristics found for synchronized flow.

  1. LLE Review 98 (January-March 2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, V.N.

    2004-08-10

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2004, features ''Performance of 1-THz-Bandwidth, 2-D Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion and Polarization Smoothing of High-Power, Solid-State Laser Beams'', by S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V.A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel (p. 49). Laser-beam smoothing achieved with 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing on the 60-beam, 30-kJ, 351-nm OMEGA laser system is reported. These beam-smoothing techniques are directly applicable to direct-drive ignition target designs for the 192-beam, 1.8-MJ, 351-nm National Ignition Facility. Equivalent-target-plane images for constant-intensity laser pulses of varying duration were used to determine the smoothing. The properties of the phase plates, frequency modulators, and birefringent wedges were simulated and found to be in good agreement with the measurements.

  2. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1989). Volume 39

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A.

    1989-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1989, includes the second part of a two-part series dealing with the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. One article provides a general overview of the current upgrade system configuration and another article describes the target system. Future issues of the LLE Review will cover other aspects of the OMEGA Upgrade as the detailed system design develops. In addition, the advanced technology section of this issue contains an article discussing the interaction of a picosecond optical pulse with high temperature superconductors. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  3. LLE Review 114 (January-March 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Zuegel, J.D.

    2008-07-30

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2008, features 'Cryogenic Targets: Current Status and Future Development', by D. R. Harding, D. H. Edgell, M. D. Wittman, L. M. Elasky, S. J. Verbridge, A. J. Weaver, L. D. Lund, W. Seka, W. T. Shmayda, R. T. Janezic, M. J. Shoup III, M. Moore, R. Junquist, and A. V. Okishev. In this article (p. 57), the authors report on the status of layering cryogenic DT and D{sub 2} targets at LLE for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This critical effort achieves the important milestone of routinely providing cryogenic DT targets that meet the 1.0-{micro}m (rms) OMEGA ice-quality-surface specification. The best D{sub 2}-ice layers produced so far (rms roughness of 1.1 {micro}m) are approaching the quality typically achieved in DT targets. Efforts to improve the consistency of this process are reported along with investigations supporting the National Ignition Campaign studying issues relevant to indirect-drive and direct-drive cryogenic targets. Additional highlights of recent research presented in this issue include the following: (1) an improved laser speckle smoothing scheme that augments the current NIF 1-D SSD system by using multiple-FM modulators (MultiFM 1-D SSD) (p. 73). With a judicious choice of modulator frequencies, MultiFM 1-D SSD smoothes resonances produced at the higher spatial frequencies and can attain similar or even faster smoothing rates compared to the baseline NIF 2-D SSD system. DRACO simulations have shown that MultiFM 1-D SSD beam smoothing is sufficient for the direct-drive-ignition targets and pulse shapes analyzed thus far, and may even allow reducing the bandwidth enough to eliminate the need for dual-tripler frequency conversion on the NIF. (2) describes a time-gated, monoenergetic proton radiography that provides unique measurements of implosion dynamics of spherical targets in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) (p. 81). Radiographs obtained at different implosion times

  4. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1988). Volume 37

    SciTech Connect

    McKenty, P. W.

    1988-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1988, contains several articles devoted to our work in the understanding, identification, and correction of illumination non-uniformities on the OMEGA laser system. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  5. LLE 2004 annual report, October 2003-September 2004

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) conducted during the year, operation of the National Laser Users’ Facility (NLUF), a status report of the new OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) laser project, and programs concerning the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students during the year.

  6. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1985). Volume 23

    SciTech Connect

    Skupsky, S.

    1985-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the fully UV converted OMEGA laser system, mass-ablation rate experiments, reactor-size target designs, plasma processes in the target corona, degradation in optical performance of dielectric thin films, and the National Laser Users Facility activities for April-June 1985.

  7. LLE 2007 Annual Report, October 2006 - September 2007

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-01-31

    The laser-fusion research program at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is focused on the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA’s) Campaign-10 inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition and experimental support technology, operation of facilities (OMEGA), and the construction of OMEGA EP -- a high energy petawatt laser system. While LLE is the lead laboratory for research into the direct-drive approach to ICF ignition, it also takes a lead role in certain indirect-drive tasks within the National Ignition Campaign. During this past year progress in the laser-fusion research program was made in three principal areas: OMEGA direct drive and indirect-drive experiments and targets; development of diagnostics for experiments on OMEGA, OMEGA EP, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF); and theoretical analysis and design efforts aimed at improving direct-drive-ignition capsule designs and advanced ignition concepts such as fast ignition and shock ignition.

  8. LLE 2010 Annual Report October 2009 - September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The fiscal year ending September 2010 (FY10) concluded the third year of the third five-year renewal of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC52-08NA28302 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This annual report summarizes progress in inertial fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) during the past fiscal year including work on the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). It also reports on LLE's progress on laboratory basic science research; laser, optical materials, and advanced technology development; operation of OMEGA and OMEGA EP for the NIC and high-energy density (HED) campaigns, the National Laser Users Facility (NLUF), and for other external users; and programs focusing on the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students during the year.

  9. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1989). Volume 40

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, R.

    1989-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1989, is concerned primarily with uniformity studies. The first article is a report on a series of target experiments with improved irradiation uniformity in which major increases in neutron yields were produced. The first of two articles on theoretical developments presents a new interpretation of burn through experiments, continuing a study reported in LLE Review 35. The second theoretical article suggests a change in distributed phase-plate design that can improve beam uniformity over that achieved with random pattern plates. The fourth and fifth articles report that uniformity in the deposition of DT layers in micro balloons at very low temperatures has been achieved by a temperature-gradient technique, and that aberration free interferograms are now being obtained in the target chamber. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  10. LLE review. Volume 65. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Boehly, T.R.

    1996-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1995, contains a description of the generation and characterization of continuous, deep-surface-relief phase plates that are more efficient and versatile than previous designs. The LLE program plan has scheduled a number of enhancements to OMEGA`s performance and uniformity, the first of which is the implementation of these new distributed phase plates. Other articles in this volume include the discussion of an x-ray diagnostic method to measure shell-fuel mixing, the theoretical analysis of ablation-front stability, a description of a major subsystem in the OMEGA control system software, a study of the population inversions in intensely pumped Nd:YLF, and a description of a new ultrafast laser system and its uses.

  11. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1988). Volume 34

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.

    1988-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 1988, contains articles on the spectra of scattered laser radiation from laser-produced plasmas and on the bounce coating of ablation layers on fusion targets. The advanced technology section has reports on a novel technique for characterizing surface breakdown on semiconductor devices and on a versatile alexandrite regenerative amplifier. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  12. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1988). Volume 35

    SciTech Connect

    Kremens, R.

    1988-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1988, contains an in-depth article on recent cryogenic target experiments on the OMEGA laser system; two articles on laser-plasma interactions; and an advanced technology article discussing laser damage in polymeric materials. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  13. LLE Review Quarterly Report October - December 2011. Volume 129

    SciTech Connect

    Shvydky, Alex

    2011-12-01

    This volume of LLE Review, covering October–December 2011, features “Crossed-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive Implosions” by I. V. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, D. H. Edgell, D. T. Michel, D. H. Froula, R. S. Craxton, R. Follett, J. H. Kelly, T. Z. Kosc, J. F. Myatt, T. C. Sangster, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and C. Stoeckl (LLE); V. N. Goncharov and A. V. Maximov (LLE and Department of Mechanical Engineering, U. of Rochester); L. Divol and P. Michel (LLNL); and R. L. McCrory and D. D. Meyerhofer (LLE and Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, U. of Rochester). In this article (p. 1), direct-drive–implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1995)] have shown discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicates the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10% to 20%. The authors attribute this degradation in laser coupling to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET)— which is electromagnetically seeded—low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  14. LLE 1997. Annual report, October 1996--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The fiscal year ending September 1997 (FY97) concluded the fifth year of the cooperative agreement (DE-FC03-92SF19460) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and is the final report for the first five years of the cooperative agreement. In September 1997, the cooperative agreement was renewed for an additional five years. We summarize our research during FY97, the operation of the National Laser Users` Facility (NLUF), and the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students in LLE programs. A general introduction to LLE`s experimental physics program and a report on recent results are found on pp. 161-167. This article includes a useful summary of the system`s operational capabilities and system parameters after three years of operation. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion requires precise drive uniformity, the control of hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion of the fusion target, and accurate target fabrication and characterization. The article summarizes a wide variety of experiments relating to direct-drive laser fusion, from high-yield implosion experiments to planar and spherical Rayleigh-Taylor experiments, laser-imprinting experiments, and laser-plasma interaction experiments. A detailed analysis of the equation of motion for an electron in a plane wave is presented beginning on p. 24. A guiding center model is postulated and compared to numerical simulation of the actual particle motion. The formula is also verified analytically using the method of multiple scales. Work continues on this formalism to study the effects of the pondermotive force on laser-plasma interactions. A theoretical calculation of the dephasing time of an electron accelerated by a laser pulse is found on pp. 92-100. The trajectory of a charged particle, determined analytically for various pulse shapes, is then used to determine the dephasing time of an accelerated particle.

  15. LLE Review. Quarterly report, January--March 1992: Volume 50

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January--March 1992, contains articles on the use of diffraction gratings in laser applications, and the fabrication of gratings for use in these applications. there are two articles on the use of lasers to explore fundamental physics issues and an article on the use of a solid-state diode array for x-ray imaging. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

  16. LLE review. Quarterly report, April 1997--June 1997. Volume 71

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1997, includes an article discussing the results from recent experiments performed on OMEGA. These experiments used a new beam-smoothing device-distributed polarization rotators-in concert with existing techniques to improve the on-target uniformity of each beam. The result of this improved radiation uniformity was a substantive reduction in imprinting-the nonuniformity caused by the laser. A novel way to study the time dependence of this imprinting is also presented in this article.

  17. LLE review: Quarterly report, April--June 1992. Volume 51

    SciTech Connect

    Short, R.W.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April--June 1992, contains articles on laser-plasma interaction experiments in long-scale-length plasmas and on the theory of a new form of the stimulated Brillouin scattering instabilitity. The advanced technology section includes reports on the optical response of superconducting films, the development of high-reflectance transport mirrors for the OMEGA Upgrade, and a new high-brightness mono-mode laser oscillator. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

  18. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1987). Volume 31

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, W.

    1987-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1987, contains a summary of the recent high-density campaign on the OMEGA laser system; a report on the absorption and radiation of energy from spherically irradiated targets; and a computer model describing the source of hot spots in the OMEGA laser. The section on advanced technology has reports on a method for accurately measuring the phase of a high power laser and the development of an extremely bright and compact laser. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  19. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1989). Volume 38

    SciTech Connect

    McKenty, P. W.

    1989-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 1989, contains the first part of a two-part series of articles dealing with the OMEGA Upgrade. The two articles in this issue discuss the theoretical and laser design work performed to characterize the basic requirements for the upgrade. In addition, the advanced technology section contains articles discussing a new computer code developed to model x-ray refraction in line-focus geometry and experiments involving the use of time-resolved spectroscopy to diagnose high density in argon implosions. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  20. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1985). Volume 24

    SciTech Connect

    Skupsky, S.

    1985-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the first 24-beam UV experiments on the OMEGA laser system, the use of absorption spectroscopy to diagnose high-density compressions, the development of a new target fabrication technique to coat mechanically unsupported laser-fusion targets with a parylene layer, the use of liquid crystals as laser-beam apodizers, the investigation of the process of melting using a subpicosecond probe, the development of a new picosecond oscilloscope, and the National Laser Users Facility activities for June-September 1985.

  1. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1994). Volume 59

    SciTech Connect

    Knauer, James P.

    1994-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period of April-June 1994, contains articles on surface characterization by atomic force microscopy; electron acceleration with intense laser field; spatial intensity variations induced by nonlinear beam propagation; backlighting of implosion targets exhibiting mix; and the use of cosmic rays to monitor large, multielement detectors. Four of these articles - surface characterization; nonlinear beam propagation; backlighting of mixed targets; and monitoring of the MEDUSA detector array - are related to the OMEGA Upgrade, which is currently under construction.

  2. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1984). Volume 20

    SciTech Connect

    Iwan, L.

    1984-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the activities in the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities, some design changes to be implemented on the OMEGA laser, techniques for estimating UV target-irradiation uniformity, progress in fabricating polymer-shell targets, refined estimates of thermal electron transport in IR-irradiated targets, a program to develop a surgical instrument to excise arterial blockages with a laser, a new damage criterion for optical coatings, and NI-UF activities for July-September 1984.

  3. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1996). Volume 67

    SciTech Connect

    Skeldon, Mark D.

    1996-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1996, contains articles detailing several nonlinear processes associated with lasers and their use, as well as an article describing the computer control systems necessary to maintain and operate a large laser system such as the 60-beam OMEGA laser. The specific topics discussed in this issue include stimulated scattering in laser plasmas, power exchange between interacting laser beams, charged particles interacting with a laser pulse, thermal equilibration of optically excited states, an overview of the laser control system software in OMEGA, and a technique for cancellation of the nonlinear phase accumulation in short-pulse lasers.

  4. LLE 2009 annual report, October 2008-September 2009

    SciTech Connect

    none, none

    2010-01-01

    The fiscal year ending September 2009 (FY2009) concluded the second year of the third five-year renewal of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC52-08NA28302 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This annual report summarizes progress in inertial fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) during the past fiscal year. It also reports on LLE’s progress on laboratory basic science research; laser, optical materials, and advanced technology development; operation of OMEGA and OMEGA EP for the National Laser Users’ Facility (NLUF), and other external users; and programs focusingon the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students during the year.

  5. LLE review. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994, Volume 58

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A.

    1994-07-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period Jan - Mar 1994, contains articles on backlighting diagnostics; the effect of electron collisions on ion-acoustic waves and heat flow; using PIC code simulations for analysis of ultrashort laser pulses interacting with solid targets; creating a new instrument for characterizing thick cryogenic layers; and a description of a large-aperture ring amplifier for laser-fusion drivers. Three of these articles - backlighting diagnostics; characterizing thick cryogenic layers; and large-aperture ring amplifier - are directly related to the OMEGA Upgrade, now under construction. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  6. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1987). Volume 33

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, W.

    1987-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1987, contains descriptions of the implementation of distributed phase plates for improved irradiation uniformity and the implementation of a cryogenic target capability on the OMEGA facility. The section on advanced technology has reports on the design and optimization of recombination x-ray lasers and a near-infrared dichroic dye for use in both active and passive liquid-crystal devices. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  7. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July - September 2004). Volume 100

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Ansgar W.

    2004-09-01

    The key article in this volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2004, addresses "Shock Propagation in Deuterium-Tritium-Saturated Foam" by T. J. B. Collins (LLE) and A. Poludnenko, A. Cunningham, and A. Frank (UR, Department of Physics and Astronomy) (p. 227). Testing the assumption of homogeneous mixing in fibrous foams saturated with cryogenic deuterium and tritium, shock passage in wetted-foam mixtures was simulated by the adaptive-mesh, two-dimensional hydrodynamic code AstroBEAR. For foam fibers of diameter ~1/10 µm and relevant foam densities, the mixing length behind the shock is found to be of the order of microns. Transverse motion dampens out sufficiently that, at the mixing region's edge farthest from the shock, Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions are obeyed to within a few percent and shock speeds are also within a few percent of their homogeneous values. In addition, questions of feedthrough and feedout are addressed, showing that the stability of the shock front, once it leaves the wetted-foam layer, minimizes the effect of feedthrough. As a result, simulations of whole-foam-pellet implosions may model the wetted foam as a homogeneous mixture.

  8. A novel fingerprint recognition algorithm based on VK-LLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Lin, Shu-zhong; Ni, Jian-yun; Song, Li-mei

    2009-07-01

    It is a challenging problem to overcome shift and rotation and nonlinearity in fingerprint images. By analyzing the shortcoming of fingerprint recognition algorithm on shift or rotation images at present, manifold learning algorithm is introduced. A fingerprint recognition algorithm has been proposed based on locally linear embedding of variable neighbourhood k (VK-LLE). Firstly, approximate geodesic distance between any two points is computed by ISOMAP ( isometric feature mapping) and then the neighborhood is determined for each point by the relationship between its local estimated geodesic distance matrix and local Euclidean distance matrix. Secondly, the dimension of fingerprint image is reduced by nonlinear dimension-reduction method. And the best projected features of original fingerprint data of large dimension are acquired. By analyzing the changes of recognition accuracy with the neighborhood and embedding dimension, the neighborhood and embedding dimension is determined at last. Finally, fingerprint recognition is accomplished by Euclidean distance Classifier. The experimental results based on standard fingerprint datasets have verified the proposed algorithm had a better robustness to those fingerprint images of shift or rotation or nonlinearity than the algorithm using LLE, thus this method has some values in practice.

  9. LLE Review quarterly report, January--March 1993. Volume 54

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    This volume of the LLE Review covers the three-month period January--March 1993. The OMEGA laser facility was decommissioned during this quarter to make room for the OMEGA Upgrade laser facility. The decommissioning is described in this volume. Electron thermal transport in the corona and laser-irradiation uniformity are related issues for direct-drive laser fusion. Thermal transport can affect the laser-irradiation uniformity requirements. The status of Fokker-Planck modeling of electron transport at LLE is reviewed and is followed by a description of a new technique for achieving high laser uniformity using zero-correlation phase masks. The use of fast, optically triggered, superconducting opening switches can, in principle, reduce the peak electrical load requirements of systems like the OMEGA Upgrade. Recent research in this area is described. The last three articles discuss vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray emission from short-pulse, laser-matter interactions. The generation of a high spectral brightness, picosecond K{alpha} source is described. The subsequent articles describe the generation of high-order harmonics of a high-intensity laser system laser system in low- density, laser-atom interactions and the novel gas target used.

  10. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 2001). Volume 88

    SciTech Connect

    Hinterman, Thomas H.

    2001-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2001, features an article by C. Stoeckl, V. Yu. Glebov, J. D. Zuegel, and D. D. Meyerhofer (p. 171) that describes a simple, low-cost, wide dynamic-range, neutron bang time (NBT) detector. This instrument complements the capabilities of the streak camera-based neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD), which is also installed on the OMEGA laser. The new NBT measures the neutron bang time of D2- and DT-filled inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion capsules at neutron yields between 107 and 1011 with an absolute timing accuracy of better than100 ps. This level of accuracy allows the modeling of the implosions to be effectively guided using hydrocode calculations. Other articles in this volume include: Functional Damage Thresholds of Hafnia/Silica Coating Designs for the NIF Laser; High-Gain Direct-Drive Target Designs for the national Ignition Facility; Ultrafast Optoelectronic Interface for Digital Superconducting Electronics; Optimizing the Fabrication of Polyimide Shells; LLE's Summer High School Research Program; FY01 Laser Facility Report; and, National Laser Users' Facility News.

  11. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 2000). Volume 85

    SciTech Connect

    Sources, John M.

    2000-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October-December 2000, begins with an article by R. Betti, M. Umansky, V. Lobatchev, V. N. Goncharov, and R. L. McCrory, who report on the development of a model for the deceleration phase of an imploding inertial fusion capsule (p. 1). The model shows that the ablative flow off the inner shell surface plays a critical role in reducing the growth rate and suppressing short-wavelength modes in the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Other articles in this volume are: The Effect of Shock Heating on the Stability of Laser-Driven Targets; Spherical Cavity Expansion in Material with Densification; Design and Performance of a Selectable-Rate Streak-Camera Deflection Ramp Generator; Unique High-Bandwidth, UV Fiber Deliver System for OMEGA Diagnostics Applications; Fabrication and Properties of an Ultrafast NbN Hot-Electron Single-Photon detector; and, Preliminary Design of NIF 2-D SSD.

  12. LLE review. Volume 61, Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This volume of the LLE review, covering the period of October--December 1994, contains articles on a diagnostic method employing krypton spectroscopy for measurement of temperature and shell-fuel mixing in high-temperature implosions; the first direct assessment of the ion-acoustic decay instability in a large-scale length, hot plasma; measurements of polarization mode dispersion and group-velocity walkaway in birefringent media using a frequency domain interferometer; an evaluation of the magnetic flux dynamics occurring in an optically triggered, thin-film superconducting switch; the effect of slurry fluid chemistry on particle size distribution during aqueous polishing of optical glass; and the influence of thermal and mechanical processing history in the preparation of well-ordered liquid crystal elastomer systems.

  13. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 2001). Volume 87

    SciTech Connect

    Hinterman, Thomas H.

    2001-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering April–June 2001, features ''A Self-Calibrating, Multichannel Streak Camera for Inertial Confinement Fusion Applications'' by Dr. W. R. Donaldson, R. Boni, R. L. Keck, and P. A. Jaanimagi. This article (p. 109) describes the 60-beam streak camera system used on OMEGA and focuses on the hardware and software calibration techniques that maximize its utility. The system can diagnose each of the beams on every target shot and can measure beam energies with 8% accuracy and timing at 7 ps rms. Beam-to-beam power variations of less than 5% can be detected. Other articles in this volume are: Evolution of Shell Nonuniformities Near Peak Compression of a Spherical Implosion; Multibeam Stimulated Brillouin Scattering from Hot Solid-Target Plasmas; Hot-Electron Effect in Superconductors and Is Applications for Radiation Sensors; and, Scaling Law for Marginal Ignition.

  14. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1988). Volume 36

    SciTech Connect

    Kremens, R.

    1988-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1988, contains several articles on important diagnostics used during a recent high-density target experiment series; a report on a novel technique for improving laser illumination uniformity on laser-fusion experiments; and a report on non local electron transport simulations as applied to laser produced plasmas. The advanced technology section has an article discussing multiphoton ionization using the T3 (table-top-terrawatt) laser system; and a discussion of a new computer code to model x-ray refraction in line-focus geometry. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  15. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1999). Volume 81

    SciTech Connect

    Radha, P. B.

    1999-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October–December 1999, includes a report on the stability of direct-drive NIF capsules. V. N. Goncharov, R. Betti, J. A. Delettrez, P. W. McKenty, S. Skupsky, and R. P. J. Town examine the conditions under which direct-drive NIF capsules ignite. Their numerical study uses two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with a model that includes the various mechanisms that can influence target performance. Inner-surface roughness of the DT ice of the direct-drive cryogenic capsules and laser nonuniformities have been identified as the principal seeds of the instabilities that can potentially quench ignition. The authors conclude that a target gain greater than 10 can be achieved for a realistic inner-surface ice roughness when beam smoothing with 2-D SSD and a bandwidth greater than 0.5 THz is used.

  16. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1998). Volume 75

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Reuben

    1998-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April–June 1998, includes a report on a recent series of experiments, performed by A. Babushkin, M. Guardalben, R. Keck, and W. Seka, that demonstrate a new scheme for converting the infrared light of OMEGA to the third harmonic in the ultraviolet over a bandwidth that is significantly wider than has been previously attainable. This innovative scheme, employing a second tripling crystal in addition to the doubler-tripler pair currently in use, was proposed by D. Eimerl at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and adapted to the OMEGA system by S. Craxton and S. Oskoui, a recent participant in LLE’s Summer High-School Research Program. Wider bandwidths on OMEGA will allow the use of broadband beam smoothing with faster smoothing times than have been employed until now.

  17. LLE Review quarterly report, January--March 1995. Volume 62

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This volume of the LLE review, covering the period of January-March 1995, contains articles on the evaluation of the mechanism for laser damage in OMEGA UV multilayer coatings using a combination of conventional laser-damage characterization methods and atomic force microscopy; a dual-amplitude, fiber-coupled waveguide integrated-optic modulation device for generating temporally shaped optical pulses in OMEGA-, a proposal for modifying the indirect-drive irradiation geometry of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to provide the additional flexibility for performing direct-drive experiments; direct measurements of terminal-level lifetime in several different Nd:YLF laser media; an overview of the materials science issues, basic mechanisms, and potential device applications for light-emitting porous silicon; and a study of the time-dependent reflection and surface temperatures for laser-irradiated dental hard tissue at two CO{sub 2} laser wavelengths.

  18. LLE Review quarterly report, October--December 1992. Volume 53

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review covers the three-month period October--December 1992. On 18 December, the OMEGA Laser Facility fired its last shot. It will be decommissioned during the next quarter to make room for the OMEGA Upgrade Laser Facility. This volume deals with two areas of interest for the OMEGA Upgrade, the development of advanced x-ray and neutron diagnostics and the development of long-pulse (>1-ns) laser sources. The first three articles discuss the development of time-dependent diagnostics. The development of an x-ray framing camera is described and measurements of the high-voltage pulse propagation in the camera are presented. Time-resolved and time-integrated neutron diagnostics for the OMEGA Upgrade are then discussed. Two schemes for the generation of >1-ns laser pulses are presented. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  19. LLE review: Quarterly report, July--September 1995. Volume 64

    SciTech Connect

    Craxton, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1995, includes a description of the first target experiments performed on the upgraded OMEGA laser system. These experiments, carried out to active and test several diagnostics systems, have demonstrated successful functioning of the overall experimental system and have produced high neutron yields and high core temperatures. Other articles in this volume describe the diagnosis of core conditions using krypton line spectroscopy, a mix model for LILAC that can be applied to study the deceleration instability at the pusher-core interface, a simulated-annealing algorithm for improved phase-plate design, a simple method for characterizing the thickness and uniformity of transparent laser-fusion targets, and femtosecond pump-probe experiments on semiconducting YBCO.

  20. LLE Review. Volume 68, July--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period of July-September 1996, includes a description of an important experiment carried out on OMEGA by researchers from LANL, LLNL, and LLE to demonstrate the feasibility of using OMEGA for indirect drive. Additional topics include tetrahedral hohlraums, the speckle properties of phase- converted laser beams, design criteria for SSD phase modulators, and the design of slab amplifiers. Highlights of the research presented in this issue are (1) Results from the proof-of-principle indirect- drive experiments in which up to 40 OMEGA beams were used to irradiate cylindrical hohlraums. Nova results were reproduced, and new capabilities not available on other lasers were demonstrated. (2) A discussion of tetrahedral hohlraums (spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes) as a means of achieving better capsule irradiation uniformity. Tetrahedral hohlraums also allow the use of all 60 OMEGA beams and may provide an alternate route to ignition on the NIF. (3) An analysis of the residual target irradiation nonuniformity due to the fine laser speckle remaining on the beam after being phase converted by the DPP`s. A model shows how a uniformly ablating plasma atmosphere reduces the speckle contribution to the effective time-averaged irradiation nonuniformity. (4) A discussion of the theory, design, manufacture, testing, and implementation of the microwave SSD phase modulators used on OMEGA for two-dimensional SSD. The modulators are capable of operating in the gigahertz frequency range. (5) A discussion of the design and performance of a large-aperture, high-gain Nd:glass zig-zag slab amplifier for materials testing. The design incorporates improvements from previous work in addition to improvements obtained from careful design choices guided by analytic calculations.

  1. LLE review. Quarterly report, July 1997--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1997, begins with a general introduction to LLE`s experimental physics program and a report on recent results. This article includes a useful summary of the system`s operational capabilities and system parameters. Other highlights of the wide variety of research presented in this issue are: a promising method to directly observe the cold compressed shell of an imploding target. The shell is normally observed by backlighting. The proposal described here is to use a high-Z dopant that fluoresces under radiation from the hot core in the K{alpha} line. A study of the instabilities associated with near-forward stimulated Brillouin scattering. It includes a calculation of the saturation times and steady-state gain exponents. A successful program of pulse shaping for the OMEGA laser system. Examples of a variety of pulse shapes that can be programmed are presented. A description of the angular-scattering characteristics of ferroelectric liquid crystal electro-optical devices operating in transient and extended scattering modes. The possibility of applying these devices as modulators in practical IR imaging systems is evaluated. A faster method of shaping and finishing IR materials by the use of magnetorheological fluids. Detailed specifications and test results are included. An integrated circuit tester based on interferometric imaging. This technique holds promise of ultrafast noninvasive testing of the voltage states of sections of microchips. Continued success of the Laboratory`s High School Summer Research Program. The program, which started in 1989, has brought several dozen young people into intimate contact with modern science and technology. The volume concludes with a Laser Facility Report and the National Laser Users` Facility News.

  2. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1998). Volume 76

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Reuben

    1998-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1998, includes reports on two of the newest subsystems in the OMEGA laser facility. A. V. Okishev, M. D. Skeldon, and W. Seka have developed a highly stable, diode-pumped Nd:YLF master oscillator for the OMEGA laser system. This new master oscillator produces either single-frequency Q-switched pulses or cw radiation for the OMEGA pulse-shaping system. The switch-over between these two regimes requires no laser realignment. The new master oscillator is completely computer controlled and has been operating continuously in OMEGA for six months without operator intervention. A. Babushkin, W. Bittle, S. A. Letzring, M. D. Skeldon, and W. Seka have designed a negative-feedback–controlled regenerative amplifier that has been part of the OMEGA laser system for the past two years. The negative feedback makes the energy output of the regenerative amplifier stable and insensitive to the variations in pulse energy. This amplifier’s long-term output energy stability is the highest ever demonstrated for a millijoule-level laser system, either flashlamp pumped or diode pumped. Other articles in this volume are titled: Transcient Bandwidth Analysis of Photoconductive Microwave Switches Implemented in the OMEGA Pulse-Shaping System; Simulations of Near-Field Intensity Modulations in High-Intensity Laser Beams due to Self- and Cross-Phase Modulation Between Orthogonally Polarized Laser Beams Emerging from a Diamond-Turned KDP Wedge; X-Ray Radiographic System Used to Measure the Evolution of Broadband Imprint in Laser-Driven Planar Targets; Collisionless Damping of Localized Plasma Waves in Laser-Produces Plasmas and Application to Stimulated Raman Scattering in Filaments; LLE's Summer High School Research Program; FY98 Laser Facility Report; and, National Laser Users' Facilty News.

  3. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 2001). Volume 86

    SciTech Connect

    Sources, John M.

    2001-03-01

    This volume of LLE Review, covering January-March 2001, includes a report on the characterization of direct-drive implosion core conditions using time-resolved Ar K-shell spectroscopy. This work was carried out by a team that included S. P. Regan, J. A. Delettrez, P. A. Jaanimagi, B. Yaakobi, V. A. Smalyuk, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, and W. Seka of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University of Rochester; D. A. Haynes, Jr. of the Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin; and C. F. Hooper, Jr. of the Department of Physics, University of Florida. The experiments involved the implosion of polymer shells filled with Ar-doped deuterium gas driven with up to 24-kJ, 1-ns square laser pulses smoothed with 1-THz, 2-D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS). The emissivity-averaged core electron temperature and density were inferred from the measured time-dependent Ar K-shell spectral line shapes. Electron densities in excess of 2.5 × 1024 cm-3 and electron temperatures ~2.5 keV were measured in these experiments. This represents the highest combination of electron temperature and density measured for these types of implosions in laser-driven inertial fusion experiments. Other articles in this volume are titled: Study of Direct-Drive, DT-Gas-Filled-Plastic-Capsule Implosions Using Nuclear Diagnostics on OMEGA; A Consistent Measurement-Based Picture of Core-Mix in Direct-Drive Implosions on OMEGA; High-Resolution Neutron Imaging of Laser-Imploded DT Targets; The Smoothing Performance of Ultrafast Pickets on the NIF; Tests of EXAFS on OMEGA: Feasibility for Shock Heating Measurements; and, Microhardness and Indention Fracture of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP).

  4. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 2001). Volume 89

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, William R.

    2001-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October-December 2001, features “Time-Integrated Light Images of OMEGA Implosions” by P. Morley and W. Seka (p. 1). E. Kowaluk initiated this project for aesthetic rather than scientific reasons when he began taking visible light photographs of imploding OMEGA targets. These beautiful images are used to communicate LLE’s mission to the general public. A closer examination of the images revealed a one-to-one correspondence between the bright spots in the image and each of the 60 laser beams. The intensity of the bright spots has been related to refraction and absorption in the plasma surrounding the imploding target. These photographs are now proving to be the basis of a new laser-plasma interaction diagnostic. Other articles in this volume are titled the following: Analytical Model of Nonlinear, Single-Mode, Classical Rayleigh-Taylor Instability at Arbitrary Atwood Numbers; A High-Pass Phase Plate Design for OMEGA and the NIF; Advanced Tritium Recovery System; Establishing Links Between Single Gold Nanoparticles Buried Inside SiO2 Thin Film and 351-nm Pulsed-Laser-Damage Morphology; Resistive Switching Dynamics in Current-Biased Y-Ba-Cu-O Microbridges Excited by Nanosecond Electrical Pulses; and, Properties of Amorphous Carbon Films.

  5. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1991). Volume 48

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1991-09-01

    This report was prepared as an account of work conducted by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and sponsored by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the University of Rochester, the U.S. Department of Energy, and other agencies. Neither the above-named sponsors, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed. or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, mark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof or any other sponsor. Results reported in the LLE Review should not be taken as necessarily final results as they represent active research. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of any of the above sponsoring entities.

  6. LLE Review quarterly report, July--September 1992. Volume 52

    SciTech Connect

    Short, R.W.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1992, contains articles on methods of balancing the beam power on the OMEGA Upgrade and on the damping of ion-sound waves in laser-produced plasmas. The advanced technology section includes reports on optical nonlinearities in high-temperature superconductors, a method of increasing gas retention time for laser-fusion targets, and a study of stimulated Raman scattering of laser beams in air. Highlights of the research reported in this issue are: An efficient method has been developed for balancing the power in the 60 beams of the OMEGA Upgrade. The method can achieve 2% power balance for both main and foot beams using only four system shots. A study of ion-sound-wave damping has substantially revised and expanded our knowledge of this effect. The damping of ion waves can have important consequences for laser-plasma interaction. The use of femtosecond laser pulses to study the properties of thin-film, high-temperature superconductors is discussed. A method for increasing the gas retention time of polymer-shell laser-fusion targets by overcoating them with a thin layer of aluminum is described. A code has been developed to study stimulated rotational Raman scattering in high-power laser beams propagating through air.

  7. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 2002). Volume 90

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, William R.

    2002-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2002, features “First Results from Cryogenic Target Implosions on OMEGA” by C. Stoeckl et al. (p. 49). This article describes initial results from direct-drive spherical cryogenic target implosions on the 60-beam OMEGA laser system. These experiments are part of the scientific base leading to direct-drive ignition implosions planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Results shown include neutron yield, secondary-neutron and proton yields, the time of peak neutron emission, and both time-integrated and time-resolved x-ray images of the imploding core. The experimental values are compared with 1-D numerical simulations. The target with an ice-layer nonuniformity of srms = 9 mm showed 30% of the 1-D predicted neutron yield. These initial results are encouraging for future cryogenic implosions on OMEGA and the NIF. Other articles in this issue are titled the following: Equation-of-State Measurements of Porous Materials on OMEGA: Numerical Modeling; Observations of Modulated Shock Waves in Solid Targets Driven by Spatially Modulated Laser Beams; Time-Dependent Electron Thermal Flux Inhibition in direct-Drive Laser Implosions; Precision Spectral Sculpting of Broadband FM Pulses Amplified in a Narrowband Medium; Electric-Field-Induced Motion of Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flakes in a Moderately Conductive Fluid; and, Femtosecond Response of a Freestanding LT-GaAs Photoconductive Switch.

  8. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 2000). Volume 82

    SciTech Connect

    Radha, P. B.

    2000-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 2000, includes a report on OMEGA cryogenic target designs for the soon-to-be-commissioned OMEGA Cryogenic Target Handling System. R. P. J. Town, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, V. N. Goncharov, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, and S. Skupsky use two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with a stability analysis model to study the performance of OMEGA cryogenic capsules. They show that these targets are energy-scaled from the NIF ignition designs and have similar 1-D behavior and stability properties. This similarity will facilitate the extrapolation of cryogenic target studies on OMEGA to ignition targets on the NIF. Other articles in this volume are: Imprint Reduction using an Intensity Spike in Omega Cryogenic Targets; Measurement of Preheat Due to Fast Electrons in Laser Implosions; Holographic Transmission Gratings for Spectral Dispersion; Laser Beam Smoothing Caused by the Small-Spatial-Scale B-Integral; Three-Dimensional Modeling of Capsule Implosions in OMEGA Tetrahedral Hohlraums; and, Nanoindentation Hardness of Particles Used in Magnetoheological finishing (MRF).

  9. LLE'S high-pressure DT-fill process control system

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Shmayda, W. T.; Janezic, R.; Loucks, S. J.; Reid, J.

    2008-07-15

    The OMEGA laser at the Univ. of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) implodes fusion targets that contain cryogenic solid deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layers. These ICF targets are fabricated in a high-pressure DT-fill process. This paper describes the integration and control of this DT-fill process. The appropriate safety-control response during the DT-fill process depends on the location of the tritium inventory and where the containment alarm is detected. A control response that is deemed appropriate earlier in the fill process could be a dangerous action at a later point in the fill process. The control system must adapt as the DT inventory moves through the process train. This is achieved by defining eight 'fill states' in the fill process. The control system transitions to the appropriate fill state as the DT fill progresses. The fill state reflects the tritium location, pressure, and temperature. Steps are taken to ensure that the tritium location and the fill state are in agreement. The control system monitors the containment system's integrity and will take the appropriate action, based on the tritium location and the type of containment failure. This approach not only ensures process safety, but also maximizes the productivity by executing process pauses (in lieu of aborts) when conditions allow. (authors)

  10. LLE's High-Pressure DT-Fill Process Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Shmayda, W.T.; Janezic, R.; Loucks, S.J.; Reid, J.

    2008-07-18

    The OMEGA Laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) implodes fusion targets that contain cryogenic solid deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layers. These ICF targets are fabricated in a high-pressure DT-fill process. This paper describes the integration and control of this DT-fill process. The appropriate safety-control response during the DT-fill process depends on the location of the tritium inventory and where the containment alarm is detected. A control response that is deemed appropriate earlier in the fill process could be a dangerous action at a later point in the fill process. The control system must adapt as the DT inventory moves through the process train. This is achieved by defining eight "fill states" in the fill process. The control system transitions to the appropriate fill state as the DT fill progesses. The fill state reflects the tritium location, pressure, and temperature. Steps are taken to ensure that the tritium location and the fill state are in agreement. The control system monitors the containment system's integrity and will take the appropriate action, based on the tritium location and the type of containment failure. This approach not only ensures process safety, but also maximizes the productivity by executing process pauses (in lieu of aborts) when conditions allow.

  11. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1999). Volume 78

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, Sean P.

    1999-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 1999, features two articles concerning issues relevant to 2-D SSD laser-beam smoothing on OMEGA. In the first article J. D. Zuegel and J. A. Marozas present the design of an efficient, bulk phase modulator operating at approximately 10.5 GHz, which can produce substantial phase-modulated bandwidth with modest microwave drive power. This modulator is the cornerstone of the 1-THz UV bandwidth operation planned for OMEGA this year. In the second article J. A. Marozas and J. H. Kelly describe a recently developed code -- Waasese -- that simulates the collective behavior of the optical components in the SSD driver line. The measurable signatures predicted by the code greatly enhance the diagnostic capability of the SSD driver line. Other articles in this volume are titled: Hollow-Shell Implosion Studies on the 60-Beam, UC OMEGA Laser System; Simultaneous Measurements of Fuel Areal Density, Shell Areal Density, and Fuel Temperature in D3He-Filled Imploding Capsules; The Design of Optical Pulse Shapes with an Aperture-Coupled-Stripline Pulse-Shaping System; Measurement Technique for Characterization of Rapidly Time- and Frequency-Varying Electronic Devices; and, Damage to Fused-Silica, Spatial-Filter Lenses on the OMEGA Laser System.

  12. LLE 1995 annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The fiscal year ending September 1995 (FY95) concluded the third year of the cooperative agreement (DE-FC03-92SF19460) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and reports on the successful completion of the OMEGA Upgrade. Previous annual reports describe the OMEGA Upgrade design. The preliminary design for the system was complete in October 1989 and the detailed design started in October 1990. The original 24-beam OMEGA system was decommissioned in December 1992 as construction for the OMEGA Upgrade began. We discuss the initial performance results (p. 99) of the upgraded OMEGA laser system. All acceptance tests were completed, and we demonstrated that all 60 beams can irradiate a target with more energy and better beam balance than was required by DOE`s acceptance criteria. We are most proud that all program milestones were met or exceeded, and that the system was completed on time and on budget.

  13. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October - December 2007). Volume 113

    SciTech Connect

    Zuegel, Jonathan D.

    2007-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October–December 2007, features “High-Intensity Laser–Plasma Interactions in the Refluxing Limit,” by P. M. Nilson, W. Theobald, J. Myatt, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, O. V. Gotchev, J. D. Zuegel, R. Betti, D. D. Meyerhofer, and T. C. Sangster. In this article (p. 1), the authors report on target experiments using the Multi-Terawatt (MTW) Laser Facility to study isochoric heating of solid-density targets by fast electrons produced from intense, short-pulse laser irradiation. Electron refluxing occurs due to target-sheath field effects and contains most of the fast electrons within the target volume. This efficiently heats the solid-density plasma through collisions. X-ray spectroscopic measurements of absolute Kα (x-radiation) photon yields and variations of the Kβ/Kα b emission ratio both indicate that laser energy couples to fast electrons with a conversion efficiency of approximately 20%. Bulk electron temperatures of at least 200 eV are inferred for the smallest mass targets.

  14. [LLE-SVM classification of apple mealiness based on hyperspectral scattering image].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-lin; Zhu, Qi-bing; Huang, Min

    2010-10-01

    Apple mealiness degree is an important factor for its internal quality. hyperspectral scattering, as a promising technique, was investigated for noninvasive measurement of apple mealiness. In the present paper, a locally linear embedding (LLE) coupled with support vector machine (SVM) was proposed to achieve classification because of large number of image data. LLE is a nonlinear lowering dimension method, which reveals the structure of the global nonlinearity by the local linear joint. This method can effectively calculate high-dimensional input data embedded in a low-dimensional space manifold. The dimension reduction of hyperspectral data was classified by SVM. Comparing the LLE-SVM classification method with the traditional SVM classification, the results indicated that the training accuracy obtained with the LLE-SVM was higher than that just with SVM; and the testing accuracy of the classifier changed a little before and after dimensionality reduction, and the range of fluctuation was less than 5%. It is expected that LLE-SVM method would provide an effective classification method for apple mealiness nondestructive detection using hyperspectral scattering image technique.

  15. LLE Review Quarterly Report July-September 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2000, begins with an article by T. R. Boehly, V. N. Goncharov, O. Gotchev, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, S. P. Regan, Y. Srebro, W. Seka, D. Shvarts, S. Skupsky, and V.A. Smalyuk, who describe measurements of the effect of beam smoothing and pulse shape on imprinting. (Imprinting is defined as the imposition of pressure perturbations on the target by spatial variations in the laser intensity.) A principal result is the observation of reduced levels of imprint with the higher beam smoothing afforded by 1-THz smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). Additional highlights of research presented in this issue are: (1) P. W. McKenty, V. N. Goncharov, R. P. J. Town, S. Skupsky, R. Betti, and R. L. McCrory describe calculations of directly driven ignition capsule performance on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The authors detail how the various contributors to implosion disruption (laser imprint, power imbalance, and target roughness) affect target performance and final gain. The conclusions are obtained by examining the simulated target evolution with the two-dimensional hydrodynamics computer code ORCHID. (2) D. D. Meyerhofer, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, R. L. Keck, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, F. J. Marshall, P. B. Radha, S. P. Regan, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, C. Sorce, C. Stoeckl, J. M. Soures, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, J. D. Zuegel, J. Frenje, C. K. L1,R. D. Petrasso, F. Seguin, K. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, R. Lerche, T. W. Phillips, and T. C. Sangster describe the results of a series of direct-drive implosions of gas-fusion-fuel-filled plastic shells performed on the OMEGA laser system. The experiments include those performed with 1-THZ SSD and high-quality power balance. (3) V. Yu. Glebov, D. D. Meyerhofer, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel describe the technique of measuring secondary neutron yield (DT neutron yield from D

  16. LLE Review quarterly report July--September 1993. Volume 56

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1993, contains articles on self-focusing of broad-bandwidth laser light with angular dispersion, laser patterning of thin-film circuits, and construction of foam-shell fusion targets. Reports on the detailed designs of major subsystems of the OMEGA Upgrade and on the continuing activation of the upgraded Glass Development Laser system are summarized. Descriptions of research proposals for NLUF are also included in this issue. Highlights of the research reported in this issue are: Previous investigations of self-focusing behavior of broad-bandwidth laser light without angular dispersion showed only slight differences when compared to laser light with angular dispersion. A new, numerical investigation of self-focusing with applied angular dispersion shows the development of transverse amplitude modulation, which can act to enhance or impede instantaneous self-focusing. Averaging over one period of phase modulation with imposed bandwidth shows consistent smoothing of the beam, nearly replicating the original spatial profile, including smoothing of induced perturbations due to laser-system imperfections. A continuous-wave argon-ion laser beam is focused onto a Y-Ba-Cu-O thin-film circuit. The laser beam selectively heats the epitaxy, which enriches oxygen in irradiated regions alongside depleted regions. Oxygen enrichment results in the formation of superconducting regions, while oxygen depletion results in semiconducting regions. This maskless operation yields applications in microbridges,coplanar transmisson lines, field-effect transistors, and photoconductive switches. One technique to form thick fusion fuel layers is to use a low-density polymer or aerosol foam matrix to hold the liquid DT. This issue summarizes the results of a collaborative experiment conducted at the Institute for Laser Engineering (ILE) to fabricate foam-shell targets with plastic-layer overcoats.

  17. LLE review, Volume 77. Quarterly report, October--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, S.P.

    1998-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October--December 1998, includes two articles addressing issues applicable to direct-drive ICF on the National Ignition Facility (NIF): laser-plasma interactions and laser-irradiation uniformity. Additional highlights of the research presented in this issue are: (1) P.B. Radha and S. Skupsky present a novel charged-particle diagnostic that performs simultaneous {rho}R measurements of the fuel, shell, and ablator regions of a compressed ICF target, consisting of an inner DT fuel region, a plastic (CH) shell, and an ablator (CD), by measuring the knock-on deuteron spectrum. (2) F. Dahmani, S. Burns, J. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, and A. Schmid report results from stress-inhibited laser-driven crack propagation and stress-delayed damage-initiation experiments in fused silica at 351 nm. Research is underway presently to determine the ramifications of these findings for large-aperture systems, such as OMEGA. (3) V. Goncharov presents an analytic theory of the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, which shows that the main stabilizing mechanism of the ablation-front perturbations is the dynamic overpressure of the blowoff plasma with respect to the target material. The perturbation evolution during the shock transit time is studied to determine the initial conditions for the Rayleigh-Taylor phase of the instability and to analyze the level of laser imprint on ICF direct-drive targets. (4) J.M. Larkin, W.R. Donaldson, T.H. Foster, and R.S. Knox examine the triplet state of rose bengal, a dye used in photodynamic therapy, that is produced by 1,064-nm excitation of T{sub 1}. (5) R. Adam, M. Currie, R. Sobolewski, O. Harnack, and M. Darula report measurements of the picosecond photoresponse of a current-biased YBCO microbridge coupled to a bicrystal YBCO Josephson junction.

  18. [Neurousurpation--the expropriation and suppression of Dölle's neurobiological pioneer work].

    PubMed

    Bertram, Wulf

    2011-08-01

    The discovery of a hitherto unpublished dissertational thesis in the archive of a publishing house has lead to a lost publication by Ernst August Dölle. In this manuscript, the author reports on the stimulation of a cerebral libido area in the dog, long before Olds and Milner published their work on the discovery of the rewarding area. The reasons for the suppression of this early publication by Dölle are investigated and are ascribed to an effort to use his neurobiologic research for secret mental manipulation experiments of the CIA at the beginning of the Cold War.

  19. LLE Review Quarterly Report January - March 2012. Volume 130

    SciTech Connect

    Shvydky, Alex

    2012-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January–March 2012, features “OMEGA Polar-Drive Target Designs,” by P. B. Radha, J. A. Marozas, F. J. Marshall, A. Shvydky, T. J. B. Collins, V. N. Goncharov, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, and S. Skupsky. This article (p. 57) describes low-adiabat, cryogenic-deuterium–tritium, and warm-plastic-shell polar-drive (PD)–implosion designs for the OMEGA laser. The designs are at two different on-target laser intensities, each at a different in-flight aspect ratio (IFAR). The first design permits one to study implosion energetics and target performance closer to ignition-relevant intensities (7 X 1014 W/cm2 at the quarter-critical surface), where nonlocal heat conduction and laser–plasma interactions can play an important role, but at lower values of IFAR (~22). The second design permits one to study implosion energetics and target performance at a lower intensity (3 X 1014 W/cm2) but at higher IFAR (~32), where the shell instability can play an important role. The higher IFAR designs are accessible on the existing OMEGA Laser System only at lower intensities. Implosions at ignition-relevant intensities can be obtained only by reducing target radius, although only at smaller values of IFAR. Polar-drive geometry requires repointing the laser beams to improve shell symmetry. The higher-intensity designs optimize target performance by repointing beams to a lesser extent and compensate for the reduced equatorial drive by increasing beam energies for the repointed beams and using custom beam profiles that improve equatorial illumination at the expense of irradiation at higher latitudes. These designs will be studied when new phase plates for the OMEGA Laser System, corresponding to the smaller target radii and custom beam profiles, are obtained. Implosion results from the combined set of high-intensity and high-IFAR implosions should yield valuable

  20. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 2005). Volume 103

    SciTech Connect

    Myatt, Jason

    2005-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering April-June 2005, features the following articles. ''High-Density and High ρR Fuel Assembly for Fast-Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion'' by R. Betti and C. Zhou. In this article (p. 117), the authors optimize implosion parameters for fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion and design fast-ignition targets relevant to direct-drive inertial fusion energy (IFE). It is shown that a 750-kJ laser can assemble fuel with VI = 1.7 X 107 cm/s, a = 0.7, t = 400 g/cc, tR = 3 g/cm2, and a hot-spot volume of less than 10% of the compressed core. If fully ignited, this fuel assembly can produce energy gains of 150. In the second article (p. 122), C. Stoeckl, T. R. Boehly, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, J. Miller, V. A. Smalyuk, W. Theobald, B. Yaakobi, and T. C. Sangster, along with J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, and F. H. Séguin (MIT), S. P. Hatchett (LLNL), and R. B. Stephens (GA) describe recent OMEGA experiments that have studied the fuel assembly of gas-filled, cone-in-shell, fast-ignition targets. Using both fusion products and backlit images, an areal density of ~60-70 mg/cm2 was inferred for the dense core assembly. The results are promising for successful integrated fast-ignition experiments on the OMEGA EP facility, scheduled to be completed in 2007. Other articles are titled ''Planar Cryogenic Target Hangling Capability for the OMEGA Laser-Fusion Facility''; "Fourier-Space, Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Measurements of 3-D Laser-Imprinted Modulations in Planar Targets''; ''Technologies for Mitigating Tritum Releases to the Environment''; ''All-Solid-State, Diode-Pumped, Multiharmonic Laser System for Timing Fiducial''; and ''EXAFS Measurement of Iron bcc-to-hcp Phase Transformation in Nanosecond-Laser Shocks''.

  1. LLE Review Quarterly Report. Volume 79, April-June 1999 [Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    This volume of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) Review, covering the period April-June 1999, features a theoretical analysis of direct-drive target performance on National Ignition Facility (NIF). In this article R. P. J. Town, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, V. N. Goncharov, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, R. W. Short, and S. Skupsky detail ignition target designs developed at LLE specifically to achieve successful direct-drive ignition on the NIF facility. A baseline ''all-DT'' target design is described along with a two shock compression analysis, which includes discussion of the parameters leading to variability in shock timing. The modeling and analysis presented flow down to specification requirements for the laser and target parameters to ignite this baseline target design with the NIF laser.

  2. The Effect of the Immediate Feedback by the Collaborative Education Tool ViLLE on Learning for Business Mathematics in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuikka, Matti; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi; Joshi, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the effect of the collaborative educational tool ViLLE when learning business mathematics in higher education. ViLLE validates students' answers during the assessment process and provides immediate feedback, enabling students to receive feedback and guidance about the correctness of their answers. The learning results in the…

  3. LLE (Laboratory for Laser Energetics) review: Quarterly report, January-March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.

    1988-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 1988, contains articles on the spectra of scattered laser radiation from laser-produced plasmas and on the bounce coating of ablation layers on fusion targets. The advanced technology section has reports on a novel technique for characterizing surface breakdown on semiconductor devices and on a versatile alexandrite regenerative amplifier. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users. Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized. 49 refs., 30 figs.

  4. LLE 1998 annual report, October 1997--September 1998. Inertial fusion program and National Laser Users` Facility program

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), the operation of the National Laser Users` Facility (NLUF), and programs involving the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students for FY98. Research summaries cover: progress in laser fusion; diagnostic development; laser and optical technology; and advanced technology for laser targets.

  5. Children's Literature as Tools of and for Activism: Reflections of JoLLE's inaugural Activist Literacies Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by her attendance at the inaugural JoLLE Activist Literacies conference, the author ruminates on the ways in which children's literature and activitist literacies are inextricably wed and manifested in myriad ways. References to a sampling of children's literature spanning genres and grade levels, websites, and affiliated articles provide…

  6. LLE Quarterly Report (July-September 1999)[Library for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-07

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1999, features a theoretical analysis of a process that generates mass perturbations of an imploding target driven by modulated laser illumination. The process, referred to as laser imprint, impacts the integrity of the shell during direct-drive implosions, potentially quenching target performance. In this article V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, S. Skupsky, and R. P. J. Town present a model of the generation of mass perturbations and analyze the mass perturbation growth due to nonuniform ablation pressure. Stabilizing mechanisms of thermal conduction smoothing and mass ablation are shown to suppress the acceleration perturbation, and mass ablation is also shown to impact velocity perturbations. The model predicts that a direct-drive cryogenic NIF target will remain intact during the implosion when l-Thz SSD beam smoothing is used.

  7. Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) Snout, Rotator and Rails for use at LLE

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S K; Emig, J A; Griffith, L V; Heeter, R F; House, F A; James, D L; Schneider, M B; Sorce, C M

    2010-01-25

    The Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) is a spectrometer snout mounted to an X-Ray Framing Camera (XRFC) through the Unimount flange. This equipment already exists and is used at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) facility. The XRFC and the Unimount flange are designed by LLE. The Tilt Rotator fixture that mounts next to the XRFC and the cart rails are designed by LLNL, and are included in this safety note. The other related components, such as the TIM rails and the Unimount flange, are addressed in a separate safety note, EDSN09-500005-AA. The Multipurpose Spectrometer (MSPEC) and VSG are mounted on the TIM Boat through the cart rails that are very similar in design. The tilt rotator combination with the Unimount flange is also a standard mounting procedure. The later mounting system has been included in this safety note. Figure-1 shows the interface components and the VSG snout. Figure-2 shows the VSG assembly mounted on the Unimount flange. The calibration pointer attachment is shown in place of the snout. There are two types of VSG, one made of 6061-T6 aluminum, weighing approximately 3 pounds, and the other made of 304 stainless steel, weighing approximately 5.5 pounds. This safety note examines the VSG steel design. Specific experiments may require orienting the VSG snout in 90 degrees increment with respect to the Unimount flange. This is done by changing the bolts position on the VSG-main body adapter flange to the Unimount adapter plate. There is no hazard involved in handling the VSG during this procedure as it is done outside the target chamber on the cart rail before installing on the TIM. This safety note addresses the mechanical integrity of the VSG structure, the tilt rotating fixture, the cart rails with handle and their connections. Safety Factors are also calculated for the MSPEC in place of the VSG.

  8. LLE (Laboratory for Laser Energetics) Review: Quarterly report, January--March 1997. Volume 70

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review includes an article on the status of the optics on the OMEGA laser system after the first 18 months of operation. A vigorous program to monitor the performance of the optics has been followed since the inception of the OMEGA laser. The article presents results from these observations and defines the various types of possible damage. Many of the optics have not damaged, such as the frequency-conversion crystals, polarizers, calorimeters, and liquid crystal optics. The most significant damage has been sustained by the fused-silica spatial filter lenses. There has been no evidence of any propagation of damage downstream of damage optics. Other highlights of research presented here are: The development of a single-beam, ponderomotive optical trap for energetic free electrons. A description of the new diode-pumped Nd:YLF master oscillator for the OMEGA laser. Simulations of heat transfer from localized absorbing defects to the host coating material in HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} 351-nm high reflectors. An experimental study of target performance and mixing in titanium-doped target implosions on OMEGA. A theoretical calculation of the dephasing time of an electron accelerated by a laser pulse. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the energy database from articles in this volume.

  9. Analytical power of LLE-HPLC-PDA-MS/MS in drug metabolism studies: identification of new nabumetone metabolites.

    PubMed

    Nobilis, Milan; Mikušek, Jiří; Szotáková, Barbora; Jirásko, Robert; Holčapek, Michal; Chamseddin, Chamseddin; Jira, Thomas; Kučera, Radim; Kuneš, Jiří; Pour, Milan

    2013-06-01

    Nabumetone is a non-acidic, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory prodrug. Following oral administration, the prodrug is converted in the liver to 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), which was found to be the principal metabolite responsible for the NSAID effect. The pathway of nabumetone transformation to 6-MNA has not been clarified, with no intermediates between nabumetone and 6-MNA having been identified to date. In this study, a new, as yet unreported phase I metabolite was discovered within the evaluation of nabumetone metabolism by human and rat liver microsomal fractions. Extracts from the biomatrices were subjected to chiral LLE-HPLC-PDA and achiral LLE-UHPLC-MS/MS analyses to elucidate the chemical structure of this metabolite. UHPLC-MS/MS experiments detected the presence of a structure corresponding to elemental composition C15H16O3, which was tentatively assigned as a hydroxylated nabumetone. Identical nabumetone and HO-nabumetone UV spectra obtained from the PDA detector ruled out the presence of the hydroxy group in the aromatic moiety of nabumetone. Hence, the most likely structure of the new metabolite was 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-3-hydroxybutan-2-one (3-hydroxy nabumetone). To confirm this structure, the standard of this nabumetone metabolite was synthesized, its spectral (UV, CD, NMR, MS/MS) and retention properties on chiral and achiral chromatographic columns were evaluated and compared with those of the authentic nabumetone metabolite. To elucidate the subsequent biotransformation of 3-hydroxy nabumetone, the compound was used as a substrate in incubation with human and rat liver microsomal fraction. A number of 3-hydroxy nabumetone metabolites (products of conjugation with glucuronic acid, O-desmethylation, carbonyl reduction and their combination) were discovered in the extracts from the incubated microsomes using LLE-HPLC-PDA-MS/MS experiments. On the other hand, when 3-hydroxy nabumetone was incubated with isolated rat hepatocytes, 6-MNA was

  10. Optimization of Novel Aza-benzimidazolone mGluR2 PAMs with Respect to LLE and PK Properties and Mitigation of CYP TDI.

    PubMed

    Pero, Joseph E; Rossi, Michael A; Kelly, Michael J; Lehman, Hannah D G F; Layton, Mark E; Garbaccio, Robert M; O'Brien, Julie A; Magliaro, Brian C; Uslaner, Jason M; Huszar, Sarah L; Fillgrove, Kerry L; Tang, Cuyue; Kuo, Yuhsin; Joyce, Leo A; Sherer, Edward C; Jacobson, Marlene A

    2016-03-10

    Investigation of a novel amino-aza-benzimidazolone structural class of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) identified [2.2.2]-bicyclic amine 12 as an intriguing lead structure due to its promising physicochemical properties and lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE). Further optimization led to chiral amide 18, which exhibited strong in vitro activity and attractive pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. Hypothesis-driven target design identified compound 21 as a potent, highly selective, orally bioavailable mGluR2 PAM, which addressed a CYP time-dependent inhibition (TDI) liability of 18, while maintaining excellent drug-like properties with robust in vivo activity in a clinically validated model of antipsychotic potential.

  11. Concentration dependent survival and neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells cultured on polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate hydrogels possessing a continuous concentration gradient of n-cadherin derived peptide His-Ala-Val-Asp-Lle.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Ju; Mosley, Matthew C; Kurosu, Yuki; Smith Callahan, Laura A

    2016-12-01

    N-cadherin cell-cell signaling plays a key role in the structure and function of the nervous system. However, few studies have incorporated bioactive signaling from n-cadherin into tissue engineering matrices. The present study uses a continuous gradient approach in polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate hydrogels to identify concentration dependent effects of n-cadherin peptide, His-Ala-Val-Asp-Lle (HAVDI), on murine embryonic stem cell survival and neural differentiation. The n-cadherin peptide was found to affect the expression of pluripotency marker, alkaline phosphatase, in murine embryonic stem cells cultured on n-cadherin peptide containing hydrogels in a concentration dependent manner. Increasing n-cadherin peptide concentrations in the hydrogels elicited a biphasic response in neurite extension length and mRNA expression of neural differentiation marker, neuron-specific class III β-tubulin, in murine embryonic stem cells cultured on the hydrogels. High concentrations of n-cadherin peptide in the hydrogels were found to increase the expression of apoptotic marker, caspase 3/7, in murine embryonic stem cells compared to that of murine embryonic stem cell cultures on hydrogels containing lower concentrations of n-cadherin peptide. Increasing the n-cadherin peptide concentration in the hydrogels facilitated greater survival of murine embryonic stem cells exposed to increasing oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide exposure. The combinatorial approach presented in this work demonstrates concentration dependent effects of n-cadherin signaling on mouse embryonic stem cell behavior, underscoring the need for the greater use of systematic approaches in tissue engineering matrix design in order to understand and optimize bioactive signaling in the matrix for tissue formation.

  12. LLE Review 118 (January-March 2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Bittle, W., editor

    2009-08-03

    This issue has the following articles: (1) Applied Plasma Spectroscopy: Laser-Fusion Experiments; (2) Relativistic Electron-Beam Transport Studies Using High-Resolution, Coherent Transition Radiation Imaging; (3) Pressure-Driven, Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Interchange Instabilities in Laser-Produced, High-Energy-Density Plasmas; (4) Extended Model for Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flake Reorientation and Relaxation; (5) Modeling the Effects of Microencapsulation on the Electro-Optic Behavior of Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flakes; (6) Capillarity and Dielectrophoresis of Liquid Deuterium; and (7) A Stable Mid-IR, GaSb-Based Diode Laser Source for Cryogenic Target Layering at the OMEGA Laser Facility.

  13. Unfälle mit Zweiradfahrzeugen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirschwitz, Christian

    Auf einer außerörtlichen Bundesstraße kam es in einem Baustellenbereich zum frontalen Anprall eines Pkw Ford Fiesta an die rechte Flanke eines Fahrrads, welches durch einen Fußgänger von links nach rechts, bezüglich der Fahrtrichtung des Pkw, geschoben wurde. Das Fahrrad und der Fußgänger wurden auf den Vorbau des Pkw aufgeladen und etwa 15m weit geworfen. Der Fußgänger verstarb noch an der Unfallstelle.

  14. LLE Review 121 (September-December 2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.S., editor

    2010-04-14

    This issue has the following articles: (1) Demonstration of the Highest Deuterium-Tritium Areal Density Using Triple-Picket Cryogenic Designs on OMEGA; (2) High-Precision Measurements of the Equation of State of Hydrocarbons at 1 to 10 Mbar Using Laser-Driven Shock Waves; (3) A Generalized Measurable Ignition Condition for Inertial Confinement Fusion (4) In-Situ Detection and Analysis of Laser-Induced Damage on a 1.5-m Multilayer-Dielectric Grating Compressor for High-Energy, Petawatt-Class Laser Systems; (5) Probing High-Areal-Density ({rho}R) Cryogenic-DT Implosions Using Down-Scattered Neutron Spectra Measured by the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer; (6) Strong-Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions; and (7) Neutron-Induced Nucleation Inside Bubble Chambers Using Freon 115 as the Active Medium.

  15. Unfälle mit Kleintransportern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirschwitz, Christian

    Auf einer außerörtlichen Bundesstraße geriet ein mit vier Personen besetzter Pkw Toyota Corolla aus letztlich nicht vollständig geklärten Gründen ins Schleudern. Nachdem sich das Fahrzeug beträchtlich entgegen dem Uhrzeigersinn ausgedreht hatte, prallte ein entgegenkommender Kleintransporter VW T4 frontal an die rechte Flanke des Toyota. Der Transporter wurde gedreht, ausgehoben und durch einen Pkw Ford Escort unterfahren. Alle Fahrzeuge kamen in Kollisionsortnähe zum Endstand. Die vier Toyota-Insassen wurden getötet. Aus den anderen Fahrzeugen wurden sechs Personen überwiegend schwer verletzt. Unbeteiligte Zeugen waren nicht vorhanden.

  16. LLE Review 119 (April-June 2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Edgell, D.H., editor

    2009-10-22

    This issue has the following articles: (1) Shock-Ignition Experiments on OMEGA at NIF-Relevant Intensities; (2) Laser-Driven Magnetic-Flux Compression in High-Energy-Density Plasmas; (3) Lorentz Mapping of Magnetic Fields in Hot, Dense Plasmas; (4) Characterization and Optimization of Yb-Doped Photonic-Crystal Fiber Rod Amplifiers Using Spatially Resolved Spectral Interferometry; (5) Optical Differentiation and Multimillijoule {approx}150-ps Pulse Generation in a Regenerative Amplifier with a Temperature-Tuned Intracavity Volume Bragg Grating; (6) Slow Crack Growth During Radiatiave Cooling of LHG8 and BK7 Plates; and (7) Finite Element Simulation of Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photoconductor.

  17. Pre-conceptual design of the Z-LLE accelerator.

    SciTech Connect

    Stygar, William A.

    2016-11-01

    We begin with a model of 20 LTD modules, connected in parallel. We assume each LTD module consists of 10 LTD cavities, connected in series. We assume each cavity includes 20 LTD bricks, in parallel. Each brick is assumed to have a 40-nF capacitance and a 160-nH inductance. We use for this calculation the RLC-circuit model of an LTD system that was developed by Mazarakis and colleagues.

  18. LLE review, volume 73. Quarterly report, October 1997--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This progress report contains discussion on the following topics: A high-bandwidth electrical-waveform generator based on aperture-coupled striplines for OMEGA pulse-shaping applications; sweep deflection circuit development using computer-aided circuit design for the OMEGA multichannel streak camera; D-{sup 3}He protons as a diagnostic for target {rho}R; growth rates of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion; three-dimensional analysis of the power transfer between crossed laser beams; characterization of freestanding polymer films for application in 351-nm, high-peak-power laser systems; subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses; bound-abrasive polishers for optical glass; and color gamut of cholesteric liquid crystal films and flakes by standard colorimetry.

  19. LLE 1994 annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This is the 1994 annual report for the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The report is presented as a series of research type reports. The titles emphasize the breadth of work carried out. They are: stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts; characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry; transport and sound waves in plasmas with light and heavy ions; three-halves-harmonic radiation from long-scale-length plasmas revisited; OMEGA upgrade status report; target imaging and backlighting diagnosis; effect of electron collisions on ion-acoustic waves and heat flow; particle-in-cell code simulations of the interaction of gaussian ultrashort laser pulses with targets of varying initial scale lengths; characterization of thick cryogenic fuel layers: compensation for the lens effect using convergent beam interferometry; compact, multijoule-output, Nd:Glass, large-aperture ring amplifier; atomic force microscopy observation of water-induced morphological changes in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} monolayer coatings; observation of longitudinal acceleration of electrons born in a high-intensity laser focus; spatial intensity nonuniformities of an OMEGA beam due to nonlinear beam propagation; calculated X-ray backlighting images of mixed imploded targets; evaluation of cosmic rays for use in the monitoring of the MEDUSA scintillator-photomultiplier diagnostic array; highly efficient second-harmonic generation of ultra-intense Nd:Glass laser pulses multiple cutoff wave numbers of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ultrafast, all-silicon light modulator; angular dependence of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in homogeneous plasma; femtosecond excited-state dynamics of a conjugated ladder polymer.

  20. LLE Review: Quarterly report, July--September 1994. Volume 60

    SciTech Connect

    Knauer, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    This volume contains articles on efficient generation of second-harmonic radiation from short-pulse lasers; calculation of the stabilization cutoff wave numbers for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability; a high-frequency silicon optical modulator; the angular dependence of stimulated Brillouin scattering; and femtosecond dynamics of ladder polymers. Three of these articles--second-harmonic generation, Rayleigh-Taylor cutoff wave numbers, and angular dependence of Brillouin scattering--are directly related to the OMEGA Upgrade, currently under construction. A summary of the status of the OMEGA Upgrade laser facility and the NLUF News for FY94 are included in this volume.

  1. LLE Review, Volume 57. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A.

    1993-12-31

    During this quarter, the visible fruits of long design labors on the OMEGA Upgrade began to appear. The target mirror structure was put in place, along with the target chamber itself. The laser bay structures were also installed, and the bay is now being prepared to receive optomechanical, control, and laser assemblies. Further details are in the OMEGA Upgrade Status Report in this issue. Theory and analysis of previous experiments continued during this reporting period. Articles contained herein describe an improved theory of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability; a novel proposal for characterizing plasma-density profiles by using grid image refractometry; a much-improved treatment of the damping of ion sound waves in a mixture of light and heavy ions; and, finally, a new interpretation of measurements of 3/2-harmonic radiation emitted from the long-scale-length plasmas created in earlier OMEGA experiments.

  2. LLE review: Quarterly report, April--June 1996. Volume 67

    SciTech Connect

    Skeldon, M.D.

    1996-11-01

    This volume contains articles detailing several nonlinear processes associated with lasers and their use, as well as an article describing the computer control systems necessary to maintain and operate a large laser system such as the 60-beam OMEGA laser. The specific topics discussed in this issue include stimulated scattering in laser plasmas, power exchange between interacting laser beams, charged particles interacting with a laser pulse, thermal equilibration of optically excited states, an overview of the laser control system software in OMEGA, and a technique for cancellation of the nonlinear phase accumulation in short-pulse lasers.

  3. LLE 2005 annual report, October 2004-September 2005

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-01-01

    Progress in laser fusion this past year falls into five broad categories: (1) direct-drive results from OMEGA; (2) progress in the development of the cryogenic target system and experiments with cryogenic targets; (3) results for polar direct drive (the application of nonspherically disposed laser beams for direct-drive spherically symmetrically driven systems), which is of great interest for the National Ignition Facility (NIF); (4) fast ignition, which uses short-pulse (<100-ps), high-intensity (~1015-W) laser beams to ignite a compressed thermonuclear fusion capsule; and (5) high-energy-density physics results that use inertial fusion facilities to produce matter in extreme states that are central to understanding and modeling nuclear weapons phenomena important to the National Stockpile Stewardship Program.

  4. LLNL Contribution to LLE FY09 Annual Report: NIC and HED Results

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Landen, O L; Hsing, W W; Fournier, K B

    2009-10-01

    In FY09, LLNL led 238 target shots on the OMEGA Laser System. Approximately half of these LLNL-led shots supported the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The remainder was dedicated to experiments for the high-energy-density stewardship experiments (HEDSE). Objectives of the LLNL led NIC campaigns at OMEGA included: (1) Laser-plasma interaction studies in physical conditions relevant for the NIF ignition targets; (2) Demonstration of Tr = 100 eV foot symmetry tuning using a reemission sphere; (3) X-ray scattering in support of conductivity measurements of solid density Be plasmas; (4) Experiments to study the physical properties (thermal conductivity) of shocked fusion fuels; (5) High-resolution measurements of velocity nonuniformities created by microscopic perturbations in NIF ablator materials; (6) Development of a novel Compton Radiography diagnostic platform for ICF experiments; and (7) Precision validation of the equation of state for quartz. The LLNL HEDSE campaigns included the following experiments: (1) Quasi-isentropic (ICE) drive used to study material properties such as strength, equation of state, phase, and phase-transition kinetics under high pressure; (2) Development of a high-energy backlighter for radiography in support of material strength experiments using Omega EP and the joint OMEGA-OMEGA-EP configuration; (3) Debris characterization from long-duration, point-apertured, point-projection x-ray backlighters for NIF radiation transport experiments; (4) Demonstration of ultrafast temperature and density measurements with x-ray Thomson scattering from short-pulse laser-heated matter; (5) The development of an experimental platform to study nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) physics using direct-drive implosions; (6) Opacity studies of high-temperature plasmas under LTE conditions; and (7) Characterization of copper (Cu) foams for HEDSE experiments.

  5. Effectiveness of Program Visualization: A Case Study with the ViLLE Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Teemu; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi; Kaila, Erkki; Salakoski, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    Program visualization is one of the various methods developed over the years to aid novices with their difficulties in learning to program. It consists of different graphical--often animated--and textual objects, visualizing the execution of programs. The aim of program visualization is to enhance students' understanding of different areas of…

  6. Genetics Home Reference: giant axonal neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 002. Epub 2014 Dec 19. Citation on PubMed Johnson-Kerner BL, Garcia Diaz A, Ekins S, Wichterle H. ... on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Johnson-Kerner BL, Roth L, Greene JP, Wichterle H, ...

  7. Fußball mit Wissenschaftlichem Maß: Bananenflanken, Flatterbälle, Kopfballkämpfe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathelitsch, Leopold; Thaller, Sigrid

    2006-05-01

    Die physikalische Betrachtung des Fußballs liefert spannende Resultate. Wegen der geringen Torzahl spielt der Zufall bei Sieg oder Niederlage stärker mit als in anderen Sportarten. Fußball ist daher mit gewissen statistischen Eigenschaften radioaktiver Quellen vergleichbar. Gleich mehrere physikalische Effekte beeinflussen die Flugbahn des Balls. Der Magnus-Effekt zum Beispiel ermöglicht erst Bananenflanken. Pfeift ein Schiedsrichter falsch, dann wird er nicht selten von seiner Sehperspektive getäuscht.

  8. 27 CFR 4.91 - List of approved names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Early Burgundy Early Muscat Edelweiss Eden Ehrenfelser Ellen Scott Elvira Emerald Riesling Erbaluce... Kerner Kay Gray Kleinberger La Crescent LaCrosse Lagrein Lake Emerald Lambrusco Landal Landot noir...

  9. 27 CFR 4.91 - List of approved names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Early Burgundy Early Muscat Edelweiss Eden Ehrenfelser Ellen Scott Elvira Emerald Riesling Erbaluce... Kerner Kay Gray Kleinberger La Crescent LaCrosse Lagrein Lake Emerald Lambrusco Landal Landot noir...

  10. 27 CFR 4.91 - List of approved names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Early Burgundy Early Muscat Edelweiss Eden Ehrenfelser Ellen Scott Elvira Emerald Riesling Erbaluce... Kerner Kay Gray Kleinberger La Crescent LaCrosse Lagrein Lake Emerald Lambrusco Landal Landot noir...

  11. Learning to Change: A Social Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flemming, Arthur S.

    1970-01-01

    A speech presented at the Galaxy Conference, December, 1969, concerns the urgency of the social problems outlined in the Kerner Report. A need for vigorous response through political action is stressed. (MF)

  12. Stellar Spectral Subclass Classification Based on Locally Linear Embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Yude; Pan, Jingchang; Jiang, Bin; Wei, Peng

    2013-08-01

    Locally linear embedding (LLE) is a recently developed dimension reduction technique. In this paper, we describe how we applied LLE to the stellar subclass classification. We found that LLE classifies the objects with different physical characteristics correctly. We then compared the performance of LLE with that of principal component analysis (PCA) in spectral classification, and found that LLE does better than PCA. We tested the robustness of LLE against the changing of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and found that the performance of LLE is affected by two factors: changing of SNRs and the range of SNRs of the spectra data set. We also studied the variation of LLE parameters, and found that the experiment results are affected by the parameter variation, but not sensitive. Finally, using LLE, we located those objects misclassified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey pipeline, and estimated its accuracy in classifying stellar subclasses.

  13. Long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal transmission by taurine: role of dopamine and acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Chepkova, A N; Sergeeva, O A; Haas, H L

    2005-06-01

    1. Taurine applied to mouse brain slices evokes a long-lasting enhancement (LLE) of corticostriatal synaptic transmission, LLE(TAU). 2. The occurrence of LLE(TAU) was significantly decreased in the presence of the specific antagonists at either D1 (SCH23390) or D2 (raclopride) dopamine (DA) receptors. 3. LLE(TAU) was prevented by scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, and significantly suppressed by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. 4. Thus, dopaminergic and cholinergic mechanisms, in concert with the taurine transporter and glycine receptors, contribute critically to the induction of corticostriatal LLE(TAU).

  14. Employment and Economic Participation in the Fields of Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyatt, Rudolph A., Jr.

    Almost twenty years after the Kerner Commission reported that fewer than 5% of employees in the news business were black and that fewer than 1 percent of those were editors or employed in management jobs, the percentage of blacks and other minorities in those professions is only slightly higher. A l987 survey by the American Society of Newspaper…

  15. Finding Common Ground: Coordinating Housing and Education Policy to Promote Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegeler, Philip, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The powerful, reciprocal connection between school and housing segregation has long been recognized. The housing-school link was a key element in both the 1968 Kerner Commission Report and in the legislative history of the Fair Housing Act. The relation of school and housing segregation was also explored in a series of school desegregation cases…

  16. Eight Case Studies of Communication Patterns in a Black, Urban Slum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael

    The Kerner Commission was critical six years ago in its assessment of media coverage of black problems, and eight case studies conducted in Philadelphia indicate that news media may not yet be effectively meeting the needs of some blacks. In January 1974 interviews were held with eight residents in a section of north Philadelphia characterized in…

  17. Tuning in to the News--A Multicultural Report from behind the Headlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Patrisia

    1989-01-01

    Presents a brief history of minority involvement in journalism, focusing on the effects of the Kerner Commission Report of 1979. Points out that 20 years later, the number of minority journalists has increased only slightly. Suggests that professional groups should work together to urge the media to diversify. (LS)

  18. America's Urban Crisis and the Advent of Color-Blind Politics: Education, Incarceration, Segregation, and the Future of the U.S. Multiracial Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivery, Curtis, Ed.; Bassett, Joshua, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Over 40 years ago the historic Kerner Commission Report declared that America was undergoing an urban crisis whose effects were disproportionately felt by underclass populations. In "America's Urban Crisis and the Advent of Color-blind Politics", Curtis Ivery and Joshua Bassett explore the persistence of this crisis today, despite public…

  19. Latinos and Blacks in the Cities: Policies for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romo, Harriet D., Ed.

    This symposium investigates the condition of urban Latinos and Blacks two decades after reports by the Kerner, Eisenhower, and Katzenbach commissions recommended sweeping reforms in urban policy. Twenty-nine researchers, politicians, and policymakers analyze the condition of the urban poor and the role of minorities in forming policies. The…

  20. Arsenic-related skin lesions and glutathione S-transferase P1 A1578G (lle105Val) polymorphism in two ethnic clans exposed to indoor combustion of high arsenic coal in one village

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.F.; Du, H.; Chen, J.G.; Lu, H.C.; Guo, W.C.; Meng, H.; Zhang, T.B.; Zhang, X.J.; Lu, D.R.; Golka, K.; Shen, J.H.

    2006-12-15

    A total of 2402 patients with arsenic-related skin lesions, such as hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, or even skin cancer in a few villages in Southwest Guizhou Autonomous Prefecture, China represent a unique case of endemic arsenism related with indoor combustion of high arsenic coal. This study aimed to investigate the cluster of arsenism cases and the possible relevant factors including GSTP1 polymorphism in two clans of different ethnic origin living in one village for generations. Arsenism morbidity in Miao clan P was significantly lower than in the neighbouring Han clan G1 (5.9 vs. 32.7%, odds ratio (OR)=0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06-0.27, P < 0.0001). No sex differences were confirmed inside both clans. Analyses of the environmental samples indicated that Miao clan P members were exposed to higher amounts of arsenic via inhalation and food ingestion. Hair and urine samples also proved a higher arsenic body burden in ethnic Miao individuals. No corresponding differences by sex were found. Higher frequencies of combined mutant genotype G/G1578 and A/G1578 (OR=4.72, 95% CI: 2.34-9.54, P < 0.0001) and of mutant allele G1578 (OR=3.22, 95% CI: 2.00-5.18, P < 0.0001) were detected in diagnosed arsenism patients than in non-diseased individuals. The Miao individuals showed a lower percentage of combined mutant genotypes (30.6 vs. 52.7%, OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.19-0.84, P=0.015) as well as of mutant allele G1578 (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.88, P=0.017) than their Han neighbours. Conclusions Genetic predisposition influences dermal arsenism toxicity. The GSTP1 A1578G (IIe105Val) status might be a susceptibility factor for arsenic-related skin lesions.

  1. [Data mining for cataclysmic variables candidates in SDSS-DR8].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Pan, Jing-Chang; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-01

    An automatic and efficient method for cataclysmic variables candidates is presented in this paper. The nonlinear locally linear embedding-LLE method is applied in the newly released SDSS-DR8 spectra. Spectra are dimension-reduced by LLE and classified by artificial neural network. The greatly reduced final candidates can be identified manually. 6 new CVs candidates were found in the experiment, and the compare between LLE with PCA shows the feasibility of nonlinear method in data mining in astronomical data.

  2. Aggressive cervical neuroblastoma with a rare paraneoplastic syndrome: A therapeutic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Sajid S.; Bhagat, Monica; Anam, Jay; Vora, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is infrequently associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. Amongst the few, opsomyoclonus (Kinsbourne syndrome) is the most common neurological paraneoplastic syndrome and diarrhea secondary to increased secretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (Kerner-Morrison syndrome), hormonal paraneoplastic syndrome. Hypothalamic dysfunction (HD) is a rare disorder and its manifestation as a paraneoplastic syndrome of neuroblastoma is uncommonly reported. We present an interesting case of an unrelenting cervical neuroblastoma associated with HD, which posed a therapeutic challenge. PMID:27695211

  3. Symposium on Continuum Models and Discrete Systems (6th) Held in Dijon, France on June 26 - 29, 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    gratefully acknowledge the precious help provided by Laboratoire de Moddlisation en MWcanique associd au CNRS, Universitd Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris...8217.989 GEOMETRY AND THERMODYNAMICS OF THE GROWTH OF AMORPHOUS SCTRUCTURES by R. KERNER L.P.T.P.E., Tour 16 El, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie 4... Duhem equation, which is a conse- quence of the first law as described by the Gibbs equation, will be solved for pressure, P. The solution involves

  4. Aggressive cervical neuroblastoma with a rare paraneoplastic syndrome: A therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sajid S; Bhagat, Monica; Anam, Jay; Vora, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is infrequently associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. Amongst the few, opsomyoclonus (Kinsbourne syndrome) is the most common neurological paraneoplastic syndrome and diarrhea secondary to increased secretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (Kerner-Morrison syndrome), hormonal paraneoplastic syndrome. Hypothalamic dysfunction (HD) is a rare disorder and its manifestation as a paraneoplastic syndrome of neuroblastoma is uncommonly reported. We present an interesting case of an unrelenting cervical neuroblastoma associated with HD, which posed a therapeutic challenge.

  5. Principles of Stagewise Separation Process Calculations: A Simple Algebraic Approach Using Solvent Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    A simple liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) system involving a constant partition coefficient based on solute ratios is used to develop an algebraic understanding of multistage contacting in a first-year separation processes course. This algebraic approach to the LLE system is shown to be operable for the introduction of graphical techniques…

  6. The Relations between the Mental Condition of the Care House Residents and Finger Plethysmograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohashi, Yoko; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Lee, Sangjae

    2011-06-01

    We measured the fingertip pulse waves of some of the elderly living in a care house (a welfare facility for the elderly) four times a day over two days to investigate their mental condition. We analyzed the chaotic information produced by the finger pulse waves using a nonlinear analysis method. The results of our research are as follows: 1) The Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE), which synchronizes to mental revitalization, rose when the care house residents felt happy. 2) After moderate movement (a stroll, etc.), the LLE was high. 3) The LLE did not rise when a regular action was carried out non-vigorously to kill time. 4) When residents made contact (a phone call or letter, etc.) with a family member, the LLE was high. 5) The LLE of long-term residents was high. 6) The majority of residents with high LLE moved into the care house in their early seventies. 7) The LLE of short-term residents was low and their sympathetic nerves were high. 8) There was no relativity between the LLE and present age of the care house residents. On this basis, the authors propose that fuller support of care house residents is crucial for the objective ascertainment of their mental condition.

  7. Becoming an L2 Learner (Again): How a Brief Language Learning Experience Sparked Connections with SLA Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Ross

    2015-01-01

    A brief "language learning experience" (LLE) in Thai was integrated into a second language development course as part of postgraduate TESOL study at an Australian university. Sixty primary and secondary teachers from a range of schools evaluated the impact of the LLE by means of a questionnaire; the teachers proved highly affirming of…

  8. High-Energy Petawatt Capability for the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Waxer, L.J.; Maywar, D.N.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Loucks, S.J.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Morse, S.F.B.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2005-07-25

    The 60-beam Omega laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) has been a workhorse on the frontier of laser fusion and high-energy-density physics for more than a decade. LLE scientists are currently extending the performance of this unique, direct-drive laser system by adding high-energy petawatt capabilities.

  9. Computing Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria: An Exercise for Understanding the Nature of False Solutions and How to Avoid Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaya, Maria del Mar; Ibarra, Isabel; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Serrano, Maria Dolores; Marcilla, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    An exercise to compute LLE data is presented to illustrate the problems that can arise when the isoactivity equilibrium condition is used in the LLE calculations. A much more efficient condition is obtained when isoactivity is combined with the common tangent line criterion, avoiding false solutions that correspond with very low values of the…

  10. Light Lithophile Elements in Natural and Experimental Phases in Martian Basalts: Implications for the Degassing of Water from Martian Magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herd, C. D. K.; Treiman, A. H.; McKay, G. A.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    Lentz et al. argued that zoning trends in light lithophile elements (LLE) in pyroxene in Shergotty and Zagami are evidence for the degassing of magmatic water. We tested this inference by obtaining: additional LLE analyses of Shergotty and Zagami pyroxene; analyses of Pasamonte pyroxene; and silicate and phosphate partition coefficients for B and Li for martian magma and mineral compositions.

  11. REDUCING THE DIMENSIONALITY OF DATA: LOCALLY LINEAR EMBEDDING OF SLOAN GALAXY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderplas, Jake; Connolly, Andrew

    2009-11-15

    We introduce locally linear embedding (LLE) to the astronomical community as a new classification technique, using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra as an example data set. LLE is a nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique that has been studied in the context of computer perception. We compare the performance of LLE to well-known spectral classification techniques, e.g., principal component analysis and line-ratio diagnostics. We find that LLE combines the strengths of both methods in a single, coherent technique, and leads to improved classification of emission-line spectra at a relatively small computational cost. We also present a data subsampling technique that preserves local information content, and proves effective for creating small, efficient training samples from large, high-dimensional data sets. Software used in this LLE-based classification is made available.

  12. Antiplatelet and Antithrombotic Effects of the Extract of Lindera obtusiloba Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Jaemin; Kang, Soouk; Moon, Hongsik; Chung, Kyung Ho; Kim, Kyoung Rak

    2016-01-01

    Lindera obtusiloba has been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of blood stasis and inflammation. The leaves of Lindera obtusiloba have been reported to exhibit various physiological activities. However, there is little information available on their antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Lindera obtusiloba leaf extract (LLE) on platelet activities, coagulation and thromboembolism. In a platelet aggregation study, LLE significantly inhibited various agonist-induced platelet aggregations in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, LLE significantly inhibited collagen-induced thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production in rat platelets. In addition, oral administration of LLE was protective in a mouse model of pulmonary thromboembolism induced by intravenous injection of a mixture of collagen and epinephrine. Interestingly, LLE did not significantly alter prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). This study indicates that the antithrombotic effects of LLE might be due to its antiplatelet activities rather than anticoagulation. Taken together, these results suggest that LLE may be a candidate preventive and therapeutic agent in cardiovascular diseases associated with platelet hyperactivity. PMID:27302963

  13. Prospective evaluation of 2 acute graft-versus-host (GVHD) grading systems: a joint Société Française de Greffe de Moëlle et Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC), Dana Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI), and International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Jean-Yves; Klein, John P; Lee, Stephanie J; Milpied, Noël; Blaise, Didier; Antin, Joseph H; Leblond, Véronique; Ifrah, Norbert; Jouet, Jean-Pierre; Loberiza, Fausto; Ringden, Olle; Barrett, A John; Horowitz, Mary M; Socié, Gérard

    2005-08-15

    The most commonly used grading system for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was introduced 30 years ago by Glucksberg; a revised system was developed by the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) in 1997. To prospectively compare the 2 classifications and to evaluate the effect of duration and severity of aGVHD on survival, we conducted a multicenter study of 607 patients receiving T-cell-replete allografts, scored weekly for aGVHD in 18 transplantation centers. Sixty-nine percent of donors were HLA-identical siblings and 28% were unrelated donors. The conditioning regimen included total body irradiation in 442 (73%) patients. The 2 classifications performed similarly in explaining variability in survival by aGVHD grade, although the Glucksberg classification predicted early survival better. There was less physician bias or error in assigning grades with the IBMTR scoring system. With either system, only the maximum observed grade had prognostic significance for survival; neither time of onset nor progression from an initially lower grade of aGVHD was associated with survival once maximum grade was considered. Regardless of scoring system, aGVHD severity accounted for only a small percentage of observed variation in survival. Validity of these results in populations receiving peripheral blood transplants or nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens remains to be tested.

  14. Kreuzungsassistenz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mages, Mark; Hopstock, Matthias; Klanner, Felix

    Eine der Hauptunfallursachen insbesondere im innerstädtischen Straßenverkehr ist das Fehlverhalten von Verkehrsteilnehmern im Bereich von Kreuzungen und Einmündungen. So ereigneten sich im Jahr 2006 etwa 43 % aller Unfälle mit schwerem Sachschaden, 36 % aller Unfälle mit Personenschaden und 18 % aller Unfälle mit Todesfolge bei den kreuzungsrelevanten Unfalltypen Abbiegen (Unfalltyp 2 gemäß [12]) bzw. Einbiegen/Kreuzen (Unfalltyp 3) [20]. Daher steht die Kreuzung derzeit aus verkehrs- und sicherheitstechnischer Sicht im Fokus der Forschung.

  15. Frontalkollisionsschutzsysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winner, Hermann

    Unfälle im Längsverkehr zählen zur größten Gruppe der Unfallarten und zur zweitgrößten der Unfälle mit Getöteten und Schwerverletzten. Daher besitzen Systeme zum Schutz gegen diese Unfallart ein sehr hohes Potenzial (s. Kap. 3). Auf welche Weise Gegenmaßnahmen abgeleitet werden, zeigt Bild 33-1.

  16. Historical notes on botulism, Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, and the idea of the therapeutic use of the toxin.

    PubMed

    Erbguth, Frank J

    2004-03-01

    Food-borne botulism probably has accompanied mankind since its beginning. However, we have only few historical sources and documents on food poisoning before the 19th century. Some ancient dietary laws and taboos may reflect some knowledge about the life-threatening consumption of poisoned food. One example of such a dietary taboo is the 10th century edict of Emperor Leo VI of Byzantium in which manufacturing of blood sausages was forbidden. Some ancient case reports on intoxications with Atropa belladonna probably described patients with food-borne botulism, because the combination of dilated pupils and fatal muscle paralysis cannot be attributed to an atropine intoxication. At the end of the 18th century, some well-documented outbreaks of "sausage poisoning" in Southern Germany, especially in Württemberg, prompted early systematic botulinum toxin research. The German poet and district medical officer Justinus Kerner (1786-1862) published the first accurate and complete descriptions of the symptoms of food-borne botulism between 1817 and 1822. Kerner did not succeed in defining the suspected "biological poison" which he called "sausage poison" or "fatty poison." However, he developed the idea of a possible therapeutic use of the toxin. Eighty years after Kerner's work, in 1895, a botulism outbreak after a funeral dinner with smoked ham in the small Belgian village of Ellezelles led to the discovery of the pathogen Clostridium botulinum by Emile Pierre van Ermengem, Professor of bacteriology at the University of Ghent. The bacterium was so called because of its pathological association with the sausages (Latin word for sausage = "botulus") and not-as it was suggested-because of its shape. Modern botulinum toxin treatment was pioneered by Alan B. Scott and Edward J. Schantz.

  17. 1999 Summer Research Program for High School Juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    2002-10-09

    oak-B202--During the summer of 1999, 12 students from Rochester-area high schools participated in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' Summer High School Research Program. The goal of this program is to excite a group of high school students about careers in the areas of science and technology by exposing them to research in a state-of-the-art environment. Too often, students are exposed to ''research'' only through classroom laboratories that have prescribed procedures and predictable results. In LLE's summer program, the students experience all of the trials, tribulations, and rewards of scientific research. By participating in research in a real environment, the students often become more enthusiastic about careers in science and technology. In addition, LLE gains from the contributions of the many highly talented students who are attracted to the program. The students spent most of their time working on their individual research projects with members of LLE's technical staff. The projects were related to current research activities at LLE and covered a broad range of areas of interest including laser modeling, diagnostic development, chemistry, liquid crystal devices, and opacity data visualization. The students, their high schools, their LLE supervisors and their project titles are listed in the table. Their written reports are collected in this volume. The students attended weekly seminars on technical topics associated with LLE's research. Topics this year included lasers, fusion, holography, optical materials, global warming, measurement errors, and scientific ethics. The students also received safety training, learned how to give scientific presentations, and were introduced to LLE's resources, especially the computational facilities. The program culminated with the High School Student Summer Research Symposium on 25 August at which the students presented the results of their research to an audience that included parents, teachers, and members of LIX. Each

  18. Thiolene and SIFEL-based Microfluidic Platforms for Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sachit; Desai, Amit V.; Lewis, Robert W.; Ranganathan, David R.; Li, Hairong; Zeng, Dexing; Reichert, David E.; Kenis, Paul J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic platforms provide several advantages for liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) processes over conventional methods, for example with respect to lower consumption of solvents and enhanced extraction efficiencies due to the inherent shorter diffusional distances. Here, we report the development of polymer-based parallel-flow microfluidic platforms for LLE. To date, parallel-flow microfluidic platforms have predominantly been made out of silicon or glass due to their compatibility with most organic solvents used for LLE. Fabrication of silicon and glass-based LLE platforms typically requires extensive use of photolithography, plasma or laser-based etching, high temperature (anodic) bonding, and/or wet etching with KOH or HF solutions. In contrast, polymeric microfluidic platforms can be fabricated using less involved processes, typically photolithography in combination with replica molding, hot embossing, and/or bonding at much lower temperatures. Here we report the fabrication and testing of microfluidic LLE platforms comprised of thiolene or a perfluoropolyether-based material, SIFEL, where the choice of materials was mainly guided by the need for solvent compatibility and fabrication amenability. Suitable designs for polymer-based LLE platforms that maximize extraction efficiencies within the constraints of the fabrication methods and feasible operational conditions were obtained using analytical modeling. To optimize the performance of the polymer-based LLE platforms, we systematically studied the effect of surface functionalization and of microstructures on the stability of the liquid-liquid interface and on the ability to separate the phases. As demonstrative examples, we report (i) a thiolene-based platform to determine the lipophilicity of caffeine, and (ii) a SIFEL-based platform to extract radioactive copper from an acidic aqueous solution. PMID:25246730

  19. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  20. From poison to remedy: the chequered history of botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Erbguth, F J

    2008-01-01

    Botulinum toxin poisoning has afflicted mankind through the mists of time. However, the first incident of food-borne botulism was documented as late as the 18th century, when the consumption of meat and blood sausages gave rise to many deaths throughout the kingdom of Württemberg in South Western Germany. The district medical officer Justinus Kerner (1786--1862), who was also a well-known German poet, published the first accurate and complete descriptions of the symptoms of food-borne botulism between 1817 and 1822 and attributed the intoxication to a biological poison. Kerner also postulated that the toxin might be used for treatment purposes. In 1895, an outbreak of botulism in the small Belgian village of Ellezelles led to the discovery of the pathogen "Clostridium botulinum" by Emile Pierre van Ermengem. Modern botulinum toxin treatment was pioneered by Alan B. Scott and Edward J. Schantz in the early 1970s, when the type-A serotype was used in medicine to correct strabismus. Other preparations of the type-A toxin were developed and manufactured in the United Kingdom, Germany, and China, whereas a therapeutic type-B toxin was prepared in the United States. To date, the toxin has been used to treat a wide variety of conditions associated with muscular hyperactivity, glandular hypersecretions and pain.

  1. Application of dynamic mechanical testing to characterize the viscoelastic properties of powder-filled semisolids.

    PubMed

    Radebaugh, G W; Simonelli, A P

    1984-05-01

    A nondestructive technique, dynamic mechanical testing, was used to characterize the viscoelastic properties of dispersions of powdered starch in anhydrous lanolin. The elastic shear modulus (G'), viscous shear modulus (G"), and loss tangent (damping; tan delta) were determined as a function of shear frequency, temperature, and the volume fraction of starch. The results of these studies show that constitutive mathematical models, derived to predict the mechanical behavior of solid-filled polymeric materials, can be applied to solid-filled semisolid pharmaceuticals. In particular, the Kerner equation was useful in describing the influence of starch on the G' of the dispersions. Even though the Kerner equation was unable to predict viscoelastic behavior at all shear frequencies, temperatures, and starch volume fractions, it proved beneficial in postulating mechanisms for starch-starch and starch-anhydrous lanolin interactions within the dispersions. In addition, damping was able to differentiate the influence of temperature. Data obtained from three temperature ranges, where anhydrous lanolin exists in three different structural states, shows that the influence of starch on damping is dictated by the structural state of anhydrous lanolin.

  2. Analysis of traffic flow models in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, R. M.; Saavedra, P.

    2008-11-01

    Traffic flow can be studied by means of hydrodynamic concepts, through an analogy with Navier-Stokes compressible flow or with models coming from kinetic equations. In this work we will consider two models for which the density and the average velocity are the relevant variables. The Kerner-Konhäuser [1] is a phenomenological model proposed in complete analogy with a viscous flow, whereas the so called kinetic model [2] comes from the Paveri-Fontana kinetic equation [3]. Both models are seen from a moving reference frame and a phase space is defined where all the analysis is done, some orbits exemplify and contrast the behavior in these models [4]. [1] B.S. Kerner, P. Konhäuser; Phys. Rev. E 48, R2335 (1993). [2] R.M. Velasco, W. Marques Jr.; Phys. Rev. E 72, 046102 (2005). [3] S.L. Paveri-Fontana; Transp.. Res. 9, 225 (1975). [4] H.K. Lee, H.W. Lee, D. Kim; Phys. Rev. E 69, 016118 (2004).

  3. Effect of Loquat Leaf Extract on Muscle Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Function in Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sangmin; Lee, Chang-Hyung; Shin, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is the major active component of the loquat leaf extract (LLE) and several previous studies have indicated that UA may have the ability to prevent skeletal muscle atrophy. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of the LLE on muscle strength, muscle mass, muscle function, and metabolic markers in healthy adults; the safety of the compound was also evaluated. We examined the peak torque/body weight at 60°/s knee extension, handgrip strength, skeletal muscle mass, physical performance, and metabolic parameters at baseline, as well as after 4 and 12 weeks of intervention. Either 500 mg of LLE (50.94 mg of UA) or a placebo was administered to fifty-four healthy adults each day for 12 weeks; no differences in muscle strength, muscle mass, and physical performance were observed between the two groups. However, the right-handgrip strength of female subjects in the LLE group was found to be significantly better than that of subjects in the control group (P = 0.047). Further studies are required to determine the optimal dose and duration of LLE supplementation to confirm the first-stage study results for clinical application. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT02401113. PMID:27999607

  4. A Study of Care Work in Welfare Facilities for the Elderly, Using Non Linear Analysis of Finger Plethysmograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohashi, Yoko; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Lee, Sangjae

    2011-06-01

    The fingertip pulse waves of a number of staff working in a daycare center for the elderly and a special nursing home for the elderly were measured several times throughout the day for a period of one or two days, and the chaotic information gained was analyzed using a non linear analysis method. As a result, a relation between the staff's length of career and the change of Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) of the fingertip pulse waves that synchronized with the mental revitalization degrees and the tension of the sympathetic nerve was evident. The LLE of the staff with short careers dramatically changed and also took a long time to settle down again. In addition, staff LLE changed greatly after sessions of bathing assistance and watching residents with dementia. LLE measurements showed drops in some staff after a period of rest, but this was not the case for other staff. It can be concluded that the LLE is related to the length of the staff member's career and what is actually done during working hours and rest periods. A high level of sympathetic nerve was seen in almost all of the care workers. On this basis, the authors propose that improvements are needed in the content of the care work.

  5. Analysis of Salvinorin A in plants, water, and urine using solid-phase microextraction-comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Brian B; Snow, Nicholas H

    2012-02-24

    Salvinorin A, a psychoactive hallucinogen, and related compounds, were analyzed in plants, water, and urine using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS). A semi-qualitative study of the extraction of Salvinorin A and analogs from Salvia divinorum plants by LLE showed ppb levels of Salvinorin A and several analogs in the leaves and stems of S. divinorum plants, much lower than expected. Quantitative analysis of Salvinorin A spiked into water and urine showed much better figures of merit for SPME than LLE, with limit of detection of about 5 ng/mL, linear range from 8 to 500 ng/mL and precision about ±10% for the SPME-based analyses using external standard quantitation. GC×GC-ToFMS was especially effective in separating the peaks of interest from matrix and chromatographic interferences.

  6. The Fifth Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-10-01

    A capacity gathering of over 100 researchers from 25 universities and laboratories met at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) for the Fifth Omega Laser Facility Users Group (OLUG) workshop. The purpose of the 2.5-day workshop was to facilitate communications and exchanges among individual Omega users and between users and the LLE management; to present ongoing and proposed research; to encourage research opportunities and collaborations that could be undertaken at the Omega Laser Facility and in a complementary fashion at other facilities [such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or the Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI)]; to provide an opportunity for students, postdoctoral fellows, and young researchers to present their research in an informal setting; and to provide feedback to LLE management from the users about ways to improve the facility and future experimental campaigns.

  7. Analytical performance of three commonly used extraction methods for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of wine volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Andujar-Ortiz, I; Moreno-Arribas, M V; Martín-Alvarez, P J; Pozo-Bayón, M A

    2009-10-23

    The analytical performance of three extraction procedures based on cold liquid-liquid extraction using dicloromethane (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE) using a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) using a carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane coated fibre has been evaluated based on the analysis of 30 representative wine volatile compounds. From the comparison of the three procedures, LLE and SPE showed very good linearity covering a wide range of concentrations of wine volatile compounds, low detection limits, high recovery for most of the volatile compounds under study and higher sensitivity compared to the headspace-SPME procedure. The latter showed in general, poor recovery for polar volatile compounds. Despite some drawbacks associated with the LLE and SPE procedures such as the more tedious sampling treatment and the use of organic solvents, the analytical performance of both procedures showed that they are more adequate for the analysis of wine volatiles.

  8. Discovery of novel 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine derivatives as γ-secretase modulators (Part 2).

    PubMed

    Takai, Takafumi; Koike, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Minoru; Kajita, Yuichi; Yamashita, Toshiro; Taya, Naohiro; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tomomichi; Murakami, Koji; Igari, Tomoko; Kamata, Makoto

    2016-07-15

    γ-Secretase modulators (GSMs), which lower pathogenic amyloid beta (Aβ) without affecting the production of total Aβ or Notch signal, have emerged as a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A novel series of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine derivatives was discovered and characterized as GSMs. Optimization of substituents at the 8-position of the core scaffold using ligand-lipophilicity efficiency (LLE) as a drug-likeness guideline led to identification of various types of high-LLE GSMs. Phenoxy compound (R)-17 exhibited especially high LLE as well as potent in vivo Aβ42-lowering effect by single administration. Furthermore, multiple oral administration of (R)-17 significantly reduced soluble and insoluble brain Aβ42, and ameliorated cognitive deficit in novel object recognition test (NORT) using Tg2576 mice as an AD model.

  9. Miniaturized preconcentration methods based on liquid-liquid extraction and their application in inorganic ultratrace analysis and speciation: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is widely used as a pre-treatment technique for separation and preconcentration of both organic and inorganic analytes from aqueous samples. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks, such as emulsion formation or the use of large volumes of solvents, which makes LLE expensive and labour intensive. Therefore, miniaturization of conventional liquid-liquid extraction is needed. The search for alternatives to the conventional LLE using negligible volumes of extractant and the minimum number of steps has driven the development of three new miniaturized methodologies, i.e. single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of these novel preconcentration approaches and their potential use in analytical labs involved in inorganic (ultra)trace analysis and speciation. Relevant applications to the determination of metal ions, metalloids, organometals and non-metals are included.

  10. The Sixth Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-10-01

    A capacity gathering of over 100 researchers from 25 universities and laboratories met at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) for the Sixth Omega Laser Facility Users Group (OLUG) workshop. The purpose of the 2.5-day workshop was to facilitate communications and exchanges among individual OMEGA users, and between users and the LLE management; to present ongoing and proposed research; to encourage research opportunities and collaborations that could be undertaken at the Omega Laser Facility and in a complementary fashion at other facilities [such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or the Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI)]; to provide an opportunity for students, postdoctoral fellows, and young researchers to present their research in an informal setting; and to provide feedback from the users to LLE management about ways to improve and keep the facility and future experimental campaigns at the cutting edge.

  11. Scaling laws for the largest Lyapunov exponent in long-range systems: A random matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Anteneodo, Celia; Vallejos, Raúl O

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the laws that rule the behavior of the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) in many particle systems with long-range interactions. We consider as a representative system the so-called Hamiltonian alpha-XY model where the adjustable parameter alpha controls the range of the interactions of N ferromagnetic spins in a lattice of dimension d. In previous work the dependence of the LLE with the system size N, for sufficiently high energies, was established through numerical simulations. In the thermodynamic limit, the LLE becomes constant for alpha>d whereas it decays as an inverse power law of N for alpha

  12. Comparison of two extraction methods for evaluation of volatile constituents patterns in commercial whiskeys Elucidation of the main odour-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, M; Rodrigues, F; Perestrelo, R; Marques, J C; Câmara, J S

    2007-11-15

    An analytical procedure based on manual dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method and the conventional extraction method by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), were compared for their effectiveness in the extraction and quantification of volatile compounds from commercial whiskey samples. Seven extraction solvents covering a wide range of polarities and two SPME fibres coatings, has been evaluated. The highest amounts extracted, were achieved using dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) by LLE method (LLE(CH2Cl2)) and using a CAR/PDMS fibre (SPME(CAR/PDMS)) in HS-SPME. Each method was used to determine the responses of 25 analytes from whiskeys and calibration standards, in order to provide sensitivity comparisons between the two methods. Calibration curves were established in a synthetic whiskey and linear correlation coefficient (r) were greater than 0.9929 for LLE(CH2Cl2) and 0.9935 for SPME(CAR/PDMS), for all target compounds. Recoveries greater than 80% were achieved. For most compounds, precision (expressed by relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) are very good, with R.S.D. values lower than 14.78% for HS-SPME method and than 19.42% for LLE method. The detection limits ranged from 0.13 to 19.03 microg L(-1) for SPME procedure and from 0.50 to 12.48 microg L(-1) for LLE. A tentative study to estimate the contribution of a specific compound to the aroma of a whiskey, on the basis of their odour activity values (OAV) was made. Ethyl octanoate followed by isoamyl acetate and isobutyl alcohol, were found the most potent odour-active compounds.

  13. Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of low-cost adsorbents and ligninolytic fungi to remove a combination of xenoestrogens and pesticides from a landfill leachate and abate its phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two widely available low-cost adsorbents, almond shells and a green compost, and two ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Stereum hirsutum, were used to remove organic contaminants from a landfill leachate (LLe) and abate its phytotoxicity. The methodology adopted was based on the occurrence of two simultaneous processes, such as adsorption and bioremoval. The leachate was artificially contaminated with a mixture of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestadiol (EE2) and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate at concentrations of 10, 1, 1, 10 and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. Three adsorption substrates were prepared: potato dextrose agar alone or the same incorporating each adsorbent. The substrates were either not inoculated or inoculated with each fungus, separately, before to be superimposed on LLe. After 2 months, the residual amount of each contaminant, the electrical conductivity, the pH and the content of total phenols were measured in treated LLe. Germination assays using lettuce, ryegrass and radish were performed to evaluate LLe phytotoxicity. The combination substrate+P. ostreatus showed the best results with average removals of 88, 96, 99, 58 and 46% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. The same treatment considerably reduced the phenol content in LLe compared to no treatment. The combination substrate+S. hirsutum produced average removals of 39, 71, 100, 61 and 32% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. Also uninoculated substrates showed relevant adsorption capacities towards the five contaminants. Most treatments significantly reduced LLe phytotoxicity, especially on lettuce. The best results were obtained with the treatment compost+S. hirsutum, which produced root and shoot lengths and seedling biomass of lettuce, respectively, 2.3, 3.3, and 1.9 times those measured in untreated LLe. In general, germination results were negatively correlated with LLe

  14. Coherence properties of Kerr frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Erkintalo, Miro; Coen, Stéphane

    2014-01-15

    We use numerical simulations based on an extended Lugiato-Lefever equation (LLE) to investigate the stability properties of Kerr frequency combs generated in microresonators. In particular, we show that an ensemble average calculated over sequences of output fields separated by a fixed number of resonator roundtrips allows the coherence of Kerr combs to be quantified in terms of the complex degree of first-order coherence. We identify different regimes of comb coherence, linked to the solutions of the LLE. Our approach provides a practical and unambiguous way of assessing the stability of Kerr combs that is directly connected to an accessible experimental quantity.

  15. Optimizing Ligand Efficiency of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs).

    PubMed

    Handlon, Anthony L; Schaller, Lee T; Leesnitzer, Lisa M; Merrihew, Raymond V; Poole, Chuck; Ulrich, John C; Wilson, Joseph W; Cadilla, Rodolfo; Turnbull, Philip

    2016-01-14

    A series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) containing the 1-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol core have been optimized for androgen receptor (AR) potency and drug-like properties. We have taken advantage of the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) parameter as a guide to interpret the effect of structural changes on AR activity. Over the course of optimization efforts the LLE increased over 3 log units leading to a SARM 43 with nanomolar potency, good aqueous kinetic solubility (>700 μM), and high oral bioavailability in rats (83%).

  16. Manifold Learning by Graduated Optimization.

    PubMed

    Gashler, M; Ventura, D; Martinez, T

    2011-12-01

    We present an algorithm for manifold learning called manifold sculpting , which utilizes graduated optimization to seek an accurate manifold embedding. An empirical analysis across a wide range of manifold problems indicates that manifold sculpting yields more accurate results than a number of existing algorithms, including Isomap, locally linear embedding (LLE), Hessian LLE (HLLE), and landmark maximum variance unfolding (L-MVU), and is significantly more efficient than HLLE and L-MVU. Manifold sculpting also has the ability to benefit from prior knowledge about expected results.

  17. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin: Separation of Monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneault, A.; Johnson, D. K.; Chornet, E.

    2007-12-01

    In our quest for fractionating lignocellulosic biomass and valorizing specific constitutive fractions, we have developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers generated during the hydrolytic based-catalyzed depolymerization of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy combines liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC were tested experimentally. Batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation confirmed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, 3 of which require further chromatography and crystallization for purification.

  18. Optimizing Ligand Efficiency of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) containing the 1-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol core have been optimized for androgen receptor (AR) potency and drug-like properties. We have taken advantage of the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) parameter as a guide to interpret the effect of structural changes on AR activity. Over the course of optimization efforts the LLE increased over 3 log units leading to a SARM 43 with nanomolar potency, good aqueous kinetic solubility (>700 μM), and high oral bioavailability in rats (83%). PMID:26819671

  19. Phase Equilibria of Ternary and Quaternary Systems Containing Diethyl Carbonate with Water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Wen, Caiyu; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zeng, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this study liquid phase equilibrium compositions were measured at 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure for (water + propan-1-ol + diethyl carbonate (DEC) + benzene or cyclohexane or heptane) quaternary systems and (water + DEC + propan-1-ol or benzene or cyclohexane) ternary systems. Good correlation of the experimental LLE data was seen for the measured systems by both modified and extended UNIQUAC models. The solubility of DEC in aqueous and organic phases is shown by equilibrium distribution coefficients calculated from the LLE data.

  20. Prospective Changes in Infertile Patients using Nonlinear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuko; Tomiyama, Tatsuhiro; Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Tsukamoto, Asami; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    We measured pulse waves in 22 infertile women from the beginning of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) through to pregnancy testing. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and autonomic nerve balance in the pregnancy group were significantly lower than that in the non-pregnancy group. In this study, we measured plethysmograms of four women who became pregnant and 18 who did not, ten times from each. We calculated LLE and a value for the autonomic nerve balance; from this analysis, we conclude that a mental state that allows for the possibility of becoming pregnant is necessary for a successful pregnancy.

  1. Risk equivalent of exposure versus dose of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a risk analysis study of low-dose irradiation and the resulting biological effects on a cell. The author describes fundamental differences between the effects of high-level exposure (HLE) and low-level exposure (LLE). He stresses that the concept of absorbed dose to an organ is not a dose but a level of effect produced by a particular number of particles. He discusses the confusion between a linear-proportional representation of dose limits and a threshold-curvilinear representation, suggesting that a LLE is a composite of both systems. (TEM)

  2. Synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hermanns, Gerhard; Hemmerle, Peter; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal that moving queues (moving jams) in oversaturated city traffic dissolve at some distance upstream of the traffic signal while transforming into synchronized flow. It is found that, as in highway traffic [Kerner, Phys. Rev. E 85, 036110 (2012)], such a jam-absorption effect in city traffic is explained by a strong driver's speed adaptation: Time headways (space gaps) between vehicles increase upstream of a moving queue (moving jam), resulting in moving queue dissolution. It turns out that at given traffic signal parameters, the stronger the speed adaptation effect, the shorter the mean distance between the signal location and the road location at which moving queues dissolve fully and oversaturated traffic consists of synchronized flow only. A comparison of the synchronized flow in city traffic found in this Brief Report with synchronized flow in highway traffic is made.

  3. Effect of cellulose whisker content on the properties of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/cellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Elanthikkal, Silviya; Gopalakrishnapanicker, Unnikrishnan; Varghese, Soney; Guthrie, James T; Francis, Tania

    2013-06-20

    The reinforcing effect of cellulose whiskers, produced from banana waste fibres, has been investigated using poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) [EVA]/cellulose whisker composites. Cellulose whiskers, approximately 300 nm long and 30 nm wide, were obtained via a sulphuric acid hydrolysis method. The effects of the cellulose whisker loading on the thermal properties, mechanical properties and on the morphological features of the composites have been investigated. EVA copolymer with a vinyl acetate segment content of 40% has been used for composite fabrication. The developed composites showed superior thermal and mechanical properties relative to that of the EVA copolymer alone. Three theoretical models, namely the Halpin-Tsai model, the Kerner model and the Nicolais-Narkis model have been employed to provide a basis for the comparison of the results with the observations from the tensile investigations.

  4. Traffic jam dynamics in stochastic cellular automata

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K. |; Schreckenberg, M.

    1995-09-01

    Simple models for particles hopping on a grid (cellular automata) are used to simulate (single lane) traffic flow. Despite their simplicity, these models are astonishingly realistic in reproducing start-stop-waves and realistic fundamental diagrams. One can use these models to investigate traffic phenomena near maximum flow. A so-called phase transition at average maximum flow is visible in the life-times of jams. The resulting dynamic picture is consistent with recent fluid-dynamical results by Kuehne/Kerner/Konhaeuser, and with Treiterer`s hysteresis description. This places CA models between car-following models and fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. CA models are tested in projects in Los Alamos (USA) and in NRW (Germany) for large scale microsimulations of network traffic.

  5. Multilane simulations of traffic phases.

    PubMed

    Davis, L C

    2004-01-01

    The optimal velocity model, as modified by the author, is used in simulations of traffic on a dual-lane highway and a single-lane highway with an on-ramp. The equilibrium solutions of the modified model cover a two-dimensional region of flow-density space beneath the fundamental-diagram curve, rather than just lying on the curve as in the original model. Thus it satisfies a requirement of the three-phase model of Kerner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3797 (2002)]. Synchronization of velocity across dual lanes due to frequent lane changes is observed in free flow. True synchronized flow, as determined by the region of density-flow space it occupies, is obtained in on-ramp simulations with typical driver reaction times. A gradual change to the formation of a jam is observed for increasing delay times.

  6. Optimization of congested traffic by controlling stop-and-go waves.

    PubMed

    Tomer, Elad; Safonov, Leonid; Madar, Nilly; Havlin, Shlomo

    2002-06-01

    We propose a new optimization strategy based on inducing stop-and-go waves on the main road and controlling their wavelength. Using numerical simulations of a recent stochastic car-following model we show that this strategy yields optimization of traffic flow when implemented in systems with a localized periodic inhomogeneity, such as signalized intersections and entry ramps. The optimization process is explained by our finding of a generalized fundamental diagram (GFD) for traffic, namely a flux-density-wavelength relation. Projecting the GFD on the density-flux plane yields a two-dimensional region of stable states, qualitatively similar to that found empirically [Kerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3797 (1998)] in synchronized traffic.

  7. Driver choice compared to controlled diversion for a freeway double on-ramp in the framework of three-phase traffic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2008-11-01

    Two diversion schemes that apportion demand between two on-ramps to reduce congestion and improve throughput on a freeway are analyzed. In the first scheme, drivers choose to merge or to divert to a downstream on-ramp based on information about average travel times for the two routes: (1) merge and travel on the freeway or (2) divert and travel on a surface street with merging downstream. The flow, rate of merging at the ramps, and the travel times oscillate strongly, but irregularly, due to delayed feedback. In the second scheme, diversion is controlled by the average mainline velocities just upstream of the on-ramps. Driver choice is not involved. If the average upstream velocity on the mainline drops below a predetermined value (20 m/s) vehicles are diverted to the downstream ramp. When the average mainline velocity downstream becomes too low, diversion is no longer permitted. The resultant oscillations in this scheme are nearly periodic. The period is dominated by the response time of the mainline to interruption of merging rather than delayed feedback, which contributes only a minor component linear in the distance separating the on-ramps. In general the second scheme produces more effective congestion reduction and greater throughput. Also the travel times for on-ramp drivers are less than that obtained by drivers who attempt to minimize their own travel times (first scheme). The simulations are done using the Kerner-Klenov stochastic three-phase theory of traffic [B.S. Kerner, S.L. Klenov, Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 036130].

  8. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-03-25

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant-insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831-1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858-1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848-1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these "chemical defensive means" evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things "teleological" by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time.

  9. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant–insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831–1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858–1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848–1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these “chemical defensive means” evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things “teleological” by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time. PMID:18218780

  10. Comparison of extraction methods for the identification and quantification of polyphenols in virgin olive oil by ultra-HPLC-QToF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Crescenzi, Carlo; Foglia, Patrizia; Nescatelli, Riccardo; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-09-01

    In this work, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), of polyphenols from a VOO sample were optimised by a Plackett-Burman experimental design; then the two extraction techniques capabilities were compared. By using HPLC-DAD, the extraction ability of SPE with the diol phase and LLE were similar. The two methods were further evaluated with ultra HPLC-ESI QToF in negative ion mode by recoveries of standards and matched comparison of the peak area of 40 identified and 27 unidentified compounds. Conclusions indicate that LLE gives better recoveries for highly polar, non-polar, and some polyphenols suspected to contain a nitrogen atom, while for the others the two methods seem to be equally suitable. The presence of nitrogen-containing polyphenols was confirmed in positive ionisation mode in LLE extract, whereas in the SPE extract they were not present. One of them was tentatively identified as a compound containing tyrosine and methyl-decarboxymetyl-eleanoic acid moieties.

  11. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    DOE PAGES

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; ...

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determinemore » operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.« less

  12. Pathogens Present in Acute Mangled Extremities From Afghanistan and Subsequent Pathogen Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus viridans group (PID 0/post-) 4 Penicillium spp (PID 5), Aspergillus spp (PID 5), Enterococcus hirae (PID 5), Bacillus spp (PID 5) 5 P...oryzihabitans (PID 0/post-) 4 LLE 4 Mucorales order (PID 3), A. flavus (PID 3), A. terreus (PID 3), Fusarium spp (PID 3), Bacillus spp (PID 3

  13. Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Statistical Locally Linear Embedding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Yuan; Zhao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Jinping

    2015-07-06

    Fault diagnosis is essentially a kind of pattern recognition. The measured signal samples usually distribute on nonlinear low-dimensional manifolds embedded in the high-dimensional signal space, so how to implement feature extraction, dimensionality reduction and improve recognition performance is a crucial task. In this paper a novel machinery fault diagnosis approach based on a statistical locally linear embedding (S-LLE) algorithm which is an extension of LLE by exploiting the fault class label information is proposed. The fault diagnosis approach first extracts the intrinsic manifold features from the high-dimensional feature vectors which are obtained from vibration signals that feature extraction by time-domain, frequency-domain and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and then translates the complex mode space into a salient low-dimensional feature space by the manifold learning algorithm S-LLE, which outperforms other feature reduction methods such as PCA, LDA and LLE. Finally in the feature reduction space pattern classification and fault diagnosis by classifier are carried out easily and rapidly. Rolling bearing fault signals are used to validate the proposed fault diagnosis approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach obviously improves the classification performance of fault pattern recognition and outperforms the other traditional approaches.

  14. Spacecraft and Stellar Occultations by Turbulent Planetary Atmospheres. A Theoretical Investigation of Various Wave Propagation Effects and Their Impact on Derived Profiles of Refractivity, Temperature and Pressure,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-08

    clear that nleantingflil restilts tdemand extreime Cire in bo0th i lle exp-ininnil design phase, andl Aso dtiririg the recording, of’ da.ta. It Is Aiso...Inference froill( thecoitliLIml4l 1 of stal sites hiiiiii ftth Ow Stlit \\\\In 1 .islti.1 I jioki;)ii 1973), suggests that also( the solar iiiiiia~ is itim

  15. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Terai, T.

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determine operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.

  16. Sparsity divergence index based on locally linear embedding for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhao, Chunhui

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral imagery (HSI) has high spectral and spatial resolutions, which are essential for anomaly detection (AD). Many anomaly detectors assume that the spectrum signature of HSI pixels can be modeled with a Gaussian distribution, which is actually not accurate and often leads to many false alarms. Therefore, a sparsity model without any distribution hypothesis is usually employed. Dimensionality reduction (DR) as a preprocessing step for HSI is important. Principal component analysis as a conventional DR method is a linear projection and cannot exploit the nonlinear properties in hyperspectral data, whereas locally linear embedding (LLE) as a local, nonlinear manifold learning algorithm works well for DR of HSI. A modified algorithm of sparsity divergence index based on locally linear embedding (SDI-LLE) is thus proposed. First, kernel collaborative representation detection is adopted to calculate the sparse dictionary matrix of local reconstruction weights in LLE. Then, SDI is obtained both in the spectral and spatial domains, where spatial SDI is computed after DR by LLE. Finally, joint SDI, combining spectral SDI and spatial SDI, is computed, and the optimal SDI is performed for AD. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the performance, when compared with its counterparts.

  17. Comparison of Electron Imaging Modes for Dimensional Measurements in the Scanning Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E; Villarrubia, John S; Muto, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Dimensional measurements from secondary electron (SE) images were compared with those from backscattered electron (BSE) and low-loss electron (LLE) images. With the commonly used 50% threshold criterion, the lines consistently appeared larger in the SE images. As the images were acquired simultaneously by an instrument with the capability to operate detectors for both signals at the same time, the differences cannot be explained by the assumption that contamination or drift between images affected the SE, BSE, or LLE images differently. Simulations with JMONSEL, an electron microscope simulator, indicate that the nanometer-scale differences observed on this sample can be explained by the different convolution effects of a beam with finite size on signals with different symmetry (the SE signal's characteristic peak versus the BSE or LLE signal's characteristic step). This effect is too small to explain the >100 nm discrepancies that were observed in earlier work on different samples. Additional modeling indicates that those discrepancies can be explained by the much larger sidewall angles of the earlier samples, coupled with the different response of SE versus BSE/LLE profiles to such wall angles.

  18. Late Language Emergence in 24-Month-Old Twins: Heritable and Increased Risk for Late Language Emergence in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Gayán, Javier; Bontempo, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the etiology of late language emergence (LLE) in 24-month-old twins, considering possible twinning, zygosity, gender, and heritability effects for vocabulary and grammar phenotypes. Method: A population-based sample of 473 twin pairs participated. Multilevel modeling estimated means and variances of vocabulary and…

  19. Factors Mititating against the Establishment, Development, Management and Utilization of Instructional Television (ITV) in Higher Institutions in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofowora, Olaniyi Alaba

    2007-01-01

    This paper highlights the problems facing the establishment, development, management and utilization of instructional television (ITV) in higher institutions in Nigeria. The paper also discusses chronicle of activities and achievements made at Obafemi Awolowo University, lle-lfe in the effort at revamping the television system. Obafemi Awolowo…

  20. Late Language Emergence at 24 Months: An Epidemiological Study of Prevalence, Predictors, and Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Rice, Mabel L.; Slegers, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of late language emergence (LLE) and to investigate the predictive status of maternal, family, and child variables. Method: This is a prospective cohort study of 1,766 epidemiologically ascertained 24-month-old singleton children. The framework was an ecological model…

  1. Comprehensive characterization of rodenticides in wastewater by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Vázquez-Chica, Alberto; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Rodenticides are used as pest control to eradicate rodents and have emerged as new environmental contaminants due to their widespread use in domestic and urban infrastructures. In this study, we have developed and validated an analytical methodology based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of 13 anticoagulant rodenticides in wastewater. In a first step, ionization conditions were tested in electrospray mode, and positive ionization gave the highest sensitivity. Fragmentation patterns were determined and two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions were selected for each compound. Using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column and specific SRM transitions, 13 compounds were resolved. The LC-MS/MS method provided good linearity, sensitivity, intra- and inter-day precision, and good identification capabilities for these compounds in wastewaters. Thereafter miniaturized liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) were optimized. Oasis HLB and Strata WA SPE cartridges with methanol/dichloromethane as eluting solvents provided good recoveries and limits of detection ranged between 0.34 and 20 ng L(-1), whereas LLE failed to recover some compounds. Finally, the performance of both LLE and SPE methods was evaluated by analyzing rodenticides in a set of wastewaters. Warfarin was the only detected compound at nanogram per liter level, and good agreement was observed between LLE and SPE.

  2. Severe Weather Guide Mediterranean Ports. 26. San Remo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Transport Ship LANT 31H1 Amphibious Assault Ship LANT (2) 3111 Dock Landing Ship LANT 31J1 Dock Landing Ship LANT 31M1 Tank Landing Ship LANT 32A1...Inc. 680 W. Maude Ave. Sunnyvale, CA 94086-3518 Istituto Universitario NavaLle Facilta Di Scienze Nautiche Istituto Di Meteorolgia E Oceanografia

  3. Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Statistical Locally Linear Embedding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Yuan; Zhao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Fault diagnosis is essentially a kind of pattern recognition. The measured signal samples usually distribute on nonlinear low-dimensional manifolds embedded in the high-dimensional signal space, so how to implement feature extraction, dimensionality reduction and improve recognition performance is a crucial task. In this paper a novel machinery fault diagnosis approach based on a statistical locally linear embedding (S-LLE) algorithm which is an extension of LLE by exploiting the fault class label information is proposed. The fault diagnosis approach first extracts the intrinsic manifold features from the high-dimensional feature vectors which are obtained from vibration signals that feature extraction by time-domain, frequency-domain and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and then translates the complex mode space into a salient low-dimensional feature space by the manifold learning algorithm S-LLE, which outperforms other feature reduction methods such as PCA, LDA and LLE. Finally in the feature reduction space pattern classification and fault diagnosis by classifier are carried out easily and rapidly. Rolling bearing fault signals are used to validate the proposed fault diagnosis approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach obviously improves the classification performance of fault pattern recognition and outperforms the other traditional approaches. PMID:26153771

  4. Plethysmogram and EEG: Effects of Music and Voice Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Tiejun; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Sato, Sadaka; Kojima, Junji; Lin, Juan; Reika, Sato

    2011-06-01

    We studied a relation of chaotic dynamics of finger plethysmogram to complexity of high cerebral center in both theoretical and experimental approaches. We proposed a mathematical model to describe emergence of chaos in finger tip pulse wave, which gave a theoretical prediction indicating increased chaoticity in higher cerebral center leading to an increase of chaos dynamics in plethysmograms. We designed an experiment to observe scalp-EEG and finger plethysmogram using two mental tasks to validate the relationship. We found that scalp-EEG showed an increase of the largest Lyapunov exponents (LLE) during speaking certain voices. Topographical scalp map of LLE showed enhanced arise around occipital and right cerebral area. Whereas there was decreasing tendency during listening music, where LLE scalp map revealed a drop around center cerebral area. The same tendency was found for LLE obtained from finger plethysmograms as ones of EEG under either speaking or listening tasks. The experiment gave results that agreed well with the theoretical relation derived from our proposed model.

  5. Comparison of Electron Imaging Modes for Dimensional Measurements in the Scanning Electron Microscope†

    PubMed Central

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András E.; Villarrubia, John S.; Muto, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Dimensional measurements from secondary electron (SE) images were compared with those from backscattered electron (BSE) and low-loss electron (LLE) images. With the commonly used 50% threshold criterion, the lines consistently appeared larger in the SE images. As the images were acquired simultaneously by an instrument with the capability to operate detectors for both signals at the same time, the differences cannot be explained by the assumption that contamination or drift between images affected the SE, BSE, or LLE images differently. Simulations with JMONSEL, an electron microscope simulator, indicate that the nanometer-scale differences observed on this sample can be explained by the different convolution effects of a beam with finite size on signals with different symmetry (the SE signal’s characteristic peak versus the BSE or LLE signal’s characteristic step). This effect is too small to explain the > 100 nm discrepancies that were observed in earlier work on different samples. Additional modeling indicates that those discrepancies can be explained by the much larger sidewall angles of the earlier samples, coupled with the different response of SE versus BSE/LLE profiles to such wall angles. PMID:27452278

  6. Intrinsic modulation of ENSO predictability viewed through a local Lyapunov lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamperidou, Christina; Cane, Mark A.; Lall, Upmanu; Wittenberg, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of rich ENSO variability in the long unforced simulation of GFDL's CM2.1 motivates the use of tools from dynamical systems theory to study variability in ENSO predictability, and its connections to ENSO magnitude, frequency, and physical evolution. Local Lyapunov exponents (LLEs) estimated from the monthly NINO3 SSTa model output are used to characterize periods of increased or decreased predictability. The LLEs describe the growth of infinitesimal perturbations due to internal variability, and are a measure of the immediate predictive uncertainty at any given point in the system phase-space. The LLE-derived predictability estimates are compared with those obtained from the error growth in a set of re-forecast experiments with CM2.1. It is shown that the LLEs underestimate the error growth for short forecast lead times (less than 8 months), while they overestimate it for longer lead times. The departure of LLE-derived error growth rates from the re-forecast rates is a linear function of forecast lead time, and is also sensitive to the length of the time series used for the LLE calculation. The LLE-derived error growth rate is closer to that estimated from the re-forecasts for a lead time of 4 months. In the 2,000-year long simulation, the LLE-derived predictability at the 4-month lead time varies (multi)decadally only by 9-18 %. Active ENSO periods are more predictable than inactive ones, while epochs with regular periodicity and moderate magnitude are classified as the most predictable by the LLEs. Events with a deeper thermocline in the west Pacific up to five years prior to their peak, along with an earlier deepening of the thermocline in the east Pacific in the months preceding the peak, are classified as more predictable. Also, the GCM is found to be less predictable than nature under this measure of predictability.

  7. Miniscale Liquid-Liquid Extraction Coupled with Full Evaporation Dynamic Headspace Extraction for the Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with 4000-to-14 000-fold Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Liew, Christina Shu Min; Li, Xiao; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-09-20

    A new sample preparation approach of combining a miniscale version of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), termed miniscale-LLE (msLLE), with automated full evaporation dynamic headspace extraction (FEDHS) was developed. Its applicability was demonstrated in the extraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) from aqueous samples. In the first step, msLLE was conducted with 1.75 mL of n-hexane, and all of the extract was vaporized through a Tenax TA sorbent tube via a nitrogen gas flow, in the FEDHS step. Due to the stronger π-π interaction between the Tenax TA polymer and PAHs, only the latter, and not n-hexane, was adsorbed by the sorbent. This selectivity by the Tenax TA polymer allowed an effective concentration of PAHs while eliminating n-hexane by the FEDHS process. After that, thermal desorption was applied to the PAHs to channel them into a gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) system for analysis. Experimental parameters affecting msLLE (solvent volume and mixing duration) and FEDHS (temperature and duration) were optimized. The obtained results achieved low limits of detection (1.85-3.63 ng/L) with good linearity (r(2) > 0.9989) and high enrichment factors ranging from 4200 to 14 100. The optimized settings were applied to the analysis of canal water sampled from an industrial area and tap water, and this methodology was compared to stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). This innovative combined extraction-concentration approach proved to be fast, effective, and efficient in determining low concentrations of PAHs in aqueous samples.

  8. Enhancement of Ad-CRT/E7-mediated antitumor effect by preimmunization with L. lactis expressing HPV-16 E7.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Colmenero, Blanca R; Gomez-Gutierrez, Jorge G; Villatoro-Hernández, Julio; Zavala-Flores, Laura M; Quistián-Martínez, Deyanira; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto; Arce-Mendoza, Alma Y; Guzmán-López, Santos; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Roberto; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila

    2014-11-01

    Although current polyvalent vaccines can prevent development of cervical cancer, they cannot be used to treat patients who already have the disease. Adenovirus expressing calreticulin-E7 (Ad-CRT-E7) has shown promising results in the cervical cancer murine model. We also demonstrated that immunization with Lactococcus lactis encoding HPV-16 E7 (Ll-E7) anchored to its surface induces significant HPV-16 E7-specific immune response. Here, we assessed the combination of both approaches in the treatment of a cervical cancer animal model. Intranasal preimmunization of Ll-E7, followed by a single Ad-CRT/E7 application, induced ∼80% of tumor suppression in comparison with controls. Mice treated with a combination of Ll-E7 and Ad-CRT/E7 resulted in a 70% survival rate 300 days post-treatment, whereas 100% of the mice in the control groups died by 50 days. Significant CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes infiltration was detected in the tumors of mice treated with Ll-E7+Ad-CRT/E7. Tumors with regression showed a greater number of positive cells for in situ TUNEL staining than controls. Our results suggest that preimmunization with Ll-E7 enhances the Ad-CRT/E7-mediated antitumor effect. This treatment provides an enormous advantage over repeated applications of Ad-CRT/E7 by maintaining the effectiveness of the three-dose application of Ad-CRT/E7, but avoiding the high systemic toxicities associated with such repeat treatments.

  9. Quantitative analysis of simvastatin and its beta-hydroxy acid in human plasma using automated liquid-liquid extraction based on 96-well plate format and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nanyan; Yang, Amy; Rogers, John Douglas; Zhao, Jamie J

    2004-01-27

    An assay based on automated liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of simvastatin (SV) and its beta-hydroxy acid (SVA) in human plasma. A Packard MultiProbe II workstation was used to convert human plasma samples collected following administration of simvastatin and quality control (QC) samples from individual tubes into 96-well plate format. The workstation was also used to prepare calibration standards and spike internal standards. A Tomtec Quadra 96-channel liquid handling workstation was used to perform LLE based on 96-well plates including adding solvents, separating organic from aqueous layer and reconstitution. SV and SVA were separated through a Kromasil C18 column (50 mm x 2 mm i.d., 5 microm) and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with a TurboIonspray interface. Stable isotope-labeled SV and SVA, 13CD(3)-SV and 13 CD(3)-SVA, were used as the internal standards for SV and SVA, respectively. The automated procedures reduced the overall analytical time (96 samples) to 1/3 of that of manual LLE. Most importantly, an analyst spent only a fraction of time on the 96-well LLE. A limit of quantitation of 50 pg/ml was achieved for both SV and SVA. The interconversion between SV and SVA during the 96-well LLE was found to be negligible. The assay showed very good reproducibility, with intra- and inter-assay precision (%R.S.D.) of less than 7.5%, and accuracy of 98.7-102.3% of nominal values for both analytes. By using this method, sample throughput should be enhanced at least three-fold compared to that of the manual procedure.

  10. The Systematics of Light Lithophile Elements (Li, Be, B) in Lunar Picritic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Layne, G. D.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-07-01

    Lunar picritic glasses are thought to be the product of either partial melting of the deep lunar mantle followed by rapid ascent [1,2] or polybaric partial melting initiated in the deep lunar mantle [3]. The near primary compositions of these volcanic glasses provide us with a unique perspective for evaluating mare basaltic magmatism and the characteristics and evolution of the lunar mantle. Because of their obvious importance in deciphering the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, we have initiated an extensive trace element study of these picritic glasses using ion microprobe techniques. Here, we report the initial results of light lithophile element (LLE) analyses of these glasses. This is the first reported study of LLE in lunar basalts. The LLE have only recently received attention in terrestrial basaltic systems [4-6]. Their correlations with other more routinely analyzed trace elements (Li:Yb or V, Be:Nd, B:K) in a variety of terrestrial mantle environments have yielded several important insights into mantle magmatism [4-6]. Ion microprobe analyses of the glasses were conducted using a Cameca 4f ion microprobe operated on the UNM campus. The light lithophile elements were analyzed under the following conditions: 10-kV O- primary beam, 8-nA primary beam current, 10-15-micrometer beam diameter, sample voltage offset of -70 +- 25 V, and a 150-micrometer secondary ion image field with a 33-micrometer field aperature inserted. Counting times included background (2 seconds), 30Si (2 seconds), 7Li (2 seconds), 9Be (4 seconds), and 11B (8 seconds). Each analysis involved 30 to 40 counting cycles. These counting times resulted in precision for Li of better than 1.2% and for B and Be of better than 2.2%. Standards for Li, Be, and B in basaltic glass matrices were kindly provided by J. Ryan [4-6]. Calibration curves (LLE/30Si x wt% SiO2 vs. LLE concentration) were originally defined by a minimum of five standards for each element and are linear for the concentration

  11. Secondary-neutron-yield measurements by current-mode detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Secondary deuterium--tritium (DT) neutrons from pure-deuterium inertial confinement fusion targets can be used to diagnose the fuel areal density. Single-hit detectors like LaNSA at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory or MEDUSA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) saturate for fairly low secondary DT- and primary DD-neutron yields. These detectors are not suitable for the high-yield, direct-drive implosion experiments currently carried out on the 30 kJ, 60 beam OMEGA laser system or for future cryogenic-capsule experiments on OMEGA. The status of several current-mode detectors (e.g., a single scintillator and a photomultiplier tube) now being developed at LLE for secondary-neutron-yield measurements is described.

  12. Effect of temperature on acid-base equilibria in separation techniques. A review.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Tascon, Marcos; Castells, Cecilia B

    2015-08-19

    Studies on the theoretical principles of acid-base equilibria are reviewed and the influence of temperature on secondary chemical equilibria within the context of separation techniques, in water and also in aqueous-organic solvent mixtures, is discussed. In order to define the relationships between the retention in liquid chromatography or the migration velocity in capillary electrophoresis and temperature, the main properties of acid-base equilibria have to be taken into account for both, the analytes and the conjugate pairs chosen to control the solution pH. The focus of this review is based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with emphasis on the use of temperature as a useful variable to modify selectivity on a predictable basis. Simplified models were evaluated to achieve practical optimizations involving pH and temperature (in LLE and CE) as well as solvent composition in reversed-phase LC.

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR SPECTRA WITH LOCAL LINEAR EMBEDDING

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Scott F.; Connolly, Andrew; Vanderplas, Jake; Schneider, Jeff; Xiong Liang

    2011-12-15

    We investigate the use of dimensionality reduction techniques for the classification of stellar spectra selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using local linear embedding (LLE), a technique that preserves the local (and possibly nonlinear) structure within high-dimensional data sets, we show that the majority of stellar spectra can be represented as a one-dimensional sequence within a three-dimensional space. The position along this sequence is highly correlated with spectral temperature. Deviations from this 'stellar locus' are indicative of spectra with strong emission lines (including misclassified galaxies) or broad absorption lines (e.g., carbon stars). Based on this analysis, we propose a hierarchical classification scheme using LLE that progressively identifies and classifies stellar spectra in a manner that requires no feature extraction and that can reproduce the classic MK classifications to an accuracy of one type.

  14. [Application of improved locally linear embedding algorithm in dimensionality reduction of cancer gene expression data].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Baowen; Wang, Changwu

    2014-02-01

    Cancer gene expression data have the characteristics of high dimensionalities and small samples so it is necessary to perform dimensionality reduction of the data. Traditional linear dimensionality reduction approaches can not find the nonlinear relationship between the data points. In addition, they have bad dimensionality reduction results. Therefore a multiple weights locally linear embedding (LLE) algorithm with improved distance is introduced to perform dimensionality reduction in this study. We adopted an improved distance to calculate the neighbor of each data point in this algorithm, and then we introduced multiple sets of linearly independent local weight vectors for each neighbor, and obtained the embedding results in the low-dimensional space of the high-dimensional data by minimizing the reconstruction error. Experimental result showed that the multiple weights LLE algorithm with improved distance had good dimensionality reduction functions of the cancer gene expression data.

  15. Mechanisms of long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal neurotransmission by taurine.

    PubMed

    Chepkova, Aisa N; Sergeeva, Olga A; Haas, Helmut L

    2006-01-01

    The long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal neurotransmission by taurine, LLE-TAU represents a complex phenomenon requiring concurrent activation of glycine, DA and Ach receptors as well as taurine uptake. The data on the mechanisms of corticostriatal LLE-TAU can be integrated in the following scheme. Taurine interaction with glycine and GABAA receptors causes depolarization of striatal medium spiny cells (Chepkova et al., 2002) which is enhanced by taurine electrogenic uptake by TauT (Sarkar et al., 2003). This depolarization leads to Ca2+ entry via low voltage gated Ca2+ channels. Muscarinic M1 receptors are expressed in medium spiny neurons (Yan et al., 2001) and regulate their excitability mostly via phospholipase C (PLC)/PKC cascade (Lin et al., 2004). Concurrent activation of M1 and PLC-coupled D1 receptors (O'Sullivan et al., 2004) can amplify Ca2+ signal via IP3- stimulated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and stimulate PKC.

  16. Tests and calibration of NIF neutron time of flight detectors.

    PubMed

    Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C

    2008-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.

  17. Direct-Drive Inertial Fusion Research at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.; Skupsky, S.; Bahr, R.E.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Craxton, R.S.; Collins, T.J.B.; Delettrez, J.A.; Donaldson, W.R.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Keck, R.L.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Li, C.K.; Lund, L.D.; Marozas, J.A.; McKenty, P.W.; Marshall, F.J.; Morse, S.F.B.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R.D.; Radha, P.B.; Regan, S.P.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Seguin, F.H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Thorp, K.A.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2010-04-16

    This paper reviews the status of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). LLE's goal is to demonstrate direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by 2014. Baseline "all-DT" NIF direct-drive ignition target designs have been developed that have a predicted gain of 45 (1-D) at a NIF drive energy of ~1.6 MJ. Significantly higher gains are calculated for targets that include a DT-wicked foam ablator. This paper also reviews the results of both warm fuel and initial cryogenic-fuel spherical target implosion experiments carried out on the OMEGA UV laser. The results of these experiments and design calculations increase confidence that the NIF direct-drive ICF ignition goal will be achieved.

  18. Paroxetine decreases respiratory irregularity of linear and nonlinear measures of respiration in patients with panic disorder. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Yeragani, Vikram Kumar; Rao, Radhakrishna; Tancer, Manuel; Uhde, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not appear to have serious cardiac side effects. However, the effects of these agents on respiratory measures have not been studied in detail. Several studies indicate that patients with anxiety exhibit irregular breathing patterns as measured by tidal volume and respiratory rate. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine, on respiratory variability in patients with panic disorder (n = 13), using linear and nonlinear measures of regularity, approximate entropy (APEN) and a measure of chaos, the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), with pre- and posttreatment lung volume time series (256 s long sampled at 4 Hz). Our results show that paroxetine significantly decreases some of the linear measures of variability and supine APEN and standing LLE of lung volume series after successful treatment. The implications of these findings on respiratory and cardiovascular function have been discussed.

  19. Using combined D3He-p and DT-n secondary yields to determine ρRfuel and mix in D2 implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Seguin, F.; Frenje, J.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Amendt, P.; Wilks, S.; Bellei, C.; Bionta, R.; Moran, M.; Caggiano, J.; Knauer, J.; Hatarik, R.; Friedrich, S.; Hartouni, E.; Hatchett, S.; Rygg, J.; Casey, D. T.; MacKinnon, A.; Schneider, M.

    2013-10-01

    O. LANDEN LLNL, T. MURPHY, G. KYRALA, M. SCHMITT, N. HOFFMAN LANL, V. YU. GLEBOV, C. SANGSTER, J. DELETTREZ, P. RADHA, S. REGAN, C. STOECKL LLE, J. KILKENNY, A.NIKROO, GA. Secondary yields of DT-neutrons and D3He-protons from ICF implosions filled with pure deuterium fuel are used to experimentally determine fuel ρR and electron temperature. Increased plasma stopping power tends to enhance the DT-n yield and reduce the D3He-p yield. Simultaneous measurements of these secondary particles are used to constrain the modeling of the amount of fuel-shell mix in low-fuel- ρR implosions on OMEGA and NIF. The range of application for this technique will be discussed and results from several experiments will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  20. Isomer effect of propanol on liquid-liquid equilibrium in hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Shinichiro; Kishimura, Hiroaki; Kitahira, Shota; Tamatani, Kentaro; Hirayama, Kentaro; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2014-10-01

    The cloud-point temperature determined the liquid-liquid phase equilibrium (LLE) of binary systems comprising hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and propanol. The RTILs were 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [Cxmim][TFSI] (2 ≤ x ≤ 10). Upper critical solution temperatures in LLE are inversely proportional to the Cxmim+ cation alkyl chain length, x. The propanol isomer effect indicates the critical alkyl chain length (xcritical = 6-7). UNIQUAC model determined the interaction parameters (with crossing points at x = 6). In pure RTILs, conformation stability of TFSI- by Raman spectroscopy changed between x = 6 and 7, corresponding to the simulation-determined 90°-torsion angle at x = 6.

  1. Secondary-Proton Spectra from D_2-Filled OMEGA Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Green, K. M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Radha, P. B.; Soures, J. M.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Roberts, S.; Sorce, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Padalino, S.; Fletcher, K.

    2000-10-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of secondary fusion protons of imploded D_2-filled capsules in ICF experiments are now carried out with magnet-based charged-particle spectrometers and with a new type of ``range filter''-based detector utilizing special filters and CR39 nuclear track detectors. The mean proton energy determines the capsule's total areal density (ρR). Measurement of proton yield, in combination with the primary and secondary neutron yield, provides an estimate of fuel parameters. Recent data from OMEGA implosions will be presented. This work was performed in part at the LLE National Laser Users' Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by the U.S. DOE Contract DE-FG03-99SF21782, LLE subcontract PO410025G, LLNL subcontract B313975, and by the U.S. DOE Office of ICF under Coop. Agreem. No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  2. Gearbox fault diagnosis based on time-frequency domain synchronous averaging and feature extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengli; Tang, Jiong

    2016-04-01

    Gearbox is one of the most vulnerable subsystems in wind turbines. Its healthy status significantly affects the efficiency and function of the entire system. Vibration based fault diagnosis methods are prevalently applied nowadays. However, vibration signals are always contaminated by noise that comes from data acquisition errors, structure geometric errors, operation errors, etc. As a result, it is difficult to identify potential gear failures directly from vibration signals, especially for the early stage faults. This paper utilizes synchronous averaging technique in time-frequency domain to remove the non-synchronous noise and enhance the fault related time-frequency features. The enhanced time-frequency information is further employed in gear fault classification and identification through feature extraction algorithms including Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). Results show that the LLE approach is the most effective to classify and identify different gear faults.

  3. Bioactivity of food peptides: biological response of rats to bovine milk whey peptides following acute exercise

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Carolina Soares; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Risso, Eder Muller; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Several physiologically beneficial effects of consuming a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have been attributed to the greater availability of bioactive peptides. Aims: The aim was to investigate the effect of four branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA-)containing dipeptides, present in WPH, on immune modulation, stimulation of HSP expression, muscle protein synthesis, glycogen content, satiety signals and the impact of these peptides on the plasma free amino acid profiles. Methods: The animals were divided in groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), L-isoleucyl-L-leucine (lle-Leu), L-leucyl-L-isoleucine (Leu-lle), L-valyl-Lleucine (Val-Leu), L-leucyl-L-valine (Leu-Val) and WPH. All animals were submitted to acute exercise, except for control. Results: lle-Leu stimulated immune response, hepatic and muscle glycogen and HSP60 expression, whereas Leu-Val enhanced HSP90 expression. All dipeptides reduced glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, no changes were observed on leptin. All peptides inhibited NF-kB expression. The plasma amino acid time-course showed peptide-specific and isomer-specific metabolic features, including increases of the BCAAs. Conclusion: The data indicate that lle-Leu was effective to attenuate immune-suppression exercise-induced, promoted glycogen content and stimulated anti-stress effect (HSP). Furthermore, Leu-Val increased HSP90, p-4EBP1, p-mTOR and p-AMPK expression. The data suggest the involvement of these peptides in various beneficial functions of WPH consumption. PMID:28326005

  4. Impact of Fast Ignition on Laser Fusion Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirna, Kunioki

    2016-10-01

    Reviewed are the early history of Japanese laser fusion research and the recent achievement of fast ignition research at Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University. After the achievement of high density compression at Osaka University, LLE of University Rochester, and LLNL, the critical issue of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) research became the formation of hot spark in a compressed plasma. In this lecture, the history of the fast ignition research will be reviewed and future prospects are presented.

  5. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. "rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March)," "deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June)," "20-mSv exposure," and "100-mSv exposure." The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d-much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident.

  6. Next-generation high-reliability laser light engine by glass phosphor-converted layer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yung-Peng; Chang, Jin-Kai; Cheng, Wei-Chih; Liu, Chun-Nien; Chen, Li-Yin; Cheng, Wood-Hi

    2016-09-01

    A new scheme of high-reliability laser light engine (LLE) employing a novel glass-based phosphor-converted layer is proposed and demonstrated. The LLE module consists of a high-power blue light laser array and a color wheel, which includes two glass-based phosphor-converted layers of yellow Ce:YAG and green Ce:LuAG and a micro motor. The combinations of blue, yellow, and green lights produce high-purity phosphor-converted white-laser-diodes (PC-WLDs). The lumen degradation and chromaticity shift in the glass-based phosphor-converted layer under different laser powers are presented and compared with those of silicon-based PC-WLDs. The results showed that the glass based PC-WLDs exhibited in lower lumen loss and less chromaticity shifts than the silicon-based PC-WLDs. The long term reliability study evaluation in glass- and silicone-based PC-WLDs under high-power 120 W at room temperature for 20,000 hours is also presented and compared. The result showed that the silicone-based PC-WLDs exhibited 50% in lumen decay which failed in operation, while the glass-based PC-WLDs only exhibited 2% in lumen decay. This indicates that the proposed LLE modules are benefit to employ in the area where the silicone-based material fails to stand for long and strict reliability is highly required. This study demonstrates the advantages of adapting novel glass as a phosphor-converted color wheel in the LLE modules that provide unique high-reliability as well as better performance for use in the next-generation laser projector system.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of different extracts of Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed

    Romani, Annalisa; Coinu, Rita; Carta, Stefania; Pinelli, Patrizia; Galardi, Carlotta; Vincieri, Franco F; Franconi, Flavia

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Nevertheless, no optimal natural antioxidant has been found for therapeutics, therefore polyphenol antioxidants have been looked for in myrtle leaves, a plant that in folk medicine has been used as anti-inflammatory drug. Antioxidant-rich fractions were prepared from myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) leaves liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with different solvents. All myrtle extracts were very rich in polyphenols. In particular, hydroalcoholic extracts contain galloyl-glucosides, ellagitannins, galloyl-quinic acids and flavonol glycosides; ethylacetate extract and aqueous residues after LLE are enriched in flavonol glycosides and hydrolysable tannins (galloyl-glucosides, ellagitannins, galloyl-quinic acids), respectively. Qualitative and quantitative analysis for the single unidentified compound was also performed. Human LDL exposed to copper ions was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the myrtle extracts. Addition of these extracts did not affect the basal oxidation of LDL but dose-dependently decreased the oxidation induced by copper ions. Moreover, the myrtle extracts reduce the formation of conjugated dienes. The antioxidant effect of three myrtle extracts decreased in the following order: hydroalcoholic extracts, ethylacetate and aqueous residues after LLE. The extracts had the following IC50: 0.36, 2.27 and 2.88 microM, when the sum of total phenolic compounds was considered after the correction of molecular weight based on pure compounds. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference among hydroalcoholic extracts vs. the ethylacetate and aqueous residues after LLE. These results suggest that the myrtle extracts have a potent antioxidant activity mainly due to the presence of galloyl derivatives.

  8. Spatio-temporal stability of 1D Kerr cavity solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelens, L.; Parra-Rivas, P.; Leo, F.; Gomila, D.; Matias, Manuel A.; Coen, S.

    2014-05-01

    The Lugiato-Lefever equation (LLE) has been extensively studied since its derivation in 1987, when this meanfield model was introduced to describe nonlinear optical cavities. The LLE was originally derived to describe a ring cavity or a Fabry-Perot resonator with a transverse spatial extension and partially filled with a nonlinear medium but it has also been shown to be applicable to other types of cavities, such as fiber resonators and microresonators. Depending on the parameters used, the LLE can present a monostable or bistable input-output response curve. A large number of theoretical studies have been done in the monostable regime, but the bistable regime has remained widely unexplored. One of the reasons for this was that previous experimental setups were not able to works in such regimes of the parameter space. Nowadays the possibility of reaching such parameter regimes experimentally has renewed the interest in the LLE. In this contribution, we present an in-depth theoretical study of the different dynamical regimes that can appear in parameter space, focusing on the dynamics of localized solutions, also known as cavity solitons (CSs). We show that time-periodic oscillations of a 1D CS appear naturally in a broad region of parameter space. More than this oscillatory regime, which has been recently demonstrated experimentally,1 we theoretically report on several kinds of chaotic dynamics. We show that the existence of CSs and their dynamics is related with the spatial dynamics of the system and with the presence of a codimension-2 point known as a Fold-Hopf bifurcation point. These dynamical regimes can become accessible by using devices such as microresonators, for instance widely used for creating optical frequency combs.

  9. Optimization of amide-based EP3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther C Y; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Arcari, Joel T; Bahnck, Kevin; Coffey, Steven B; Derksen, David R; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Loria, Paula M; Sharma, Raman

    2016-06-01

    Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 3 (EP3) antagonism may treat a variety of symptoms from inflammation to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Previously, most EP3 antagonists were large acidic ligands that mimic the substrate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). This manuscript describes the optimization of a neutral small molecule amide series with improved lipophilic efficiency (LipE) also known as lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) ((a) Nat. Rev. Drug Disc.2007, 6, 881; (b) Annu. Rep. Med. Chem.2010, 45, 380).

  10. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  11. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. “rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March),” “deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June),” “20-mSv exposure,” and “100-mSv exposure.” The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d—much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  12. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 65, Number 5, November 1926

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1926-11-01

    llE’XTIO:X THE COAST ARTILLERY JOUl :’UL L. M. NEWCOMB President ADVERTISEMENTS G. K. VANDERSLICE Vice-President THE OLD POINT NATIONAL BANK PHOEBUS, VIRGINIA...Information for Pacifists Persistent propagators of pacifist ’propaganda will find little to commend in a recent speech delivered by James W. Gerard...historiographers, as Bancroft. Prescott . ~Iotley, Parkman, .. ere men of independent means, who couId well afford to spend years in preparation. 500 THE COAST

  13. Population dynamics and tuberculosis: a cross sectional study of an overlooked disease in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Bishri, Jamal; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Adnan, Mubarki; Tariq, Malik; Abdullah, Harthi; Abdulgoni, Thubaiti; Bander, Guraibi; Altalhi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Hintergrund: Internationale Reisen, Migration und Bevölkerungsbewegungen erleichtern die Ausbreitung der Tuberkulose (TBC).Ziel: Untersuchung des Einflusses von wenig untersuchten ausländischen Arbeitern auf die lokale Inzidenz der TBC in Saudi-Arabien.Patienten und Methoden: Diese Querschnittsstudie wurde im Chest Disease Hospital, Taif, Saudi-Arabien durchgeführt. Einbezogen wurden alle bestätigten Fälle von TBC, die im Zeitraum von Juni 2009 bis Mai 2010 in die Klinik eingewiesen wurden. Einschlusskriterien waren diagnostizierte Fälle von TBC (Lungen- und allgemeiner TBC) bei Patienten im Alter zwischen 14 und 65 Jahren. HIV-Patienten und Patienten mit koexistenten Krebserkrankungen wurden ausgeschlossen. Alter, Geschlecht und die ethnische Zugehörigkeit jedes Patienten wurden erfasst. Die Patienten wurden in zwei Gruppen aufgeteilt: Gruppe A bestand aus Einwohnern von Taif und Gruppe B aus Patienten, die aus anderen Regionen des Landes überwiesen wurden.Ergebnisse: Von den 686 untersuchten Fällen waren 370 (54%) saudische Staatsangehörige (Gruppe A = 80, Gruppe B = 290) und 316 (46%) der Patienten stammten aus anderen Ländern. Die Zahl der Männer übertraf die der Frauen und die meisten Patienten waren 20–29 Jahre alt. Die Zahl der Fälle aus den Gebieten in der Nähe der Pilgerstätten, d.h. Makah (233) und Dschidda (275), übertraf die in Taif (110).Schlussfolgerung: Diese Studie zeigt eine erhöhte Prävalenz der TBC-Fälle in Gebieten in der Nähe der Pilgerstätten (Gruppe B). Der höhere Anteil von TBC-Patienten nicht-saudischer Nationalität in Gruppe B ist am ehesten durch die größere Zahl von schlecht untersuchten illegalen Einwanderern in der Region zu erklären.

  14. MASK: A Tactical Aid for Planning Air Strikes against Radar Defended Land Targets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    0 P PS ii kIK ...... .. 4.,.**.***. K L t4 NNN N L K KLM N 0 G! MiLK ... . ............... L I. 4’ AN1 I K KLA1 NNG0 0 ,% MLA............4f S LI. MMM4M...MWOt. IA P -MI,-L : U.... . **........ ..... ee.( . 54 L Q. O.ee* MN Ke.e... LLe.....e. LL . LLAMA N LL ............. K... AM....e.. *eLPIL 446

  15. Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, S L

    2010-04-07

    The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

  16. State Anxiety and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability in Students

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriev, Aleksey D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Clinical and experimental research studies have demonstrated that the emotional experience of anxiety impairs heart rate variability (HRV) in humans. The present study investigated whether changes in state anxiety (SA) can also modulate nonlinear dynamics of heart rate. Methods A group of 96 students volunteered to participate in the study. For each student, two 5-minute recordings of beat intervals (RR) were performed: one during a rest period and one just before a university examination, which was assumed to be a real-life stressor. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed. The Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of SA. Results Before adjusting for heart rate, a Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed significant decreases in Poincaré plot measures, entropy, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), and pointwise correlation dimension (PD2), and an increase in the short-term fractal-like scaling exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis (α1) during the exam session, compared with the rest period. A Pearson analysis indicated significant negative correlations between the dynamics of SA and Poincaré plot axes ratio (SD1/SD2), and between changes in SA and changes in entropy measures. A strong negative correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and LLE. A significant positive correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and α1. The decreases in Poincaré plot measures (SD1, complex correlation measure), entropy measures, and LLE were still significant after adjusting for heart rate. Corrected α1 was increased during the exam session. As before, the dynamics of adjusted LLE was significantly correlated with the dynamics of SA. Conclusions The qualitative increase in SA during academic examination was related to the decrease in the complexity and size of the Poincaré plot through a reduction of both the interbeat interval and its variation. PMID:26807793

  17. Validity of ligand efficiency metrics.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher W; Erlanson, Daniel A; Hopkins, Andrew L; Keserü, György M; Leeson, Paul D; Rees, David C; Reynolds, Charles H; Richmond, Nicola J

    2014-06-12

    A recent viewpoint article (Improving the plausibility of success with inefficient metrics. ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5, 2-5) argued that the standard definition of ligand efficiency (LE) is mathematically invalid. In this viewpoint, we address this criticism and show categorically that the definition of LE is mathematically valid. LE and other metrics such as lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) can be useful during the multiparameter optimization challenge faced by medicinal chemists.

  18. Free trade negotiations can be harmful to your health.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, Gaëlle

    2006-12-01

    When negotiating free trade agreements (FTAs), the U.S. uses its considerable power to get countries to agree to intellectual property (IP) provisions that go beyond what is mandated in international IP accords. In this article, which is based on a poster presented at the conference, Gaëlle Krikorian describes the tactics used by the U.S. and explains how the results of its efforts can impede access to newer medicines in developing countries.

  19. Quantitative determination of methamphetamine in oral fluid by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bahmanabadi, L; Akhgari, M; Jokar, F; Sadeghi, H B

    2017-02-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is one of the most medical and social problems many countries face. In spite of the ban on the use of methamphetamine, it is widely available in Iran's drug black market. There are many analytical methods for the detection of methamphetamine in biological specimen. Oral fluid has become a popular specimen to test for the presence of methamphetamine. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method for the extraction and detection of methamphetamine in oral fluid samples using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. An analytical study was designed in that blank and 50 authentic oral fluid samples were collected to be first extracted by LLE and subsequently analysed by GC/MS. The method was fully validated and showed an excellent intra- and inter-assay precision (reflex sympathetic dystrophy ˂ 10%) for external quality control samples. Recovery with LLE methods was 96%. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 5 and 15 ng/mL, respectively. The method showed high selectivity, no additional peak due to interfering substances in samples was observed. The introduced method was sensitive, accurate and precise enough for the extraction of methamphetamine from oral fluid samples in forensic toxicology laboratories.

  20. Inhibitory effects of Leucaena leucocephala on the metastasis and invasion of human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hsiao-Hang; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Chang, Yu-Chao; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Chia-Chieh; Lin, Chiao-Wen

    2017-02-09

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and metastasis is recognized as a major factor causing its low survival rate. The inhibition of metastasis progress and the improvement of the survival rate for oral cancer are critical research objectives. Leucaena leucocephala from the mimosa branch Leucaena genus is native to Central and South America and has been used as a traditional remedy for treating various disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as anticancer properties of L. leucocephala plant materials. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer effect induced by L. leucocephala remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of L. leucocephala extract (LLE) on SCC-9 and SAS oral cancer cells and examined the potential inhibitory mechanisms involved. The results indicated that LLE attenuated the migration and invasion abilities of both SCC-9 and SAS cells by reducing the activity and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Regarding mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 exhibited a significant inhibitory effect in the presence of LLE. The application of ERK inhibitor and p38 inhibitor confirmed that both signalling transduction pathways were involved in the inhibition of cell metastasis. These data indicate that L. leucocephala could be a potent therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer and a prominent plant source for anticancer research in the future.

  1. Effects of injection timing on nonlinear dynamics of the combustion process in the lean-burn premixed natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shun-Liang; Song, En-Zhe; Yang, Li-Ping; Yao, Chong; Ma, Xiu-Zhen

    2017-02-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of the combustion process in the lean-burn premixed natural gas engine are studied in this paper. Based on nonlinear dynamic theory, the complexity of the combustion process is analyzed under different injection timing conditions. The phase spaces are reconstructed for the experimentally obtained in-cylinder pressure real-time series and the return maps are plotted for the IMEP time series. The results of phase space reconstruction manifest that the attractors are limited to the finite range in the reconstructed phase space. The attractors have a folded and twist geometry structure. The attractors under medium injection timing conditions are looser and more complex. The return maps indicate the coexistence of the stochastic and deterministic components in the patterns combustion process. With the injection timing increasing, there are both a transition from stochastic to deterministic and a transition from deterministic to stochastic, forming the region of deterministic behavior. The largest Lyapunov exponents (LLE) for in-cylinder pressure time series are calculated and the coefficients of variations (COV) of IMEP are also analyzed. The results express that the LLE values are positive. There are a "steep increase" and a "steep decrease" for the LLE and COV values as the injection timing increasing.

  2. Approximate Orthogonal Sparse Embedding for Dimensionality Reduction.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jian; Zhang, David

    2016-04-01

    Locally linear embedding (LLE) is one of the most well-known manifold learning methods. As the representative linear extension of LLE, orthogonal neighborhood preserving projection (ONPP) has attracted widespread attention in the field of dimensionality reduction. In this paper, a unified sparse learning framework is proposed by introducing the sparsity or L1-norm learning, which further extends the LLE-based methods to sparse cases. Theoretical connections between the ONPP and the proposed sparse linear embedding are discovered. The optimal sparse embeddings derived from the proposed framework can be computed by iterating the modified elastic net and singular value decomposition. We also show that the proposed model can be viewed as a general model for sparse linear and nonlinear (kernel) subspace learning. Based on this general model, sparse kernel embedding is also proposed for nonlinear sparse feature extraction. Extensive experiments on five databases demonstrate that the proposed sparse learning framework performs better than the existing subspace learning algorithm, particularly in the cases of small sample sizes.

  3. Molecular Recognition of the Catalytic Zinc(II) Ion in MMP-13: Structure-Based Evolution of an Allosteric Inhibitor to Dual Binding Mode Inhibitors with Improved Lipophilic Ligand Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Thomas; Riedl, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc dependent endopeptidases which play a crucial role in a multitude of severe diseases such as cancer and osteoarthritis. We employed MMP-13 as the target enzyme for the structure-based design and synthesis of inhibitors able to recognize the catalytic zinc ion in addition to an allosteric binding site in order to increase the affinity of the ligand. Guided by molecular modeling, we optimized an initial allosteric inhibitor by addition of linker fragments and weak zinc binders for recognition of the catalytic center. Furthermore we improved the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) of the initial inhibitor by adding appropriate zinc binding fragments to lower the clogP values of the inhibitors, while maintaining their potency. All synthesized inhibitors showed elevated affinity compared to the initial hit, also most of the novel inhibitors displayed better LLE. Derivatives with carboxylic acids as the zinc binding fragments turned out to be the most potent inhibitors (compound 3 (ZHAWOC5077): IC50 = 134 nM) whereas acyl sulfonamides showed the best lipophilic ligand efficiencies (compound 18 (ZHAWOC5135): LLE = 2.91). PMID:26938528

  4. Characteristic Extraction of Mental Disease Patients by Nonlinear Analysis of Plethysmograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuyu; Wang, Wenbiao; Suzuki, Takashi; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    We measured the pulse waves of 196 mentally ill patients and 113 healthy students. Using heartbeat changes, we calculated the values of their sympathetic nerves, parasympathetic nerves, and autonomic nerve balance. In addition, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponents (LLE) by non-linear analysis of plethysmograms. Values were analyzed by group. The results revealed a significant relationship between LLE and the autonomic nerve balance. The sympathetic nerve values in the patient group were significantly higher than those in the student group, whereas the LLE values were significantly lower. Furthermore, we illustrated the dynamic change in the results for single participants over several testing times. The measurement of pulse waves is easy and economical and does not put a strain on the subject. Additionally, these values can provide information that is more accurate than medical examination obtained from an interview. Our study contributed to the existing methodology in this field, and future data collection and measurement will be carried out. We hope that our study will be useful for neurologists and psychotherapists in their detection and treatment of mental illness.

  5. Detection of sulfonamide drug in urine using liquid-liquid extraction and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markina, Natalia E.; Shalabay, Victoria V.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.; Markin, Alexey V.

    2016-04-01

    In this article we have applied liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) as a sample preparation technique for detection of sulfadimethoxine (one of sulfonamide drugs) in urine using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS substrate based on silver nanoparticles has been prepared by citrate reduction of silver nitrate. Obtained calibration curve (SERS intensity vs. sulfadimethoxine concentration) has been used for detection of sulfadimethoxine in human urine samples artificially contaminated by sulfadimethoxine. Three different solvents (ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, chloroform) have been used for LLE performance tests. Chloroform being found as the most effective one based on calculation of recoveries after SERS measurements. Thus we would like to propose fast (less than 20 minutes), simple and sensitive (detection limit up to 1 μg/ml) test for detecting sulfa drugs in urine using a combination of SERS with LLE with sample volume as low as 100 μL. Such test can be applied for evaluation of the degree of drug extraction from human body and half-life of such drug applied in the course of therapeutic treatments of certain diseases.

  6. Molecular Recognition of the Catalytic Zinc(II) Ion in MMP-13: Structure-Based Evolution of an Allosteric Inhibitor to Dual Binding Mode Inhibitors with Improved Lipophilic Ligand Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Thomas; Riedl, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc dependent endopeptidases which play a crucial role in a multitude of severe diseases such as cancer and osteoarthritis. We employed MMP-13 as the target enzyme for the structure-based design and synthesis of inhibitors able to recognize the catalytic zinc ion in addition to an allosteric binding site in order to increase the affinity of the ligand. Guided by molecular modeling, we optimized an initial allosteric inhibitor by addition of linker fragments and weak zinc binders for recognition of the catalytic center. Furthermore we improved the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) of the initial inhibitor by adding appropriate zinc binding fragments to lower the clogP values of the inhibitors, while maintaining their potency. All synthesized inhibitors showed elevated affinity compared to the initial hit, also most of the novel inhibitors displayed better LLE. Derivatives with carboxylic acids as the zinc binding fragments turned out to be the most potent inhibitors (compound 3 (ZHAWOC5077): IC50 = 134 nM) whereas acyl sulfonamides showed the best lipophilic ligand efficiencies (compound 18 (ZHAWOC5135): LLE = 2.91).

  7. Greener bioanalytical approach for LC/MS-MS assay of enalapril and enalaprilat in human plasma with total replacement of acetonitrile throughout all analytical stages.

    PubMed

    Cheregi, Mihaela; Albu, Florin; Udrescu, Ştefan; Răducanu, Nicoleta; Medvedovici, Andrei

    2013-05-15

    Green bioanalytical approaches are oriented toward minimization or elimination of hazardous chemicals associated to bioanalytical applications. LC/MS-MS assay of enalapril and enalaprilat in human plasma was achieved by elimination of acetonitrile from both sample preparation and chromatographic separation stages. Protein precipitation (PP) by acetonitrile addition was replaced by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) in 1-octanol followed by direct large volume injection of the organic layer in the chromatographic column operated under reversed phase (RP) separation mechanism. At the mean time, acetonitrile used as organic modifier in the mobile phase was successfully replaced by a mixture of propylene carbonate/ethanol (7/3, v/v). Three analytical alternatives ((I) acetonitrile PP+acetonitrile based chromatographic elution; (II) 1-octanol LLE+acetonitrile based chromatographic elution; (III) 1-octanol LLE+propylene carbonate/ethanol based chromatographic elution) were validated and the quality characteristics were compared. Comparison between these alternative analytical approaches was also based on results obtained on incurred samples taken during a bioequivalence study, through application of the Bland-Altman procedure.

  8. Salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction with acetonitrile: a new high throughput sample preparation technique for good laboratory practice bioanalysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Huaiqin; Kim, Elaine; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2009-04-01

    Acetonitrile, an organic solvent miscible with aqueous phase, has seen thousands of publications in the literature as an efficient deproteinization reagent. The use of acetonitrile for liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), however, has seen very limited application due to its miscibility with aqueous phase. The interest in LLE with acetonitrile has been pursued and reported in the literature by significantly lowering the temperature of the mixture or increasing the salt concentration in the mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous phase, resulting in the separation of the acetonitrile phase from aqueous phase, as observed in conventional LLE. However, very limited application of these methods has been reported. The throughput was limited. In this report, we report a new sample preparation technique, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile, for high-throughput good laboratory practice sample analysis using LCMS, Two compounds from an approved drug, Kaletra, were used to demonstrate the extractability of drugs from human plasma matrix. Magnesium sulfate was used as the salting-out reagent. Extracts were diluted and then injected into a reversed phase LC-MS/MS system directly. One 96-well plate was extracted with this new approach to evaluate multiple parameters of a good laboratory practice analytical method. Results indicate that the method is rapid, reliable and suitable for regulated bioanalysis. With minimal modification, this approach has been used for high-throughput good laboratory practice analysis of a number of compounds under development at Abbott.

  9. Automated GC-MS Determination of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabinol and Cannabidiol in Hair.

    PubMed

    Heinl, Sonja; Lerch, Oliver; Erdmann, Freidoon

    2016-09-01

    The determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in hair is a major routine task in forensic laboratories worldwide. A comprehensively automated liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method has been developed. The automation was carried out by an x-y-z sample robot equipped with modules capable of shaking, centrifugation and solvent evaporation. It comprises digestion of hair in sodium hydroxide solution, LLE, extract evaporation, reconstitution in silylation reagent, inlet derivatization and GC-MS analysis. Method validation guidelines of the Society for Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry were fulfilled. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 ng/mg for THC, 0.06 ng/mg for CBN and 0.03 ng/mg for CBD. This is below the required LOQ for THC (0.02 ng/mg) in medical psychological assessments in Germany. Also it is far below the required LOQ of the Society of Hair Testing of 0.1 ng/mg for THC. Four-round robin tests were passed successfully and several post- and ante-mortem samples were analyzed. To date the method is routinely employed at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen, Germany. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication on a comprehensively automated classical LLE workflow in the field of hair analysis.

  10. Recent advances in sample preparation techniques for effective bioanalytical methods.

    PubMed

    Kole, Prashant Laxman; Venkatesh, Gantala; Kotecha, Jignesh; Sheshala, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent developments in bioanalysis sample preparation techniques and gives an update on basic principles, theory, applications and possibilities for automation, and a comparative discussion on the advantages and limitation of each technique. Conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), protein precipitation (PP) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques are now been considered as methods of the past. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of novel sample preparation techniques in bioanalysis. Developments in SPE techniques such as selective sorbents and in the overall approach to SPE, such as hybrid SPE and molecularly imprinted polymer SPE, have been addressed. Considerable literature has been published in the area of solid-phase micro-extraction and its different versions, e.g. stir bar sorptive extraction, and their application in the development of selective and sensitive bioanalytical methods. Techniques such as dispersive solid-phase extraction, disposable pipette extraction and micro-extraction by packed sorbent offer a variety of extraction phases and provide unique advantages to bioanalytical methods. On-line SPE utilizing column-switching techniques is rapidly gaining acceptance in bioanalytical applications. PP sample preparation techniques such as PP filter plates/tubes offer many advantages like removal of phospholipids and proteins in plasma/serum. Newer approaches to conventional LLE techniques (salting-out LLE) are also covered in this review article.

  11. Rapid monitoring of sulfur mustard degradation in solution by headspace solid-phase microextraction sampling and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Creek, Jo-Anne M; McAnoy, Andrew M; Brinkworth, Craig S

    2010-12-15

    A method using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis has been developed to gain insight into the degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard in solution. Specifically, the described approach simplifies the sample preparation for GC/MS analysis to provide a rapid determination of changes in sulfur mustard abundance. These results were found to be consistent with those obtained using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) GC/MS. The utility of the described approach was further demonstrated by the investigation of the degradation process in a complex matrix with surfactant added to assist solvation of sulfur mustard. A more rapid reduction in sulfur mustard abundance was observed using the HS-SPME approach with surfactant present and was similar to results from LLE experiments. Significantly, this study demonstrates that HS-SPME can simplify the sample preparation for GC/MS analysis to monitor changes in sulfur mustard abundance in solution more rapidly, and with less solvent and reagent usage than LLE.

  12. Manifold learning on brain functional networks in aging.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Anqi; Lee, Annie; Tan, Mingzhen; Chung, Moo K

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new analysis framework to utilize the full information of brain functional networks for computing the mean of a set of brain functional networks and embedding brain functional networks into a low-dimensional space in which traditional regression and classification analyses can be easily employed. For this, we first represent the brain functional network by a symmetric positive matrix computed using sparse inverse covariance estimation. We then impose a Log-Euclidean Riemannian manifold structure on brain functional networks whose norm gives a convenient and practical way to define a mean. Finally, based on the fact that the computation of linear operations can be done in the tangent space of this Riemannian manifold, we adopt Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) to the Log-Euclidean Riemannian manifold space in order to embed the brain functional networks into a low-dimensional space. We show that the integration of the Log-Euclidean manifold with LLE provides more efficient and succinct representation of the functional network and facilitates regression analysis, such as ridge regression, on the brain functional network to more accurately predict age when compared to that of the Euclidean space of functional networks with LLE. Interestingly, using the Log-Euclidean analysis framework, we demonstrate the integration and segregation of cortical-subcortical networks as well as among the salience, executive, and emotional networks across lifespan.

  13. Late Language Emergence at 24 Months: An Epidemiological Study of Prevalence, Predictors, and Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Rice, Mabel L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of late language emergence (LLE) and to investigate the predictive status of maternal, family, and child variables. Method This is a prospective cohort study of 1766 epidemiologically ascertained twenty-four-month singleton children. The framework was an ecological model of child development, encompassing a wide range of maternal, family, and child variables. Data were obtained using postal questionnaire. Item analyses of the 6-item Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) Communication Scale yielded a composite score encompassing comprehension as well as production items. One standard deviation below the mean yielded good separation of affected from unaffected children. Analyses of bivariate relationships with maternal, family, and child variables were carried out, followed by multivariate logistic regression to predict LLE group membership. Results 13.4% of the sample showed late language emergence via the ASQ criterion; 19.1% using a single item “combining words.” Risk for LLE at 24 months was not associated with particular strata of parental educational levels, socioeconomic resources, parental mental health, parenting practices or family functioning. Significant predictors included familial history of late language emergence, male gender and early neurobiological growth. Covariates included psychosocial indicators. Conclusion Results are congruent with models of language emergence and impairment that posit a strong role for neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of onset that operate across a wide variation in maternal and family characteristics. PMID:18055773

  14. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Litak, Grzegorz; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  15. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li-Ping Ding, Shun-Liang; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen; Litak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-15

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  16. Sustainable efficient way for opioid peptide LVV-h7 preparation from enzymatic proteolysis in a microfluidic-based reaction-extraction process with solvent recycling.

    PubMed

    Elagli, Adil; Belhacene, Kalim; Dhulster, Pascal; Froidevaux, Renato

    2016-05-01

    LVV-h7 (LVVYPWTQFR) is a bioactive peptide that can be obtained from blood as waste of food industry, more precisely from hemoglobin hydrolysis by pepsin. This opioid peptide belongs to the hemorphins family and have strong physiological effects that bring its use in pharmaceutics and various therapeutic treatments attractive, in particular for substituting its costly chemically synthetized analogous. Hemoglobin hydrolysis by pepsin generates a huge variety of peptides among whose LVV-h7 can be purified by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Herein, selective preparation of this peptide is proposed by a microfluidic-based continuous reaction-separation process. Hemoglobin hydrolysis in microreactor was firstly coupled to LVV-h7 LLE in octan-1-ol and then coupled to LVV-h7 back LLE in acidic water. This continuous process allowed to prepare pure LVV-h7, as confirmed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The microfluidic circuit also allowed octan-1-ol recycling in a closed loop, making this method more sustainable than similar biphasic batch process.

  17. Semi-automated disk-type solid-phase extraction method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in aqueous samples and its application to natural water.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Lee, J H; Moon, B S; Baek, K H

    2007-07-20

    A disk-type solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was used for the extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in natural water and tap water. Since this SPE system comprised airtight glass covers with a decompression pump, it enabled continuous extraction with semi-automation. The disk-type SPE method was validated by comparing its recovery rates of spiked internal standards with those of the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The recovery ranges of both methods were similar in terms of (13)C-labeled internal standards: 64.3-99.2% for the LLE and 52.4-93.6% for the SPE. For the native spike of 1,3,6,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), the recoveries in the SPE were in the normal range of 77.9-101.1%. However, in the LLE, the recoveries of 1,3,6,8-TCDD decreased significantly. One of the reasons for the low recovery is that the solubility of this congener is high. The semi-automated SPE method was applied to the analysis of different types of water: river water, snow, sea water, raw water for drinking purposes, and tap water. PCDD/F congeners were found in some sea water and snow samples, while their concentrations in the other samples were below the limits of detection (LODs). This SPE system is appropriate for the routine analysis of water samples below 50L.

  18. Analytical Treatment of the Metabolic Effects of Isocaloric Stimulant on Heart Rate Variability as Measured by Electrocardiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffe, Lauren Rachelle

    Heart Rate variability (HRV) is measured during a period that includes ingestion and digestion of 900 kilogram calories of carbohydrate and fat beverages on two separate occasions. Autoregressive (AR) analysis, Poincare Plot Analysis (PPA), Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), and the Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) highlights variations in the linear and non-linear indices with respect to time. DFA indices indicated that all individuals were healthy (α≈1). In addition, an overall increase of α over the 3-hour observation time shows increased sympathetic intonation. Body Mass Index (BMI) influences on HRV were found. Over short time scales, DFA's α 1 index suggests the potentiality for future patho-physiological risk in those with high BMI>25. Over longer time scales, α2 has no significant differentiation among different BMI groups. The application of k-means cluster analysis revealed a connection to BMI when α and α 1 /α2 parameters were used. We believe that the LLE indicates an increased stability during digestion of the hypercaloric beverages. Groups with BMI>25 have smaller LLE, on average, than BMI≤ 25. This does substantiate the AR, Poincare, and DFA analyses of groups with higher BMI having less sympathetic increase when compared to lower BMI groups due to caloric metabolism.

  19. Effect of nortriptyline and paroxetine on measures of chaos of heart rate time series in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Yeragani, Vikram Kumar; Rao, Radhakrishna

    2003-12-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants have notable cardiac side effects, and this issue has become important due to the recent reports of increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with depression and anxiety. Several previous studies indicate that serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) do not appear to have such adverse effects. Apart from the effects of these drugs on routine 12-lead ECG, the effects on beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and QT interval time series provide more information on the side effects related to cardiac autonomic function. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two antidepressants, nortriptyline (n=13), a tricyclic, and paroxetine (n=16), an SRI inhibitor, on HR variability in patients with panic disorder, using a measure of chaos, the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) using pre- and posttreatment HR time series. Our results show that nortriptyline is associated with a decrease in LLE of high frequency (HF: 0.15-0.5 Hz) filtered series, which is most likely due to its anticholinergic effect, while paroxetine had no such effect. Paroxetine significantly decreased sympathovagal ratios as measured by a decrease in LLE of LF/HF. These results suggest that paroxetine appears to be safer in regards to cardiovascular effects compared to nortriptyline in this group of patients.

  20. Phase equilibria of haloalkanes dissolved in ethylsulfate- or ethylsulfonate-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Deive, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Ana; Pereiro, Ana B; Shimizu, Karina; Forte, Paulo A S; Romão, Carlos C; Canongia Lopes, José N; Esperança, José M S S; Rebelo, Luís P N

    2010-06-03

    The temperature-composition phase diagrams of 40 binary mixtures composed of a haloalkane dissolved in either 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfonate were measured from ambient temperature to the boiling point temperature of the solute. The coexistence curves corresponding to liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) boundaries were visually determined and the experimental results have been correlated using either the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) model or a set of empirical equations capable of describing the corresponding upper critical solution temperatures (UCSTs) loci. The different types of LLE behavior were discussed in terms of the type of ionic liquid solvent, the alkyl-chain length of the solute, and the type and pattern of halogen substitution present in the haloalkane. Auxiliary simulation data (obtained by ab initio or by molecular dynamics methods) were used to corroborate some of the experimental findings. Also, they correlate in a semiquantitative way the observed LLE behavior with the dipole moments of the different solutes.

  1. New insight into phase equilibria involving imidazolium bistriflamide ionic liquids and their mixtures with alcohols and water.

    PubMed

    Pereiro, Ana B; Deive, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Ana; Ruivo, Diana; Canongia Lopes, José N; Esperança, José M S S; Rebelo, Luís P N

    2010-07-15

    The fluid phase equilibria (liquid-liquid demixing behavior (LLE)) of mixtures of ionic liquids of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide family, [C(n)mim][NTf(2)], with 2-methylpropanol or n-octanol were investigated. Binary mixtures of [C(4)mim][NTf(2)] + alcohol and [C(6)mim][NTf(2)] + alcohol were compared to pseudobinary mixtures of (0.5[C(2)mim] + 0.5[C(6)mim])[NTf(2)] + alcohol and (0.5[C(2)mim] + 0.5[C(10)mim])[NTf(2)] + alcohol, respectively. Additionally, the presence of water in the studied alcohols or as a third component in the system was analyzed in order to check any possible deviation from the LLE observed for the anhydrous systems. Systems containing small fractions of ionic liquid show similar LLE between the corresponding binary and pseudobinary systems; however, large differences are observed in the presence of water when the IL mass fraction is increased.

  2. Influence of Salts on the Partitioning of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water/MIBK.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Sultan; Held, Christoph; Altuntepe, Emrah; Köse, Tülay; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-04-28

    This study investigates the influence of electrolytes on the performance of extracting 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from aqueous media using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). For that purpose, liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of quaternary systems containing HMF, water, MIBK and salts were measured at atmospheric pressure and 298.15 K. The salts under investigation were composed of one of the anions NO(3-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), or CH3COO(-) and of one of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), or K(+). On the basis of these LLE data, the partition coefficient of HMF between the aqueous and the MIBK phase KHMF was determined. It could be shown that KHMF significantly depends on the kind and concentration of the added salt. Weak electrolytes (e.g., sulfates, acetates) caused salting-out, whereas nitrates caused salting-in of HMF to the aqueous phase. Unexpectedly, LiCl caused salting-out at low LiCl concentrations and salting-in at LiCl concentrations higher than 3 mol/kgH2O. The model electrolyte perturbed-chain SAFT (ePC-SAFT) was used to predict the salt influence on the LLE in the quaternary systems water/MIBK/HMF/salt in good agreement with the experimental data. On the basis of ePC-SAFT, it could be concluded that the different salting-out/salting-in behavior of the various salts is mainly caused by their different tendency to form ion pairs in aqueous solutions.

  3. Determination of anxiolytic veterinary drugs from biological fertilizer blood meal using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Heui; Lamshöft, Marc; Zühlke, Sebastian; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Spiteller, Michael; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-06-01

    A liquid environment-friendly agricultural material originating from animal blood, blood meal, was employed to detect anxiolytic veterinary drugs using a combination of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and positive electrospray ionization Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Every positive ion of the analytes was consistent with [M+H](+) , and the accurate mass analysis and mass spectral filtration with a 2-ppm mass tolerance window were applied to identify and quantitate the analytes and metabolites. The developed LLE method was validated with the lowest calibrated level, linearity (r(2) ), recovery, repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility, which were in the ranges of 0.3-1 µg/L, 0.9963-0.9995, 48.3-117.5%, 1.1-12.6% and 2.3-15.7%, respectively. The LLE method was compared with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method; however, its recoveries were <70% for most of the analytes despite good repeatability of 1.2-7.4%. The analytes and the ascertained acepromazine, azaperone and xylazine metabolites were monitored in four actual liquid blood meal samples, and none of the targeted compounds were observed.

  4. [Recognition of corn seeds based on pattern recognition and near infrared spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-ling; Su, Qi-ya; Sun, Qun; Yang, Li-ming

    2012-05-01

    Pattern recognition technology and data mining methods have become a hot topic in chemometrics. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis has been widely used in spectrum signal processing and modeling since it has advantages of quickness, simplicity and nondestructiveness. Based on five different methods of pattern recognition, namely the locally linear embedding (LLE), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machine (SVM), the pattern recognition system for corn seeds was proposed using NIR technology, and applied to classification of 108 hybrid samples and 178 female samples for corn seeds. Firstly, we get rid of noise or reduce the dimension using LLE, WT, PCA, PLS, and then use SVM to identify two-class samples. In the meantime, 1-norm SVM is the method of direct classification and identification. Experimental results of three different spectral regions show that the performances of three methods: PCA+SVM, LLE+SVM, PLS+SVM are superior to WT+SVM and 1-norm SVM methods, and obtain a high classification accuracy, which indicates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods. Moreover, this investigation provides the theoretical support and practical method for recognition of corn seeds utilizing near infrared spectral data.

  5. [Recognition of corn seeds based on pattern recognition and near infrared spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Ling; Su, Qi-Ya; Sun, Qun; Yang, Li-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Pattern recognition technology and data mining methods have become a hot topic in chemometrics. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis has been widely used in spectrum signal processing and modeling due to its advantages of quickness, simplicity and nondestructiveness. Based on five different methods of pattern recognition, namely the locally linear embedding (LLE), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machine (SVM), the pattern recognition system for corn seeds is proposed using NIR technology, and applied to classification of 108 hybrid samples and 178 female samples for corn seeds. Firstly, we get rid of noise or reduce the dimension using LLE, WT, PCA and PLS, and then use SVM to identify two-class samples. In the meantime, 1-norm SVM is the method of direct classification and identification. Experimental results for three different spectral regions show that the performances of three methods, i. e. PCA+SVM, LLE+SVM, PLS+SVM, are superior to WT+SVM and 1-norm SVM methods, and obtain a high classification accuracy, which indicates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods. Moreover, this investigation provides the theoretical support and practical method for recognition of corn seeds utilizing near infrared spectral data.

  6. Blood plasma sample preparation method for the assessment of thyroid hormone-disrupting potency in effect-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Eszter; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Jonker, Willem; Leonards, Pim E G; de Boer, Jacob; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Hamers, Timo; Lamoree, Marja H

    2011-09-15

    A sample preparation method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was developed to be used in Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) of blood plasma. Until now such a method was not available. It can be used for extraction of a broad range of thyroid hormone (TH)-disruptors from plasma with high recoveries. Validation of the method using spiked cow plasma showed good recoveries for hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs; 93.8 ± 19.5%), hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs; 93.8 ± 15.5%), other halogenated phenols (OHPs; 107 ± 8.1%), and for short-chain (<8 C-atoms) perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs; 85.2 ± 24.6%). In the same extracts, the potency of the compound classes spiked to the cow plasma to competitively bind to transthyretin (TTR) was recovered by 84.9 ± 8.8%. Furthermore, the SPE-LLE method efficiently removed endogenous THs from the extracts, thereby eliminating their possible contribution to the binding assay response. The SPE-LLE method was applied to polar bear plasma samples to investigate its applicability in future EDA studies focusing on TH-disrupting compounds in this top predator species that is exposed to relatively high levels of bioaccumulating pollutants. A first screening revealed TTR-binding potency in the polar bear plasma extracts, which could be explained for 60-85% by the presence of OH-PCBs.

  7. Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe.

    PubMed

    Krause-Kyora, Ben; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Evin, Allowen; Flink, Linus Girdland; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Hartz, Sönke; Schreiber, Stefan; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

    2013-01-01

    Mesolithic populations throughout Europe used diverse resource exploitation strategies that focused heavily on collecting and hunting wild prey. Between 5500 and 4200 cal BC, agriculturalists migrated into northwestern Europe bringing a suite of Neolithic technologies including domesticated animals. Here we investigate to what extent Mesolithic Ertebølle communities in northern Germany had access to domestic pigs, possibly through contact with neighbouring Neolithic agricultural groups. We employ a multidisciplinary approach, applying sequencing of ancient mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (coat colour-coding gene MC1R) as well as traditional and geometric morphometric (molar size and shape) analyses in Sus specimens from 17 Neolithic and Ertebølle sites. Our data from 63 ancient pig specimens show that Ertebølle hunter-gatherers acquired domestic pigs of varying size and coat colour that had both Near Eastern and European mitochondrial DNA ancestry. Our results also reveal that domestic pigs were present in the region ~500 years earlier than previously demonstrated.

  8. 1991 Summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, David D.

    1991-09-01

    Ten students participated in the 1991 summer high school student research program at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The participants spent 8 weeks working and learning at LLE. They spent most of their time working on individual research projects. Each student was assigned a project, upon which he/she worked under the direct supervision of one of the staff members of the laboratory. The students, their high schools, and their projects are listed in Table 1. The program culminated in oral and written reports describing their work. The oral reports were presented at a symposium on 23 August 1991, at which the student's parents and teachers and members of the LLE staff were present. The written reports are collected in this volume. The titles of the works are UV alignment table; neutron yields can be measured by using the relative gain of a photomultiplier tube; scattering in isotropic and anisotropic media; a better approximation of the diffusion equation; use of the SLAC code to produce a photoemissive electrostatic electron gun; spatial resolution deteriorates with increasing film exposure; analysis of refractive image distortion; making of pinholes for x-ray pinhole cameras; does perturbation theory accurately describe multiphoton ionization and wave front analysis using shearing interferometry.

  9. 1991 Summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Ten students participated in the 1991 summer high school student research program at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The participants spent 8 weeks working and learning at LLE. They spent most of their time working on individual research projects. Each student was assigned a project, upon which he/she worked under the direct supervision of one of the staff members of the laboratory. The students, their high schools, and their projects are listed in Table 1. The program culminated in oral and written reports describing their work. The oral reports were presented at a symposium on 23 August 1991, at which the student`s parents and teachers and members of the LLE staff were present. The written reports are collected in this volume. The titles of the works are UV alignment table; neutron yields can be measured by using the relative gain of a photomultiplier tube; scattering in isotropic and anisotropic media; a better approximation of the diffusion equation; use of the SLAC code to produce a photoemissive electrostatic electron gun; spatial resolution deteriorates with increasing film exposure; analysis of refractive image distortion; making of pinholes for x-ray pinhole cameras; does perturbation theory accurately describe multiphoton ionization? and wave front analysis using shearing interferometry.

  10. Microscopic theory of spatial-temporal congested traffic patterns at highway bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.

    2003-09-01

    A microscopic theory of spatial-temporal congested traffic patterns at highway bottlenecks due to on-ramps, merge bottlenecks (a reduction of highway lanes), and off-ramps is presented. The basic postulate of three-phase traffic theory is used, which claims that homogeneous (in space and time) model solutions (steady states) of synchronized flow cover a two dimensional region in the flow-density plane [B. S. Kerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3797 (1998); Trans. Res. Rec. 1678, 160 (1999)]. Phase transitions leading to diverse congested patterns, pattern evolution, and pattern nonlinear features have been found. Diagrams of congested patterns, i.e., regions of the pattern emergence dependent on traffic demand, have been derived. Diverse effects of metastability with respect to the pattern formation have been found. The microscopic theory allows us to explain the main empirical pattern features at on-ramps and off-ramps which have recently been found [B. S. Kerner, Phys. Rev. E 65, 046138 (2002)]. (i) Rather than moving jams, synchronized flow first occurs at bottlenecks if the flow rate is slowly increasing. Wide moving jams can spontaneously occur only in synchronized flow. (ii) General patterns (GP) and synchronized flow patterns (SP) can spontaneously emerge at the bottlenecks. There can be the widening SP (WSP), the moving SP (MSP), and the localized SP. (iii) At on-ramps cases of “weak” and “strong” congestion should be distinguished. In contrast to weak congestion, under strong congestion the flow rate in synchronized flow in GP reaches a limit flow rate, the frequency of the moving jam emergence reaches a maximum, i.e., the GP characteristics under strong congestion do not depend on traffic demand. (iv) At the off-ramp GP with weak congestion occur. (v) A study of the pattern formation on a highway with two bottlenecks shows that diverse expanded patterns can occur, which cover both bottlenecks. SP first emerged at the downstream bottleneck can be caught

  11. Microscopic theory of spatial-temporal congested traffic patterns at highway bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L

    2003-09-01

    A microscopic theory of spatial-temporal congested traffic patterns at highway bottlenecks due to on-ramps, merge bottlenecks (a reduction of highway lanes), and off-ramps is presented. The basic postulate of three-phase traffic theory is used, which claims that homogeneous (in space and time) model solutions (steady states) of synchronized flow cover a two dimensional region in the flow-density plane [B. S. Kerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3797 (1998); Trans. Res. Rec. 1678, 160 (1999)]. Phase transitions leading to diverse congested patterns, pattern evolution, and pattern nonlinear features have been found. Diagrams of congested patterns, i.e., regions of the pattern emergence dependent on traffic demand, have been derived. Diverse effects of metastability with respect to the pattern formation have been found. The microscopic theory allows us to explain the main empirical pattern features at on-ramps and off-ramps which have recently been found [B. S. Kerner, Phys. Rev. E 65, 046138 (2002)]. (i) Rather than moving jams, synchronized flow first occurs at bottlenecks if the flow rate is slowly increasing. Wide moving jams can spontaneously occur only in synchronized flow. (ii) General patterns (GP) and synchronized flow patterns (SP) can spontaneously emerge at the bottlenecks. There can be the widening SP (WSP), the moving SP (MSP), and the localized SP. (iii) At on-ramps cases of "weak" and "strong" congestion should be distinguished. In contrast to weak congestion, under strong congestion the flow rate in synchronized flow in GP reaches a limit flow rate, the frequency of the moving jam emergence reaches a maximum, i.e., the GP characteristics under strong congestion do not depend on traffic demand. (iv) At the off-ramp GP with weak congestion occur. (v) A study of the pattern formation on a highway with two bottlenecks shows that diverse expanded patterns can occur, which cover both bottlenecks. SP first emerged at the downstream bottleneck can be caught at the

  12. Planned complex suicide by penetrating captive-bolt gunshot and hanging: case study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Viel, Guido; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Braun, Christian

    2009-05-30

    Captive-bolt guns or slaughterer's guns are devices widely used in meat industry and private farmer households for slaughtering animal stocks. They consist of a simple cylindrical metal tube (barrel) with a metal bolt placed in their centre (around 9-15cm long and 1-1.5cm wide). The bolt is actuated by a trigger pull and is propelled forward by compressed air or by the discharge of a blank powder gun cartridge. Violent deaths inflicted by captive-bolt guns are rarely encountered in forensic practice and are predominantly suicidal events. We report an unusual complex suicide by hanging and self-shooting with a slaughterer's gun in a 21-year-old boy. The victim after putting a ceiling fixed rope around his neck shot himself in the head (occipital region) with a Kerner captive-bolt gun. He used two mirrors (a cosmetic mirror and a man-sized one) in order to properly visualize his back and to target the occipital region of his head. Radiological data (computed tomography with three dimensional reconstruction) and autopsy findings are discussed according to the clinical and forensic literature. A brief review on planned complex suicides is also given.

  13. Simple cellular automaton model for traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple cellular automaton (CA) model for two-lane roads explaining the physics of traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow. The model consists of the rules "acceleration," "deceleration," "randomization," and "motion" of the Nagel-Schreckenberg CA model as well as "overacceleration through lane changing to the faster lane," "comparison of vehicle gap with the synchronization gap," and "speed adaptation within the synchronization gap" of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. We show that these few rules of the CA model can appropriately simulate fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity found in traffic data measured over years in different countries, like characteristics of synchronized flow, the existence of the spontaneous and induced breakdowns at the same bottleneck, and associated probabilistic features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity. Single-vehicle data derived in model simulations show that synchronized flow first occurs and then self-maintains due to a spatiotemporal competition between speed adaptation to a slower speed of the preceding vehicle and passing of this slower vehicle. We find that the application of simple dependences of randomization probability and synchronization gap on driving situation allows us to explain the physics of moving synchronized flow patterns and the pinch effect in synchronized flow as observed in real traffic data.

  14. Spontaneous phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow in traffic on a single-lane highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Zhang, H. M.; Wang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow complexity comes from the car-following and lane-changing behavior. Based on empirical data for individual vehicle speeds and time headways measured on a single-lane highway section, we have studied the traffic flow properties induced by pure car-following behavior. We have found that a spontaneous sudden drop in velocity could happen in a platoon of vehicles when the velocity of the leading vehicle is quite high (˜70 km/h). In contrast, when the velocity of the leading vehicle in a platoon slows down, such a spontaneous sudden drop of velocity has not been observed. Our finding indicates that traffic breakdown on a single-lane road might be a phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow (F→S transition). We have found that the flow rate within the emergent synchronized flow can be either smaller or larger than the flow rate in the free flow within which the synchronized flow propagates. Our empirical findings support Kerner's three-phase theory in which traffic breakdown is associated with an F→S transition.

  15. Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2016-05-01

    In a mini-review Kerner (2013) it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown - a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters of automatic driving vehicles can either decrease or increase the probability of the breakdown. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown, i.e., the deterioration of the performance of the traffic system can occur already at a small percentage (about 5%) of automatic driving vehicles. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown through automatic driving vehicles can be realized, even if any platoon of automatic driving vehicles satisfies condition for string stability.

  16. Spontaneous phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow in traffic on a single-lane highway.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Zhang, H M; Wang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow complexity comes from the car-following and lane-changing behavior. Based on empirical data for individual vehicle speeds and time headways measured on a single-lane highway section, we have studied the traffic flow properties induced by pure car-following behavior. We have found that a spontaneous sudden drop in velocity could happen in a platoon of vehicles when the velocity of the leading vehicle is quite high (~70 km/h). In contrast, when the velocity of the leading vehicle in a platoon slows down, such a spontaneous sudden drop of velocity has not been observed. Our finding indicates that traffic breakdown on a single-lane road might be a phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow (F→S transition). We have found that the flow rate within the emergent synchronized flow can be either smaller or larger than the flow rate in the free flow within which the synchronized flow propagates. Our empirical findings support Kerner's three-phase theory in which traffic breakdown is associated with an F→S transition.

  17. Prediction of mechanical properties of composites of HDPE/HA/EAA.

    PubMed

    Albano, C; Perera, R; Cataño, L; Karam, A; González, G

    2011-04-01

    In this investigation, the behavior of the mechanical properties of composites of high-density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite (HDPE/HA) with and without ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) as possible compatibilizer, was studied. Different mathematical models were used to predict their Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break. A comparison with the experimental results shows that the theoretical models of Guth and Kerner modified can be used to predict the Young's modulus. On the other hand, the values obtained by the Verbeek model do not show a good agreement with the experimental data, since different factors that influence the mechanical properties are considered in this model such as: aspect ratio of the reinforcement, interfacial adhesion, porosity and binder content. TEM analysis confirms the discrepancies obtained between the experimental Young's modulus values and those predicted by the Verbeek model. The values of "P", "a" and "σ(A)" suggest that an interaction among the carboxylic groups of the copolymer and the hydroxyl groups of hydroxyapatite might be present. In composites with 20 and 30 wt% of filler, this interaction does not improve the Young's modulus values, since the deviations of the Verbeek model are significant.

  18. Relationship between powder surface characteristics and viscoelastic properties of powder-filled semisolids.

    PubMed

    Radebaugh, G W; Simonelli, A P

    1985-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of dispersions of powdered zinc oxide in anhydrous lanolin and colloidal sulfur in anhydrous lanolin were characterized by dynamic mechanical testing. The elastic shear modulus, G', viscous shear modulus, G", and loss tangent (damping), tan delta, were determined as a function of shear frequency, v, temperature, T, and volume fraction of powder, phi 2. A priori, it might be expected that zinc oxide and colloidal sulfur would elicit different viscoelastic properties due to their contrasting surface characteristics; zinc oxide has a hydrophilic surface and colloidal sulfur has a hydrophobic surface. Even though constitutive mathematical models, derived to predict the mechanical behavior of solid-filled polymeric materials, were not designed to account for differences in surface characteristics of the filler, the findings of these experiments show that these models are useful in explaining the differences in viscoelastic behavior of powder-filled semisolids due to surface characteristics of the filler. One model of particular value was the Kerner equation. With it, mechanisms were postulated for zinc oxide-zinc oxide interactions, sulfur-sulfur interactions, zinc oxide-anhydrous lanolin interactions, and sulfur-anhydrous lanolin interactions, within dispersions as a function of nu, T, and phi 2. In addition, damping was used to further identify the influence of temperature. Data obtained from three temperatures, where anhydrous lanolin exists in three different structural states, shows that the influence of the powder on damping is not only determined by the surface characteristics of the powder but also the structural state of anhydrous lanolin.

  19. Simple cellular automaton model for traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple cellular automaton (CA) model for two-lane roads explaining the physics of traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow. The model consists of the rules “acceleration,” “deceleration,” “randomization,” and “motion” of the Nagel-Schreckenberg CA model as well as “overacceleration through lane changing to the faster lane,” “comparison of vehicle gap with the synchronization gap,” and “speed adaptation within the synchronization gap” of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. We show that these few rules of the CA model can appropriately simulate fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity found in traffic data measured over years in different countries, like characteristics of synchronized flow, the existence of the spontaneous and induced breakdowns at the same bottleneck, and associated probabilistic features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity. Single-vehicle data derived in model simulations show that synchronized flow first occurs and then self-maintains due to a spatiotemporal competition between speed adaptation to a slower speed of the preceding vehicle and passing of this slower vehicle. We find that the application of simple dependences of randomization probability and synchronization gap on driving situation allows us to explain the physics of moving synchronized flow patterns and the pinch effect in synchronized flow as observed in real traffic data.

  20. Synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Hermanns, Gerhard; Hemmerle, Peter; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal that moving queues (moving jams) in oversaturated city traffic dissolve at some distance upstream of the traffic signal while transforming into synchronized flow. It is found that, as in highway traffic [Kerner, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.036110 85, 036110 (2012)], such a jam-absorption effect in city traffic is explained by a strong driver's speed adaptation: Time headways (space gaps) between vehicles increase upstream of a moving queue (moving jam), resulting in moving queue dissolution. It turns out that at given traffic signal parameters, the stronger the speed adaptation effect, the shorter the mean distance between the signal location and the road location at which moving queues dissolve fully and oversaturated traffic consists of synchronized flow only. A comparison of the synchronized flow in city traffic found in this Brief Report with synchronized flow in highway traffic is made.

  1. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by willows growing in biosolids under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, W S; Arndt, S K; Huynh, T T; Gregory, D; Baker, A J M

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids produced by sewage treatment facilities can exceed guideline thresholds for contaminant elements. Phytoextraction is one technique with the potential to reduce these elements allowing reuse of the biosolids as a soil amendment. In this field trial, cuttings of seven species/cultivars of Salix(willows) were planted directly into soil and into biosolids to identify their suitability for decontaminating biosolids. Trees were irrigated and harvested each year for three consecutive years. Harvested biomass was weighed and analyzed for the contaminant elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn. All Salix cultivars, except S. chilensis, growing in soils produced 10 to 20 t ha(-1) of biomass, whereas most Salix cultivars growing in biosolids produced significantly less biomass (<6 t ha(-1)). Salix matsudana (30 t ha(-1)) and S. × reichardtii A. Kerner (18 t ha(-1)) had similar aboveground biomass production in both soil and biosolids. These were also the most successful cultivars in extracting metals from biosolids, driven by superior biomass increases and not high tissue concentrations. The willows were effectual in extracting the most soluble/exchangeable metals (Cd, 0.18; Ni, 0.40; and Zn, 11.66 kg ha(-1)), whereas Cr and Cu were extracted to a lesser degree (0.02 and 0.11 kg ha(-1)). Low bioavailable elements, As, Hg, and Pb, were not detectable in any of the aboveground biomass of the willows.

  2. Towards a macroscopic modeling of the complexity in traffic flow.

    PubMed

    Rosswog, Stephan; Wagner, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Based on the assumption of a safe velocity U(e)(rho) depending on the vehicle density rho, a macroscopic model for traffic flow is presented that extends the model of the Kühne-Kerner-Konhäuser by an interaction term containing the second derivative of U(e)(rho). We explore two qualitatively different forms of U(e): a conventional Fermi-type function and, motivated by recent experimental findings, a function that exhibits a plateau at intermediate densities, i.e., in this density regime the exact distance to the car ahead is only of minor importance. To solve the fluid-like equations a Lagrangian particle scheme is developed. The suggested model shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the usual fluid-like models. A large variety of encountered effects is known from traffic observations, many of which are usually assigned to the elusive state of "synchronized flow." Furthermore, the model displays alternating regimes of stability and instability at intermediate densities. It can explain data scatter in the fundamental diagram and complicated jam patterns. Within this model, a consistent interpretation of the emergence of very different traffic phenomena is offered: they are determined by the velocity relaxation time, i.e., the time needed to relax towards U(e)(rho). This relaxation time is a measure of the average acceleration capability and can be attributed to the composition (e.g., the percentage of trucks) of the traffic flow.

  3. Traffic breakdown at a signal: classical theory versus the three-phase theory of city traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Physical reasons for a crucial difference between the results of a three-phase theory developed recently (Kerner 2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 045102(R); 2013 Europhys. Lett. 102 28010; 2014 Physica A 397 76) and the classical theory are explained. Microscopic characteristics of traffic passing a traffic signal during the green signal phase and their dependence on the duration of the green phase have been found. It turns out that a moving synchronized flow pattern (MSP), which occurs in under-saturated traffic at the signal, causes ‘compression’ of traffic flow: the rate of MSP discharge can be considerably larger than the saturation flow rate of the classical traffic theory of city traffic. This leads to a considerably larger rate of traffic passing the signal in comparison with the saturation flow rate. This effect together with traffic behavior at the upstream queue front explains the metastability of under-saturated traffic with respect to a random time-delayed traffic breakdown.

  4. Effects of mycorrhizal colonisation on Thymus polytrichus from heavy-metal-contaminated sites in northern England.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, L; Richards, A J; Rimmer, D L

    2004-02-01

    A study was performed to establish whether colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is beneficial to wild thyme [ Thymus polytrichus A. Kerner ex Borbás ssp. britannicus (Ronn.) Kerguelen (Lamiaceae)] growing in the heavy-metal-contaminated soils along the River South Tyne, United Kingdom. T. polytrichus plants of the same genotype were grown under controlled conditions with and without Zn contamination, and differences between AM-colonised and -uncolonised plants in mean shoot and root growth (dry weight) and Zn concentration were assessed. When grown in the heavy-metal-contaminated, low-P soil from one of the South Tyne sites, AM-colonised plants grew significantly larger than uncolonised plants; however, there was no significant difference in growth between AM and non-AM plants grown in an artificial substrate with a larger available P concentration, with or without Zn contamination. Mycorrhizal colonisation increased tissue Zn concentrations during the experiments. It is concluded that AM fungi are beneficial, if not essential, to T. polytrichus growing in the low-nutrient soils along the River South Tyne, because of their role in enhancing plant uptake of P (and possibly other nutrients). There was no evidence from this study that the fungi reduce plant uptake of heavy metals at these sites, but rather increase Zn uptake. However, the resulting tissue metal concentrations do not appear to be large enough to be detrimental to plant growth.

  5. Comparison of turbulent-flow chromatography with automated solid-phase extraction in 96-well plates and liquid-liquid extraction used as plasma sample preparation techniques for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, D; Pickard, V; Czembor, W; Müller, C

    1999-08-27

    Turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) combined with the high selectivity and sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) is a new technique for the fast direct analysis of drugs from crude plasma. TFC in the 96-well plate format reduces significantly the time required for sample clean-up in the laboratory. For example, for 100 samples the workload for a technician is reduced from about 8 h by a manual liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) assay to about 1 h in the case of TFC. Sample clean-up and analysis are performed on-line on the same column. Similar chromatographic performance and validation results were achieved using HTLC Turbo-C18 columns (Cohesive Technologies) and Oasis HLB extraction columns (Waters). One 96-well plate with 96 plasma samples is analyzed within 5.25 h, corresponding to 3.3 min per sample. Compared to this LLE and analysis of 96 samples takes about 16 h. Two structurally different and highly protein bound compounds, drug A and drug B, were analyzed under identical TFC conditions and the assays were fully validated for the application to toxicokinetics studies (compliant with Good Laboratory Practices-GLP). The limit of quantitation was 1.00 microg/l and the linear working range covered three orders of magnitude for both drugs. In the case of drug A the quality of analysis by TFC was similar to the reference LLE assay and slightly better than automated solid-phase extraction in 96-well plates. The accuracy was -3.1 to 6.7% and the precision was 3.1 to 6.8% in the case of drug A determined for dog plasma by TFC-MS-MS. For drug B the accuracy was -3.7 to 3.5% and the precision was 1.6 to 5.4% for rat plasma, which is even slightly better than what was achieved with the validated protein precipitation assay.

  6. Comparative evaluation of liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of multiclass priority organic contaminants in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2013-12-15

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC establishes guidelines to control the pollution of surface water by sorting out a list of priority substances that involves a significant risk to or via the aquatic systems. In this article, the analytical performance of three different sample preparation methodologies for the GC-MS/MS determination of multiclass organic contaminants-including priority comprounds from the WFD-in wastewater samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was evaluated. The methodologies tested were: (a) liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with n-hexane; (b) solid-phase extraction (SPE) with C18 cartridges and elution with ethyl acetate:dichloromethane (1:1 (v/v)), and (c) headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using two different fibers: polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane/carboxen/divinilbenzene. Identification and confirmation of the selected 57 compounds included in the study (comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides and other contaminants) were accomplished using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with a triple quadrupole instrument operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Three MS/MS transitions were selected for unambiguous confirmation of the target chemicals. The different advantages and pitfalls of each method were discussed. In the case of both LLE and SPE procedures, the method was validated at two different concentration levels (15 and 150 ng L(-1)) obtaining recovery rates in the range 70-120% for most of the target compounds. In terms of analyte coverage, results with HS-SPME were not satisfactory, since 14 of the compounds tested were not properly recovered and the overall performance was worse than the other two methods tested. LLE, SPE and HS-SPME (using polyacrylate fiber) procedures also showed good linearity and precision. Using any of the three methodologies tested, limits of quantitation obtained for most of the detected compounds were in

  7. Lithium isotopes and light lithophile element abundances in shergottites: Evidence for both magmatic degassing and subsolidus diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udry, Arya; McSween, Harry Y.; Hervig, Richard L.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    Degassed magmatic water was potentially the major source of surficial water on Mars. We measured Li, B, and Be abundances and Li isotope profiles in pyroxenes, olivines, and maskelynite from four compositionally different shergottites—Shergotty, QUE 94201, LAR 06319, and Tissint—using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All three light lithophile elements (LLE) are incompatible: Li and B are soluble in H2O-rich fluids, whereas Be is insoluble. In the analyzed shergottites, Li concentration decreases and Be concentration increases from cores to rims in pyroxenes. However, B concentrations do not vary consistently with Li and Be abundances, except in QUE 94201 pyroxenes. Additionally, abundances of these three elements in olivines show a normal igneous-fractionation trend consistent with the crystallization of olivine before magma ascent and degassing. We expect that kinetic effects would lead to fractionation of 6Li in the vapor phase compared to 7Li during degassing. The Li isotope profiles, with increasing δ7Li from cores to rims, as well as Li and B profiles indicate possible degassing of hydrous fluids only for the depleted shergottite QUE 94201, as also supported by degassing models. Conversely, Shergotty, LAR 06319, and Tissint appear to have been affected by postcrystallization diffusion, based on their LLE and Li isotope profiles, accompanied by diffusion models. This process may represent an overlay on a degassing pattern. The LLE profiles and isotope profiles in QUE 94201 support the hypothesis that degassing of some basaltic shergottite magmas provided water to the Martian surface, although evidence may be obscured by subsolidus diffusion processes.

  8. Effectiveness of pressurized liquid extraction and solvent extraction for the simultaneous quantification of 14 pesticide residues in green tea using GC.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soon-Kil; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Jeong, Yang-Mo; Shin, Ho-Chul; Chang, Byung-Joon; Lee, Chitto; Shim, Jae-Han

    2008-06-01

    A simultaneous multiresidue method to determine 14 different pesticides, namely: flufenoxuron, fenitrothion, chlorfluazuron, chlorpyrifos, hexythiazox, methidathion, chlorfenapyr, tebuconazole, EPN, bifenthrin, cyhalothrin, spirodiclofen, difenoconazole, and azoxystrobin in green tea using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is described and compared with that of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). For PLE, the extraction conditions were not optimized. Rather they were selected based upon previous successful investigations published by our laboratory. Analysis was performed by GC with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and the pesticide identity of the positive samples was confirmed by GC-MS in a selected ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. Calibration curves showed an excellent linearity for concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 36.049 ppm, with r(2) >0.995. Green tea spiked at each of the two fortification levels, yielded average recoveries in the range of 87-112% and 71-109% for PLE and LLE, respectively. Precision values, expressed as RSDs, were below 6% at various spiking levels. With respect to the existing procedures, both methods gave LOQs that were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). Both methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of real samples, and bifenthrin was the only pesticide residue quantified in incurred green tea samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.093 ppm (LLE) to 0.1 ppm (PLE). These concentration levels were relatively low compared to KFDA-MRL (0.3 ppm). According to the validation data and performance characteristics, both methods are appropriate for multiresidue analysis of pesticide residues in green tea. PLE methodology showed superiority in recoveries of some pesticides, acceptable accuracy and precision while minimizing environmental concerns, time, and labor, and can be applied in routine analytical laboratories.

  9. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  10. SU-E-J-261: Statistical Analysis and Chaotic Dynamics of Respiratory Signal of Patients in BodyFix

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, D; Huq, M; Bednarz, G; Lalonde, R; Yang, Y; Heron, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify respiratory signal of patients in BodyFix undergoing 4DCT scan with and without immobilization cover. Methods: 20 pairs of respiratory tracks recorded with RPM system during 4DCT scan were analyzed. Descriptive statistic was applied to selected parameters of exhale-inhale decomposition. Standardized signals were used with the delay method to build orbits in embedded space. Nonlinear behavior was tested with surrogate data. Sample entropy SE, Lempel-Ziv complexity LZC and the largest Lyapunov exponents LLE were compared. Results: Statistical tests show difference between scans for inspiration time and its variability, which is bigger for scans without cover. The same is for variability of the end of exhalation and inhalation. Other parameters fail to show the difference. For both scans respiratory signals show determinism and nonlinear stationarity. Statistical test on surrogate data reveals their nonlinearity. LLEs show signals chaotic nature and its correlation with breathing period and its embedding delay time. SE, LZC and LLE measure respiratory signal complexity. Nonlinear characteristics do not differ between scans. Conclusion: Contrary to expectation cover applied to patients in BodyFix appears to have limited effect on signal parameters. Analysis based on trajectories of delay vectors shows respiratory system nonlinear character and its sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Reproducibility of respiratory signal can be evaluated with measures of signal complexity and its predictability window. Longer respiratory period is conducive for signal reproducibility as shown by these gauges. Statistical independence of the exhale and inhale times is also supported by the magnitude of LLE. The nonlinear parameters seem more appropriate to gauge respiratory signal complexity since its deterministic chaotic nature. It contrasts with measures based on harmonic analysis that are blind for nonlinear features. Dynamics of breathing, so crucial for

  11. Critical development by design of a rugged HPLC-MS/MS method for direct determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Nakov, Natalija; Petkovska, Rumenka; Ugrinova, Liljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Svinarov, Dobrin

    2015-06-15

    Development and validation of a HPLC-MS/MS method for direct determination of R- and S-ibuprofen (Ibu) in human plasma without a need of derivatization or other complexities such as postcolumn infusion of solvents or reagents was performed. Critical steps were investigated during method development using experimental design to achieve a reliable and rugged assay. The LC-MS/MS separation of R-Ibu and S-Ibu was obtained on Lux Cellulose chiral column utilizing 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid in mixture of methanol and water (90:10%, v/v) as a mobile phase. Two types of extraction procedure for Ibu and Ketoprofen (internal standard, IS) were optimized using Full factorial 3(2) design (LLE) and D-Optimal Experimental Design (SPE). Excellent recovery values, 80% (mean) and 95% (mean) for LLE and SPE respectively, were obtained using 50μL plasma. The matrix effect was assessed for both of the extraction procedures, including hyperlipidaemic and haemolyzed plasma. The extensive investigation of matrix effect showed that LLE yields cleaner extracts than the SPE. The result of the investigation of in vitro interconversion of R-Ibu and S-Ibu showed that it does not occur under the influence of pH, temperature, and in the overall analytical procedure. The validation data, adhered to EMA guideline for validation of bioanalytical methods, showed that the proposed method provides accurate and reproducible results in range of 0.1-50mg/L with a lower limit of detection of 0.02mg/L. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through determination of R-Ibu and S-Ibu in human plasma after oral administration of 400mg rac-Ibu.

  12. Progress towards polar-drive ignition for the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, R. L.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Casey, D. T.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Kessler, T. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Li, C. K.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Nilson, P. M.; Padalino, S. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Short, R. W.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-11-01

    The University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) performs direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. LLE's Omega Laser Facility is used to study direct-drive ICF ignition concepts, developing an understanding of the underlying physics that feeds into the design of ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The baseline symmetric-illumination, direct-drive-ignition target design consists of a 1.5 MJ multiple-picket laser pulse that generates four shock waves (similar to the NIF baseline indirect-drive design) and is predicted to produce a one-dimensional (1D) gain of 48. LLE has developed the polar-drive (PD) illumination concept (for NIF beams in the x-ray-drive configuration) to allow the pursuit of direct-drive ignition without significant reconfiguration of the beam paths on the NIF. Some less-invasive changes in the NIF infrastructure will be required, including new phase plates, polarization rotators, and a PD-specific beam-smoothing front end. A suite of PD ignition designs with implosion velocities from 3.5 to 4.3 × 107 cm s-1 are predicted to have significant 2D gains (Collins et al 2012 Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 57 155). Verification of the physics basis of these simulations is a major thrust of direct-drive implosion experiments on both OMEGA and the NIF. Many physics issues are being examined with symmetric beam irradiation on OMEGA, varying the implosion parameters over a wide region of design space. Cryogenic deuterium-tritium target experiments with symmetric irradiation have produced areal densities of ˜0.3 g cm-2, ion temperatures over 3 keV, and neutron yields in excess of 20% of the ‘clean’ 1D predicted value. The inferred Lawson criterion figure of merit (Betti R. et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 058102) has increased from 1.7 atm s (IAEA 2010) to 2.6 atm s.

  13. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016.

  14. Synthesis and optimization of N-heterocyclic pyridinones as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhijian; Harrison, Scott T; Schubert, Jeffrey W; Sanders, John M; Polsky-Fisher, Stacey; Zhang, Nanyan Rena; McLoughlin, Debra; Gibson, Christopher R; Robinson, Ronald G; Sachs, Nancy A; Kandebo, Monika; Yao, Lihang; Smith, Sean M; Hutson, Pete H; Wolkenberg, Scott E; Barrow, James C

    2016-06-15

    A series of N-heterocyclic pyridinone catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors were synthesized. Physicochemical properties, including ligand lipophilic efficiency (LLE) and clogP, were used to guide compound design and attempt to improve inhibitor pharmacokinetics. Incorporation of heterocyclic central rings provided improvements in physicochemical parameters but did not significantly reduce in vitro or in vivo clearance. Nevertheless, compound 11 was identified as a potent inhibitor with sufficient in vivo exposure to significantly affect the dopamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and indicate central COMT inhibition.

  15. AFHRL Annual Report FY 80.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    pecrfrmarice erihiarncemnrt. but flight simulation withn a hr lahorator\\ %as initegrati’d the expansion oif’ thet art’a of’ comncern and its integration into...Ilifijzaitioni: \\sallee ill iiask-eiewiteh ie’,ir’c’it Kalmian~ Fite lle teeII, r predicting .iiiited retenione lil.S iliflacit rinstrucetioinal .5dilt-elsgie...Simulator for Air-to-Air Combat Target Training (\\Sri’). Trhe effort requnired the( selection of’ Enhanrcement Study flight test tasks. de-i Oit ioni of thle

  16. Complexity analyses of multi-wing chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shao-Bo; Sun, Ke-Hui; Zhu, Cong-Xu

    2013-05-01

    The complexities of multi-wing chaotic systems based on the modified Chen system and a multi-segment quadratic function are investigated by employing the statistical complexity measure (SCM) and the spectral entropy (SE) algorithm. How to choose the parameters of the SCM and SE algorithms is discussed. The results show that the complexity of the multi-wing chaotic system does not increase as the number of wings increases, and it is consistent with the results of the Grassberger—Procaccia (GP) algorithm and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of the multi-wing chaotic system.

  17. Using cosmic rays to monitor large scintillator arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Knauer, J.P.; Kremens, R.L.; Russotto, M.A.; Tudman, S. )

    1995-01-01

    Large arrays of scintillator-photomultiplier detectors are becoming the technique of choice to measure neutron spectrum from ICF implosions. A 32[times]30 array of detectors is currently under construction at LLE (MEDUSA). This array is at an angle of 26[degree] relative to vertical and thus cosmic rays can be used to monitor individual channel performance. We will present: an analysis of the expected count rates and expected signal levels for single scintillator-photomultiplier detectors; a comparison of the above analysis to a test string of 30 detectors mounted in the MEDUSA frame; and the triggering scheme used to acquire data for routine operation of the instrument.

  18. Visual Analytics for Exploration of a High-Dimensional Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    indiscernibility” for a rough set attribute reduction. However, a “ vagueness ” of feature data, i.e., real-valued attributes, is not modeled...LE) stochastic neighbor embedding (SNE)/ t-distributed SNE (t-SNE) neighbor retrieval visualizer ( NeRV )/ t-distributed NeRV (t- NeRV ...NLDRs include nonmetric MDS, Isomap, LLE, LE, SNE/t-SNE, and NeRV /t- NeRV . Most papers for an NLDR approximation demonstrate the algorithm using an

  19. Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds Phase III: Effects of Life-Time Exposure Part II: Trinitroglycerin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    below. Each male was then mated to two virgin females of the same strain. At mid-term of pregnancy , the femalesr : were killed and the following data...i.. Kidney Chronic senile nephropathy 1 4 1 3 3 4 1 2 I 4 4 4 3 Hydronephrousl 1 1 I Tubular nephrosi’ 1 fyrl.njphrit...Intest’ne 0 r Kidnov Chrounlo waoLle nephropathy 2 4 1 1 3 1 Foci of monocuclear cells 1 1 1 UrinarX !ledder

  20. Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Source Book: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-30

    identification of targets. Sun ;tianle refern to the direction of thc un In relation to thu aIr- craft is track. ’lle effect of Hun angle on target rr-cogniLion...whether the observed contrast is groater than the contrast threshold using the equation CHIN " e-Ov where v is the visibility range. The threshold value...constructed by Jacqueline I. Gordon can be used to quickly determine (a) the beam transmittance for a horizontal path of sight from the attenuation

  1. AXBT (Air-Deployed Expendable Bathythermograph) Measurements off the Northeast Coast of South America, Spring 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    c- e t nm fr lle ’ ~lILAIlm 1dt ’l/,[ ppoxialt trcamlm0 2300 00 63W 605 0 54 VENEZUEL st rca GUYANA’ 20’ 300~ 2300 150 VENEZUEL 160,BRAZIL 0 \\t’t 1P...dtrcdmlpiL * I %~ I Si20’ 70a .VIA 2000 Io VENEZUEL BRAZIL i l l Im 1 nt, ft " 1hi If, ’u A, ~hf l fbu i//rt.Lfwna011 d Punlnt’ f/At III )?fl 230N 200

  2. Adequate Classification Guidance - A Solution and a Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Ruselli C.. "Evnsi orCaeten lto Ceapueelad Feldmaon. Paul . "Why, Regulation oesn’t Work. MO" foe Pertsonnel Inventory Planning Under inforlnatlim...A039 050 Ma., MuAlD A0431 AWA43 PP 203 pp 151 pplsan Paul Naficincy Diitrinuticy and Ththth Fet e Havonst StaleyA, nd Sermri, lle, "he pW1e.o Aof on...Methemetcs and St tistcs. University of PP 24 bi~sth Cohumbia. Voincoua", B.C.. Canada PP 239 Mongel. Marc and Oueleck, David B., "Integraiton Trott . R. P

  3. Optical Probes for Laser Induced Shocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    kidney kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy of stone fragmentation in urology [4] and photodisruption the cavitation. Subsequently...GNZUmlNY(ev bak .REOTOT 3 . REPORT TYPE AND OATES COVERED N - I Final Report 15 mar 90-14 mar 92 ___ lLE AND SU11TIT S. FUNDING NUMBERS I ! ~ Optical...addition, work initiated prior to the AFOSR grant by ADZ at the University of Berne, Switzerland, was completed [P- 3 , P-4, C- 3 , C-4, C-5]. That research

  4. Larose to Golden Meadow, Louisiana, Hurricane Protection Project. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    are present on the LL&E and Clovelly Farms. [IS-43 16LF36 is an earthen midden ; site 16LF76 is a buried shell midden . On the eastern boundary of...Section F, between the GIWW and Clovelly Farms, a buried shell midden 16LF97, is recorded. The site is situated on a buried natural levee along an unnamed...study area include prehLstoric shell midden and earthen midden sites, standing structures, and an abandoned vessel. No recorded archeological or

  5. Non-rigid registration of medical images based on ordinal feature and manifold learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Jin; Zang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of medical imaging technology, medical image research and application has become a research hotspot. This paper offers a solution to non-rigid registration of medical images based on ordinal feature (OF) and manifold learning. The structural features of medical images are extracted by combining ordinal features with local linear embedding (LLE) to improve the precision and speed of the registration algorithm. A physical model based on manifold learning and optimization search is constructed according to the complicated characteristics of non-rigid registration. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed registration scheme.

  6. A Very Simple Method to Calculate the (Positive) Largest Lyapunov Exponent Using Interval Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Eduardo M. A. M.; Nepomuceno, Erivelton G.

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, a very simple method to calculate the positive Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) based on the concept of interval extensions and using the original equations of motion is presented. The exponent is estimated from the slope of the line derived from the lower bound error when considering two interval extensions of the original system. It is shown that the algorithm is robust, fast and easy to implement and can be considered as alternative to other algorithms available in the literature. The method has been successfully tested in five well-known systems: Logistic, Hénon, Lorenz and Rössler equations and the Mackey-Glass system.

  7. PHANTOM: Practical Oblivious Computation in a Secure Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-16

    are not acceptable in a secure processor scenario, as on-chip memories of more than 64MB are unlikely with current technology , even in the presence of...34plans"for"a"government"cloud"pla:orm,”"ZDNet,൒/8/13;"[2]""ArxCisJNV:"NonJVolaLle"Memory" Technology ,”"www.vikingtechnology.com/arxcisJnv""[3]""Case...features four large FPGAs (Xilinx Virtex-6 LX760) connected in a ring , and 16 independent memory channels, each with 64 DRAM banks, for a combined memory of

  8. Schichtübergreifende Früherkennung von Verbindungsausfällen in drahtlosen Mesh-Netzwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Timo

    Drahtlose Mesh-Netzwerke (WMNs) bilden aufgrund ihrer Selbstorganisation ein flexibles Kommunikationssystem. Bei der Erkennung einzelner Verbindungsausfälle, die bei der Integration mobiler Teilnehmer unvermeidbar sind, ist bei aktuellen Routingprotokollen die Kommunikation jedoch für mehrere Sekunden unterbrochen. In dieser Arbeit wird gezeigt, wie durch Nutzung von Informationen aus der MAC-Schicht ein Ausfall frühzeitig erkannt und dadurch die Anzahl der Paketverluste von mehreren Hundert auf maximal vier reduziert werden kann. Hierdurch wird die Zuverlässigkeit und Verfügbarkeit von WMNs erhöht und ihr Einsatz für Echtzeit-Anwendungen ermöglicht.

  9. Ingenieurgeologie: Grundlagen und Anwendung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genske, Dieter D.

    Geplünderter Planet? Die Ingenieurgeologie ist ein junges, interdisziplinäres Fachgebiet. Es befasst sich mit der Wechselwirkung zwischen Geosphäre und Mensch. Der Autor stellt Georisiken vor und diskutiert die Folgen menschlicher Eingriffe in die Natur. Er thematisiert aktuelle Herausforderungen und entwirft nachhaltige Lösungskonzepte für verschiedene Problembereiche: z.B. Naturgefahren wie Hangrutschungen und Bergfälle, die Ausbeute natürlicher Ressourcen, Bau- und Sanierungsvorhaben. Fallbeschreibungen und ausgearbeitete Beispiele vertiefen das Verständnis für diesen neuen, zukunftsweisenden Zweig der Wissenschaft.

  10. Wolf Creek Dam - Concrete Diaphragm Walls. Final Completion Reports. Phases 1 and 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Kentucky DA, Ohio River Division, Corps of Engineers , PO Box 1159, Cincinnati, OH 45201-1159 12 March 1990 FOR CAMMNDER, NASHVIUE DTTRICr, ATIN: CEORN-ED... ENGINEER I)IRK NASHVI.LLE-T 510 NASHVILLE TENNESSEE L L ~~~~WOLF CREEK PESERVOITRPROJiEC CUMBERLAND RIVER , KENTUCKY L I WITCM RIND / / ’ /, ’/ EOLOG...COORDINATES. -175MINOR REVISIONS1131.915tEIIR SCOSRCE A - U. S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, NASHVILLE OISPAL AIEANASHVILLE, T7ENNESSEE DIP8SA AE "WOURRAND RIVER

  11. Navies and Soft Power: Historical Case Studies of Naval Power and the Nonuse of Military Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Finally, it assesses how these deployments might relate to future Chinese naval development. Historical Background A sharp increase in piracy attacks...42 Navies and Soft Power Historical Case Studies of Naval Power and the Nonuse of Military Force N A V A L W A R C O LLE G E N E W P O R T PA P...Newport, Rhode Island, authenticates Navies and Soft Power: Historical Case Studies of Naval Power and the Nonuse of Military Force, edited by Bruce A

  12. A 96-well single-pot liquid-liquid extraction, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of muraglitazar in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y-J; Liu, Jane; Unger, Steve

    2006-06-07

    A single-pot liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC/MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of muraglitazar, a hydrophobic diabetes drug, in human plasma. To 0.050 ml of each plasma sample in a 96-well plate, the internal standard solution in acetonitrile and toluene were added to extract the compound of interest. The plate was vortexed, followed by centrifugation. The organic layer was then directly injected into an LC/MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on a Thermohypersil_Keystone, Hypersil silica column (3 mmx50 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase contained 85% of methyl t-butyl ether and 15% of 90/10 (v/v) acetonitrile/water with 0.3% trifluoroacetic acid. Post-column mobile phase of 50/50 (v/v) acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% formic acid was added. Detection was by positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a Sciex API 4000. The standard curve, ranged from 1 to 1000 ng/ml, was fitted to a 1/x weighted quadratic regression model. This single-pot LLE approach effectively eliminated time-consuming organic layer transfer, dry-down, and sample reconstitution steps, which are essential for a conventional liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The modified mobile phase was more compatible with the direct injection of the commonly used extraction solvents in LLE. Furthermore, the modified mobile phase improved the retention of muraglitazar, a hydrophobic compound, on the normal phase silica column. The validation results demonstrated that this method was rugged and suitable for analyzing muraglitazar in human plasma. In comparison with a revised-phase LC/MS/MS method, this single-pot LLE, HILIC/MS/MS method improved the detection sensitivity by more than four-fold based upon the LLOQ signal to noise ratio. This approach may be applied to other hydrophobic compounds with proper modification of the mobile phase compositions.

  13. Scientific Report (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Bedros Afeyan

    2004-05-11

    OAK-B135 An overview of our work as well as two recent publications are contained in this scientific report. The work reported here revolves around the discovery of new coherent nonlinear kinetic waves in laser produced plasmas, we call KEEN waves (kinetic, electrostatic electron nonlinear waves), and optical mixing experiments on the Imega laser system at LLE with blue-green light for the exploration of ways to suppress parametric instabilities in long scale length, long pulsewidth laser-plasmas such as those which will be found on NIF or LMJ.

  14. Risk assessment of mortality for all-cause, ischemic heart disease, cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer due to the operation of the world's largest coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Pei-Hsuan; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hu, Suh-Woan; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Tsai, Jeng-Lin; Tang, Mei-Ling; Chen, Guan-Jie; Ku, Kai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    Based on recent understanding of PM2.5 health-related problems from fossil-fueled power plants emission inventories collected in Taiwan, we have determined the loss of life expectancy (LLE) and the lifetime (75-year) risks for PM2.5 health-related mortalities as attributed to the operation of the world's largest coal-fired power plant; the Taichung Power Plant (TCP), with an installed nominal electrical capacity of 5780 MW in 2013. Five plausible scenarios (combinations of emission controls, fuel switch, and relocation) and two risk factors were considered. It is estimated that the lifetime (75-y) risk for all-cause mortality was 0.3%-0.6% for males and 0.2%-0.4% for females, and LLE at 84 days in 1997 for the 23 million residents of Taiwan. The risk has been reduced to one-fourth at 0.05%-0.10% for males and 0.03%-0.06% for females, and LLE at 15 days in 2007, which was mainly attributed to the installation of desulfurization and de-NOx equipment. Moreover, additional improvements can be expected if we can relocate the power plant to a downwind site on Taiwan, and convert the fuel source from coal to natural gas. The risk can be significantly reduced further to one-fiftieth at 0.001%-0.002% for males and 0.001% for females, and LLE at 0.3 days. Nonetheless, it is still an order higher than the commonly accepted elevated-cancer risk at 0.0001% (10-6), indicating that the PM2.5 health-related risk for operating such a world-class power plant is not negligible. In addition, this study finds that a better-chosen site (involving moving the plant to the leeward side of Taiwan) can reduce the risk significantly as opposed to solely transitioning the fuel source to natural gas. Note that the fuel cost of using natural gas (0.11 USD/kWh in 2013) in Taiwan is about twice the price of using coal fuel (0.05 USD/kWh in 2013).

  15. Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; London, R A; Berger, R L; Doeppner, T; Meezan, N B; Ralph, J; Ross, J S; Suter, L J; Glenzer, S H

    2009-11-12

    A series of laser plasma interaction experiments at OMEGA (LLE, Rochester) using gas-filled hohlraums shed light on the behavior of stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering at various plasma conditions encountered in indirect drive ignition designs. We present detailed experimental results that quantify the density, temperature, and intensity thresholds for both of these instabilities. In addition to controlling plasma parameters, the National Ignition Campaign relies on optical beam smoothing techniques to mitigate backscatter. We show that polarization smoothing is effective at controlling backscatter. These results provide an experimental basis for forthcoming experiments on National Ignition Facility.

  16. The risk equivalent of an exposure to-, versus a dose of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    The long-term potential carcinogenic effects of low-level exposure (LLE) are addressed. The principal point discussed is linear, no-threshold dose-response curve. That the linear no-threshold, or proportional relationship is widely used is seen in the way in which the values for cancer risk coefficients are expressed - in terms of new cases, per million persons exposed, per year, per unit exposure or dose. This implies that the underlying relationship is proportional, i.e., ''linear, without threshold''. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Long-lived states in synchronized traffic flow: empirical prompt and dynamical trap model.

    PubMed

    Lubashevsky, Ihor; Mahnke, Reinhard; Wagner, Peter; Kalenkov, Sergey

    2002-07-01

    The present paper proposes an interpretation of the widely scattered states (called synchronized traffic) stimulated by Kerner's hypothesis about the existence of a multitude of metastable states in the fundamental diagram. Using single-vehicle data collected at the German highway A1, temporal velocity patterns have been analyzed to show a collection of certain fragments with approximately constant velocities and sharp jumps between them. The particular velocity values in these fragments vary in a wide range. In contrast, the flow rate is more or less constant because its fluctuations are mainly due to the discreteness of traffic flow. Subsequently, we develop a model for synchronized traffic that can explain these characteristics. Following previous work [I. A. Lubashevsky and R. Mahnke, Phys. Rev. E 62, 6082 (2000)] the vehicle flow is specified by car density, mean velocity, and additional order parameters h and a that are due to the many-particle effects of the vehicle interaction. The parameter h describes the multilane correlations in the vehicle motion. Together with the car density it determines directly the mean velocity. The parameter a, in contrast, controls the evolution of h only. The model assumes that a fluctuates randomly around the value corresponding to the car configuration optimal for lane changing. When it deviates from this value the lane change is depressed for all cars forming a local cluster. Since exactly the overtaking maneuvers of these cars cause the order parameter a to vary, the evolution of the car arrangement becomes frozen for a certain time. In other words, the evolution equations form certain dynamical traps responsible for the long-time correlations in the synchronized mode.

  18. Assessment of oceanity and continentality conditions of the XX Century in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Cristina; Corte-Real, João

    2016-04-01

    The oceanity and continentality conditions clearly influence the climate of a region. Seeking at understanding these influences on the Iberian Peninsula climate, the spatial distributions of air temperature, precipitation and five climatic indices are analysed in the period between 1901 and 2012 and in three sub-periods (1901-40, 1941-80 and 1981-2012). This study aims at investigating the Xerothermic index of Gaussen and the continental and oceanic characteristics of the Iberian climate by using Conrad-Pollak and Johansson Continentality Indices, as well as Kerner and Marsz Oceanity Indices. Gridded air temperature and precipitation datasets are used on a monthly basis. Results reveal hyper-oceanic (maritime) characteristics in the northernmost portion of Iberia, continental in the inner region comprising Extremadura, Castile-La Mancha and Andalusia, and maritime characteristics in between. It is worth mentioning that within these regions the maritime (continental) characteristics become weaker (stronger) between 1981 and 2012. Statistically significant linear trends show an increase in both temperature (2-4°C) and on continental influences in the northwestern and southeastern regions of Iberia for the entire period. Statistically significant correlations are also found between the Johansson Continentality Index and both Conrad-Pollak and Marsz Oceanity Indices at a 95% confidence level, revealing a good agreement of results among these indices. This work is supported by: European Investment Funds by FEDER/COMPETE/POCI-Operational Competitiveness and Internationalization Programme, under Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006958 and National Funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project UID/AGR/04033.

  19. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested state at the bottleneck. The nature of the congested state, when it occurs, appears to be similar under a variety of conditions. Typically 80-100 vehicles are approximately equally distributed between the lanes in the 500 m region prior to the end of the terminated lane. Without the adaptive cruise control capability, connected vehicles can delay the onset of congestion but do not increase the asymptotic flow past the bottleneck. Calculations are done using the Kerner-Klenov three-phase theory, stochastic discrete-time model for manual vehicles. The dynamics of the connected vehicles is given by a conventional adaptive cruise control algorithm plus commanded deceleration. Because time in the model for manual vehicles is discrete (one-second intervals), it is assumed that the acceleration of any vehicle immediately in front of a connected vehicle is constant during the time interval, thereby preserving the computational simplicity and speed of a discrete-time model.

  20. Physics of Traffic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute estimated that traffic congestion cost the United States 121 billion in 2011 (the latest data available). The cost is due to wasted time and fuel. In addition to accidents and road construction, factors contributing to congestion include large demand, instability of high-density free flow and selfish behavior of drivers, which produces self-organized traffic bottlenecks. Extensive data collected on instrumented highways in various countries have led to a better understanding of traffic dynamics. From these measurements, Boris Kerner and colleagues developed a new theory called three-phase theory. They identified three major phases of flow observed in the data: free flow, synchronous flow and wide moving jams. The intermediate phase is called synchronous because vehicles in different lanes tend to have similar velocities. This congested phase, characterized by lower velocities yet modestly high throughput, frequently occurs near on-ramps and lane reductions. At present there are only two widely used methods of congestion mitigation: ramp metering and the display of current travel-time information to drivers. To find more effective methods to reduce congestion, researchers perform large-scale simulations using models based on the new theories. An algorithm has been proposed to realize Wardrop equilibria with real-time route information. Such equilibria have equal travel time on alternative routes between a given origin and destination. An active area of current research is the dynamics of connected vehicles, which communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure. These systems show great promise for improving traffic flow and safety.

  1. Relationships between soil heavy metal concentration and mycorrhizal colonisation in Thymus polytrichus in northern England.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, L; Richards, A J; Rimmer, D L

    2004-02-01

    A study was conducted to establish whether the wild thyme [ Thymus polytrichus A. Kerner ex Borbás ssp. britannicus (Ronn.) Kerguelen (Lamiaceae)] growing in the metal-contaminated soils along the River South Tyne, United Kingdom, is colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and whether the degree of colonisation increases (perhaps suggesting increasing mycorrhizal dependence) or decreases (indicating possible inhibition of AM growth) with increasing degree of soil contamination. Seasonal changes in AM colonisation were also assessed. The AM fungal communities colonising T. polytrichus were also investigated, using the polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of fungal DNA to establish whether AM species richness varied between sites, and whether fungal ecotypes specific to sites with different amounts of metal contamination could be identified. All plants examined were heavily colonised by AM fungi, and mean percentage root length colonised did not increase significantly with increasing soil metal contamination. However, AM vesicle abundance (percentage of mycorrhizal root length containing vesicles) at the most contaminated site was significantly greater than at the other sites. No significant seasonal variation in degree of colonisation or vesicle abundance was found. Glomus was the predominant AM genus detected at all sites. The number of AM genotypes colonising T. polytrichus roots was similar at all sites but, although some were common to all sites, certain strains appeared to be specific to either the most- or the least-contaminated site. This variation in species may account for the difference in vesicle abundance between sites. The consistently heavy AM colonisation of T. polytrichus found suggests that these fungi are not inhibited by soil heavy metals at these sites, and that the host derives some benefit from its AM symbiont.

  2. [Low temperature freezing followed by dispersive solid phase extraction for the determination of 104 pesticide residues in vegetable oils using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Wang, Lan; Huang, Huajun; Chen, Jie; Chen, Wenrui; Xiang, Dapeng

    2015-03-01

    A method using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by clean-up steps of centrifugation, freezing and dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been devel- oped for the determination of trace levels of 104 pesticides in vegetable oils. LLE has been optimized to extract these pesticide residues from oils to obtain the highest recoveries of pesticides and the lowest co-extract fat residue in the final extract. In addition, the centrifugation and freezing steps as well as D-SPE with primary secondary amine (PSA), graphite carbon black (GCB) and C18 were used as the clean-up steps to minimize the co-extract fat. The recoveries obtained ranged from 55% to 121% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0. 47% to 19. 2% at the spiked levels of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg. This method, combining with accurate and sensitive detection, allowed quantification and confirmation at levels as low as 1 µg/kg for 80% of the analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the most compounds were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Chinese legislations for oils. The proposed method was applied successfully for the residue determination of the selected pesticides in oils.

  3. Simultaneous determination of hypericin and hyperforin in human plasma and serum using liquid-liquid extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pirker, R; Huck, C W; Bonn, G K

    2002-09-25

    A method for the simultaneous extraction of hypericin and hyperforin from a St. John's Wort extract, which is used in case of moderate depressions and skin injuries, from human plasma and serum by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with n-hexane-ethylacetate (70:30, w/w) was developed. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with UV, fluorescence (FLD) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection using electrospray ionization (ESI) was used to identify and quantify hypericin and hyperforin in the extracts from blood samples. Linearity was obtained in the ranges 8.4-28.7 ng/ml (hypericin) and 21.6-242.6 ng/ml (hyperforin). Recoveries were between 32.2 and 35.6% for hypericin and 100.1 and 89.9% for hyperforin. Intra-day accuracy and precision for this method ranged between 3.2 and 4.3% and 2.6 and 2.8%, respectively. After validation of the LLE, the method was tested on real plasma samples which were obtained by ingestion of St. John's Wort extract capsules. Blood samples were taken 2, 4, and 6 h after ingestion. Finally, this method proved to be highly suitable for clinical and pharmacologically relevant studies.

  4. Mid-Holocene paleoceanographic conditions in the Limfjord region from gastropod (Littorina littorea) oxygen and carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, J.; Schmitz, B.

    2003-04-01

    Stable oxygen and carbon isotope intrashell transects of common intertidal gastropods Littorina littorea have been used to reconstruct environmental conditions in the Limfjord region during the mid-Holocene (late Atlantic time). The subfossil specimens studied are from the excavated Stone Age Kitchenmidden in Ertebølle, northern Denmark, dated between 5970±95 to 5070±90 B.P. In addition recent specimens were studied from different coastal localities within the Limfjord, along a salinity gradient from the west to east. These modern shells were used as control samples, in order to construct an oceanographic model for the Limfjord, in which the seasonal isotopic range from the Littorina subfossils could be interpreted. The coastal marine climate in the Ertebølle region during the mid-Holocene indicates summer-SST close to 22^oC and 4-5 ppm reduced salinity compared to fully marine conditions. The mid-Holocene central Limfjord can be described as a coastal area, which experienced similar salinity conditions (c. 30.5 PSU) that prevail in the western part (Odden area) today. In terms of summer-SST as compared with a 10-year average (1989-1998) for the Limfjord region, temperatures were 2-3^oC above recent climatic settings. These results point towards a mid-Holocene Limfjord in contact with the North Sea/Skagerrak with possibly more pronounced water exchange with the North Sea than today.

  5. Recycling of indium from CIGS photovoltaic cells: potential of combining acid-resistant nanofiltration with liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Niewersch, Claudia; Lenz, Markus; Kül, Zöhre Zohra; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Schäffer, Andreas; Wintgens, Thomas

    2014-11-18

    Electronic consumer products such as smartphones, TV, computers, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells crucially depend on metals and metalloids. So-called "urban mining" considers them as secondary resources since they may contain precious elements at concentrations many times higher than their primary ores. Indium is of foremost interest being widely used, expensive, scarce and prone to supply risk. This study first investigated the capability of different nanofiltration membranes of extracting indium from copper-indium-gallium- selenide photovoltaic cell (CIGS) leachates under low pH conditions and low transmembrane pressure differences (<3 bar). Retentates were then subjected to a further selective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Even at very acidic pH indium was retained to >98% by nanofiltration, separating it from parts of the Ag, Sb, Se, and Zn present. LLE using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) extracted 97% of the indium from the retentates, separating it from all other elements except for Mo, Al, and Sn. Overall, 95% (2.4 g m(-2) CIGS) of the indium could be extracted to the D2EHPA phase. Simultaneously, by nanofiltration the consumption of D2EHPA was reduced by >60% due to the metal concentration in the reduced retentate volume. These results show clearly the potential for efficient scarce metal recovery from secondary resources. Furthermore, since nanofiltration was applicable at very low pH (≥ 0.6), it may be applied in hydrometallurgy typically using acidic conditions.

  6. Diagnosing in-flight ρR implosion asymmetry at low and intermediate mode numbers with charged particles at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A.; Seguin, F.; Li, C. K.; Frenje, J.; Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M.; Rinderknecht, H.; Manuel, M.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R.; Amendt, P.; Bionta, R.; Bradley, D.; Callahan, D.; Friedrich, S.; Glenn, S.; Heeter, R.; Hicks, D.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O.; London, R.; MacKinnon, A.; Meezan, N.; Weber, S.

    2013-10-01

    J. DELETTREZ, V. GLEBOV, P. RADHA, T. SANGSTER, LLE, R. OLSON, SNL, J. KLINE, G. KYRALA, R. LEEPER, D. WILSON, LANL, J. KILKENNY, A. NIKROO, GA - The Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometers were developed for OMEGA and transferred to the NIF as National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostics. In tuning-campaign implosions containing D and 3He gas, the WRFs are used to measure the spectrum of protons from D-3He reactions. From the measured energy downshift of these protons, the total ρR is inferred through the plasma stopping power. Data from WRFs fielded simultaneously on the pole and equator indicate low-mode polar ρR asymmetries at shock burn. Significant swings in ρR P2/P0 are also observed in the ignition campaign data set, attributed to low-mode x-ray drive inhomogeneity. The data set also allows studies of intermediate mode symmetry. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  7. Preliminary numerical investigation of bandwidth effects on CBET using the LPSE-CBET code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Jason; Myatt, Jason; Shaw, John; Weaver, James; Obenschain, Keith; Lehmberg, Robert; Obenschain, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Cross beam energy transfer (CBET) is a significant energy-loss mechanism for direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser facility. Recently, a working group that includes participants from the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) was formed to investigate strategies for ameliorating the deleterious effects of CBET. As part of this collaboration, the wave-based code LPSE-CBET developed at LLE has been made available to researchers at NRL and is being used to study the feasibility of suppressing CBET through the enhancement of laser bandwidth by stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS). In this poster, we present some preliminary results on this subject. In particular, we discuss initial efforts to evaluate mitigation levels of 4 discrete Stokes lines from SRRS in air and compare our findings with ray-based simulation results of wavelength shifted (-6Å ,0, +6Å) driver-lines on OMEGA. Work Supported by DoE/NNSA.

  8. Evaluation of limb load asymmetry using two new mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Senthil N S; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard H; Htwe, Ohnmar; Jagannathan, K; Hamdan, Nor M Y; Rajalakshmi, D

    2014-09-25

    Quantitative measurement of limb loading is important in orthopedic and neurological rehabilitation. In current practice, mathematical models such as Symmetry index (SI), Symmetry ratio (SR), and Symmetry angle (SA) are used to quantify limb loading asymmetry. Literatures have identified certain limitations with the above mathematical models. Hence this study presents two new mathematical models Modified symmetry index (MSI) and Limb loading error (LLE) that would address these limitations. Furthermore, the current mathematical models were compared against the new model with the goal of achieving a better model. This study uses hypothetical data to simulate an algorithmic preliminary computational measure to perform with all numerical possibilities of even and uneven limb loading that can occur in human legs. Descriptive statistics are used to interpret the limb loading patterns: symmetry, asymmetry and maximum asymmetry. The five mathematical models were similar in analyzing symmetry between limbs. However, for asymmetry and maximum asymmetry data, the SA and SR values do not give any meaningful interpretation, and SI gives an inflated value. The MSI and LLE are direct, easy to interpret and identify the loading patterns with the side of asymmetry. The new models are notable as they quantify the amount and side of asymmetry under different loading patterns.

  9. Hydrophobic polymer monoliths as novel phase separators: application in continuous liquid-liquid extraction systems.

    PubMed

    Peroni, Daniela; Vanhoutte, Dominique; Vilaplana, Francisco; Schoenmakers, Peter; de Koning, Sjaak; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2012-03-30

    Hydrophobic macroporous polymer monoliths are shown to be interesting materials for the construction of "selective solvent gates". With the appropriate surface chemistry and porous properties the monoliths can be made permeable only for apolar organic solvents and not for water. Different poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (BMA-EDMA) and poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) monoliths prepared with tailored chemistries and porosities were evaluated for this purpose. After extensive characterization, the PS-DVB monoliths were selected due to their higher hydrophobicity and their more suitable flow characteristics. BMA-EDMA monoliths are preferred for mid-polarity solvents such as ethyl acetate, for which they provide efficient separation from water. Breakthrough experiments confirmed that the pressures necessary to generate flow of organic solvents through PS-DVB monoliths were substantially lower than for water. A phase separator was constructed using the monoliths as the flow selector. This device was successfully coupled on-line with a chip-based continuous liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE) system with segmented flow. Efficient separation of different solvents was obtained across a wide range of flow rates (0.5-4.0 mL min(-1)) and aqueous-to-organic flow ratios (β=1-10). Good robustness and long life-time were also confirmed. The suitability of the device to perform simple, cheap, and reliable phase separation in a continuous LLE system prior to gas-chromatographic analysis was proven for some selected real-life applications.

  10. A new sensitive LC/MS/MS analysis of vitamin D metabolites using a click derivatization reagent, 2-nitrosopyridine.

    PubMed

    Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Barnych, Bogdan; Hwang, Sung Hee; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Cui, Yongliang; Niu, Jun; Watsky, Mitchell A; Hammock, Bruce D

    2017-04-01

    There is an increased demand for comprehensive analysis of vitamin D metabolites. This is a major challenge, especially for 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1α,25(OH)2VitD], because it is biologically active at picomolar concentrations. 4-Phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was a revolutionary reagent in dramatically increasing sensitivity of all diene metabolites and allowing the routine analysis of the bioactive, but minor, vitamin D metabolites. A second generation of reagents used large fixed charge groups that increased sensitivity at the cost of a deterioration in chromatographic separation of the vitamin D derivatives. This precludes a survey of numerous vitamin D metabolites without redesigning the chromatographic system used. 2-Nitrosopyridine (PyrNO) demonstrates that one can improve ionization and gain higher sensitivity over PTAD. The resulting vitamin D derivatives facilitate high-resolution chromatographic separation of the major metabolites. Additionally, a liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (LLE-SPE) was developed to selectively extract 1α,25(OH)2VitD, while reducing 2- to 4-fold ion suppression compared with SPE alone. LLE-SPE followed by PyrNO derivatization and LC/MS/MS analysis is a promising new method for quantifying vitamin D metabolites in a smaller sample volume (100 µL of serum) than previously reported methods. The PyrNO derivatization method is based on the Diels-Alder reaction and thus is generally applicable to a variety diene analytes.

  11. Determination of buprenorphine, fentanyl and LSD in whole blood by UPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas; Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Strand, Dag Helge

    2013-04-01

    A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of buprenorphine, fentanyl and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in whole blood. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with methyl tert-butyl ether. UPLC-MS-MS analysis was performed with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium formate (pH 10.2) and methanol. Positive electrospray ionization MS-MS detection was performed with two multiple reaction monitoring transitions for each of the analytes and the deuterium labeled internal standards. Limit of detection values of buprenorphine, fentanyl and LSD were 0.28, 0.044 and 0.0097 ng/mL and limit of quantification values were 0.94, 0.14 and 0.036 ng/mL, respectively. Most phospholipids were removed during LLE. No or only minor matrix effects were observed. The method has been routinely used at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health since September 2011 for qualitative and quantitative detections of buprenorphine, fentanyl and/or LSD in more than 400 whole blood samples with two replicates per sample.

  12. Separation/Preconcentration Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Jiang, Zucheng

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of this chapter exactly characterizes the contribution. The analytical chemistry of the rare earth elements (REEs) very often is highly complicated and the determination of a specific element is impossible without a sample pre-concentration. Sample preparation can be carried out either by separation of the REEs from the matrix or by concentrating the REEs. The separation of REEs from each other is mainly made by chromatography. At the beginning of REE analysis, the method of precipitation/coprecipitation was applied for the treatment of REE mixtures. The method is not applicable for the separation of trace amounts of REEs. The majority of the methods used are based on the distribution of REEs in a two-phase system, a liquid-liquid or a liquid-solid system. Various techniques have been developed for the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), in particular the liquid phase micro-extraction. The extraction is always combined with a pre-concentration of the REEs in a single drop of extractant or in a hollow fiber filled with the extractant. Further modified techniques for special applications and for difficult REE separation have been developed. Compared to the LLE, the solid phase micro-extraction is preferred. The method is robust and easy to handle, in which the solid phase loaded with the REEs can be used directly for subsequent determination methods. At present, very new solid materials, like nanotubes, are developed and tested for solid phase extraction.

  13. Miniaturized salting-out liquid-liquid extraction of sulfonamides from different matrices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanjuan; Jiang, Ming; Li, Gao; Xu, Li; Xie, Minjie

    2010-10-29

    Salting-out liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) uses water-miscible organic solvents as the extractants. The principle of it is based on the phase separation of water-miscible organic solvents from the aqueous solutions in the presence of high concentration of salts. As an effort to miniaturization, in the present study, a 1-mL syringe was employed as the phase separation device for salting-out LLE. Once the phase separation occurred, the upper layer could be narrowed into the needle tip by pushing the plunger; thus, the collection of the upper layer solvent was convenient. By miniaturization, the consumption of organic solvent was decreased as low as possible. Four sulfonamides were used as model analytes. The optimal salting-out parameters were as follows. 150 μL of acetonitrile was added to the 500 μL of sample solution containing 300 mg mL(-1) sodium chloride at a pH of 6.5. This procedure afforded a convenient, fast and cost-saving operation with good cleanup ability for the model analytes. It showed promising applications for different matrices. Herein, food (honey), environmental water (river water) and biological fluid (human urine) were investigated. Satisfactory results were obtained. An additional bonus of this sample preparation method is that, owing to its water-miscible nature, the extraction solvent is compatible with various analytical systems, like gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.

  14. Acoustic emission-based condition monitoring methods: Review and application for low speed slew bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caesarendra, Wahyu; Kosasih, Buyung; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Zhu, Hongtao; Moodie, Craig A. S.; Zhu, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an acoustic emission-based method for the condition monitoring of low speed reversible slew bearings. Several acoustic emission (AE) hit parameters as the monitoring parameters for the detection of impending failure of slew bearings are reviewed first. The review focuses on: (1) the application of AE in typical rolling element bearings running at different speed classifications, i.e. high speed (>600 rpm), low speed (10-600 rpm) and very low speed (<10 rpm); (2) the commonly used AE hit parameters in rolling element bearings and (3) AE signal processing, feature extraction and pattern recognition methods. In the experiment, impending failure of the slew bearing was detected by the AE hit parameters after the new bearing had run continuously for approximately 15 months. The slew bearing was then dismantled and the evidence of the early defect was analysed. Based on the result, we propose a feature extraction method of the AE waveform signal using the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) algorithm and demonstrate that the LLE feature can detect the sign of failure earlier than the AE hit parameters with improved prediction of the progressive trend of the defect.

  15. An adaptive locally linear embedding manifold learning approach for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Amanda K.; Messinger, David W.

    2015-05-01

    Algorithms for spectral analysis commonly use parametric or linear models of the data. Research has shown, however, that hyperspectral data -- particularly in materially cluttered scenes -- are not always well-modeled by statistical or linear methods. Here, we propose an approach to hyperspectral target detection that is based on a graph theory model of the data and a manifold learning transformation. An adaptive nearest neighbor (ANN) graph is built on the data, and then used to implement an adaptive version of locally linear embedding (LLE). We artificially induce a target manifold and incorporate it into the adaptive LLE transformation. The artificial target manifold helps to guide the separation of the target data from the background data in the new, transformed manifold coordinates. Then, target detection is performed in the manifold space using Spectral Angle Mapper. This methodology is an improvement over previous iterations of this approach due to the incorporation of ANN, the artificial target manifold, and the choice of detector in the transformed space. We implement our approach in a spatially local way: the image is delineated into square tiles, and the detection maps are normalized across the entire image. Target detection results will be shown using laboratory-measured and scene-derived target data from the SHARE 2012 collect.

  16. Fast analysis of high-energy compounds and agricultural chemicals in water with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Christopher C; MacMillan, Denise K; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham

    2007-01-01

    Novel sampling and detection methods using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) are examined in the detection of explosives (RDX, TNT, HMX, and TNB) and agricultural chemicals (atrazine, alachlor and acetochlor) from aqueous matrices and authentic contaminated groundwater samples. DESI allows analysis of solid and liquid compounds directly from surfaces of interest with little or no sample preparation. Significant savings in analysis time and sample preparation are realized. The methods investigated here include (i) immediate analysis of filter paper wetted with contaminated water samples without further sample preparation, (ii) rapid liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and (iii) analyte extraction from contaminated groundwater samples on-site using solid-phase extraction (SPE) membranes, followed by direct DESI analysis of the membrane. The wetted filter paper experiment demonstrates the maximum sample throughput for DESI analysis of aqueous matrices but has inadequate sensitivity for some of these analytes. Both the LLE and the SPE methods have adequate sensitivity. The resulting SPE membranes and/or small volume solvent extracts produced in these experiments are readily transported to off-site facilities for direct analysis by DESI. This realizes a significant reduction in the costs of sample shipping compared with those for typical liter-sized samples of groundwater. Total analysis times for these preliminary DESI analyses are comparable with or shorter than those for GC/MS and limits of detection approach environmental action levels for these compounds while maintaining a modest relative standard deviation. Tandem mass spectrometric data is used to provide additional specificity as needed.

  17. Speciation of organotin compounds in urine by GC-MIP-AED and GC-MS after ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Zachariadis, G A; Rosenberg, E

    2009-04-15

    A method for the determination of organotin compounds in urine samples based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) in hexane and gas chromatographic separation was developed and optimized. Seven organotin species, namely monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), monophenyltin (MPhT), diphenyltin (DPhT) and triphenyltin (TPhT), were in situ derivatized by sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) to form ethylated less polar derivatives directly in the urine matrix. The critical parameters which have a significant effect on the yield of the successive liquid-liquid extraction procedure were examined, by using standard solutions of tetrabutyltin in hexane. The method was optimized for use in direct analysis of undiluted human urine samples and ways to overcome practical problems such as foam formation during extraction, due to various constituents of urine are discussed. After thorough optimization of the extraction procedure, all examined species could be determined after 3 min of simultaneous derivatization and extraction at room temperature and 5 min phase separation by centrifugation. Gas chromatography with a microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detector (MIP-AED) as element specific detector was employed for quantitative measurements, while a quadrupole mass spectrometric detector (MS) was used as molecular specific detector. The detection limits were between 0.42 and 0.67 microg L(-1) (as Sn) for the quantitative LLE-GC-MIP-AED method and the precision between 4.2% and 11.7%, respectively.

  18. Reduction of time-averaged irradiation speckle nonuniformity in laser-driven plasmas due to target ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, R.

    1997-09-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, irradiation uniformity is improved by passing laser beams through distributed phase plates (DPPs), which produce focused intensity profiles with well-controlled, reproducible envelopes modulated by fine random speckle. [C. B. Burckhardt, Appl. Opt. 9, 695 (1970); Y. Kato and K. Mima, Appl. Phys. B 29, 186 (1982); Y. Kato et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057 (1984); Laboratory for Laser Energetics LLE Review 33, NTIS Document No. DOE/DP/40200-65, 1987 (unpublished), p. 1; Laboratory for Laser Energetics LLE Review 63, NTIS Document No. DOE/SF/19460-91, 1995 (unpublished), p. 1.] A uniformly ablating plasma atmosphere acts to reduce the contribution of the speckle to the time-averaged irradiation nonuniformity by causing the intensity distribution to move relative to the absorption layer of the plasma. This occurs most directly as the absorption layer in the plasma moves with the ablation-driven flow, but it is shown that the effect of the accumulating ablated plasma on the phase of the laser light also makes a quantitatively significant contribution. Analytical results are obtained using the paraxial approximation applied to the beam propagation, and a simple statistical model is assumed for the properties of DPPs. The reduction in the time-averaged spatial spectrum of the speckle due to these effects is shown to be quantitatively significant within time intervals characteristic of atmospheric hydrodynamics under typical ICF irradiation intensities.

  19. Thermodynamic study of binary mixtures of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide ionic liquid with molecular solvents: new experimental data and modeling with PC-SAFT equation of state.

    PubMed

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Lukoshko, Elena Vadimovna; Królikowski, Marek; Domańska, Urszula; Szydłowski, Jerzy

    2015-01-15

    This work is concerned with thermodynamic properties of binary mixtures composed of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide ionic liquid (IL) and the following molecular solvents: n-heptane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, thiophene, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octanol. This is the very first time when experimental data on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) phase diagrams and excess enthalpies of mixing (H(E)) for these systems are reported. An impact of the molecular solvent structure on LLE and H(E) is discussed. Furthermore, modeling of the properties under study is presented by using perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The equation of state is used in purely predictive and semipredictive mode. The latter one involves temperature-dependent binary corrections to combining rules employed in the PC-SAFT model determined on the basis of infinite dilution activity coefficients. The results shown indicate that such an approach can serve as an interesting modern thermodynamic tool for representation of thermodynamic data for complex ILs-based systems.

  20. OMEGA: A NEW COLD X-RAY SIMULATION FACILITY FOR THE EVALUATION OF OPTICAL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J H; Newlander, C D; Fournier, K B; Beutler, D E; Coverdale, C A; May, M J; Tobin, M; Davis, J F; Shiekh, D

    2007-04-27

    We report on recent progress for the development of a new cold X-ray optical test capability using the Omega Facility located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. These tests were done on the 30 kJ OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Rochester, NY. We conducted a six-shot series called OMEGA II on 14 July 2006 in one eight-hour day (supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency). The initial testing was performed using simple protected gold optical coatings on fused silica substrates. PUFFTFT analyses were completed and the specimen's thermal lateral stress and transverse stress conditions were calculated and interpreted. No major anomalies were detected. Comparison of the pre- and posttest reflective measurements coupled with the TFCALC analyses proved invaluable in guiding the analyses and interpreting the observed damage. The Omega facility is a high quality facility for performing evaluation of optical coatings and coupons and provides experience for the development of future National Ignition Facility (NIF) testing.

  1. Searching for R-parity violation at run-II of the tevatron.

    SciTech Connect

    Allanach, B.; Banerjee, S.; Berger, E. L.; Chertok, M.; Diaz, M. A.; Dreiner, H.; Eboli, O. J. P.; Harris, B. W.; Hewett, J.; Magro, M. B.; Mondal, N. K.; Narasimham, V. S.; Navarro, L.; Parua, N.; Porod, W.; Restrepo, D. A.; Richardson, P.; Rizzo, T.; Seymour, M. H.; Sullivan, Z.; Valle, J. W. F.; de Campos, F.

    1999-06-22

    The authors present an outlook for possible discovery of supersymmetry with broken R-parity at Run II of the Tevatron. They first present a review of the literature and an update of the experimental bounds. In turn they then discuss the following processes: (1) resonant slepton production followed by R{sub P} decay, (a) via LQD{sup c} and (b) via LLE{sup c}; (2) how to distinguish resonant slepton production from Z{prime} or W{prime} production; (3) resonant slepton production followed by the decay to neutralino LSP, which decays via LQD{sup c}; (4) resonant stop production followed by the decay to a chargino, which cascades to the neutralino LSP; (5) gluino pair production followed by the cascade decay to charm squarks which decay directly via L{sub 1}Q{sub 2}D{sub 1}{sup c}; (6) squark pair production followed by the cascade decay to the neutralino LSP which decays via L{sub 1}Q{sub 2}D{sub 1}{sup c}; (7) MSSM pair production followed by the cascade decay to the LSP which decays (a) via LLE{sup c}, (b) via LQD{sup c}, and (c) via U{sup c}D{sup c}D{sup c}, respectively; and (8) top quark and top squark decays in spontaneous R{sub P}.

  2. Chemical Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Soluble Microbial Products in an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Le, Chencheng; Soh, Yan Ni Annie; Stuckey, David C

    2017-02-21

    Effluents from wastewater treatment systems contain a variety of organic compounds, including end products from the degradation of influent substrates, nonbiodegradable feed compounds, and soluble microbial products (SMPs) produced by microbial metabolism. It is important to identify the major components of these SMPs to understand what is in wastewater effluents. In this study, physical pretreatments to extract and concentrate low molecular weight SMPs (MW< 580 Da) from effluents were optimized. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a 200 mL effluent sample showed the best performance using a mixture of n-hexane, chloroform, and dichloromethane (70 mL) for extraction. For solid phase extraction (SPE), two OasisHLB cartridges were connected in-line to optimize recovery, and the eluted samples from each cartridge were analyzed separately to avoid overlapping peaks. Four solvents varying from polar to nonpolar (methanol, acetone, dichloromethane, and n-hexane) were selected to maximize the number of compound peaks eluted. A combination of SPE (OasisHLB) followed by LLE was shown to maximize compound identification and quantification. However, the compounds identified accounted for only 2.1 mg of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L (16% of total SMP as COD) because many SMPs have considerably higher MWs. Finally, the method was validated by analyzing a variety of different reactor effluents and feeds.

  3. Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction as an alternative to the official method for the analysis of organic micro-pollutants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Sophie; Kelly, Mary T; Fenet, Hélène; Larroque, Michel

    2006-01-06

    The objective this study was to compare the official EU liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of compounds migrating from cross-linked polyethylene into water. A medium polarity polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) 65 microm fibre proved most efficient for the SPME extraction of nine test compounds and the optimum extraction conditions were an immersion time of 30 min with heating to 60 degrees C. The repeatability of the SPME method was variable: RSD values ranged from approximately 4-18% depending on the individual compound, though correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 in the concentration range 0.5-1000 microg/l. It would also seem that there is some competition amongst different compounds for sites on the fibre and this is a potential drawback of SPME when applied to unknown samples. However, when applied to water samples in contact with polyethylene, SPME proved to be immensely more sensitive and to have a greater extraction range than LLE. These factors coupled with the rapidity and ease of use of SPME mean that it could be developed for use as an alternative to the existing official method or as an alert system in the routine analysis of materials used to transport domestic water.

  4. Measurements of Areal Densities and Temperatures from DT Capsule Implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Green, K. M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Soures, J. M.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T. C.; Phillips, T. W.

    2000-10-01

    Spectral measurements were made of 14.1-MeV neutron knock-on particles from imploded DT-filled CH shells on OMEGA. Fuel ρR is inferred from the spectra and yields of D and T knock-ons, while shell ρR is determined from the measured yield of p knock-ons from the CH. Shell electron temperature Te is uniquely determined by using the downshift of the endpoint energies of knock-ons from the fuel. This is possible because knock-on yield is independent of Te while the energy downshift is a function of both shell ρR and shell T_e. In addition, CD and CH shells were also shot. From such implosions, a complex set of multiple particle spectra are obtained simultaneously. This work was performed in part at the LLE NLUF, and was supported in part by the U.S. DOE Contr. DE-FG03-99SF21782, LLE subcont. PO410025G, LLNL subcont. B313975, and by the U.S. DOE Office of ICF under Coop. Agree. No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  5. Confirmation of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA and MDMA in urine samples using disk solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after immunoassay screening.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zengping; Zhang, Shaoyu

    2003-07-25

    A method using mixed phase disk solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for confirmation of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine samples after immunoassay screening. Disk SPE provided hydrophobic (C(18)) and strong cation-exchange (SCX) interactions. The analytes were retained on SCX functional groups in the disk and eluted with ammoniated ethyl acetate after washed with methanol. Confirmation and quantitation was exercised by selected ion monitoring using nikethamide as chromatographic standard. Recoveries of the amphetamines were between 73.0 and 104.6% with RSDs in range of 2.1-6.4% (n=3). The limits of detection were 2 ng/ml for AMP, MET and MDMA, and 4 ng/ml for MDA. Five real urine samples were tested with the method after immunoassay screening, and the results were comparable to those of traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The method was solvent-saved, simple, rapid and reliable, and the extract was cleaner than that of LLE.

  6. β-lactam antibiotics residues analysis in bovine milk by LC-ESI-MS/MS: a simple and fast liquid-liquid extraction method.

    PubMed

    Jank, L; Hoff, R B; Tarouco, P C; Barreto, F; Pizzolato, T M

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the development and validation of a simple method for the detection and quantification of six β-lactam antibiotics residues (ceftiofur, penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin) in bovine milk using a fast liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LLE consisted of the addition of acetonitrile to the sample, followed by addition of sodium chloride, centrifugation and direct injection of an aliquot into the LC-MS/MS system. Separation was performed in a C(18) column, using acetonitrile and water, both with 0.1% of formic acid, as mobile phase. Method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Limits of detection ranged from 0.4 (penicillin G and penicillin V) to 10.0 ng ml(-1) (ceftiofur), and linearity was achieved. The decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), accuracy, inter- and intra-day repeatability of the method are reported.

  7. Optimization of squalene produced from crude palm oil waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandira, Irda; Legowo, Evita H.; Widiputri, Diah I.

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a hydrocarbon originally and still mostly extracted from shark liver oil. Due to environmental issues over shark hunting, there have been efforts to extract squalene from alternative sources, such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), one of crude palm oil (CPO) wastes. Previous researches have shown that squalene can be extracted from PFAD using saponification process followed with liquid-liquid extraction process although the method had yet to be optimized in order to optimize the amount of squalene extracted from PFAD. The optimization was done by optimizing both processes of squalene extraction method: saponification and liquid-liquid extraction. The factors utilized in the saponification process optimization were KOH concentration and saponification duration while during the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process optimization, the factors used were the volumes of distilled water and dichloromethane. The optimum percentage of squalene content in the extract (24.08%) was achieved by saponifying the PFAD with 50%w/v KOH for 60 minutes and subjecting the saponified PFAD to LLE, utilizing 100 ml of distilled water along with 3 times addition of fresh dichloromethane, 75 ml each; those factors would be utilized in the optimum squalene extraction method.

  8. Analysis of fentanyl in urine by DLLME-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Michael A; Sampsel, Sheena; Jenkins, Werner W; Owens, Janel E

    2015-03-01

    Fentanyl is a synthetic narcotic anesthetic ∼80-100 times more potent than morphine. Owing to the potential for its abuse, the drug may be included in a forensic toxicology work-up, which requires fast, precise and accurate measurements. Here, the stability of fentanyl was assessed when stored at three different temperatures (-20, 4 and 25°C) in synthetic urine. Stability at those three temperatures was demonstrated over 12 weeks upon analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a deuterated internal standard (fentanyl-D5) utilizing three different extraction techniques: liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction and dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The DLLME method was then optimized before use in the analysis of fentanyl in urine samples obtained from autopsy cases at the El Paso County Coroner's Office. Accuracy of the DLLME method was assessed by completing spike and recovery studies at three different fortification levels (10, 100 and 250 ng/mL) with excellent recovery (89.9-102.6%). The excellent comparability between DLLME and LLE is demonstrated (Bland-Altman difference plot with a mean difference of 4.9 ng/mL) and the use of this methodology in the analysis of forensically relevant samples is discussed.

  9. Development and comparison of two dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction techniques coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for the rapid analysis of bisphenol A in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuhui; Xie, Qilong; Chen, Jie; Sun, Janzhi; He, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2013-06-21

    In this study, two novel sample extraction methods for the analysis of bisphenol A (BPA) in edible oils were developed by using liquid-liquid extraction followed by a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LLE-DLLME) and reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (RP-DLLME). RP-DLLME showed a superior characteristic over LLE-DLLME and other previously reported procedures because of its easy operation, short extraction time, high sensitivity, low organic solvent consumption and waste generation. The optimized extraction conditions of RP-DLLME for 1.0 g of edible oil diluted in 4 mL of n-hexane were: extractant, 100 μL 0.2 M sodium hydroxide solution (80% methanol, v/v); extraction time, 1 min; centrifugation, 3 min. The determination of BPA was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a DAD detector. The method offered excellent linearity over a range of 0.010-0.5 μg g(-1) with a correlation coefficient of r>0.997. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability values expressed as relative standard deviation were 1.9% and 5.9%, respectively. The quantitation limit and detection limit were 6.3 and 2.5 ng g(-1). The target analyte was detected in 5 out of 16 edible oil samples. The recovery rates in real samples ranged from 89.5 to 99.7%.

  10. Determination of Aromatic Amines Released from Azo Dyes in Paper Packaging by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Bian, Zhaoyang; Li, Zhonghao; Fan, Ziyan; Wang, Ying; Liu, ShanShan; Deng, Huimin; Tang, Gangling

    2016-09-01

    An LC-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of 21 kinds of carcinogenic aromatic amines released from azo dyes in food wrappers was used in this research. Sodium dithionite was added to a citric acid buffer medium to reduce and decompose possible azo dyes. The extract was analyzed after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and dispersive SPE (d-SPE). The conditions for chromatographic separation, mass spectrum, LLE, and d-SPE were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the LOD was in the range of 0.13-0.35 mg/kg and LOQ in the range of 0.38-1.05 mg/kg, with the addition of standard recoveries of most aromatic amines being ≥80% and RSDs ≤10%. The recoveries for 2,4-diaminotoluene and 2,4-diaminoanisole were significantly lower, being ≤40%. The method was successfully used to analyze 30 practical samples, and the results showed that it is user-friendly, with high sensitivity, rapid control, and low matrix interference.

  11. Chaotic Analysis of the Electroretinographic Signal for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Surya S.; Joseph, K. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Electroretinogram (ERG) is a time-varying potential which arises from different layers of retina. To be specific, all the physiological signals may contain some useful information which is not visible to our naked eye. However this subtle information is difficult to monitor directly. Therefore the ERG signal features which are extracted and analyzed using computers are highly useful for diagnosis. This work discusses the chaotic aspect of the ERG signal for the controls, congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), and cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) classes. In this work, nonlinear parameters like Hurst exponent (HE), the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD), and approximate entropy (ApEn) are analyzed for the three different classes. It is found that the measures like HE dimension and ApEn are higher for controls as compared to the other two classes. But LLE shows no distinguishable variation for the three cases. We have also analyzed the recurrence plots and phase-space plots which shows a drastic variation among the three groups. The results obtained show that the ERG signal is highly complex for the control groups and less complex for the abnormal classes with P value less than 0.05. PMID:25013786

  12. Determination of rare earth elements in geological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with flow injection liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhifang; Liu, Congqiang; Zhang, Hongxiang; Ma, Yingjun; Lin, Soulin

    2003-12-01

    A direct sampling with organic solvent extracts for simultaneous multi-element determination implemented with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) associated with a flow injection liquid-liquid extraction (FI-LLE) sample preconcentration method was studied. The "robustness" of the plasma discharge with tributyl phosphate (TBP) loading was diagnosed by using the Mg II 279.55 nm and Mg I 285.21 nm lines intensity ratio. A FI-LLE preconcentration system for rare earth elements (REEs)-nitrate-TBP was established by using a laboratory-designed phase separator. For these elements, an average sensitivity enhancement factor of 64 was obtained with respect to ICP-AES sampling with aqueous solutions. The precision of the method was characterized by a relative standard deviation (%RSD) of 1.8 - 5.2%. A throughput of 27 samples per hour can be achieved with an organic solvent consumption of less than 200 microl per determination. Good results were obtained for the analysis of standard reference materials.

  13. TNSA Heavy Ion Measurements using the Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginnane, M. K.; Kousar, B.; Slish, J.; Palmisano, K.; Mandanas, S.; Padalino, S. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Regan, S.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    The MTW Laser at LLE utilizes an ultra-intense laser to produce high-energy heavy ion pulses through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). Using the Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF) the total number of heavy ions produced by TNSA can be determined, which is needed for stellar nuclear reaction cross section measurements. TNSA heavy ions stop within the thin walled front cup, while light ions pass through it and deposit their remaining charge in the back cup. A two channel storage scope measures voltages produced by the beam currents collected in the cups, respectively. The charge state fraction of plasma ions is modified by passing the heavy ions through a charge-exchange foil at the TRTF entrance. While passing through the foil, ions equilibrate to known charge states based on their velocities. Using time of flight, the total heavy ion current can be normalized to the correct charge state fraction. A pair of dipole magnets deflect relativistic TNSA electrons from the cup's entrance. They also prevent secondary electrons from escaping the front and back cups. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  14. Improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads in aqueous media via dual-phase solvent system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Liu, Ruijin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke

    2009-08-15

    In this study, a novel and simple dual-phase solvent system for the improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads in aqueous sample was proposed. The method integrated MIP extraction and micro-liquid-liquid extraction (micro-LLE) into only one step. A magnetic MIP beads using atrazine as template was synthesized, and was applied to aqueous media by adding micro-volume of n-hexane to form a co-extraction system. The magnetic MIP beads preferred to suspend in the organic phase, which shielded them from the disturbance of water molecule. The target analytes in the water sample was extracted into the organic phase by micro-LLE and then further bound to the solid-phase of magnetic MIP beads. The beads specificity was significantly improved with the imprinting efficiency of template increasing from 0.5 to 4.4, as compared with that in pure aqueous media. The extraction capacity, equilibration process and cross-selectivity of the MIP dual-phase solvent extraction system were investigated. The proposed method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the analysis of atrazine, simazine, propazine, simetryn, prometryne, ametryn and terbutryn in complicated sample such as tomato, strawberry juice and milk. The method is selective, sensitive and low organic solvent-consuming, and has potential to broaden the range of MIP application in biological and environmental sample.

  15. Light lithophile elements in pyroxenes of Northwest Africa (NWA) 817 and other Martian meteorites: Implications for water in Martian magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Musselwhite, Donald S.; Herd, Christopher D. K.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2006-06-01

    Zoning patterns of light lithophile elements (the LLE: Li, Be, and B) in pyroxenes of some Martian basaltic meteorites have been used to suggest that the parent basalts were saturated in water and exsolved an aqueous fluid phase. Here, we examine LLE zoning in the augites of a quickly cooled Martian basalt that was not water-saturated—the Northwest Africa (NWA) 817 nakhlite. Analyses for LLE were by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), supported by EMP analyses of major and minor elements. In NWA 817, zoning of Be and B is consistent with igneous fractionations while Li abundances are effectively constant across wide ranges in abundance of other incompatible elements (Be, B, Ti, and Fe*). The lack of strong zoning in Li can be ascribed to intracrystalline diffusion, despite the rapid cooling of NWA 817. Most other nakhlites, notably Nakhla and Lafayette, cooled more slowly than did NWA 817 [Treiman, A.H., 2005. The nakhlite Martian meteorites: augite-rich igneous rock from Mars. Chem. Erde65, 203-270]. In them Li abundances are constant across augite, as are abundances of other elements. In Nakhla pyroxenes, all the LLE have effectively constant abundances across significant ranges in Fe* and Ti abundance. Lafayette is more equilibrated still, and shows constant abundances of LLE and nearly constant Fe*. A pyroxene in the NWA480 shergottite has constant Li abundances, and was interpreted to represent mineral fractionation coupled with exsolution of aqueous fluid. A simple quantitative model of this process requires that the partitioning of Li between basalt and aqueous fluid, LiDaq/bas, be 15 times larger than its experimentally determined value. Thus, its seems unlikely that the Li zoning pattern in NWA480 augite represents exsolution of aqueous fluid. Late igneous or sub-solidus diffusion seems more likely as is suggested by Li isotopic studies [Beck, P., Chaussidon, M., Barrat, J.-A., Gillet, Ph., Bohn, M., 2005. An ion-microprobe study of lithium isotopes

  16. On retrieving sea ice freeboard from ICESat laser altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvorostovsky, Kirill; Rampal, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Sea ice freeboard derived from satellite altimetry is the basis for the estimation of sea ice thickness using the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. High accuracy of altimeter measurements and freeboard retrieval procedure are, therefore, required. As of today, two approaches for estimating the freeboard using laser altimeter measurements from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), referred to as tie points (TP) and lowest-level elevation (LLE) methods, have been developed and applied in different studies. We reproduced these methods for the ICESat observation periods (2003-2008) in order to assess and analyse the sources of differences found in the retrieved freeboard and corresponding thickness estimates of the Arctic sea ice as produced by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Three main factors are found to affect the freeboard differences when applying these methods: (a) the approach used for calculation of the local sea surface references in leads (TP or LLE methods), (b) the along-track averaging scales used for this calculation, and (c) the corrections for lead width relative to the ICESat footprint and for snow depth accumulated in refrozen leads. The LLE method with 100 km averaging scale, as used to produce the GSFC data set, and the LLE method with a shorter averaging scale of 25 km both give larger freeboard estimates comparing to those derived by applying the TP method with 25 km averaging scale as used for the JPL product. Two factors, (a) and (b), contribute to the freeboard differences in approximately equal proportions, and their combined effect is, on average, about 6-7 cm. The effect of using different methods varies spatially: the LLE method tends to give lower freeboards (by up to 15 cm) over the thick multiyear ice and higher freeboards (by up to 10 cm) over first-year ice and the thin part of multiyear ice; the higher freeboards dominate. We show that the

  17. Comparative study of sample preparation techniques coupled to GC for the analysis of halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) acids in tap water.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Sadia; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2010-03-01

    Halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) are one of the most common disinfection by-products formed during chlorination of drinking water. Currently, there are three U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved methods for analysis of HAAs in drinking water: U.S. EPA method 552.2, Standard Method 6251, and U.S. EPA method 552.3. The current U.S.EPA-approved HAA analysis methods require tedious and time-consuming liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and the use of hazardous chemicals. Besides U.S. EPA methods, capillary electrophoresis (CE), liquid chromatography (LC), including ion chromatography (IC), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) have been applied in order to determine the HAAs in portable water with high detection limits. Detection limits required to analyze portable water samples can be regularly achieved only by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (ECD) and ESI-MS. In this study, improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was able to achieve HAAs analysis at low detection limits. Thus, a safe and rapid method is needed for the micro-determination of HAAs. A method involving solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by GC-MS was developed to determine the HAAs in tap water. Selectivity, percent recovery, and detection limit studies were carried out on a LC-SAX (quaternary ammonium anion exchanger) SPE. Under optimized conditions, average recoveries for all nine HAAs spiked in drinking water samples ranged from 78.7% to 100%. The relative standard deviation data was found to range from 1.0% to 12.5% based upon five repeat recovery experiments, and estimated detection limit ranging between 0.16-0.009 microg/L was obtained. On this basis, SPE was studied as a possible alternative to LLE for the analysis of HAAs in water. Finally, the performance of the SPE-GC-MS with spiked drinking water samples was tested, and the results were compared with those obtained using LLE-GC-ECD. The method was applied for determination of HAAs in

  18. Inertial Confinement Fusion. Annual report 10/1/98 through 9/30/99

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Jane

    1999-12-01

    General Atomics (GA) has served as the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy since December 30, 1990. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999. During this period, GA and our partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). We fabricated and delivered over 1790 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNL. We produced more than 1380 glass and plastic target capsules over a wide range of sizes and designs (plus over 300 near target-quality capsules) for LLNL, LANL, SNL, and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetic (UR/LLE). We also delivered various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UWLLE in FY99. We fabricated a device to polish NIF-sized beryllium shells and prepared a laboratory for the safe operation of beryllium polishing activities. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY99, the GA/Schafer portion of the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team effort for design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA was completed. All components of the OCTS were procured, fabricated, assembled, tested, and shipped to UR/LLE. Only minor documentation tasks remain to be done in FY00. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D2 or deuterium

  19. Ligand efficiency-based support vector regression models for predicting bioactivities of ligands to drug target proteins.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nobuyoshi

    2014-10-27

    The concept of ligand efficiency (LE) indices is widely accepted throughout the drug design community and is frequently used in a retrospective manner in the process of drug development. For example, LE indices are used to investigate LE optimization processes of already-approved drugs and to re-evaluate hit compounds obtained from structure-based virtual screening methods and/or high-throughput experimental assays. However, LE indices could also be applied in a prospective manner to explore drug candidates. Here, we describe the construction of machine learning-based regression models in which LE indices are adopted as an end point and show that LE-based regression models can outperform regression models based on pIC50 values. In addition to pIC50 values traditionally used in machine learning studies based on chemogenomics data, three representative LE indices (ligand lipophilicity efficiency (LLE), binding efficiency index (BEI), and surface efficiency index (SEI)) were adopted, then used to create four types of training data. We constructed regression models by applying a support vector regression (SVR) method to the training data. In cross-validation tests of the SVR models, the LE-based SVR models showed higher correlations between the observed and predicted values than the pIC50-based models. Application tests to new data displayed that, generally, the predictive performance of SVR models follows the order SEI > BEI > LLE > pIC50. Close examination of the distributions of the activity values (pIC50, LLE, BEI, and SEI) in the training and validation data implied that the performance order of the SVR models may be ascribed to the much higher diversity of the LE-based training and validation data. In the application tests, the LE-based SVR models can offer better predictive performance of compound-protein pairs with a wider range of ligand potencies than the pIC50-based models. This finding strongly suggests that LE-based SVR models are better than pIC50-based

  20. Solubility of aliphatic hydrocarbons in piperidinium ionic liquids: measurements and modeling in terms of perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory.

    PubMed

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Domańska, Urszula

    2011-11-03

    Ionic liquids (ILs) reveal many unique properties which make them very interesting for applications in modern "green" technologies. For that reason, detailed knowledge about correlations between the ions' structure, their combinations, and the bulk properties is of great importance. That knowledge can be accessed by reliable measurements and modeling of systems with ILs in terms of various theoretical approaches. In this paper we report new experimental results on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) measurements of 10 binary systems composed of piperidinium ILs [namely, 1-propyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide] and aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, cyclohexane, and cycloheptane). Moreover, new results on liquid density of pure 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide are presented. Upper critical solution temperature type of phase behavior for all studied systems was observed. Decrease of solubility of n-alkane with an increase of its alkyl chain length and increase of solubility when changing linear into cyclic structure of hydrocarbon were detected. LLE modeling of investigated systems was performed in terms of two modern theories, namely, perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory (NRHB). Pure fluid parameters of the models were obtained from fitting of experimental liquid density and solubility parameter data at ambient pressure and tested against high pressure densities. Then literature values of activity coefficients of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at infinitely diluted mixtures with ILs were used to optimize binary interaction parameters of the models. Finally, the LLE phase diagrams were calculated with average absolute relative deviations of 4.1% and 3.4% of the IL mole fraction for PC-SAFT and NRHB, respectively. The PC-SAFT and NRHB models were both able to capture phase

  1. Improved liquid-liquid extraction with inter-well volume replacement dilution workflow and its application to quantify BMS-927711 in rat dried blood spots by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Naiyu; Zeng, Jianing; Ji, Qin C; Angeles, Aida; Buzescu, Adela; Basdeo, Shenita; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Trouba, Kevin; Patrone, Laura M; Peng, Qianping; Arnold, Mark E

    2014-02-01

    An UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify BMS-927711, a drug candidate to treat migraine, in rat dried blood spots (DBS). The DBS samples were extracted using an improved liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) strategy involving in the sonication of DBS punches in 20% MeOH aqueous solution containing the internal standard, [(13)C2, D4]-BMS-927711, and then with a 100mM NH4OAc buffer solution, followed by an automated LLE with EtOAc-hexane (70:30, v/v). The presence of 20% MeOH as an organic modifier in the elution solution significantly improved the analyte elution efficiency and assay performance. A novel inter-well volume replacement dilution workflow was introduced for DBS sample dilution before LLE step. This was a simple two-step process, firstly a small portion of the DBS blank solution was discarded, and then the same volume of a concentrated DBS sample solution was spiked into the leftover blank solution to achieve a desired dilution. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acuity UPLC(®) BEH C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) and the analyte was detected by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) with positive electrospray ionization on an AB Sciex Triple Quad 5500 mass spectrometer. The standard curve was linear from 5.00 to 5000ng/mL with assay precision ≤4.9% CV, and assay accuracy within ±3.1%Dev of the nominal values. Accurate sample dilution was achieved by using inter-well volume replacement with a precision of ≤4.2% CV and an accuracy of ±3.3% for dilution QC at 50,000ng/mL with 100-fold dilution (n=18). This robust UHPLC-MS/MS assay has been successfully applied to the non-clinical studies in rats. By using inter-well volume replacement workflow, accurate dilution was demonstrated using only one DBS blank sample for a typical dilution of <50-fold, and using only two blank DBS samples for a dilution of up to 625-fold. Moreover, this new workflow makes it easier to automate DBS sample dilution.

  2. Vector Diffusion Maps and the Connection Laplacian

    PubMed Central

    Singer, A.; Wu, H.-T.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce vector diffusion maps (VDM), a new mathematical framework for organizing and analyzing massive high-dimensional data sets, images, and shapes. VDM is a mathematical and algorithmic generalization of diffusion maps and other nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, such as LLE, ISOMAP, and Laplacian eigenmaps. While existing methods are either directly or indirectly related to the heat kernel for functions over the data, VDM is based on the heat kernel for vector fields. VDM provides tools for organizing complex data sets, embedding them in a low-dimensional space, and interpolating and regressing vector fields over the data. In particular, it equips the data with a metric, which we refer to as the vector diffusion distance. In the manifold learning setup, where the data set is distributed on a low-dimensional manifold ℳd embedded in ℝp, we prove the relation between VDM and the connection Laplacian operator for vector fields over the manifold. PMID:24415793

  3. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD = 512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD = 256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD = 128).

  4. Progress in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.; Skupsky, S.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Keck, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Li, C.K.; Marciante, J.; Marozas, J.a.; Marshall, F.J.; Maximov, A.V.; McKenty, P.W.; Morse, S.F.B.; Myatt, J.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R.D.; Radha, P.B.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Seguin, F.H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2006-06-28

    Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is expected to demonstrate high gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the next decade and is a leading candidate for inertial fusion energy production. The NIF will initially be configured for x-ray drive and with no beams placed at the target equator to provide a symmetric irradiation of a direct-drive capsule. LLE is developing the “polar-direct-drive” (PDD) approach that repoints beams toward the target equator. Initial 2-D simulations have shown ignition. A unique “Saturn-like” plastic ring around the equator refracts the laser light incident near the equator toward the target, improving the drive uniformity.

  5. An empirical target discharging model for direct-drive implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinenian, N.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Goncharov, V.; Delettrez, J.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Cobble, J.

    2012-10-01

    Capsule charging of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets, observed previously on OMEGA, is detrimental to achieving the high areal densities (ρR) required for ignition and gain. This is because the target potential traps energetic electrons that can preheat the fuel, raise the adiabat and degrade compression. The decay-time of this potential is therefore an important parameter for preheat calculations. A non-linear model of the electrical discharging of ICF capsules has been developed. The empirical model, which captures the essential dynamics of the target voltage decay, incorporates previous charged-particle spectroscopic and radiographic measurements of the fields. It is shown that return currents through the target support fiber have a profound effect on the voltage-decay time. Implications of these findings for inertial fusion energy (IFE) are considered. This work was supported in part by DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  6. Design of a Neutron Temporal Diagnostic for measuring DD or DT burn histories at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Sio, H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Bradley, D. K.; Le Pape, S.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Isumi, N.; Macphee, A.; Zayas, C.; Spears, B. K.; Hermann, H.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    The DD or DT burn history in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions provides essential information about implosion performance and helps to constrain numerical modeling. The capability of measuring this burn history is thus important for the NIF in its pursuit of ignition. Currently, the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is the only system capable of measuring the burn history for DT implosions with yields greater than ~ 1e14. To complement GRH, a new NIF Neutron Temporal Diagnostic (NTD) is being designed for measuring the DD or DT burn history with yields greater than ~ 1e10. A traditional scintillator-based design and a pulse-dilation-based design are being considered. Using MCNPX simulations, both designs have been optimized, validated and contrasted for various types of implosions at the NIF. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  7. Measuring spatial distributions of nuclear burn in ICF implosions at OMEGA and the NIF using proton emission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, Fredrick; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Rosenberg, M.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; McKenty, P.; Craxton, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Le Pape, S.; Smalyuk, V.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; MacKinnon, A.; Hoffman, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    Fusion reactions in ICF implosions of D3He-filled capsules produce 14.7-MeV D3He protons and 3-MeV DD protons. Spatial distributions of the D3He and DD reactions are studied with a penumbral imaging camera that utilizes a CR-39-based imaging detector to detect the protons. Up to three orthogonal cameras have been used simultaneously at OMEGA to study the 3-D structure of asymmetric implosions, and two orthogonal cameras have now been used to study an exploding-pusher implosion at the NIF. Recent data from OMEGA and from the NIF will be shown. This work was supported in part by NLUF, US DOE, and LLE.

  8. Studies on Five Senses Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Sadaka; Miao, Tiejun; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    This study proposed a therapy from complementary and alternative medicine to treat mental disorder by through interactions of five senses between therapist and patient. In this method sounding a certain six voices play an important role in healing and recovery. First, we studied effects of speaking using scalp- EEG measurement. Chaos analysis of EEG showed a largely enhanced largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) during the speaking. In addition, EEG power spectrum showed an increase over most frequencies. Second, we performed case studies on mental disorder using the therapy. Running power spectrum of EEG of patients indicated decreasing power at end of treatment, implying five senses therapy induced relaxed and lowered energy in central neural system. The results agreed with patient's reports that there were considerable decline in anxiety and improvements in mood.

  9. Phenolic-compound-extraction systems for fruit and vegetable samples.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Salas, Patricia; Morales-Soto, Aranzazu; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-12-03

    This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE) can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.

  10. Application of gas chromatography to analysis of spirit-based alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Spirit-based beverages are alcoholic drinks; their production processes are dependent on the type and origin of raw materials. The composition of this complex matrix is difficult to analyze, and scientists commonly choose gas chromatography techniques for this reason. With a wide selection of extraction methods and detectors it is possible to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis for many chemical compounds with various functional groups. This article describes different types of gas chromatography techniques and their most commonly used associated extraction techniques (e.g., LLE, SPME, SPE, SFE, and SBME) and detectors (MS, TOFMS, FID, ECD, NPD, AED, O or EPD). Additionally, brief characteristics of internationally popular spirit-based beverages and application of gas chromatography to the analysis of selected alcoholic drinks are presented.

  11. User Instructions for the EPIC-2 Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    FS9635-03-C-0506 FO92 -N I l R Ffl 51 19 MEOOEE IMI -. - . .. - .~~~𔃻. 111_ . . ~..-a .- . . .- a .a m’.4 1.84 IIL2.. 𔃾 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST ...VELOCITY (R-Z PLANE) 16 ANGULAR MOMENTUM 1? ANGULAR VELOCITY 18-20 R - 2 -* NODE POSITIONS 21-23 R - Z -, NODE VELOCITIES 24-26 R - Z -0 NODE ACCELERATIONS ...RTUJEN Rr1 14RIG CURV OF TOPSUAC LlE.1N I I \\ LAER PL ANES~* 1 : 01RELEENTRY NODESOYCUE OFZOTO SOfC I O NL L 1 ~ l \\I~OD NIE!I N OU’NRIN -1D N t> $O

  12. Deterministic single soliton generation and compression in microring resonators avoiding the chaotic region.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Pei-Hsun; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2015-04-20

    A path within the parameter space of detuning and pump power is demonstrated in order to obtain a single cavity soliton (CS) with certainty in SiN microring resonators in the anomalous dispersion regime. Once the single CS state is reached, it is possible to continue a path to compress it, broadening the corresponding single free spectral range (FSR) Kerr frequency comb. The first step to achieve this goal is to identify the stable regions in the parameter space via numerical simulations of the Lugiato-Lefever equation (LLE). Later, using this identification, we define a path from the stable modulation instability (SMI) region to the stable cavity solitons (SCS) region avoiding the chaotic and unstable regions.

  13. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report. Certificate Number: 890118W1. 10017 Harris Corporation, Computer Systems Division Harris Ada, Version 5.0 Harris HCX-9 Host and Harris NH-3800 Target

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-17

    Wri-gt-Pa:terson ATB Dayton, OH, USA 3. PLRFOAhIk OR $AZATOh AND ADDRESS 10. PRD R kAw [LE ih. PRMT. 1ASk AREA & Wo~k uN:T Nh~jki~ S Wright-Patterson...Patterson AFB :. , Dayton, OH, USA LLE/A 16. VISIRIBJTIO’, STATEMEN7 (ofthisReport)A Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. F% :;A 1 7 . D ...I $ ’K 6 7 1i S’Z~ . E m ’[% * (o f ~ th . r e ’ ,r B o i 2 C I o W ~ n , o ~ ; ) U7IZLAss: r:ED It. SjPFdEh7A- NO’E 19. IEvY.;b S (Confa,+ u Oreverse

  14. Detecting Tactical Targets with Motion Pictures from Low Slow Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    lhis was cit iii so that heol’ ill iculcKntm Iim cit(c re’sp ond I4111611ing tle mlater test rinns andlitt let litil knlow what tic eml ect’ alot...kipper ;caltit cf(lthe thisAcla) it ber t.arget.% iiscinll11 firsl c’aiiit iintco tilt% it icc Its tic c l’ct igt’ts tit lecnge’r vlsaits. 11wi%’ wttre...htiiland owl rllallý eiwsrilcedl it tic (lilt’ t’St aciniisr lle itdg hcehliticl buttl, %A ithIhis r’ighit hand tIhe s~lcje’’t 1cjiirssed tile

  15. EEG signal analysis: a survey.

    PubMed

    Subha, D Puthankattil; Joseph, Paul K; Acharya U, Rajendra; Lim, Choo Min

    2010-04-01

    The EEG (Electroencephalogram) signal indicates the electrical activity of the brain. They are highly random in nature and may contain useful information about the brain state. However, it is very difficult to get useful information from these signals directly in the time domain just by observing them. They are basically non-linear and nonstationary in nature. Hence, important features can be extracted for the diagnosis of different diseases using advanced signal processing techniques. In this paper the effect of different events on the EEG signal, and different signal processing methods used to extract the hidden information from the signal are discussed in detail. Linear, Frequency domain, time - frequency and non-linear techniques like correlation dimension (CD), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Hurst exponent (H), different entropies, fractal dimension(FD), Higher Order Spectra (HOS), phase space plots and recurrence plots are discussed in detail using a typical normal EEG signal.

  16. Current State of Military Hybrid Vehicle Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    ns m is si on u sin g op tim al d es ig n an d po w er m an ag em en t s ys te m (S m ith e t a l., 2 00 9...3 0% Se rie s- pa ra lle l h yb rid w ith a c on tin uo us ly v ar ia bl e tra ns m is si on u sin g op tim al d es ig n an d po w er m...bl e tra ns m iss io n us in g op tim al d es ig n an d po w er m an ag

  17. Neutron-induced reactions in the hohlraum to study reaction in flight neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, M. S.; Elliott, S. R.; Guiseppe, V.; Kidd, M.; Rundberg, B.; Tybo, J.

    2013-04-01

    We are currently developing the physics necessary to measure the Reaction In Flight (RIF) neutron flux from a NIF capsule. A measurement of the RIF neutron flux from a NIF capsule could be used to deduce the stopping power in the cold fuel of the NIF capsule. A foil irradiated at the Omega laser at LLE was counted at the LANL low-background counting facility at WIPP. The estimated production rate of 195Au was just below our experimental sensitivity. We have made several improvements to our counting facility in recent months. These improvements are designed to increase our sensitivity, and include installing two new low-background detectors, and taking steps to reduce noise in the signals.

  18. Gemeinsame Aspekte und Probleme in Physik und Geologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watznauer, A.

    Die griechische Naturphilosophie, vor allem Aristoteles, verstand unter Physik die Naturwissenschaft in toto. Die Aufspaltung dieser universellen Naturphilosophie in Fachdisziplinen betrifft sowohl den Gegenstand als auch, daraus abgeleitet, die Methodik der Darstellung. Die Physik, deren Gegenstand seit Galilei die reinen Fälle sind, ist ahistorisch. Die Geologie, die komplexe Systeme untersucht, ist dagegen eine historische Wissenschaft.Translated AbstractCommon Aspects and Problems in Physics and GeologyThe greek philosophers and above all Aristotle thougt in the physics about nature in toto. The splitting of this philosophy of nature into different sciences concerns both their topics and their methods. Since Galilei physics is concerned with pure cases, being an ahistorical science. On the contrary geology examines complex systems, being of historical character.

  19. Hybridverfahren zur EMV-Analyse elektrischer Leitungen über geschlitztem Grund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Haseborg, J. R.; Brüns, H.-D.; Singer, H.

    2006-09-01

    Die Betrachtung niedrig geführter elektrischer Leitungen über leitendem Grund stellt besondere Anforderungen an die numerische Feldanalyse. Insbesondere für Fälle ungleichförmiger Leitungsführung oder ungleichförmigen Grunds werden Verfahren benötigt, die eine effektive EMV-Analyse zulassen. Die Verwendung von volldiskretisierten Modellen erfordert aufwändige Diskretisierungen, große Ressourcen und hohe Rechenzeiten. Daher werden Möglichkeiten gesucht, die effektive Leitungstheorie auf Anordnungen anzuwenden, deren direkte Berechnung in klassischer Betrachtungsweise nicht möglich ist. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Hybridverfahren vorgestellt, um den Einfluss von Schlitzen unterhalb von Leitungen in einer approximativen EMV-Analyse zu untersuchen. Hierzu dient neben der Leitungstheorie zur Berechnung des Leiterstroms eine momententheoretische Simulation auf Basis von magnetischen Linienströmen.

  20. Online Condition Monitoring mit der Stresswellenanalyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruderreck, Frank

    Die Anforderungen des heutigen Energiemarkts und damit einhergehende veränderte Einsatzbedingungen für ältere Kraftwerksblöcke haben unvorhergesehene Produktionsausfälle in den letzten Jahren erheblich verteuert. Nach der Optimierung der Kraftwerksprozesse und der Steigerung der Wirkungsgrade richten die Energieversorger ihren Blick daher nun verstärkt auch auf die Verfügbarkeit ihrer Anlagen. Zur Verbesserung der Anlagenverfügbarkeit und der Minimierung der Instandhaltungskosten bietet sich der Einsatz von Condition Monitoring Systemen an. Nach der Erprobung eines Systems zur Vibrationsanalyse setzt die Evonik Steag GmbH jetzt in einem Pilotprojekt die Stresswellenanalyse ein, ein Online Condition Monitoring System auf der Basis von Ultraschallsensoren. Dieser Beitrag erläutert an einem Beispiel die Methode und grenzt sie gegen den De-facto-Standard Vibrationsanalyse ab.

  1. Development of a new plasma diagnostic of the critical surface and studies of the ion acoustic decay instability using collective Thomson scattering. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Seka, W. l Drake, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    We have developed 5-channel collective Thomson scattering system to measure the ion acoustic wave excited by the ion acoustic wave decay instabilities. The multichannel collective Thomson scattering technique was established with 4{omega} probe laser beam using GDL laser system at LLE, Univ. of Rochester. We have obtained the ionic charge state Z by measuring the second harmonic emission from the ion acoustic decay instability. The LASNEX computer simulation calculations have been carried out. The experimental results agree very well with the LASNEX computer simulation results with the flux number f=0.1. In high power laser regime, the spectrum become broad, and the {alpha}{gamma} decreases indicating that the turbulent like spectrum is observed. In order to understand the experimental results, we have developed a theory to study absorption of laser and heat transport. This new theory includes the temporal evolution of the heat conduction region. The results agree with flux-limited hydrodynamic simulations. 20 refs.

  2. Development of a new plasma diagnostic of the critical surface and studies of the ion acoustic decay instability using collective Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S. ); Seka, W. . Lab. for Laser Energetics)l Drake, R.P. )

    1991-01-01

    We have developed 5-channel collective Thomson scattering system to measure the ion acoustic wave excited by the ion acoustic wave decay instabilities. The multichannel collective Thomson scattering technique was established with 4{omega} probe laser beam using GDL laser system at LLE, Univ. of Rochester. We have obtained the ionic charge state Z by measuring the second harmonic emission from the ion acoustic decay instability. The LASNEX computer simulation calculations have been carried out. The experimental results agree very well with the LASNEX computer simulation results with the flux number f=0.1. In high power laser regime, the spectrum become broad, and the {alpha}{gamma} decreases indicating that the turbulent like spectrum is observed. In order to understand the experimental results, we have developed a theory to study absorption of laser and heat transport. This new theory includes the temporal evolution of the heat conduction region. The results agree with flux-limited hydrodynamic simulations. 20 refs.

  3. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  4. A linear electrostatic accelerator for education and advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinenian, N.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Sio, H.; Waugh, C.; Orozco, D.; Penna, J.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sangster, T.; Leeper, R.; Kilkenny, J.

    2013-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates of about 106 s-1 are routinely achieved, and fluence and energy of the fusion products have been accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  5. Detecting charged fusion products in high-fluence conditions on OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, C.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Rinderknecht, H.; Sinenian, N.; Manuel, M.; Casey, D.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Frenje, J.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Sangster, T. C.; Pape, S.; Bionta, R.; MacKinnon, A.; Landen, O.; Kim, Y.; Hermann, H.; Kilkenny, J.; Nikroo, A.

    2011-10-01

    CR-39 solid state nuclear track plastic, used as charged particle detectors on the ``back-end'' of OMEGA and NIF diagnostics/spectrometers, is ideally suited to record particle fluences up to ~ 3x104 / cm2. However, conditions on OMEGA and the NIF can often result in fluences two orders of magnitude greater. By using shorter etch times than the standard (6 hrs), and cross calibrating to CR39 shot on the MIT accelerator to the equivalent (ICF) fluence, the dynamic range of the CR39 can be significantly extended. Specific examples of this analysis from both OMEGA and the NIF will be presented for the case of D3He exploding pushers. This work was supported in part by LLE, the NLUF, the FSC, the US DOE, LLNL, and GA.

  6. Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices by the U. S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of four selected mosquito insecticides and a synergist in water using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chrom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Strahan, A.P.; Thurman, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    A method of analysis and quality-assurance practices were developed for the determination of four mosquito insecticides (malathion, metho-prene, phenothrin, and resmethrin) and one synergist (piperonyl butoxide) in water. The analytical method uses liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Good precision and accuracy were demonstrated in reagent water, urban surface water, and ground water. The mean accuracies as percentages of the true compound concentrations from water samples spiked at 10 and 50 nanograms per liter ranged from 68 to 171 percent, with standard deviations in concentrations of 27 nanograms per liter or less. The method detection limit for all compounds was 5.9 nanograms per liter or less for 247-milliliter samples. This method is valuable for acquiring information about the fate and transport of these mosquito insecticides and one synergist in water.

  7. Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche und gesteuerte bewegung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochim, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung und Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, und insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei und singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung und Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.

  8. Wearable mental-health monitoring platform with independent component analysis and nonlinear chaotic analysis.

    PubMed

    Roh, Taehwan; Bong, Kyeongryeol; Hong, Sunjoo; Cho, Hyunwoo; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The wearable mental-health monitoring platform is proposed for mobile mental healthcare system. The platform is headband type of 50 g and consumes 1.1 mW. For the mental health monitoring two specific functions (independent component analysis (ICA) and nonlinear chaotic analysis (NCA)) are implemented into CMOS integrated circuits. ICA extracts heart rate variability (HRV) from EEG, and then NCA extracts the largest lyapunov exponent (LLE) as physiological marker to identify mental stress and states. The extracted HRV is only 1.84% different from the HRV obtained by simple ECG measurement system. With the help of EEG signals, the proposed headband mental monitoring system shows 90% confidence level in stress test, which is better than the test results of only HRV.

  9. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) for Fairchild AFB, Spokane, Washington. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-21

    1.z j 1. I Z*ui I 31 1 1 1 1 ____ *I__ C wsw 1* lei oa *8 o2 9 UI 7W 2 *U OI 1.5______ w II 1.2 1T 0 *5 1 O T Ol...8 2*7 T I 35 lei _ lle7 9,7 SW 1. 3 4 35 15 * 6D .1 *1- 13.6 119 u wsw 1T T 7 T 215 ,8 7- ,2275_ 9*O 997w 1.3 1 .8 - . I,,’ I, Ib, ; WNW .2 .4 . o7...T 77v ___ .___ 1_ 1__ 60___ 1.Z 17 ! *7 1 *14 _ 1 To ESE _ _ _ _ _ _ _ lei . .3 1 £31 . .91 .9 *3j ____ 4!_ ______ _ ___1 1.9 27T 2.1V i -.2_

  10. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas. Volume 7. Appendices A-3 and A-4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    vI Z z Cr) D Lii jiw E > Q a Im ol L LC v SL CL V 9 C C L -- w...Cu 3a I . U) z cls -0 3 La - DZ CL- GZ 1= I 𔃾 =6 C"~ .i M LLJI- D- 4’ -. 4 0 *- 06 ".. 0 VI In C3 01 Li) LL- 0 .9-W 544 up c 41 W C 0- I- 0 1 65W~CL...SLLU C=0 -A C-> ... -’LU u A.L :ma ru’ =-8 M C-33 CL.GAu 4J a LLE’ ma .O . 6-4 0 ~ LiJ - -a 40 a -~ 10 Ul O -t q . . 0 5- = 2! i - *6n cm ap as. 0 vi

  11. DRACO---A New Multidimensional Hydrocode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, D.; Collins, T. J. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; McKenty, P. W.; Radha, P. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Whitney, B.; Moses, G. A.

    1999-11-01

    A program to develop a new multidimensional hydrocode is underway at LLE. DRACO is an arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE) code designed to run in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions in planar (cartesian), cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The basic hydroportion of DRACO employs second-order rezoning and interface tracking. A mixed-material equation of state (EOS) using SESAME or Wisconsin table lookups has recently been incorporated. One of the main objectives of the program is to fully exploit the parallel capabilities of the 32-processor SGI Origin-2000. This paper will describe the basic code, present results of our parallel work, and show results of recent burnthrough calculations. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  12. Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    1999-12-01

    Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

  13. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed.

  14. Identification of potent odorants in a novel nonalcoholic beverage produced by fermentation of wort with shiitake (Lentinula edodes).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Horlamus, Felix; Quitmann, Hendrich; Zorn, Holger

    2014-05-07

    Novel refreshments with pleasant flavors were developed by fermentation of wort with basidiomycetes. Among 31 screened fungi, shiitake (Lentinula edodes) produced the most pleasant flavor. It was perceived as fruity, slightly sour, and plum-like. Flavor compounds were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The key odor-active compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometry detector and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). For HS-SPME, a revised method of increasing the GC inlet split ratio was used. Most of the key odor-active compounds (e.g., 2-acetylpyrrole, β-damascenone, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenylethanol) were detected with both extraction techniques. However, distinct differences between these two methods were observed.

  15. Molecular thermodynamic analysis for assessing the relationship between reentrant swelling behavior and ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium for poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanometer-sized gel particles in a water-tetrahydrofuran cosolvent system.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang Chul; Bae, Young Chan

    2012-02-23

    The influence of phase separation on swelling behavior was investigated based on the thermodynamic framework of reswelling phenomena. The cloud-point for a ternary system of water(1)-tetrahydrofuran (THF)(2)-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(3) was examined by thermo-optical analysis (TOA). Nanometer-sized N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel particles were prepared by precipitation polymerization, and their swelling behaviors were determined using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). NIPA gel particles underwent reswelling when the ratio of water to THF was varied. First, the modified double lattice model (MDL) was employed to determine ternary interaction energy parameters for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) of linear poly-NIPA in a water-THF cosolvent system. The reentrant swelling equilibria of the NIPA gel in the water-THF system were then calculated using the interaction energy parameters.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a new fungal genus and species, Aphanoascella galapagosensis, from carapace keratitis of a Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra microphyes).

    PubMed

    Sutton, D A; Marín, Y; Thompson, E H; Wickes, B L; Fu, J; García, D; Swinford, A; de Maar, T; Guarro, J

    2013-02-01

    A new fungal genus and species, Aphanoascella galapagosensis, recovered from carapace keratitis in a Galapagos tortoise residing in a south Texas zoological collection, is characterized and described. The presence of a pale peridium composed of textura epidermoidea surrounded by scarce Hülle cell-like chlamydospores, and the characteristic reticulate ascospores with an equatorial rim separates it from other genera within the Onygenales. The phylogenetic tree inferred from the analysis of D1/D2 sequences demonstrates that this fungus represents a new lineage within that order. As D1/D2 and ITS sequence data also shows a further separation of Aphanoascus spp. into two monophyletic groups, we propose to retain the generic name Keratinophyton for species whose ascospores are pitted and display a conspicuous equatorial rim, and thereby propose new combinations in this genus for four Aphanoascus species.

  17. Laser-Plasma Interactions in High-Energy Density Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, C G; Baldis, H A; Schneider, M B; Hinkel, D E; Langdon, A B; Seka, W; Bahr, R; Depierreaux, S

    2005-08-24

    Laser-plasma interactions (LPI) have been studied experimentally in high-temperature, high-energy density plasmas. The studies have been performed using the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Rochester, NY. Up to 10 TW of power was incident upon reduced-scale hohlraums, distributed in three laser beam cones. The hot hohlraums fill quickly with plasma. Late in the laser pulse, most of the laser energy is deposited at the laser entrance hole, where most of the LPI takes place. Due to the high electron temperature, the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectrum extends well beyond {omega}{sub 0}/2, due to the Bohm-Gross shift. This high-temperature, high-energy density regime provides a unique opportunity to study LPI beyond inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions.

  18. Optical Mixing Controlled Stimulated Scattering Instabilities Using Blue-Green Interaction Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardirian, M.; Afeyan, B.; Won, K.; Montgomery, D.; Hammer, J.; Kirkwood, R.; Schmitt, A.

    2003-10-01

    The optical mixing of blue and green laser beams in an underdense exploding foil plasma where a resonant EPW can be resonantly generated was examined experimentally on the Omega laser facility at LLE. The effect of this optical mixing generated large amplitude EPW on the SRS backscattering of a separate blue interaction/witness beam was measured. The backscattering and transmission of the Green beam, the backscattering of the witness beam and the transmission of the crossing blue beam were studied as a function of different beam energies to see how to optimize the disruption of the witness beam's backscattering levels by the introduction of controlled levels of fluctuations and incoherence into the plasma. Results will be compared to numerical simulations and previous PRI experiments where large levels of IAW turbulence was generated by using same color crossing laser beams.

  19. Modeling of Late-Time Low Atwood Rayleigh-Taylor Experiments at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, T.; Malamud, G.; Elgin, L.; Huntington, C. M.; Trantham, M. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Shvarts, D.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulations have shown a reacceleration phase of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) at low Atwood numbers, during which the bubble and spike Froude numbers deviate from their expected asymptotic values. Currently, there is no experimental validation of those results. Therefore, we propose a new HEDP experiment for late-time evolution of low Atwood number RTI. In this work, we present numerical simulations of our experimental RTI system. We compare our results to spike and bubble velocities provided by potential theory and buoyancy-drag models. Additionally, we identify aspects of the low Atwood RTI system that will influence experimental outcomes. Supported by the U.S. DOE, through NNSA Grants DE-NA0002956 (SSAA) and DE-NA0002719 (NLUF), by the LLE under DE-NA0001944, and by the LLNL under subcontract B614207 to DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Experimental Design: Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Growth to High Froude Number in the Non-Linear Regime at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgin, Laura; Malamud, G.; Huntington, C. M.; Handy, T.; Trantham, M. R.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Shvarts, D.; Kuranz, C. C.

    2016-10-01

    Potential flow models predict that a Rayleigh-Taylor unstable system will reach a terminal velocity (and constant Froude number) at low Atwood numbers. Numerical simulations by Ramaprabhu et al. predict a reacceleration phase of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and higher Froude number at late times. We are planning a series of experiments at OMEGA 60 to measure RTI growth at low and high Atwood numbers and late times in order to observe this effect. The evolution of this system will be diagnosed with dual, x-ray radiography. Experimental design and diagnostic challenges are discussed here. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, through NNSA Grants DE-NA0002956 (SSAA) and DE-NA0002719 (NLUF), by the LLE under DE-NA0001944, and by the LLNL under subcontract B614207 to DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Quantification of antidepressants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Winecker, Ruth E

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressants are of great interest to clinical and forensic toxicologists as they are frequently used in suicidal gestures; they can be the source of drug interactions and some have narrow therapeutic indices making the potential for toxicity more likely. There are five categories of antidepressants based on function and/or structure. These are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), cyclic antidepressants including tricyclic and tetracyclic compounds (TCA), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), and atypical compounds. This method is designed to detect the presence of antidepressant drugs in blood/serum, urine, and tissue specimens using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) following liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and identified by relative retention times and mass spectra.

  2. Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krushelnick, Karl; Raymond, Anthony; Dong, Cf; McKelvey, A.; Zulick, C.; Alexander, N.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Campbell, Pt; Chen, H.; Chvykov, V.; Del Rio, E.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Fox, W.; Hou, Bx; Maksimchuk, A.; Mileham, C.; Nees, J.; Nilson, Pm; Stoekl, C.; Thomas, Agr; Wei, Ms; Yanovsky, V.; Willingale, L.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process involving an exchange of magnetic energy to plasma kinetic energy through changes in the magnetic field topology. Here we present experimental measurements using the OMEGA EP laser at LLE and the HERCULES laser at the University of Michigan as well as numerical modeling which indicate that relativistic magnetic reconnection can be driven by short-pulse, high-intensity lasers that produce a relativistic plasma along with very strong magnetic fields. Evidence of magnetic reconnection was identified by the plasma's X-ray emission patterns, changes to the electron energy spectrum, and by measuring the time over which reconnection occurs. Funded by DOE Award No. DE-NA0002727.

  3. Physicochemical Property-Driven Optimization of Diarylaniline Compounds as Potent HIV-1 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Qin, Bingjie; Sun, Lian-Qi; Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Xie, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Using physicochemical property-driven optimization, twelve new diarylaniline compounds (DAANs) (7a–h, 11a–b and 12a–b) were designed and synthesized. Among them, compounds 12a–b not only showed high potency (EC50 0.96–4.92 nM) against both wild-type and drug-resistant viral strains with the lowest fold change (FC 0.91 and 5.13), but also displayed acceptable drug-like properties based on aqueous solubility and lipophilicity (LE > 0.3, LLE > 5, LELP < 10). The correlations between potency and physicochemical properties of these DAAN analogues are also described. Compounds 12a–b merit further development as potent clinical trial candidates against AIDS. PMID:25042339

  4. Sprache macht Kultur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Karl

    Es gibt eine Fülle von Eigenschaften und Fähigkeiten, an denen man das Besondere des Menschen gegenüber den anderen Lebewesen festmachen wollte, z. B.: aufrechter Gang, Haarlosigkeit, Werkzeuggebrauch, Werkzeugherstellung, Bewusstsein, Werfen, Sprechen, Lachen, Weinen, Lügen. Doch bei all diesen Eigenschaften konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass es sie in Ansätzen bereits im Tierreich gibt. Es bleiben noch ein paar Eigenheiten übrig, wie Religion oder Willensfreiheit, aber diese Merkmale können wiederum dem Menschen bestritten und zur bloßen Illusion erklärt werden. Bleibt dann als letzte Differenz die Fähigkeit übrig, solche Illusionen zu haben …

  5. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  6. Quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) products by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Young-Chan; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Choi, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maltol, as a type of phenolic compounds, is produced by the browning reaction during the high-temperature treatment of ginseng. Thus, maltol can be used as a marker for the quality control of various ginseng products manufactured by high-temperature treatment including red ginseng. For the quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng products, an effective high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed. Materials and Methods: The HPLC-DAD method for maltol quantification coupled with a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method was developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy. An HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column. Results: The LLE methods and HPLC running conditions for maltol quantification were optimized. The calibration curve of the maltol exhibited good linearity (R2 = 1.00). The limit of detection value of maltol was 0.26 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification value was 0.79 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the data of the intra- and inter-day experiments were <1.27% and 0.61%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 101.35–101.75% with an RSD value of 0.21–1.65%. The developed method was applied successfully to quantify the maltol in three ginseng products manufactured by different methods. Conclusion: The results of validation demonstrated that the proposed HPLC-DAD method was useful for the quantification of maltol in various ginseng products. PMID:26246746

  7. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  8. Comparative evaluation of seven different sample treatment approaches for large-scale multiclass sport drug testing in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-09-26

    Sample preparation is a critical step in large-scale multiclass analysis such as sport drug testing. Due to the wide heterogeneity of the analytes and the complexity of the matrix, the selection of a correct sample preparation method is essential, looking for a compromise between good recoveries for most of the analytes and cleanliness of the extract. In the present work, seven sample preparation procedures based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) (with 5 different cartridges), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and sorbent-supported liquid extraction (SLE) were evaluated for multiclass sport drug testing in urine. The selected SPE sorbents were polymeric cartridges Agilent PLEXA™ and Oasis HLB™, mixed mode cation and anion exchange cartridges Oasis MAX™ and MCX™, and C18 cartridges. LLE was performed using tert-butyl methyl ether and SLE was carried out using Agilent Chem Elut™ cartridges. To evaluate the proposed extraction procedures, a list of 189 compounds were selected as representative from different groups of doping agents, including 34 steroids, 14 glucocorticosteroids, 24 diuretics and masking agents, 11 stimulants, 9 beta-agonist, 16 beta-blockers, 6 Selective Estrogen Receptors Modulators (SERMs), 24 narcotics and 22 other drugs of abuse/sport drugs. Blank urine samples were spiked at two levels of concentration, 2.5 and 25μgL(-1) and extracted with the different extraction protocols (n=6). The analysis of the extracts was carried out by liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The use of solid-phase extraction with polymer cartridges provided high recoveries for most of the analytes tested and was found the more suitable method for this type of application given the additional advantages such as low sample and solvent consumption along with increased automation and throughput.

  9. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support. Annual report, January 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  11. Hysteresis-induced bifurcation and chaos in a magneto-rheological suspension system under external excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailong, Zhang; Enrong, Wang; Fuhong, Min; Ning, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc-Wen force-velocity (F-v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51475246, 51277098, and 51075215), the Research Innovation Program for College Graduates of Jiangsu Province China (Grant No. KYLX15 0725), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK20131402).

  12. A rapid and sensitive method for the identification of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Doble, Philip; Hansen, Glyn; Prolov, Tatiana; Fu, Shanlin

    2012-02-10

    A fast and sensitive method was developed for detecting delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method is suitable for samples of small volume and low concentration. For method development and validation, neat oral fluid (200 μL) spiked with THC and d(3)-THC (internal standard) was extracted via liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The LLE method had an extraction efficiency of 75% with no significant matrix effects observed in either diluted or neat oral fluid samples. LC was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 Rapid Resolution HT column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm particle size) with positive electrospray ionisation and selected reaction monitoring. The total run time was an efficient 3.5 min in isocratic elution mode. The limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL and the analysis was linear over the range of 1-500 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The imprecision (RSD) of the method was 13% and inaccuracy (MRE) was 4%. The method was subsequently applied to two neat oral fluid samples taken from a chronic cannabis smoker. It was also applied to buffer diluted residual oral fluid samples (n=48) collected using the Cozart RapiScan(®) system through the Roadside Drug Testing Program (RDTP) in NSW, Australia. A stability study was performed that revealed freezing or refrigerating resulted in comparable decreases in THC recovery from neat oral fluid at the end of two weeks of storage. Storage at room temperature even for one day invoked significant losses and is not recommended.

  13. Analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls in waters and wastewaters using vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Senar

    2011-03-01

    A method was developed for viable and rapid determination of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water samples with vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). At first, the most suitable extraction solvent and extraction solvent volume were determined. Later, the parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as vortex extraction time, rotational speed of the vortex, and ionic strength of the sample were optimized by using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The optimized extraction conditions for 5 mL water sample were as follows: extractant solvent 200 μL of chloroform; vortex extraction time of 2 min at 3000 rpm; centrifugation 5 min at 4000 rpm, and no ionic strength. Under the optimum condition, limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.36 to 0.73 ng/L. Mean recoveries of PCBs from fortified water samples are 96% for three different fortification levels and RSDs of the recoveries are below 5%. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of PCBs in real water and wastewater samples such as tap, well, surface, bottled waters, and municipal, treated municipal, and industrial wastewaters. The performance of the proposed method was compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of real water samples and the results show that efficiency of proposed method is comparable to the LLE. However, the proposed method offers several advantages, i.e. reducing sample requirement for measurement of target compounds, less solvent consumption, and reducing the costs associated with solvent purchase and waste disposal. It is also viable, rapid, and easy to use for the analyses of PCBs in water samples by using GC-MS.

  14. Meconium Atazanavir Concentrations and Early Language Outcomes in HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Infants with Prenatal Atazanavir Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Huo, Yanling; Siberry, George K.; Williams, Paige L.; Rice, Mabel L.; Sirois, Patricia A.; Frederick, Toni; Hazra, Rohan; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether prenatal atazanavir (ATV) exposure, assessed by meconium antiretroviral quantification, predicts early child language outcomes. Prenatal ATV exposure previously was associated with poorer language development in one-year-olds. Methods Pregnant women with HIV and their uninfected infants enrolled in the SMARTT study. Meconium antiretroviral concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Language development at 1 year was assessed with MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development—Third Edition (Bayley-III). Late language emergence (LLE) was defined as ≥ one of four CDI scores ≤10th percentile for age. Associations between fetal ATV exposure timing and duration, meconium ATV concentration, and language outcomes were evaluated, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Through 2013, meconium samples were available from 175 of 432 infants with prenatal ATV exposure. Valid Bayley-III (n=93) and CDI (n=106) assessments also were available. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher ATV meconium concentrations were associated with lower LLE risk (P=0.04), and cumulative ATV exposure duration also was associated with higher Bayley-III Language scores (P=0.03). Maternal ATV duration and initiation week correlated with ATV meconium concentrations (positively and negatively, respectively). Conclusions Higher meconium ATV concentrations were protective against developmental language delays at 1 year, suggesting the importance of fetal ATV detoxification into meconium. This information supports ATV exposure safety for infant language development. ATV is a preferred ARV for pregnant women with HIV, suggesting the importance of ATV safety investigations. Additionally, further pursuit of the influences on language development in HEU infants is required. PMID:26009830

  15. Chaotic dynamics of cardioventilatory coupling in humans: effects of ventilatory modes.

    PubMed

    Mangin, Laurence; Clerici, Christine; Similowski, Thomas; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2009-04-01

    Cardioventilatory coupling (CVC), a transient temporal alignment between the heartbeat and inspiratory activity, has been studied in animals and humans mainly during anesthesia. The origin of the coupling remains uncertain, whether or not ventilation is a main determinant in the CVC process and whether the coupling exhibits chaotic behavior. In this frame, we studied sedative-free, mechanically ventilated patients experiencing rapid sequential changes in breathing control during ventilator weaning during a switch from a machine-controlled assistance mode [assist-controlled ventilation (ACV)] to a patient-driven mode [inspiratory pressure support (IPS) and unsupported spontaneous breathing (USB)]. Time series were computed as R to start inspiration (RI) and R to the start of expiration (RE). Chaos was characterized with the noise titration method (noise limit), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and correlation dimension (CD). All the RI and RE time series exhibit chaotic behavior. Specific coupling patterns were displayed in each ventilatory mode, and these patterns exhibited different linear and chaotic dynamics. When switching from ACV to IPS, partial inspiratory loading decreases the noise limit value, the LLE, and the correlation dimension of the RI and RE time series in parallel, whereas decreasing intrathoracic pressure from IPS to USB has the opposite effect. Coupling with expiration exhibits higher complexity than coupling with inspiration during mechanical ventilation either during ACV or IPS, probably due to active expiration. Only 33% of the cardiac time series (RR interval) exhibit complexity either during ACV, IPS, or USB making the contribution of the cardiac signal to the chaotic feature of the coupling minimal. We conclude that 1) CVC in unsedated humans exhibits a complex dynamic that can be chaotic, and 2) ventilatory mode has major effects on the linear and chaotic features of the coupling. Taken together these findings reinforce the role of

  16. Isolation of atropine and scopolamine from plant material using liquid-liquid extraction and EXtrelut(®) columns.

    PubMed

    Śramska, Paula; Maciejka, Artur; Topolewska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr; Haliński, Łukasz P

    2017-02-01

    Tropane alkaloids are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Solanaceae plants. Among them, plants from Datura genus produce significant amounts of scopolamine and hyoscyamine; the latter undergoes racemization to atropine during isolation. Because of their biological importance, toxic properties and commonly reported food and animal feed contamination by different Datura sp. organs, there is a constant need for reliable methods for the analysis of tropane alkaloids in many matrices. In the current study, three extraction and sample-clean up procedures for the determination of scopolamine and atropine in plant material were compared in terms of their effectiveness and repeatability. Standard liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and EXtrelut(®) NT 3 columns were used for the sample clean-up. Combined ultrasound-assisted extraction and 24h static extraction using ethyl acetate, followed by multiple LLE steps was found the most effective separation method among tested. However, absolute extraction recovery was relatively low and reached 45-67% for atropine and 52-73% for scopolamine, depending on the compound concentration. The same method was also the most effective one for the isolation of target compounds from Datura stramonium leaves. EXtrelut(®) columns, on the other hand, displayed relatively low effectiveness in isolating atropine and scopolamine from such a complex matrix and hence could not be recommended. The most effective method was also applied to the extraction of alkaloids from roots and stems of D. stramonium. Quantitative analyses were performed using validated method based on gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Based on the results, the importance of the proper selection of internal standards in the analysis of tropane alkaloids was stressed out.

  17. Capsule Areal-Density Asymmetries and Time Evolution Inferred from 14.7-MeV Proton Line Structure in OMEGA D^3He Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.

    2002-11-01

    The fusion of D^3He in spherical capsule implosions results in copious production of 14.7-MeV protons. As these protons pass through the plasma, they lose energy. Importantly, this energy loss reflects the areal density (ρL) of the plasma transited. Up to 11 proton spectrometers simultaneously view D^3He implosions from different directions. While the burn-averaged and spatially averaged ρL for each implosion is typically between 50 to 75 mg/cm^2 within a group of similar implosions, there are often significant differences between the individual spectra of a given shot, in both their average implied ρL ( ˜50% about the mean) and in the low-energy tail. Some of these low-mode (ℓ ˜ 1) individual-shot asymmetries are attributable to laser drive asymmetry. However, for small amounts of energy imbalance (<=5% rms), the measured asymmetries are found to be uncorrelated with UV-measured laser imbalance. This indicates that other sources of asymmetry, such as capsule asymmetries, may play a role. In addition to nonuniformities, time evolution is the other important component to line broadening and spectral shape. To most clearly elucidate this effect, implosions of 24-μm-thick CH capsules were conducted. In a 400-ps period between first shock coalescence and compression, the spatially averaged ρL changes from ˜ 8 to ˜ 70 mg/cm^2. An important issue is whether the shell asymmetries could have already been established at the time of first shock coalescence. Supported in part by the U.S. D.O.E. Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion (Grant DE-FG03-99DP00300; Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-92SF19460), LLE (subcontract P0410025G), LLNL (subcontract B313975). (Petrasso: Visiting Senior Scientist at LLE.)

  18. Characterization of paint samples used in drinking water reservoirs: identification of endocrine disruptor compounds.

    PubMed

    Romero, J; Ventura, F; Gomez, M

    2002-04-01

    Several migration tests are performed from various epoxy paint samples that, according to the regulation, can be used in food reservoirs such as drinking water reservoirs. The level of the organic compounds capable of producing migrations to water with special attention to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) are identified and estimated by closed loop-stripping analysis (CLSA) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) methods coupled with gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Bisphenol A, a strong endocrine disruptor, is found in all migration experiments. Its concentration level reaches between 0.02 and 0.03 mg/cm2. The higher concentration corresponds with benzylic alcohol, which is used as a solvent and curing agent in epoxy paint. Other EDCs identified in the migration tests are phthalates, 4-nonylphenol, and t-butylphenol. The main non-EDCs identified are solvents, antioxidants, and rubber-like compounds. No great differences are found in the use of metallic plates or concrete slabs for migration experiments; only additional compounds related with the pretreatment of the concrete wall have been identified, too. In the study of a drinking water sample the same organic compounds identified in the migration test is not seen. This is probably because of the dynamic situation in a drinking water reservoir. Finally, a GC profile of a direct epoxy paint analysis is shown. The main peak identified is bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, monomer, and an active principle of the polymerization of epoxy resins based on bisphenol A. In addition, we report the recoveries of a selected group of EDCs using CLSA and LLE methods coupled with GC-MS.

  19. Phase equilibria study of the binary systems (N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate ionic liquid + organic solvent or water).

    PubMed

    Królikowska, Marta; Karpińska, Monika; Zawadzki, Maciej

    2012-04-12

    Liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of binary mixtures containing a room-temperature ionic liquid N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate, [HiQuin][SCN] with an aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-hexane, n-heptane), aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene), cyclohexane, thiophene, water, and 1-alcohol (1-ethanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol) have been determined using a dynamic method from room temperature to the boiling-point of the solvent at ambient pressure. N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate, [HiQuin][SCN] has been synthesized from N-hexyl-isoquinolinium bromide as a substrate. Specific basic characterization of the new compound including NMR spectra, elementary analysis, and water content have been done. The density and viscosity of pure ionic liquid were determined over a wide temperature range from 298.15 to 348.15 K. The mutual immiscibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) for the binary systems {IL + aliphatic hydrocarbon, cyclohexane, or water} was detected. In the systems of {IL + aromatic hydrocarbon or thiophene} an immiscibility gap with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was observed. Complete miscibility in the liquid phase, over a whole range of ionic liquid mole fraction, was observed for the binary mixtures containing IL and an 1-alcohol. For the tested binary systems with immiscibility gap {IL + aliphatic hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, cyclohexane, thiophene, or water}, the parameters of the LLE correlation have been derived using the NRTL equation. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, the glass-transition temperature as well as the heat capacity at the glass-transition temperature, have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition of the IL was detected by simultaneous thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) experiments.

  20. Identification of Dynamic Patterns of Speech-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Nonlinear Time Series Analysis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffarilegha, Marjan; Esteki, Ali; Ahadi, Mohsen; Nazeri, Ahmadreza

    The speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (sABR) shows how complex sounds such as speech and music are processed in the auditory system. Speech-ABR could be used to evaluate particular impairments and improvements in auditory processing system. Many researchers used linear approaches for characterizing different components of sABR signal, whereas nonlinear techniques are not applied so commonly. The primary aim of the present study is to examine the underlying dynamics of normal sABR signals. The secondary goal is to evaluate whether some chaotic features exist in this signal. We have presented a methodology for determining various components of sABR signals, by performing Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to get the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then, composite multiscale entropy (CMSE), the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and deterministic nonlinear prediction are computed for each extracted IMF. EEMD decomposes sABR signal into five modes and a residue. The CMSE results of sABR signals obtained from 40 healthy people showed that 1st, and 2nd IMFs were similar to the white noise, IMF-3 with synthetic chaotic time series and 4th, and 5th IMFs with sine waveform. LLE analysis showed positive values for 3rd IMFs. Moreover, 1st, and 2nd IMFs showed overlaps with surrogate data and 3rd, 4th and 5th IMFs showed no overlap with corresponding surrogate data. Results showed the presence of noisy, chaotic and deterministic components in the signal which respectively corresponded to 1st, and 2nd IMFs, IMF-3, and 4th and 5th IMFs. While these findings provide supportive evidence of the chaos conjecture for the 3rd IMF, they do not confirm any such claims. However, they provide a first step towards an understanding of nonlinear behavior of auditory system dynamics in brainstem level.

  1. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  2. Association between ovocalyxin-32 gene haplotypes and eggshell quality traits in an F2 intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for eggshell strength.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Sasaki, O; Nirasawa, K; Furukawa, T

    2010-10-01

    Broken and cracked eggshells contribute significantly to economic losses in the egg production industry. We previously identified ovocalyxin-32 as a potential gene influencing eggshell traits, by analysing an intercross between two parent lines developed from the same founder population by a two-way selection for eggshell strength with non-destructive deformation (DEF) conducted over 14 generations. We determined the nucleotide sequences of six ovocalyxin-32 exons in the parent individuals and analysed the association between ovocalyxin-32 and eggshell traits in the F2 individuals. We identified three haplotypes (W, M and S) of ovocalyxin-32 in the parent individuals. A mismatch amplification mutation assay was performed to distinguish six diplotype individuals (WW, MM, SS, WM, MS and WS) inthe F2 population. The egg weight (EW) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WW-, WM- and WS-diplotypes. Short length of the egg (SLE) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WW-, WM- and MS-diplotypes. Long length of the egg (LLE) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WM and WS-diplotypes. DEF of WW-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that ofSS-, WM, MS and WM-diplotypes. Haplotypic effect analyses showed significant differences between the W-haplotype and the S-haplotypes in the EW, SLE, LLE and DEF. The DEF of M-haplotype was significantly lower than that of W- and S-haplotypes. These results suggest that S- and M-haplotypes are critical for high quality of eggshells in the F2 population. In conclusion, ovocalyxin-32 is a useful marker of eggshell traits and can be used to develop strategies for improving eggshell traits in commercial layer houses.

  3. Grundlegende Steuerungsverfahren im heterogenen Logistiknetz mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Lödding, Hermann; Möller, Niklas; Rücker, Thomas; Schneider, Herfried M.; Zäh, Michael F.

    In vielen Unternehmen werden heterogene (verschiedene) Steuerungen in einem abgestimmten Konzept kombiniert. Je nach Anwendungsfall und Rahmenbedingungen werden Kombinationen allgemein bekannter Steuerungen oder Steuerungsvarianten gemischt eingesetzt, um eine optimale Steuerung für unterschiedliche Fälle zu erreichen. Hierbei stehen neben den bekannten und weit verbreiteten Methoden, wie Material Requirements Planning (MRP) oder Kanban, auch weniger bekannte oder neue Methoden zur Auswahl, wie die Produktionssteuerung mit dezentraler, bestandsorientierter Fertigungsregelung (DBF). Kanban ist ein simples und effizientes Steuerungskonzept, das in der klassischen Form für spezifische einfache Anwendungsfälle umsetzbar ist. Hochentwickelte Steuerungsalgorithmen können helfen, komplexe Abläufe optimal abzubilden. Mit einer grundlegenden Vereinfachung der Abläufe kann allerdings in vielen Fällen ein wesentlich stärkerer und umfassender Verbesserungseffekt erzielt werden. Die wesentliche Fragestellung sollte folglich lauten: Warum ist der Ablauf nicht mit einer einfachen Steuerung wie Kanban abzubilden? Um die Vorteile des Konzepts auch in untypischen Bereichen anwenden zu können, sind jedoch verschiedene Varianten oder Kanban-ähnliche Steuerungsmethoden entstanden. Darüber hinaus sind in der Praxis hybride Steuerungen im Einsatz, welche so kombiniert werden, dass die Zusammensetzung anspruchsvolle Eigenschaftsbilder noch exakt abbildet. In der Praxis basieren die Steuerungsentscheidungen nur zu einem kleinen Teil auf den eigentlichen Steuerungsalgorithmen, wie sie uns das MRP-System zur Verfügung stellt. Moderne Steuerungswelten" schließen alle relevanten Informationsquellen in eine heterogene Entscheidungsmatrix mit ein. Letztlich zählt nicht, ob die Entscheidung auf den Informationen aus dem MRP-System oder auf Softfacts basierend getroffen wurde, sondern nur, ob die Entscheidung erfolgreich war.

  4. Microextraction techniques coupled to liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of organic micropollutants in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Ma Esther Torres; Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2014-07-16

    Until recently, sample preparation was carried out using traditional techniques, such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), that use large volumes of organic solvents. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) uses much less solvent than LLE, although the volume can still be significant. These preparation methods are expensive, time-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Recently, a great effort has been made to develop new analytical methodologies able to perform direct analyses using miniaturised equipment, thereby achieving high enrichment factors, minimising solvent consumption and reducing waste. These microextraction techniques improve the performance during sample preparation, particularly in complex water environmental samples, such as wastewaters, surface and ground waters, tap waters, sea and river waters. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF/MS) techniques can be used when analysing a broad range of organic micropollutants. Before separating and detecting these compounds in environmental samples, the target analytes must be extracted and pre-concentrated to make them detectable. In this work, we review the most recent applications of microextraction preparation techniques in different water environmental matrices to determine organic micropollutants: solid-phase microextraction SPME, in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME). Several groups of compounds are considered organic micropollutants because these are being released continuously into the environment. Many of these compounds are considered emerging contaminants. These analytes are generally compounds that are not covered by the existing regulations and are now detected more frequently in different environmental compartments. Pharmaceuticals, surfactants, personal care products and other chemicals are considered micropollutants. These compounds must be

  5. A novel dual-valve sequential injection manifold (DV-SIA) for automated liquid-liquid extraction. Application for the determination of picric acid.

    PubMed

    Skrlíková, Jana; Andruch, Vasil; Sklenárová, Hana; Chocholous, Petr; Solich, Petr; Balogh, Ioseph S

    2010-05-07

    A novel dual-valve sequential injection system (DV-SIA) for online liquid-liquid extraction which resolves the main problems of LLE utilization in SIA has been designed. The main idea behind this new design was to construct an SIA system by connecting two independent units, one for aqueous-organic mixture flow and the second specifically for organic phase flow. As a result, the DV-SIA manifold consists of an Extraction unit and a Detection unit. Processing a mixture of aqueous-organic phase in the Extraction unit and a separated organic phase in the Detection unit solves the problems associated with the change of phases having different affinities to the walls of the Teflon tubing used in the SI-system. The developed manifold is a simple, user-friendly and universal system built entirely from commercially available components. The system can be used for a variety of samples and organic solvents and is simple enough to be easily handled by operators less familiar with flow systems. The efficiency of the DV-SIA system is demonstrated by the extraction of picric acid in the form of an ion associate with 2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenylamino)-vinyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium reagent, with subsequent spectrophotometric detection. The suggested DV-SIA concept can be expected to stimulate new experiments in analytical laboratories and can be applied to the elaboration of procedures for the determination of other compounds extractable by organic solvents. It could thus form a basis for the design of simple, single-purpose commercial instruments used in LLE procedures.

  6. Quantification and confirmation of flunixin in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Rudy, Jeffrey A; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; Guan, Fuyu; Enright, James M; Tsang, Deborah S

    2004-03-05

    The method describes quantification and confirmation of flunixin in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS/MS). Samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and only those samples presumptively declared positive were subjected to quantification and confirmation for the presence of flunixin by this method. The method is also readily adaptable to instrumental screening for the analyte. Flunixin was recovered from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The sample was diluted with 2 ml saturated phosphate buffer (pH 3.10) prior to LLE. The dried extract was reconstituted in acetonitrile:water:formic acid (50:50:0.1, v/v/v) and subsequently analyzed on a Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometer (Micromass) operated under electrospray ionization positive ion mode. The concentration of flunixin was determined by the internal standard (IS) calibration method using the peak area ratio with clonixin as the IS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for flunixin in equine plasma were 0.1 and 1 ng/ml, respectively, whereas the limit of confirmation (LOC) was 2.5 ng/ml. The qualifying ions for the identification of flunixin were m/z 297 [M+H](+), 279 (BP), 264, 259, 239 and those for clonixin (IS) were m/z 263 [M+H](+), 245 (BP) and 210. The measurement uncertainty about the result was 8.7%. The method is simple, sensitive, robust and reliably fast in the quantification and confirmation of flunixin in equine plasma. Application of this method will assist racing authorities in the enforcement of tolerance plasma concentration of flunixin in the racehorse on race day.

  7. Relationship between nonlinear properties of sacral skin blood flow oscillations and vasodilatory function in people at risk for pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Liao, Fuyuan; Garrison, David W; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2010-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to quantify the nonlinear properties of sacral skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) and to explore their relationships with impaired vasodilatory function in people at risk for pressure ulcers. A total of 25 people with various levels of vasodilatory functions were studied, 10 people with normal vasodilatory function (Biphasic thermal index, BTI (5.5, 4.5, 10.1)), 10 people with slight impaired vasodilatory function (BTI (3.7, 3.2, 6.7)), and 5 people with severe impaired vasodilation (BTI (2.4, 1.7, 4.5)). A non-painful fast heating protocol was applied to the sacral region to induce biphasic vasodilation, axon reflex mediated and nitric oxide mediated. Biphasic thermal index is defined as ratios of first peak, nadir, and second peak to baseline blood flow. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to record the BFO signals. Nonlinear properties of BFO were quantified based on self-similarity using Hurst exponent (HE) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), regularity using sample entropy (SampEn), complexity using correlation dimension (CD), and chaotic behavior using largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). The Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to examine the differences between groups. Our results showed that local heating reduces the self-similarity and increases complexity of skin blood flow oscillations. Vasodilatory function has an inverse relationship with nonlinear properties in sacral skin baseline BFO. Nonlinear indexes, including HE, DFA, CD, and LLE, are appropriate tools to quantify nonlinear properties of BFO to study the microvascular dysfunction (p<0.05), and that SampEn may not be appropriate for this purpose (p>0.05). Our study supports the use of nonlinear indexes to predict the vasodilatory function, which can complement current analysis of blood flow control mechanisms using spectral (wavelet) analysis.

  8. LaeA Control of Velvet Family Regulatory Proteins for Light-Dependent Development and Fungal Cell-Type Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Valerius, Oliver; Park, Hee Soo; Irniger, Stefan; Gerke, Jennifer; Ni, Min; Han, Kap-Hoon; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2010-01-01

    VeA is the founding member of the velvet superfamily of fungal regulatory proteins. This protein is involved in light response and coordinates sexual reproduction and secondary metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. In the dark, VeA bridges VelB and LaeA to form the VelB-VeA-LaeA (velvet) complex. The VeA-like protein VelB is another developmental regulator, and LaeA has been known as global regulator of secondary metabolism. In this study, we show that VelB forms a second light-regulated developmental complex together with VosA, another member of the velvet family, which represses asexual development. LaeA plays a key role, not only in secondary metabolism, but also in directing formation of the VelB-VosA and VelB-VeA-LaeA complexes. LaeA controls VeA modification and protein levels and possesses additional developmental functions. The laeA null mutant results in constitutive sexual differentiation, indicating that LaeA plays a pivotal role in inhibiting sexual development in response to light. Moreover, the absence of LaeA results in the formation of significantly smaller fruiting bodies. This is due to the lack of a specific globose cell type (Hülle cells), which nurse the young fruiting body during development. This suggests that LaeA controls Hülle cells. In summary, LaeA plays a dynamic role in fungal morphological and chemical development, and it controls expression, interactions, and modification of the velvet regulators. PMID:21152013

  9. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development, and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  10. Liquid-liquid extraction of strongly protein bound BMS-299897 from human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y J; Pursley, Janice; Arnold, Mark

    2007-04-11

    BMS-299897 is a gamma-secretase inhibitor that is being developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods have been developed and validated for the quantitation of BMS-299897 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both methods utilized (13)C6-BMS-299897, the stable label isotope analog, as the internal standard. For the human plasma extraction method, two incubation steps were required after the addition of 5 mM ammonium acetate and the internal standard in acetonitrile to release the analyte bound to proteins prior to LLE with toluene. For the human CSF extraction method, after the addition of 0.5 N HCl and the internal standard, CSF samples were extracted with toluene and no incubation was required. The organic layers obtained from both extraction methods were removed and evaporated to dryness. The residues were reconstituted and injected into the LC/MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on a MetaChem C18 Hypersil BDS column (2.0 mm x 50 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase contained 10 mM ammonium acetate pH 5 and acetonitrile. Detection was by negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The standard curves ranged from 1 to 1000 ng/ml for human plasma and 0.25-100 ng/ml for human CSF. Both standard curves were fitted to a 1/x weighted quadratic regression model. For both methods, the intra-assay precision was within 8.2% CV, the inter-assay precision was within 5.4% CV, and assay accuracy was within +/-7.4% of the nominal values. The validation and sample analysis results demonstrated that both methods had acceptable precision and accuracy across the calibration ranges.

  11. Report on the B-Fields at NIF Workshop Held at LLNL October 12-13, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Moody, J. D.

    2015-12-13

    A national ICF laboratory workshop on requirements for a magnetized target capability on NIF was held by NIF at LLNL on October 12 and 13, attended by experts from LLNL, SNL, LLE, LANL, GA, and NRL. Advocates for indirect drive (LLNL), magnetic (Z) drive (SNL), polar direct drive (LLE), and basic science needing applied B (many institutions) presented and discussed requirements for the magnetized target capabilities they would like to see. 30T capability was most frequently requested. A phased operation increasing the field in steps experimentally can be envisioned. The NIF management will take the inputs from the scientific community represented at the workshop and recommend pulse-powered magnet parameters for NIF that best meet the collective user requests. In parallel, LLNL will continue investigating magnets for future generations that might be powered by compact laser-B-field generators (Moody, Fujioka, Santos, Woolsey, Pollock). The NIF facility engineers will start to analyze compatibility of the recommended pulsed magnet parameters (size, field, rise time, materials) with NIF chamber constraints, diagnostic access, and final optics protection against debris in FY16. The objective of this assessment will be to develop a schedule for achieving an initial Bfield capability. Based on an initial assessment, room temperature magnetized gas capsules will be fielded on NIF first. Magnetized cryo-ice-layered targets will take longer (more compatibility issues). Magnetized wetted foam DT targets (Olson) may have somewhat fewer compatibility issues making them a more likely choice for the first cryo-ice-layered target fielded with applied Bz.

  12. Cost analysis of hospitalized Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD).

    PubMed

    Hübner, Claudia; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Muhr, Michaela; Claus, Franziska; Leesch, Henning; Kramer, Axel; Flessa, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Die Clostridium-difficile-assoziierte Diarrhö (CDAD) bedingt hohe finanzielle Belastungen für Gesundheitssysteme weltweit. Wie bei allen nosokomial erworbenen Infektionen ist ein verlängerter Krankenhausaufenthalt der wesentliche Kostentreiber. Bisherige Kostenstudien beziehen sich nur auf Krankenhausabrechnungsdaten vor Einführung des DRG-Entgeltsystems und den Vergleich von Verweildauer zu nicht infizierten Patienten. Eine Erhebung tatsächlicher Kosten steht bislang aus. Methode: Anhand einer retrospektiven Analyse wurden Daten der Universitätsmedizin Greifswald von Patienten mit einer stationär behandelten CDAD über einen 1-Jahres-Zeitraum ausgewertet. Über eine Identifizierung von CDAD-relevanten Behandlungsprozessen wurden die Kosten von Hygienemaßnahmen, Arzneimittel und Labor sowie Erlösausfälle bedingt durch Bettensperrungen und Verweildauerverlängerungen berechnet. Ergebnisse: 19 Patienten wurden in die Analyse eingeschlossen. Im Durchschnitt fallen pro CDADPatient zusätzliche Gesamtkosten in Höhe von 5.262,96 € an. Erlösausfälle aufgrund der verlängerten Verweildauer stellen mit 2.555,59 € pro Fall den höchsten Anteil dar, gefolgt von den Erlösausfällen aufgrund von Bettensperrungen während der Isolierung mit 2.413,08 € pro Fall. Insgesamt ergeben diese Opportunitätskosten einen Anteil von 94,41% an den Gesamtkosten. Die Kosten für Hygienemaßnahmen (253,98 €), Arzneimittel (22,88 €) und Labor (17,44 €) sind dem gegenüber gering.Schlussfolgerung: Die CDAD führt zu deutlichen Mehrkosten für das Krankenhaus. Unsere Erhebung der tatsächlichen Kosten bestätigt bisherige Studienergebnisse.

  13. Exploration of the Kinked Jet in the Crab Nebula with Scaled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chikang

    2015-11-01

    X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray Observatory show that the South-East jet in the Crab nebula changes direction every few years. This remarkable phenomenon is also frequently observed for jets in other pulsar-wind nebulae and in other astrophysical objects. Numerical simulations suggest that it may be a consequence of current-driven, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities taking place in the jet, yet that is just a hypothesis without verification in controlled experiments. To that end, we recently conducted scaled laboratory experiments that reproduced this phenomenon. In these experiments, a supersonic plasma jet was generated in the collision of two laser-produced plasma plumes, and this jet was radiographed from the side using 15-MeV and 3-MeV protons. It was observed that if self-generated toroidal magnetic fields around the jet were strong enough, they triggered plasma instabilities that caused substantial deflections throughout the jet propagation, mimicking the kinked jet structure seen in the Crab Nebula. We have modeled these laboratory experiments with comprehensive two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations, which in conjunction with the experiments provide compelling evidence that we have an accurate model of the most important physics of magnetic fields and MHD instabilities in the observed jet in the Crab Nebula. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03- 03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974) and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  14. Study of 3-Ethylamino-but-2-enoic acid phenylamide as a new ligand for preconcentration of lanthanides from aqueous media by liquid-liquid extraction prior to ICP-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Varbanova, Evelina K; Angelov, Plamen A; Stefanova, Violeta M

    2016-11-01

    In the present work the potential of a new ligand 3-Ethylamino-but-2-enoic acid phenylamide (representing the class of enaminones) for selective preconcentration of lanthanides (La, Ce, Eu, Gd and Er) from aqueous medium is examined. Liquid-liquid extraction parameters, such as pH of the water phase, type and volume of organic solvent, quantity of ligand and reaction time are optimized on model solutions. Recovery of lanthanides by re-extraction with nitric acid makes the LLE procedure compatible with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Spectral and non-spectral interferences are studied. Two isotopes per element are measured (with exception of La) for dynamic evaluation of the potential risk of spectral interference in variable real samples. The selectivity of complex formation reaction towards concomitant alkali and alkali-earth elements eliminates the interferences from sample matrix. Subjecting the standards to the optimized extraction procedure in combination with Re as internal standard is recommended as calibration strategy. The accuracy of developed method is approved by analysis of CRM Bush branches and leaves (NCS DC 73348) and recovery of spiked water and plant samples. The method's limits of detection for both studied objects are in the ranges from 0.2 ((158)Gd) to 3.7 ((139)La) ngl(-1) and 0.02 ((158)Gd) to 0.37((139)La) ngg(-1) for waters and plants respectively. The studied compound is an effective new ligand for preconcentration/separation of lanthanides from aqueous medium by LLE and subsequent determination by ICP-MS.

  15. A rapid and sensitive method to determine tacrolimus in rat whole blood using liquid-liquid extraction with mild temperature ultrasonication and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Seo; Cho, Ha Ra; Kang, Myung Joo; Choi, Yong Seok

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is an immunosuppressant widely used in organ transplantation, but its extremely low aqueous solubility causes poor intestinal absorption. There have been efforts to develop an alternative TAC formulation with an improved dissolution rate and oral bioavailability (BA), and the development of a rapid and sensitive analytical method for its in vivo pharmacokinetic study is an essential prerequisite. Thus, here, we develop a novel method to determine TAC in rat whole blood based on liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with mild temperature ultrasonication. For rapid and efficient separation of TAC from other hydrophobic compounds, a C8 column was chosen with isocratic mobile phase elution. With the help of the high specificity and the high sensitivity of multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode, the present method showed good performance including specificity, linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.996 within 1-200 ng/mL), sensitivity (the lower limit of quantitation at 1 ng/mL), intra- and inter-day accuracy (88.7-104.5 %) and precision (≤10.3 %), and recovery (94.7-102.6 %). Also, the stability of TAC and ascomycin, the internal standard, in rat whole blood was confirmed before and after the sample preparation. The validated method was satisfactorily applied to a pharmacokinetic study to determine TAC in rat whole blood following oral administration of the marketed product (Prograf(®), Astellas Pharma). In the present study, LLE with mild temperature ultrasonication was successfully expanded to the determination of a drug from whole blood or plasma for the first time. Therefore, the present method can contribute to the rapid in vivo evaluation of novel TAC formulations, and will be able to contribute to the development of TAC formulations with a higher dissolution rate and a higher BA.

  16. Fundamental Drop Dynamics and Mass Transfer Experiments to Support Solvent Extraction Modeling Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Kristi Christensen; Veronica Rutledge; Troy Garn

    2011-09-01

    In support of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling Simulation Safeguards and Separations (NEAMS SafeSep) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to further a modeling effort designed to predict mass transfer behavior for selected metal species between individual dispersed drops and a continuous phase in a two phase liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) system. The purpose of the model is to understand the fundamental processes of mass transfer that occur at the drop interface. This fundamental understanding can be extended to support modeling of larger LLE equipment such as mixer settlers, pulse columns, and centrifugal contactors. The work performed at the INL involved gathering the necessary experimental data to support the modeling effort. A custom experimental apparatus was designed and built for performing drop contact experiments to measure mass transfer coefficients as a function of contact time. A high speed digital camera was used in conjunction with the apparatus to measure size, shape, and velocity of the drops. In addition to drop data, the physical properties of the experimental fluids were measured to be used as input data for the model. Physical properties measurements included density, viscosity, surface tension and interfacial tension. Additionally, self diffusion coefficients for the selected metal species in each experimental solution were measured, and the distribution coefficient for the metal partitioning between phases was determined. At the completion of this work, the INL has determined the mass transfer coefficient and a velocity profile for drops rising by buoyancy through a continuous medium under a specific set of experimental conditions. Additionally, a complete set of experimentally determined fluid properties has been obtained. All data will be provided to LANL to support the modeling effort.

  17. Relativistic Electron Beams, Forward Thomson Scattering, and ``Raman'' Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    1999-11-01

    Experiments at LLE (see abstract by D. Hicks at this meeting) show that surprisingly high potentials (+0.5 to 2.0 MV) develop in plasmas irradiated by high-energy lasers. The highly conducting plasma will be a near equipotential and should attract return-current electrons in a radial beam-like distribution, especially in the outer low-density regions. This will initiate the BOT instability, creating large plasma waves with phase velocities close to c. Coherent Thomson scattering of the interaction beam from these waves must occur primarily in the forward direction. This will appear to be ``backward SRS'' upon reflection from a critical surface. We will show that the resulting spectrum is fairly broad and at short wavelengths. Collisional absorption of the scattered EM wave limits the reflectivity to low values (depending on the density scale length). Thus, a distinct difference exists between the spectrum for thick targets (nc surface present) and thin targets (gasbags, etc., from which primarily a narrow absolute-SRS backward emission occurs, at the peak density). The thick-target, reflected-wave angular distribution will be concentrated in the backward direction. The corresponding plasma-wave k-vector will be a fraction of k_0. The variation of the spectrum with potential and angle will be discussed. Comparison will be made with recent results at LLE and LLNL. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, UR, and NYSERDA.

  18. The use of climatic parameters and indices in vegetation distribution. A case study in the Spanish Sistema Central

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavilán, Rosario G.

    2005-11-01

    In this study, over 100 phytoclimatic indices and other climatic parameters were calculated using the climatic data from 260 meteorological stations in a Mediterranean territory located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The nature of these indices was very different; some of them expressed general climatic features (e.g. continentality), while others were formulated for different Mediterranean territories and included particular limits of those indices that expressed differences in vegetation distribution. We wanted to know whether all of these indices were able to explain changes in vegetation on a spatial scale, and whether their boundaries worked similarly to the original territory. As they were so numerous, we investigated whether any of them were redundant. To relate vegetation to climate parameters we preferred to use its hierarchical nature, in discrete units (characterized by one or more dominant or co-dominant species), although it is known to vary continuously. These units give clearer results in this kind of phytoclimatic study. We have therefore used the main communities that represent natural potential vegetation. Multivariate and estimative analyses were used as statistical methods. The classification showed different levels of correlation among climatic parameters, but all of them were over 0.5. One hundred and eleven parameters were grouped into five larger groups: temperature (T), annual pluviothermic indices (PTY), summer pluviothermic indices (SPT), winter potential evapotranspiration (WPET) and thermal continentality indices (K). The remaining parameters showed low correlations with these five groups; some of them revealed obvious spatial changes in vegetation, such as summer hydric parameters that were zero in most vegetation types but not in high mountain vegetation. Others showed no clear results. For example, the Kerner index, an index of thermal continentality, showed lower values than expected for certain particular types of

  19. Irrigation water quality influences heavy metal uptake by willows in biosolids.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, W Scott; Baker, Alan J M; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-05-15

    Phytoextraction is an effective method to remediate heavy metal contaminated landscapes but is often applied for single metal contaminants. Plants used for phytoextraction may not always be able to grow in drier environments without irrigation. This study investigated if willows (Salix x reichardtii A. Kerner) can be used for phytoextraction of multiple metals in biosolids, an end-product of the wastewater treatment process, and if irrigation with reclaimed and freshwater influences the extraction process. A plantation of willows was established directly onto a tilled stockpile of metal-contaminated biosolids and irrigated with slightly saline reclaimed water (EC ∼2 dS/cm) at a wastewater processing plant in Victoria, Australia. Biomass was harvested annually and analysed for heavy metal content. Phytoextraction of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc was benchmarked against freshwater irrigated willows. The minimum irrigation rate of 700 mm per growing season was sufficient for willows to grow and extract metals. Increasing irrigation rates produced no differences in total biomass and also no differences in the extraction of heavy metals. The reclaimed water reduced both the salinity and the acidity of the biosolids significantly within the first 12 months after irrigation commenced and after three seasons the salinity of the biosolids had dropped to <15% of initial values. A flushing treatment to remove excess salts was therefore not necessary. Irrigation had an impact on biosolids attributes such as salinity and pH, and that this had an influence on metal extraction. Reclaimed water irrigation reduced the biosolid pH and this was associated with reductions of the extraction of Ni and Zn, it did not influence the extraction of Cu and enhanced the phytoextraction of Cd, which was probably related to the high chloride content of the reclaimed water. Our results demonstrate that flood-irrigation with reclaimed water was a successful treatment to grow willows in a

  20. The use of climatic parameters and indices in vegetation distribution. A case study in the Spanish Sistema Central.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Rosario G

    2005-11-01

    In this study, over 100 phytoclimatic indices and other climatic parameters were calculated using the climatic data from 260 meteorological stations in a Mediterranean territory located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The nature of these indices was very different; some of them expressed general climatic features (e.g. continentality), while others were formulated for different Mediterranean territories and included particular limits of those indices that expressed differences in vegetation distribution. We wanted to know whether all of these indices were able to explain changes in vegetation on a spatial scale, and whether their boundaries worked similarly to the original territory. As they were so numerous, we investigated whether any of them were redundant. To relate vegetation to climate parameters we preferred to use its hierarchical nature, in discrete units (characterized by one or more dominant or co-dominant species), although it is known to vary continuously. These units give clearer results in this kind of phytoclimatic study. We have therefore used the main communities that represent natural potential vegetation. Multivariate and estimative analyses were used as statistical methods. The classification showed different levels of correlation among climatic parameters, but all of them were over 0.5. One hundred and eleven parameters were grouped into five larger groups: temperature (T), annual pluviothermic indices (PTY), summer pluviothermic indices (SPT), winter potential evapotranspiration (WPET) and thermal continentality indices (K). The remaining parameters showed low correlations with these five groups; some of them revealed obvious spatial changes in vegetation, such as summer hydric parameters that were zero in most vegetation types but not in high mountain vegetation. Others showed no clear results. For example, the Kerner index, an index of thermal continentality, showed lower values than expected for certain particular types of

  1. Dilation Behavior of Thermal Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejarano Lopez, Miryan Lorena

    Thermal Spray (TS) is a very versatile manufacturing process to deposit thick coatings on a variety of substrates. Coatings are used in protective (i.e. wear, chemical attack, high temperature, etc.) and functional (i.e. sensors) applications. TS coatings have a unique lamellar microstructure as a result of the overlapping of millions of molten and partially-molten particles. During processing, high deformation by impact, high temperature, and rapid solidification lead to a complex hierarchical material system that contains a high amount of microstructural defects. The presence of defects in the microstructure contribute to differences in property values in comparison to bulk materials. Thermal stresses and residual strains arise from processing, thermal gradients and thermal exposure. Evaluation of thermal properties, in this case, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is of vital importance to enhance coating performance. In this dissertation, expansion measurements of various metals, alloys, ceramics, and cermet coatings; were carried out using various techniques (push rod dilatometry, x-ray diffraction XRD, digital image correlation DIC, and curvature method) to determine the dilation behavior at the atomic, micro- and macro-scale levels. The main results were. 1) Mathematical models (Turner and Kerner) used for composite materials, successfully predicted the CTE property of a TS coating where the primary phase is the coating material and the secondary phases can be oxides, precipitates, etc. (formed as a byproduct of the spraying process). CTE was found not to be affected by porosity. 2) Despite the anisotropic behavior characteristic of TS coatings, the experimental results shown that CTE results to be reasonable isotropic within the scope of this study. 3) The curvature method was found to be an alternative technique to obtain the CTE, as well as the Young's modulus of coating in a bi-material strip, with good approximation. 4) An anomalous expansion

  2. The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle: Process Analysis and Design Using Comprehensive Phase Equilibrium Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, Mark C.; O'Connell, J. P.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

    2010-01-10

    Of the 100+ thermochemical hydrogen cycles that have been proposed, the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) Cycle is a primary target of international interest for the centralized production of hydrogen from nuclear power. However, the cycle involves complex and highly nonideal phase behavior at extreme conditions that is only beginning to be understood and modeled for process simulation. The consequence is that current designs and efficiency projections have large uncertainties, as they are based on incomplete data that must be extrapolated from property models. This situation prevents reliable assessment of the potential viability of the system and, even more, a basis for efficient process design. The goal of this NERI award (05-006) was to generate phase-equilibrium data, property models, and comprehensive process simulations so that an accurate evaluation of the S-I Cycle could be made. Our focus was on Section III of the Cycle, where the hydrogen is produced by decomposition of hydroiodic acid (HI) in the presence of water and iodine (I2) in a reactive distillation (RD) column. The results of this project were to be transferred to the nuclear hydrogen community in the form of reliable flowsheet models for the S-I process. Many of the project objectives were achieved. At Clemson University, a unique, tantalum-based, phase-equilibrium apparatus incorporating a view cell was designed and constructed for measuring fluid-phase equilibria for mixtures of iodine, HI, and water (known as HIx) at temperatures to 350 °C and pressures to 100 bar. Such measurements were of particular interest for developing a working understanding of the expected operation of the RD column in Section III. The view cell allowed for the IR observation and discernment of vapor-liquid (VL), liquid-liquid, and liquid-liquid-vapor (LLVE) equilibria for HIx systems. For the I2-H2O system, liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) was discovered to exist at temperatures up to 310-315 °C, in contrast to the models and

  3. Fully automated trace level determination of parent and alkylated PAHs in environmental waters by online SPE-LC-APPI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Cesar E; Wang, Chengtao; Gardinali, Piero R

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous compounds that enter the environment from natural and anthropogenic sources, often used as markers to determine the extent, fate, and potential effects on natural resources after a crude oil accidental release. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE+GC-MS) has been extensively used to isolate and quantify both parent and alkylated PAHs. However, it requires labor-intensive extraction and cleanup steps and generates large amounts of toxic solvent waste. Therefore, there is a clear need for greener, faster techniques with enough reproducibility and sensitivity to quantify many PAHs in large numbers of water samples in a short period of time. This study combines online solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography (LC) separation with dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and tandem MS detection, to provide a one-step protocol that detects PAHs at low nanograms per liter with almost no sample preparation and with a significantly lower consumption of toxic halogenated solvents. Water samples were amended with methanol, fortified with isotopically labeled PAHs, and loaded onto an online SPE column, using a large-volume sample loop with an auxiliary LC pump for sample preconcentration and salt removal. The loaded SPE column was connected to an UPLC pump and analytes were backflushed to a Thermo Hypersil Green PAH analytical column where a 20-min gradient separation was performed at a variable flow rate. Detection was performed by a triple-quadrupole MS equipped with a gas-phase dopant delivery system, using 1.50 mL of chlorobenzene dopant per run. In contrast, LLE+GC-MS typically use 150 mL of organic solvents per sample, and methylene chloride is preferred because of its low boiling point. However, this solvent has a higher environmental persistence than chlorobenzene and is considered a carcinogen. The automated system is capable of

  4. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 1: Organic compounds and water by consideration of short- and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdakos, Garnet B.; Asher, William E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pankow, James F.

    The semi-empirical group contribution method (GCM) of Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780] for estimating activity coefficient ( ζ) values of neutral organic compounds and water in solutions composed of organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water is adapted for application to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). It is assumed that ζ values are determined by a combination of short- and long-range interactions. The ζ expression involves conventional UNIFAC terms and a Debye-Hückel term, with the former computed using group-group interaction parameters. Organic-organic interaction parameters are assigned the values from the UNIFAC-LLE model of Magnussen et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop. 20 (1981) 331-339]. Forty interaction parameters (ion-solvent group and anion-cation) were obtained from Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780], Achard et al. [Fluid Phase Equilibria 98 (1994) 71-89], and Ming and Russell [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 48 (2002) 1331-1348]. Twenty additional interaction parameters (ion-solvent group) are estimated based on 879 UNIQUAC-fitted ζ values for organic compounds and water. The fitted ζ values are based on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for a range of ternary and quaternary organic/inorganic salt/water mixtures at 293-308 K. The UNIQUAC fits are analogous to those described by Fredenslund et al. [Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Using UNIFAC: A Group-Contribution Method, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York, 1977]. The LLE mixture compositions range from primarily organic solutions to primarily aqueous solutions with maximum ionic strengths of ˜5 mol kg -1. The groups characteristic of organic compounds found in atmospheric PM considered here include: CH 3-, -CH 2-, -CH|-, -C||-, -OH, -CH 2CO-, and -COOH. These are: single bonded carbon with three, two, one, and zero hydrogens, respectively, hydroxyl, -CH 2-carbonyl, and carboxyl, respectively. The inorganic salts

  5. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibria and phase stabilities: implications for RH-dependent gas/particle partitioning of organic-inorganic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Peter, T.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    Semivolatile organic and inorganic aerosol species partition between the gas and aerosol particle phases to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. Liquid-liquid phase separation into an organic-rich and an aqueous electrolyte phase can occur in the aerosol as a result of the salting-out effect. Such liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) affect the gas/particle partitioning of the different semivolatile compounds and might significantly alter both particle mass and composition as compared to a one-phase particle. We present a new liquid-liquid equilibrium and gas/particle partitioning model, using as a basis the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Zuend et al., 2008). This model allows the reliable computation of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve (binodal), corresponding tie-lines, the limit of stability/metastability (spinodal), and further thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems. Calculations for ternary and multicomponent alcohol/polyol-water-salt mixtures suggest that LLE are a prevalent feature of organic-inorganic aerosol systems. A six-component polyol-water-ammonium sulphate system is used to simulate effects of relative humidity (RH) and the presence of liquid-liquid phase separation on the gas/particle partitioning. RH, salt concentration, and hydrophilicity (water-solubility) are identified as key features in defining the region of a miscibility gap and govern the extent to which compound partitioning is affected by changes in RH. The model predicts that liquid-liquid phase separation can lead to either an increase or decrease in total particulate mass, depending on the overall composition of a system and the particle water content, which is related to the hydrophilicity of the different organic and inorganic compounds. Neglecting non-ideality and liquid-liquid phase separations by assuming an ideal mixture leads to an overestimation of the total particulate mass by up to 30% for the composition and RH range considered in the six-component system

  6. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibria and phase stabilities: implications for RH-dependent gas/particle partitioning of organic-inorganic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Peter, T.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-05-01

    Semivolatile organic and inorganic aerosol species partition between the gas and aerosol particle phases to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. Liquid-liquid phase separation into an organic-rich and an aqueous electrolyte phase can occur in the aerosol as a result of the salting-out effect. Such liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) affect the gas/particle partitioning of the different semivolatile compounds and might significantly alter both particle mass and composition as compared to a one-phase particle. We present a new liquid-liquid equilibrium and gas/particle partitioning model, using as a basis the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Zuend et al., 2008). This model allows the reliable computation of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve (binodal), corresponding tie-lines, the limit of stability/metastability (spinodal), and further thermodynamic properties of the phase diagram. Calculations for ternary and multicomponent alcohol/polyol-water-salt mixtures suggest that LLE are a prevalent feature of organic-inorganic aerosol systems. A six-component polyol-water-ammonium sulphate system is used to simulate effects of relative humidity (RH) and the presence of liquid-liquid phase separation on the gas/particle partitioning. RH, salt concentration, and hydrophilicity (water-solubility) are identified as key features in defining the region of a miscibility gap and govern the extent to which compound partitioning is affected by changes in RH. The model predicts that liquid-liquid phase separation can lead to either an increase or decrease in total particulate mass, depending on the overall composition of a system and the particle water content, which is related to the hydrophilicity of the different organic and inorganic compounds. Neglecting non-ideality and liquid-liquid phase separations by assuming an ideal mixture leads to an overestimation of the total particulate mass by up to 30% for the composition and RH range considered in the six-component system simulation

  7. Rapid analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish plasma micro-aliquots using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Gong, Zhiyuan; Kelly, Barry C

    2015-02-27

    A sensitive analytical method based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for rapid analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in fish plasma micro-aliquots (∼20μL). Target PPCPs included, bisphenol A, carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen, risperidone, sertraline, simvastatin and triclosan. A relatively quicker and cheaper LLE procedure exhibited comparable analyte recoveries with solid-phase extraction. Rapid separation and analysis of target compounds in fish plasma extracts was achieved by employing a high efficiency C-18 HPLC column (Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C18, 2.1mm×50mm, 2.7μm) and fast polarity switching, enabling effective monitoring of positive and negative ions in a single 9min run. With the exception of bisphenol A, which exhibited relatively high background contamination, method detection limits of individual PPCPs ranged between 0.15 and 0.69pg/μL, while method quantification limits were between 0.05 and 2.3pg/μL. Mean matrix effect (ME) values ranged between 65 and 156% for the various target analytes. Isotope dilution quantification using isotopically labelled internal surrogates was utilized to correct for signal suppression or enhancement and analyte losses during sample preparation. The method was evaluated by analysis of 20μL plasma micro-aliquots collected from zebrafish (Danio rerio) from a laboratory bioaccumulation study, which included control group fish (no exposure), as well as fish exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of PPCPs. Using the developed LC-MS/MS based method, concentrations of the studied PPCPs were consistently detected in the low pg/μL (ppb) range. The method may be useful for investigations requiring fast, reliable concentration measurements of PPCPs in fish plasma. In particular, the method may be applicable for in situ contaminant biomonitoring, as well as

  8. A multi-class bioanalytical methodology for the determination of bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers, p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters, benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters, triclosan, and triclocarban in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Wang, Lei; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction (LLE; ethyl acetate) protocol, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) methodology, was developed for the determination of 19 compounds, including bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs; industrial ethers), benzophenone-type UV filters (BP-UV filters; precursors and metabolites), p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens; preservatives), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) in human urine. Urine specimens were enzymatically deconjugated with β-glucuronidase (from Helix pomatia) and extracted by a LLE procedure for the measurement of total concentrations (i.e., free+conjugated forms) of target analytes. Absolute recoveries of BADGEs, BP-UV filters, parabens, TCS and TCC ranged 25-135%, 84-125%, 52-126%, 75-118% and 90-124%, respectively. Method precision (absolute values; N=5 replicate analyses at the fortification level of 10 ng, k=5 days) ranged from 5.8 (ethyl paraben) to 24.0% (TCS). The limits of quantification (LOQs) varied depending on the target compound and generally ranged from 0.2 to 2.0 ng/mL. The matrix effects ranged from +11 (2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone) to -86% (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone). A total of 30 urine specimens collected from Athens, Greece, were analyzed for the 19 target compounds to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method. The concentrations of target chemicals in urine were presented on volume-, specific gravity (SG)-, and creatinine-normalization bases. MeP, EtP, PrP, OH-EtP, BADGE·2H2O, BP-1 and TCS were found frequently in urine at concentrations in the range of 2.7-436 ng/mL, <0.5-25.4 ng/mL, <0.5-575 ng/mL, <2-18.4 ng/mL, <0.5-13.8 ng/mL, <1-14.6 ng/mL and <0.5-95.3 ng/mL, respectively.

  9. Double-salting out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) HPLC method for estimation of temozolomide from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Jain, Darshana; Athawale, Rajani; Bajaj, Amrita; Shrikhande, Shruti

    2014-11-01

    The role of temozolomide (TMZ) in treatment of high grade gliomas, melanomas and other malignancies is being defined by the current clinical developmental trials. Temozolomide belongs to the group of alkylating agents and is prescribed to patients suffering from most aggressive forms of brain tumors. The estimation techniques for temozolomide from the extracted plasma or biological samples includes high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV), micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MKEC) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). These methods suffer from disadvantages like low resolution, low sensitivity, low recovery or cost involvement. An analytical method possessing capacity to estimate low quantities of TMZ in plasma samples with high extraction efficiency (%) and high resolution with cost effectiveness needs to be developed. Cost effective, robust and low plasma component interfering HPLC method using salting out liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) technique was developed and validated for estimation of drug from plasma samples. The extraction efficiency (%) with conventional LLE technique with methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile was found to be 5.99±2.45, 45.39±4.56, 46.04±1.14 and 46.23±3.67 respectively. Extraction efficiency (%) improved with SALLE where sodium chloride was used as an electrolyte and was found to be 6.80±5.56, 52.01±3.13, 62.69±2.11 and 69.20±1.18 with methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile as organic solvent. Upon utilization of two salts for extraction (double salting liquid-liquid extraction) the extraction efficiency (%) was further improved and was twice of LLE. It was found that double salting liquid-liquid extraction technique yielded extraction efficiency (%) of 11.71±5.66, 55.62±3.44, 77.28±2.89 and 87.75±0.89. Hence a method based on double SALLE was developed for quantification of TMZ demonstrating linearity in the range of

  10. Supercritical fractionation of petroleum pitches: Experiment and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Shuzhong

    Previous work at Clemson has shown that supercritical extraction (SCE) can be used to produce liquid crystalline (i.e., mesophase) pitches of excellent quality for use as starting materials for high-performance carbon products. However, to date the full potential of such extraction processes for manipulating the molecular composition of pitches for a desired end use has yet to be realized. The goals of this project were twofold: (1) to develop equations of state (EoSs) applicable to pitch-solvent systems and to the multicomponent pitch mixtures themselves; (2) to investigate the potential of stagewise SCE for producing fractions suitable for analytical characterization studies. A thermodynamic model that incorporates the SAFT EoS, the MWD of the feed pitch, and mathematically generated pseudocomponents was developed for predicting phase compositions and extraction yields for the SCE process. Our model uses two binary parameters, which were determined by fitting a limited set of isothermal LLE data for pitch-solvent systems. SAFT was subsequently used with these parameters to successfully predict solvent-phase compositions at other extraction conditions. As originally developed, SAFT cannot predict the existence of mesophase. Thus, in collaboration with Hurt and co-workers at Brown University, we created a modification of SAFT for these liquid crystalline pitches (i.e., SAFT-LC). Using only three binary parameters, SAFT-LC was successfully used to model both the SCE step, where solvent-pitch interactions dominate, and the mesophase formation step in the dried pitch product, where pitch-pitch interactions are significant. A stagewise fractionation technique employing sequential, single-stage SCE was used to fractionate the heaviest portion of a petroleum pitch by operating at higher pressures in the LLE region. The pressure was sequentially reduced in each stage so as to precipitate out ˜5 wt % of the feed pitch in each stage. Five fractions comprising the heaviest

  11. Downstream processing of antibodies: single-stage versus multi-stage aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Rosa, P A J; Azevedo, A M; Ferreira, I F; Sommerfeld, S; Bäcker, W; Aires-Barros, M R

    2009-12-11

    Single-stage and multi-stage strategies have been evaluated and compared for the purification of human antibodies using liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) composed of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350), dextran, and triethylene glycol diglutaric acid (TEG-COOH). The performance of single-stage extraction systems was firstly investigated by studying the effect of pH, TEG-COOH concentration and volume ratio on the partitioning of the different components of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells supernatant. It was observed that lower pH values and high TEG-COOH concentrations favoured the selective extraction of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the PEG-rich phase. Higher recovery yields, purities and percentage of contaminants removal were always achieved in the presence of the ligand, TEG-COOH. The extraction of IgG could be enhanced using higher volume ratios, however with a significant decrease in both purity and percentage of contaminants removal. The best single-stage extraction conditions were achieved for an ATPS containing 1.3% (w/w) TEG-COOH with a volume ratio of 2.2, which allowed the recovery of 96% of IgG in the PEG-rich phase with a final IgG concentration of 0.21mg/mL, a protein purity of 87% and a total purity of 43%. In order to enhance simultaneously both recovery yield and purity, a four stage cross-current operation was simulated and the corresponding liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data determined. A predicted optimised scheme of a counter-current multi-stage aqueous two-phase extraction was hence described. IgG can be purified in the PEG-rich top phase with a final recovery yield of 95%, a final concentration of 1.04mg/mL and a protein purity of 93%, if a PEG/dextran ATPS containing 1.3% (w/w) TEG-COOH, 5 stages and volume ratio of 0.4 are used. Moreover, according to the LLE data of all CHO cells supernatant components, it was possible to observe that most of the cells supernatant contaminants can be removed during this

  12. Multiphase, multicomponent phase behavior prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadmohammadi, Younas

    Accurate prediction of phase behavior of fluid mixtures in the chemical industry is essential for designing and operating a multitude of processes. Reliable generalized predictions of phase equilibrium properties, such as pressure, temperature, and phase compositions offer an attractive alternative to costly and time consuming experimental measurements. The main purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of recently generalized activity coefficient models based on binary experimental data to (a) predict binary and ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium systems, and (b) characterize liquid-liquid equilibrium systems. These studies were completed using a diverse binary VLE database consisting of 916 binary and 86 ternary systems involving 140 compounds belonging to 31 chemical classes. Specifically the following tasks were undertaken: First, a comprehensive assessment of the two common approaches (gamma-phi (gamma-ϕ) and phi-phi (ϕ-ϕ)) used for determining the phase behavior of vapor-liquid equilibrium systems is presented. Both the representation and predictive capabilities of these two approaches were examined, as delineated form internal and external consistency tests of 916 binary systems. For the purpose, the universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) model and the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) were used in this assessment. Second, the efficacy of recently developed generalized UNIQUAC and the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) for predicting multicomponent VLE systems were investigated. Third, the abilities of recently modified NRTL model (mNRTL2 and mNRTL1) to characterize liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) phase conditions and attributes, including phase stability, miscibility, and consolute point coordinates, were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the ϕ-ϕ approach represents the binary VLE systems considered within three times the error of the gamma-ϕ approach. A similar trend was observed for the for the generalized model predictions using

  13. A manifold learning approach to target detection in high-resolution hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Amanda K.

    Imagery collected from airborne platforms and satellites provide an important medium for remotely analyzing the content in a scene. In particular, the ability to detect a specific material within a scene is of high importance to both civilian and defense applications. This may include identifying "targets" such as vehicles, buildings, or boats. Sensors that process hyperspectral images provide the high-dimensional spectral information necessary to perform such analyses. However, for a d-dimensional hyperspectral image, it is typical for the data to inherently occupy an m-dimensional space, with m << d. In the remote sensing community, this has led to a recent increase in the use of manifold learning, which aims to characterize the embedded lower-dimensional, non-linear manifold upon which the hyperspectral data inherently lie. Classic hyperspectral data models include statistical, linear subspace, and linear mixture models, but these can place restrictive assumptions on the distribution of the data; this is particularly true when implementing traditional target detection approaches, and the limitations of these models are well-documented. With manifold learning based approaches, the only assumption is that the data reside on an underlying manifold that can be discretely modeled by a graph. The research presented here focuses on the use of graph theory and manifold learning in hyperspectral imagery. Early work explored various graph-building techniques with application to the background model of the Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD) algorithm, which is a graph theory based approach to anomaly detection. This led towards a focus on target detection, and in the development of a specific graph-based model of the data and subsequent dimensionality reduction using manifold learning. An adaptive graph is built on the data, and then used to implement an adaptive version of locally linear embedding (LLE). We artificially induce a target manifold and incorporate it into

  14. Phase equilibria study of the binary systems (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ionic liquid + organic solvent or water).

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Laskowska, M; Pobudkowska, Aneta

    2009-05-07

    (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria (SLE) for the binary systems, ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM][SCN] with an alcohol (1-octanol, 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, 1-undecanol, or 1-dodecanol) or water, and (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria (LLE) for the binary systems of [BMIM][SCN] with an alkane (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, or n-decane), benzene, an alkylbenzenes (toluene or ethylbenzene), tetrahydrofuran (THF), cycloalkanes (cyclohexane or cycloheptane), or ethers (di-n-propyl ether, di-n-butyl ether, di-n-pentyl ether, n-butylmethyl ether, tert-butylmethyl ether (MTBE), or tert-butylethyl ether (ETBE)) have been determined at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from 250 to 430 K. In the case of systems IL + alkane, cycloalkane, or ether, the mutual immiscibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) was detected, and in the systems of IL + benzene, alkylbenzene, or THF, the mutual immiscibility with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was observed. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to determine the very small compositions of the IL in the n-hexane (about 2 x 10(-5) IL mole fraction), benzene (about 2 x 10(-3) IL mole fraction), cyclohexane (about 2 x 10(-5) IL mole fraction), and THF (about 1.2 x 10(-2) IL mole fraction). For the binary systems containing alcohol, it was noticed that with increasing chain length of an alcohol, the solubility decreases. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, the glass-transition temperature as well as the heat capacity at the glass-transition temperature, have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition of the IL was detected by the simultaneous TG/DTA experiments. Well-known UNIQUAC, Wilson, and NRTL equations have been used to correlate the experimental SLE data sets for alcohols and water. For the systems containing immiscibility gaps {IL + alkane

  15. Expeditious method to determine uranium in the process control samples of chemical plant separating (233)U from thoria irradiated in power reactors.

    PubMed

    Kedari, C S; Kharwandikar, B K; Banerjee, K

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of U in the samples containing a significant proportion of (232)U and high concentration of Th is of great concern. Transmutation of Th in the nuclear power reactor produces a notable quantity of (232)U (half life 68.9 years) along with fissile isotope (233)U. The decay series of (232)U is initiated with (228)Th (half life 1.9 year) and it is followed by several short lived α emitting progenies, (224)Ra, (220)Rn, (216)Po, (212)Bi and (212)Po. Even at the smallest contamination of (228)Th in the sample, a very high pulse rate of α emission is obtained, which is to be counted for the radiometric determination of [U]. A commercially available anionic type of extractant Alamine®336 is used to obtain the selective extraction of U from other alpha active elements and fission products present in the sample. Experimental conditions of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) are optimized for obtaining maximum decontamination and recovery of U in the organic phase. The effect of some interfering ionic impurities in the sample on the process of separation is investigated. Depending on the level of the concentration of U in the samples, spectrophotometry or radiometry methods are adopted for its determination after separation by LLE. Under optimized experimental conditions, i.e. 5.5M HCl in the aqueous phase and 0.27M Alamin®336 in the organic phase, the recovery of U is about 100%, the decontamination factor with respect to Th is >2000 and the extraction of fission products like (90)Sr, (144)Ce and (134,137)Cs is negligible. The detection limit for [U] using α radiometry is 10mg/L, even in presence of >100g/L of Th in the sample. Accuracy and precision for the determination of U is also assessed. Reproducibility of results is within 5%. This method shows very good agreement with the results obtained by mass spectrometry.

  16. Efficacy of head space solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of the trace extracellular hydrocarbons of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenna; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Yuejie; Zhang, Zhongyi; Jin, Zhao; Wang, Cong; Bai, Fali

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocarbons are widespread in cyanobacteria, and the biochemical synthetic pathways were recently identified. Intracellular fatty alka(e)nes of cyanobacteria have been detected by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, whether fatty alka(e)nes can be released to cyanobacterial culture media remains to be clarified. This work develops a sensitive method for analyzing the trace level of extracellular hydrocarbons in cyanobacterial culture media by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS. Headspace (HS) extraction mode using polydimethylsiloxane fiber to extract for 30min at 50°C was employed as the optimal extraction conditions. Five cyanobacterial fatty alka(e)nes analogs including pentadecene (C15:1), pentadecane (C15:0), heptadecene (C17:1), heptadecane (C17:0), nonadecane (C19:0) were analyzed, and the data obtained from HS-SPME-GC/MS method were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. Limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantitation (LOQ), linear dynamic range, precisions (RSD) and recovery for the analysis of extracellular fatty alka(e)nes of cyanobacteria by HS-SPME-GC/MS were evaluated. The LODs limits of detection (S/N = 3) varied from 10 to 21 ng L-1. The correlation coefficients (r) of the calibration curves ranged from 0.9873 to 0.9977 with a linearity from 0.1 to 50 μg L-1. The RSD values were ranging from 7.8 to 14.0% and from 4.0 to 8.8% at 1.0 μg L-1 and 10.0 μg L-1 standard solutions, respectively. Comparative analysis of extracellular fatty alka(e)nes in the culture media of model cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 demonstrated that sensitivity of HS-SPME-GC/MS method was significantly higher than LLE method. Finally, we found that heptadecane can be released into the culture media of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 at the later growth period.

  17. The use of Facebook in medical education--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pander, Tanja; Pinilla, Severin; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Fischer, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Hintergrund: Die Verbreitung sozialer Medien beeinflusst und verändert die Kommunikationskultur sowie die Lern- und Lehrmöglichkeiten in der medizinischen Ausbildung. Das beliebteste soziale Netzwerk ist Facebook. Seine Eigenschaften bieten ein großes Potenzial für die medizinische Ausbildung, bringen aber auch einige neue Herausforderungen mit sich.Ziele: Dieser systematische Literaturüberblick zielt darauf ab, herauszufinden, wie Facebook bisher in der medizinischen Ausbildung integriert, eingesetzt und beforscht wurde. Nach einer systematischen Durchsicht der aktuellen Literatur, werden Forschungslücken identifiziert, Verbindungen zu vorherigen Arbeiten gezogen, die bisherigen Ergebnisse systematisch analysiert und Konsequenzen diskutiert.Methode: Die Autoren durchsuchten sechs online-basierte Literatur-Datenbanken. Sie definierten Einschlusskriterien und überprüften unabhängig voneinander die Suchergebnisse. Die wichtigsten Informationen der Artikel wurden methodisch abstrahiert und kodiert und in den Kategorien Studiendesign, Phase der Studienteilnehmer in der medizinischen Ausbildung und Studieninhalt dargestellt und diskutiert.Ergebnisse: 16 Artikel erfüllten alle Einschlusskriterien. 45-96% der Mediziner und Medizinstudierenden haben ein Facebook-Profil. Die meisten Studien konzentrierten sich auf Facebook und digitale Professionalität. Unprofessionelles Verhalten und Verstöße gegen den Datenschutz traten in 0,02% bis 16% der Fälle auf. In Hinblick auf den Einsatz als Lehr- und Lernumgebung wird Facebook von Medizinstudierenden gut akzeptiert. Es wird verwendet, um sich für Prüfungen vorzubereiten, Online-Materialien zu teilen, klinische Fälle zu diskutieren, Treffen zu organisieren und Informationen über Famulaturen auszutauschen. Einige Unterrichtsmaterialien für den professionellen Umgang mit Facebook wurden positiv beurteilt. Es scheint allerdings keine Beweise dafür zu geben, dass Medizinstudierende von Facebook als Lernumgebung

  18. Rapid and automated analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products by online solid phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Pagano, Imma; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2016-01-08

    This study reports a fast and automated analytical procedure for the analysis of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and dairy products. The method is based on the simultaneous protein precipitation and AFM1 extraction, by salt-induced liquid-liquid extraction (SI-LLE), followed by an online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to the automatic pre-concentration, clean up and sensitive and selective determination of AFM1. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and accuracy of the analytical method were studied in detail. In the optimal conditions, acetonitrile and NaCl were used as extraction/denaturant solvent and salting-out agent in SI-LLE, respectively. After centrifugation, the organic phase (acetonitrile) was diluted with water (1:9 v/v) and purified (1mL) by online C18 cartridge coupled with an UHPLC column. Finally, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode was applied to the detection of AFM1. Validation studies were carried out on different dairy products (whole and skimmed cow milk, yogurt, goat milk, and powder infant formula), providing method quantification limits about 25 times lower than AFM1 maximum levels permitted by EU regulation 1881/2006 in milk and dairy products for direct human consumption. Recoveries (86-102%) and repeatability (RSD<3, n=6) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation N. 401/2006 for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Moreover, no matrix effects were observed in the different milk and dairy products studied. The proposed method improves the performance of AFM1 analysis in milk samples as AFM1 determination is performed with a degree of accuracy higher than the conventional methods. Other advantages are the reduction of sample preparation procedure, time and cost of the analysis, enabling high sample throughput that meet the current concerns of food safety and the public

  19. Liquid-phase micro-extraction techniques in pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2007-03-10

    Modern trends in analytical chemistry are towards the simplification and miniaturization of sample preparation, as well as the minimization of organic solvent used. In view of this aspect, several novel micro-extraction techniques are being developed in order to reduce the analysis step, increase the sample throughput and to improve the quality and the sensitivity of analytical methods. One of the emerging techniques in this area is liquid-phase micro-extraction (LPME). It is a miniaturized implementation of conventional liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) in which only microliters of solvents are used instead of several hundred milliliters in LLE. It is quick, inexpensive and can be automated. In the last few years, LPME has been combined with liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), besides the generally used coupling to gas chromatography (GC), and has been applied to various matrices, including biological, environmental, and food samples. This work is aimed at providing an overview of the major developments of LPME, coupled with chromatography and CE, as reported in the literature. The paper will focus on the application of the technique to different matrices and the aim is to reveal the panorama of opportunities and to try to indicate the potential of LPME in pesticide analysis. A critical review of the first applications to pesticide analyses is presented in the main part of the manuscript. The optimization of LPME as well as advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is concluded that, because of its high pre-concentration factor, LPME can be introduced with benefit into water analysis for several pesticide groups. In particular, the application of LPME to non-polar pesticides in environmental analysis appears to be promising. However, similar to other micro-extraction techniques, such as solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), serious limitations still remain when analyzing semi-solid and solid environmental, food or biological matrices

  20. De Novo Design and Experimental Characterization of Ultrashort Self-Associating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bo; Robinson, Robert C.; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

    2014-01-01

    Self-association is a common phenomenon in biology and one that can have positive and negative impacts, from the construction of the architectural cytoskeleton of cells to the formation of fibrils in amyloid diseases. Understanding the nature and mechanisms of self-association is important for modulating these systems and in creating biologically-inspired materials. Here, we present a two-stage de novo peptide design framework that can generate novel self-associating peptide systems. The first stage uses a simulated multimeric template structure as input into the optimization-based Sequence Selection to generate low potential energy sequences. The second stage is a computational validation procedure that calculates Fold Specificity and/or Approximate Association Affinity (K*association) based on metrics that we have devised for multimeric systems. This framework was applied to the design of self-associating tripeptides using the known self-associating tripeptide, Ac-IVD, as a structural template. Six computationally predicted tripeptides (Ac-LVE, Ac-YYD, Ac-LLE, Ac-YLD, Ac-MYD, Ac-VIE) were chosen for experimental validation in order to illustrate the self-association outcomes predicted by the three metrics. Self-association and electron microscopy studies revealed that Ac-LLE formed bead-like microstructures, Ac-LVE and Ac-YYD formed fibrillar aggregates, Ac-VIE and Ac-MYD formed hydrogels, and Ac-YLD crystallized under ambient conditions. An X-ray crystallographic study was carried out on a single crystal of Ac-YLD, which revealed that each molecule adopts a β-strand conformation that stack together to form parallel β-sheets. As an additional validation of the approach, the hydrogel-forming sequences of Ac-MYD and Ac-VIE were shuffled. The shuffled sequences were computationally predicted to have lower K*association values and were experimentally verified to not form hydrogels. This illustrates the robustness of the framework in predicting self

  1. Simultaneous analysis of THC and its metabolites in blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Ramirez Fernandez, Maria; De Boeck, Gert; Wood, Michelle; Lopez-Rivadulla, Manuel; Samyn, Nele

    2008-11-15

    Cannabis is considered to be the most widely abused illicit drug in Europe. Consequently, sensitive and specific analytical methods are needed for forensic purposes and for cannabinoid pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. A simple, rapid and highly sensitive and specific method for the extraction and quantification of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy- Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy- Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in blood is presented. The method was fully validated according to international guidelines and comprises simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of the three analytes with hexane:ethyl acetate (90:10, v/v) into a single eluant followed by separation and quantification using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was achieved using a XBridge C(18) column eluted isocratically with methanol:0.1% formic acid (80:20, v/v). Selectivity of the method was achieved by a combination of retention time, and two precursor-product ion transitions. The use of the LLE was demonstrated to be highly effective and led to significant decreases in the interferences present in the matrix. Validation of the method was performed using 250 microL of blood. The method was linear over the range investigated (0.5-40 microg/L for THC, 1-40 microg/L for 11-OH-THC, and 2-160 microg/L for THC-COOH) with excellent intra-assay and inter-assay precision; relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <12% for THC and 11-OH-THC and <8% for THC-COOH for certified quality control samples. The lower limit of quantification was fixed at the lowest calibrator in the linearity experiments. No instability was observed after repeated freezing and thawing or in processed samples. The method was subsequently applied to 63 authentic blood samples obtained from toxicology cases. The validation and actual sample analysis results show that this method is rugged, precise, accurate, and well suited

  2. A randomized controlled pilot trial comparing the impact of access to clinical endocrinology video demonstrations with access to usual revision resources on medical student performance of clinical endocrinology skills

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Demonstrating competence in clinical skills is key to course completion for medical students. Methods of providing clinical instruction that foster immediate learning and potentially serve as longer-term repositories for on-demand revision, such as online videos demonstrating competent performance of clinical skills, are increasingly being used. However, their impact on learning has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the value of adjunctive on-demand video-based training for clinical skills acquisition by medical students in endocrinology. Methods Following an endocrinology clinical tutorial program, 2nd year medical students in the pre-assessment revision period were recruited and randomized to either a set of bespoke on-line clinical skills training videos (TV), or to revision as usual (RAU). The skills demonstrated on video were history taking in diabetes mellitus (DMH), examination for diabetes lower limb complications (LLE), and examination for signs of thyroid disease (TE). Students were assessed on these clinical skills in an observed structured clinical examination two weeks after randomization. Assessors were blinded to student randomization status. Results For both diabetes related clinical skills assessment tasks, students in the TV group performed significantly better than those in the RAU group. There were no between group differences in thyroid examination performance. For the LLE, 91.7% (n = 11/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 40% (n = 4/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.024). For the DMH, 83.3% (n = 10/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 20% (n = 2/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.007). Conclusion Exposure to high quality videos demonstrating clinical skills can significantly improve medical student skill performance in an

  3. PREFACE: International Conference on 'Quantum Control, Exact or Perturbative, Linear or Nonlinear' to celebrate 50 years of the scientific career of Professor Bogdan Mielnik (Mielnik50)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretón, N.; Fernández, D.; Kielanowski, P.

    2015-06-01

    Corral, F Rojas, KB Wolf and M Znojil belong to the subject of Quantum Control and Dynamical Manipulation, while the articles of D Bermudez, A Contreras-Astorga, E Díaz-Bautista, JC González, V Hussin and VS Morales-Salgado are related with Factorization Method, Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics and Coherent States. Finally, the papers of S Cruz y Cruz, M Enríquez, A Jaimes-Nájera and R Kerner address some Interdisciplinary Problems in Quantum Mechanics. We would like to conclude by thanking for the support of the Physics Department of Cinvestav, the Academic Affairs Offce of Cinvestav, and the Mexican National Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt, projects 152574 and 166581). Without their support, neither the Conference would have been held nor this Conference Volume would have been published.

  4. Introduction and Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Zakrzewski, Wojciech; Hussin, Véronique; Piette, Bernard

    2011-03-01

    This volume contains contributions to the XXVIIIth International Colloquium on Group-Theoretical Methods in Physics, the GROUP 28 conference, which took place in Newcastle upon Tyne from 26-30 July 2010. All plenary and contributed papers have undergone an independent review; as a result of this review and the decisions of the Editorial Board most but not all of the contributions were accepted. The volume is organised as follows: it starts with notes in memory of Marcos Moshinsky, followed by contributions related to the Wigner Medal and Hermann Weyl prize. Then the invited talks at the plenary sessions and the public lecture are published followed by contributions in the parallel and poster sessions in alphabetical order. The Editors:Maia Angelova, Wojciech Zakrzewski, Véronique Hussin and Bernard Piette International Advisory Committee Michael BaakeUniversity of Bielefeld, Germany Gerald DunneUniversity of Connecticut, USA J F (Frank) GomesUNESP, Sao Paolo, Brazil Peter HanggiUniversity of Augsburg, Germany Jeffrey C LagariasUniversity of Michigan, USA Michael MackeyMcGill University, Canada Nicholas MantonCambridge University, UK Alexei MorozovITEP, Moscow, Russia Valery RubakovINR, Moscow, Russia Barry SandersUniversity of Calgary, Canada Allan SolomonOpen University, Milton Keynes, UK Christoph SchweigertUniversity of Hamburg, Germany Standing Committee Twareque AliConcordia University, Canada Luis BoyaSalamanca University, Spain Enrico CeleghiniFirenze University, Italy Vladimir DobrevBulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria Heinz-Dietrich DoebnerHonorary Member, Clausthal University, Germany Jean-Pierre GazeauChairman, Paris Diderot University, France Mo-Lin GeNankai University. China Gerald GoldinRutgers University, USA Francesco IachelloYale University, USA Joris Van der JeugtGhent University, Belgium Richard KernerPierre et Marie Curie University, France Piotr KielanowskiCINVESTAV, Mexico Alan KosteleckyIndiana University, USA Mariano del Olmo

  5. FY16 LLNL Omega Experimental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Ali, S. J.; Benstead, J.; Celliers, P. M.; Coppari, F.; Eggert, J.; Erskine, D.; Panella, A. F.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Hua, R.; Huntington, C. M.; Jarrott, L. C.; Jiang, S.; Kraus, R. G.; Lazicki, A. E.; LePape, S.; Martinez, D. A.; McNaney, J. M.; Millot, M. A.; Moody, J.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H. S.; Ping, Y.; Pollock, B. B.; Rinderknecht, H.; Ross, J. S.; Rubery, M.; Sio, H.; Smith, R. F.; Swadling, G. F.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Wan, A.; Hsing, W.

    2016-12-01

    In FY16, LLNL’s High-Energy-Density Physics (HED) and Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF-ID) programs conducted several campaigns on the OMEGA laser system and on the EP laser system, as well as campaigns that used the OMEGA and EP beams jointly. Overall these LLNL programs led 430 target shots in FY16, with 304 shots using just the OMEGA laser system, and 126 shots using just the EP laser system. Approximately 21% of the total number of shots (77 OMEGA shots and 14 EP shots) supported the Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Campaign (ICF-ID). The remaining 79% (227 OMEGA shots and 112 EP shots) were dedicated to experiments for High-Energy- Density Physics (HED). Highlights of the various HED and ICF campaigns are summarized in the following reports. In addition to these experiments, LLNL Principal Investigators led a variety of Laboratory Basic Science campaigns using OMEGA and EP, including 81 target shots using just OMEGA and 42 shots using just EP. The highlights of these are also summarized, following the ICF and HED campaigns. Overall, LLNL PIs led a total of 553 shots at LLE in FY 2016. In addition, LLNL PIs also supported 57 NLUF shots on Omega and 31 NLUF shots on EP, in collaboration with the academic community.

  6. Impact of flows on ion temperatures inferred from neutron spectra in asymmetrically driven OMEGA DT implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Aappelbe, B.; Chittenden, J.; Walsh, C.; Knauer, J. P.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Marshall, F.; Michel, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Zylstra, A.

    2016-10-01

    Ion temperatures (Tion) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have traditionally been inferred from the broadening of primary neutron spectra. Directional motion (flow) of the fuel at burn, expected to arise due to asymmetries imposed by engineering features (such as stalks, fill tubes, tents, or capsule imperfections) or drive non-uniformity, also impacts broadening and may lead to artificially inflated ``Tion'' values. Flow due to low-mode asymmetries is expected to give rise to line-of-sight variations in measured Tion, as observed in OMEGA cryogenic DT implosions but not in similar experiments at the NIF. In this presentation we report on an OMEGA experiment with intentionally asymmetric drive, designed to test the ability to accurately predict and measure line-of-sight differences in apparent Tion due to low-mode asymmetry-seeded flows. The results provide insight into the complexity of hot-spot dynamics, which is a problem that must be mastered to achieve ICF ignition. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF) and LLNL.

  7. Studying areal density evolution in D-3He implosions at the National Ignition Facility using pTOF-measured shock- and compression-bang times and WRF-measured shock and compression ρR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabadi, N.; Sio, H.; Lahmann, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Berzak-Hopkins, L.; Meezan, N.; Casey, D. T.; Baker, K.; Khan, S.; Thomas, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Barbosa, F.; Bionta, R. M.; Zylstra, A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Sangster, T. C.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the time evolution of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is critical for making further improvements on the road to ignition. In an ICF implosion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) shocks are launched into the ablator by a laser pulse. These shocks coalesce at the fuel-shell interface and then converge at the center of the implosion which causes significant heating and a period of nuclear burn (``shock phase''), followed by a compression phase due to the imploding shell. The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) and the magnetic particle-time-of-flight (magPTOF) detectors were developed to measure both the shock and compression bang-times in NIF D-3He implosions. These timing measurements in combination with shock and compression areal densities (ρR) from wedge range filters (WRFs) provide a direct measurement of ρR evolution, which can be used to guide theory and heavily constrain simulations. This presentation shows a first analysis of ρR evolution from shock phase to compression phase in a variety of NIF implosions as measured by pTOF and WRFs. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF) and LLNL.

  8. The development of an improved streak tube for fusion diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.; Fisher, Y.; Jadwin, A.; Boni, R.; Jaanimagi, P. A.

    2016-11-01

    The fusion diagnostic community, including the National Ignition Facility, the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Megajoule in France, and others require optical recording instruments with precise time resolution covering a dynamic range of many orders of magnitude. In 2012, LLE, Photek, and Sydor Instruments embarked on the re-design of an improved streak tube for fusion diagnostics. As a baseline we started with the Photek ST-Y streak tube which is a member of the RCA design dating back to 1957, because the tube body can accommodate a 35 mm long photocathode, and consequently more fibre coupled diagnostic channels than smaller designs. Electron optical modelling was carried out by both Paul Jaanimagi in the US and by Photek with different software packages in a parallel exercise. Our goal was to address some of the short-comings of this tube, the initial approach being to increase the field between the photocathode and extractor electrode from 700 to 1300 V/mm to reduce space charge effects and to improve time resolution. Many changes and modifications were made: the time resolution was improved to 5 ps, the usable cathode length was increased from 20 mm to 32 mm under high extraction field operation, and the off-axis spatial resolution was substantially improved compared to other tubes of this format. Several tubes have been built and tested in Sydor ROSS-5800 streak cameras.

  9. Heteronukleare Spinentkopplung unter dem Einfluß thermischer Bewegungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, H.; Fenzke, D.; Pfeifer, H.

    Unter der Annahme magnetischer Dipol-IS-Wechselwirkung wird eine Theorie der heteronuklearen Spinentkopplung für kurze Korrelationszeiten entwickelt. Diese enthält als Spezialfälle die kernmagnetischen Relaxationsraten im rotierenden und im festen Koordinatensystem sowie die Kreuzpolarisation zwischen den Spins I und S. In Übereinstimmung mit dieser Theorie tritt für die protonenentkoppelte C-13 Resonanz von Butanol, das in einem NaY-Zeolith adsorbiert ist, ein Maximum der Linienbreite als Funktion der Temperatur zwischen - 150°C und + 90°C auf.Translated AbstractHeteronuclear Spin Decoupling in the Presence of Thermal MotionAssuming magnetic dipolar I-S interaction, a general short -correlation time theory is presented which includes as special cases also well-known formulas for relaxation rates in the rotating and laboratory frame and for the cross polarization between I and S spins. In accordance with this theory for the proton-decoupled C-13 resonance of butanol adsorbed in a NaY zeolite, a maximum of the linewidth is observed as a function of temperature between - 150°C and + 90°C.

  10. The use of design-of-experiments methodology to optimize polymer capsule fabrication. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, L.

    1999-03-01

    Future inertial-fusion experiments on Omega will utilize {approximately} 1 mm-diameter cryogenic targets that have a {approximately} 100-{micro}m-thick, uniformly-frozen fuel layer on their interior. It is desired that they have a stress-free wall thickness < 1 {micro}m and an rms surface roughness < 20 nm. A design-of-experiments (DOE) approach was used to characterize a glow-discharge-polymerization coater built at LLE to fabricate smooth, stress-free capsules with submicron wall thicknesses. The DOE approach was selected because several parameters can be changed simultaneously in a manner which allows the minimum number of runs to be performed to obtain statistically-relevant data. Planar, silicon substrates were coated with {approximately} 3--5 {micro}m of polymer and profilometry was used to determine the coating rate, the film stress, and the surface roughness. The coating rate was found to depend on the trans-2-butene/hydrogen ratio, the total gas-flow rate, the total chamber pressure, and the RF power. In addition, a two-parameter interaction between the total pressure and the RF power also affects the coating rate. The film stress depends on the total chamber pressure and the total mass-flow rate. The surface roughness is independent of the parameters studied. Preliminary results indicate that capsules can be produced rapidly without affecting the smoothness of their outside surface and without residual stress in their walls.

  11. A fatal accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine during a lumbar paravertebral block.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Tritapepe, Luigi; Montana, Angelo; Indorato, Francesca; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Paravertebral block (PVB) is the technique of injecting a local anesthetic solution alongside the vertebral column, close to where the spinal nerves emerge, resulting in unilateral somatic and sympathetic nerve blockade. Here is reported a fatal case involving a 60-year-old woman with spondylitis arthropathy, who developed cardiac and respiratory arrest 40min after receiving an accidental subarachnoid injection (L5-S1 bilaterally) of depomedrol lidocaine and levobupivacaine. A complete autopsy including histological and toxicological analyses was performed in order to establish the cause of death. Liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) and GC-MS analysis were performed according to a previously published method. Lidocaine and bupivacaine were detected both in blood, at concentrations of 14.8mg/L and 13.3mg/L respectively, and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at concentrations of 287.1mg/L and 464.2mg/L respectively. Both lidocaine and bupivacaine were also detected in the urine. The toxicological findings along with the autopsy allowed us to establish that the accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine had led to a progressive hypotension and normovolaemic shock caused by a severe ganglionic block, determining the patient's death.

  12. Semantische Content Management Systeme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gams, Erich; Mitterdorfer, Daniel

    Content Management Systeme (CMS) sind in vielen Organisationen bereits seit längerer Zeit fester Bestandteil zur Verwaltung und kollaborativen Bearbeitung von Text- und Multimedia-Inhalten. Im Zuge der rasch ansteigenden Fülle an Informationen und somit auch Wissen wird die Überschaubarkeit der Datenbestände jedoch massiv eingeschränkt. Diese und zusätzliche Anforderungen, wie automatisch Datenquellen aus dem World Wide Web (WWW) zu extrahieren, lassen traditionelle CMS immer mehr an ihre Grenzen stoßen. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert die neuen Herausforderungen an traditionelle CMS und bietet Lösungsvorschläge, wie CMS kombiniert mit semantischen Technologien diesen Herausforderungen begegnen können. Die Autoren stellen eine generische Systemarchitektur für Content Management Systeme vor, die einerseits Inhalte für das Semantic Web generieren, andererseits Content aus dem Web 2.0 syndizieren können und bei der Aufbereitung des Content den User mittels semantischer Technologien wie Reasoning oder Informationsextraktion unterstützen. Dabei wird auf Erfahrungen bei der prototypischen Implementierung von semantischer Technologie in ein bestehendes CMS System zurückgegriffen.

  13. Studies of ion species separation in ICF-relevant plasmas at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderknecht, Hans; Wilks, Scott; Amendt, Peter; Ross, Steve; Park, Hye-Sook; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Frenje, Johan; Li, Chikang; Seguin, Fredrick; Sio, Hong; Petrasso, Richard; Rosenberg, Michael; Forrest, Chad; Glebov, Vladimir; Stoeckl, Christian; Sangster, Craig; Zylstra, Alex; Hoffman, Nelson; Kwan, Tom; Larroche, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas produced in high-energy density (HED) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments generally contain multiple ion species, which allows for multiple-ion species dynamics that are not simulated in typical single-ion fluid hydro codes. In implosions of D3He-gas filled thin-glass spheres on the OMEGA laser facility, comprehensive nuclear diagnostics were used to infer the composition of the fuel during nuclear production, demonstrating that the deuterium fraction was reduced during the implosion of the fuel. Hydrodynamic simulations including an ion diffusion model indicate that pressure, temperature, and potential gradients drive diffusive separation of the ion species, producing better agreement with the experiments than standard hydrodynamic codes. The results of fully kinetic (Vlasov-Fokker-Planck and PIC) simulations confirm the importance of multi-species dynamics to the evolution of these experiments. Implications for multi-species (DT) cryogenic implosions on the National Ignition Facility will be addressed. This work was partially supported by the US DOE, NLUF, LLE, and GA.

  14. High-resolution 22-52 keV backlighter sources and application to X-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, K.; Moore, A. S.; Smalyuk, V.; Wallace, K.; Gate, D.; Glendinning, S. G.; McAlpin, S.; Park, H. S.; Sorce, C.; Stevenson, R. M.

    2013-09-01

    The requirement for sources of hard X-rays suitable for high resolution radiography through large ρR targets is prominent in many aspects of current laser-driven plasma physics research. In recent work using the OMEGA EP laser facility [L. J. Waxer, M. J. Guardalben, J. H. Kelly et al., CLEO/QELS, Optical Society of America, San Jose, CA, IEEE (2008)] at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY, experiments have been performed to measure characteristics of 22-52 keV X-ray sources using high intensity short-pulse lasers. High quality point projection, two-dimensional radiography was demonstrated by irradiating microwire targets with laser intensities of 1016 W cm-2-1019 W cm-2. Microwire targets were manufactured to dimensions of 10 μm × 10 μm × 300 μm and were supported by a 100 μm × 300 μm × 6 μm low-Z substrate. Measurements of the k-α conversion efficiency and X-ray source-size are discussed and, of particular importance for radiography, the spectral purity of the backlighter is characterized to assess the relative importance of the Kα emission to bremsstrahlung background.

  15. Inertial fusion experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Tikhonchuk, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-09-01

    Inertial fusion research is approaching a critical milestone, namely the demonstration of ignition and burn. The world's largest high-power laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF), is under operation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the USA. Another ignition machine, Laser Mega Joule (LMJ), is under construction at the CEA/CESTA research centre in France. In relation to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) at LLNL, worldwide studies on inertial fusion applications to energy production are growing. Advanced ignition schemes such as fast ignition, shock ignition and impact ignition, and the inertial fusion energy (IFE) technology are under development. In particular, the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, and the OMEGA-EP project at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University Rochester, and the HiPER project in the European Union (EU) for fast ignition and shock ignition are progressing. The IFE technology research and development are advanced in the frameworks of the HiPER project in EU and the LIFE project in the USA. Laser technology developments in the USA, EU, Japan and Korea were major highlights in the IAEA FEC 2010. In this paper, the status and prospects of IFE science and technology are described.

  16. Characterizing Awake and Anesthetized States Using a Dimensionality Reduction Method.

    PubMed

    Mirsadeghi, M; Behnam, H; Shalbaf, R; Jelveh Moghadam, H

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing between awake and anesthetized states is one of the important problems in surgery. Vital signals contain valuable information that can be used in prediction of different levels of anesthesia. Some monitors based on electroencephalogram (EEG) such as the Bispectral (BIS) index have been proposed in recent years. This study proposes a new method for characterizing between awake and anesthetized states. We validated our method by obtaining data from 25 patients during the cardiac surgery that requires cardiopulmonary bypass. At first, some linear and non-linear features are extracted from EEG signals. Then a method called "LLE"(Locally Linear Embedding) is used to map high-dimensional features in a three-dimensional output space. Finally, low dimensional data are used as an input to a quadratic discriminant analyzer (QDA). The experimental results indicate that an overall accuracy of 88.4 % can be obtained using this method for classifying the EEG signal into conscious and unconscious states for all patients. Considering the reliability of this method, we can develop a new EEG monitoring system that could assist the anesthesiologists to estimate the depth of anesthesia accurately.

  17. CBET Experiments with Wavelength Shifting at the Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, James; McKenty, P.; Bates, J.; Myatt, J.; Shaw, J.; Obenschain, K.; Oh, J.; Kehne, D.; Obenschain, S.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Tsung, F.; Schmitt, A. J.; Serlin, V.

    2016-10-01

    Studies conducted at NRL during 2015 searched for cross-beam energy transport (CBET) in small-scale plastic targets with strong gradients in planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The targets were irradiated by two widely separated beam arrays in a geometry similar to polar direct drive. Data from these shots will be presented that show a lack of a clear CBET signature even with wavelength shifting of one set of beams. This poster will discuss the next campaign being planned, in part, with modelling codes developed at LLE. The next experiments will use a target configuration optimized to create stronger SBS growth. The primary path under consideration is to increase scale lengths 5-10x over the previous study by using exploding foils or low density foams. In addition to simulations, the presentation will also discuss improvements to the diagnostic suite and laser operations; for example, a new set of etalons will be available for the next campaign that should double the range of wavelength shifting between the two beam arrays. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  18. Extraction and recovery of methylene blue from industrial wastewater using benzoic acid as an extractant.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, G; Teng, Tjoon Tow; Leh, Cheu Peng; Norli, I

    2009-04-15

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of methylene blue (MB) from industrial wastewater using benzoic acid (extractant) in xylene has been studied at 27 degrees C. The extraction of the dye increased with increasing extractant concentration. The extraction abilities have been studied on benzoic acid concentration in the range of 0.36-5.8x10(-2) M. The distribution ratio of the dye is reasonably high (D=49.5) even in the presence of inorganic salts. Irrespective of the concentration of dye, extraction under optimal conditions was 90-99% after 15 min of phase separation. The extracted dye in the organic phase can be back extracted into sulphuric acid solution. The resultant recovered organic phase can be reused in succeeding extraction of dye with the yield ranging from 99 to 87% after 15 times reused, depending on the concentration of the initial feed solution. Experimental parameters examined were benzoic acid concentration, effect of diluent, effect of pH, effect of initial dye concentration, effect of equilibration time, various stripping agents, aqueous to organic phase ratio in extraction, organic to aqueous phase ratio in stripping and reusability of solvent.

  19. A Framework for Automating Cost Estimates in Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.; Peters, R.R.

    1998-12-09

    When a product concept emerges, the manufacturing engineer is asked to sketch out a production strategy and estimate its cost. The engineer is given an initial product design, along with a schedule of expected production volumes. The engineer then determines the best approach to manufacturing the product, comparing a variey of alternative production strategies. The engineer must consider capital cost, operating cost, lead-time, and other issues in an attempt to maximize pro$ts. After making these basic choices and sketching the design of overall production, the engineer produces estimates of the required capital, operating costs, and production capacity. 177is process may iterate as the product design is refined in order to improve its pe~ormance or manufacturability. The focus of this paper is on the development of computer tools to aid manufacturing engineers in their decision-making processes. This computer sof~are tool provides aj?amework in which accurate cost estimates can be seamlessly derivedfiom design requirements at the start of any engineering project. Z+e result is faster cycle times through first-pass success; lower ll~e cycie cost due to requirements-driven design and accurate cost estimates derived early in the process.

  20. The magPTOF diagnostic for shock-bang and compression-bang time measurement and charged-particles spectroscopy at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, H. W.; Sio, H.; Rinderknecht, H.; Frenje, J.; Zylstra, A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F.; Li, C.; Petrasso, R.; House, A.; Rygg, J. R.; Kimbrough, J.; Macphee, A.; Collins, G. W.; MacKinnon, A.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bedzyk, M.; Magoon, J.; Shoup, M.; Sangster, C.; Kilkenny, J.; Olson, R.

    2015-11-01

    A magnetic particle-time-of-flight (MagPTOF) diagnostic has been fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of both shock- and compression-bang times. This type of measurement, combined with the measured shock-burn-weighted ρR, is used to understand shock convergence and implosion dynamics. The MagPTOF design is an upgrade to the existing particle time-of-flight (pTOF) diagnostic, which has recorded bang times in cryogenic DT implosions, DT exploding pushers and D3He implosions with accuracy better than 70 ps. The inclusion of a deflecting magnet should increase proton signal-to-background by a factor of 1000, allowing for measurements of shock bang time (using 14.7 MeV D3He protons) and compression bang time (using 2.45 MeV DD neutrons) in D3He-filled surrogate implosions. For exploding pushers with D3He, D2, T3He, or DT fuel, from which several charged fusion products escape, CR39 surrounding the CVD diamond detector can also be used for low-energy charged-particle spectroscopy. Implementation and initial data at the NIF will be discussed. This work is supported in part by DOE, LLNL, and LLE.

  1. Simultaneous measurements of the X-ray and nuclear shock-bang times in ICF plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, G.; Sio, H.; Rinderknecht, H.; Frenje, J.; Zylstra, A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Rygg, J. R.; Macphee, A.; MacKinnon, A.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, C.; Kilkenny, J.; Olson, R.

    2015-11-01

    Recent measurements of nuclear and x-ray shock-bang times in ICF implosions at OMEGA and the NIF provide new constraints on implosion modeling and may elucidate the underlying physics of e-i equilibration during the shock phase. As the ions are predominantly heated by the converging and rebounding shock, the ion temperature is initially much higher than the electron temperature and the difference relaxes at the e-i equilibration time scale. Nuclear and x-ray bang times are expected to differ because of different temperature dependence. At OMEGA, nuclear shock-bang time and burn history are routinely measured using streak camera diagnostics, while x-ray self-emission is observed with x-ray framing cameras. We are exploring the possibility of measuring both x-ray and nuclear shock-bang times with a single diagnostic with high relative accuracy, and will discuss the precision with which they can be made and the diagnostics necessary at OMEGA. This work was supported in part by NLUF, US DOE, and LLE.

  2. Experienced workers may sacrifice peak torso kinematics/kinetics for enhanced balance/stability during repetitive lifting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungyong; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2013-04-05

    Work-related low back disorders (WRLBDs) are widely recognized problems, and work experience, while often considered important, has an unclear role with respect to modifying WRLBD risks. For example, some studies have shown that peak torso kinematics/kinetics are higher among experienced workers, suggesting a counterintuitive higher risk. To better understand the movement strategies of experienced workers, additional analyses were conducted using data from a prior study, to assess whole body balance and torso movement stability of 6 experienced workers vs. 6 novices during repetitive lifts/lowers. Dynamic balance and torso movement stability were quantified using peak linear/angular momenta and largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of torso flexion/extension, respectively. Peak horizontal linear momenta, all angular momenta, and LLEs were lower among experienced workers, suggestive of superior balance maintenance and more stable torso flexion/extension. Thus, experienced workers seem to sacrifice peak torso kinematics/kinetics to obtain better balance maintenance and torso movement stability, whereas the opposite strategies were evident among novices. These findings highlight that movement strategies can be modified by work experience and have potential implications/applications for worker training or work method analyses.

  3. Using secondary nuclear products for inferring the fuel areal density, convergence, and electron temperatures of deuterium filled implosions on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Sio, H.; Kabadi, N. V.; Sutcliffe, G.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hartouni, E. P.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D. B.; Yeamans, C. B.; Khan, S. F.; Kyrala, G. A.; Lepape, S.; Berzak-Hopkins, L.; Meezan, N.; Bionta, R.; Ma, T.

    2016-10-01

    In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, 0.82 MeV 3He and 1.01 MeV T born from the primary DD reaction branches can undergo fusion reactions with the thermal deuterium plasma to create secondary D3He protons and DT neutrons respectively. In regimes of moderate fuel areal density (ρR 5 - 100 mg/cm2) the ratio of both of these secondary yields to the primary yield can be used to infer the fuel ρR, convergence, and an electron temperature (Te) simultaneously. This technique has been used on a myriad of deuterium filled implosion experiments on the NIF using the nuclear time of flight (NTOF) diagnostics to measure the secondary DT neutrons and CR-39 based wedge range filters (WRFs) to measure the secondary D3He protons. Additionally, a comparative study is conducted between the nuclear inferred convergence and x-ray inferred convergence obtained on these experiments. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF) and LLNL.

  4. Determination of 13 Organic Toxicants in Human Blood by Liquid-Liquid Extraction Coupling High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Aiying

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides and antidepressants are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime because of their toxicological effect and easy-availability. Therefore, it is essential for the development of a simple and reliable method for the determination of these organic toxicants in biological fluids. Here, we report on an applicable method by the combination of optimized liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to identify and quantify dimethoate, omethoate, dichlorvos, carbofuran, fenpropathrin, diazepam, estazolam, alprazolam, triazolamm, chlorpromazine, phenergan, barbitone and phenobarbital in human blood. The method demonstrated a linear calibration curve in range of 20 - 500 μg/L (r > 0.994). The accuracy evaluated by recovery spiked at three different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 μg/L) was in the range of 58.8 - 83.1% with a relative standard deviations (RSD) of 3.7 - 7.4%. The limits of quantification ranged over 6.7 - 33.3 μg/L. This method was proved to be simple and reliable, and was thus successfully applied to forensic toxicology.

  5. Stability of catechins in green tea nutraceutical products: application of solid phase extraction-thin layer chromatography densitometry.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsalam, Heba-Alla H; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Zaazaa, Hala E; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2014-08-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a powerful antioxidant and commonly used nutraceutical. Accelerated stability of EGCG in tablet formulations was investigated. LLE and SPE were employed for sample clean-up and enrichment of EGCG over caffeine. Samples were analysed after spiking with fixed concentration of gallic acid (GA), in order to verify reproducibility of analysis. A TLC-densitometric assay was developed and validated for determination of % loss EGCG. EGCG, GA and caffeine were resolved with Rf values 0.54, 0.69 and 0.80, respectively. LC-MS/MS was used to verify identity and purity of the EGCG band. Determination was carried out over a concentration range of 0.50-5.00μg/band and 0.20-2.40μg/band for GA and caffeine, respectively. Results showed significant reduction in EGCG content after one, three and six months: 24.00%, 28.00% and 52.00% respectively. Results continue to demonstrate that stability of nutraceutical products should be investigated in-depth using industry-oriented protocols before granting marketing authorisation.

  6. Determination of steroidal oestrogens in tap water samples using solid-phase extraction on a molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent and quantification with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Perkons, I; Bartkevics, V

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of steroidal oestrogens in tap water samples. Gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) were used for the identification/quantification of selected compounds and the analytical performance of these techniques was evaluated. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) stationary phase that was highly selective for oestrogens were used for the extraction of 100-mL aliquots of water samples. The recoveries of analytes with the described methods ranged from 92 to 114 %, while the repeatability in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs) was in the range from 2.1 to 15.2 % (n = 5). It was concluded that SPE with MIP that was highly selective for oestrogens in combination with GC-HRMS detection is more preferable for the analysis of oestrogens in tap water samples. The typical oestrogen, 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), was detected above the method limit of quantification (m-LOQ) in 5 of 14 analysed tap water samples at concentrations from 0.09 to 0.15 ng L(-1). Despite that 17α-ethynylestradiol (17α-EE2) was not quantified in this study above m-LOQ, the presence of this chemical was qualitatively confirmed in some of the analysed samples.

  7. Two-stage bile preparation with acetone for recovery of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs).

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Syed, Mohd A; Christianus, Annie; Willett, Kristine L; Mazzeo, Jeffrey R; Courtenay, Simon C

    2012-07-15

    In this study we sought to optimize recovery of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) from the bile of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) injected with 10mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Fractions of pooled bile were hydrolyzed, combined with ten volumes of methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, or acetone, centrifuged and supernatants were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (HPLC/FL). As well, to test whether FACs were being lost in solids from the centrifugation, pellets were resuspended, hydrolyzed and mixed with six volumes of the organic solvent that produced best FAC recovery from the supernatant, and subjected to HPLC/FL. Highest FAC concentrations were obtained with 2000μl and 1250μl acetone for supernatants and resuspended pellets respectively. FACs concentrations were negatively correlated with biliary protein content but were unaffected by addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) followed by no incubation indicating that the presence of proteins in the biliary mixture does not simply interfere with detection of FACs. In another experiment, efficiency of acetone addition was compared to two different liquid-liquid extractions (L-LEs). Acetone additions provided significantly higher biliary FACs than the L-LE methods. The new two-stage bile preparation with acetone is an efficient, inexpensive and easily performed method.

  8. Measurement of the 6He Decay Produced by the 9Be(n, α) 6 He Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Katelyn; Coats, Micah; Yuly, Mark; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean

    2016-10-01

    The OMEGA laser at LLE is routinely used to implode gas-filled capsules to study light ion fusion reaction rates of interest to stellar nucleosynthesis. As a first step toward a possible measurement of the 3H(t,γ)6He radiative capture reaction, a detector system capable of measuring the 801 ms half-life of 6He has been developed and is being tested using 6He nuclei produced via the 9Be(n,α)6He reaction. Deuterons from the SUNY Geneseo tandem Pelletron produce neutrons in a thick deuterated polyethylene target via the 2H(d,n)3He reaction. These neutrons are allowed to strike a beryllium target placed in front of a silicon ΔE-E detector telescope, which is used to identify the β particles from 6He decay. Following an approximately five second long activation period, the beryllium sample is immediately counted for about five seconds. The pulse heights for each detector and the timestamp are recorded using a specially configured femtoDAQ acquision system and used to measure the decay curve. Funded in part by a Grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  9. Improved characterization of the CR-39 efficiency for detecting DD neutrons based on data from OMEGA, NIF and the MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanese, L. M.; Lahmann, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Bionta, R.; Yeamans, C.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.

    2016-10-01

    CR-39 nuclear track detectors are extensively used to measure fluences and spectra of charged particles produced in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. An accurate determination of the CR-39 response to neutrons is important both to perform direct neutron fluence measurements and to estimate the level of neutron-induced background impacting charged-particle measurements. The CR-39 efficiency for detecting neutrons depends on several factors, including the manufacturing process of the CR-39, etching conditions and characteristics of the scanning system employed to detect the neutron-induced tracks. The CR-39 response to DD neutrons has been characterized using implosions at OMEGA and the NIF as well as a neutron generator at the MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility. A new approach provides significantly better precision than previously demonstrated in the literature. This method will be used to characterize DD fusion isotropy at the Z Facility. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF), LLNL and SNL.

  10. Case history -- Reddell Oil Field -- Evangeline Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, C.T.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to give the gravity meter credit as the main geophysical method used in the discovery of the Reddell Oil Field in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana. LL&E provided me with gravity data to use in the calculation of a salt model of the Reddell Salt Dome. The purpose of the study was to define the structure so the truncation of three (3) prospective sands in the Wilcox, Lower Eocene could be determined. The interpretation of the Reeddell Dome was complicated by the influence of the nearby Pine Prairie Salt Dome and both had to be modeled. A regional gravity was removed from the Bouguer gravity to give a Residual Gravity Map representing the gravity response to the salt domes. Gamma-gamma density logs were used to determine the density of the sediments and the contrasting densities between the sediments and the consistent salt density. Another input for the computer modeling program was a reference surface; in this case the top of the Louann salt, Lower Jurassic. The digital data are gridded with a square grid that is appropriate for the gravity control. The reference surface becomes a series of prisms whose height is a variable. The modeling program uses an iterative procedure to develop a salt structure whose computed gravity matches the input gravity. The domes were successfully modeled from the gravity and a discovery well was drilled at the Reddell Dome. This dome was later developed along with the Pine Prairie Dome.

  11. Investigation of neutron-induced background in Magnetic-Recoil-Spectrometer CR-39 data using a DT neutron source and MCNP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanese, Lucio M.; Frenje, Johan; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Lahmann, Brandon; Sio, Hong; Petrasso, Richard

    2015-11-01

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometers (MRS) installed on the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are routinely used to measure neutron yield, areal density and ion temperatures from DT implosions. The observed background in the lower-energy part of MRS spectra is significantly higher than expected from analysis of neutron-induced background data obtained in stand-alone CR-39 experiments at OMEGA. A possible explanation relates to the scattering of neutrons in the MRS housing vessel, which is not accounted for in current modeling. To test experimentally the impact of individual vessel components on the observed background, parts of the MRS housing have been mocked up and CR-39 data have been collected employing a DT neutron source. The experimental results are contrasted to MCNP simulations to improve our understanding of the mechanism behind the enhanced neutron background. The results will be used to correct measured spectra from OMEGA and the NIF to allow detailed analysis of lower energy data. This work was supported in part by NLUF, US DOE, and LLE.

  12. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

  13. Identification of in vivo processing intermediates and of splice junctions of tRNAs from maize chloroplasts by amplification with the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Delp, G; Igloi, G L; Kössel, H

    1991-01-01

    Total RNA from chloroplasts of maize seedlings was used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mediated amplification of tRNA precursors and of mature tRNAs encoded by the two split tRNA genes of the ribosomal spacer (tRNA(lle)GAU and tRNA(Ala)UGC) and the single intron-containing tRNA(Gly)UCC gene. Sequence analysis of DNAs amplified from the mature tRNAs by combinations of exon specific primers allows unambiguous identification of the respective splice junctions. Primer combinations in which 5'- or 3'-flanking precursor tRNA sequences are included, leads to the amplification of processing intermediates in which 5'-terminal extensions are still present, whereas no PCR products corresponding to 3'-terminal extensions could be detected. From this it is concluded that in chloroplasts the 5'-terminal endonucleolytic cleavage by RNase P occurs as one of the final steps in the tRNA processing pathway of which the endonucleolytic cleavage at the 3' side probably occurs prior to the splicing of the intron sequences. Images PMID:2017358

  14. Trace determination of caffeine in surface water samples by liquid chromatography--atmospheric pressure chemical ionization--mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS).

    PubMed

    Gardinali, Piero R; Zhao, Xu

    2002-12-01

    A new method based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) coupled to reverse phase liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) has been applied to determine trace amounts of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) in surface water samples from a near coastal ecosystem such as Biscayne Bay, Florida. The rational behind the development of such method will be to evaluate the use of unmetabolized caffeine as a potential dissolved phase tracer of human waste contamination. The method allows for the determination of caffeine at levels as low as 4.0 ng/l (ppt) in both salt and freshwater by extracting and concentrating a 1-1 water sample to a final volume of 500 microl and using HPLC separation coupled to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) system operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) for the protonated molecular ions (M + H(+)). Samples from different portions of Biscayne Bay and the Miami River, one of its major tributaries, were analyzed and caffeine was detected in those areas previously identified for consistently exceeding the water quality criteria for fecal coliform bacteria contamination. The caffeine concentration in the samples with positive detection was generally low at levels equal or lower than 41 ng/l. However, there is a marked difference between samples collected in open bay areas and those collected from the Miami River.

  15. Mixed convection from an isothermal vertical flat plate moving in parallel or reversely to a free stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.-T.; Hoh, H.-L.

    Mixed convection heat transfer from a vertically moving plate to a flowing free stream is investigated. The plate moves either in parallel or reversely to the free stream; and the buoyancy force accelerates or retards the flow. An universal formulation can be obtained from which similarity and nonsimilarity equations for six limiting cases of forced, natural, and mixed convection can be readily reduced. Accurate finite-difference solutions and comprehensive correlations of heat transfer rate for 0.01<=Pr<=10000 are presented over the entire domains of mixed convection and relative velocity. Zusammenfassung Die Untersuchung bezieht sich auf den Wärmeübergang bei Mischkonvektion an einer vertikalen Platte, die parallel zu einem Freistrom (gleich- oder gegensinnig) bewegt wird, wobei die Auftriebskraft fördernd oder hemmend auf die Strömung wirkt. Es läßt sich eine universelle Formulierung finden, aus der unmittelbar Ähnlichkeits- und Nichtähnlichkeitsgleichungen für sechs Grenzfälle bezüglich erzwungener, freier und gemischter Konvektion hergeleitet werden können. Genaue Finitdifferenzen-Lösungen und umfangreiche Berechnungsformeln für den gesamten Bereich der Mischkonvektion und der Relativgeschwindigkeit werden angegeben, wobei die Prandtl-Zahlen von 0,01 bis 10000 variieren.

  16. National Ignition Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.; Yatabe, J.

    1996-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a key constituent of the Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program. The NIF will use inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to produce ignition and energy gain in ICF targets, and will perform weapons physics and high-energy- density experiments in support of national security and civilian objectives. The NIF Project is a national facility involving the collaboration of several DOE laboratories and subcontractors, including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). The primary mission of the NIF Project is the construction and start-up operation of laser-based facilities that will demonstrate fusion ignition in the laboratory to provide nuclear-weapons-related physics data, and secondarily, to propagate fusion burn aimed at developing a potential source of civilian energy. To support the accomplishment of this very important mission, the LLNL Laser Directorate created the NIF Project Office to organize and bring about the Project. The NIF Project Office has established this Quality Assurance Program to ensure its success. This issue of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) adds the requirements for the conduct of Title 11 design, construction, procurement, and Title III engineering. This QAPP defines and describes the program-the management system-for specifying, achieving, and assuring the quality of all NIF Project work consistent with the policies of the Laboratory and the Laser Directorate.

  17. Double-exposure materials for pitch division with 193nm lithography: requirements, results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, Robert; Shykind, David; Kim, Sungwon; Borodovsky, Yan; Schwartz, Evan; Turner, Courtney; Masson, Georgeta; Min, Ke; Esswein, Katherine; Blackwell, James M.; Suetin, Nikolay

    2009-03-01

    We present the results of both theoretical and experimental investigations of materials for application either as a reversible Contrast Enhancement Layer (rCEL) or a Two-Stage PAG. The purpose of these materials is to enable Litho- Litho-Etch (LLE) patterning for Pitch Division (PD) at the 16nm logic node (2013 Manufacturing). For the rCEL, we find from modeling using an E-M solver that such a material must posses a bleaching capability equivalent to a Dill A parameter of greater than 100. This is at least a factor of ten greater than that achieved so far at 193nm by any usable organic material we have tested. In the case of the Two-Stage PAG, analytical and lithographic modeling yields a usable material process window, in terms of reversibility and two-photon vs. one-photon acid production rates (branching ratio). One class of materials, based on the cycloadduct of a tethered pair of anthracenes, has shown promise under testing at 193nm in acetonitrile. Sufficient reversibility without acid production, enabled by near-UV exposure, has been achieved. Acid production as a function of dose shows a clear quadratic component, consistent with a branching ratio greater than 1. The experimental data also supports a acid contrast value of approximately 0.05 that could in principle be obtained with this molecule under a pitch division double-exposure scenario.

  18. Reduced Noise UV Enhancement of Etch Rates for Nuclear Tracks in CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheets, Rebecca; Clarkson, David; Ume, Rubab; Regan, Sean; Sangster, Craig; Padalino, Stephen; McLean, James

    2016-10-01

    The use of CR-39 plastic as a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector is an effective technique for obtaining data in high-energy particle experiments including inertial confinement fusion. To reveal particle tracks after irradiation, CR-39 is chemically etched in NaOH at 80°C for 6 hours, producing micron-scale signal pits at the nuclear track sites. Using CR-39 irradiated with 5.4 MeV alpha particles and 1.0 MeV protons, we show that exposing the CR-39 to high intensity UV light before etching, with wavelengths between 240 nm and 350 nm, speeds the etch process. Elevated temperatures during UV exposure amplifies this effect, with etch rates up to 50% greater than unprocessed conditions. CR-39 pieces exposed to UV light and heat can also exhibit heightened levels of etch-induced noise (surface features not caused by nuclear particles). By illuminating the CR-39 from the side opposite to the tracks, a similar level of etch enhancement was obtained with little to no noise. The effective wavelength range is reduced, due to strong attenuation of shorter wavelengths. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  19. Automatic detection of end-diastole and end-systole from echocardiography images using manifold learning.

    PubMed

    Gifani, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Shalbaf, Ahmad; Sani, Zahra Alizadeh

    2010-09-01

    The automatic detection of end-diastole and end-systole frames of echocardiography images is the first step for calculation of the ejection fraction, stroke volume and some other features related to heart motion abnormalities. In this paper, the manifold learning algorithm is applied on 2D echocardiography images to find out the relationship between the frames of one cycle of heart motion. By this approach the nonlinear embedded information in sequential images is represented in a two-dimensional manifold by the LLE algorithm and each image is depicted by a point on reconstructed manifold. There are three dense regions on the manifold which correspond to the three phases of cardiac cycle ('isovolumetric contraction', 'isovolumetric relaxation', 'reduced filling'), wherein there is no prominent change in ventricular volume. By the fact that the end-systolic and end-diastolic frames are in isovolumic phases of the cardiac cycle, the dense regions can be used to find these frames. By calculating the distance between consecutive points in the manifold, the isovolumic frames are mapped on the three minimums of the distance diagrams which were used to select the corresponding images. The minimum correlation between these images leads to detection of end-systole and end-diastole frames. The results on six healthy volunteers have been validated by an experienced echo cardiologist and depict the usefulness of the presented method.

  20. Neutron Measurements in Small MagLIF Experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, V. Yu.; Barnak, D. H.; Davies, J. R.; Knauer, J. P.; Betti, R.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is participating in laser-driven magnetized linear inertial fusion (MagLIF) research on the OMEGA Laser System in partnership with Sandia as part of ARPA-E's ALPHA Program. In the current OMEGA setup, a CH cylindrical tube filled with D2 gas is compressed by 40 laser beams, preheated by one of the beams, and an axial magnetic field is applied to limit electron heat loss. Two copper coils provide 10-T magnetic fields. A neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector has been designed, fabricated, and calibrated to diagnose primary D-D fusion neutron yield in the range of 1 ×107 to 5 ×109 and ion temperature from 2 to 8 keV. The design details and calibration results of these nTOF detectors will be presented together with neutron measurement results from recent laser-driven MagLIF experiments on OMEGA. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000568, and the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  1. A review of extraction and analytical methods for the determination of Tartrazine (E 102) in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Rovina, Kobun; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2017-01-27

    Tartrazine is an azo food dye, orange-coloured and water soluble that usually used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and textiles. Tartrazine possess adverse health effect to human such as hyperactivity in children, allergy and asthma. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive (JECFA) and EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) standardized the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for Tartrazine is at 7.5 mg kg(-1) body weight. Many researchers have been detected the presence of Tartrazine for monitoring the quality and safety of food products. In this review paper highlighted various detection and extraction methods of Tartrazine. Some of the analytical methods are available such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrochemical sensor, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). As extraction steps are discussed: liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), membrane filtration, cloud point extraction and other extraction method. Also, brief overview explained the synthesis process and metabolism of Tartrazine and the maximum permitted level in different countries. This review paper will give insight scenario on different extraction and analytical methods for determination of Tartrazine on healthy food among public attract attention on food safety and quality which can provide incalculable interest to food industry and government bodies.

  2. Evidence for anti-tumour effect of allogeneic haematopoietic SCT in cases without sustained donor engraftment.

    PubMed

    Daguindau, E; Lioure, B; Buzyn, A; Robin, M; Faucher, C; Kuentz, M; Tiberghien, P; Deconinck, E

    2010-01-01

    Remissions of haematological malignancies have been reported after allo-SCT, despite donor cell rejection, suggesting that sustained allogeneic engraftment is not mandatory to obtain a lasting anti-tumour effect. To evaluate the potential benefit from transient post-allo-SCT alloreactivity, we took advantage of the Société Française de Greffe de Moëlle et Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC) registry to colligate 14 patients with an efficient and long-lasting allogeneic (GVL) effect after allo-SCT for haematological malignancies, despite transient or absent engraftment. None received a second allogeneic graft after autologous recovery. The median duration of remission after autologous reconstitution was 118 (12-252) months. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that some patients were cured before allo-SCT, this retrospective analysis does strongly suggest that an efficient GVL effect can be observed without sustained donor engraftment, and that the transient presence of donor T cells might be sufficient to induce a powerful GVL effect.

  3. Novel reversible methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP-2) inhibitors based on purine and related bicyclic templates.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Timo; Buchstaller, Hans-Peter; Cezanne, Bertram; Rohdich, Felix; Bomke, Jörg; Friese-Hamim, Manja; Krier, Mireille; Knöchel, Thorsten; Musil, Djordje; Leuthner, Birgitta; Zenke, Frank

    2017-02-01

    The natural product fumagillin 1 and derivatives like TNP-470 2 or beloranib 3 bind to methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP-2) irreversibly. This enzyme is critical for protein maturation and plays a key role in angiogenesis. In this paper we describe the synthesis, MetAP-2 binding affinity and structural analysis of reversible MetAP-2 inhibitors. Optimization of enzymatic activity of screening hit 10 (IC50: 1μM) led to the most potent compound 27 (IC50: 0.038μM), with a concomitant improvement in LLE from 2.1 to 4.2. Structural analysis of these MetAP-2 inhibitors revealed an unprecedented conformation of the His339 side-chain imidazole ring being co-planar sandwiched between the imidazole of His331 and the aryl-ether moiety, which is bound to the purine scaffold. Systematic alteration and reduction of H-bonding capability of this metal binding moiety induced an unexpected 180° flip for the triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimdine bicyclic template.

  4. Analytical method for the determination and a survey of parabens and their derivatives in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María-Teresa; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-01

    Exposure of humans to parabens is a concern due to the estrogenic activity of these compounds. Parabens are widely used as preservatives in some personal care products, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals owing to their low cost, high water solubility and broad spectrum antimicrobial properties. Despite this, little is known on the occurrence of parabens in pharmaceutical products. In this study, a method based on solid-liquid or liquid-liquid extraction (SLE or LLE), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ or MS/MS) was developed for the determination of six most frequently used parabens and four paraben derivatives (methyl- and ethyl-protocatechuates, and mono- and di-hydroxybenzoic acids) in pharmaceuticals. A sample-purification step involving solid phase extraction (SPE) was optimized for the analysis of solid and lipid-rich pharmaceuticals. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the occurrence of parabens in pharmaceuticals. The developed method was applied for the analysis of 128 liquid/syrup, cream, solid, prescription or over-the counter (OTC) drugs collected from the USA and a few other countries in Europe and Asia. Although majority of the drugs analyzed in the study did not contain parabens, concentrations as high as 2 mg/g were found in some drugs. Methyl- and propyl- parabens were the frequently detected compounds. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the major metabolite found in pharmaceutical products.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dixella sp. (Diptera: Nematocera, Dixidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Zehui; Li, Xuankun; Yang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the family Dixidae is reported. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dixella sp. is a circular molecule of 15,574 bp in length, containing all 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (srRNA and lrRNA), and a long control region. Its gene arrangement is conserved with the ancestral gene order of Drosophila yakuba, which is considered to exhibit the ground pattern of Hexapoda mitochondrial genome. Most PCGs start with standard ATN codons, while COI uses CCG, ND1 uses TTG and ND5 uses GTG as start codons. All PCGs terminate in the common stop codons TAA, except for COII and ND5 which end with a single thymine stop codon. There is a 703 bp of the control region, located between srRNA and tRNA(lle)-tRNA(Gln)-tRNA(Met) (IQM) cluster, without conserved blocks or long tandem repeats.

  6. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  7. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) as an alternative general method for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed.

    PubMed

    Pihlström, Tuija; Isaac, Giorgis; Waldebäck, Monica; Osterdahl, Bengt-Göran; Markides, Karin E

    2002-04-01

    A pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) multi-method has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed. The method was validated for 25 different pesticides and metabolites. The reliability and efficiency of PFE for extracting pesticide residues from rape seed was investigated. The traditional extraction solvent, hexane saturated with acetonitrile, was used at elevated temperature and pressure. With increased temperature, the extraction kinetics were improved but at the same time more co-extractives were obtained in the form of lipids. When 1 g of rape seed was extracted at temperatures from 60 degrees C to 150 degrees C, the lipid content extracted was found to be as high as 17-26%. An additional clean-up step was therefore required and lipid co-extractives were effectively removed by gel permeation chromatography. The interpretation of the chromatograms and the quantification of the results were satisfactorily improved by the removal of interfering lipids. The developed method was used to extract vinclozolin and iprodione from incurred samples, resulting in a concentration in accordance with the results using conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) between hexane and acetonitrile and also supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide. The results of the present study suggest that PEE is a good alternative extraction technique for the determination of pesticide residues in oil seed. Despite the necessity for a lipid-removal clean-up step, the PFE technique facilitated the extraction process by faster extractions and the possibility of automated analysis.

  8. Analytical methods for the assessment of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure during human fetal and lactation stages: a review.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Vela-Soria, F; Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2015-09-10

    In the present work, a review of the analytical methods developed in the last 15 years for the determination of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in human samples related with children, including placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, maternal blood, maternal urine and breast milk, is proposed. Children are highly vulnerable to toxic chemicals in the environment. Among these environmental contaminants to which children are at risk of exposure are EDCs -substances able to alter the normal hormone function of wildlife and humans-. The work focuses mainly on sample preparation and instrumental techniques used for the detection and quantification of the analytes. The sample preparation techniques include, not only liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE), but also modern microextraction techniques such as extraction with molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) or ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), which are becoming alternatives in the analysis of human samples. Most studies focus on minimizing the number of steps and using the lowest solvent amounts in the sample treatment. The usual instrumental techniques employed include liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC) mainly coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiresidue methods are being developed for the determination of several families of EDCs with one extraction step and limited sample preparation.

  9. Design of Protease Activated Optical Contrast Agents That Exploit a Latent Lysosomotropic Effect for Use in Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for new molecular-guided contrast agents to enhance surgical procedures such as tumor resection that require a high degree of precision. Cysteine cathepsins are highly up-regulated in a wide variety of cancers, both in tumor cells and in the tumor-supporting cells of the surrounding stroma. Therefore, tools that can be used to dynamically monitor their activity in vivo could be used as imaging contrast agents for intraoperative fluorescence image guided surgery (FGS). Although multiple classes of cathepsin-targeted substrate probes have been reported, most suffer from overall fast clearance from sites of protease activation, leading to reduced signal intensity and duration in vivo. Here we describe the design and synthesis of a series of near-infrared fluorogenic probes that exploit a latent cationic lysosomotropic effect (LLE) to promote cellular retention upon protease activation. These probes show tumor-specific retention, fast activation kinetics, and rapid systemic distribution. We demonstrate that they are suitable for detection of diverse cancer types including breast, colon and lung tumors. Most importantly, the agents are compatible with the existing, FDA approved, da Vinci surgical system for fluorescence guided tumor resection. Therefore, our data suggest that the probes reported here can be used with existing clinical instrumentation to detect tumors and potentially other types of inflammatory lesions to guide surgical decision making in real time. PMID:26039341

  10. Phase equilibria study in binary systems (tetra-n-butylphosphonium tosylate ionic liquid + 1-alcohol, or benzene, or n-alkylbenzene).

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Paduszyński, Kamil

    2008-09-04

    Ambient pressure (solid + liquid) equilibria (SLE) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria (LLE) of binary systems--ionic liquid (IL) tetra- n-butylphosphonium p-toluenesulfonate + 1-alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol, or 1-dodecanol), benzene, or n-alkylbenzene (toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene)-have been determined by using dynamic method in a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from 250 to 335 K. For binaries containing alcohol, simple eutectic diagrams were observed with complete miscibility in the liquid phase. Only in the case of system [IL + n-propylbenzene] was mutual immiscibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) with low solubility of the IL in the alcohol and high solubility of the alcohol in the IL detected. The basic thermal properties of pure IL, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures as well as enthalpy of melting, have been measured with differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Well-known UNIQUAC, Wilson, NRTL, NRTL1, and NRTL2 equations have been fitted to obtain experimental data sets. For the system containing immiscibility gap [IL + n-propylbenzene], parameters of the equations have been derived only from SLE data. As a measure of goodness of correlations, root-mean square deviations of temperature have been used. These experimental results were compared to the previously measured binary systems with tetra- n-butylphosphonium methanesulfonate. Changing anion from methanesulfonate to p-toluenesulfonate decreases solubilities in systems with alcohols and increases the solubilities in binary systems with benzene and alkylbenzenes.

  11. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, C. E.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Birkel, A.; Kabadi, N. V.; Lahmann, B.; Milanese, L. M.; Simpson, R. A.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G. D.; Wink, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2016-10-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, DT and DD neutron sources, and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The accelerator generates DD and D3He fusion products through the acceleration of D+ ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Accurately characterized fusion product rates of around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved. The DT and DD neutron sources generate up to 6x108, and 1x107 neutrons/s, respectively. One x-ray generator is a thick-target W source with a peak energy of 225 keV and a maximum dose rate of 12 Gy/min; the other uses Cu, Mo, or Ti elemental tubes to generate x-rays with a maximum energy of 40 keV. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39-based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a valuable hands-on tool for graduate and undergraduate education at MIT. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DoE, SNL, LLE and LLNL.

  12. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for education and advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Han, H. W.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Orozco, D.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, a D-T neutron source and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The ion accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products through acceleration of D ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved, and fluence and energy of the fusion products have been accurately characterized. The D-T neutron source generates up to 6 × 108 neutrons/s. The two x-ray generators produce spectra with peak energies of 35 keV and 225 keV and maximum dose rates of 0.5 Gy/min and 12 Gy/min, respectively. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  13. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J. ); Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D. )

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D[sub 2] or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility.

  14. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J.; Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D{sub 2} or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility.

  15. On-Line Organic Solvent Field Enhanced Sample Injection in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Analysis of Quetiapine in Beagle Dog Plasma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuqing; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2016-01-21

    A rapid and sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with field enhanced sample injection (FESI) was developed and validated for the determination of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma, with a sample pretreatment by LLE in 96-well deep format plate. The optimum separation was carried out in an uncoated 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 13 kV. The electrophoretic analysis was performed by 50 mM phosphate at pH 2.5. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Under these optimized conditions, FESI with acetonitrile enhanced the sensitivity of quetiapine about 40-50 folds in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery. Using mirtazapine as an internal standard (100 ng/mL), the response of quetiapine was linear over the range of 1-1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions for the assay were within 4.8% and 12.7%, respectively. The method represents the first application of FESI-CZE to the analysis of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma after oral administration.

  16. Measurements Of Stellar And Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis Reactions Using Inertially-Confined Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Alex; Herrmann, Hans; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Kim, Yongho; Frenje, Johan; Hale, Gerry; Li, Chikang; Rubery, Mike; Paris, Mark; Bacher, Andy; Brune, Carl; Forrest, Chad; Glebov, Vladimir; Janezic, Roger; McNabb, Dennis; Nikroo, Abbas; Pino, Jesse; Sangster, Craig; Seguin, Fredrick; Sio, Hong; Stoeckl, Christian; Petrasso, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The 3He+ 3He, T+3He, and p+D reactions directly relevant to either Stellar or Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) have been studied at the OMEGA laser facility using inertially-confined plasmas, created using shock-driven `exploding pusher' implosions. These plasmas better mimic astrophysical systems than cold-target accelerator experiments. A new measured S-factor for the T(3He, γ)6Li reaction rules out an anomalously-high 6Li production during the Big Bang as an explanation to the high observed values in metal poor first generation stars. Our value is also inconsistent with values used in previous BBN calculations. Proton spectra from the 3He+3He and T+3He reactions are used to constrain nuclear R-matrix modeling, and recent experiments have probed the p+D reaction for the first time in a plasma. This work was partially supported by the LDRD program at LANL, US DOE, NLUF, LLE, and GA.

  17. β-Cyclodextrin enhanced on-line organic solvent field-amplified sample stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis for analysis of ambroxol in human plasma, following liquid-liquid extraction in the 96-well format.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Bi, Youwei; Wang, Li; Sun, Fanlu; Chen, Zhao; Xu, Guili; Fan, Guorong

    2012-07-01

    A field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method is described for the quantification of ambroxol hydrochloride in human plasma, following liquid-liquid extraction in the 96-well format. The separation was carried out at 25 °C in a 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 15 kV. The background electrolyte (BGE) was composed of 6.25 mM borate-25 mM phosphate (pH 3.0) and 1mM β-cyclodextrin. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Clean-up and preconcentration of plasma biosamples were developed by 96-well format liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). In this study, FASS in combination with β-cyclodextrin enhanced the sensitivity about 60-70 fold in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery and robustness. The calibration graph was linear for ambroxol hydrochloride from 2 to 500 ng/ml. The lower limit of quantification was 2 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day precisions of lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ) were 9.61 and 11.80%, respectively. The method developed was successfully applied to the evaluation of clinical pharmacokinetic study of ambroxol hydrochloride tablet after oral administration to 12 healthy volunteers.

  18. Critical comparison of extraction procedures for the capillary electrophoretic analysis of opiates in hair.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Elizabete C; da Silva, Clóvis L; Gauchée, Magnólia L N; Tavares, Marina F M

    2003-01-01

    This work presents a comparative evaluation of extraction procedures for the capillary analysis of seven opiates (meperidine, morphine, naloxone, tramadol, fentanyl, sufentanyl, and alfentanyl) in human hair. Pieces of hair (50-150 mg) were subjected to acidic hydrolysis (0.25 mmol L(-1) HCl at 45 degrees C, overnight) followed by pH adjustment and either liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) in hexane, petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate solvents, or solid-phase extraction (SPE) in octadecyl, cyanopropyl, and aminopropyl bonded silica and cation exchange polymeric phases. Excellent recoveries of approximately 70% (naloxone and fentanyl and its analogues), 88% (meperidine), and ca. 100% (morphine and tramadol) were obtained using SPE in a M-fixed-mode cation exchange reversed-phase cartridge (Oasis MCX LP, Waters Corp., Milford, MA, U.S.A.), making this type of procedure eligible for novel clinical and forensic methodologies for hair analysis. The utility of the proposed extraction technique was demonstrated by the analysis of hair extracts from patients using morphine as part of their pain management protocol.

  19. Alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells correlate with metastatic potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Willey, J. C.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced lung cancer are not known. In the present study, alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by a single low dose of either alpha-particles or 1 GeV/nucleon (56)Fe were analyzed by PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing analysis and immunoprecipitation assay. A total of nine primary and four secondary tumor cell lines, three of which were metastatic, together with the parental BEP2D and primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were studied. The immunoprecipitation assay showed overexpression of mutant p53 proteins in all the tumor lines but not in NHBE and BEP2D cells. PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis found band shifts and gene mutations in all four of the secondary tumors. A G-->T transversion in codon 139 in exon 5 that replaced Lys with Asn was detected in two tumor lines. One mutation each, involving a G-->T transversion in codon 215 in exon 6 (Ser-->lle) and a G-->A transition in codon 373 in exon 8 (Arg-->His), was identified in the remaining two secondary tumors. These results suggest that p53 alterations correlate with tumorigenesis in the BEP2D cell model and that mutations in the p53 gene may be indicative of metastatic potential.

  20. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC.

    PubMed

    Klavž, Janez; Gorenjak, Maksimiljan; Marinšek, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We report on a case of intoxication with a mix of new psychoactive substances. A 38-year-old male was brought to the emergency department (ED) following the ingestion of an unknown drug in a suicide attempt. During the transport, he became progressively more somnolent and unresponsive to painful stimuli. Urine and stomach content were collected on admission to be screened for drugs of abuse and medicinal drugs. After admission, the patient's next of kin presented five small grip seal plastic bags containing different powders/crystals, and they were sent for analysis along with urine and stomach content to the toxicology laboratory. An easy and rapid sample preparation technique was applied for the extraction of urine and stomach content. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A small amount of powder material from the bags was diluted in methanol and injected directly into the GC-MS instrument. Obtained spectra (EI) were evaluated against SWGDRUG library. Five different designer drugs were identified in the powder material, including synthetic cannabinoids (AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA) and synthetic cathinones (alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC). With the exception of 4-CMC, all of these substances were also detected in the stomach content along with the prescription drugs. This is the first time that a positive identification of these five drugs has been made by a clinical laboratory in Slovenia.