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Sample records for leis jim crow

  1. Reporting on the Holocaust: the view from Jim Crow Alabama.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Dan J

    2011-01-01

    The press in Alabama covered major events taking place in Germany from the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in 1933 through the Nuremberg Trials in 1946. Journalists in the state provided extensive coverage, and editors did not hesitate to opine on the persecution of the Jews in Europe. Yet, Alabama’s white-run press failed in the end to explain the events as a singularly Jewish tragedy. The state’s black-run press, for its part, used the news of the mass killings of the Jews to warn against the dangers of conceptions of racial superiority—a primary concern for black southerners living in the Jim Crow South.

  2. Reporting on the Holocaust: the view from Jim Crow Alabama.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Dan J

    2011-01-01

    The press in Alabama covered major events taking place in Germany from the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in 1933 through the Nuremberg Trials in 1946. Journalists in the state provided extensive coverage, and editors did not hesitate to opine on the persecution of the Jews in Europe. Yet, Alabama’s white-run press failed in the end to explain the events as a singularly Jewish tragedy. The state’s black-run press, for its part, used the news of the mass killings of the Jews to warn against the dangers of conceptions of racial superiority—a primary concern for black southerners living in the Jim Crow South. PMID:22073444

  3. Segregation as Splitting, Segregation as Joining: Schools, Housing, and the Many Modes of Jim Crow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highsmith, Andrew R.; Erickson, Ansley T.

    2015-01-01

    Popular understandings of segregation often emphasize the Jim Crow South before the 1954 "Brown" decision and, in many instances, explain continued segregation in schooling as the result of segregated housing patterns. The case of Flint, Michigan, complicates these views, at once illustrating the depth of governmental commitment to…

  4. What Jim Crow's Teachers Could Do: Educational Capital and Teachers' Work in Under-Resourced Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Hilton

    2010-01-01

    This article explains how Jim Crow's teachers--former teachers of legally segregated schools for blacks--prepared and motivated disadvantaged students in spite of funding and resource deprivation. According to the author, black teachers fashioned situated pedagogies for the acquisition of educational capital that could be used in exchange for…

  5. A Bus Ride across the Mason-Dixon Line during Jim Crow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In this classroom simulation, students travel back in time to 1945, when racism was institutionalized in many states through segregation. Though students cannot literally travel back to the Jim Crow era, teachers can create a situation that brings home the point of injustice and the choices individuals are faced with in such situations. Suddenly,…

  6. Tourism and the Hispanicization of race in Jim Crow Miami, 1945-1965.

    PubMed

    Rose, Chanelle N

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how Miami's significant presence of Anglo Caribbean blacks and Spanish-speaking tourists critically influenced the evolution of race relations before and after the watershed 1959 Cuban Revolution. The convergence of people from the American South and North, the Caribbean, and Latin America created a border culture in a city where the influx of Bahamian blacks and Spanish-speakers, especially tourists, had begun to alter the racial landscape. To be sure, Miami had many parallels with other parts of the South in regard to how blackness was understood and enforced by whites during the first half of the twentieth century. However, I argue that the city's post-WWII meteoric tourist growth, along with its emergence as a burgeoning Pan-American metropolis, complicated the traditional southern black-white dichotomy. The purchasing power of Spanish-speaking visitors during the postwar era transformed a tourist economy that had traditionally catered to primarily wealthy white transplanted Northerners. This significant change to the city's tourist industry significantly influenced white civic leaders' decision to occasionally modify Jim Crow practices for Latin American vacationers. In effect, Miami's early Latinization had a profound impact on the established racial order as speaking Spanish became a form of currency that benefited Spanish-speaking tourists—even those of African descent. Paradoxically, this ostensibly peculiar racial climate aided the local struggle by highlighting the idiosyncrasies of Jim Crow while perpetuating the second-class status of native-born blacks. PMID:22611586

  7. Tourism and the Hispanicization of race in Jim Crow Miami, 1945-1965.

    PubMed

    Rose, Chanelle N

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how Miami's significant presence of Anglo Caribbean blacks and Spanish-speaking tourists critically influenced the evolution of race relations before and after the watershed 1959 Cuban Revolution. The convergence of people from the American South and North, the Caribbean, and Latin America created a border culture in a city where the influx of Bahamian blacks and Spanish-speakers, especially tourists, had begun to alter the racial landscape. To be sure, Miami had many parallels with other parts of the South in regard to how blackness was understood and enforced by whites during the first half of the twentieth century. However, I argue that the city's post-WWII meteoric tourist growth, along with its emergence as a burgeoning Pan-American metropolis, complicated the traditional southern black-white dichotomy. The purchasing power of Spanish-speaking visitors during the postwar era transformed a tourist economy that had traditionally catered to primarily wealthy white transplanted Northerners. This significant change to the city's tourist industry significantly influenced white civic leaders' decision to occasionally modify Jim Crow practices for Latin American vacationers. In effect, Miami's early Latinization had a profound impact on the established racial order as speaking Spanish became a form of currency that benefited Spanish-speaking tourists—even those of African descent. Paradoxically, this ostensibly peculiar racial climate aided the local struggle by highlighting the idiosyncrasies of Jim Crow while perpetuating the second-class status of native-born blacks.

  8. Gentrifying Water and Selling Jim Crow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brett

    2002-01-01

    Explores the gentrification of Washington, D.C.'s Anacostia watershed, tracing the projects of federal and local government to devitalize and demolish living black relationships and institutions while reifying lost, invented, or imagined communities. Explores connections among capital, community, culture, and state power. Examines problems in the…

  9. Jim Crow's Children: The Broken Promise of the Brown Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Peter

    This book explores the 150-year struggle against segregated education, showing how victory over segregation was gained, then lost. It provides court testimonials from 1849, through the victory of NAACP lawyers in Brown v. Board of Education, to the erosion of that decision in recent Supreme Court rulings. The story reveals that this long battle…

  10. In Conversation with Jim Blair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Jim Blair is the only consultant nurse working with people with learning disabilities in the country. His job helps make people better and saves money. This article shares a conversation with Jim Blair. In the conversation, Blair says he is unhappy Valuing People programme did not do as much as it could have done. Jim is worried all the changes,…

  11. Jim Dine-Inspired Valentines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, April

    2011-01-01

    Jim Dine was born in 1935 in Cincinnati. He earned a BFA from Ohio University in 1957 and then moved to New York in 1959, where he fell in with a group of artists that included Claes Oldenburg. Dine is best known as a Pop innovator, whose paintings, sculptures, and prints were layered with everyday objects, including ties, tools, and even a…

  12. An Interview with Jim Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Brad

    2006-01-01

    Jim Black is president of SEM WORKS, one of the leading higher education consulting firms in the area of enrollment management. Dr. Black has delivered keynote addresses and conducted training workshops for business leaders and educators worldwide. His areas of expertise include leadership, organizational change, customer service, strategic…

  13. Jim and Dave: A Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doud, Robert E.

    This is a fictional dialogue intended to honor Jim Kingman and David Leary, both professors of history who retired after long careers at Pasadena City College in California (PCC). The dialogue hypothesizes the observations of both men as they look on the honorary gold plates of previous retirees that decorate the wall of a PCC public dining hall.…

  14. Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written by history students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, this issue includes two articles relevant to East Texas history. "Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin," (Moss Heaton and others) is a summary of material presented by Professor James Corbin about the early Spanish presence in East Texas. The first attempt at setting up a mission was in 1690…

  15. Jim Thomas, 1946-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Maureen; Kasik, David; Bailey, Mike; van Dam, Andy; Dill, John; Rhyne, Theresa-Marie; Foley, Jim; Encarnacao, L. M.; Rosenblum, Larry; Earnshaw, Rae; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Wong, Pak C.; Encarnacao, Jose; Fellner, Dieter; Urban, Bodo

    2010-11-01

    Jim Thomas, a visionary scientist and inspirational leader, died on 6 August 2010 in Richland, Washington. His impact on the fields of computer graphics, user interface software, and visualization was extraordinary, his ability to personally change people’s lives even more so. He is remembered for his enthusiasm, his mentorship, his generosity, and, most of all, his laughter. This collection of remembrances images him through the eyes of his many friends.

  16. Blood parasites of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and fish crows (Corvus ossifragus) in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Forrester, Donald J.

    2002-01-01

    Blood films from 46 fish crows (Corvus ossifragus Wilson) and 42 American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm) from Florida, U.S.A., were examined for blood parasites. Haemoproteus picae Coatney and Roudabush, Haemoproteus danilewskii Kruse, Trypanosoma avium (Danilewsky), and microfilariae of an unidentified filarioid were identified from both species of crows. An unidentified species of Haemoproteus and Trypanosoma ontarioensis Woo and Bartlett were observed in American crow blood films. Fish crow blood films contained Plasmodium relictum Celli and Sanfelice. Prior to this study, T. avium and P. relictum had not been reported from fish crows.

  17. Jim. L'historie de Jim Caron jeune homme racontee par lui-meme (Jim. The Story of Jim Caron as a Young Man Told by Himself).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Julien

    This illustrated account of an interview with Jim Caron, a 101 year-old Franco-American resident of New Hampshire, is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. The narrative is divided into ten chapters and is written in the style of the spoken French dialect of Quebec and New England. In addition to details on the long life of Jim it…

  18. Race, Remembering, and Jim Crow's Teachers. Studies in African American History and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    This book explores a profoundly negative narrative about legally segregated schools in the United States being "inherently inferior" compared to their white counterparts. However, there are overwhelmingly positive counter-memories of these schools as "good and valued" among former students, teachers, and community members. Using interview data…

  19. The discovery of southern childhoods: psychology and the transformation of schooling in the Jim Crow South.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anne C

    2007-08-01

    Although the psychology of race in America has been the subject of significant research, psychological science in the principal region of racial interaction before Brown v. Board of Education-the South--has received little attention. This article argues that the introduction of psychological ideas about children by means of school reform in the South during the half-century before the Brown decision established a cultural foundation for both Black resistance to segregated schools and White determination to preserve them. In 1900, southern children and their schools were an afterthought in a culture more committed to tradition and racial stability than innovation and individual achievement. The advent of northern philanthropy, however, brought with it a new psychology of childhood. Although the reformers did not intend to subvert segregation, their premises downplayed natural endowment, including racial inheritance, and favored concepts highlighting nurture: that personality is developmental, childhood foundational, and adversity detrimental. Decades of discussion of children in their learning environment gave southern Blacks a rationale for protest and Whites a logical defense for conservative reaction. PMID:18175614

  20. Foul Lines: Teaching Race in Jim Crow America through Baseball History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laliberte, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Far more than just recreation, baseball offers social, cultural, and political insights into history. For teachers, the goals of this article are threefold. First, this narrative is designed to provide the introductory content knowledge needed to develop a colorful lecture, structure a spirited discussion, or create a student project on the topic.…

  1. Jim Crow, Uncle Sam, and the Formation of the Tuskegee Flying Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percy, William

    1999-01-01

    Delivers background information on the political origins and confrontations surrounding the "Tuskegee Experiment." States that the success of the Tuskegee pilots, in their role as strategic escort for the Fifteenth Air Force, paved the way for the overall desegregation of U.S. armed forces. Provides teaching ideas along with two historical…

  2. Fulfilling the Promise: African American Educators Teach for Democracy in Jim Crow's South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston-Grimes, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    America's civic community from the end of the Great Depression through the post World War II years was hardly rational or racially neutral in its uneven and unequal treatment of African Americans and other underrepresented groups. Conventional civic scholarship of the era has ignored the complexities of a racially segregated society that in theory…

  3. Fair and Tender Ladies versus Jim Crow: The Politics of Co-Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    In the current vernacular, co-education means the education of the sexes together within an institutional setting. Once a phenomenon, today, women enjoy nearly equal status on campuses that were at one time bastions of "maleness." Moreover, the counter-culture revolution of the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, ushered in a new dimension of…

  4. NEGRO BOYCOTTS OF JIM CROW SCHOOLS IN THE NORTH, 1897-1925.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MEIER, AUGUST; RUDWICK, ELLIOTT

    THIS ARTICLE PRESENTS A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF NEGRO SCHOOL BOYCOTTS FROM 1897 TO 1925 IN ALTON, ILL., EAST ORANGE, N.J., AND SPRINGFIELD AND DAYTON, OHIO, WHERE ATTEMPTS WERE MADE TO INTRODUCE RACIALLY SEPARATE SCHOOLS. THE REVIEW DESCRIBES THE PROTEST MOVEMENT AND THE VICISSITUDES OF THE INTEGRATION ATTEMPTS IN EACH CITY. ALL THE NEGRO PROTEST…

  5. Jim Thomas: A Collection of Memories

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.

    2010-12-01

    Jim Thomas, a guest editor and a long-time associate editor of Information Visualization (IVS), died in Richland, WA, on August 6, 2010 due to complications from a brain tumor. His friends and colleagues from around the world have since expressed their sadness and paid tribute to a visionary scientist in multiple public forums. For those who didn't get the chance to know Jim, I share a collection of my own memories of Jim Thomas and memories from some of his colleagues.

  6. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training.

  7. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. PMID:25532894

  8. Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

  9. Comparative phylogeography of two crow species: jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos and carrion crow Corvus corone.

    PubMed

    Kryukov, Alexey; Spiridonova, Liudmila; Nakamura, Sumio; Haring, Elisabeth; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    The jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827, and the carrion crow Corvus corone L., 1758, are two closely related species with similar ecological requirements that occupy wide distribution ranges in the Palearctic. We studied patterns of their genetic variation by using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Corvus macrorhynchos demonstrates a low level of variation and differentiation throughout its range, except for a highly diverged population of Cheju Island (Korea). The haplotype network shows two haplogroups. The island group comprises populations of Sakhalin, Hokkaido, Honshu, and Kyushu, while the haplotypes of Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands proved to be closer to the mainland group, which also includes populations from the Primorye, Khabarovsk, Amur, and Magadan regions in the Russian Far East. This pattern allowed us to develop a phylogeographic hypothesis regarding the two modes of settling of the island populations. Concerning C. corone, the presence of two distinct haplogroups was confirmed within the range of C. c. orientalis. Both haplogroups are found within the same populations in Kamchatka and North Sakhalin, which implies secondary contacts there. Populations of C. corone are found to be rather stable in the western parts of its range, while in the Far East populations experienced recent growth, as was observed for C. macrorhynchos in general. The two species appear to have passed through different evolutionary scenarios.

  10. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  11. CROW for large scale macromolecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Hodoscek, Milan; Borstnik, Urban; Janezic, Dusanka

    2002-01-01

    CROW (Columns and Rows Of Workstations - http://www.sicmm.org/crow/) is a parallel computer cluster based on the Beowulf (http://www.beowulf.org/) idea, modified to support a larger number of processors. Its architecture is based on point-to-point network architecture, which does not require the use of any network switching equipment in the system. Thus, the cost is lower, and there is no degradation in network performance even for a larger number of processors.

  12. Neospora caninum in crows from Israel.

    PubMed

    Salant, H; Mazuz, M L; Savitsky, I; Nasereddin, A; Blinder, E; Baneth, G

    2015-09-15

    A cross-sectional Neospora caninum seroprevalence study was performed on free ranging crows (Corvus cornix, Corvus monedula and Corvus splendens) from Israel in order to assess their exposure to this pathogen and evaluate their role as potential hosts or as sentinels of infection. Using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff titer of 1:100, 30 out of 183 crows (16.4%) were found to be N. caninum seropositive. Positive results were validated and confirmed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). There was 100% agreement between tests when cut-off titers of 1:50 and 1:100 were applied for the IFAT and MAT, respectively. PCR analysis of brain extracts from all crows resulted in the detection of N. caninum DNA for the first time in crows belonging to two species, C. cornix and C. monedula. The high N. caninum seroprevalence in crows suggests that widespread exposure to infection with N. caninum exists especially in central and northern Israel and that crows may act as suitable markers for disease prevalence in the areas in which they are found. PMID:26359640

  13. 25 CFR 162.600 - Crow Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... appropriate notice of such action shall be made a matter of record. When this prerogative is exercised, the... five or ten years authorized by law. (c) All leases entered into by Crow Indians classified as... least as frequent as those provided by law. If lessees are able to obtain new leases long before...

  14. The human biology of Jim Tanner.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Noël

    2012-09-01

    In 1940, during his second year of medical training, Jim Tanner expressed the desire to work, 'where physiology, psychology and sociology meet'. His subsequent exposure to the breadth of an American medical education and to the social and economic environment of post-war Europe distilled his belief in the importance of viewing the human in a broad context. Following his visits to the American longitudinal growth studies in 1948. Jim's dreams of a broad scientific discipline that incorporated both the biology and ecology of the human were strengthened by an inspirational group of embryonic human biologists with whom he developed '… the new Human Biology …' from the '… Physical Anthropology of old…'. With Jo Weiner, Derek Roberts, Geoffrey Harrison, Arthur Mourant, Nigel Barnicot and Kenneth Oakley, Jim was to form the Society for the Study of Human Biology in 1958. The development of human biology over the next 50 years was shaped by the expertise and diversity of that group of visionary scientists who conceived the scientific discipline of 'human biology' in which biology, behaviour and social context define the human species.

  15. Jim Pollack's Contributions to Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Jim Pollack was an extraordinary scientist. Since receiving his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1965, he published hundreds of papers in scientific journals, encyclopedias, popular magazines, and books. The sheer volume of this kind of productivity is impressive enough, but when considering the diversity and detail of his work, these accomplishments seem almost superhuman. Jim studied and wrote about every planet in the solar system. For, this he was perhaps the most distinguished planetary scientist of his generation. He successfully identified the composition of Saturn's rings and Venus's clouds. With his collaborators, he created the first detailed models for the formation of the outer planets, and the general circulation of the Martian atmosphere. His interest in Mars dust storms provided a foundation for the "nuclear winter" theory that ultimately helped shape foreign policy in the cold war era. Jim's creative talents brought him many awards including the Kuiper Award of the Division of Planetary Sciences, the Leo Szilard Award of the American Physical Society, H. Julian Allen award of the Ames Research Center, and several NASA medals for exceptional scientific achievement.

  16. The human biology of Jim Tanner.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Noël

    2012-09-01

    In 1940, during his second year of medical training, Jim Tanner expressed the desire to work, 'where physiology, psychology and sociology meet'. His subsequent exposure to the breadth of an American medical education and to the social and economic environment of post-war Europe distilled his belief in the importance of viewing the human in a broad context. Following his visits to the American longitudinal growth studies in 1948. Jim's dreams of a broad scientific discipline that incorporated both the biology and ecology of the human were strengthened by an inspirational group of embryonic human biologists with whom he developed '… the new Human Biology …' from the '… Physical Anthropology of old…'. With Jo Weiner, Derek Roberts, Geoffrey Harrison, Arthur Mourant, Nigel Barnicot and Kenneth Oakley, Jim was to form the Society for the Study of Human Biology in 1958. The development of human biology over the next 50 years was shaped by the expertise and diversity of that group of visionary scientists who conceived the scientific discipline of 'human biology' in which biology, behaviour and social context define the human species. PMID:22746976

  17. Proposed rate increase -- Jim Woodruff Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Jim Woodruff Project consists of three 10,000 kw hydroelectric power units located on the Apalachicola River 0.2 miles below the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers where the reservoir crosses the Georgia-Florida state line. Overload capability allows the Government to sell 36,000 kw of capacity and associated energy to six Preference Customers in the Florida Power Corporation service area. A Preference Customer is defined as an electric cooperative or a public body having its own distribution system and marketing power at retail to its constituents. Any surplus energy in excess of Preference Customer commitments is marketed to Florida Power Corporation. In accordance with the Flood Control Act of 1944, the Southeastern Power Administration (Southeastern) is required to charge rates sufficient to recover costs expended by the US Treasury in the construction, maintenance and operation of hydroelectric power projects, together with applicable interest charges. Rate studies indicate that the current rates charged for electricity produced at the Jim Woodruff Project and sold to the Preference Customers and/or the Florida Power Corporation is not meeting this requirement. The proposed rate increase would increase the cost of electricity to the Preference Customers and Ultimate Consumers. However, the increase would still be significantly less expensive than electricity purchased from alternate sources and, therefore, there is no economic inducement for purchasers to seek other sources of power that could result in environmental impacts. Finally, in implementing the proposed rate increase, no generation or transmission facility changes at the Jim Woodruff Project are required which could affect the environment.

  18. Jim Walter Resources installs new overland conveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-12-15

    Embarking on a major expansion plan, the company is constructing a new additional overland conveyor coal to a recently refurbished prep plant. Jim Walter Resources recently invested $20 million in a new 5-mile overland conveyor system to haul coal from the No.7 deep coal mine in Alabama to the No.5 coal preparation plant. The size of the No.7 mine was effectively doubled. The article describes how this expansion move was decided upon and describes the design and installation of the new conveyor which spans approximately 5 miles. 4 photos.

  19. Development of the CROW{trademark} process

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The Contained Recovery of Oily Waste (CROW{trademark}) technology has been successfully tested in the laboratory and presently is being implemented at field sites contaminated with wood treating wastes and byproducts of town gas production. These field demonstrations will utilize only hot-water displacement without any chemical additives because the use of chemicals to enhance the hot-water flushing process has only been tested on a preliminary basis. Preliminary testing has shown that low concentrations of chemicals could reduce the contaminant content by an additional 10 to 20 wt %. Western Research Institute (WRI) research, plus research at Carnegie Mellon University, on surfactant enhancement of solubility of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water and water-soil systems indicate the potential of chemical enhancement of the CROW process. Chemicals that have been tested and that were used in these tests are totally biodegradable. The objective of this task was to obtain sufficient baseline data to show the effectiveness and environmentally safe use of chemicals, primarily surfactants, to enhance the CROW process. To meet this objective, 14 one-dimensional displacement tests were conducted. Eleven tests were conducted on a material from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site and four tests were conducted with a contaminated soil from a former wood treatment facility. The tests investigated the effect of three chemical concentrations (0, 0.5, and 1.0 vol %) at three temperatures (ambient, the projected optimum temperature, and one 40{degree}F [22{degree}C] below the optimum temperature).

  20. STS-113 Crew Interviews: Jim Wetherbee, Commander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-113 Commander Jim Wetherbee is seen during this preflight interview where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Wetherbee outlines his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 6 crew in place of the Expedition 5 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)) and what the importance of the primary payload (the P1 truss) will be. He also provides a detailed account of the three planned extravehicular activities (EVAs) and additional transfer duties. He ends by offering his thoughts on the success of the ISS as the second anniversary of continuous human occupation of the ISS approaches.

  1. 50 CFR 20.133 - Hunting regulations for crows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prescribe a hunting season for crows. Such State statutes or regulations may set forth the method of taking, the bag and possession limits, the dates and duration of the hunting season, and such other... not be hunted from aircraft; (2) The hunting season or seasons on crows shall not exceed a total...

  2. 50 CFR 20.133 - Hunting regulations for crows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prescribe a hunting season for crows. Such State statutes or regulations may set forth the method of taking, the bag and possession limits, the dates and duration of the hunting season, and such other... not be hunted from aircraft; (2) The hunting season or seasons on crows shall not exceed a total...

  3. 50 CFR 20.133 - Hunting regulations for crows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prescribe a hunting season for crows. Such State statutes or regulations may set forth the method of taking, the bag and possession limits, the dates and duration of the hunting season, and such other... not be hunted from aircraft; (2) The hunting season or seasons on crows shall not exceed a total...

  4. Beak deformities in Northwestern Crows: evidence of a multispecies epizootic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, Caroline; Handel, Colleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Beak abnormalities are rare among adult birds and, typically, are not widespread in a given population, within a region, or across multiple species. A high concentration of beak deformities was recently documented in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and other resident avian species in Alaska. We describe a parallel condition in Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus) that signals the emergence of a multispecies epizootic. On the basis of 186 Northwestern Crows captured at six sites in Alaska during 2007 and 2008, we estimated the prevalence of beak deformities in adults to be 16.9 ± 5.3%, the highest rate of gross deformities ever recorded in a wild bird population. Prevalence varied among sites and was as high as 36% on the Kenai Peninsula, which suggests possible epizootic clusters. We also documented beak abnormalities in an additional 148 Northwestern Crows in south-central and southeastern Alaska and in 64 crows near Vancouver, British Columbia, and Puget Sound, Washington, a region where both Northwestern Crows and American Crows (C. brachyrhynchos) occur. The increase in frequency and distribution of crows observed with abnormal beaks throughout the Pacific Northwest since the late 1990s indicates a geographic expansion of this problem. Affected crows exhibited elongated and often crossed beaks that were morphologically similar to deformities documented in Black-capped Chickadees and other species in Alaska over approximately the same period. Additional research is needed to determine the etiology and potential adverse effects on bird populations affected by this disorder.

  5. History as Story: An Interview with Chris Crowe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesesne, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This is an interview between Teacher Librarian and Chris Crowe. Chris Crowe's first novel won the International Reading Association's Children's Book Award. He is a fellow professor of YA Literature and a past-president of the Assembly on Literature for Adolescents of the National Council of Teachers of English. Some interview questions include:…

  6. 34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE INN MUSICIANS SAT AND PLAYED FOR THE GUESTS IN THE LOBBY BELOW. THE EARTHQUAKE IN 1959 CAUSED SOME STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND NOW THE CROW'S NEST IS NOT ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  7. Germs and Jim Crow: the impact of microbiology on public health policies in progressive era American South.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Race proved not merely a disadvantage in securing access to prompt and appropriate medical care, but often became a life and death issue for blacks in the American South during the early decades of the twentieth century. This article investigates the impact some of the new academic disciplines such as anthropology, evolutionary biology, racially based pathology and genetics had in promoting scientific racism. The disproportionately high morbidity and mortality rates among blacks were seen as a consequence of inherent racial deficiencies that rendered any attempt to ameliorate their situation as futile. While the belief in a different pathology in blacks initially deterred most health officials from taking any action, advances in medicine and microbiology, in particular the germ theory, stirred a variety of responses out of sheer self preservation, as fears among whites at the first sign of an epidemic initiated sporadic and limited actions. Ironically, in an era of deepening scientific racism, public health initiatives based on a better understanding of disease causing microorganisms, gradually improved black health. However, some public health measures were hijacked by eugenicists and racists and, rather than addressing the ill health of blacks, public health policy complied with the new laws of heredity by promoting drastic measures such as involuntary sterilization or even abortion. This further complicated the strained relationship between southern blacks and health care professionals and effected ongoing distrust towards public healthcare services.

  8. Germs and Jim Crow: the impact of microbiology on public health policies in progressive era American South.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Race proved not merely a disadvantage in securing access to prompt and appropriate medical care, but often became a life and death issue for blacks in the American South during the early decades of the twentieth century. This article investigates the impact some of the new academic disciplines such as anthropology, evolutionary biology, racially based pathology and genetics had in promoting scientific racism. The disproportionately high morbidity and mortality rates among blacks were seen as a consequence of inherent racial deficiencies that rendered any attempt to ameliorate their situation as futile. While the belief in a different pathology in blacks initially deterred most health officials from taking any action, advances in medicine and microbiology, in particular the germ theory, stirred a variety of responses out of sheer self preservation, as fears among whites at the first sign of an epidemic initiated sporadic and limited actions. Ironically, in an era of deepening scientific racism, public health initiatives based on a better understanding of disease causing microorganisms, gradually improved black health. However, some public health measures were hijacked by eugenicists and racists and, rather than addressing the ill health of blacks, public health policy complied with the new laws of heredity by promoting drastic measures such as involuntary sterilization or even abortion. This further complicated the strained relationship between southern blacks and health care professionals and effected ongoing distrust towards public healthcare services. PMID:20027786

  9. From Radical Reconstruction to Jim Crow: Education, Nation-Building, and the Making of a New Racial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christi Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on recent theories of boundary processes, status and ethnicity, I investigate processes of group-making in the post-Civil War era (1865-1905) when Americans were faced with two daunting political projects: rebuilding the nation, and creating a new racial order to replace the abolished system of bond slavery. Although scholars have…

  10. The Missed Link: Fordice and Podberesky, Faculty "Remnants" of Jim Crow and Minority Fellowship Support Programs. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clague, Monique Weston

    This paper examines the link between the limited numbers of minority faculty in higher education and the availability of minority targeted scholarship programs. Two court cases are focused on: (1) U.S. & Ayers v. Fordice, a Mississippi higher education desegregation case, decided and remanded by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1992; and (2) Podberesky…

  11. The best medicine. Interview by Jim Montague.

    PubMed

    Adams, P

    1994-07-20

    Laughter can be crucial to patient care, but physician and clown Patch Adams, M.D., sees nothing funny about the greed he finds in the nation's health care system and in current reform plans. Adams has spent almost 25 years infusing practitioners with a sense of humor. This philosophy extends into his work as founder of the not-for-profit Gesundheit Institute, which is trying to build an "ultimate fantasy" hospital on 310 acres in rural West Virginia. So far, he's raised $1.1 million, built one of three main buildings, and broken ground on a second. However, millions of dollars still need to be raised. Adams sees the very notion of his dream hospital as a necessary pie in the face of the traditional health care system. Besides speaking and performing, Adams takes groups of clowns to Russia, where they perform in hospitals, orphanages, prisons and on the street. Adams has co-authored a book about his philosophies, Gesundheit, and sold the rights to a Hollywood studio. He spoke recently with staff editor Jim Montague. PMID:8025607

  12. The best medicine. Interview by Jim Montague.

    PubMed

    Adams, P

    1994-07-20

    Laughter can be crucial to patient care, but physician and clown Patch Adams, M.D., sees nothing funny about the greed he finds in the nation's health care system and in current reform plans. Adams has spent almost 25 years infusing practitioners with a sense of humor. This philosophy extends into his work as founder of the not-for-profit Gesundheit Institute, which is trying to build an "ultimate fantasy" hospital on 310 acres in rural West Virginia. So far, he's raised $1.1 million, built one of three main buildings, and broken ground on a second. However, millions of dollars still need to be raised. Adams sees the very notion of his dream hospital as a necessary pie in the face of the traditional health care system. Besides speaking and performing, Adams takes groups of clowns to Russia, where they perform in hospitals, orphanages, prisons and on the street. Adams has co-authored a book about his philosophies, Gesundheit, and sold the rights to a Hollywood studio. He spoke recently with staff editor Jim Montague.

  13. Interview of Jim Kerby about the First Beam

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Jim Kerby : Head of the US LHC Construction Project - FERMILAB employee Questions asked : 1. What does it take to start up the LHC machine? 2. What's the plan for 1st injection day? 3. How do you feel about this?

  14. Jim Tramel: radical Southerner for social justice, rip.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig; Bruskin, Gene

    2003-01-01

    Jim Tramel, who died in December 2002, spent his life working for social justice. Here, friends and colleagues remember him as a Southern radical who organized on behalf of battles against classism, racism, and sexism.

  15. 43. 253255 AUBURN AVENUE (Jim's Place; Unisex Beauty Shop) NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. 253-255 AUBURN AVENUE (Jim's Place; Unisex Beauty Shop) NORTH ELEVATION 44. --- PIEDMONT AVENUE (Pucker House) EAST ELEVATION - 126-255 Auburn Avenue (Commercial Buildings), Auburn Avenue, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  16. Jim Thorpe, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reising, Robert

    Fifty years after the death of Black Hawk, the greatest warrior of the Sac and Fox tribe, his great-great-grandson was born: Jim Thorpe, one of the greatest athletes of all time. This biography opens with Black Hawk and a brief history of the Sac and Fox Indians. Then Jim's story begins, in a simple log cabin in Oklahoma, in 1888. Even in his…

  17. Mycoplasmosis in captive crows and robins from Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Wellehan, J F; Calsamiglia, M; Ley, D H; Zens, M S; Amonsin, A; Kapur, V

    2001-07-01

    Mycoplasma sturni is a recently described organism previously associated with conjunctivitis in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata). Herein we describe the isolation of M. sturni from an American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) presenting with conjunctivitis. A nested-PCR was designed for identification of M. sturni in clinical specimens and the sensitivity of the reaction was found to be 10 colony-changing units. The organism was found in asymptomatic American crows caged with a nestmate of the crow with conjunctivitis. Mycoplasma sturni also was found in asymptomatic American robins (Turdus migratorius) and in a European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) housed at the same facility as the crows. Heterogenity of M. sturni isolates from different host species was found by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Heterogeneity also was found among M. sturni isolates recovered from American crows. We suggest that M. sturni can successfully infect American crows and American robins with or without the presence of clinical disease. Furthermore, we demonstrate that nested-PCR is an effective method for the detection of M. sturni and that substantial genetic heterogeneity exists among natural isolates of this bacterial pathogen.

  18. Transitive responding in hooded crows requires linearly ordered stimuli.

    PubMed Central

    Lazareva, Olga F; Smirnova, Anna A; Bagozkaja, Maria S; Zorina, Zoya A; Rayevsky, Vladimir V; Wasserman, Edward A

    2004-01-01

    Eight crows were taught to discriminate overlapping pairs of visual stimuli (A+ B-, B+ C-, C+ D-, and D+ E-). For 4 birds, the stimuli were colored cards with a circle of the same color on the reverse side whose diameter decreased from A to E (ordered feedback group). These circles were made available for comparison to potentially help the crows order the stimuli along a physical dimension. For the other 4 birds, the circles corresponding to the colored cards had the same diameter (constant feedback group). In later testing, a novel choice pair (BD) was presented. Reinforcement history involving stimuli B and D was controlled so that the reinforcement/nonreinforcement ratios for the latter would be greater than for the former. If, during the BD test, the crows chose between stimuli according to these reinforcement/nonreinforcement ratios, then they should prefer D; if they chose according to the diameter of the feedback stimuli, then they should prefer B. In the ordered feedback group, the crows strongly preferred B over D; in the constant feedback group, the crows' choice did not differ significantly from chance. These results, plus simulations using associative models, suggest that the orderability of the postchoice feedback stimuli is important for crows' transitive responding. PMID:15484868

  19. Cell scientist to watch - Lei Stanley Qi.

    PubMed

    Bobrowska, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Originally from China, Lei (Stanley) Qi obtained his first degree in physics and mathematics at the Tsinghua University. He then moved to University of California, Berkeley, where he graduated with an MA in physics and worked in the laboratory of Steven Chu, Noble Laureate in Physics (1997), before switching fields to pursue a PhD in bioengineering in the laboratories of Adam Arkin and Jennifer Doudna. Stanley's work earned him the National Institutes of Health Director's Early Independence Award, which allowed him to start his own laboratory at the University of California, San Francisco, as a Systems Biology Fellow without a postdoctoral training period. In 2014, he moved to Stanford, where he is now Assistant Professor at the Department of Bioengineering and of Chemical and Systems Biology, and is affiliated with Stanford Chemistry, Engineering and Medicine for Human Health (ChEM-H). He invented the use of the CRISPR-dCas9 system for transcriptional modulation and genome imaging. His current research is focused on developing new tools and technologies for genome editing and transcriptional modulation, manipulating molecular networks to understand fundamental principles of biology and engineering cells to exhibit desired behaviors, such as teaching immune cells to recognise and eliminate cancers.

  20. Cell scientist to watch - Lei Stanley Qi.

    PubMed

    Bobrowska, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Originally from China, Lei (Stanley) Qi obtained his first degree in physics and mathematics at the Tsinghua University. He then moved to University of California, Berkeley, where he graduated with an MA in physics and worked in the laboratory of Steven Chu, Noble Laureate in Physics (1997), before switching fields to pursue a PhD in bioengineering in the laboratories of Adam Arkin and Jennifer Doudna. Stanley's work earned him the National Institutes of Health Director's Early Independence Award, which allowed him to start his own laboratory at the University of California, San Francisco, as a Systems Biology Fellow without a postdoctoral training period. In 2014, he moved to Stanford, where he is now Assistant Professor at the Department of Bioengineering and of Chemical and Systems Biology, and is affiliated with Stanford Chemistry, Engineering and Medicine for Human Health (ChEM-H). He invented the use of the CRISPR-dCas9 system for transcriptional modulation and genome imaging. His current research is focused on developing new tools and technologies for genome editing and transcriptional modulation, manipulating molecular networks to understand fundamental principles of biology and engineering cells to exhibit desired behaviors, such as teaching immune cells to recognise and eliminate cancers. PMID:26773006

  1. James F. Crow and the Art of Teaching and Mentoring

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    To honor James F. Crow on the occasion of his 95th birthday, GENETICS has commissioned a series of Perspectives and Reviews. For GENETICS to publish the honorifics is fitting, as from their birth Crow and GENETICS have been paired. Crow was scheduled to be born in January 1916, the same month that the first issue of GENETICS was scheduled to appear, and in the many years that Crow has made major contributions to the conceptual foundations of modern genetics, GENETICS has chronicled his and other major advances in the field. The commissioned Perspectives and Reviews summarize and celebrate Professor Crow’s contributions as a research scientist, administrator, colleague, community supporter, international leader, teacher, and mentor. In science, Professor Crow was the international leader of his generation in the application of genetics to populations of organisms and in uncovering the role of genetics in health and disease. In education, he was a superb undergraduate teacher whose inspiration changed the career paths of many students. His teaching skills are legendary, his lectures urbane and witty, rigorous and clear. He was also an extraordinary mentor to numerous graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, many of whom went on to establish successful careers of their own. In public service, Professor Crow served in key administrative positions at the University of Wisconsin, participated as a member of numerous national and international committees, and served as president of both the Genetics Society of America and the American Society for Human Genetics. This Perspective examines Professor Crow as teacher and mentor through the eyes and experiences of one student who was enrolled in his genetics course as an undergraduate and who later studied with him as a graduate student. PMID:22174181

  2. Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in Israeli crows and Griffon vultures.

    PubMed

    Salant, H; Hamburger, J; King, R; Baneth, G

    2013-01-16

    A cross-sectional Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence study was performed on free ranging crows (Corvus cornis, Corvus monedula, Corvus splendens) and Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from Israel in order to assess exposure to this pathogen in scavenger birds that feed on animal carcasses and their possible role in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. Using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff titer of 1:25, 52 of 122 crows (42.6%) and 40 of 101 Griffon vultures (39.6%) were found to be T. gondii seropositive. Crow T. gondii seroprevalence was significantly higher in northern areas of Israel (p=0.007) where annual precipitation is higher and annual summer maximum temperatures are lower than in the drier and warmer south. Seroprevalence in crows was positively associated with higher human population densities possibly related to the increased cat population in these areas. PCR analysis of brain extracts from crows resulted in the detection of T. gondii DNA in 1 seropositive crow from northern Israel. Genetic analysis of DNA from the positive crow brain confirmed infection with T. gondii type 2 using a multiplex multilocus nested PCR-RFLP (Mn-PCR-RFLP) of the SAG1, 5-3' SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, C22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico loci. The high T. gondii seroprevalence in these bird species suggests that infected carrion may be responsible for widespread infection of carcass scavenger birds which may further transmit infection to other carnivorous intermediate hosts or feline definitive hosts when consumed post-mortally.

  3. The New and Improved Purple Crow Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.; Bandoro, J.; Iserhienrhien, B.; Khanna, J.; McCullough, E. M.; Olofson, K. F.; Wing, R.

    2010-12-01

    The University of Western Ontario's Purple Crow Lidar has been in near continuous operation since 1993. Until this summer, the lidar was located at the Delaware Observatory, 20 km southwest of the Western campus and was using the original Nd:YAG laser system as a transmitter along with a 2.6 m diameter liquid mercury telescope. In July-August of this year the Delaware Observatory was closed and the lidar system was moved to a new facility at Western's Environmental Research Station, located 9 km north of the campus. This location is superior for several reasons including accessibility, seeing conditions, security and scientifically, as we are now co-located with Prof. W. Hocking's wind-profiler and meteor radar systems. In addition to the new facility, we have upgraded the transmitter to a Litron laser operating at 1000 mJ/pules at 30 Hz, which offers a 2.5 times increase in average power over our previous transmitter. We have also upgraded the counting electronics to improve the height resolution of our water vapour and temperature measurements by a factor of about 30, as well as upgrading the system for more direct aerosol measurements by including a low altitude aerosol channel. We are excited about the new scientific studies possible with these Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) affiliated measurements, which will now routinely extend from the upper troposphere to the lower thermosphere (temperature) and from the surface to above 20 km for water vapor and aerosols. Initial results from the upgraded system will be presented. The laser table being maneuvered into the transmitter room on moving day (brick building). The 2.6 m mirror being removed from the Delaware Observatory.

  4. Brains, tools, innovation and biogeography in crows and ravens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crows and ravens (Passeriformes: Corvus) are large-brained birds with enhanced cognitive abilities relative to other birds. They are among the few non-hominid organisms on Earth to be considered intelligent and well-known examples exist of several crow species having evolved innovative strategies and even use of tools in their search for food. The 40 Corvus species have also been successful dispersers and are distributed on most continents and in remote archipelagos. Results This study presents the first molecular phylogeny including all species and a number of subspecies within the genus Corvus. We date the phylogeny and determine ancestral areas to investigate historical biogeographical patterns of the crows. Additionally, we use data on brain size and a large database on innovative behaviour and tool use to test whether brain size (i) explains innovative behaviour and success in applying tools when foraging and (ii) has some correlative role in the success of colonization of islands. Our results demonstrate that crows originated in the Palaearctic in the Miocene from where they dispersed to North America and the Caribbean, Africa and Australasia. We find that relative brain size alone does not explain tool use, innovative feeding strategies and dispersal success within crows. Conclusions Our study supports monophyly of the genus Corvus and further demonstrates the direction and timing of colonization from the area of origin in the Palaearctic to other continents and archipelagos. The Caribbean was probably colonized from North America, although some North American ancestor may have gone extinct, and the Pacific was colonized multiple times from Asia and Australia. We did not find a correlation between relative brain size, tool use, innovative feeding strategies and dispersal success. Hence, we propose that all crows and ravens have relatively large brains compared to other birds and thus the potential to be innovative if conditions and circumstances

  5. Jim, Antonia, and the Wolves: Displacement in Cather's "My Antonia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Robin

    2009-01-01

    In one of the most frequently noted incidents in Willa Cather's "My Antonia", Russian immigrant Pavel reveals on his deathbed that, when driving his friend's wedding party sledge, he saved his own life and companion Peter's by throwing the bride and groom to the attacking wolves. Antonia and Jim are fascinated by this story, and readers are…

  6. Running, Heart Disease, and the Ironic Death of Jim Fixx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plymire, Darcy C.

    2002-01-01

    Runner Jim Fixx wrote a book about running and died young of a heart attack while running. Fixx and other authors believed heart disease resulted from overcivilization and recommended running as a way of life and cure, advising readers to listen to their bodies instead of their doctors. Fixx's adherence to that philosophy explains his behavior…

  7. Jim Driver, Panola County Oil and Gas Boom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Bobbie, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Written by history students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, this volume presents several diverse pictures of life in East Texas. The first article, "Jim Driver, Panola County Oil and Gas Boom," (Bobby Kelly and Billy Anderson) talks about drilling for oil and gas and the concerns of an employee of the drilling company. "When I Was Nine Years…

  8. Erysipelas in a free-ranging Hawaiian crow (Corvus hawaiiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Ball, Donna; Wolcott, Mark

    1999-01-01

    We describe a case of erysipelas in a free-ranging endangered Hawaiian crow. The partially scavenged carcass exhibited gross emaciation and petechial hemorrhages in both lungs. Microscopy revealed multiple necrotic foci associated with gram-positive rods in the liver and adrenal, diffuse acute proximal tubular necrosis of kidney, diffuse necrosis and inflammation of proventricular mucosa associated with gram-positive rods, and multiple intravascular aggregates of gram-positive rods associated with thrombi. Culture of the kidney revealed the bacterium to be Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. The implications of this finding to free-ranging crows remain unclear.

  9. James F. Crow: His Life in Public Service

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, Seymour

    2012-01-01

    The readers of this journal may well be aware of Professor Crow’s scientific achievements and his role as the editor of Perspectives. In addition, for many thousands of students at the University of Wisconsin over many generations, James F. Crow was one of the most memorable teachers at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. What is less known is his major role in public service where he served as chair of many important committees for the National Academy of Sciences, the National Institutes of Health, the National Institutes of Justice as well as various international programs. In all of these efforts, Professor Crow has left a lasting impact. PMID:22219505

  10. N-S Simulations of Crow-Type Instabilities in Vortex Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes simulations of the Crow instability of wake vortices are conducted using large-eddy simulations without background turbulence. Sinusoidal displacement has been specified as the initial perturbation for the vortex system. The results have shown that the minimum Crow instability wavelength is about one vortex spacing shorter than predicted by Crow's linear stability theory. The planar- standing-wave-angle value and the amplitude indifference behavior agree with Crow's analysis. Simulations with periodicity in the axial direction have indicated minor influence of axial flow on the Crow instability.

  11. WWJD--What Would Jim Do? A Comparison of James Dobson's and Jim Fay's Philosophies of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Carolyn; Fridley, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Jim Fay and James Dobson are two of America's most visible, popular, and influential "experts" on the topics of parenting and discipline for children. Dobson is widely known for the "pro-family" political activism of Focus on The Family, the organization he founded and currently directs. He first made a name for himself as a…

  12. Crow Education Partnership: Science in a Cultural Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, S. B.; NASA Astrobiology Institute Icy Worlds Science Team; Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (Wissard) Science Team

    2011-12-01

    Join us to learn more about a developing science education partnership on the Crow Indian Reservation, in South Central Montana. Through this partnership we are designing culturally-relevant STEM science enrichment activites that focus on extreme environments for the Upper Elementary grades in the Hardin School District. The district encompasses three intermediate schools in a rural setting, with a largely Native American student body. Intermediate School teachers from Hardin, scientists and graduate students at Montana State University, and Crow tribal members are working together to develop inquiry-based science activities for students and teachers. Through the use of hands-on interactions, online technologies and field experiences, we are providing monthly science interaction for the classroom, and modeling inquiry-based activities for the teachers and community members. In addition to developing activities, we are working with Crow tribal members and teachers to tie science activities to the national standards and school district curriculum, while at the same time connecting science activities to Crow history and culture. Our blended education model which utilizes face to face interactions and video-conferencing, engages MSU graduate students in the teaching process. Graduate students are developing science communication skills and learning the importance of cross-cultural communication, while the teachers and intermediate students are gaining science content knowledge and direct interactions with authentic science experiences. We are developing a true partnership and community of learning through our efforts.

  13. Culture for Sale? An Exploratory Study of the Crow Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordelon, Thomas D.; Opatrny, Marie; Turner, Wendy G.; Williams, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an ethnographically-oriented participant-observation study conducted during the annual Crow Fair, held in south central Montana. Data collected included audio-recorded interviews with participants, participant observations, photographic and video recordings. Narrative interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the constant…

  14. Part Long Section with Middle Wall at Crow of Reinforcing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Part Long Section with Middle Wall at Crow of Reinforcing Arch-Center of Bridge; Part Section Across Bridge at Center; Part Long Section with Middle Wall and Foot of Reinforcing Arch; South Side and East Entrance; View of Bridge and Schoharie River Looking South; One Aisle of Bridge - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  15. "No More Excuses": Michael M. Crow on Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael M. Crow became the 16th president of Arizona State University in July 2002, with the goal of transforming ASU into what he calls a "New American University"--an institution combining the highest levels of academic excellence, inclusiveness to a broad demographic, and maximum societal impact. His view included increasing graduate numbers,…

  16. 18. CROWS NEST ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking up from northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. CROWS NEST ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking up from northeast corner of run line deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. AN EPIZOOTIC OF EMERGING NOVEL AVIAN POX IN CARRION CROWS (CORVUS CORONE) AND LARGE-BILLED CROWS (CORVUS MACRORHYNCHOS) IN JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Daisuke; Nakamura, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takenaka, Makiko; Murakami, Mami; Yanai, Tokuma; Fukushi, Hideto; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen; Matsuno, Keita; Nagano, Masashi; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-04-28

    In 2006-10, an epizootic of emerging avian pox occurred in Carrion Crows ( Corvus corone ) and Large-billed Crows ( Corvus macrorhynchos ), leading to mortality of juvenile crows in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. We diagnosed 27 crows with proliferative skin lesions (19 carcasses and eight biopsied cases [one in zoo captivity]) as avian pox clinically, histopathologically by detection of Avipoxvirus-specific 4b core protein (P4b) gene, and epidemiologically. The fatal cases demonstrated intensively severe infection and aggressive lesions with secondary bacterial infection. Since the first identification of avian pox in Sapporo, Japan, in 2006, the frequency of mortality events has increased, peaking in 2007-08. Mortalities have subsequently occurred in other areas, suggesting disease expansion. In Sapporo, prevalence of avian pox evaluated by field censuses during 2007-12 was 17.6% (6.6-27.2%), peaked during 2007-08 and 2008-09, and then decreased. All diseased crows were juveniles, except for one adult. The number of crows assembling in the winter roosts had been stable for >10 yr; however, it declined in 2007-08, decreased by about 50% in 2008-09, and recovered to the previous level in 2009-10, correlated with the avian pox outbreak. Thus, avian pox probably contributed to the unusual crow population decline. All P4b sequences detected in six specimens in Sapporo were identical and different from any previously reported sequences. The sequence detected in the zoo-kept crow was distinct from any reported clades, and interspecies transmission was suspected. This report demonstrates an emerging novel avian pox in the Japanese avifauna and in global populations of Carrion Crows and Large-billed Crows. Longitudinal monitoring is needed to evaluate its impact on the crow population. PMID:26967129

  18. Mr. Jim - The biography of James Smither Abercrombie

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Jim Abercrombie went to work as a roustabout in Houston in 1908. The mastermind of the prolific Old Ocean oil field, he sketched the design for a revolutionary, ram-type blowout preventer in the dirt of a machine shop floor in 1920 and built the idea into Cameron Iron Works. This is the story of this man who was a dominant figure in the petroleum industry.

  19. In Conversation with Jim Schuck: Nano-optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Schuck and Alice Egan

    2009-08-07

    Sponsored by Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD), "In Conversation with" is a next generation science seminar series. Host Alice Egan is the assistant to MSD Director Miquel Salmeron. Alice conducts a fun and informative interview, touching on the lives and work of the guest. The first In Conversation With took place July 9 with Jim Schuck, a staff scientist in the Molecular Foundry's Imaging and Manipulation Facility as our first guest. He discussed the world of Nano-optics.

  20. In Conversation with Jim Schuck: Nano-optics

    ScienceCinema

    Jim Schuck and Alice Egan

    2016-07-12

    Sponsored by Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD), "In Conversation with" is a next generation science seminar series. Host Alice Egan is the assistant to MSD Director Miquel Salmeron. Alice conducts a fun and informative interview, touching on the lives and work of the guest. The first In Conversation With took place July 9 with Jim Schuck, a staff scientist in the Molecular Foundry's Imaging and Manipulation Facility as our first guest. He discussed the world of Nano-optics.

  1. A Description of the "Crow's Foot" Tunnel Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Norman, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has actively pursued the development and the use of pictorial or three-dimensional perspective displays of tunnel-, pathway- or highway-in-the-sky concepts for presenting flight path information to pilots in all aircraft categories (e.g., transports, General Aviation, rotorcraft) since the late 1970s. Prominent among these efforts has been the development of the crow s foot tunnel concept. The crow's foot tunnel concept emerged as the consensus pathway concept from a series of interactive workshops that brought together government and industry display designers, test pilots, and airline pilots to iteratively design, debate, and fly various pathway concepts. Over years of use in many simulation and flight test activities at NASA and elsewhere, modifications have refined and adapted the tunnel concept for different applications and aircraft categories (i.e., conventional transports, High Speed Civil Transport, General Aviation). A description of those refinements follows the definition of the original tunnel concept.

  2. Behavioural responses to olfactory cues in carrion crows.

    PubMed

    Wascher, Claudia A F; Heiss, Rebecca S; Baglione, Vittorio; Canestrari, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, the use of olfactory signals in birds has been largely ignored, despite the fact that birds do possess a fully functioning olfactory system and have been shown to use odours in social and foraging tasks, predator detection and orientation. The present study investigates whether carrion crows (Corvus corone corone), a bird species living in complex social societies, respond behaviourally to olfactory cues of conspecifics. During our experiment, carrion crows were observed less often close to the conspecific scent compared to a control side. Because conspecific scent was extracted during handling, a stressful procedure for birds, we interpreted the general avoidance of the 'scent' side as disfavour against a stressed conspecific. However, males, unlike females, showed less avoidance towards the scent of a familiar individual compared to an unfamiliar one, which might reflect a stronger interest in the information conveyed and/or willingness to provide social support.

  3. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Eimes, John A; Townsend, Andrea K; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of

  4. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of

  5. Transcriptomics of colour patterning and coloration shifts in crows.

    PubMed

    Poelstra, J W; Vijay, N; Hoeppner, M P; Wolf, J B W

    2015-09-01

    Animal coloration is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in natural populations and has important implications for adaptation and speciation. Changes in coloration can occur over surprisingly short evolutionary timescales, while recurrence of similar colour patterns across large phylogenetic distances is also common. Even though the genetic basis of pigment production is well understood, little is known about the mechanisms regulating colour patterning. In this study, we shed light on the molecular elements regulating regional pigment production in two genetically near-identical crow taxa with striking differences in a eumelanin-based phenotype: black carrion and grey-coated hooded crows. We produced a high-quality genome annotation and analysed transcriptome data from a 2 × 2 design of active melanogenic feather follicles from head (black in both taxa) and torso (black in carrion and grey in hooded crow). Extensive, parallel expression differences between body regions in both taxa, enriched for melanogenesis genes (e.g. ASIP, CORIN, and ALDH6), indicated the presence of cryptic prepatterning also in all-black carrion crows. Meanwhile, colour-specific expression (grey vs. black) was limited to a small number of melanogenesis genes in close association with the central transcription factor MITF (most notably HPGDS, NDP and RASGRF1). We conclude that colour pattern differences between the taxa likely result from an interaction between divergence in upstream elements of the melanogenesis pathway and genes that provide an underlying prepattern across the body through positional information. A model of evolutionary stable prepatterns that can be exposed and masked through simple regulatory changes may explain the phylogenetically independent recurrence of colour patterns that is observed across corvids and many other vertebrate groups. PMID:26302355

  6. Transcriptomics of colour patterning and coloration shifts in crows.

    PubMed

    Poelstra, J W; Vijay, N; Hoeppner, M P; Wolf, J B W

    2015-09-01

    Animal coloration is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in natural populations and has important implications for adaptation and speciation. Changes in coloration can occur over surprisingly short evolutionary timescales, while recurrence of similar colour patterns across large phylogenetic distances is also common. Even though the genetic basis of pigment production is well understood, little is known about the mechanisms regulating colour patterning. In this study, we shed light on the molecular elements regulating regional pigment production in two genetically near-identical crow taxa with striking differences in a eumelanin-based phenotype: black carrion and grey-coated hooded crows. We produced a high-quality genome annotation and analysed transcriptome data from a 2 × 2 design of active melanogenic feather follicles from head (black in both taxa) and torso (black in carrion and grey in hooded crow). Extensive, parallel expression differences between body regions in both taxa, enriched for melanogenesis genes (e.g. ASIP, CORIN, and ALDH6), indicated the presence of cryptic prepatterning also in all-black carrion crows. Meanwhile, colour-specific expression (grey vs. black) was limited to a small number of melanogenesis genes in close association with the central transcription factor MITF (most notably HPGDS, NDP and RASGRF1). We conclude that colour pattern differences between the taxa likely result from an interaction between divergence in upstream elements of the melanogenesis pathway and genes that provide an underlying prepattern across the body through positional information. A model of evolutionary stable prepatterns that can be exposed and masked through simple regulatory changes may explain the phylogenetically independent recurrence of colour patterns that is observed across corvids and many other vertebrate groups.

  7. A repellent for protecting corn seed from blackbirds and crows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickley, A.R.; Guarineo, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    Methiocarb [4-(methylthio)-3,-5-xylyl N-methylcarbamate] was tested as a seed treatment for repelling blackbirds and crows (Corvus sp.) from sprouting corn in South Carolina. The test was conducted on eight fields within a 0.25-square-mile area. Marked repellency occurred; sprout damage averaged 44 percent in the control fields and 0.3 percent in the fields treated with methiocarb.

  8. The crafting of hook tools by wild New Caledonian crows.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D

    2004-02-01

    The 'crafting' of tools involves (i) selection of appropriate raw material, (ii) preparatory trimming and (iii) fine, three-dimensional sculpting. Its evolution is technologically important because it allows the open-ended development of tools. New Caledonian crows manufacture an impressive range of stick and leaf tools. We previously reported that their toolkit included hooked implements made from leafy twigs, although their manufacture had never been closely observed. We describe the manufacture of 10 hooked-twig tools by an adult crow and its dependent juvenile. To make all 10 tools, the crows carried out a relatively invariant three-step sequence of complex manipulations that involved (i) the selection of raw material, (ii) trimming and (iii) a lengthy sculpting of the hook. Hooked-twig manufacture contrasts with the lack of sculpting in the making of wooden tools by other non-humans such as chimpanzees and woodpecker finches. This fine, three-stage crafting process removes another alleged difference between humans and other animals.

  9. Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Andrea K; Clark, Anne B; McGowan, Kevin J; Miller, Andrew D; Buckles, Elizabeth L

    2010-09-22

    Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2-33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations.

  10. A Social, Economic, and Cultural Study of the Crow Reservation: Implications for Energy Development. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow Impact Study Office, MT.

    Crow people want their resource decisions to benefit and strengthen the tribe socially and economically and to minimize damage to the tribal way of life, culture, and reservation environment. Based on a survey of 1016 reservation and non-reservation Crow families, conducted as part of a study of the impact of resource development on the…

  11. 30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow Tribe's Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as submitted in 1982, and resubmitted in September, 1988 is...

  12. 30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow Tribe's Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as submitted in 1982, and resubmitted in September, 1988 is...

  13. 30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow Tribe's Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as submitted in 1982, and resubmitted in September, 1988 is...

  14. 30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow Tribe's Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as submitted in 1982, and resubmitted in September, 1988 is...

  15. Of Horses and Men: Superintendent Asbury's Deadly Assault on the Crow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleary, Carrie Moran

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Superintendent Calvin Asbury's campaign to convert members of the Crow Tribe to Christianity. Presents Joe Medicine Crow, who was a child during the campaign that began in 1919, as he describes the historical and continuing effects on the Tribe. Explains that federal policy included selling tribal lands to non-Indians, prohibiting…

  16. "A Happiness that Sleeps with Sadness." An Examination of "White Scabs" in Fools Crow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Irene S.

    2005-01-01

    A prolific and popular writer, James Welch has captured the attention of both Native and non-Native readers since his first publication of poems, "Riding the Earthboy," in 1971. One of Welch's stories, "Fools Crow," was of particular interest to this author as an academic researching Native Americans and health. "Fools Crow" is an epic…

  17. 50 CFR 21.43 - Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows, and magpies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.43 Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows, and...: Blackbirds Cowbirds Grackles Crows Magpies Brewer's (Euphagus cyanocephalus) Bronzed (Molothrus aeneus)...

  18. 50 CFR 21.43 - Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows, and magpies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.43 Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows, and...: Blackbirds Cowbirds Grackles Crows Magpies Brewer's (Euphagus cyanocephalus) Bronzed (Molothrus aeneus)...

  19. 50 CFR 21.43 - Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows, and magpies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.43 Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows, and...: Blackbirds Cowbirds Grackles Crows Magpies Brewer's (Euphagus cyanocephalus) Bronzed (Molothrus aeneus)...

  20. 50 CFR 21.43 - Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows and magpies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.43 Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows and... blackbirds, cowbirds, all grackles, crows, and magpies, when found committing or about to commit...

  1. Restricted gene flow and fine-scale population structuring in tool using New Caledonian crows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz, C.; Ryder, T. B.; Fleischer, R. C.

    2012-04-01

    New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides are the most prolific avian tool users. It has been suggested that some aspects of their complex tool use behaviour are under the influence of cultural processes, involving the social transmission—and perhaps even progressive refinement—of tool designs. Using microsatellite and mt-haplotype profiling of crows from three distinct habitats (dry forest, farmland and beachside habitat), we show that New Caledonian crow populations can exhibit significant fine-scale genetic structuring. Our finding that some sites of <10 km apart were highly differentiated demonstrates considerable potential for genetic and/or cultural isolation of crow groups. Restricted movement of birds between local populations at such small spatial scales, especially across habitat boundaries, illustrates how specific tool designs could be preserved over time, and how tool technologies of different crow groups could diverge due to drift and local selection pressures. Young New Caledonian crows have an unusually long juvenile dependency period, during which they acquire complex tool-related foraging skills. We suggest that the resulting delayed natal dispersal drives population-divergence patterns in this species. Our work provides essential context for future studies that examine the genetic makeup of crow populations across larger geographic areas, including localities with suspected cultural differences in crow tool technologies.

  2. 30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow Tribe's Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as submitted in 1982, and resubmitted in September, 1988 is...

  3. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    PubMed

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P < 0.05). Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter.

  4. Distinct neural circuits underlie assessment of a diversity of natural dangers by American crows.

    PubMed

    Cross, Donna J; Marzluff, John M; Palmquist, Ila; Minoshima, Satoshi; Shimizu, Toru; Miyaoka, Robert

    2013-08-22

    Social animals encountering natural dangers face decisions such as whether to freeze, flee or harass the threat. The American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos, conspicuously mobs dangers. We used positron emission tomography to test the hypothesis that distinct neuronal substrates underlie the crow's consistent behavioural response to different dangers. We found that crows activated brain regions associated with attention and arousal (nucleus isthmo-opticus/locus coeruleus), and with motor response (arcopallium), as they fixed their gaze on a threat. However, despite this consistent behavioural and neural response, the sight of a person who previously captured the crow, a person holding a dead crow and a taxidermy-mounted hawk activated distinct forebrain regions (amygdala, hippocampus and portion of the caudal nidopallium, respectively). We suggest that aspects of mobbing behaviour are guided by unique neural circuits that respond to differences in mental processing-learning, memory formation and multisensory discrimination-required to appropriately nuance a risky behaviour to specific dangers. PMID:23825209

  5. Distinct neural circuits underlie assessment of a diversity of natural dangers by American crows

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Donna J.; Marzluff, John M.; Palmquist, Ila; Minoshima, Satoshi; Shimizu, Toru; Miyaoka, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Social animals encountering natural dangers face decisions such as whether to freeze, flee or harass the threat. The American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos, conspicuously mobs dangers. We used positron emission tomography to test the hypothesis that distinct neuronal substrates underlie the crow's consistent behavioural response to different dangers. We found that crows activated brain regions associated with attention and arousal (nucleus isthmo-opticus/locus coeruleus), and with motor response (arcopallium), as they fixed their gaze on a threat. However, despite this consistent behavioural and neural response, the sight of a person who previously captured the crow, a person holding a dead crow and a taxidermy-mounted hawk activated distinct forebrain regions (amygdala, hippocampus and portion of the caudal nidopallium, respectively). We suggest that aspects of mobbing behaviour are guided by unique neural circuits that respond to differences in mental processing—learning, memory formation and multisensory discrimination—required to appropriately nuance a risky behaviour to specific dangers. PMID:23825209

  6. Involvement of vision in tool use in crow.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Masaki; Matsui, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shigeru; Izawa, Ei-Ichi

    2014-09-10

    Birds are capable of dexterous sensory-motor activities such as tool use. Reaching is a crucial component of tool use and is a vision-guided behavior in primates, in which arm movement is monitored online in a stable visual frame. However, vision-guided reaching in primates is enabled by anatomical separation of the head and arm; neck reaching in birds accompanies head movement, which produces unstable vision because the eye necessarily moves with the bill. This anatomical difference raises the question whether tool use in birds involves visuomotor mechanisms that are distinct from those in primates. As the role of vision in avian tool use has been poorly understood, we investigated the role of vision in tool use in the large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchos), a nontool user in the wild. Crows were trained to manipulate an L-shaped hook to retrieve food that was otherwise out of reach. After training, an opaque panel was placed on the front window of the platform to block their vision, and the effects on tool use were tested with respect to performance and movement trajectory. Vision blocking caused similar deviation of tool movement trajectories for both near and far targets, as well as far target-specific deviation. This suggests the involvement of vision in tool use by crows, specifically in the premanipulation process for conversion of vision-body coordinates for motor planning and in the process of tool manipulation. This is the first behavioral evidence for the involvement of vision in avian tool use.

  7. Nearly 50 Years Post-Jim Crow: Persisting and Expansive School Segregation for African American, Latina/o, and ELL Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the segregation of English language learner (ELL) students in schools across Texas. We descriptively analyze levels of racial, economic, and linguistic isolation experienced by ELL students across the state of Texas. We also examine the association between segregation by race/ethnicity, economic disadvantage, and language…

  8. Racial boundary formation at the dawn of Jim Crow: the determinants and effects of black/mulatto occupational differences in the United States, 1880.

    PubMed

    Gullickson, Aaron

    2010-07-01

    This article examines variation in the social position of mixed-race populations by exploiting county-level variation in the degree of occupational differentiation between blacks and mulattoes in the 1880 U.S. census. The role of the mixed-race category as either a "buffer class" or a status threat depended on the class composition of whites. Black/mulatto occupational differentiation was greatest where whites had high occupational prestige and thus little to fear from a mulatto group. Furthermore, differentiation increased the risk of lynching where whites had relatively low status and decreased the risk of lynching where whites had relatively high status. PMID:21560509

  9. Risk factors associated with West Nile virus mortality in American Crow populations in Southern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Antoinette; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Michel, Pascal; Bélanger, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Soon after the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America, a number of public health authorities designated the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) a sentinel for WNV detection. Although preliminary studies have suggested a positive association between American Crow mortality and increased risk of WNV infection in humans, we still know little about dynamic variation in American Crow mortality, both baseline levels and mortality associated with WNV. We hypothesized that the complex social behavior of American Crows, which is shaped by age and seasonal factors, influences both baseline mortality and WNV mortality in American Crow populations. We examined American Crow mortality data from Quebec for the 2005 WNV surveillance year, which lasted from 5 June to 17 September 2005. The variables of interest were age, gender, body condition index, time of year, and land cover. We used a log-linear model to examine baseline mortality. Logistic regression and general linear regression models were constructed to examine variables associated with mortality due to WNV. We found that both age and time of year were key variables in explaining baseline mortality. These two variables were also risk factors for WNV mortality. The probability that a carcass tested positive for WNV increased with the age of the dead bird and as summer progressed. WNV-positive carcasses also had a lower body condition index than WNV-negative carcasses. We believe that the first major wave of American Crow mortality observed in the early summer of 2005 was the result of natural mortality among young American Crows. Because this mortality was not linked to WNV, it appears that American Crow may not be a good species for early detection of WNV activity. Our data also suggest that second-year American Crows play a major role in propagating WNV during their movements to urban land covers during midsummer.

  10. Temporal structure of red jungle fowl crow sequences: single-case analysis.

    PubMed

    Koene, P

    1996-11-01

    Vocalisations can be indicators of the physical state or condition of an animal, for instance the crow of a rooster. There are no published data on the temporal structure of crow sequences. In this paper 536 crows in 22 sequences of one red jungle fowl rooster (rooster 1) were recorded and analysed. Calls were very characteristic and there was little variation between the calls. Rooster 1 crowed with a mean latency of 287 s after onset of a light in the early morning. The average crow sequence consisted of 29 calls which lasted for 1416 ms on average. A gradual increase in pre-call interval was characteristic of each sequence. The variation in note durations is systematic and especially the last note correlated highly with the total call duration. Both the pre-call interval and the duration of the 4th note (doooo) may be parameters of fatigue and thus of physical condition. The number of crows in a sequence was positively related to air pressure outdoors. An experiment is done in which the physical condition of a rooster (rooster 2) is manipulated by food deprivation. The results are analysed with single case randomisation tests. The number of crows in a sequence is significantly reduced after food deprivation, while the pre-call intervals are significantly increased. Prediction of the number of crows in the sequence can be done on base of the pre-call interval of the second call: both rooster 1 and 2 showed long pre-call intervals in short call sequences. Food deprivation and the possible loss of condition have a significant effect on the temporal structure of crow sequences and cause a decrease in the number of crows in a call sequence. PMID:24896081

  11. Personal Background Interview of Jim McBarron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBarron, Jim; Wright, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Jim McBarron exhibits a wealth of knowledge gathered from more than 40 years of experience with NASA, EVA, and spacesuits. His biography, progression of work at NASA, impact on EVA and the U.S. spacesuit, and career accomplishments are of interest to many. Wright, from the JSC History Office, conducted a personal background interview with McBarron. This interview highlighted the influences and decision-making methods that impacted McBarron's technical and management contributions to the space program. Attendees gained insight on the external and internal NASA influences on career progression within the EVA and spacesuit, and the type of accomplishments and technical advances that committed individuals can make. He concluded the presentation with a question and answer period that included a brief discussion about close calls and Russian spacesuits.

  12. Ligand Efficiency Indices (LEIs): More than a Simple Efficiency Yardstick.

    PubMed

    Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Blasi, Daniel

    2011-03-14

    The concept of ligand efficiency and the usage of ligand efficiency values to assess the quality of fragments and compounds is becoming more accepted in the practice of medicinal chemistry. This is particularly true as it refers to the efficiency of ligands per unit size (i.e., binding affinity/number of non-hydrogen atoms or binding affinity/MW). The use of the Ligand Efficiency Indices (LEIs) as variables for a Cartesian mapping of chemico-biological space, the concept of AtlasCBS, has been presented in a recent publication with some initial drug-discovery applications. In this communication, we present additional applications of the concept in three domains of drug discovery: i) analyze and compare the content of databases: inhibitors vs. drugs; ii) polypharmacology; and iii) applications to Fragment-Based strategies. We suggest that the combined use of LEIs in a Cartesian representation of Chemico-Biological Space (AtlasCBS) could be a useful tool in various aspects of drug-discovery in the future.

  13. De novo assembly and analysis of crow lungs transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Periyasamy; Raut, Ashwin Ashok; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sharma, Deepak; Mishra, Anamika

    2014-09-01

    The jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) belongs to the order Passeriformes of bird species and is important for avian ecological and evolutionary genetics studies. However, there is limited information on the transcriptome data of this species. In the present study, we report the characterization of the lung transcriptome of the jungle crow using GS FLX Titanium XLR70. Altogether, 1,510,303 high-quality sequence reads with 581,198,230 bases was de novo assembled into 22,169 isotigs (isotig represents an individual transcript) and 784,009 singletons. Using these isotigs and 581,681 length-filtered (greater than 300 bp) singletons, 20,010 unique protein-coding genes were identified by BLASTx comparison against a nonredundant (nr) protein sequence database. Comparative analysis revealed that 46,604 (70.29%) and 51,642 (72.48%) of the assembled transcripts have significant similarity to zebra finch and chicken RefSeq proteins, respectively. As determined by GO annotation and KEGG pathway mapping, functional annotation of the unigenes recovered diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts putatively involved in the immune response were identified. Furthermore, 20,599 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 7525 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were retrieved from the assembled transcript database. This resource should lay an important base for future ecological, evolutionary, and conservation genetic studies on this species and in other related species.

  14. Plastic and the nest entanglement of urban and agricultural crows.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Andrea K; Barker, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the impacts of plastics and other debris on marine organisms, but the effects of plastic on terrestrial organisms have been largely ignored. Detrimental effects of terrestrial plastic could be most pronounced in intensively human-modified landscapes (e.g., urban and agricultural areas), which are a source of much anthropogenic debris. Here, we examine the occurrence, types, landscape associations, and consequences of anthropogenic nest material in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a North American species that breeds in both urban and agricultural landscapes. We monitored 195 nestlings in 106 nests across an urban and agricultural gradient in the Sacramento Valley, California, USA. We found that 85.2% of crow nests contained anthropogenic material, and 11 of 195 nestlings (5.6%) were entangled in their nests. The length of the material was greater in nests in agricultural territories than in urban territories, and the odds of entanglement increased 7.55 times for each meter of anthropogenic material in the nest. Fledging success was significantly lower for entangled than for unentangled nestlings. In all environments, particularly urban, agricultural, and marine, careful disposal of potential hazards (string, packing and hay bale twine, balloon ribbon, wire, fishing line) could reduce the occurrence of entanglement of nestling birds.

  15. Plastic and the Nest Entanglement of Urban and Agricultural Crows

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Barker, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the impacts of plastics and other debris on marine organisms, but the effects of plastic on terrestrial organisms have been largely ignored. Detrimental effects of terrestrial plastic could be most pronounced in intensively human-modified landscapes (e.g., urban and agricultural areas), which are a source of much anthropogenic debris. Here, we examine the occurrence, types, landscape associations, and consequences of anthropogenic nest material in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a North American species that breeds in both urban and agricultural landscapes. We monitored 195 nestlings in 106 nests across an urban and agricultural gradient in the Sacramento Valley, California, USA. We found that 85.2% of crow nests contained anthropogenic material, and 11 of 195 nestlings (5.6%) were entangled in their nests. The length of the material was greater in nests in agricultural territories than in urban territories, and the odds of entanglement increased 7.55 times for each meter of anthropogenic material in the nest. Fledging success was significantly lower for entangled than for unentangled nestlings. In all environments, particularly urban, agricultural, and marine, careful disposal of potential hazards (string, packing and hay bale twine, balloon ribbon, wire, fishing line) could reduce the occurrence of entanglement of nestling birds. PMID:24498238

  16. Ventilation and respiratory evaporation in the flying crow, Corvus ossifragus.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, M H

    1976-05-01

    Tidal volume (VT), respiration frequency (f) and respiratory evaporation (mre) were measured in the passeriform fish crow, Corvus ossifragus (mass 0.28 kg), during steady state, horizontal, wind-tunnel flight, at air speeds of 7.4-11.0 m-sec-1 and air temperatures (TA) of 12-28 degrees C. Ventilation (V1) of the respiratory system was calculated as f-VT. All parameters were independent of speed. Respiration frequency was independent of TA. VT and V1 were independent of TA below 23 degrees C, but above 23 degrees C increased linearly, as did mre. Oxygen extraction (E), the fraction of available oxygen removed from respiratory system air, was calculated using oxygen consumption data (VO2) reported previously, and VI. E was independent of TA below 23 degrees C, where mean E, similar to that in crows resting at 20 degrees C, was substantially higher than in resting mammals of the same mass. E decreased at higher TA, reflecting hyperventilation accompanying elevated mre. mre accounted for the loss of only 17% of total metabolic heat production (Hp), as calculated from VO2, with a partial efficiency of 25%. Thus most heat loss must follow cutaneous evaporative, or nonevaporative routes.

  17. Population genetic structure and colonisation history of the tool-using New Caledonian crow.

    PubMed

    Abdelkrim, Jawad; Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D; Gemmell, Neil J

    2012-01-01

    New Caledonian crows exhibit considerable variation in tool making between populations. Here, we present the first study of the species' genetic structure over its geographical distribution. We collected feathers from crows on mainland Grande Terre, the inshore island of Toupéti, and the nearby island of Maré where it is believed birds were introduced after European colonisation. We used nine microsatellite markers to establish the genotypes of 136 crows from these islands and classical population genetic tools as well as Approximate Bayesian Computations to explore the distribution of genetic diversity. We found that New Caledonian crows most likely separate into three main distinct clusters: Grande Terre, Toupéti and Maré. Furthermore, Toupéti and Maré crows represent a subset of the genetic diversity observed on Grande Terre, confirming their mainland origin. The genetic data are compatible with a colonisation of Maré taking place after European colonisation around 1900. Importantly, we observed (1) moderate, but significant, genetic differentiation across Grande Terre, and (2) that the degree of differentiation between populations on the mainland increases with geographic distance. These data indicate that despite individual crows' potential ability to disperse over large distances, most gene flow occurs over short distances. The temporal and spatial patterns described provide a basis for further hypothesis testing and investigation of the geographical variation observed in the tool skills of these crows.

  18. Tool use by wild New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides at natural foraging sites

    PubMed Central

    Bluff, Lucas A.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Weir, Alex A. S.; Kacelnik, Alex; Rutz, Christian

    2010-01-01

    New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides use tools made from sticks or leaf stems to ‘fish’ woodboring beetle larvae from their burrows in decaying wood. Previous research on this behaviour has been confined to baited sites, leaving its ecological context and significance virtually unexplored. To obtain detailed observations of natural, undisturbed tool use, we deployed motion-triggered video cameras at seven larva-fishing sites. From 1797 camera hours of surveillance over 111 days, we recorded 317 site visits by at least 14 individual crows. Tool use was observed during 150 site visits. Our video footage revealed notable variation in foraging success among identifiable crows. Two nutritionally independent, immature crows spent considerable time using tools, but were much less successful than local adults, highlighting the potential role of individual and social learning in the acquisition of tool-use proficiency. During systematic surveys of larva-fishing sites, we collected 193 tools that crows had left inserted in larva burrows. Comparing these tools with the holes in which they were found, and with raw materials available around logs, provides evidence for tool selectivity by New Caledonian crows under natural conditions. Taken together, these two complementary lines of investigation provide, to our knowledge, the first quantitative description of larva fishing by wild crows in its full ecological context. PMID:20053646

  19. Preliminary discussion on the origin of Lei-gong-mo (tektites)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baoyin, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The specimens of lei-gong-mo (tektites) were collected from Hainan Island and Leizhow Peninsula during the period from 1963 to 1975. The distribution, forms, sculpture, abration surface (bald spot), internal structure and chemical composition of lei-gong-mo are discussed. Studies of these materials lead to the following conclusions: (1) the specimens of lei-gong-mo can be morphologically divided into eight types; (2) the sculptures on the surface of lei-gong-mo are probably due to the corrosion effect of volcanic gas, and the abration surface due to the aerodynamic corrosion; (3) the folded structures in the layered lei-gong-mo (Muong Nong-type tektite) seem hardly to be formed by an impact of meteorites, but they might be produced in the magma flow process when the lei-gong-mo was melting within the crater vent; and (4) the comparison of its chemical composition with that of basalt from Hainan Island does not show that lei-gong-mo came from the local volcano. The hypothesis of the lunar volcanic origin of tektites is examined.

  20. Avian cholera in common crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, from the central Texas panhandle.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T T; Pence, D B

    1981-10-01

    An epornitic of avian cholera involving approximately 150 birds is described from a flock of common crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, on a single playa lake utilized as a roost in Castro County, Texas, during early spring of 1980. There was a concomitant epornitic of avian cholera involving several hundred ducks and geese of several species on adjacent lakes in he same area. Crows scavenged extensively on waterfowl carcasses. Gross and histopathologic lesions in waterfowl were typical of acute avian cholera. Crows had a more chronic form of the disease, especially neurological involvement with the most common lesion consisting of a hemorrhagic meningitis. Other endemic species from which Pasteurella multocida was isolated included the short-eared owl, Asio flammeus, and cottontail rabbit, Silvilagus sp. The role of crows in the dissemination and maintenance of avian cholera is discussed.

  1. Blood parasites in hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix) in Northwest Italy.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Cannizzo, Francesca Tiziana; Pregel, Paola; Perez Rodriguez, Anton David; Bollo, Enrico

    2016-09-30

    Haemoparasites and their effects on hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix) are poorly studied. The aims are to evaluate the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. or Leucocytozoon spp., to correlate this with gross and histopathological findings, and to investigate the association among infection and geographical origin, age, gender, parasite distribution and prevalence among organs. Hooded crows (n = 47) were collected within a regional culling programme from 3 districts in the province of Turin (Italy) and subjected to necropsy. Histological and molecular analyses were carried out on some tissues. Leucocytozoon spp. was detected in 46 crows (97.9%) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas 28 birds (59.6%) were found to be positive for Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. The distribution of parasites in several organs varied significantly, showing that Leucocytozoon spp. is ubiquitous in organs in contrast with Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp., which have a specific predilection for spleen and lungs. The prevalence of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. also differed significantly among the crows captured in the areas of the study. The high prevalence of haemoparasites emphasizes the success of ornithophilic vectors and the susceptibility of this species to infection. Differences in prevalence among the sites are probably due to orographic features of the areas, variations in vector species and density, or to crow population size or structure. In spite of the high infection rate, no gross and histological lesions were found. This finding further suggests an evolutionary adaptation between crows and avian blood parasites. PMID:27188825

  2. New Caledonian crows learn the functional properties of novel tool types.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alex H; Elliffe, Douglas M; Hunt, Gavin R; Emery, Nathan J; Clayton, Nicola S; Gray, Russell D

    2011-01-01

    New Caledonian crows were presented with Bird and Emery's (2009a) Aesop's fable paradigm, which requires stones to be dropped into a water-filled tube to bring floating food within reach. The crows did not spontaneously use stones as tools, but quickly learned to do so, and to choose objects and materials with functional properties. Some crows discarded both inefficient and non-functional objects before observing their effects on the water level. Interestingly, the crows did not learn to discriminate between functional and non-functional objects and materials when there was an arbitrary, rather than causal, link between object and reward. This finding suggests that the crows' performances were not based on associative learning alone. That is, learning was not guided solely by the covariation rate between stimuli and outcomes or the conditioned reinforcement properties acquired by functional objects. Our results, therefore, show that New Caledonian crows can process causal information not only when it is linked to sticks and stick-like tools but also when it concerns the functional properties of novel types of tool.

  3. New Caledonian Crows Learn the Functional Properties of Novel Tool Types

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alex H.; Elliffe, Douglas M.; Hunt, Gavin R.; Emery, Nathan J.; Clayton, Nicola S.; Gray, Russell D.

    2011-01-01

    New Caledonian crows were presented with Bird and Emery's (2009a) Aesop's fable paradigm, which requires stones to be dropped into a water-filled tube to bring floating food within reach. The crows did not spontaneously use stones as tools, but quickly learned to do so, and to choose objects and materials with functional properties. Some crows discarded both inefficient and non-functional objects before observing their effects on the water level. Interestingly, the crows did not learn to discriminate between functional and non-functional objects and materials when there was an arbitrary, rather than causal, link between object and reward. This finding suggests that the crows' performances were not based on associative learning alone. That is, learning was not guided solely by the covariation rate between stimuli and outcomes or the conditioned reinforcement properties acquired by functional objects. Our results, therefore, show that New Caledonian crows can process causal information not only when it is linked to sticks and stick-like tools but also when it concerns the functional properties of novel types of tool. PMID:22194779

  4. Diversification and cumulative evolution in New Caledonian crow tool manufacture.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D

    2003-01-01

    Many animals use tools but only humans are generally considered to have the cognitive sophistication required for cumulative technological evolution. Three important characteristics of cumulative technological evolution are: (i) the diversification of tool design; (ii) cumulative change; and (iii) high-fidelity social transmission. We present evidence that crows have diversified and cumulatively changed the design of their pandanus tools. In 2000 we carried out an intensive survey in New Caledonia to establish the geographical variation in the manufacture of these tools. We documented the shapes of 5550 tools from 21 sites throughout the range of pandanus tool manufacture. We found three distinct pandanus tool designs: wide tools, narrow tools and stepped tools. The lack of ecological correlates of the three tool designs and their different, continuous and overlapping geographical distributions make it unlikely that they evolved independently. The similarities in the manufacture method of each design further suggest that pandanus tools have gone through a process of cumulative change from a common historical origin. We propose a plausible scenario for this rudimentary cumulative evolution. PMID:12737666

  5. Habitat selection and management of the Hawaiian crow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giffen, J.G.; Scott, J.M.; Mountainspring, S.

    1987-01-01

    The abundance and range of the Hawaiian crow, or alala, (Corvus hawaiiensis) have decreased drastically since the 1890's. Fewer than 10 breeding pairs remained in the wild in 1985. A sample of 82 nests during 1970-82 were used to determine habitat associations. Two hundred firty-nine alala observations were used to estimate densities occurring in different vegetation types in 1978. Compared to available habitat, more nests and higher bird densities during the breeding season occurred in areas where: (1) canopy cover was > 60%; (2) koa (Acacia koa) and ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) were dominant species in the crown layer; (3) native plants constituted > 75% of the understory cover; and (4) the elevation was 1,100-1,500 m. Compared to breeding habitat, nonbreeding habitat tended to lie at lower elevations and in wetter forests having the crown layer dominated by ohia but lacking koa. Habitat loss is a major factor underlying the decline of this species although predation on fledgings, avian disease, and shooting also have reduced the population. Remaining key habitat areas have little or no legal protection through zoning and land ownership. Preserves should be established to encompass the location of existing pairs and to assure the provision of optimum breeding habitat and suitable nonbreeding habitat.

  6. Diversification and cumulative evolution in New Caledonian crow tool manufacture.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D

    2003-04-22

    Many animals use tools but only humans are generally considered to have the cognitive sophistication required for cumulative technological evolution. Three important characteristics of cumulative technological evolution are: (i) the diversification of tool design; (ii) cumulative change; and (iii) high-fidelity social transmission. We present evidence that crows have diversified and cumulatively changed the design of their pandanus tools. In 2000 we carried out an intensive survey in New Caledonia to establish the geographical variation in the manufacture of these tools. We documented the shapes of 5550 tools from 21 sites throughout the range of pandanus tool manufacture. We found three distinct pandanus tool designs: wide tools, narrow tools and stepped tools. The lack of ecological correlates of the three tool designs and their different, continuous and overlapping geographical distributions make it unlikely that they evolved independently. The similarities in the manufacture method of each design further suggest that pandanus tools have gone through a process of cumulative change from a common historical origin. We propose a plausible scenario for this rudimentary cumulative evolution.

  7. Susceptibility of Carrion Crows to Experimental Infection with Lineage 1 and 2 West Nile Viruses.

    PubMed

    Lim, Stephanie M; Brault, Aaron C; van Amerongen, Geert; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Romo, Hannah; Sewbalaksing, Varsha D; Bowen, Richard A; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koraka, Penelope; Martina, Byron E E

    2015-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in North America have been characterized by substantial die-offs of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a low incidence of bird deaths has been observed during WNV epidemic activity in Europe. To examine the susceptibility of the western European counterpart of American crows, we inoculated carrion crows (Corvus corone) with WNV strains isolated in Greece (Gr-10), Italy (FIN and Ita09), and Hungary (578/10) and with the highly virulent North American genotype strain (NY99). We also inoculated American crows with a selection of these strains to examine the strains' virulence in a highly susceptible bird species. Infection with all strains, except WNV FIN, resulted in high rates of death and high-level viremia in both bird species and virus dissemination to several organs. These results suggest that carrion crows are highly susceptible to WNV and may potentially be useful as part of dead bird surveillance for early warning of WNV activity in Europe.

  8. Susceptibility of Carrion Crows to Experimental Infection with Lineage 1 and 2 West Nile Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephanie M.; Brault, Aaron C.; van Amerongen, Geert; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Romo, Hannah; Sewbalaksing, Varsha D.; Bowen, Richard A.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Koraka, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in North America have been characterized by substantial die-offs of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a low incidence of bird deaths has been observed during WNV epidemic activity in Europe. To examine the susceptibility of the western European counterpart of American crows, we inoculated carrion crows (Corvus corone) with WNV strains isolated in Greece (Gr-10), Italy (FIN and Ita09), and Hungary (578/10) and with the highly virulent North American genotype strain (NY99). We also inoculated American crows with a selection of these strains to examine the strains’ virulence in a highly susceptible bird species. Infection with all strains, except WNV FIN, resulted in high rates of death and high-level viremia in both bird species and virus dissemination to several organs. These results suggest that carrion crows are highly susceptible to WNV and may potentially be useful as part of dead bird surveillance for early warning of WNV activity in Europe. PMID:26197093

  9. Comparing simulated carbon budget of a Lei bamboo forest with flux tower data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jin, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo forest ecosystem is the part of the forest ecosystem. The distribution area of bamboo forest is limited, but in somewhere, like south China, it has been cultivate for a long time with human management. As the climate change has been take great effect on forest carbon budget, many researchers pay attention to the carbon budget in bamboo forest. Moreover cultivative management had a significant impact on the bamboo forest carbon budget. In this study, we modified a terrestrial ecosystem model named Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) according the management of Lei bamboo forest. Some management, like fertilization, shoots harvesting and organic mulching in winter, had been incorporated into model. Then we had compared model results with the observation data from a Lei bamboo flux tower. The simulated and observed results had achieved good consistency. Our simulated Lei bamboo forest yearly net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 0.41 kgC a-1 of carbon, which is very close to the observation data 0.45 kgC a-1 of carbon. And the monthly simulated results can take the change of carbon budget in each month, similar to the data we got from flux tower. It reflects that the modified IBIS model can characterize the growth of bamboo forest and perform the simulation well. And then two groups of simulations were set to evaluate effects of cultivative managements on Lei bamboo forests carbon budget. And results showed that both fertilization and organic mulching had taken positive effects on Lei bamboo forests carbon sequestration.

  10. Apoptosis induced by Na+/H+ antiport inhibition activates the LEI/L-DNase II pathway.

    PubMed

    Altairac, S; Zeggai, S; Perani, P; Courtois, Y; Torriglia, A

    2003-05-01

    L-DNase II is derived from its precursor leucocyte elastase inhibitor (LEI) by post-translational modification. In vitro, the conversion of LEI into L-DNase II can be induced by incubation of LEI at an acidic pH. In this study, we proposed to analyze the effects of intracellular acidification on this transformation. Amiloride derivatives, like hexamethylene amiloride (HMA), are known to provoke a decrease of cytosolic pH by inhibiting the Na(+)/H(+) antiport. In BHK cells, treatment with HMA-induced apoptosis accompanied by an increase in L-DNase II immunoreactivity and L-DNase II enzymatic activity. Overexpression of L-DNase II precursor led to a significant increase of apoptosis in these cells supporting the involvement of L-DNase II in HMA induced apoptosis. As previously shown in other cells, etoposide-induced apoptosis did not activate L-DNase. On the contrary, LEI overexpression significantly increased cell survival in etoposide-induced apoptosis. Together these results suggest differential roles of LEI and L-DNase II in response to different types of apoptotic inducers.

  11. Associative learning rapidly establishes neuronal representations of upcoming behavioral choices in crows.

    PubMed

    Veit, Lena; Pidpruzhnykova, Galyna; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The ability to form associations between behaviorally relevant sensory stimuli is fundamental for goal-directed behaviors. We investigated neuronal activity in the telencephalic area nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) while two crows (Corvus corone) performed a delayed association task. Whereas some paired associates were familiar to the crows, novel associations had to be learned and mapped to the same target stimuli within a single session. We found neurons that prospectively encoded the chosen test item during the delay for both familiar and newly learned associations. These neurons increased their selectivity during learning in parallel with the crows' increased behavioral performance. Thus, sustained activity in the NCL actively processes information for the upcoming behavioral choice. These data provide new insights into memory representations of behaviorally meaningful stimuli in birds, and how such representations are formed during learning. The findings suggest that the NCL plays a role in learning arbitrary associations, a cornerstone of corvids' remarkable behavioral flexibility and adaptability.

  12. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of campylobacter isolates from free-living, human-commensal american crows.

    PubMed

    Weis, Allison M; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M; Townsend, Andrea K

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health.

  13. Prevalence and Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter Isolates from Free-Living, Human-Commensal American Crows

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Allison M.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health. PMID:24375131

  14. Prion Remains Infectious after Passage through Digestive System of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Pilon, John L.; Nash, Paul B.; Phillips, Gregory E.; Fischer, Justin W.

    2012-01-01

    Avian scavengers, such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), have potential to translocate infectious agents (prions) of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases including chronic wasting disease, scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We inoculated mice with fecal extracts obtained from 20 American crows that were force-fed material infected with RML-strain scrapie prions. These mice all evinced severe neurological dysfunction 196–231 d postinoculation ( = 198; 95% CI: 210–216) and tested positive for prion disease. Our results suggest a large proportion of crows that consume prion-positive tissue are capable of passing infectious prions in their feces ( = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.8–1.0). Therefore, this common, migratory North American scavenger could play a role in the geographic spread of TSE diseases. PMID:23082115

  15. Multiple Perspectivism in James Welch's "Winter in the Blood" and "The Death of Jim Loney"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sidner

    2007-01-01

    James Welch's "Winter in the Blood" (1974) and "The Death of Jim Loney" (1979) are excellent examples of work that remains essentially misunderstood throughout some three decades of interpretation. Attempts to define these two books in terms of mainstream modernism notwithstanding, they represent a phenomenon not unlike aspects of American folk…

  16. Can Inclusion Work? A Conversation with Jim Kauffman and Mara Sapon-Shevin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, John

    1995-01-01

    Mara Sapon-Shevin and Jim Kauffman debate the potential and pitfalls of the inclusion movement. Sapon-Shevin enumerates the benefits of inclusion accompanied by adequate resources, support and commitment, teacher preparation time, restructuring, and staff development. Kauffman insists that alternative settings are necessary for some students and…

  17. Selected Essays of Jim W. Corder: Pursuing the Personal in Scholarship, Teaching, and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumlin, James S.; Miller, Keith D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent, renewed interest in the personal in writing and teaching suggests that the late Jim Corder still has much to tell us. Editors James Baumlin and Keith Miller argue that Corder's yet-to-be-absorbed theory and scholarly praxis can contribute significantly to current debates in composition studies, especially because Corder struggles to move…

  18. Jim Starnes' Contributions to Residual Strength Analysis Methods for Metallic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Harris, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    A summary of advances in residual strength analyses methods for metallic structures that were realized under the leadership of Dr. James H. Starnes, Jr., is presented. The majority of research led by Dr. Starnes in this area was conducted in the 1990's under the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program (NASIP). Dr. Starnes, respectfully referred to herein as Jim, had a passion for studying complex response phenomena and dedicated a significant amount of research effort toward advancing damage tolerance and residual strength analysis methods for metallic structures. Jim's efforts were focused on understanding damage propagation in built-up fuselage structure with widespread fatigue damage, with the goal of ensuring safety in the aging international commercial transport fleet. Jim's major contributions in this research area were in identifying the effects of combined internal pressure and mechanical loads, and geometric nonlinearity, on the response of built-up structures with damage. Analytical and experimental technical results are presented to demonstrate the breadth and rigor of the research conducted in this technical area. Technical results presented herein are drawn exclusively from papers where Jim was a co-author.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Strain JIM8777 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Guédon, Eric; Delorme, Christine; Pons, Nicolas; Cruaud, Corinne; Loux, Valentin; Couloux, Arnaud; Gautier, Céline; Sanchez, Nicolas; Layec, Séverine; Galleron, Nathalie; Almeida, Mathieu; van de Guchte, Maarten; Kennedy, Sean P.; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Gibrat, Jean-François; Wincker, Patrick; Renault, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is a prevalent species of the human oropharyngeal tract with an important role in oral ecology. Here, we report the complete 2.2-Mb genome sequence and annotation of strain JIM8777, which was recently isolated from the oral cavity of a healthy, dentate infant. PMID:21742871

  20. Complete genome sequence of the commensal Streptococcus salivarius strain JIM8777.

    PubMed

    Guédon, Eric; Delorme, Christine; Pons, Nicolas; Cruaud, Corinne; Loux, Valentin; Couloux, Arnaud; Gautier, Céline; Sanchez, Nicolas; Layec, Séverine; Galleron, Nathalie; Almeida, Mathieu; van de Guchte, Maarten; Kennedy, Sean P; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Gibrat, Jean-François; Wincker, Patrick; Renault, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is a prevalent species of the human oropharyngeal tract with an important role in oral ecology. Here, we report the complete 2.2-Mb genome sequence and annotation of strain JIM8777, which was recently isolated from the oral cavity of a healthy, dentate infant. PMID:21742871

  1. Humility, Will, and Level 5 Leadership: An Interview with Jim Collins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Organizational expert, Jim Collins, is the author of "Good to Great" (2001) and "How the Mighty Fall" (2009) and coauthor of "Great by Choice" (2011). Collins also authored a monograph entitled, "Good to Great and the Social Sectors," and presented his findings at the 2007 NAIS Conference. Recently, Collins…

  2. On the evolutionary and ontogenetic origins of tool-oriented behaviour in New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides)

    PubMed Central

    KENWARD, BEN; SCHLOEGL, CHRISTIAN; RUTZ, CHRISTIAN; WEIR, ALEXANDER A. S.; BUGNYAR, THOMAS; KACELNIK, ALEX

    2015-01-01

    New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides) are prolific tool users in captivity and in the wild, and have an inherited predisposition to express tool-oriented behaviours. To further understand the evolution and development of tool use, we compared the development of object manipulation in New Caledonian crows and common ravens (Corvus corax), which do not routinely use tools. We found striking qualitative similarities in the ontogeny of tool-oriented behaviour in New Caledonian crows and food-caching behaviour in ravens. Given that the common ancestor of New Caledonian crows and ravens was almost certainly a caching species, we therefore propose that the basic action patterns for tool use in New Caledonian crows may have their evolutionary origins in caching behaviour. Noncombinatorial object manipulations had similar frequencies in the two species. However, frequencies of object combinations that are precursors to functional behaviour increased in New Caledonian crows and decreased in ravens throughout the study period, ending 6 weeks post-fledging. These quantitative observations are consistent with the hypothesis that New Caledonian crows develop tool-oriented behaviour because of an increased motivation to perform object combinations that facilitate the necessary learning. PMID:25892825

  3. Hydraulic modeling of stream channels and structures in Harbor and Crow Hollow Brooks, Meriden, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, Lawrence A.; Sears, Michael P.; Cervione, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of urbanization have increased the frequency and size of floods along certain reaches of Harbor Brook and Crow Hollow Brook in Meriden, Conn. A floodprofile-modeling study was conducted to model the effects of selected channel and structural modifications on flood elevations and inundated areas. The study covered the reach of Harbor Brook downstream from Interstate 691 and the reach of Crow Hollow Brook downstream from Johnson Avenue. Proposed modifications, which include changes to bank heights, channel geometry, structural geometry, and streambed armoring on Harbor Brook and changes to bank heights on Crow Hollow Brook, significantly lower flood elevations. Results of the modeling indicate a significant reduction of flood elevations for the 10-year, 25-year, 35-year, 50-year, and 100-year flood frequencies using proposed modifications to (1 ) bank heights between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook, and between Centennial Avenue and Johnson Avenue on Crow Hollow Brook; (2) channel geometry between Coe Avenue and Interstate 69 1 on Harbor Brook; (3) bridge and culvert opening geometry between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook; and (4) channel streambed armoring between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook. The proposed modifications were developed without consideration of cost-benefit ratios.

  4. 30 CFR 756.21 - Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.21 Section 756.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.21 Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

  5. 30 CFR 756.21 - Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.21 Section 756.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.21 Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

  6. 30 CFR 756.21 - Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.21 Section 756.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.21 Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

  7. 30 CFR 756.21 - Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.21 Section 756.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.21 Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

  8. Education through Communication: Alu'utaashe Crow Develop Model in Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Judy

    1994-01-01

    A bilingual education program developed in Pryor (Montana) for Crow students in grades K-8 emphasizes teaching English within the context of the students' culture and language, promoting an understanding of language usage, and incorporating Native knowledge of science and math in the classroom. (LP)

  9. Preserving Old Ways the Modern Way: Red Crow Uses GIS, GPS to Document Traditional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fat, Mary Weasel

    2004-01-01

    The article report that Red Crow Community College has created a unique, one-year certificate program that will train students to compile and document Kainai traditional knowledge. The program called the First Nations' Land Use Certificate Program accepted its first 16 students in January 2004 at the college, which is located on the Blood Reserve…

  10. 50 CFR 21.43 - Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows, and magpies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the address provided at 50 CFR 2.1(b). ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.43 Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows,...

  11. Stratigraphic Context of Old Crow Tephra, Holitna Lowland, Interior Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.; Lea, P.D.; Walter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A thick deposit of Old Crow tephra was discovered in a bluff exposure along the middle Holitna River near the Kulukbuk Hills (61??20???N latitude, 157??10???W longitude) in interior southwest Alaska. This locality is the southwesternmost-known deposit of Old Crow tephra in Alaska. Thickness and grain-size data from this site support a source volcano in the eastern Aleutian arc. Pleistocene stratigraphic sequences in the lowland are dominated by upward-fining eolian sand-sheet deposits and loess separated by organic silt. These deposits record at least two episodes of regional glaciation and an intervening nonglacial period (marine oxygen isotope stage 3, stage 5, or both). Old Crow tephra crops out near the top of the lower upward-fining eolian unit, indicating that the ash erupted near the end of an interval of periglacial eolian sedimentation. The sequence of eolian deposits that contain Old Crow tephra probably accumulated during the latter part of marine oxygen isotope stage 6, whereas the overlying eolian sequence formed during the last glaciation (stage 2). This stratigraphic position is consistent with other stratigraphic contexts for the tephra and with fission-track and thermoluminescence ages of ca. 140,000 ?? 10,000 yr B.P.

  12. WESTERN RESEARCH INSTITUTE CONTAINED RECOVERY OF OILY WASTES (CROW) PROCESS - ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW) technology developed by the Western Research Institute. The process involves the injection of heated water into the subsurface to mobilize oily wastes, which are removed from the ...

  13. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  14. 30 CFR 756.21 - Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.21 Section 756.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.21 Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

  15. On the Anti-Symmetric Modes of Crow Instability by a General Instability Analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhongquan Charlie; Hardin, Jay

    2012-11-01

    The sinusoidal instability of a counter-rotation vortex pair has been investigated in Crow's seminal work (Crow, 1970). The anti-symmetric modes of instability were considered weak interaction modes by Crow, although they are the most amplified modes, according to Fig. 11 in his paper. The weak interaction instability modes are those disturbances that are near the zero-self-induction and in the high wave-number range. However, later Saffman (1992) stated that all the anti-symmetric modes were stable. In this paper, the disturbance matrix is investigated. By looking at the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the growth matrix, the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of Crow's instability are recovered. Furthermore, by using a general instability analysis method of Farrell and Ioannou (1996), the upper bounds of the instability can be obtained, which again proves that the anti-symmetric modes are more amplified. These anti-symmetric modes can occur in both the long-wave modes and short-wave modes.

  16. 76 FR 60815 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills Training Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills Training Area Land Withdrawal, Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) AGENCY: National Guard Bureau (NGB), Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This announces the availability of...

  17. How New Caledonian crows solve novel foraging problems and what it means for cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corina J; Breen, Alexis J; Taylor, Alex H; Gray, Russell D; Hoppitt, William J E

    2016-03-01

    New Caledonian crows make and use tools, and tool types vary over geographic landscapes. Social learning may explain the variation in tool design, but it is unknown to what degree social learning accounts for the maintenance of these designs. Indeed, little is known about the mechanisms these crows use to obtain information from others, despite the question's importance in understanding whether tool behavior is transmitted via social, genetic, or environmental means. For social transmission to account for tool-type variation, copying must utilize a mechanism that is action specific (e.g., pushing left vs. right) as well as context specific (e.g., pushing a particular object vs. any object). To determine whether crows can copy a demonstrator's actions as well as the contexts in which they occur, we conducted a diffusion experiment using a novel foraging task. We used a nontool task to eliminate any confounds introduced by individual differences in their prior tool experience. Two groups had demonstrators (trained in isolation on different options of a four-option task, including a two-action option) and one group did not. We found that crows socially learn about context: After observers see a demonstrator interact with the task, they are more likely to interact with the same parts of the task. In contrast, observers did not copy the demonstrator's specific actions. Our results suggest it is unlikely that observing tool-making behavior transmits tool types. We suggest it is possible that tool types are transmitted when crows copy the physical form of the tools they encounter.

  18. How New Caledonian crows solve novel foraging problems and what it means for cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corina J; Breen, Alexis J; Taylor, Alex H; Gray, Russell D; Hoppitt, William J E

    2016-03-01

    New Caledonian crows make and use tools, and tool types vary over geographic landscapes. Social learning may explain the variation in tool design, but it is unknown to what degree social learning accounts for the maintenance of these designs. Indeed, little is known about the mechanisms these crows use to obtain information from others, despite the question's importance in understanding whether tool behavior is transmitted via social, genetic, or environmental means. For social transmission to account for tool-type variation, copying must utilize a mechanism that is action specific (e.g., pushing left vs. right) as well as context specific (e.g., pushing a particular object vs. any object). To determine whether crows can copy a demonstrator's actions as well as the contexts in which they occur, we conducted a diffusion experiment using a novel foraging task. We used a nontool task to eliminate any confounds introduced by individual differences in their prior tool experience. Two groups had demonstrators (trained in isolation on different options of a four-option task, including a two-action option) and one group did not. We found that crows socially learn about context: After observers see a demonstrator interact with the task, they are more likely to interact with the same parts of the task. In contrast, observers did not copy the demonstrator's specific actions. Our results suggest it is unlikely that observing tool-making behavior transmits tool types. We suggest it is possible that tool types are transmitted when crows copy the physical form of the tools they encounter. PMID:26276368

  19. Tolerance and Social Facilitation in the Foraging Behaviour of Free-Ranging Crows (Corvus corone corone; C. c. cornix)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rachael; Schiestl, Martina; Whiten, Andrew; Schwab, Christine; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Social foraging provides animals with opportunities to gain knowledge about available food. Studies indicate that animals are influenced by social context during exploration and are able to learn socially. Carrion and hooded crows, which are opportunistic generalists with flexible social systems, have so far received little focus in this area. We combined observational and experimental approaches to investigate social interactions during foraging and social influences on crow behaviour within a free-ranging population at Vienna Zoo, which included 115 individually marked crows. We expected the crows to be tolerant of conspecifics during foraging due to high food abundance. We predicted that social context would enhance familiar object exploration, as well as a specific foraging strategy: predation by crows on other species. We found that crows were highly tolerant of one another, as reflected by their high rates of cofeeding – where they fed directly beside conspecific(s) – relative to affiliative or agonistic interactions. Evidence for social facilitation – when the observer’s behaviour is affected by the mere presence of a model – was found in both object exploration and predation behaviour. Specifically, crows touched the objects more frequently when others were present (whilst only approaching the objects when alone), and conspecifics were present more frequently during predation events involving the high-risk target species. Evidence for enhancement during object exploration – where the observer’s attention is drawn to a place or object by a model’s actions – was not confirmed in this context. Our results highlight the role played by the presence of conspecifics across different contexts: natural foraging behaviour, familiar object exploration and a specific foraging strategy. To our knowledge, this is one of the first corvid studies aimed at teasing apart specific social influence and learning mechanisms in the field. These crows therefore

  20. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  1. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy in the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation at Jim Thorpe and Lavelle, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Opdyke, N.D. ); Divenere, V.J. . Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory)

    1992-01-01

    In a previous study of the mid to upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation, a well defined magnetic polarity stratigraphy was obtained in the upper 350 m of the formation just below the Chesterian-Morrowan boundary at Pottsville, Pa. As a result of this successful study, samples were collected throughout the exposed portion of the Mauch Chunk Formation at Jim Thorpe, Pa. and in new exposures in the Frackville Anticline south of Lavelle, Pa. 183 oriented cores were collected in red mudstones, siltstones and fine sandstones from the lower 450 m of the Mauch Chunk from its contact with the underlying Pocono Formation at the type section of the Mauch Chunk Formation at Jim Thorpe, Pa. 115 oriented cores were collected from the lower 440 m of the Mauch Chunk Formation near Lavelle, Pa., and 62 oriented cores were collected from the upper 215 m. Unfortunately, the middle member is poorly exposed and a complete section is yet to be sampled. All samples were subjected to progressive thermal demagnetization to temperatures as high as 690 C. Normal and reversed polarity zones were identified in the stable high temperature components after removal of a uniform reversed polarity Permo-Carboniferous overprint. The last Mauch Chunk type redbeds at the intertonguing contact with the Pottsville Formation at both the Lavelle and Pottsville sections are in normal polarity zones. The first Mauch Chunk type redbeds at the intertonguing contact with the Pocono Formation at both the Lavelle and Jim Thorpe sections are in reversed polarity zones. However, a one-to-one correlation is not seen in the magnetozones from the lower Mauch Chunk at Lavelle and Jim Thorpe. It seems likely that the lithologic boundary separating the Pocono Formation sandstones from the first appearance of Mauch Chunk redbeds is not a time boundary.

  2. The genomic landscape underlying phenotypic integrity in the face of gene flow in crows.

    PubMed

    Poelstra, J W; Vijay, N; Bossu, C M; Lantz, H; Ryll, B; Müller, I; Baglione, V; Unneberg, P; Wikelski, M; Grabherr, M G; Wolf, J B W

    2014-06-20

    The importance, extent, and mode of interspecific gene flow for the evolution of species has long been debated. Characterization of genomic differentiation in a classic example of hybridization between all-black carrion crows and gray-coated hooded crows identified genome-wide introgression extending far beyond the morphological hybrid zone. Gene expression divergence was concentrated in pigmentation genes expressed in gray versus black feather follicles. Only a small number of narrow genomic islands exhibited resistance to gene flow. One prominent genomic region (<2 megabases) harbored 81 of all 82 fixed differences (of 8.4 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in total) linking genes involved in pigmentation and in visual perception-a genomic signal reflecting color-mediated prezygotic isolation. Thus, localized genomic selection can cause marked heterogeneity in introgression landscapes while maintaining phenotypic divergence. PMID:24948738

  3. The genomic landscape underlying phenotypic integrity in the face of gene flow in crows.

    PubMed

    Poelstra, J W; Vijay, N; Bossu, C M; Lantz, H; Ryll, B; Müller, I; Baglione, V; Unneberg, P; Wikelski, M; Grabherr, M G; Wolf, J B W

    2014-06-20

    The importance, extent, and mode of interspecific gene flow for the evolution of species has long been debated. Characterization of genomic differentiation in a classic example of hybridization between all-black carrion crows and gray-coated hooded crows identified genome-wide introgression extending far beyond the morphological hybrid zone. Gene expression divergence was concentrated in pigmentation genes expressed in gray versus black feather follicles. Only a small number of narrow genomic islands exhibited resistance to gene flow. One prominent genomic region (<2 megabases) harbored 81 of all 82 fixed differences (of 8.4 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in total) linking genes involved in pigmentation and in visual perception-a genomic signal reflecting color-mediated prezygotic isolation. Thus, localized genomic selection can cause marked heterogeneity in introgression landscapes while maintaining phenotypic divergence.

  4. You sound familiar: carrion crows can differentiate between the calls of known and unknown heterospecifics.

    PubMed

    Wascher, Claudia A F; Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wilkinson, Anna

    2012-09-01

    In group-living animals, it is adaptive to recognize conspecifics on the basis of familiarity or group membership as it allows association with preferred social partners and avoidance of competitors. However, animals do not only associate with conspecifics but also with heterospecifics, for example in mixed-species flocks. Consequently, between-species recognition, based either on familiarity or even individual recognition, is likely to be beneficial. The extent to which animals can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar heterospecifics is currently unclear. In the present study, we investigated the ability of eight carrion crows to differentiate between the voices and calls of familiar and unfamiliar humans and jackdaws. The crows responded significantly more often to unfamiliar than familiar human playbacks and, conversely, responded more to familiar than unfamiliar jackdaw calls. Our results provide the first evidence that birds can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar heterospecific individuals using auditory stimuli.

  5. Mesopredators constrain a top predator: competitive release of ravens after culling crows

    PubMed Central

    Bodey, Thomas W.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Bearhop, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Although predator control programmes rarely consider complex competitive interactions among predators, it is becoming clear that removal of larger ‘superior’ competitors often releases the ‘inferior’ ones and can precipitate trophic cascades. In contrast, our study indicates that culling hooded crows Corvus cornix appears to release a larger competitor, the common raven Corvus corax. Ravens ranged more widely, and the predation of artificial nests was significantly faster (although total predation was similar), after the removal of crows. Our study provides evidence of a novel reversal of competitive release where a larger species was freed from constraints imposed on its distribution and behaviour by a smaller species, and emphasizes the importance of considering community and ecosystem effects of predator manipulations when undertaken for conservation or game management. PMID:19570777

  6. Is primate tool use special? Chimpanzee and New Caledonian crow compared

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, W. C.

    2013-01-01

    The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is well-known in both nature and captivity as an impressive maker and user of tools, but recently the New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides) has been championed as being equivalent or superior to the ape in elementary technology. I systematically compare the two taxa, going beyond simple presence/absence scoring of tool-using and -making types, on four more precise aspects of material culture: (i) types of associative technology (tools used in combination); (ii) modes of tool making; (iii) modes of tool use; and (iv) functions of tool use. I emphasize tool use in nature, when performance is habitual or customary, rather than in anecdotal or idiosyncratic. On all four measures, the ape shows more variety than does the corvid, especially in modes and functions that go beyond extractive foraging. However, more sustained field research is required on the crows before this contrast is conclusive. PMID:24101630

  7. You sound familiar: carrion crows can differentiate between the calls of known and unknown heterospecifics

    PubMed Central

    Wascher, Claudia A. F.; Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wilkinson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In group-living animals, it is adaptive to recognize conspecifics on the basis of familiarity or group membership as it allows association with preferred social partners and avoidance of competitors. However, animals do not only associate with conspecifics but also with heterospecifics, for example in mixed-species flocks. Consequently, between-species recognition, based either on familiarity or even individual recognition, is likely to be beneficial. The extent to which animals can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar heterospecifics is currently unclear. In the present study, we investigated the ability of eight carrion crows to differentiate between the voices and calls of familiar and unfamiliar humans and jackdaws. The crows responded significantly more often to unfamiliar than familiar human playbacks and, conversely, responded more to familiar than unfamiliar jackdaw calls. Our results provide the first evidence that birds can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar heterospecific individuals using auditory stimuli. PMID:22538713

  8. New Caledonian crows attend to multiple functional properties of complex tools.

    PubMed

    St Clair, James J H; Rutz, Christian

    2013-11-19

    The ability to attend to the functional properties of foraging tools should affect energy-intake rates, fitness components and ultimately the evolutionary dynamics of tool-related behaviour. New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides use three distinct tool types for extractive foraging: non-hooked stick tools, hooked stick tools and tools cut from the barbed edges of Pandanus spp. leaves. The latter two types exhibit clear functional polarity, because of (respectively) a single terminal, crow-manufactured hook and natural barbs running along one edge of the leaf strip; in each case, the 'hooks' can only aid prey capture if the tool is oriented correctly by the crow during deployment. A previous experimental study of New Caledonian crows found that subjects paid little attention to the barbs of supplied (wide) pandanus tools, resulting in non-functional tool orientation during foraging. This result is puzzling, given the presumed fitness benefits of consistently orienting tools functionally in the wild. We investigated whether the lack of discrimination with respect to (wide) pandanus tool orientation also applies to hooked stick tools. We experimentally provided subjects with naturalistic replica tools in a range of orientations and found that all subjects used these tools correctly, regardless of how they had been presented. In a companion experiment, we explored the extent to which normally co-occurring tool features (terminal hook, curvature of the tool shaft and stripped bark at the hooked end) inform tool-orientation decisions, by forcing birds to deploy 'unnatural' tools, which exhibited these traits at opposite ends. Our subjects attended to at least two of the three tool features, although, as expected, the location of the hook was of paramount importance. We discuss these results in the context of earlier research and propose avenues for future work.

  9. American crows as carriers of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with vanA gene.

    PubMed

    Oravcova, Veronika; Zurek, Ludek; Townsend, Andrea; Clark, Anne B; Ellis, Julie C; Cizek, Alois; Literak, Ivan

    2014-04-01

    We studied the vanA-carrying vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from American crows in the United States during the winter 2011/2012. Faecal samples from crows were cultured selectively for VRE and characterized. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to examine epidemiological relationships of vanA-containing VRE. Isolates were tested in vitro for their ability to horizontally transfer the vancomycin resistance trait. VRE with the vanA gene were found in 15 (2.5%) of 590 crows samples, from which we obtained 22 different isolates. Enterococcal species were Enterococcus faecium (14) and E. faecalis (8). One, two and 19 isolates originated from Kansas, New York State and Massachusetts, respectively. Based on MLST analysis, E. faecium isolates were grouped as ST18 (6 isolates), ST555 (2), and novel types ST749 (1), ST750 (3), ST751 (1), ST752 (1). Enterococcus faecalis isolates belonged to ST6 (1), ST16 (3) and ST179 (4). All isolates were able to transfer the vancomycin resistance trait via filter mating with very high transfer range. Clinically important enterococci with the vanA gene occur in faeces of wild American crows throughout the United States. These migrating birds may contribute to the dissemination of VRE in environment over large distances. [Correction added after first online publication on 06 August 2013: The number of E. faecium ST752 isolate is now amended to '1', consistent with that shown in the 'Results' section and Figure 2.].

  10. New Caledonian crows attend to multiple functional properties of complex tools.

    PubMed

    St Clair, James J H; Rutz, Christian

    2013-11-19

    The ability to attend to the functional properties of foraging tools should affect energy-intake rates, fitness components and ultimately the evolutionary dynamics of tool-related behaviour. New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides use three distinct tool types for extractive foraging: non-hooked stick tools, hooked stick tools and tools cut from the barbed edges of Pandanus spp. leaves. The latter two types exhibit clear functional polarity, because of (respectively) a single terminal, crow-manufactured hook and natural barbs running along one edge of the leaf strip; in each case, the 'hooks' can only aid prey capture if the tool is oriented correctly by the crow during deployment. A previous experimental study of New Caledonian crows found that subjects paid little attention to the barbs of supplied (wide) pandanus tools, resulting in non-functional tool orientation during foraging. This result is puzzling, given the presumed fitness benefits of consistently orienting tools functionally in the wild. We investigated whether the lack of discrimination with respect to (wide) pandanus tool orientation also applies to hooked stick tools. We experimentally provided subjects with naturalistic replica tools in a range of orientations and found that all subjects used these tools correctly, regardless of how they had been presented. In a companion experiment, we explored the extent to which normally co-occurring tool features (terminal hook, curvature of the tool shaft and stripped bark at the hooked end) inform tool-orientation decisions, by forcing birds to deploy 'unnatural' tools, which exhibited these traits at opposite ends. Our subjects attended to at least two of the three tool features, although, as expected, the location of the hook was of paramount importance. We discuss these results in the context of earlier research and propose avenues for future work. PMID:24101625

  11. Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian; Klump, Barbara C; Komarczyk, Lisa; Leighton, Rosanna; Kramer, Joshua; Wischnewski, Saskia; Sugasawa, Shoko; Morrissey, Michael B; James, Richard; St Clair, James J H; Switzer, Richard A; Masuda, Bryce M

    2016-01-01

    Only a handful of bird species are known to use foraging tools in the wild. Amongst them, the New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides) stands out with its sophisticated tool-making skills. Despite considerable speculation, the evolutionary origins of this species' remarkable tool behaviour remain largely unknown, not least because no naturally tool-using congeners have yet been identified that would enable informative comparisons. Here we show that another tropical corvid, the 'Alalā (C. hawaiiensis; Hawaiian crow), is a highly dexterous tool user. Although the 'Alalā became extinct in the wild in the early 2000s, and currently survives only in captivity, at least two lines of evidence suggest that tool use is part of the species' natural behavioural repertoire: juveniles develop functional tool use without training, or social input from adults; and proficient tool use is a species-wide capacity. 'Alalā and New Caledonian crows evolved in similar environments on remote tropical islands, yet are only distantly related, suggesting that their technical abilities arose convergently. This supports the idea that avian foraging tool use is facilitated by ecological conditions typical of islands, such as reduced competition for embedded prey and low predation risk. Our discovery creates exciting opportunities for comparative research on multiple tool-using and non-tool-using corvid species. Such work will in turn pave the way for replicated cross-taxonomic comparisons with the primate lineage, enabling valuable insights into the evolutionary origins of tool-using behaviour. PMID:27629645

  12. Distribution of retinal cone photoreceptor oil droplets, and identification of associated carotenoids in crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Lutfur; Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Maeda, Isamu; Tanaka, Hideuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2010-06-01

    The topography of cone oil droplets and their carotenoids were investigated in the retina of jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). Fresh retina was sampled for the study of retinal cone oil droplets, and extracted retinal carotenoids were saponified using methods adapted from a recent study, then identified with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess the effects of saponification conditions on carotenoid recovery from crow retina, we varied base concentration and total time of saponification across a wide range of conditions, and again used HPLC to compare carotenoid concentrations. Based on colors, at least four types of oil droplets were recognized, i.e., red, orange, green, and translucent, across the retina. With an average of 91,202 /mm(2), density gradually declines in an eccentric manner from optic disc. In retina, the density and size of droplets are inversely related. In the peripheral zone, oil droplets were significantly larger than those of the central area. The proportion of orange oil droplets (33%) was higher in the central area, whereas green was predominant in other areas. Three types of carotenoid (astaxanthin, galloxanthin and lutein), together with one unknown carotenoid, were recovered from the crow retina; astaxanthin was the dominant carotenoid among them. The recovery of carotenoids was affected by saponification conditions. Astaxanthin was well recovered in weak alkali (0.06 M KOH), in contrast, xanthophyllic carotenoids were best recovered in strong alkali (0.6 M KOH) after 12 h of saponification at freeze temperature.

  13. Using the Aesop's Fable Paradigm to Investigate Causal Understanding of Water Displacement by New Caledonian Crows

    PubMed Central

    Jelbert, Sarah A.; Taylor, Alex H.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding causal regularities in the world is a key feature of human cognition. However, the extent to which non-human animals are capable of causal understanding is not well understood. Here, we used the Aesop's fable paradigm – in which subjects drop stones into water to raise the water level and obtain an out of reach reward – to assess New Caledonian crows' causal understanding of water displacement. We found that crows preferentially dropped stones into a water-filled tube instead of a sand-filled tube; they dropped sinking objects rather than floating objects; solid objects rather than hollow objects, and they dropped objects into a tube with a high water level rather than a low one. However, they failed two more challenging tasks which required them to attend to the width of the tube, and to counter-intuitive causal cues in a U-shaped apparatus. Our results indicate that New Caledonian crows possess a sophisticated, but incomplete, understanding of the causal properties of displacement, rivalling that of 5–7 year old children. PMID:24671252

  14. The Pied Crow (Corvus albus) is insensitive to diclofenac at concentrations present in carrion.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Mompati, Kefiloe Feliciity; Duncan, Neil; Taggart, Mark Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), kills vultures (Gyps spp.) that consume tainted carcasses. As a result, vulture populations in India, Nepal, and Pakistan have been devastated. Studies on meloxicam and ketoprofen demonstrated that the toxicity of the NSAIDs is unpredictable, thereby necessitating individual testing of all available NSAIDs. Because it is no longer practical to use vultures for toxicity testing, we evaluated the Pied Crow (Corvus albus) as a model. Pied Crows (n=6) were exposed to a dose of 0.8 and 10 mg/kg of diclofenac, with no signs of toxicity, and a rapid half-life of elimination. Using primary renal cell and hepatocyte cultures, a high tolerance was demonstrated at the cellular level. Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic data for the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus) and the African White-backed (Gyps africanus), Cape Griffon (Gyps coprotheres), and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) showed a trend toward toxicity when the half-life of elimination increased. We conclude that the crow is not susceptible to diclofenac and, more important, that toxicity in the Gyps species is probably related to zero-order metabolism. PMID:22102664

  15. Hearing sensitivity and critical ratios of hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kenneth K; Klokker, Signe

    2006-02-01

    The hearing threshold and critical ratios were estimated psycho-acoustically for captive wild-caught hooded crows by a yes/no procedure and the method of constant stimuli. Human subjects were tested in the same setup for direct comparison and to check for experimental artifacts. The hooded crows were found to have excellent low-frequency hearing capabilities compared to other passerine birds. Their hearing sensitivity is very close to that of humans at and below 5.6 kHz. The distribution of the critical ratios differed from that of the average bird and humans in being rather constant with frequency and not increasing monotonically. It furthermore showed a middle region of 5-6 dB lower critical ratio values between 500 Hz and 2 kHz. It is suggested that this improved range for hearing in noise is an adaptation to long distance communication. Human critical ratios gave the expected values and were between 3 and 6 dB lower than those of the crows.

  16. Evolution of Vortex Pairs Subject to the Crow Instability in Wall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselin, Daniel; Williamson, C. H. K.

    2014-11-01

    In this research, we examine the effect of a solid boundary on the dynamics and instabilities of a pair of counter-rotating vortices. An isolated vortex pair is subject to both a short-wave elliptic instability and a long-wave Crow (1970) instability. Near a wall, the boundary layer that forms between the primary vortices and the wall can separate, leading to the generation of secondary vorticity. In the present study, we are examining the long-wave Crow instability as it is modified by interaction with a wall. Several key features of the flow are observed. Strong axial flows cause fluid containing vorticity to move from the ``troughs'' of the initially wavy vortex tube to the ``peaks.'' This process is associated with distinct differences in vortex concentration at the peak and the trough, which lead to the establishment of an axial pressure gradient. Furthermore, the primary and secondary vortices interact to form additional small-scale vortex rings. The exact number and orientation of these small-scale rings is highly dependent on the extent to which the Crow instability has developed prior to interaction with the ground. Finally, significant changes to the vortex dynamics, including circulation, core size, and topology, are also observed during and after interaction with the boundary. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under ONR Award No. N00014-12-1-0712.

  17. Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian; Klump, Barbara C; Komarczyk, Lisa; Leighton, Rosanna; Kramer, Joshua; Wischnewski, Saskia; Sugasawa, Shoko; Morrissey, Michael B; James, Richard; St Clair, James J H; Switzer, Richard A; Masuda, Bryce M

    2016-09-14

    Only a handful of bird species are known to use foraging tools in the wild. Amongst them, the New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides) stands out with its sophisticated tool-making skills. Despite considerable speculation, the evolutionary origins of this species' remarkable tool behaviour remain largely unknown, not least because no naturally tool-using congeners have yet been identified that would enable informative comparisons. Here we show that another tropical corvid, the 'Alalā (C. hawaiiensis; Hawaiian crow), is a highly dexterous tool user. Although the 'Alalā became extinct in the wild in the early 2000s, and currently survives only in captivity, at least two lines of evidence suggest that tool use is part of the species' natural behavioural repertoire: juveniles develop functional tool use without training, or social input from adults; and proficient tool use is a species-wide capacity. 'Alalā and New Caledonian crows evolved in similar environments on remote tropical islands, yet are only distantly related, suggesting that their technical abilities arose convergently. This supports the idea that avian foraging tool use is facilitated by ecological conditions typical of islands, such as reduced competition for embedded prey and low predation risk. Our discovery creates exciting opportunities for comparative research on multiple tool-using and non-tool-using corvid species. Such work will in turn pave the way for replicated cross-taxonomic comparisons with the primate lineage, enabling valuable insights into the evolutionary origins of tool-using behaviour.

  18. Using the Aesop's fable paradigm to investigate causal understanding of water displacement by New Caledonian crows.

    PubMed

    Jelbert, Sarah A; Taylor, Alex H; Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S; Gray, Russell D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding causal regularities in the world is a key feature of human cognition. However, the extent to which non-human animals are capable of causal understanding is not well understood. Here, we used the Aesop's fable paradigm--in which subjects drop stones into water to raise the water level and obtain an out of reach reward--to assess New Caledonian crows' causal understanding of water displacement. We found that crows preferentially dropped stones into a water-filled tube instead of a sand-filled tube; they dropped sinking objects rather than floating objects; solid objects rather than hollow objects, and they dropped objects into a tube with a high water level rather than a low one. However, they failed two more challenging tasks which required them to attend to the width of the tube, and to counter-intuitive causal cues in a U-shaped apparatus. Our results indicate that New Caledonian crows possess a sophisticated, but incomplete, understanding of the causal properties of displacement, rivalling that of 5-7 year old children.

  19. Social and Foraging Behavior in Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus): Incorporating New Analyses and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Carol K.

    Both foraging and social decisions impact animals in important ways. We investigate the effects of age on foraging efficiency and sociality on Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus) at the beach, and use the growing field of social network analysis (SNA) to further examine social behavior in these birds. Specifically, we predict that 1) adults are more efficient foragers than juveniles, 2) juveniles interact with larger numbers of social partners than adults, 3) juveniles and adults prefer to associate with each other rather than within their own age classes, 4) crows are not associating randomly while on the beach (aka they have preferred social partners), and 5) pairs of individuals engaging in more affiliative behaviors with each other are less likely to also behave agonistically to one another, and vice versa. We also explore the uses of a remote radio detection system Encounternet by testing the validity of pilot data collected through this system against live observations conducted simultaneously. There is no effect of age on foraging efficiency; however, juveniles were found to interact with more total partners than adults, and most social associations occur between juveniles and adults. Our results also suggest crows are engaging in preferential social associations, though there is no evidence that affiliative pairs and agonistic pairs are mutually exclusive. Finally, it appears Encounternet can be useful for data collection when paired with live observations, as long as certain limitations are kept in mind. Our pilot study could be beneficial to anyone considering the use of remote detection tools in data collection on animals.

  20. Distribution of retinal cone photoreceptor oil droplets, and identification of associated carotenoids in crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Lutfur; Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Maeda, Isamu; Tanaka, Hideuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2010-06-01

    The topography of cone oil droplets and their carotenoids were investigated in the retina of jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). Fresh retina was sampled for the study of retinal cone oil droplets, and extracted retinal carotenoids were saponified using methods adapted from a recent study, then identified with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess the effects of saponification conditions on carotenoid recovery from crow retina, we varied base concentration and total time of saponification across a wide range of conditions, and again used HPLC to compare carotenoid concentrations. Based on colors, at least four types of oil droplets were recognized, i.e., red, orange, green, and translucent, across the retina. With an average of 91,202 /mm(2), density gradually declines in an eccentric manner from optic disc. In retina, the density and size of droplets are inversely related. In the peripheral zone, oil droplets were significantly larger than those of the central area. The proportion of orange oil droplets (33%) was higher in the central area, whereas green was predominant in other areas. Three types of carotenoid (astaxanthin, galloxanthin and lutein), together with one unknown carotenoid, were recovered from the crow retina; astaxanthin was the dominant carotenoid among them. The recovery of carotenoids was affected by saponification conditions. Astaxanthin was well recovered in weak alkali (0.06 M KOH), in contrast, xanthophyllic carotenoids were best recovered in strong alkali (0.6 M KOH) after 12 h of saponification at freeze temperature. PMID:20528159

  1. Comprehensive health care reform in Vermont: a conversation with Governor Jim Douglas. Interview by James Maxwell.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jim

    2007-01-01

    In this conversation, Vermont's Republican governor, Jim Douglas, discusses his role in and views on the state's comprehensive health reforms adopted in 2006. The reforms are designed to provide universal access to coverage, improve the quality and performance of the health care system, and promote health and wellness across the lifespan. He describes the specific features of the reforms, the plan for their financing, and the difficult compromises that had to be reached with the Democratically controlled legislature. He talks about his need, as governor, to balance the goals of health reform against other state priorities such as education and economic development.

  2. Elements in whole blood of Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus) in Alaska: No evidence for an association with beak deformities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    A recent outbreak of beak deformities among resident birds in Alaska has raised concern about environmental contamination as a possible underlying factor. We measured whole blood concentrations of 30 essential and nonessential elements to determine whether any were associated with beak deformities in Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus). We tested for differences between 1) adults with versus those without beak deformities and 2) unaffected adults versus juveniles. Crows with beak deformities had slightly higher levels of barium, molybdenum, and vanadium (all P<0.05), but concentrations were generally low and within the range of values reported from other apparently healthy wild birds. Concentrations of several elements, including selenium, were higher in birds without versus birds with beak deformities (all P<0.05), a difference that may be explained in part by compromised foraging ability associated with the deformities. Adult crows had higher concentrations of cadmium, silicon, and zinc than juveniles (all P<0.05), although differences were relatively small and values were similar to those from other wild birds. Our results suggest that neither selenium nor other tested elements are likely to be causing beak deformities in Alaskan crows. We also provide the first data on elemental concentrations in Northwestern Crows. Levels of selenium far exceeded those typically found in passerine birds and were similar to those in marine-associated waterfowl, suggesting that background levels should be interpreted relative to a species's environment.

  3. Interspecific Hybridization as a Tool to Understand Vocal Divergence: The Example of Crowing in Quail (Genus Coturnix)

    PubMed Central

    Derégnaucourt, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that lead organisms to be separated into distinct species remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. Interspecific hybridization, which results from incomplete reproductive isolation, is a useful tool to investigate such mechanisms. In birds, interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent, despite the fact that closed species exhibit morphological and behavioural differences. Evolution of behaviour is difficult to investigate on a large timescale since it does not ‘fossilize’. Here I propose that calls of hybrid non-songbirds that develop without the influence of learning may help in understanding the gradual process that leads to vocal divergence during speciation. I recorded crows produced by the European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix), the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and their hybrids (F1, F2 and backcrosses). Most crowing patterns were intermediate to those of the parental species; some were similar to one or the other parental species, or not present in either parental species. I also observed vocal changes in hybrid crows during the breeding season and from one year to the other. This vocal variability resembles those observed during the ontogeny of the crow in quails. It is likely that similar mechanisms involved in vocal changes during ontogeny might have driven vocal divergence in the species of Palearctic quails. I suggest that hybrid crows might have resembled those produced by intermediary forms of quails during speciation. PMID:20195481

  4. Activity profiles and hook-tool use of New Caledonian crows recorded by bird-borne video cameras

    PubMed Central

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Rutz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    New Caledonian crows are renowned for their unusually sophisticated tool behaviour. Despite decades of fieldwork, however, very little is known about how they make and use their foraging tools in the wild, which is largely owing to the difficulties in observing these shy forest birds. To obtain first estimates of activity budgets, as well as close-up observations of tool-assisted foraging, we equipped 19 wild crows with self-developed miniature video cameras, yielding more than 10 h of analysable video footage for 10 subjects. While only four crows used tools during recording sessions, they did so extensively: across all 10 birds, we conservatively estimate that tool-related behaviour occurred in 3% of total observation time, and accounted for 19% of all foraging behaviour. Our video-loggers provided first footage of crows manufacturing, and using, one of their most complex tool types—hooked stick tools—under completely natural foraging conditions. We recorded manufacture from live branches of paperbark (Melaleuca sp.) and another tree species (thought to be Acacia spirorbis), and deployment of tools in a range of contexts, including on the forest floor. Taken together, our video recordings reveal an ‘expanded’ foraging niche for hooked stick tools, and highlight more generally how crows routinely switch between tool- and bill-assisted foraging. PMID:26701755

  5. Activity profiles and hook-tool use of New Caledonian crows recorded by bird-borne video cameras.

    PubMed

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Rutz, Christian

    2015-12-01

    New Caledonian crows are renowned for their unusually sophisticated tool behaviour. Despite decades of fieldwork, however, very little is known about how they make and use their foraging tools in the wild, which is largely owing to the difficulties in observing these shy forest birds. To obtain first estimates of activity budgets, as well as close-up observations of tool-assisted foraging, we equipped 19 wild crows with self-developed miniature video cameras, yielding more than 10 h of analysable video footage for 10 subjects. While only four crows used tools during recording sessions, they did so extensively: across all 10 birds, we conservatively estimate that tool-related behaviour occurred in 3% of total observation time, and accounted for 19% of all foraging behaviour. Our video-loggers provided first footage of crows manufacturing, and using, one of their most complex tool types--hooked stick tools--under completely natural foraging conditions. We recorded manufacture from live branches of paperbark (Melaleuca sp.) and another tree species (thought to be Acacia spirorbis), and deployment of tools in a range of contexts, including on the forest floor. Taken together, our video recordings reveal an 'expanded' foraging niche for hooked stick tools, and highlight more generally how crows routinely switch between tool- and bill-assisted foraging. PMID:26701755

  6. Crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, 1999.

    PubMed Central

    Eidson, M.; Komar, N.; Sorhage, F.; Nelson, R.; Talbot, T.; Mostashari, F.; McLean, R.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to human encephalitis and meningitis cases, the West Nile (WN) virus outbreak in the summer and fall of 1999 in New York State resulted in bird deaths in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. From August to December 1999, 295 dead birds were laboratory-confirmed with WN virus infection; 262 (89%) were American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). The New York State Department of Health received reports of 17,339 dead birds, including 5,697 (33%) crows; in Connecticut 1,040 dead crows were reported. Bird deaths were critical in identifying WN virus as the cause of the human outbreak and defining its geographic and temporal limits. If established before a WN virus outbreak, a surveillance system based on bird deaths may provide a sensitive method of detecting WN virus. PMID:11585521

  7. Crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidson, M.; Komar, N.; Sorhage, F.; Nelson, R.; Talbot, T.; Mostashari, F.; McLean, R.; ,

    2001-01-01

    In addition to human encephalitis and meningitis cases, the West Nile (WN) virus outbreak in the summer and fall of 1999 in New York State resulted in bird deaths in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. From August to December 1999, 295 dead birds were laboratory-confirmed with WN virus infection; 262 (89%) were American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). The New York State Department of Health received reports of 17,339 dead birds, including 5,697 (33%) crows; in Connecticut 1,040 dead crows were reported. Bird deaths were critical in identifying WN virus as the cause of the human outbreak and defining its geographic and temporal limits. If established before a WN virus outbreak, a surveillance system based on bird deaths may provide a sensitive method of detecting WN virus.

  8. Population trends of Mariana Crow Corvus kubaryi on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plentovich, S.; Morton, J.M.; Bart, J.; Camp, R.J.; Lusk, M.; Johnson, N.; VanderWerf, E.

    2005-01-01

    Endemic to the islands of Guam and Rota in the Mariana Islands, Mariana Crow Corvus kubaryi is the only corvid in Micronesia. Currently, it survives on Guam only because of translocation of individuals from Rota (1999-2003). Island-wide surveys in 1982 and 1995 on Rota yielded population estimates of 1,348 and 592 respectively, indicating a 56% decrease in only 13 years. A sharp decline in the only viable Mariana Crow population has serious implications for conservation efforts on Rota and for efforts to re-establish the Guam population. However, the validity of the apparent decline has been debated among scientists and government management agencies. We augmented the 1982 and 1995 island-wide VCP surveys with (1) an additional island-wide survey conducted in 1998, and (2) roadside surveys conducted during 1991-1993 and again during 1999-2002. We also outline historical changes in Rota's limestone forest based on aerial photographs and historical information. Data from all surveys indicate a significant decline in the Mariana Crow population. Declines occurred especially along the north-central coast and in the area east of the airport known as As Dudo in the 1990s, but the data indicate an island-wide decline over the entire span of the surveys. introduced predators, human persecution, and habitat loss and degradation by anthropogenic and natural causes have all contributed to the decline. Long-term preservation of this species will require effective brown treesnake Boiga irregularis control, habitat protection, continued monitoring and research, and increased public education and awareness of Rota's rare and endangered species. ?? BirdLife International 2005.

  9. Experimental infection of Carrion crows (Corvus corone) with two European West Nile virus (WNV) strains.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Maha; Vangeluwe, Didier; Lecollinet, Sylvie; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2013-07-26

    West Nile virus (WNV) has become a wide-spread arbovirus in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin countries. This emerging zoonotic disease disseminated 13 years ago in North America where its impact on animal and public health has been considerable. Although American corvids have been the most reliable avian sentinels for WN surveillance in the United States, there is so far no data available about the susceptibility of their Western European counterparts to WNV. Clinical follow-up and serum, oral swabs and feathers viral RNA load monitoring was herein performed on wild-caught Carrion crows (Corvus corone) experimentally inoculated with two WNV strains, Is98 that was isolated from a stork in Israel where it elicited high rates of avian deaths in 1998, and Fr2000 which was only associated to sporadic equine cases in Camargue, France in 2000. Inoculated crows were sensitive to both WNV infections and, as expected from the available epidemiological data, Is98 induced a higher mortality rate (100% vs. 33%) and a quicker fatal outcome, with higher viral RNA loads detected in the serum, oral swabs and feathers than in the Fr2000 group. Therefore, Carrion crows should also be a target species for WNV surveillance in Western Europe, where reporting for abnormal mortalities could be completed by viral detection in the herein described avian matrices. These experimental findings also emphasize the peculiarity of the European situation where a large spectrum of WNV genetic and pathotypic variants have been so far isolated despite limited WN disease reports in wild birds. PMID:23434187

  10. Laudation in honor of Professor Miguel Ángel Jiménez Montaño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Fernández, Antero

    2013-12-01

    During our academic event, a laudatory ceremony in honor of Professor Miguel Ángel Jiménez Montaño was carried out and a brief account of his achievements was presented. Professor JJiménez Montaño is a founding member of the Faculty of Physics of the University of Veracruz, Campus Xalapa (founded in 1962). Professor Jiménez Montaño is currently the Dean of this Faculty and one of the most respected Mexican Physicist in the research areas of Biophysics and Computational Molecular Biology.

  11. The Use of Crow-AMSAA Plots to Assess Mishap Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Crow-AMSAA (CA) plots are used to model reliability growth. Use of CA plots has expanded into other areas, such as tracking events of interest to management, maintenance problems, and safety mishaps. Safety mishaps can often be successfully modeled using a Poisson probability distribution. CA plots show a Poisson process in log-log space. If the safety mishaps are a stable homogenous Poisson process, a linear fit to the points in a CA plot will have a slope of one. Slopes of greater than one indicate a nonhomogenous Poisson process, with increasing occurrence. Slopes of less than one indicate a nonhomogenous Poisson process, with decreasing occurrence. Changes in slope, known as "cusps," indicate a change in process, which could be an improvement or a degradation. After presenting the CA conceptual framework, examples are given of trending slips, trips and falls, and ergonomic incidents at NASA (from Agency-level data). Crow-AMSAA plotting is a robust tool for trending safety mishaps that can provide insight into safety performance over time.

  12. Use of number by crows: investigation by matching and oddity learning.

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, A A; Lazareva, O F; Zorina, Z A

    2000-01-01

    Hooded crows were trained in two-alternative simultaneous matching and oddity tasks with stimulus sets of three different categories: color (black and white), shape (Arabic Numerals 1 and 2, which were used as visual shapes only), and number of elements (arrays of one and two items). These three sets were used for training successively and repeatedly; the stimulus set was changed to the next one after the criterion (80% correct or better over 30 consecutive trials) was reached with the previous one. Training was continued until the criterion could be reached within the first 30 to 50 trials for each of the three training sets. During partial transfer tests, familiar stimuli (numerals and arrays in the range from 1 to 2) were paired with novel ones (numerals and arrays in the range from 3 to 4). At the final stage of testing only novel stimuli were presented (numerals and arrays in the range from 5 to 8). Four of 6 birds were able to transfer in these tests, and their performance was significantly above chance. Moreover, performance of the birds on the array stimuli did not differ from their performance on the color or shape stimuli. They were capable of recognizing the number of elements in arrays and comparing the stimuli by this attribute. It was concluded that crows were able to apply the matching (or oddity) concept to stimuli of numerical category. PMID:10784007

  13. Electronics technician Bill Clark assembling a cannon plug with the help of Jim Lewis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    There is always something needed for a NASA aircraft before a research flight can take place. This photo shows William J. Clark working on one of those 'somethings' while Jimmie C. Lewis watches ready to help. Working on a research project is a challenge, for there is no set pattern to follow. From the drawings to the final product there are many people who contribute to that final product -- the flight. The electronic technicians in the Instrumentation Laboratory at NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility are no exception. Bill Clark is busy creating a cannon plug to be used on the CV-990. He is soldering wires in the appropriate order so the plug will transmit electrical currents correctly when installed in the airplane. Jim stands by to give help and support on the project.

  14. From the Cotton Fields to the Ties That Bind: Jim Pusack's Enduring Impact on Today's CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    From 1981 to today, the encouragement Jim Pusack and his colleague Sue Otto gave faculty to develop and/or implement CALL into the curriculum has been vital to our L2 teaching evolution. This article describes how their efforts evolved over the last two and a half decades and the ties that bind their efforts with today's CALL development.

  15. Beyond Open Source: According to Jim Hirsch, Open Technology, Not Open Source, Is the Wave of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Jim Hirsch, an associate superintendent for technology at Piano Independent School District in Piano, Texas. Hirsch serves as a liaison for the open technologies committee of the Consortium for School Networking. In this interview, he shares his opinion on the significance of open source in K-12.

  16. 30 CFR 756.20 - Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.20 Section 756.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.20 Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

  17. 30 CFR 756.20 - Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.20 Section 756.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.20 Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

  18. 30 CFR 756.20 - Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.20 Section 756.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.20 Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

  19. 30 CFR 756.20 - Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.20 Section 756.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.20 Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

  20. Isospora corvi Ray, Shivnani, Oommen and Bhaskaran, 1952 from the common house crow (Corvus splendens Vieillot) of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Poon, S K; Chew, W K

    1991-01-01

    Faecal samples of 56 common house crows (Corvus splendens Vieillot) were collected from the Petaling Jaya and Kelang districts of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, and examined for coccidia. Intestinal tracts of 8 of the above crows wee histologically examined under light microscopy to determine the site of coccidial infection and the endogenous stages present. Fifty three (94.6%) crows had coccidial oocysts morphologically conforming to only one species of Isospora in their faeces at the time they were examined. The sporulated oocysts were found to be Isospora corviae (Ray et al. 1952) which has been emended to I. corvi. These oocysts are redescribed in greater detail. Corvus splendens is a new host record for I. corvi. Coccidial infection was observed in all the intestinal tracts and generally confined to the anterior two thirds of the intestine. The parasites occurred within intestinal epithelial cells, located usually above the host cell nucleus. Developmental stages of both the asexual and sexual phases were found in the epithelium, and are deemed to be the endogenous stages of I. corvi on the basis of the oocysts recovered from the same crows used for histological study. These stages are described here for the first time. The prevalence of I. corvi, its relationship with the host C. splendens, and its probable transmission from C. macrorhynchus are discussed.

  1. "Crows on the Wire": Intermediality in Applied Drama and Conflict Transformation--"Humanising" the Police in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Matt

    2016-01-01

    "Crows on the Wire" (COTW) is an intermedial project deploying applied theatre, educational drama and digital performance [Dixon, S. (2007). "Digital Performance: A History of New Media in Theatre, Dance, Performance Art and Installation." Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] to explore the recent history of the peace process in Northern…

  2. 30 CFR 756.20 - Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.20 Section 756.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.20 Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

  3. West Nile Virus Activity in a Winter Roost of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos): Is Bird-To-Bird Transmission Important in Persistence and Amplification?

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, M. G.; Reisen, W. K.; Wheeler, S. S.; Townsend, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Since its emergence in North America, West Nile virus (WNV) has had a large impact on equines, humans, and wild bird communities, yet gaps remain in our understanding of how the virus persists at temperate latitudes when winter temperatures preclude virus replication and host-seeking activity by mosquito vectors. Bird-to-bird transmission at large communal American Crow roosts could provide one mechanism for WNV persistence. Herein, we describe seasonal patterns of crow and Culex mosquito abundance, WNV infection rates, and the prevalence of WNV-positive fecal samples at a winter crow roost to test the hypothesis that bird-to-bird transmission allows WNV to persist at winter crow roosts. Samples were collected from large winter crow roosts in the Sacramento Valley of California from January 2013 until August 2014, encompassing two overwintering roost periods. West Nile virus RNA was detected in local crow carcasses in both summer [13/18 (72% WNV positive)] and winter [18/44 (41% WNV positive)] 2013–2014. Winter infections were unlikely to have arisen by recent bites from infected mosquitoes because Culex host-seeking activity was very low in winter and all Culex mosquitoes collected during winter months tested negative for WNV. Opportunities existed for fecal-oral transfer at the overwintering roost: most carcasses that tested positive for WNV had detectable viral RNA in both kidney and cloacal swabs, suggesting that infected crows were shedding virus in their feces, and >50% of crows at the roost were stained with feces by mid-winter. Moreover, 2.3% of fecal samples collected in late summer, when mosquitoes were active, tested positive for WNV RNA. Nevertheless, none of the 1,119 feces collected from three roosts over two winters contained detectable WNV RNA. This study provided evidence of WNV infection in overwintering American crows without mosquito vector activity, but did not elucidate a mechanism of WNV transmission during winter. PMID:26335475

  4. West Nile Virus Activity in a Winter Roost of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos): Is Bird-To-Bird Transmission Important in Persistence and Amplification?

    PubMed

    Hinton, M G; Reisen, W K; Wheeler, S S; Townsend, A K

    2015-07-01

    Since its emergence in North America, West Nile virus (WNV) has had a large impact on equines, humans, and wild bird communities, yet gaps remain in our understanding of how the virus persists at temperate latitudes when winter temperatures preclude virus replication and host-seeking activity by mosquito vectors. Bird-to-bird transmission at large communal American Crow roosts could provide one mechanism for WNV persistence. Herein, we describe seasonal patterns of crow and Culex mosquito abundance, WNV infection rates, and the prevalence of WNV-positive fecal samples at a winter crow roost to test the hypothesis that bird-to-bird transmission allows WNV to persist at winter crow roosts. Samples were collected from large winter crow roosts in the Sacramento Valley of California from January 2013 until August 2014, encompassing two overwintering roost periods. West Nile virus RNA was detected in local crow carcasses in both summer [13/18 (72% WNV positive)] and winter [18/44 (41% WNV positive)] 2013-2014. Winter infections were unlikely to have arisen by recent bites from infected mosquitoes because Culex host-seeking activity was very low in winter and all Culex mosquitoes collected during winter months tested negative for WNV. Opportunities existed for fecal-oral transfer at the overwintering roost: most carcasses that tested positive for WNV had detectable viral RNA in both kidney and cloacal swabs, suggesting that infected crows were shedding virus in their feces, and >50% of crows at the roost were stained with feces by mid-winter. Moreover, 2.3% of fecal samples collected in late summer, when mosquitoes were active, tested positive for WNV RNA. Nevertheless, none of the 1,119 feces collected from three roosts over two winters contained detectable WNV RNA. This study provided evidence of WNV infection in overwintering American crows without mosquito vector activity, but did not elucidate a mechanism of WNV transmission during winter.

  5. Predicting fractional bed load transport rates: Application of the Wilcock-Crowe equations to a regulated gravel bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Andrews, E.D.; Kraus, A.; Smith, W.

    2009-01-01

    Bed load samples from four locations in the Trinity River of northern California are analyzed to evaluate the performance of the Wilcock-Crowe bed load transport equations for predicting fractional bed load transport rates. Bed surface particles become smaller and the fraction of sand on the bed increases with distance downstream from Lewiston Dam. The dimensionless reference shear stress for the mean bed particle size (t*rm) is largest near the dam, but varies relatively little between the more downstream locations. The relation between t*rm and the reference shear stresses for other size fractions is constant across all locations. Total bed load transport rates predicted with the Wilcock-Crowe equations are within a factor of 2 of sampled transport rates for 68% of all samples. The Wilcock-Crowe equations nonetheless consistently under-predict the transport of particles larger than 128 mm, frequently by more than an order of magnitude. Accurate prediction of the transport rates of the largest particles is important for models in which the evolution of the surface grain size distribution determines subsequent bed load transport rates. Values of term estimated from bed load samples are up to 50% larger than those predicted with the Wilcock-Crowe equations, and sampled bed load transport approximates equal mobility across a wider range of grain sizes than is implied by the equations. Modifications to theWilcock-Crowe equation for determining t*rm and the hiding function used to scale term to other grain size fractions are proposed to achieve the best fit to observed bed load transport in the Trinity River. Copyright 2009 by the American eophysical Union.

  6. Extending the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatology Above 100 km Altitude Using an Inversion Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, A.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, S.; McCullough, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the algorithm given by Chanin and Hauchecorne (1980; henceforth CH) for the last 3 decades. Recently Khanna et al. have presented an inversion approach to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles. This method uses a nonlinear inversion method with a Monte Carlo technique to determine the statistical uncertainties for the retrieved nightly average temperature profiles. Using this approach, Purple Crow Lidar temperature profiles can now be extended 10 km higher in altitude compared to those calculated with the CH method, with reduced systematic uncertainty. Argall and Sica (2007) used the CH method to produce a climatology of the Purple Crow Lidar measurements from 1994 to 2004 which was compared with the CIRA-86 model. The CH method integrates temperatures downward, and requires the assumption of a 'seed' pressure at the highest altitude, taken from a model. Geophysical variation here, in the lower thermosphere, is sufficiently large to cause temperature retrievals to be unreliable for the top 10 or more km; uncertainties due to this pressure assumption cause the top two scale heights of temperatures from each profile to be discarded until the retrieval is no longer sensitive to the seed pressure. Khanna et al. (2012) use an inversion approach which allows the corrected lidar photocount profile to be integrated upward, as opposed to downward as required by the CH method. Khanna et al. (2012) showed that seeding the retrieval at the lowest instead of top height allows a much smaller uncertainty in the contribution of the seed pressure to the temperature compared to integrating from the top of the profile. Two other benefits to seeding the retrieval at the lower altitudes (around 30 km) include reduced geophysical variability, and the availability of routine pressure measurements from radiosondes. This presentation will show an extension of the Khanna et al. (2012) comparison

  7. A caspase-independent cell clearance program. The LEI/L-DNase II pathway.

    PubMed

    Torriglia, A; Perani, P; Brossas, J Y; Altairac, S; Zeggai, S; Martin, E; Tréton, J; Courtois, Y; Counis, M F

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of caspase-mitochondrial pathway counts as one of the most important discovery in apoptosis biochemistry. Today, however, we begin to recognize its limits. Inhibition of caspase does not prevent cell death in many mammalian models. Targeted disruption of caspases does not impair every type of apoptosis. Other pathways, caspase independent, are now described. Here we present one of these pathways. It is a serine-protease dependent pathway and its key event is the transformation of LEI (a serine protease inhibitor) into L-DNase II (an endonuclease). When using this apoptotic pathway the cell activates, at the same time, its endonuclease activity (L-DNase II appears) and its protease activity (there is a release of inhibition of proteases).

  8. An economic analysis of the Jim Bridger Power Plant carbon dioxide mineralization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Mikol Hans

    Concerns for rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have lead to a myriad of schemes to reduce emissions. Many of these are complicated, expensive, and untried. Coal-fired electrical generation accounts for about 49 percent of U.S. electricity generation. Shifting generation capacity away from coal is the goal of many, yet as this statistic shows, the U.S. has a heavy dependency on coal-fired base-load generation. What is needed is a way to retrofit existing coal fired power plants to mitigate at least some of the giga-tonnes of CO2 released annually. Carbon Capture and Storage in association with greenhouse gases are a major concern in the world today. This thesis is an outgrowth of a research partnership between the University of Wyoming and the Jim Bridger Power Plant (Rocky Mountain Power) to develop a process for capture and mineralization of flue gas carbon dioxide (CO 2) using an accelerated mineral carbonization process with fly ash particles as the absorbent. This process may have several advantages over other approaches because it is an environmentally acceptable, single step process occurring at near ambient pressures and temperatures that can compliment conventional CCS processes. In addition the use of fly ash particles as an absorbent avoids the costs of processing or engineering an absorbent. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the capture costs and economic feasibility of the mineralization process. Two models were used to estimate the capture costs and economic feasibility of the Jim Bridger Power Plant CO2 Mineralization Project (JBP). The first was a cost of capture model which was used to estimate CO2 capture costs and how changes in the CO2 to ash capture ratio and quantities of CO2 captured affect capture costs. The second was a financial feasibility model which considered the time value of money. This second model considered the net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) for the process using different pricing scenarios

  9. Geohydrology of Crow Creek and Lower Brule Indian Reservations, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howells, Lewis W.

    1974-01-01

    Effective improvement of economic and social conditions of Indians living on Crow Creek and Lower Brule Reservations has been hampered by lack of adequate and reliable information about the quantity and quality of water supplies available for development.  Compounding the problem, and making especially pressing the need for discovery and development of new water supplies, is the recent filling of Fort Randall and Big Bend Reservoirs on the Missouri River, and the consequent relocation of may residents.  Much of the best land and known water supplies are inundated beneath the reservoirs.  This report summarized the results of a water-resources study made at the request of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  10. New Caledonian crows rapidly solve a collaborative problem without cooperative cognition.

    PubMed

    Jelbert, Sarah A; Singh, Puja J; Gray, Russell D; Taylor, Alex H

    2015-01-01

    There is growing comparative evidence that the cognitive bases of cooperation are not unique to humans. However, the selective pressures that lead to the evolution of these mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that while tool-making New Caledonian crows can produce collaborative behavior, they do not understand the causality of cooperation nor show sensitivity to inequity. Instead, the collaborative behavior produced appears to have been underpinned by the transfer of prior experience. These results suggest that a number of possible selective pressures, including tool manufacture and mobbing behaviours, have not led to the evolution of cooperative cognition in this species. They show that causal cognition can evolve in a domain specific manner-understanding the properties and flexible uses of physical tools does not necessarily enable animals to grasp that a conspecific can be used as a social tool. PMID:26266937

  11. Direct benefits and genetic costs of extrapair paternity for female American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Townsend, Andrea K; Clark, Anne B; McGowan, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    The idea that extrapair paternity (EPP) in birds is part of a mixed reproductive strategy driven primarily by females is controversial. In cooperatively breeding American crows, we compared predictions of four female benefits hypotheses-the genetic diversity, good genes, genetic compatibility, and direct benefits hypotheses-to our predictions if EPP was primarily male driven. We found that genetically diverse broods were not more successful, extrapair young were not in better condition and did not have a higher survival probability, and, contrary to prediction, offspring sired by within-group extrapair males were more inbred than within-pair offspring. There was evidence of direct benefits, however: provisioning rate and number of surviving offspring were higher in groups containing within-group extrapair sires. Females therefore derived no apparent benefits from extragroup extrapair males but both direct benefits and genetic costs from within-group extrapair males. We suggest that males and females both influence the distribution of EPP in this system.

  12. Calibration of the Purple Crow Lidar vibrational Raman water-vapour mixing ratio and temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argall, P. S.; Sica, R. J.; Bryant, C. R.; Algara-Siller, M.; Schijns, H.

    2007-02-01

    Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) measurements of the vibrational Raman-shifted backscatter from water vapour and nitrogen molecules allows height profiles of the water-vapour mixing ratio to be measured from 500 m up into the lower stratosphere. In addition, the Raman nitrogen measurements allow the determination of temperature profiles from about 10 to 40 km altitude. However, external calibration of these measurements is necessary to compensate for instrumental effects, uncertainties in our knowledge of the relevant molecular cross sections, and atmospheric transmission. A comparison of the PCL-derived water-vapour concentration and temperature profiles with routine radiosonde measurements from Detroit and Buffalo on 37 and 141 nights, respectively, was undertaken to provide this calibration. The calibration is then applied to the measurements and monthly mean-temperature and water-vapour profiles are determined.

  13. New Caledonian Crows Rapidly Solve a Collaborative Problem without Cooperative Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Jelbert, Sarah A.; Singh, Puja J.; Gray, Russell D.; Taylor, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing comparative evidence that the cognitive bases of cooperation are not unique to humans. However, the selective pressures that lead to the evolution of these mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that while tool-making New Caledonian crows can produce collaborative behavior, they do not understand the causality of cooperation nor show sensitivity to inequity. Instead, the collaborative behavior produced appears to have been underpinned by the transfer of prior experience. These results suggest that a number of possible selective pressures, including tool manufacture and mobbing behaviours, have not led to the evolution of cooperative cognition in this species. They show that causal cognition can evolve in a domain specific manner–understanding the properties and flexible uses of physical tools does not necessarily enable animals to grasp that a conspecific can be used as a social tool. PMID:26266937

  14. Hydrologic response of the Crow Wing Watershed, Minnesota, to mid-Holocene climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, M.; Roy, P.; Wright, H.; Gutowski, W.; Ito, E.; Winter, T.; Rosenberry, D.; Cohen, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we have integrated a suite of Holocene paleoclimatic proxies with mathematical modeling in an attempt to obtain a comprehensive picture of how watersheds respond to past climate change. A three-dimensional surface-water-groundwater model was developed to assess the effects of mid-Holocene climate change on water resources within the Crow Wing Watershed, Upper Mississippi Basin in north central Minnesota. The model was first calibrated to a 50 yr historical record of average annual surface-water discharge, monthly groundwater levels, and lake-level fluctuations. The model was able to reproduce reasonably well long-term historical records (1949-1999) of water-table and lake-level fluctuations across the watershed as well as stream discharge near the watershed outlet. The calibrated model was then used to reproduce paleogroundwater and lake levels using climate reconstructions based on pollen-transfer functions from Williams Lake just outside the watershed. Computed declines in mid-Holocene lake levels for two lakes at opposite ends of the watershed were between 6 and 18 m. Simulated streamflow near the outlet of the watershed decreased to 70% of modern average annual discharge after ???200 yr. The area covered by wetlands for the entire watershed was reduced by ???16%. The mid-Holocene hydrologic changes indicated by these model results and corroborated by several lake-core records across the Crow Wing Watershed may serve as a useful proxy of the hydrologic response to future warm, dry climatic forecasts (ca. 2050) made by some atmospheric general-circulation models for the glaciated Midwestern United States. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  15. Geochemistry and shock petrography of the Crow Creek Member, South Dakota, USA: Ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katongo, C.; Koeberl, C.; Witzke, B.J.; Hammond, R.H.; Anderson, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The Crow Creek Member is one of several marl units recognized within the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale Formation of eastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska, but it is the only unit that contains shock-metamorphosed minerals. The shocked minerals represent impact ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure (MIS). This study was aimed at determining the bulk chemical compositions and analysis of planar deformation features (PDFs) of shocked quartz; for the basal and marly units of the Crow Creek Member. We studied samples from the Gregory 84-21 core, Iroquois core and Wakonda lime quarry. Contents of siderophile elements are generally high, but due to uncertainties in the determination of Ir and uncertainties in compositional sources for Cr, Co, and Ni, we could not confirm an extraterrestrial component in the Crow Creek Member. We recovered several shocked quartz grains from basal-unit samples, mainly from the Gregory 84-21 core, and results of PDF measurements indicate shock pressures of at least 15 GPa. All the samples are composed chiefly of SiO2, (29-58 wt%), Al2O3 (6-14 wt%), and CaO (7-30 wt%). When compared to the composition of North American Shale Composite, the samples are significantly enriched in CaO, P2O5, Mn, Sr, Y, U, Cr, and Ni. The contents of rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), Cr, Co, Sc, and their ratios and chemical weathering trends, reflect both felsic and basic sources for the Crow Creek Member, an inference, which is consistent with the lithological compositions in the environs of the MIS. The high chemical indices of alteration and weathering (CIA' and CIW': 75-99), coupled with the Al2O3-(CaO*,+Na2O -K2O (A-CN'-K) ratios, indicate that the Crow Creek Member and source rocks had undergone high degrees of chemical weathering. The expected ejecta thicknesses at the sampled locations (409 to 219 km from Manson) were calculated to range from about 1.9 to 12.2 cm (for the present-day crater radius of Manson

  16. Love stories can be unpredictable: Jules et Jim in the vortex of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dercole, Fabio; Rinaldi, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Love stories are dynamic processes that begin, develop, and often stay for a relatively long time in a stationary or fluctuating regime, before possibly fading. Although they are, undoubtedly, the most important dynamic process in our life, they have only recently been cast in the formal frame of dynamical systems theory. In particular, why it is so difficult to predict the evolution of sentimental relationships continues to be largely unexplained. A common reason for this is that love stories reflect the turbulence of the surrounding social environment. But we can also imagine that the interplay of the characters involved contributes to make the story unpredictable—that is, chaotic. In other words, we conjecture that sentimental chaos can have a relevant endogenous origin. To support this intriguing conjecture, we mimic a real and well-documented love story with a mathematical model in which the environment is kept constant, and show that the model is chaotic. The case we analyze is the triangle described in Jules et Jim, an autobiographic novel by Henri-Pierre Roché that became famous worldwide after the success of the homonymous film directed by François Truffaut.

  17. JIM: a joint integrated module of glass x-ray optics for astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, Laura; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter; Winter, Anita; Rohé, Christian; Eder, Josef; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela D.; Menz, Benedikt; Civitani, Marta; Basso, Stefano; Buratti, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    For several years, the Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics in Germany (MPE) and the Astronomical Observatory of Brera in Italy (INAF-OAB) have been studying the slumping technology for the manufacturing of segmented glass X-ray optics for astronomy. Despite some differences in their specific approaches, the synergy of the two institutes has always been good, focusing on the common goal of developing a technology able to meet the outstanding requirements for future X-ray telescopes: i.e. large collecting areas, low mass and good angular resolution. This synergy has in the last year resulted in an active collaboration for the production of a Joint Integrated Module (JIM) that puts together the expertise of the two research groups. In particular, the indirect slumping approach of MPE has been employed for the manufacturing of X-ray mirror segments that have been integrated into a kind of X-ray Optical Unit following the approach developed at INAF-OAB. The module has then been tested in X-ray at the MPE PANTER facility, in Neuried. The several steps and the results of this joint activity are reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  18. Love stories can be unpredictable: Jules et Jim in the vortex of life.

    PubMed

    Dercole, Fabio; Rinaldi, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Love stories are dynamic processes that begin, develop, and often stay for a relatively long time in a stationary or fluctuating regime, before possibly fading. Although they are, undoubtedly, the most important dynamic process in our life, they have only recently been cast in the formal frame of dynamical systems theory. In particular, why it is so difficult to predict the evolution of sentimental relationships continues to be largely unexplained. A common reason for this is that love stories reflect the turbulence of the surrounding social environment. But we can also imagine that the interplay of the characters involved contributes to make the story unpredictable-that is, chaotic. In other words, we conjecture that sentimental chaos can have a relevant endogenous origin. To support this intriguing conjecture, we mimic a real and well-documented love story with a mathematical model in which the environment is kept constant, and show that the model is chaotic. The case we analyze is the triangle described in Jules et Jim, an autobiographic novel by Henri-Pierre Roché that became famous worldwide after the success of the homonymous film directed by François Truffaut.

  19. Relativity in Transylvania and Patusan: Finding the roots of Einstein's theories of relativity in "Dracula" and "Lord Jim"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatum, Brian Shane

    This thesis investigates the similarities in the study of time and space in literature and science during the modern period. Specifically, it focuses on the portrayal of time and space within Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897) and Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim (1899-1900), and compares the ideas presented with those later scientifically formulated by Albert Einstein in his special and general theories of relativity (1905-1915). Although both novels precede Einstein's theories, they reveal advanced complex ideas of time and space very similar to those later argued by the iconic physicist. These ideas follow a linear progression including a sense of temporal dissonance, the search for a communal sense of the present, the awareness and expansion of the individual's sense of the present, and the effect of mass on surrounding space. This approach enhances readings of Dracula and Lord Jim, illuminating the fascination with highly refined notions of time and space within modern European culture.

  20. Dissemination of the multidrug-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli O25b-ST131 clone and the role of house crow (Corvus splendens) foraging on hospital waste in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, B; Olsen, B; Alam, A; Akter, L; Melhus, Å

    2015-11-01

    Two hundred and thirty-eight faecal samples from crows foraging on hospital wastes were analysed for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. ESBL-producing crow isolates were characterized and compared with 31 patient isolates. Among the crows, 59% carried ESBL producers. These included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter cloacae harbouring the genes for CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, CTX-M-79, and CTX-M-14. Human isolates carried only the CTX-M-15 gene. Two-thirds of crow E. coli isolates and all human E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant. Crows and patients shared E. coli sequence types, including the epidemic E. coli O25b-ST131 clone. The scavenging behaviour of crows at poorly managed hospital waste dumps made them potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, including ESBLs. PMID:26115863

  1. Acoustic profiling in a complexly social species, the American crow: caws encode information on caller sex, identity, and behavioural context

    PubMed Central

    Mates, Exu Anton; Tarter, Robin R.; Ha, James C.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on inter-individual variation in the calls of corvids has largely been restricted to single call types, such as alarm or contact calls, and has rarely considered the effects of age on call structure. This study explores structural variation in a contextually diverse set of “caw” calls of the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), including alarm, foraging recruitment and territorial calls, and searches for structural features that may be associated with behavioural context and caller sex, age, and identity. Automated pitch detection algorithms are used to generate 23 pitch-related and spectral parameters for a collection of caws from 18 wild, marked crows. Using principal component analysis and mixed models, we identify independent axes of acoustic variation associated with behavioural context and with caller sex, respectively. We also have moderate success predicting caller sex and identity from call structure. However, we do not find significant acoustic variation with respect to caller age. PMID:25419053

  2. More to explore in music reading as a cross-modal process: a comment on Lee and Lei (2012).

    PubMed

    Besson, Mireille; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Lee and Lei (2012) used a pitch task and a duration task in different blocks of trials and measured event-related potentials in 12 musicians and 24 non-musicians as they read musical scores. The authors claimed to disentangle pitch and duration processing. From the perspectives of cognitive neuropsychology there is great interest in studying the processes involved in reading musical scores. However, we argue that the design used by Lee and Lei (2012) does not allow disentangling pitch and duration processing because both are expressed within the musical score. Moreover, we emphasize the importance of longitudinal studies over cross-sectional studies to pinpoint the specific influence of musical expertise on score reading.

  3. Using MicroLEIS DSS to evaluate climate change impacts on land suitability in Andalusia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change on land suitability for crop production has become an important issue with respect to food security in areas undergoing increasing population sizes. Land suitability for six common Mediterranean crops was evaluated under current conditions and future climate change scenario. This evaluation was performed using the Agro-ecological Decision Support System Micro LEIS (MicroLEIS DSS) through the application of Terraza and Cervatana models. Terraza model provides an experimental prediction for the bioclimatic deficiency in the 62 natural regions that represent the Andalusia region. This model is dependent on current climate data, future climate change scenario data, and crop response data including coefficient of photosynthetic efficacy (Kc), coefficient of efficiency (Ky), and soil water retention. Alternatively, the Cervatana model is used to estimate agricultural land use capability under different soil types. Soil morphological and analytical data were collected from SEISnet data base representative of the natural region (NUTS 2) of Andalusia by 62 soil profiles. Agro-climatic data, referred to temperature and precipitation were obtained from the CDBm-Andalusia database, which contains monthly average values of climate variables: mean temperature, maximum and minimum rainfall, number of days of rain and humidity, collected during a consecutive period of 30 years (1960-1990), that represent the current climate scenario. Future climate is represented under A1B scenario for theperiods 2040, 2070 and 2100. These scenarios have been calculated using climate change variation values from the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET, 2011). The results of the Cervatana model depends on Terraza output results (e.g. water deficit class and the risk of frost class) and other land properties including soil factors, slope factors, and erosion risk factors. In order to spatialize the evaluation data, both models were incorporated into a

  4. Neurotoxins: Current Concepts in Cosmetic Use on the Face and Neck--Upper Face (Glabella, Forehead, and Crow's Feet).

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary

    2015-11-01

    There are 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved botulinum toxin formulations now being successfully used for treatment in the upper face. The most common areas for botulinum toxin treatment are the upper face, including the glabella, forehead, brows, and lateral canthal lines or crow's feet. The frozen look is no more desired in patients. Thus, physicians are more commonly individualizing dosage based on the patient's variation in anatomy, muscle mass, asymmetry, and, most importantly, desired outcome.

  5. Experimental resource pulses influence social-network dynamics and the potential for information flow in tool-using crows.

    PubMed

    St Clair, James J H; Burns, Zackory T; Bettaney, Elaine M; Morrissey, Michael B; Otis, Brian; Ryder, Thomas B; Fleischer, Robert C; James, Richard; Rutz, Christian

    2015-11-03

    Social-network dynamics have profound consequences for biological processes such as information flow, but are notoriously difficult to measure in the wild. We used novel transceiver technology to chart association patterns across 19 days in a wild population of the New Caledonian crow--a tool-using species that may socially learn, and culturally accumulate, tool-related information. To examine the causes and consequences of changing network topology, we manipulated the environmental availability of the crows' preferred tool-extracted prey, and simulated, in silico, the diffusion of information across field-recorded time-ordered networks. Here we show that network structure responds quickly to environmental change and that novel information can potentially spread rapidly within multi-family communities, especially when tool-use opportunities are plentiful. At the same time, we report surprisingly limited social contact between neighbouring crow communities. Such scale dependence in information-flow dynamics is likely to influence the evolution and maintenance of material cultures.

  6. [Energy flux and energy balance closure of intensively managed lei bamboo forest ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-fei; Jiang, Hong; Zhou, Guo-mo; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-04-01

    By using open-path eddy covariance system and meteorological instruments, an observation was conducted on the sensitive heat flux, latent heat flux, net radiation, soil heat flux, air temperature, ground temperature, and precipitation in a intensively managed Lei bamboo forest ecosystem in 2011, with the diurnal and monthly variations of energy flux as well as the distribution pattern of each energy component analyzed, and the Bowen ratio and energy balance closure calculated. The yearly net radiation of the forest ecosystem was 2928. 92 MJ m-2, and the latent heat flux, sensitive heat flux, and soil heat flux were 1384.90, 927.54, and -28.27 MJ m-2, respectively. Both the daily and the monthly variations of the energy components showed a single peak curve. The sensible and latent heat fluxes were 31.7% and 47.3% of the net radiation, respectively, indicating that latent heat flux was the main form of energy loss. The Bowen ratio followed the "U"-shaped pattern, and fluctuated from 0. 285 to 2. 062, suggesting that soil was a heat source. The yearly energy balance closure of the forest ecosystem was 0. 782, and the monthly average was 0.808. PMID:23898666

  7. [Energy flux and energy balance closure of intensively managed lei bamboo forest ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-fei; Jiang, Hong; Zhou, Guo-mo; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-04-01

    By using open-path eddy covariance system and meteorological instruments, an observation was conducted on the sensitive heat flux, latent heat flux, net radiation, soil heat flux, air temperature, ground temperature, and precipitation in a intensively managed Lei bamboo forest ecosystem in 2011, with the diurnal and monthly variations of energy flux as well as the distribution pattern of each energy component analyzed, and the Bowen ratio and energy balance closure calculated. The yearly net radiation of the forest ecosystem was 2928. 92 MJ m-2, and the latent heat flux, sensitive heat flux, and soil heat flux were 1384.90, 927.54, and -28.27 MJ m-2, respectively. Both the daily and the monthly variations of the energy components showed a single peak curve. The sensible and latent heat fluxes were 31.7% and 47.3% of the net radiation, respectively, indicating that latent heat flux was the main form of energy loss. The Bowen ratio followed the "U"-shaped pattern, and fluctuated from 0. 285 to 2. 062, suggesting that soil was a heat source. The yearly energy balance closure of the forest ecosystem was 0. 782, and the monthly average was 0.808.

  8. Brassinosteroid stimulation of hypocotyl elongation and wall relaxation in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis cv Lei-Choi)

    SciTech Connect

    Tzannwei Wang; Cosgrove, D.J.; Arteca, R.N. )

    1993-03-01

    Hypocotyl elongation of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis cv Lei-Choi) was stimulated by applying 300 ng of brassinosteroid (2[alpha],3[alpha],22[beta],23[beta]-tetrahydroxy-24[beta]-methyl-B-homo-7-oxa-5[alpha]-cholestan-6-one, BR) in 1 [mu]L of 50% ethanol to the apex of hypocotyls. BR had its greatest effect on elongation of the apical 3-mm region below the cotyledonary node (75% stimulation) between 6 and 18 h after treatment. Stress/strain (Instron) analysis of this 3-mm region revealed that plastic and elastic components of extension were not significantly different between BR-treated and control seedlings. In pressure-block experiments, the initial rate of relaxation was 2-fold faster in BR-treated plants as compared with controls, whereas after 125 min the total amount of relaxation and the relaxation rate were the same for the two treatments. Osmotic pressure of cell sap expressed from this 3-mm region showed a large decrease (28%) in BR-treated seedlings compared to the controls. The authors conclude that BR stimulates growth in pakchoi by accelerating the biochemical processes that cause wall relaxation, without inducing a large change in wall mechanical properties. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Influence of screening length modification on the scattering cross section in LEIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primetzhofer, D.; Markin, S. N.; Efrosinin, D. V.; Steinbauer, E.; Andrzejewski, R.; Bauer, P.

    2011-06-01

    Scattering cross sections for He + ions in the energy range of 100 eV to 100 keV and for Al, Cu and Au target atoms were calculated. Employing the Thomas-Fermi-Molière model the potential strength was tuned by variation of the screening length. The resulting change in scattering cross section was analyzed and the absolute value is compared to cross sections obtained from potentials commonly employed in the medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) regime. A large influence on the scattering cross section is observed for targets with large atomic number in the very low energy range. For instance, the scattering cross section for 100 eV He +-ions scattered from Au by 129° changes by a factor of 2.5 between different potential strengths claimed in the literature to be suitable for low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) energies. An experiment to determine electronic energy loss of very slow ions in metals is presented. It shows how uncertainties in the scattering potential strength can lead to systematically wrong results, although perfect agreement between experimental data and simulations is found. The impact of these results on quantitative surface structure and composition analysis is discussed.

  10. [Comparison of academic viewpoints between Yun Tie-qiao and Lu Yuan-lei].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-qing; Bi, Li-juan; Yang, Xing-lin

    2010-07-01

    Both Yun Tie-qiao and Lu Yuan-lei are medical professionals coming from the literary field with versatile and in-depth knowledge and extensive experience in medical education and clinical practice, all closely related to modern TCM development. Yun, the elder, insisted on reforming TCM and was early to advocate the academic idea of amalgamating western and traditional Chinese medicine; while Lu, the younger, insisted on the idea of "scientizing TCM" and was the representative of amalgamating western and traditional Chinese medicine in the later stage. They shared many common viewpoints, including venerating Zhang Zhongjing, stressing exogenous cold pathogens, advocating reformation and amalgamation of western medicine and TCM and objecting to the abolishment of TCM. However, there were discrepancies between them, including the relationship between the Inner Canon and the Essay on Exogenous Cold Diseases, warm disease theory, pulse theory, titles of TCM diseases and Japanese Kampo medicine. A comparison of them and noting their valuable contributions will be beneficial for the promotion of the development of TCM. PMID:21122338

  11. Middle school science classroom practices in Crow and Northern Cheyenne schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolbaugh, Walter Harold

    This study first identifies the teaching and learning practices that have shown to be effective in producing achievement gains with K--12 Native American students. In order to identify effective practices, policy guidelines and research studies focusing on achievement gains among Native American students were reviewed. This information was then mapped to the National Science Education Standards and aligned with a widely used mathematics and science observation instrument. The instrument was used by the author to gather data from 13 teachers by observing 68 lessons in 11 middle schools on the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Reservations in Southeast Montana. Interviewing and surveying the observed teachers generated further data. To complete the study, administrators and community members, including tribal elders, were involvement from tribal elders. The literature reveals that Native American students achieve more when student centered teaching methods are used. These methods include the use of visual teaching aids, cooperative learning, and practical applications all interwoven in culturally relevant lessons. The literature supports building community support, including involvement from tribal elders. Data gathered by the researcher revealed that the teachers on and near the two reservations have more teaching experience, more science credits, and attain higher ratings for observed lessons than a national sample of teachers. A factor analysis indicated that Crow and Northern Cheyenne region teachers scored especially high in student/teacher relationships, classroom management, and content knowledge. Even through 43 percent of class time was spent in hands-on paired activities, teachers scored lower on indicators pertaining to creating classroom environments that engaged students in rigorous, meaningful learning experiences. Teachers reported on not feeling prepared to include cultural applications and meaning during instruction. Teachers attaining lower scores during

  12. Adaptive bill morphology for enhanced tool manipulation in New Caledonian crows

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Hunt, Gavin R.; Oberhofer, Katja; Ogihara, Naomichi; McGowan, Kevin J.; Mithraratne, Kumar; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Gray, Russell D.; Izawa, Ei-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Early increased sophistication of human tools is thought to be underpinned by adaptive morphology for efficient tool manipulation. Such adaptive specialisation is unknown in nonhuman primates but may have evolved in the New Caledonian crow, which has sophisticated tool manufacture. The straightness of its bill, for example, may be adaptive for enhanced visually-directed use of tools. Here, we examine in detail the shape and internal structure of the New Caledonian crow’s bill using Principal Components Analysis and Computed Tomography within a comparative framework. We found that the bill has a combination of interrelated shape and structural features unique within Corvus, and possibly birds generally. The upper mandible is relatively deep and short with a straight cutting edge, and the lower mandible is strengthened and upturned. These novel combined attributes would be functional for (i) counteracting the unique loading patterns acting on the bill when manipulating tools, (ii) a strong precision grip to hold tools securely, and (iii) enhanced visually-guided tool use. Our findings indicate that the New Caledonian crow’s innovative bill has been adapted for tool manipulation to at least some degree. Early increased sophistication of tools may require the co-evolution of morphology that provides improved manipulatory skills. PMID:26955788

  13. Linear algebra of the permutation invariant Crow-Kimura model of prebiotic evolution.

    PubMed

    Bratus, Alexander S; Novozhilov, Artem S; Semenov, Yuri S

    2014-10-01

    A particular case of the famous quasispecies model - the Crow-Kimura model with a permutation invariant fitness landscape - is investigated. Using the fact that the mutation matrix in the case of a permutation invariant fitness landscape has a special tridiagonal form, a change of the basis is suggested such that in the new coordinates a number of analytical results can be obtained. In particular, using the eigenvectors of the mutation matrix as the new basis, we show that the quasispecies distribution approaches a binomial one and give simple estimates for the speed of convergence. Another consequence of the suggested approach is a parametric solution to the system of equations determining the quasispecies. Using this parametric solution we show that our approach leads to exact asymptotic results in some cases, which are not covered by the existing methods. In particular, we are able to present not only the limit behavior of the leading eigenvalue (mean population fitness), but also the exact formulas for the limit quasispecies eigenvector for special cases. For instance, this eigenvector has a geometric distribution in the case of the classical single peaked fitness landscape. On the biological side, we propose a mathematical definition, based on the closeness of the quasispecies to the binomial distribution, which can be used as an operational definition of the notorious error threshold. Using this definition, we suggest two approximate formulas to estimate the critical mutation rate after which the quasispecies delocalization occurs. PMID:25149562

  14. Spin Coherent State Representation of the Crow-Kimura and Eigen Models of Quasispecies Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man

    2011-05-01

    We present a spin coherent state representation of the Crow-Kimura and Eigen models of biological evolution. We deal with quasispecies models where the fitness is a function of Hamming distances from one or more reference sequences. In the limit of large sequence length N, we find exact expressions for the mean fitness and magnetization of the asymptotic quasispecies distribution in symmetric fitness landscapes. The results are obtained by constructing a path integral for the propagator on the coset SU(2)/ U(1) and taking the classical limit. The classical limit gives a Hamiltonian function on a circle for one reference sequence, and on the product of 2 m -1 circles for m reference sequences. We apply our representation to study the Schuster-Swetina phenomena, where a wide lower peak is selected over a narrow higher peak. The quadratic landscape with two reference sequences is also analyzed specifically and we present the phase diagram on the mutation-fitness parameter phase space. Furthermore, we use our method to investigate more biologically relevant system, a model of escape from adaptive conflict through gene duplication, and find three different phases for the asymptotic population distribution.

  15. Disease-mediated inbreeding depression in a large, open population of cooperative crows.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Andrea K; Clark, Anne B; McGowan, Kevin J; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Miller, Andrew D; Lovette, Irby J

    2009-06-01

    Disease-mediated inbreeding depression is a potential cost of living in groups with kin, but its general magnitude in wild populations is unclear. We examined the relationships between inbreeding, survival and disease for 312 offspring, produced by 35 parental pairs, in a large, open population of cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Genetic analyses of parentage, parental relatedness coefficients and pedigree information suggested that 23 per cent of parental dyads were first- or second-order kin. Heterozygosity-heterozygosity correlations suggested that a microsatellite-based index of individual heterozygosity predicted individual genome-wide heterozygosity in this population. After excluding birds that died traumatically, survival probability was lower for relatively inbred birds during the 2-50 months after banding: the hazard rate for the most inbred birds was 170 per cent higher than that for the least inbred birds across the range of inbreeding index values. Birds that died with disease symptoms had higher inbreeding indices than birds with other fates. Our results suggest that avoidance of close inbreeding and the absence of inbreeding depression in large, open populations should not be assumed in taxa with kin-based social systems, and that microsatellite-based indices of individual heterozygosity can be an appropriate tool for examining the inbreeding depression in populations where incest and close inbreeding occur.

  16. Context-dependent 'safekeeping' of foraging tools in New Caledonian crows.

    PubMed

    Klump, Barbara C; van der Wal, Jessica E M; St Clair, James J H; Rutz, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Several animal species use tools for foraging, such as sticks to extract embedded arthropods and honey, or stones to crack open nuts and eggs. While providing access to nutritious foods, these behaviours may incur significant costs, such as the time and energy spent searching for, manufacturing and transporting tools. These costs can be reduced by re-using tools, keeping them safe when not needed. We experimentally investigated what New Caledonian crows do with their tools between successive prey extractions, and whether they express tool 'safekeeping' behaviours more often when the costs (foraging at height), or likelihood (handling of demanding prey), of tool loss are high. Birds generally took care of their tools (84% of 176 prey extractions, nine subjects), either trapping them underfoot (74%) or storing them in holes (26%)--behaviours we also observed in the wild (19 cases, four subjects). Moreover, tool-handling behaviour was context-dependent, with subjects: keeping their tools safe significantly more often when foraging at height; and storing tools significantly more often in holes when extracting more demanding prey (under these conditions, foot-trapping proved challenging). In arboreal environments, safekeeping can prevent costly tool losses, removing a potentially important constraint on the evolution of habitual and complex tool behaviour.

  17. Socially Driven Consistent Behavioural Differences during Development in Common Ravens and Carrion Crows.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rachael; Laskowski, Kate L; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Schwab, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour, or 'personality', are likely to be influenced by development, social context, and species ecology, though few comparative, longitudinal studies exist. Here, we investigated the role of development and social context on personality variation in two identically reared, social corvids: common ravens and carrion crows. We repeatedly presented subjects with a variety of novel food and objects, while alone and in a primarily sibling subgroup, from fledging to sub-adulthood. We predicted that consistent individual differences would emerge later in development, and that conspecific presence would facilitate behavioural similarities. In contrast to our predictions, we found that individuals of both species were highly inconsistent in their behavioural responses throughout the development period. In line with our predictions, though in the ravens only, conspecific presence promoted behavioural similarities as individuals were strongly shaped by their subgroup, and it is likely that these effects were driven by social context rather than relatedness. We discuss these findings in relation to developmental steps and the role of social relations in these species. Overall, our findings highlight that these two species are highly adaptable in their behaviour, and the ravens in particular are strongly influenced by their social environment, which may facilitate cooperation and social learning.

  18. Extreme binocular vision and a straight bill facilitate tool use in New Caledonian crows.

    PubMed

    Troscianko, Jolyon; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Chappell, Jackie; Rutz, Christian; Martin, Graham R

    2012-01-01

    Humans are expert tool users, who manipulate objects with dextrous hands and precise visual control. Surprisingly, morphological predispositions, or adaptations, for tool use have rarely been examined in non-human animals. New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides use their bills to craft complex tools from sticks, leaves and other materials, before inserting them into deadwood or vegetation to extract prey. Here we show that tool use in these birds is facilitated by an unusual visual-field topography and bill shape. Their visual field has substantially greater binocular overlap than that of any other bird species investigated to date, including six non-tool-using corvids. Furthermore, their unusually straight bill enables a stable grip on tools, and raises the tool tip into their visual field's binocular sector. These features enable a degree of tool control that would be impossible in other corvids, despite their comparable cognitive abilities. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for tool-use-related morphological features outside the hominin lineage. PMID:23047668

  19. Disease-mediated inbreeding depression in a large, open population of cooperative crows

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Buckles, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Andrew D.; Lovette, Irby J.

    2009-01-01

    Disease-mediated inbreeding depression is a potential cost of living in groups with kin, but its general magnitude in wild populations is unclear. We examined the relationships between inbreeding, survival and disease for 312 offspring, produced by 35 parental pairs, in a large, open population of cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Genetic analyses of parentage, parental relatedness coefficients and pedigree information suggested that 23 per cent of parental dyads were first- or second-order kin. Heterozygosity–heterozygosity correlations suggested that a microsatellite-based index of individual heterozygosity predicted individual genome-wide heterozygosity in this population. After excluding birds that died traumatically, survival probability was lower for relatively inbred birds during the 2–50 months after banding: the hazard rate for the most inbred birds was 170 per cent higher than that for the least inbred birds across the range of inbreeding index values. Birds that died with disease symptoms had higher inbreeding indices than birds with other fates. Our results suggest that avoidance of close inbreeding and the absence of inbreeding depression in large, open populations should not be assumed in taxa with kin-based social systems, and that microsatellite-based indices of individual heterozygosity can be an appropriate tool for examining the inbreeding depression in populations where incest and close inbreeding occur. PMID:19324784

  20. A single positively selected West Nile viral mutation confers increased virogenesis in American crows

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Aaron C; Huang, Claire Y-H; Langevin, Stanley A; Kinney, Richard M; Bowen, Richard A; Ramey, Wanichaya N; Panella, Nicholas A; Holmes, Edward C; Powers, Ann M; Miller, Barry R

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), first recognized in North America in 1999, has been responsible for the largest arboviral epiornitic and epidemic of human encephalitis in recorded history. Despite the well-described epidemiological patterns of WNV in North America, the basis for the emergence of WNV-associated avian pathology, particularly in the American crow (AMCR) sentinel species, and the large scale of the North American epidemic and epiornitic is uncertain. We report here that the introduction of a T249P amino acid substitution in the NS3 helicase (found in North American WNV) in a low-virulence strain was sufficient to generate a phenotype highly virulent to AMCRs. Furthermore, comparative sequence analyses of full-length WNV genomes demonstrated that the same site (NS3-249) was subject to adaptive evolution. These phenotypic and evolutionary results provide compelling evidence for the positive selection of a mutation encoding increased viremia potential and virulence in the AMCR sentinel bird species. PMID:17694056

  1. Socially Driven Consistent Behavioural Differences during Development in Common Ravens and Carrion Crows

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rachael; Laskowski, Kate L.; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Schwab, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour, or ‘personality’, are likely to be influenced by development, social context, and species ecology, though few comparative, longitudinal studies exist. Here, we investigated the role of development and social context on personality variation in two identically reared, social corvids: common ravens and carrion crows. We repeatedly presented subjects with a variety of novel food and objects, while alone and in a primarily sibling subgroup, from fledging to sub-adulthood. We predicted that consistent individual differences would emerge later in development, and that conspecific presence would facilitate behavioural similarities. In contrast to our predictions, we found that individuals of both species were highly inconsistent in their behavioural responses throughout the development period. In line with our predictions, though in the ravens only, conspecific presence promoted behavioural similarities as individuals were strongly shaped by their subgroup, and it is likely that these effects were driven by social context rather than relatedness. We discuss these findings in relation to developmental steps and the role of social relations in these species. Overall, our findings highlight that these two species are highly adaptable in their behaviour, and the ravens in particular are strongly influenced by their social environment, which may facilitate cooperation and social learning. PMID:26848954

  2. Linear algebra of the permutation invariant Crow-Kimura model of prebiotic evolution.

    PubMed

    Bratus, Alexander S; Novozhilov, Artem S; Semenov, Yuri S

    2014-10-01

    A particular case of the famous quasispecies model - the Crow-Kimura model with a permutation invariant fitness landscape - is investigated. Using the fact that the mutation matrix in the case of a permutation invariant fitness landscape has a special tridiagonal form, a change of the basis is suggested such that in the new coordinates a number of analytical results can be obtained. In particular, using the eigenvectors of the mutation matrix as the new basis, we show that the quasispecies distribution approaches a binomial one and give simple estimates for the speed of convergence. Another consequence of the suggested approach is a parametric solution to the system of equations determining the quasispecies. Using this parametric solution we show that our approach leads to exact asymptotic results in some cases, which are not covered by the existing methods. In particular, we are able to present not only the limit behavior of the leading eigenvalue (mean population fitness), but also the exact formulas for the limit quasispecies eigenvector for special cases. For instance, this eigenvector has a geometric distribution in the case of the classical single peaked fitness landscape. On the biological side, we propose a mathematical definition, based on the closeness of the quasispecies to the binomial distribution, which can be used as an operational definition of the notorious error threshold. Using this definition, we suggest two approximate formulas to estimate the critical mutation rate after which the quasispecies delocalization occurs.

  3. Point counts from clustered populations: Lessons from an experiment with Hawaiian crows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, G.D.; Kepler, C.B.; Scott, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We designed an experiment to identify factors contributing most to error in counts of Hawaiian Crow or Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) groups that are detected aurally. Seven observers failed to detect calling Alala on 197 of 361 3-min point counts on four transects extending from cages with captive Alala. A detection curve describing the relation between frequency of flock detection and distance typified the distribution expected in transect or point counts. Failure to detect calling Alala was affected most by distance, observer, and Alala calling frequency. The number of individual Alala calling was not important in detection rate. Estimates of the number of Alala calling (flock size) were biased and imprecise: average difference between number of Alala calling and number heard was 3.24 (.+-. 0.277). Distance, observer, number of Alala calling, and Alala calling frequency all contributed to errors in estimates of group size (P < 0.0001). Multiple regression suggested that number of Alala calling contributed most to errors. These results suggest that well-designed point counts may be used to estimate the number of Alala flocks but cast doubt on attempts to estimate flock size when individuals are counted aurally.

  4. Context-dependent ‘safekeeping’ of foraging tools in New Caledonian crows

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Barbara C.; van der Wal, Jessica E. M.; St Clair, James J. H.; Rutz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Several animal species use tools for foraging, such as sticks to extract embedded arthropods and honey, or stones to crack open nuts and eggs. While providing access to nutritious foods, these behaviours may incur significant costs, such as the time and energy spent searching for, manufacturing and transporting tools. These costs can be reduced by re-using tools, keeping them safe when not needed. We experimentally investigated what New Caledonian crows do with their tools between successive prey extractions, and whether they express tool ‘safekeeping’ behaviours more often when the costs (foraging at height), or likelihood (handling of demanding prey), of tool loss are high. Birds generally took care of their tools (84% of 176 prey extractions, nine subjects), either trapping them underfoot (74%) or storing them in holes (26%)—behaviours we also observed in the wild (19 cases, four subjects). Moreover, tool-handling behaviour was context-dependent, with subjects: keeping their tools safe significantly more often when foraging at height; and storing tools significantly more often in holes when extracting more demanding prey (under these conditions, foot-trapping proved challenging). In arboreal environments, safekeeping can prevent costly tool losses, removing a potentially important constraint on the evolution of habitual and complex tool behaviour. PMID:25994674

  5. A late-Middle Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage 6) vegetated surface buried by Old Crow tephra at the Palisades, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, A.V.; Jensen, B.J.L.; Zazula, G.D.; Ager, T.A.; Kuzmina, S.; La, Farge C.; Froese, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A 40??cm thick primary bed of Old Crow tephra (131??????11??ka), an important stratigraphic marker in eastern Beringia, directly overlies a vegetated surface at Palisades West, on the Yukon River in central Alaska. Analyses of insect, bryophyte, and vascular plant macrofossils from the buried surface and underlying organic-rich silt suggest the local presence of an aquatic environment and mesic shrub-tundra at the time of tephra deposition. Autochthonous plant and insect macrofossils from peat directly overlying Old Crow tephra suggest similar aquatic habitats and hydric to mesic tundra environments, though pollen counts indicate a substantial herbaceous component to the regional tundra vegetation. Trace amounts of arboreal pollen in sediments associated with the tephra probably reflect reworking from older deposits, rather than the local presence of trees. The revised glass fission-track age for Old Crow tephra places its deposition closer to the time of the last interglaciation than earlier age determinations, but stratigraphy and paleoecology of sites with Old Crow tephra indicate a late Marine Isotope Stage 6 age. Regional permafrost degradation and associated thaw slumping are responsible for the close stratigraphic and paleoecological relations between Old Crow tephra and last interglacial deposits at some sites in eastern Beringia. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A late-Middle Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage 6) vegetated surface buried by Old Crow tephra at the Palisades, interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Alberto V.; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Zazula, Grant D.; Ager, Thomas A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; La Farge, Catherine; Froese, Duane G.

    2010-03-01

    A 40 cm thick primary bed of Old Crow tephra (131 ± 11 ka), an important stratigraphic marker in eastern Beringia, directly overlies a vegetated surface at Palisades West, on the Yukon River in central Alaska. Analyses of insect, bryophyte, and vascular plant macrofossils from the buried surface and underlying organic-rich silt suggest the local presence of an aquatic environment and mesic shrub-tundra at the time of tephra deposition. Autochthonous plant and insect macrofossils from peat directly overlying Old Crow tephra suggest similar aquatic habitats and hydric to mesic tundra environments, though pollen counts indicate a substantial herbaceous component to the regional tundra vegetation. Trace amounts of arboreal pollen in sediments associated with the tephra probably reflect reworking from older deposits, rather than the local presence of trees. The revised glass fission-track age for Old Crow tephra places its deposition closer to the time of the last interglaciation than earlier age determinations, but stratigraphy and paleoecology of sites with Old Crow tephra indicate a late Marine Isotope Stage 6 age. Regional permafrost degradation and associated thaw slumping are responsible for the close stratigraphic and paleoecological relations between Old Crow tephra and last interglacial deposits at some sites in eastern Beringia.

  7. Lost Jim Lava Flow, Seward Peninsula, Alaska as an analog for lava-ice interactions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, E.; Hamilton, C.; Herrick, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    On Mars, volcanism within Elysium Planitia may have occurred as recently as ~10 million years ago, which associated lava flows being emplaced with ice-bearing permafrost. On Earth, there are few active volcanic regions that are cold enough to support permafrost, but the Seward Peninsula in Alaska is a prime location to study recent volcano-ice interactions. In the early 2000s, J.E. Beget and J.S. Kargel explored two areas in Alaska that exhibit features characteristic of explosive volcanism that may be the result of lava-ice interaction. These locations include the Lost Jim Lava Flow (65°29'N, 163°17'W) and several large maars (66°23'N, 164°29'W). The work presented here focuses on the Lost Jim Lava Flow, emanating from Lost Jim Cone and flowing West and North. The flow was erupted 1000-2000 years ago, covers ~225 km2, and ranges 3-30 m in thickness. Previous fieldwork identified pits along the margins of the flow that were interpreted to be collapse features (i.e., thermokarst) that formed as ground-ice beneath the lava melted due to heat transfer from the overlaying lava flow. This investigation utilizes stereo photogrammetry to generate high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) of these flow features to assess if these pits are indeed the products of thermokarstification, or if they are lava-rise pits formed by lava flow inflation. The DTMs were generated from ALOS PRISM data and DigitalGlobe Worldview 1 and 2 panchromatic satellite images taken as stereo-pairs or -triplets. With these new models the extent and morphology of the flow and pits will be categorized across the entire flow. These results are also compared to young lava flows on Mars, which may have experienced lava-ice interactions. Understanding the expression of such interactions on Earth may aid in the identification and interpretation of analogous eruptions on Mars.

  8. Flexibility in problem solving and tool use of kea and New Caledonian crows in a multi access box paradigm.

    PubMed

    Auersperg, Alice M I; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Gajdon, Gyula K; Huber, Ludwig; Kacelnik, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Parrots and corvids show outstanding innovative and flexible behaviour. In particular, kea and New Caledonian crows are often singled out as being exceptionally sophisticated in physical cognition, so that comparing them in this respect is particularly interesting. However, comparing cognitive mechanisms among species requires consideration of non-cognitive behavioural propensities and morphological characteristics evolved from different ancestry and adapted to fit different ecological niches. We used a novel experimental approach based on a Multi-Access-Box (MAB). Food could be extracted by four different techniques, two of them involving tools. Initially all four options were available to the subjects. Once they reached criterion for mastering one option, this task was blocked, until the subjects became proficient in another solution. The exploratory behaviour differed considerably. Only one (of six) kea and one (of five) NCC mastered all four options, including a first report of innovative stick tool use in kea. The crows were more efficient in using the stick tool, the kea the ball tool. The kea were haptically more explorative than the NCC, discovered two or three solutions within the first ten trials (against a mean of 0.75 discoveries by the crows) and switched more quickly to new solutions when the previous one was blocked. Differences in exploration technique, neophobia and object manipulation are likely to explain differential performance across the set of tasks. Our study further underlines the need to use a diversity of tasks when comparing cognitive traits between members of different species. Extension of a similar method to other taxa could help developing a comparative cognition research program.

  9. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-01-01

    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant effect on house crow’s quantity judgments (red: ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.748, p = 0.144; and green: ANOVA: F6,30= 1.085, p = 0.394). Common myna, however, showed a strong influence of red colour in their quantity judgment (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.922, p = 0.023) as they succeeded in choosing the largest amount of food between two cups, but not when offered food using green coloured mealworms (ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.183, p = 0.342). In the next experiment, we hypothesised that both house crow and common myna will prefer red coloured food items over green coloured food items, when factors such as the amount of food is equal. We chose to test red and green colours because both colours play an important role in most avian food selections. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the selection of red or green coloured mealworms for both house crows (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.310, p = 0.06) and common myna (ANOVA: F6,30 = 0.823, p = 0.561). PMID:27688847

  10. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-01-01

    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant effect on house crow’s quantity judgments (red: ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.748, p = 0.144; and green: ANOVA: F6,30= 1.085, p = 0.394). Common myna, however, showed a strong influence of red colour in their quantity judgment (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.922, p = 0.023) as they succeeded in choosing the largest amount of food between two cups, but not when offered food using green coloured mealworms (ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.183, p = 0.342). In the next experiment, we hypothesised that both house crow and common myna will prefer red coloured food items over green coloured food items, when factors such as the amount of food is equal. We chose to test red and green colours because both colours play an important role in most avian food selections. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the selection of red or green coloured mealworms for both house crows (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.310, p = 0.06) and common myna (ANOVA: F6,30 = 0.823, p = 0.561).

  11. Flexibility in Problem Solving and Tool Use of Kea and New Caledonian Crows in a Multi Access Box Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Auersperg, Alice M. I.; von Bayern, Auguste M. P.; Gajdon, Gyula K.

    2011-01-01

    Parrots and corvids show outstanding innovative and flexible behaviour. In particular, kea and New Caledonian crows are often singled out as being exceptionally sophisticated in physical cognition, so that comparing them in this respect is particularly interesting. However, comparing cognitive mechanisms among species requires consideration of non-cognitive behavioural propensities and morphological characteristics evolved from different ancestry and adapted to fit different ecological niches. We used a novel experimental approach based on a Multi-Access-Box (MAB). Food could be extracted by four different techniques, two of them involving tools. Initially all four options were available to the subjects. Once they reached criterion for mastering one option, this task was blocked, until the subjects became proficient in another solution. The exploratory behaviour differed considerably. Only one (of six) kea and one (of five) NCC mastered all four options, including a first report of innovative stick tool use in kea. The crows were more efficient in using the stick tool, the kea the ball tool. The kea were haptically more explorative than the NCC, discovered two or three solutions within the first ten trials (against a mean of 0.75 discoveries by the crows) and switched more quickly to new solutions when the previous one was blocked. Differences in exploration technique, neophobia and object manipulation are likely to explain differential performance across the set of tasks. Our study further underlines the need to use a diversity of tasks when comparing cognitive traits between members of different species. Extension of a similar method to other taxa could help developing a comparative cognition research program. PMID:21687666

  12. Improvement of crow's feet lines by topical application of 1-carbamimidoyl-L-proline (CLP).

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Makoto; Yokose, Urara; Hachiya, Akira; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Kazue; Kawada, Hiromitsu; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Terui, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2013-04-01

    Wrinkles, one of the characteristics of chronic sun-damaged and/or aged skin, are associated with psychological distress. Apart from the deterioration of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, which induces the loss of skin elasticity, it has been recently proposed that decreased flexibility or elasticity of the stratum corneum (SC) is also correlated with wrinkle formation. The elasticity of the SC has been shown to be regulated, at least in part, by the amounts and types of amino acids. To evaluate the ability of our newly developed amino acid-derivative (1-carbamimidoyl-L-proline; CLP), which recovers the elastic properties of the SC ex vivo, to improve wrinkles, a clinical test was performed with 126 Japanese female subjects aged 32-50 years who had crow's feet lines on their faces. Three eligible dermatologists evaluated the study according to authorized grades by the Japanese Cosmetic Science Society and scored the subjects who were much improved or improved as 29.7% and 57.8% of all CLP-treated subjects at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. In contrast, only 1.5% and 8.1% of subjects improved with the placebo lotion at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. These results suggest a significant efficacy of CLP to improve wrinkles. In parallel with the dermatologists' assessments, skin surface roughness in the CLP-treated group was significantly reduced after treatment with CLP for 4 and 8 weeks compared to the placebo-treated group. The sum of these data suggests that CLP is a promising and useful ingredient for the improvement of wrinkles through its ability to enhance the elasticity of the SC.

  13. Valley-Fill Standstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Lopez

    1998-01-07

    Subsurface data is being collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview if being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map have been successfully imported to Arcview and customized. All of the four 30 feet by 60 feet geologic surface geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface data base for the Crow Reservation. Field investigations inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least a four major westward-trending valley systems.

  14. Experimental resource pulses influence social-network dynamics and the potential for information flow in tool-using crows

    PubMed Central

    St Clair, James J. H.; Burns, Zackory T.; Bettaney, Elaine M.; Morrissey, Michael B.; Otis, Brian; Ryder, Thomas B.; Fleischer, Robert C.; James, Richard; Rutz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Social-network dynamics have profound consequences for biological processes such as information flow, but are notoriously difficult to measure in the wild. We used novel transceiver technology to chart association patterns across 19 days in a wild population of the New Caledonian crow—a tool-using species that may socially learn, and culturally accumulate, tool-related information. To examine the causes and consequences of changing network topology, we manipulated the environmental availability of the crows' preferred tool-extracted prey, and simulated, in silico, the diffusion of information across field-recorded time-ordered networks. Here we show that network structure responds quickly to environmental change and that novel information can potentially spread rapidly within multi-family communities, especially when tool-use opportunities are plentiful. At the same time, we report surprisingly limited social contact between neighbouring crow communities. Such scale dependence in information-flow dynamics is likely to influence the evolution and maintenance of material cultures. PMID:26529116

  15. Gastrointestinal Helminths of Magpies (Pica pica), Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone) in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Halajian, A; Eslami, A; Mobedi, I; Amin, O; Mariaux, J; Mansoori, J; Tavakol, S

    2011-01-01

    Background Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine birds including crows, rooks, magpies, jays, chough, and ravens. These birds are migratory species, especially in the shortage of foods, so they can act like vectors for a wide range of microorganisms. They live generally in temperate climates and in a very close contact with human residential areas as well as poultry farms. There is no available information in the literature concerning the parasitic infections of these three species of corvidae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, so this study was conducted to clarify this. Methods As there are three species of corvid birds in Mazandaran Province, 106 birds including 79 magpies, 11 rooks, and 16 carrion crows were examined between winter 2007 and spring 2008 at post mortem for gastrointestinal helminths. The helminths were drawn and identified morphologically in the Laboratory of Parasitology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran and also partly in the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, based on the reference books and identification keys like Soulsby, Khalil et al. and Anderson et al. Results Four species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes, 1 species of trematodes and 1 species of acanthocephalans were identified in these three corvid species. Conclusion Five species of the helminths are identified for the first time in Iran, and the acanthocephalan species is new host record for rooks. It is clear that these corvid birds have diverse range of helminths and can act as carriers for infecting the domestic fowls. PMID:22347286

  16. Extending and Merging the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatologies Using the Inversion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Ali; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    Rayleigh and Raman scatter measurements from The University of Western Ontario Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) have been used to develop temperature climatologies for the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere using data from 1994 to 2013 (Rayleigh system) and from 1999 to 2013 (vibrational Raman system). Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the methods by Hauchecorne and Chanin (1980; henceforth HC) and Khanna et al. (2012). Argall and Sica (2007) used the HC method to compute a climatology of the PCL measurements from 1994 to 2004 for 35 to 110 km, while Iserhienrhien et al. (2013) applied the same technique from 1999 to 2007 for 10 to 35 km. Khanna et al. (2012) used the inversion technique to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles and found that it had advantages over the HC method. This paper presents an extension of the PCL climatologies created by Argall and Sica (2007) and Iserhienrhien et al. (2013). Both the inversion and HC methods were used to form the Rayleigh climatology, while only the latter was adopted for the Raman climatology. Then, two different approaches were used to merge the climatologies from 10 to 110 km. Among four different functional identities, a trigonometric hyperbolic relation results in the best choice for merging temperature profiles between the Raman and Low level Rayleigh channels, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.9 K for merging temperatures. Also, error function produces best result with uncertainty of 0.7 K between the Low Level Rayleigh and High Level Rayleigh channels. The results show that the temperature climatologies produced by the HC method when using a seed pressure are comparable to the climatologies produced by the inversion method. The Rayleigh extended climatology is slightly warmer below 80 km and slightly colder above 80 km. There are no significant differences in temperature between the extended and the previous Raman channel climatologies. Through out

  17. Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Strain of Bacillus pumilus, CB01, Isolated from the Feces of an American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, R. Lee; Castro, Michael A.; Katti, Madhusudan; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Avian species have the potential to serve as important reservoirs for the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Here, we report the genome sequence of a drug-resistant strain of Bacillus pumilus, CB01, isolated from the feces of an American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos. PMID:27540060

  18. Instructional Coaching and the Effective Teacher. Q&A with Jim Knight, Ph.D. REL Mid-Atlantic Teacher Effectiveness Webinar Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Instructional coaching can help teachers adopt new practices. In this webinar, participants explored how instructional coaching can encourage teachers to adopt new practices and whether coaching has lasting effects. This webinar featured Jim Knight, Ph.D., a Research Associate at the University of Kansas, who has been studying and writing about…

  19. Differential effects of two blockers of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, apamin and lei-Dab7, on learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Mpari, Bedel; Regaya, Imed; Escoffier, Guy; Mourre, Christiane

    2005-09-01

    SK channels are responsible for long-lasting hyperpolarization following action potential and contribute to the neuronal integration signal. This study evaluates the involvement of SK channels on learning and memory in rats, by comparing the effects of two SK channel blockers, i.e., apamin which recognizes SK2 and SK3 channels, and lei-Dab7 which binds SK2 channels only. lei-Dab7 totally competes and contests apamin binding on whole brain sections (IC(50): 11.4 nM). Using an olfactory associative task, intracerebroventricular blocker injections were tested on reference memory. Once the task was mastered with one odor pair, it was then tested with a new odor pair. Apamin (0.3 ng), injected before or after the acquisition session, improved new odor pair learning in a retention session 24 hours later, whereas lei-Dab7 (3 ng) did not significantly affect the mnesic processes. These results indicated that the blockage of SK channels by apamin facilitates consolidation on new odor associations; lei-Dab7, containing only SK2 subunits, remains without effect suggesting an involvement of SK3 channels in the modulation of the mnesic processes. PMID:16178064

  20. An analysis of population genetic differentiation and genotype-phenotype association across the hybrid zone of carrion and hooded crows using microsatellites and MC1R.

    PubMed

    Haas, Fredrik; Pointer, Marie A; Saino, Nicola; Brodin, Anders; Mundy, Nicholas I; Hansson, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    The all black carrion crow (Corvus corone corone) and the grey and black hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix) meet in a narrow hybrid zone across Europe. To evaluate the degree of genetic differentiation over the hybrid zone, we genotyped crows from the centre and edges of the zone, and from allopatric populations in northern (Scotland-Denmark-Sweden) and southern Europe (western-central northern Italy), at 18 microsatellites and at a plumage candidate gene, the MC1R gene. Allopatric and edge populations were significantly differentiated on microsatellites, and populations were isolated by distance over the hybrid zone in Italy. Single-locus analyses showed that one locus, CmeH9, differentiated populations on different sides of the zone at the same time as showing only weak separation of populations on the same side of the zone. Within the hybrid zone there was no differentiation of phenotypes at CmeH9 or at the set of microsatellites, no excess of heterozygotes among hybrids and low levels of linkage disequilibrium between markers. We did not detect any association between phenotypes and nucleotide variation at MC1R, and the two most common haplotypes occurred in very similar frequencies in carrion and hooded crows. That we found a similar degree of genetic differentiation between allopatric and edge populations irrespectively of their location in relation to the hybrid zone, no differentiation between phenotypes within the hybrid zone, and neither heterozygote excess nor consistent linkage disequilibrium in the hybrid zone, is striking considering that carrion and hooded crows are phenotypically distinct and sometimes recognised as separate species.

  1. Transverse Subtrochanteric Shortening Osteotomy During Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty in Crowe Type-III or IV Developmental Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Sofu, Hakan; Kockara, Nizamettin; Gursu, Sarper; Issin, Ahmet; Oner, Ali; Sahin, Vedat

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of transverse subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy during cementless total hip arthroplasty in Crowe Type-III or IV developmental dysplasia. Seventy-three osteotomies were included in our study. Mean follow-up was 61 months. Harris hip score, leg length discrepancy, neurological status, union status of the osteotomy, and femoral component stability were the criteria for evaluation. All complications were noted. The mean Harris hip score improved from 38.6 points to 83.7 points. The mean leg length discrepancy decreased from 56.5 mm to 10.7 at the latest follow-up. The mean union time was 5.2 months. We observed 4 non-unions. Transverse subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy is an effective and reliable method in restoration of a more normal limb. PMID:25707993

  2. Dopamine Receptor Genes and Evolutionary Differentiation in the Domestication of Fighting Cocks and Long-Crowing Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Iwama, Hisakazu; Osada, Naoki; Nakamura, Yoji; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tateno, Yoshio; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The chicken domestication process represents a typical model of artificial selection, and gives significant insight into the general understanding of the influence of artificial selection on recognizable phenotypes. Two Japanese domesticated chicken varieties, the fighting cock (Shamo) and the long-crowing chicken (Naganakidori), have been selectively bred for dramatically different phenotypes. The former has been selected exclusively for aggressiveness and the latter for long crowing with an obedient sitting posture. To understand the particular mechanism behind these genetic changes during domestication, we investigated the degree of genetic differentiation in the aforementioned chickens, focusing on dopamine receptor D2, D3, and D4 genes. We studied other ornamental chickens such as Chabo chickens as a reference for comparison. When genetic differentiation was measured by an index of nucleotide differentiation (NST) newly devised in this study, we found that the NST value of DRD4 for Shamo (0.072) was distinctively larger than those of the other genes among the three populations, suggesting that aggressiveness has been selected for in Shamo by collecting a variety of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In addition, we found that in DRD4 in Naganakidori, there is a deletion variant of one proline at the 24th residue in the repeat of nine prolines of exon 1. We thus conclude that artificial selection has operated on these different kinds of genetic variation in the DRD4 genes of Shamo and Naganakidori so strongly that the two domesticated varieties have differentiated to obtain their present opposite features in a relatively short period of time. PMID:25078403

  3. Valey-Fill Sandstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, David A

    1998-04-07

    Subsurface data is being collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from about ½ of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base. All of the four 30" X 60" geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for the Billings and Bridger Quadrangles; and are underway for the Hardin and Lodge Grass Quadrangles. Field investigations were completed during the last quarter. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has bee traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel has been submitted and accepted for presentation at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998.

  4. Valley-Fill Sandstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, David A

    1998-07-03

    Subsurface data continues to be collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from about ¾ of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base. All of the four 30" X 60" geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for all the quadrangles; Billings, Bridger; Hardin, and Lodge Grass. Final GIS edits are being made before being forwarded to the Bureau's Publications Department. Field investigations were completed during the third quarter, 1997. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has bee traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel has been submitted and accepted for presentation at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998.

  5. Dopamine receptor genes and evolutionary differentiation in the domestication of fighting cocks and long-crowing chickens.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Iwama, Hisakazu; Osada, Naoki; Nakamura, Yoji; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tateno, Yoshio; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The chicken domestication process represents a typical model of artificial selection, and gives significant insight into the general understanding of the influence of artificial selection on recognizable phenotypes. Two Japanese domesticated chicken varieties, the fighting cock (Shamo) and the long-crowing chicken (Naganakidori), have been selectively bred for dramatically different phenotypes. The former has been selected exclusively for aggressiveness and the latter for long crowing with an obedient sitting posture. To understand the particular mechanism behind these genetic changes during domestication, we investigated the degree of genetic differentiation in the aforementioned chickens, focusing on dopamine receptor D2, D3, and D4 genes. We studied other ornamental chickens such as Chabo chickens as a reference for comparison. When genetic differentiation was measured by an index of nucleotide differentiation (NST) newly devised in this study, we found that the NST value of DRD4 for Shamo (0.072) was distinctively larger than those of the other genes among the three populations, suggesting that aggressiveness has been selected for in Shamo by collecting a variety of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In addition, we found that in DRD4 in Naganakidori, there is a deletion variant of one proline at the 24th residue in the repeat of nine prolines of exon 1. We thus conclude that artificial selection has operated on these different kinds of genetic variation in the DRD4 genes of Shamo and Naganakidori so strongly that the two domesticated varieties have differentiated to obtain their present opposite features in a relatively short period of time.

  6. Investigating a crow die-off in January-February 2011 during the introduction of a new clade of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 into Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salah Uddin; Berman, Lashondra; Haider, Najmul; Gerloff, Nancy; Rahman, Md Z; Shu, Bo; Rahman, Mustafizur; Dey, Tapan Kumar; Davis, Todd C; Das, Bidhan Chandra; Balish, Amanda; Islam, Ausraful; Teifke, Jens P; Zeidner, Nord; Lindstrom, Steven; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O; Luby, Stephen P; Shivaprasad, H L; Mikolon, Andrea B

    2014-03-01

    We investigated unusual crow mortality in Bangladesh during January-February 2011 at two sites. Crows of two species, Corvus splendens and C. macrorhynchos, were found sick and dead during the outbreaks. In selected crow roosts, morbidity was ~1 % and mortality was ~4 % during the investigation. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 was isolated from dead crows. All isolates were closely related to A/duck/India/02CA10/2011 (H5N1) with 99.8 % and A/crow/Bangladesh/11rs1984-15/2011 (H5N1) virus with 99 % nucleotide sequence identity in their HA genes. The phylogenetic cluster of Bangladesh viruses suggested a common ancestor with viruses found in poultry from India, Myanmar and Nepal. Histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry staining in brain, pancreas, liver, heart, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, rectum, and cloaca were consistent with influenza virus infection. Through our limited investigation in domesticated birds near the crow roosts, we did not identify any samples that tested positive for influenza virus A/H5N1. However, environmental samples collected from live-bird markets near an outbreak site during the month of the outbreaks tested very weakly positive for influenza virus A/H5N1 in clade 2.3.2.1-specific rRT-PCR. Continuation of surveillance in wild and domestic birds may identify evolution of new avian influenza virus and associated public-health risks.

  7. Failure to Burrow and Tunnel Reveals Roles for jim lovell in the Growth and Endoreplication of the Drosophila Larval Tracheae

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Karen M.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Jim Lovell (Lov) is a putative transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (Bric- a-Brac/Tramtrack/Broad/ Pox virus and Zinc finger) domain class that is expressed in many elements of the developing larval nervous system. It has roles in innate behaviors such as larval locomotion and adult courtship. In performing tissue-specific knockdown with the Gal4-UAS system we identified a new behavioral phenotype for lov: larvae failed to burrow into their food during their growth phase and then failed to tunnel into an agarose substratum during their wandering phase. We determined that these phenotypes originate in a previously unrecognized role for lov in the tracheae. By using tracheal-specific Gal4 lines, Lov immunolocalization and a lov enhancer trap line, we established that lov is normally expressed in the tracheae from late in embryogenesis through larval life. Using an assay that monitors food burrowing, substrate tunneling and death we showed that lov tracheal knockdown results in tracheal fluid-filling, producing hypoxia that activates the aberrant behaviors and inhibits development. We investigated the role of lov in the tracheae that initiates this sequence of events. We discovered that when lov levels are reduced, the tracheal cells are smaller, more numerous and show lower levels of endopolyploidization. Together our findings indicate that Lov is necessary for tracheal endoreplicative growth and that its loss in this tissue causes loss of tracheal integrity resulting in chronic hypoxia and abnormal burrowing and tunneling behavior. PMID:27494251

  8. Population size and relative abundance of adult Alabama shad reaching jim woodruff lock and dam, Apalachicola River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Patrick C.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the population size of migrating Alabama shad Alosa alabamae below Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in the Apalachicola River (located in the central panhandle of northwestern Florida) using mark-recapture and relative abundance techniques. After adjustment for tag loss, emigration, and mortality, the population size was estimated as 25,935 (95% confidence interval, 17,715-39,535) in 2005, 2,767 (838-5,031) in 2006, and 8,511 (5,211-14,674) in 2007. The cumulative catch rate from boat electrofishing averaged 20.47 Alabama shad per hour in 2005, 6.10 per hour in 2006, and 13.17 per hour in 2007. The relationship between population size (N) and electrofishing catch per unit effort (CPUE) was modeled by the equation N = -9008.2 + (electrofishing CPUE X 1616.4). Additionally, in 2007 the hook-and-line catch rate averaged 1.94 Alabama shad per rod hour. A predictive model relating the population size and hook-and-line CPUE of spawning American shad A. sapidissima was applied to Alabama shad hook-and-line CPUE and produced satisfactory results. Recent spawning populations of Alabama shad in the Apalachicola River are low relative to American shad populations in other southeastern U.S. rivers. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  9. An extensive candidate gene approach to speciation: diversity, divergence and linkage disequilibrium in candidate pigmentation genes across the European crow hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Poelstra, J W; Ellegren, H; Wolf, J B W

    2013-12-01

    Colouration patterns have an important role in adaptation and speciation. The European crow system, in which all-black carrion crows and grey-coated hooded crows meet in a narrow hybrid zone, is a prominent example. The marked phenotypic difference is maintained by assortative mating in the absence of neutral genetic divergence, suggesting the presence of few pigmentation genes of major effect. We made use of the rich phenotypic and genetic resources in mammals and identified a comprehensive panel of 95 candidate pigmentation genes for birds. Based on functional annotation, we chose a subset of the most promising 37 candidates, for which we developed a marker system that demonstrably works across the avian phylogeny. In total, we sequenced 107 amplicons (∼3 loci per gene, totalling 60 kb) in population samples of crows (n=23 for each taxon). Tajima's D, Fu's FS, DHEW and HKA (Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade) statistics revealed several amplicons that deviated from neutrality; however, none of these showed significantly elevated differentiation between the two taxa. Hence, colour divergence in this system may be mediated by uncharacterized pigmentation genes or regulatory regions outside genes. Alternatively, the observed high population recombination rate (4Ner∼0.03), with overall linkage disequilibrium dropping rapidly within the order of few 100 bp, may compromise the power to detect causal loci with nearby markers. Our results add to the debate as to the utility of candidate gene approaches in relation to genomic features and the genetic architecture of the phenotypic trait in question. PMID:23881172

  10. An extensive candidate gene approach to speciation: diversity, divergence and linkage disequilibrium in candidate pigmentation genes across the European crow hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Poelstra, J W; Ellegren, H; Wolf, J B W

    2013-12-01

    Colouration patterns have an important role in adaptation and speciation. The European crow system, in which all-black carrion crows and grey-coated hooded crows meet in a narrow hybrid zone, is a prominent example. The marked phenotypic difference is maintained by assortative mating in the absence of neutral genetic divergence, suggesting the presence of few pigmentation genes of major effect. We made use of the rich phenotypic and genetic resources in mammals and identified a comprehensive panel of 95 candidate pigmentation genes for birds. Based on functional annotation, we chose a subset of the most promising 37 candidates, for which we developed a marker system that demonstrably works across the avian phylogeny. In total, we sequenced 107 amplicons (∼3 loci per gene, totalling 60 kb) in population samples of crows (n=23 for each taxon). Tajima's D, Fu's FS, DHEW and HKA (Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade) statistics revealed several amplicons that deviated from neutrality; however, none of these showed significantly elevated differentiation between the two taxa. Hence, colour divergence in this system may be mediated by uncharacterized pigmentation genes or regulatory regions outside genes. Alternatively, the observed high population recombination rate (4Ner∼0.03), with overall linkage disequilibrium dropping rapidly within the order of few 100 bp, may compromise the power to detect causal loci with nearby markers. Our results add to the debate as to the utility of candidate gene approaches in relation to genomic features and the genetic architecture of the phenotypic trait in question.

  11. The Pd/Ni(110) bimetallic system: Surface characterisation by LEED, AES, XPS, and LEIS techniques; new insight on catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, P.; Simon, D.; Guigner, J.M.

    1996-09-15

    Pd deposits on Ni(110) have been studied by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEIS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques and their catalytic properties tested by the butadiene hydrogenation reaction at room temperature. Their catalytic activity is greatly enhanced by appropriate annealings. Superstructure indicative of a long range-ordering of Pd atoms on Ni is evidenced for low Pd coverages neither before nor after annealing. AES and LEIS studies reveal a sharp Pd depth profile and the existence of a Pd-Ni surface alloy even at room temperature. The Pd 3d core level binding energy is shifted upwards by at least 0.4 eV with respect to pure Pd surface atoms and remains unchanged in the course of annealings. Hence geometrical rearrangements have to be taken into consideration to explain the activity enhancement. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Jim River and Hodzana plutons, Alaska: the role of assimilation in the petrogenesis of syenite and granite

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, J.D.; Blum, A.E.; Dillon, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Early Cretaceous plutonic rocks in central Alaska intrude both Devonian to Jurassic oceanic rocks of the Angayuchum terrane (AT) and early Paleozoic to Precambrian continental metasediments of the Ruby terrane (RT). Most plutons intrude only the RT and are biotite and two-mice granite. The Hodzana pluton intrudes both fault-bounded terranes, constraining movement between them to the emplacement age of about 110 million years, and is mainly biotite-amphibole granite with some monzodiorite. Modal and chemical data from the Jim River and Hodzana plutons define two distinct compositional trends. One trend is monzonitic to syenitic while the other is mostly granitic. The two suites are the same age, yet cannot be related by simple differentiation due to a pronounced chemical discontinuity. Rb-Sr whole-rock isochrons yield an age of 112 million years and (87Sr/86Sr)o of .7078 for the syenitic suite, and an age of 108 million years and (87Sr/86Sr)o of .7079 for the granitic suite. The authors suggest that the monzonite represents a primary magma that formed in the lower crust or mantle and initiated upper crustal melting as it intruded the AT and RT. Assimilation of continental crust could have allowed the portion of the magma that intruded the RT to evolve from a monzonite to a granite. Fractionation of these two parent magmas may have resulted in the contemporaneous syenitic and granitic suites. The two suites may reflect the contrasting composition of assimilated wallrock across the AT-RT boundary. Isotopic studies of the wallrocks are in progress and may help to constrain the amount and composition of crust that was assimilated where the magma intruded the AT versus the RT.

  13. Ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws parallel great apes in motor self-regulation despite smaller brains

    PubMed Central

    Kabadayi, Can; Taylor, Lucy A.; von Bayern, Auguste M. P.; Osvath, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Overriding motor impulses instigated by salient perceptual stimuli represent a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation facilitates more rational behaviour, as it brings economy into the bodily interaction with the physical and social world. It also underlies certain complex cognitive processes including decision making. Recently, MacLean et al. (MacLean et al. 2014 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 2140–2148. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1323533111)) conducted a large-scale study involving 36 species, comparing motor self-regulation across taxa. They concluded that absolute brain size predicts level of performance. The great apes were most successful. Only a few of the species tested were birds. Given birds' small brain size—in absolute terms—yet flexible behaviour, their motor self-regulation calls for closer study. Corvids exhibit some of the largest relative avian brain sizes—although small in absolute measure—as well as the most flexible cognition in the animal kingdom. We therefore tested ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws in the so-called cylinder task. We found performance indistinguishable from that of great apes despite the much smaller brains. We found both absolute and relative brain volume to be a reliable predictor of performance within Aves. The complex cognition of corvids is often likened to that of great apes; our results show further that they share similar fundamental cognitive mechanisms. PMID:27152224

  14. Specific chicken repeat 1 (CR1) retrotransposon insertion suggests phylogenetic affinity of rockfowls (genus Picathartes) to crows and ravens (Corvidae).

    PubMed

    Treplin, Simone; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2007-04-01

    While the monophyly of the order Passeriformes as well as its suborders suboscines (Tyranni) and oscines (Passeri) is well established, both on morphological and molecular grounds, lower phylogenetic relationships have been a continuous matter of debate, especially within oscines. This is particularly true for the rockfowls (genus Picathartes), which phylogenetic classification has been an ongoing puzzle. Sequence-based molecular studies failed in deriving unambiguously resolved and supported hypotheses. We present here a novel approach: use of retrotransposon insertions as phylogenetic markers in passerine birds. Chicken repeat 1 (CR1) is the most important non-LTR retrotransposon in birds. We present two truncated CR1 loci in passerine birds, not only found in representatives of Corvinae (jays, crows and allies), but also in the West-African Picathartes species which provide new evidence for a closer relationship of these species to Corvidae than has previously been thought. Additionally, we show that not only the absence/presence pattern of a CR1 insertion, but also the CR1 sequences themselves contain phylogenetic information.

  15. Purple Crow Lidar Vibrational Raman water vapor mixing ratio and temperature measurements in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) measurements of the vibrational Raman-shifted backscatter from water vapor and nitrogen molecules allows height profiles of water vapor mixing ratio to be measured from 500 m to up into the lower stratosphere from the Delaware Observatory near London, Canada. In addition, the Raman nitrogen measurements allow the determination of temperature profiles from about 10 km to 40 km altitude. External calibration of these measurements is necessary to compensate for instrumental effects, uncertainties in our knowledge of the relevant molecular cross sections, and atmospheric transmission. A comparison of the PCL derived water vapor concentration and temperature profiles with routine radiosonde measurements from Detroit and Buffalo on 37 and 141 nights respectively, was undertaken to provide this calibration, which showed mean temperature differences over all flights for altitudes above 9 km of about 0.5 K, with agreement for water vapor below 7 km to within ±12%. Comparisons of the cold point temperature with the coincident water vapor measurements will be presented to investigate the transport of air from the tropics to midlatitudes.

  16. Ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws parallel great apes in motor self-regulation despite smaller brains.

    PubMed

    Kabadayi, Can; Taylor, Lucy A; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Osvath, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    Overriding motor impulses instigated by salient perceptual stimuli represent a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation facilitates more rational behaviour, as it brings economy into the bodily interaction with the physical and social world. It also underlies certain complex cognitive processes including decision making. Recently, MacLean et al. (MacLean et al. 2014 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 2140-2148. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1323533111)) conducted a large-scale study involving 36 species, comparing motor self-regulation across taxa. They concluded that absolute brain size predicts level of performance. The great apes were most successful. Only a few of the species tested were birds. Given birds' small brain size-in absolute terms-yet flexible behaviour, their motor self-regulation calls for closer study. Corvids exhibit some of the largest relative avian brain sizes-although small in absolute measure-as well as the most flexible cognition in the animal kingdom. We therefore tested ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws in the so-called cylinder task. We found performance indistinguishable from that of great apes despite the much smaller brains. We found both absolute and relative brain volume to be a reliable predictor of performance within Aves. The complex cognition of corvids is often likened to that of great apes; our results show further that they share similar fundamental cognitive mechanisms. PMID:27152224

  17. Career perspective: Jim Milledge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an overview of my career as a hospital physician with special interest in respiratory diseases. Alongside this career, I have been fortunate to be able to pursue my professional hobby of high altitude medicine and physiology, partly in the laboratory but mainly in the field in the great ranges of the world. PMID:23849480

  18. Environmental hazards of pesticides from pineapple crop production in the Río Jiménez watershed (Caribbean Coast, Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Echeverría-Sáenz, S; Mena, F; Pinnock, M; Ruepert, C; Solano, K; de la Cruz, E; Campos, B; Sánchez-Avila, J; Lacorte, S; Barata, C

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize environmental hazards of pesticides from pineapple production in riparian communities along the Jiménez River watershed. To achieve our objectives riparian ecological quality indices on riparian habitat and macroinvertebrate assemblages were combined with toxicity assays, fish biomarkers, physico-chemical water analysis and pesticide environmental hazards. During two consecutive years and two periods (July and October), three reference and four impacted sites were monitored. The ecological quality of benthic macroinvertebrates and of riparian habitats deteriorated from the reference sites downstream to the polluted reaches along the Jiménez River area affected by pineapple plantations. The toxicity of water to Daphnia magna also increased towards downstream reaches. Biomarkers of fish of the species Poecilia gillii and Bryconamericus scleroparius transplanted across the studied sites evidenced a clear anticholinergic effect towards downstream sites as well as increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Different pesticide residues were frequently detected in water samples collected across the Jiménez River watershed with herbicides (ametryn, bromacil, diuron), organophosphorus insecticides (diazinon and ethoprophos) and triazole fungicides being the greatest reaching levels above 1 μg L(-1) in downstream sites. Principal component and environmental hazard analysis of physico-chemical and biological responses established clear relationships among habitat deterioration and the ecological quality of macroinvertebrate communities, high levels of herbicides and poor plant growth, high levels of organophosphorus insecticides in water and anticholinesterase effects on fish, D. magna mortality and deterioration of macroinvertebrate communities. Fungicide and herbicide residue levels were also related with high levels of lipid peroxidation and high activities of glutathione S transferase in fish liver, respectively. These results indicated

  19. [A case of Crow-Fukase syndrome with extramedullary plasmacytoma: marked clinical deterioration following a biopsy to plasmacytoma].

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yuka; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Miyoshi, Tasuku

    2003-04-01

    A 66-year-old man developed paresthesia of the distal parts of the bilateral lower limbs a week after his upper respiratory infection, followed by the weakness with the legs and paresthesia with the lip area, tongue and finger tips. Those symptoms gradually became worse to the point that he was unable to walk 10 days later. Although skin pigmentation, edema, and lymph node swelling were not found, we made a diagnosis of Crow-Fukase syndrome (CFS) because of clinical features of polyneuropathy, IgG-lambda type M proteinemia, endocrinological abnormality, elevated plasma level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and extramedullary plasmacytoma in his abdomen. Following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg), he showed marked improvement. However, his neurologic symptoms deteriorated acutely just after open biopsy together with the elevation of VEGF level, and a few days later he was in the state of flaccid quadriparesis. We tried IVIg therapy again and his neurologic symptoms were markedly improved. We speculated that an elevated VEGF, released from plasma cells induced by the bioprocedure, might have caused an increase in microvascular permeability and affected the blood-nerve-barrier, thereby his neurologic symptoms deteriorated. It is thought that this case may support the hypothesis that a significant role is played by VEGF in the pathomechanism of the development of CFS. Additionally we experienced that IVIg was very effective to the neurologic symptoms, and we think that IVIg will be able to be one of the future therapy of the CFS. To our knowledge, there has been no report of CFS which manifested acute deterioration of his neurologic symptoms just after open biopsy with acute onset with Guillain-Barré syndrome like symptoms. PMID:12884826

  20. CONHECIMENTO DA LEI GERAL DE SAÚDE – RESPEITO ÀS TRANSFUSÕES SANGUÍNEAS EM MÉDICOS E PACIENTES TESTEMUNHAS DE JEOVÁ DO HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DA REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA

    PubMed Central

    SANTANA, ELSA DÍAZ

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo avalia quanto o corpo médico do Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conhece, respeita, informa e aplica a Lei Geral de Saúde em relação aos direitos do paciente Testemunha de Jeová de negar-se a ser transfundido (respeito a sua autonomia); também se os Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem a Lei Geral de Saúde e até que ponto têm se beneficiado diante dessa proposição. O estudo revelou que nem médicos, nem Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem de fato essa lei. PMID:20689657

  1. Next-generation sequencing shows West Nile virus quasispecies diversification after a single passage in a carrion crow (Corvus corone) in vivo infection model.

    PubMed

    Dridi, M; Rosseel, T; Orton, R; Johnson, P; Lecollinet, S; Muylkens, B; Lambrecht, B; Van Borm, S

    2015-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) occurs as a population of genetic variants (quasispecies) infecting a single animal. Previous low-resolution viral genetic diversity estimates in sampled wild birds and mosquitoes, and in multiple-passage adaptation studies in vivo or in cell culture, suggest that WNV genetic diversification is mostly limited to the mosquito vector. This study investigated genetic diversification of WNV in avian hosts during a single passage using next-generation sequencing. Wild-captured carrion crows were subcutaneously infected using a clonal Middle-East WNV. Blood samples were collected 2 and 4 days post-infection. A reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR approach was used to amplify the WNV genome directly from serum samples prior to next-generation sequencing resulting in an average depth of at least 700 ×  in each sample. Appropriate controls were sequenced to discriminate biologically relevant low-frequency variants from experimentally introduced errors. The WNV populations in the wild crows showed significant diversification away from the inoculum virus quasispecies structure. By contrast, WNV populations in intracerebrally infected day-old chickens did not diversify from that of the inoculum. Where previous studies concluded that WNV genetic diversification is only experimentally demonstrated in its permissive insect vector species, we have experimentally shown significant diversification of WNV populations in a wild bird reservoir species. PMID:26297666

  2. Next-generation sequencing shows West Nile virus quasispecies diversification after a single passage in a carrion crow (Corvus corone) in vivo infection model.

    PubMed

    Dridi, M; Rosseel, T; Orton, R; Johnson, P; Lecollinet, S; Muylkens, B; Lambrecht, B; Van Borm, S

    2015-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) occurs as a population of genetic variants (quasispecies) infecting a single animal. Previous low-resolution viral genetic diversity estimates in sampled wild birds and mosquitoes, and in multiple-passage adaptation studies in vivo or in cell culture, suggest that WNV genetic diversification is mostly limited to the mosquito vector. This study investigated genetic diversification of WNV in avian hosts during a single passage using next-generation sequencing. Wild-captured carrion crows were subcutaneously infected using a clonal Middle-East WNV. Blood samples were collected 2 and 4 days post-infection. A reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR approach was used to amplify the WNV genome directly from serum samples prior to next-generation sequencing resulting in an average depth of at least 700 ×  in each sample. Appropriate controls were sequenced to discriminate biologically relevant low-frequency variants from experimentally introduced errors. The WNV populations in the wild crows showed significant diversification away from the inoculum virus quasispecies structure. By contrast, WNV populations in intracerebrally infected day-old chickens did not diversify from that of the inoculum. Where previous studies concluded that WNV genetic diversification is only experimentally demonstrated in its permissive insect vector species, we have experimentally shown significant diversification of WNV populations in a wild bird reservoir species.

  3. Using Water Isotope Tracers to Investigate Past and Present Water Balance Conditions in the Old Crow Flats, Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, K.; Wolfe, B. B.; Edwards, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Old Crow Flats (OCF), Yukon Territory, is a wetland of international significance that comprises approximately 2700 shallow thermokarst lakes. Located near the northern limit of the boreal forest, the OCF provides vital habitat for abundant wildlife including waterfowl, moose, muskrat, and the Porcupine Caribou Herd, which support the traditional lifestyle of the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation. Thermokarst lakes, which occupy vast northern regions, are greatly influenced by climate conditions. In the OCF and other regions there have been observations of decreasing water levels and an increase in frequency of lake drainage events over recent decades. Though there is widespread concern that thermokarst landscape changes are accelerating as a result of ongoing climate change, there are few studies that have investigated current and past variability of lake water balances and climate interactions at the landscape scale. As part of a Government of Canada International Polar Year multidisciplinary project, the present and past hydrology of lakes spanning the OCF are being investigated using water isotope tracers and paleolimnological approaches. Water samples were obtained from 57 lakes three times over three ice-free seasons (2007-09) and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition in order to capture seasonal and interannual changes in water balance conditions. Results highlight strong diversity in the hydrology of lakes throughout the OCF. Based on patterns of isotopic evolution and calculations of input source compositions and evaporation-to-inflow ratios, we identified snowmelt-dominated, rainfall-dominated, groundwater-influenced, evaporation-dominated and drained lake types, which represent the dominant hydrological processes influencing lake water balances. Lake physical and catchment land cover characteristics influence dominant input type (rain or snow). Snowmelt-dominated catchments are large relative to lake surface areas and typically contain

  4. Map showing recent (1997-98 El Nino) and historical landslides, Crow Creek and vicinity, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Godt, Jonathan; Tachker, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the spatial distribution of 3,800 landslides caused by 1997-98 El Ni?o winter rainfall in the vicinity of Crow Creek in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California. The report also documents 558 historical (pre-1997-98) landslides. Landslides were mapped from 1:12,000-scale aerial photographs and classified as either debris flows or slides. Slides include rotational and translational slides, earth flows, and complex slope movements. Debris flows and slides from the 1997-98 winter modified 1 percent of the surface of the 148.6 km2 study area. Debris flows were scattered throughout the area, regardless of the type of underlying bedrock geology. Slides, however, were concentrated in a soft sandstone, conglomerate, and clayey group of rock units. Digital map files accompany the report.

  5. The Effect of Dislocation Type (Crowe Types I-IV) on Pelvic Development in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: A Radiologic Study of Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Ömer Faruk; Salar, Necmettin; Bilgen, Muhammet Sadık; Mutlu, Müren; Kara, Gökhan Kürşat; Gürsel, Enis

    2015-05-01

    Classification of hip pathology in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) helps in appropriate placement of implants during total hip arthroplasty. We examined preoperative unilateral and bilateral pelvic radiographs of 57 patients (114 hips) undergoing total hip arthroplasty because of DDH. Both sides of the pelvis were visually separated into 3 areas for comparison. When area ratios of hips with Crowe types II, III, and IV DDH were compared with ratios for healthy hips, values in hips with DDH were significantly low for the iliac wings, significantly high for the acetabular regions, and significantly low for the ischial area. Using a line crossing the healthy hip's teardrop and parallel to a line joining the distal sacroiliac joints is useful for calculating limb-length discrepancy. PMID:25499171

  6. The description of Centrorhynchus globirostris n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from the pheasant crow, Centropus sinensis (Stephens) in Pakistan, with gene sequence analysis and emendation of the family diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Wilson, Eric; Keele, Brianna; Khan, Aly

    2015-06-01

    A new species of Centrorhynchus (Centrorhynchidae) with receptacle insertion at the posterior third of the proboscis is described from the pheasant crow Centropus sinensis (Stephens) (Cuculidae) in Pakistan. Centrorhynchu sglobirostris n. sp. is similar to the 98 other known species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 in having long cylindrical trunk with anterior dilation and transverse anastomoses of the secondary lacunar vessels. However, specimens of C. globirostris differ from all other species of the genus by having a unique globular proboscis not divided into anterior proboscis with rooted hooks and posterior proboscis with rootless spines. Posterior hooks of C. globirostris emerge at the level of the receptacle insertion and are uniquely fully rooted. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. globirostris 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes reveals the genetic and evolutionary relationships between C. globirostris and other members of Centrorhynchidae which have representative orthologs in public databases. Comparison to known acanthocephalans confirms appropriate inclusion in the genus Centrorhynchus. PMID:25804972

  7. The description of Centrorhynchus globirostris n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from the pheasant crow, Centropus sinensis (Stephens) in Pakistan, with gene sequence analysis and emendation of the family diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Wilson, Eric; Keele, Brianna; Khan, Aly

    2015-06-01

    A new species of Centrorhynchus (Centrorhynchidae) with receptacle insertion at the posterior third of the proboscis is described from the pheasant crow Centropus sinensis (Stephens) (Cuculidae) in Pakistan. Centrorhynchu sglobirostris n. sp. is similar to the 98 other known species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 in having long cylindrical trunk with anterior dilation and transverse anastomoses of the secondary lacunar vessels. However, specimens of C. globirostris differ from all other species of the genus by having a unique globular proboscis not divided into anterior proboscis with rooted hooks and posterior proboscis with rootless spines. Posterior hooks of C. globirostris emerge at the level of the receptacle insertion and are uniquely fully rooted. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. globirostris 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes reveals the genetic and evolutionary relationships between C. globirostris and other members of Centrorhynchidae which have representative orthologs in public databases. Comparison to known acanthocephalans confirms appropriate inclusion in the genus Centrorhynchus.

  8. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone).

    PubMed

    Baker, Sandra E; Sharp, Trudy M; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  9. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone).

    PubMed

    Baker, Sandra E; Sharp, Trudy M; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  10. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Sharp, Trudy M.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  11. 40Ar/39Ar age of the Manson impact structure, Iowa, and correlative impact ejecta in the Crow Creek member of the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous), South Dakota and Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izett, G.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Obradovich, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    A set of 34 laser total-fusion 40Ar/39Ar analyses of sanidine from a melt layer in crater-fill deposits of the Manson impact structure in Iowa has a weighted-mean age of 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma. This age is about 9.0 m.y. older than 40Ar/39Ar ages of shocked microcline from the Manson impact structure reported previously by others. The 74.1 Ma age of the sanidine, which is a melt product of Precambrian microcline clasts, indicates that the Manson impact structure played no part in the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction at 64.5 Ma. Moreover, incremental-heating 40Ar/39Ar ages of the sanidine show that it is essentially free of excess 40Ar and has not been influenced by postcrystallization heating or alteration. An age spectrum of the matrix of the melt layer shows effects of 39Ar recoil, including older ages in the low-temperature increments and younger ages in the high-temperature increments. At 17 places in eastern South Dakota and Nebraska, shocked quartz and feldspar grains are concentrated in the lower part of the Crow Creek Member of the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous). The grains are largest (3.2 mm) in southeastern South Dakota and decrease in size (0.45 mm) to the northwest, consistent with the idea that the Manson impact structure was their source. The ubiquitous presence of shocked grains concentrated in a thin calcarenite at the base of the Crow Creek Member suggests it is an event bed recording an instant of geologic time. Ammonites below and above the Crow Creek Member limit its age to the zone of Didymoceras nebrascense of earliest late Campanian age. Plagioclase from a bentonite bed in this zone in Colorado has a 40Ar/39Ar age of 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma commensurate with our sanidine age of 74.1 Ma for the Manson impact structure. 40Ar/39Ar ages of bentonite beds below and above the Crow Creek are consistent with our 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma age for the Manson impact structure and limit its age to the interval ?? 74.5 0.1 to 73.8 ?? 0.1 Ma. Recently, two origins for the

  12. Borehole geophysical and flowmeter data for eight boreholes in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, Lake Seminole, Jackson County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Hamrick, Michael D.; Holloway, O. Gary

    2011-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs and flowmeter data were collected in April 2011 from eight boreholes to identify the depth and orientation of cavernous zones within the Miocene Tampa Limestone in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in Jackson County, Florida. These data are used to assess leakage near the dam. Each of the eight boreholes was terminated in limestone at depths ranging from 84 to 104 feet. Large cavernous zones were encountered in most of the borings, with several exceeding 20-inches in diameter. The cavernous zones generally were between 1 and 5 feet in height, but a cavern in one of the borings reached a height of about 6 feet. The resistivity of limestone layers penetrated by the boreholes generally was less than 1,000 ohm-meters. Formation resistivity near the cavernous zones did not show an appreciable contrast from surrounding bedrock, probably because the bedrock is saturated, owing to its primary permeability. Measured flow rates in the eight boreholes determined using an electromagnetic flowmeter were all less than ±0.1 liter per second. These low flow rates suggest that vertical hydraulic gradients in the boreholes are negligible and that hydraulic head in the various cavernous zones shows only minor, if any, variation.

  13. Experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Kohei; Endo, Mayumi; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Motohashi, Yurie; Chu, Duc-Huy; Suzuki, Mizuho; Ichikawa, Takaya; Nishi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yuri; Matsuno, Keita; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Tanigawa, Tsutomu; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. Determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. It has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of HPAIVs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming settings. Therefore, we conducted experimental infections of HPAIVs and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) to chickens, domestic ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats to evaluate their roles in virus transmission. The results showed that chickens, ducks, sparrows, and crows were highly susceptible to HPAIV infection. Significant titers of virus were recovered from the sparrows and crows infected with HPAIVs, which suggests that they potentially play roles of transmission of HPAIVs to poultry. In contrast, the growth of LPAIVs was limited in each of the animals tested compared with that of HPAIVs. The present results indicate that these common synanthropes play some roles in influenza virus transmission from wild birds to poultry.

  14. Experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Kohei; Endo, Mayumi; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Motohashi, Yurie; Chu, Duc-Huy; Suzuki, Mizuho; Ichikawa, Takaya; Nishi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yuri; Matsuno, Keita; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Tanigawa, Tsutomu; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-15

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. Determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. It has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of HPAIVs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming settings. Therefore, we conducted experimental infections of HPAIVs and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) to chickens, domestic ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats to evaluate their roles in virus transmission. The results showed that chickens, ducks, sparrows, and crows were highly susceptible to HPAIV infection. Significant titers of virus were recovered from the sparrows and crows infected with HPAIVs, which suggests that they potentially play roles of transmission of HPAIVs to poultry. In contrast, the growth of LPAIVs was limited in each of the animals tested compared with that of HPAIVs. The present results indicate that these common synanthropes play some roles in influenza virus transmission from wild birds to poultry. PMID:26711036

  15. [Study on carving workers of Chong xiu zheng he jing shi zheng lei bei yong ben cao (Revised Prepared Materia Medica Classified under Syndromes in Zhenghe Period) published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2012-11-01

    The ancient carving workers have made a great contribution to the xylographic printing art in ancient China, so the studies on them are significant for a survey of ancient Chinese printing history, and for the identification of ancient Chinese books edition. Zheng lei ben cao published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum) in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, which is the earliest extant edition of Zhenghe version system of Zheng lei ben cao and has important literature value. Thirty carving workers were involved in its printing process. On the whole, these workers had a relatively high technique and completed a remarkably fine work. In addition to lettering, 28 persons of them also made a total of 536 pages with 900 exquisite engraving illustrations on Chinese materia medica included in this book. Because of the high levels on carving, this precious book has been the representative of Pingshui edition, which has a great reputation but has very few works now.

  16. [Study on carving workers of Chong xiu zheng he jing shi zheng lei bei yong ben cao (Revised Prepared Materia Medica Classified under Syndromes in Zhenghe Period) published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2012-11-01

    The ancient carving workers have made a great contribution to the xylographic printing art in ancient China, so the studies on them are significant for a survey of ancient Chinese printing history, and for the identification of ancient Chinese books edition. Zheng lei ben cao published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum) in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, which is the earliest extant edition of Zhenghe version system of Zheng lei ben cao and has important literature value. Thirty carving workers were involved in its printing process. On the whole, these workers had a relatively high technique and completed a remarkably fine work. In addition to lettering, 28 persons of them also made a total of 536 pages with 900 exquisite engraving illustrations on Chinese materia medica included in this book. Because of the high levels on carving, this precious book has been the representative of Pingshui edition, which has a great reputation but has very few works now. PMID:23363847

  17. Responses of seasonal and diurnal soil CO2 effluxes to land-use change from paddy fields to Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Yongfu; Chang, Scott X.; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo; Zhang, Jiaojiao; Liu, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Land-use change often markedly alters soil carbon (C) dynamics such as soil surface CO2 efflux. This study aims to test the hypotheses that converting paddy fields to bamboo stands would markedly reduce soil CO2 efflux and their temperature sensitivity (change of soil CO2 efflux rate by increasing 10 °C of temperature), and change the relationship between soil CO2 efflux and other environmental factors. A 12-month field study was conducted to measure the seasonal and diurnal soil CO2 effluxes in three adjacent paddy field-bamboo forest pairs with the automated soil CO2 flux system (LI-8100). Results showed that soil CO2 effluxes from both of the two land-uses had distinct seasonal patterns, and were reduced from 45.4 to 34.7 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 in cumulative CO2 emissions when paddy fields were converted to bamboo stands. About 80% of the variation in soil respiration in the bamboo stands was explained by soil temperature; however, a positive relationship between soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature in the paddy field was observed only when the soil was not submerged under water, indicating that soil water saturation in the paddy fields altered the soil CO2 efflux-temperature relationship. A negative relationship (P < 0.01) between soil CO2 efflux and soil moisture was observed in the paddy fields, while no such relationship was observed in the bamboo stands. The apparent temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was dependent on the depth of the soil temperature measurement and was increased by converting paddy fields to bamboo stands, rejecting the hypothesis. In Lei bamboo stands, the R2 for the soil respiration-temperature regression was higher using seasonal and diurnal CO2 efflux data together than using the seasonal data alone. We conclude that the conversion of paddy fields to Lei bamboo stands decreased the annual soil CO2 efflux but increased its temperature sensitivity, and altered the relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture. When

  18. Perineuronal satellite neuroglia in the telencephalon of New Caledonian crows and other Passeriformes: evidence of satellite glial cells in the central nervous system of healthy birds?

    PubMed

    Medina, Felipe S; Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D; Wild, J Martin; Kubke, M Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    Glia have been implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including the control of the neuronal extracellular space, synaptic plasticity and transmission, development and adult neurogenesis. Perineuronal glia forming groups around neurons are associated with both normal and pathological nervous tissue. Recent studies have linked reduction in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex with human schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, perineuronal glia may play a decisive role in homeostasis and normal activity of the human nervous system. Here we report on the discovery of novel cell clusters in the telencephala of five healthy Passeriforme, one Psittaciform and one Charadriiforme bird species, which we refer to as Perineuronal Glial Clusters (PGCs). The aim of this study is to describe the structure and distribution of the PGCs in a number of avian species. PGCs were identified with the use of standard histological procedures. Heterochromatin masses visible inside the nuclei of these satellite glia suggest that they may correspond to oligodendrocytes. PGCs were found in the brains of nine New Caledonian crows, two Japanese jungle crows, two Australian magpies, two Indian mynah, three zebra finches (all Passeriformes), one Southern lapwing (Charadriiformes) and one monk parakeet (Psittaciformes). Microscopic survey of the brain tissue suggests that the largest PGCs are located in the hyperpallium densocellulare and mesopallium. No clusters were found in brain sections from one Gruiform (purple swamphen), one Strigiform (barn owl), one Trochiliform (green-backed firecrown), one Falconiform (chimango caracara), one Columbiform (pigeon) and one Galliform (chick). Our observations suggest that PGCs in Aves are brain region- and taxon-specific and that the presence of perineuronal glia in healthy human brains and the similar PGCs in avian gray matter is the result of convergent evolution. The discovery

  19. Differential activation and tyrosine hydroxylase distribution in the hippocampal, pallial and midbrain brain regions in response to cognitive performance in Indian house crows exposed to abrupt light environment.

    PubMed

    Taufique, S K Tahajjul; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-11-01

    Disruption of the cyclic feature of the day-night environment can cause negative effects on daily activity and advanced brain functions such as learning, memory and decision-making behaviour. These functions in songbirds, including corvids, involve the hippocampus, pallium and midbrain, as revealed by ZENK (a neuronal activation marker) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressions. TH is rate-limiting marker enzyme of the biosynthesis of dopamine, widely implicated in learning and memory. Here, we measured ZENK and TH immunoreactivity in the hippocampal, pallial and midbrain regions in response to cognitive performance (learning-memory retrieval) tests in Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to constant light environment (LL) with controls on 12h light:12h darkness. Along with the decay of circadian rhythm in activity behaviour, LL caused a significant decline in the cognitive performance. There was also a decrease under LL in the activity of neurons in the hippocampus, medial and central caudal nidopallium, and hyperpallium apicale, which are widely distributed with TH-immunoreactive fibres. Further, under LL, TH- immunoreactive neurons were reduced in number in midbrain dopamine synthesis sites, the venteral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), with a negative correlation of co-localized ZENK/TH- immunoreactive cells on errors during the association tasks. These results show decreased activity of learning and memory neural systems, and underscore the role of dopamine in reduced cognitive performance of diurnal corvids with disrupted circadian rhythms under an abrupt light environment. PMID:27478138

  20. Familiarity with the experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Lara; Wascher, Claudia A F; Weiss, Brigitte M; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2014-03-01

    When humans and animals interact with one another over an extended time span they familiarise and may develop a relationship, which can exert an influence on both partners. For example, the behaviour of an animal in experiments may be affected by its relationship to the human experimenter. However, few studies have systematically examined the impact of human-animal relationships on experimental results. In the present study we investigated if familiarity with a human experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in interactive tasks. Birds were tested in two interactive cognitive tasks (exchange, object choice) by several experimenters representing different levels of familiarity (long and short-term). Our findings show that the birds participated more often in both tasks and were more successful in the exchange task when working with long-term experimenters than when working with short-term experimenters. Behavioural observations indicate that anxiety did not inhibit experimental performance but that the birds' motivation to work differed between the two kinds of experimenters, familiar and less familiar. We conclude that human-animal relationships (i.e. familiarity) may affect the experimental performance of corvids in interactive cognitive tasks.

  1. Tephrochronology, magnetostratigraphy and mammalian faunas of Middle and Early Pleistocene sediments at two sites on the Old Crow River, northern Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgate, John A.; Pearce, G. William; Preece, Shari J.; Schweger, Charles E.; Morlan, Richard E.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.; Perkins, T. William

    2013-01-01

    Alluvial and lacustrine sediments exposed beneath late Pleistocene glaciolacustrine silt and clay at two sites along the Old Crow River, northern Yukon Territory, are rich in fossils and contain tephra beds. Surprise Creek tephra (SZt) occurs in the lower part of the alluvial sequence at CRH47 and Little Timber tephra (LTt) is present near the base of the exposure at CRH94. Surprise Creek tephra has a glass fission-track age of 0.17 ± 0.07 Ma and Little Timber tephra is 1.37 ± 0.12 Ma. All sediments at CRH47 have a normal remanent magnetic polarity and those near LTt at CRH94 have a reversed polarity — in agreement with the geomagnetic time scale. Small mammal remains from sediments near LTt support an Early Pleistocene age but the chronology is not so clear at CRH47 because of the large error associated with the SZt age determination. Tephrochronological and paleomagnetic considerations point to an MIS 7 age for the interglacial beds just below SZt at CRH47 and at Chester Bluffs in east-central Alaska, but mammalian fossils recovered from sediments close to SZt suggest a late Irvingtonian age, therefore older than MIS 7. Further studies are needed to resolve this problem.

  2. Familiarity with the experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in cognitive tasks☆

    PubMed Central

    Cibulski, Lara; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    When humans and animals interact with one another over an extended time span they familiarise and may develop a relationship, which can exert an influence on both partners. For example, the behaviour of an animal in experiments may be affected by its relationship to the human experimenter. However, few studies have systematically examined the impact of human–animal relationships on experimental results. In the present study we investigated if familiarity with a human experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in interactive tasks. Birds were tested in two interactive cognitive tasks (exchange, object choice) by several experimenters representing different levels of familiarity (long and short-term). Our findings show that the birds participated more often in both tasks and were more successful in the exchange task when working with long-term experimenters than when working with short-term experimenters. Behavioural observations indicate that anxiety did not inhibit experimental performance but that the birds’ motivation to work differed between the two kinds of experimenters, familiar and less familiar. We conclude that human–animal relationships (i.e. familiarity) may affect the experimental performance of corvids in interactive cognitive tasks. PMID:24333226

  3. Differential activation and tyrosine hydroxylase distribution in the hippocampal, pallial and midbrain brain regions in response to cognitive performance in Indian house crows exposed to abrupt light environment.

    PubMed

    Taufique, S K Tahajjul; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-11-01

    Disruption of the cyclic feature of the day-night environment can cause negative effects on daily activity and advanced brain functions such as learning, memory and decision-making behaviour. These functions in songbirds, including corvids, involve the hippocampus, pallium and midbrain, as revealed by ZENK (a neuronal activation marker) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressions. TH is rate-limiting marker enzyme of the biosynthesis of dopamine, widely implicated in learning and memory. Here, we measured ZENK and TH immunoreactivity in the hippocampal, pallial and midbrain regions in response to cognitive performance (learning-memory retrieval) tests in Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to constant light environment (LL) with controls on 12h light:12h darkness. Along with the decay of circadian rhythm in activity behaviour, LL caused a significant decline in the cognitive performance. There was also a decrease under LL in the activity of neurons in the hippocampus, medial and central caudal nidopallium, and hyperpallium apicale, which are widely distributed with TH-immunoreactive fibres. Further, under LL, TH- immunoreactive neurons were reduced in number in midbrain dopamine synthesis sites, the venteral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), with a negative correlation of co-localized ZENK/TH- immunoreactive cells on errors during the association tasks. These results show decreased activity of learning and memory neural systems, and underscore the role of dopamine in reduced cognitive performance of diurnal corvids with disrupted circadian rhythms under an abrupt light environment.

  4. The Jim Hamm Nature Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustard, Eldie W.; Hamon, Carrol

    1979-01-01

    A gift of land donated in memory of a missing-in-action Vietnam War veteran has been planted and landscaped to allow close observation of the plants and animals living in the pond and field environment. The local school system has published manuals of activities to be used at the center. (RE)

  5. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes. PMID

  6. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes.

  7. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes. PMID

  8. Sunspots and the Newcomb-Benford Law. (Spanish Title: Manchas Solares y la Ley de Newcomb-Benford.) Manchas Solares e a Lei de Newcomb-Benford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Mauro A.; Lyra, Cássia S.

    2008-12-01

    The Newcomb-Benford's Law (LNB) of first digits is introduced to high school students in an extracurricular activity through the study of sunspots. The LNB establishes that the first digits of various sets of data describing natural occurrences are not distributed uniformly, but according to a logarithmic distribution of probability. The LNB is counter-intuitive and is a good example of how mathematics applied to the study of natural phenomena can provide surprising and unexpected results serving also as a motivating agent in the study of physical sciences. En este trabajo se describe una actividad extracurricular donde se presenta a los estudiantes la ley de los primeros dígitos de Newcomb-Benford (LNB) con el estudio de manchas solares. La LNB establece que los primeros dígitos de algunos tipos de dados de ocurrencia natural no están distribuidos en manera uniforme, pero sí de acuerdo con una distribución logarítmica de probabilidad. La LNB es contra-intuitiva y es un excelente ejemplo de como las matemáticas aplicadas al estudio de fenómenos naturales pueden sorprender al estudiante, sirviendo también como elemento motivador en la educación de ciencias y de matemáticas. Este trabalho descreve uma atividade extracurricular na qual a lei dos primeiros dígitos de Newcomb-Benford (LNB) é introduzida a estudantes através do estudo de manchas solares. A LNB estabelece que os primeiros dígitos de vários tipos de conjunto de dados de ocorrência natural não são distribuídos de maneira uniforme, mas sim de acordo com uma distribuição logarítmica de probabilidade. A LNB é contra-intuitiva e é um ótimo exemplo de como a matemática aplicada ao estudo de fenômenos naturais pode fornecer resultados surpreendentes e inesperados, servindo também como um agente motivador no ensino de ciências e matemática.

  9. Vegetation and climate changes during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene in SW Turkey - Comment to the published paper by Jiménez-Moreno et al., Quaternary Research, 84 (2015), 448-456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Şahin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    There are several Miocene to recent terrestrial and lacustrine basins along the NE-SW-trending Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone in southwestern Turkey (Elitez and Yaltırak, 2014; Hall et al., 2014; Elitez et al., 2015). The stratigraphic positions of the sequences in these basins are controversial (e.g., Alçiçek, 2015; Elitez et al., 2015). Jiménez-Moreno et al. (2015) interpreted the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene climate based on the vegetation changes at the Ericek and Bıçakçı localities south of the Çameli town. Our observations at these localities (e.g., Elitez et al., 2015) revealed that there are three important geological problems with Jiménez-Moreno et al. (2015): (1) the geographic locations of the samples used in this manuscript are inacurate, (2) the lithologies and the associated thicknesses of the sequences reported in the manuscript are inconsistent, and (3) the positions of the fossils and pollens in an allocthonous stratigraphic succession has no stratigraphic control. The primary aim of this comment is to correctly identify the precise positions of the fossil and pollen data in the stratigraphic sequence rather than an objection to the interpretation of the vegetation and climate data in southwestern Turkey.

  10. Vegetation and climate changes during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene in SW Turkey - Comment to the published paper by Jiménez-Moreno et al., Quaternary Research, 84 (2015), 448-456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Şahin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    There are several Miocene to recent terrestrial and lacustrine basins along the NE-SW-trending Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone in southwestern Turkey (Elitez and Yaltırak, 2014; Hall et al., 2014; Elitez et al., 2015). The stratigraphic positions of the sequences in these basins are controversial (e.g., Alçiçek, 2015; Elitez et al., 2015). Jiménez-Moreno et al. (2015) interpreted the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene climate based on the vegetation changes at the Ericek and Bıçakçı localities south of the Çameli town. Our observations at these localities (e.g., Elitez et al., 2015) revealed that there are three important geological problems with Jiménez-Moreno et al. (2015): (1) the geographic locations of the samples used in this manuscript are inacurate, (2) the lithologies and the associated thicknesses of the sequences reported in the manuscript are inconsistent, and (3) the positions of the fossils and pollens in an allocthonous stratigraphic succession has no stratigraphic control. The primary aim of this comment is to correctly identify the precise positions of the fossil and pollen data in the stratigraphic sequence rather than an objection to the interpretation of the vegetation and climate data in southwestern Turkey.

  11. Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Shimura, Daisuke; Simoyama, Takasi; Seki, Miyoshi; Yokoyama, Nobuyuki; Ohtsuka, Minoru; Koshino, Keiji; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken

    2013-12-16

    We report superior spectral characteristics of silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by 193-nm ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm silicon-on-insulator wafer. We theoretically analyze spectral characteristics, considering random phase errors caused by micro fabrication process. It will be experimentally demonstrated that the fabricated devices exhibit a low excess loss of 0.4 ± 0.2 dB, a high out-of-band rejection ratio of >40dB, and a wide flatband width of ~2 nm. Furthermore, we evaluate manufacturing tolerances for intra-dies and inter-dies, comparing with the cases for 248-nm KrF-dry lithography process. It will be shown that the 193-nm ArF-immersion lithography process can provide much less excess phase errors of Si-nanowire waveguides, thus enabling to give better filter spectral characteristics. Finally, spectral superiorities will be reconfirmed by measuring 25 Gbps modulated signals launched into the fabricated device. Clear eye diagrams are observed when the wavelengths of modulated signals are stayed within almost passband of the 5th-order CROW.

  12. Characterizing the role of hydrological processes on lake water balances in the Old Crow Flats, Yukon Territory, Canada, using water isotope tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Kevin W.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryWe employ water isotope tracers to assess hydrological processes controlling lake water balances in the Old Crow Flats (OCF) landscape, northern Yukon Territory, Canada. Fifty-six lakes were sampled in June and July 2007 and 26 of these were re-sampled in September 2007. Based on patterns of isotopic evolution in δ18O- δ2H space, calculations of input water compositions ( δI) and evaporation-to-inflow ( E/ I) ratios, and field observations we identify snowmelt-dominated, rainfall-dominated, groundwater-influenced, evaporation-dominated and drained lake types, which represent the dominant hydrological process influencing the lake water balance. These results highlight the diversity in lake water balance conditions in the OCF, which are strongly associated with landscape characteristics. Snowmelt-dominated lakes are located where more dense vegetation cover entraps snow transported by prevailing northeasterly winds. Rainfall-dominated lakes occupy areas of sparse tundra vegetation cover where less snow accumulates. Groundwater-influenced oxbow lakes are located along the floodplain of higher-order river and creek channels and receive input throughout the ice-free season from snowmelt-recharged channel fens and sub-surface flow. Only one basin became evaporation-dominated during the 2007 open-water season probably because extremely high precipitation during the preceding late summer, late winter and early spring offset vapour loss. However, rainfall-dominated lakes appear to be more susceptible to evaporative drawdown than snowmelt-dominated and groundwater-influenced lakes, and many would likely evolve to evaporation-dominated during drier summers. Drained lakes are commonly observed throughout the landscape and in most cases likely result from elevated water levels and channel erosion between waterbodies. Unusually high amounts of snowmelt and/or rainfall triggered the drainage of two lakes in early June 2007 in which overflow led to rapid erosion of

  13. The Pterodactyl and the Crow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on developing scientific reasoning in year 6 children. Having embarked on a series of lessons in which the author hoped to uncover children's ideas about how and why they reason in a particular way, the results were to prove instrumental in developing not only his teaching of scientific enquiry, but also the…

  14. CRO Crowing About Their Growth.

    PubMed

    Carroll, John

    2005-12-01

    Contract research organizations have quietly and quickly become a force in drug development and clinical trial recruitment. In supplanting academia as the primary route to market, they have the kind of business plan and agility that only a biotech could love.

  15. Water- and Bed-Sediment Quality of Seguchie Creek and Selected Wetlands Tributary to Mille Lacs Lake in Crow Wing County, Minnesota, October 2003 to October 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fallon, James D.; Yaeger, Christine S.

    2009-01-01

    Mille Lacs Lake and its tributaries, located in east-central Minnesota, are important resources to the public. In addition, many wetlands and lakes that feed Mille Lacs Lake are of high resource quality and vulnerable to degradation. Construction of a new four-lane expansion of U.S. Highway 169 has been planned along the western part of the drainage area of Mille Lacs Lake in Crow Wing County. Concerns exist that the proposed highway could affect the resource quality of surface waters tributary to Mille Lacs Lake. Baseline water- and bed-sediment quality characteristics of surface waters tributary to Mille Lacs Lake were needed prior to the proposed highway construction. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Transportation, characterized the water- and bed-sediment quality at selected locations that the proposed route intersects from October 2003 to October 2006. Locations included Seguchie Creek upstream and downstream from the proposed route and three wetlands draining to Mille Lacs Lake. The mean streamflow of Seguchie Creek increased between the two sites: flow at the downstream streamflow-gaging station of 0.22 cubic meter per second was 5.6 percent greater than the mean streamflow at the upstream streamflow-gaging station of 0.21 cubic meter per second. Because of the large amount of storage immediately upstream from both gaging stations, increases in flow were gradual even during intense precipitation. The ranges of most constituent concentrations in water were nearly identical between the two sampling sites on Seguchie Creek. No concentrations exceeded applicable water-quality standards set by the State of Minnesota. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations at the downstream gaging station were less than the daily minimum standard of 4.0 milligrams per liter for 6 of 26 measurements. Constituent loads in Seguchie Creek were greater at the downstream site than the upstream site for all measured, including dissolved chloride (1

  16. Low-loss and flatband silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Shimura, Daisuke; Simoyama, Takasi; Seki, Miyoshi; Yokoyama, Nobuyuki; Ohtsuka, Minoru; Koshino, Keiji; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken

    2014-03-01

    We present flatband, low-loss and low-crosstalk characteristics of Si-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. We theoretically specified why phase controllability over Si-nanowire waveguides is prerequisite to attain desired spectral response, discussing spectral degradation by random phase errors during fabrication process. It was experimentally demonstrated that advanced patterning technology based on ArF-immersion lithography process showed extremely low phase errors even for Si-nanowire channel waveguides. As a result, the device exhibited extremely low loss of <0.2dB and low crosstalk of <-40dB without any external phase compensation. Furthermore, fairly good spectral uniformity for all fabricated devices was found both in intra-dies and inter-dies. The center wavelengths for box-like drop channel responses were distributed within 0.4 nm in the same die. This tendency was kept nearly constant for other dies on the 300-mm SOI wafer. In the case of the inter-die distribution where each die is spaced by ~3cm, the deviation of the center wavelengths was as low as +/-1.8 nm between the dies separated by up to ~15 cm. The spectral superiority was reconfirmed by measuring 25 Gbps modulation signals launched into the device. Clear eye openings were observed as long as the optical signal wavelengths are stayed within the flat-topped passband of the 5th-order CROW. We believe these high-precision fabrication technologies based on 300-mm SOI wafer scale ArF-immersion lithography would be promising for several kinds of WDM multiplexers/demultiplexers having much complicated configurations and requiring much finer phase controllability.

  17. Q&A with Jim Collins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mast, Carlotta

    2003-01-01

    Applies to public education the principles that begin to explain why some organizations become great and others do not. States that an organization is able to achieve greatness only by pushing in an intelligent and consistent direction for years and even decades. (MLF)

  18. 76 FR 9349 - Jim Woodruff Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Wholesale Power Rate Schedules JW-1-I for a five-year period from September 20, 2011, to September 19, 2016... extend Rate schedule JW-2- F, applicable to Florida Power Corporation, to September 19, 2016....

  19. Physical and hydrochemical evidence of lake leakage near Jim Woodruff lock and dam and ground-water inflow to Lake Seminole, and an assessment of karst features in and near the lake, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torak, Lynn J.; Crilley, Dianna M.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data and water-chemistry analyses indicate that Lake Seminole leaks into the Upper Floridan aquifer near Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida, and that ground water enters Lake Seminole along upstream reaches of the lake's four impoundment arms (Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers, Spring Creek, and Fishpond Drain). Written accounts by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers geologists during dam construction in the late 1940s and early 1950s, and construction-era photographs, document karst-solution features in the limestone that comprise the lake bottom and foundation rock to the dam, and confirm the hydraulic connection of the lake and aquifer. More than 250 karst features having the potential to connect the lake and aquifer were identified from preimpoundment aerial photographs taken during construction. An interactive map containing a photomosaic of 53 photographic negatives was orthorectfied to digital images of 1:24,000-scale topographic maps to aid in identifying karst features that function or have the potential to function as locations of water exchange between Lake Seminole and the Upper Floridan aquifer. Some identified karst features coincide with locations of mapped springs, spring runs, and depressions that are consistent with sinkholes and sinkhole ponds. Hydrographic surveys using a multibeam echosounder (sonar) with sidescan sonar identified sinkholes in the lake bottom along the western lakeshore and in front of the dam. Dye-tracing experiments indicate that lake water enters these sinkholes and is transported through the Upper Floridan aquifer around the west side of the dam at velocities of about 500 feet per hour to locations where water 'boils up' on land (at Polk Lake Spring) and in the channel bottom of the Apalachicola River (at the 'River Boil'). Water discharging from Polk Lake Spring joins flow from a spring-fed ground-water discharge zone located downstream of the dam; the combined flow disappears into

  20. A phase III, randomized, double-blind, matched-pairs, active-controlled clinical trial and preclinical animal study to compare the durability, efficacy and safety between polynucleotide filler and hyaluronic acid filler in the correction of crow's feet: a new concept of regenerative filler.

    PubMed

    Pak, Chang Sik; Lee, Jongho; Lee, Hobin; Jeong, Jaehoon; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jeong, Jinwook; Choi, Hyeyeon; Kim, Byunghwi; Oh, Sujin; Kim, Iksoo; Heo, Chan Yeong

    2014-11-01

    The Rejuran® is a new filler product made from purified polynucleotides. Here we present data from an animal study and a clinical trial to examine the durability, efficacy and safety of the Rejuran® on crow's feet. For the animal study, 25 mice were divided into three groups: Group 1 received phosphate buffered saline (PBS); Group 2 were treated with Yvoire®; and Group 3 were treated with Rejuran®. The durability and efficacy of each treatment were assessed by microscopy and staining. In the clinical trial, 72 patients were randomized to receive Rejuran® treatment for crow's feet on one side and Yvoire-Hydro® on the contralateral side, at a ratio of 1:1. Repeated treatments were performed every two weeks for a total of three times, over a total of 12 weeks' observation. All injections and observations of efficacy and safety were performed by the same two investigators. In the animal study, the Rejuran® group showed similar durability and inflammatory response to the Yvoire® group. Upon efficacy assessment, the Rejuran® group showed the greatest elasticity and collagen composition, and a significant difference in skin surface roughness and wrinkle depth. In the clinical trial, the primary and secondary objective efficacy outcome measure showed no statistical significance between the two groups, and in safety outcomes there were no unexpected adverse effects. Our data suggest that the Rejuran®, as a new regenerative filler, can be useful to reduce wrinkles, by showing evidence for its efficacy and safety.

  1. A School Leader's Bookshelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Brief reviews of six notable education books selected by the editors of "American School Board Journal." Includes books such as Rachel Simmons's "Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls," Jonathan Schorr's "Hard Lessons: The Promise of an Inner City Charter School," Peter Irons's "Jim Crow's Children: The Broken Promise of the…

  2. Black Hegemony, a Significant Influence in the School Success of High-Achieving African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jean C.

    This is an interpretive study of the influence of Black Hegemony on the academic success of three successful African Americans: Clifton L. Taulbert, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Margaret Morgan Lawrence. All three spent their youth in southern communities strongly influenced by Jim Crow laws and customs, and their academic accomplishments were…

  3. Teaching about Racial Segregation in Postwar America using "Black Like Me"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 1959, John Howard Griffin, a white novelist from Texas, struck up a conversation with a black shoeshine man near the French Quarter in New Orleans, Louisiana. The two men were acutely aware of the chasm that separated races in the Jim Crow South, but their relationship would soon change. Griffin, who wanted to obtain a deeper…

  4. Perils of Accommodation: The Case of Joseph W. Holley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas V.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines accommodationism, a tactic of racial uplift used by black school founders and teachers in the Jim Crow South. For founders, accommodationism was a dangerous process of collaboration, resistance, and compromise. The subject under study is Joseph Winthrop Holley. Born in South Carolina, Holley studied in the North at Phillips…

  5. What's in Small Talk? Revolutionary Communication in Black Children's Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Alene; Asante, Molefi

    A number of the historical and contemporary games of black children reflect an attitude of resistance and assertion on the part of the players. Older game songs, dating from the days of slavery, express a recreative anger against slave masters or a contempt for the theater image of the jolly plantation slave, Jim Crow. Post-Civil War songs and…

  6. "The Public Be Damned!" A Thematic and Multiple Intelligences Approach to Teaching the Gilded Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mjagkij, Nina; Cantu, D. Antonio

    1999-01-01

    Describes a lesson on the Gilded Age that focuses on eight themes (urbanization, the rise of Jim Crow, populism, politics, immigration, Westward expansion, industrialization, and imperialism) and also incorporates Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences model in order to provide students with various types of learning activities. Gives a list of…

  7. Still No 40 Acres, Still No Mule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2005-01-01

    The simple mention of reparations for African-Americans in the United States can be counted on to generate a firestorm. When it comes to the issue of recompense for injustices Black Americans have suffered throughout U.S. history--slavery, Jim Crow segregation, and other political and social mechanisms designed to maintain racial inequality--the…

  8. Separate Is Inherently Unequal: Rethinking Commonly Held Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    Modern educational reform owes much to the legal team and educational leaders who fought to make equal educational opportunity a reality for Black students in the United States of America. Their efforts helped to dismantle American apartheid; a.k.a. Jim Crow, a system of allocating human and civil rights according to assigned or assumed "racial"…

  9. Changing Our Minds/Changing the World: The Power of a Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laman, Tasha Tropp

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the curricular possibilities within critical inquiry-based primary classrooms. The children in this first through third grade multi-age, multi-lingual classroom participated in a two-year critical and collaborative inquiry around issues of segregation and the Jim Crow laws. A touchstone text, Freedom Summer (Wiles, 2001) and…

  10. Brown at 50: Keeping Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    The story of Brown is compelling. Blacks and Whites alike understood that the Jim Crow system of "separate but equal" was a convenient fiction. There was no actual effort to ensure that Whites and Blacks were provided the same services. Invariably, the White schools had higher funding, better buildings, newer supplies and so on. Indeed, in many…

  11. Guide to New Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ming Fang; Sapp, Jeff; Botelho, Maria Jose; Nunez, Isabel; Scott-Simmons, Wynnetta; Johnson, Lincoln

    2013-01-01

    The theme of this column is African American Women's Memories of Racial Oppression and Segregation in the U.S. South and Its Relevance to Multicultural Education. The focus of the review is on Anne Valk and Leslie Brown's "Living with Jim Crow: African American Women and Memories of the Segregated South" (2010). In "Living…

  12. New Kent School and the George W. Watkins School: From Freedom of Choice to Integration. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jody; Daugherity, Brian; Trembanis, Sarah

    During the Jim Crow era, separation of the races in public places was either required by law or permitted as a cultural norm. Public school systems across the U.S. south were typically segregated. After 1896, these schools were supposed to adhere to the separate but equal rule established by the U.S. Supreme Court in "Plessy v. Ferguson." However,…

  13. Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Bringing a Tradition of Engagement into the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomax, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    For historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), engagement is not an enhancement of their curriculum but part of their birthright. Founded in the Civil War/Reconstruction era, HBCUs had as their core mission educating freed slaves and other free black people to participate in the economy. Later, during the Jim Crow era, HBCUs educated…

  14. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Loraine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

  15. Ethos in Action: Public Relations at the Highlander Folk School, 1955-1956.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Frank

    An examination of Rosa Parks' relationship with the Highlander Folk School from the first encounter in 1955 through Labor Day of 1956 provides a new understanding of the school's public relations program that sought to end segregation in the Jim Crow South. Myles Horton founded Highlander in 1932 to provide an adult residential center in the South…

  16. The Price: A Study of the Costs of Racism in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    America cannot afford to continue to pay the sociopsychological, sociopolitical, and economic costs of racism. The economic and psychosocial benefits of racism to the majority population during the slavery era are obvious. Similar interests motivated the discriminatory treatment of African Americans during the Jim Crow period, when Whites still…

  17. "The Way We Found Them to Be": Remembering E. Franklin Frazier and the Politics of Respectable Black Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Hilton

    2010-01-01

    Given the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of E. Franklin Frazier's award-winning "Black Bourgeoisie", this article reconsiders the political nature of a respectability discourse among black teachers in the Jim Crow South. Writing against Frazier's image of a materialistic and status-addicted black middle class, I argue that the politics of…

  18. Lessons Learned and Opportunities Ignored Since "Brown v. Board of Education:" Youth Development and the Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Fourth Annual Brown Lecture in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Margaret Beale

    2008-01-01

    The scholarship of Kenneth B. and Mamie P. Clark, referenced in the U.S. Supreme Court's landmark decision in "Brown v. Board of Education," emphasized the nation's color line, not only in the Jim Crow South but in American cities overall. The Clarks pointed out the critical role of context; however, they applied it narrowly to the issue of "harm"…

  19. Richard Wright's Successful Failure: A New Look at "Uncle Tom's Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, James R.

    1973-01-01

    A reevaluation of novelist Richard Wright's first book, which is a collection of five short stories-- Big Boy Leaves Home,'' Down by the Riverside,'' Long Black Song,'' Fire and Cloud,'' and Bright and Morning Star''--and an introductory essay, The Ethics of Living Jim Crow.'' (JM)

  20. The Danger of a Single Story: Writing Essays about Our Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Black male students "are" endangered. As a high school language arts teacher who has taught in a predominantly African American school, the author has witnessed the suspensions, expulsions, and overrepresentation of black males in special education classes for more than 30 years. In "The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of…

  1. Black Greek-Lettered Organizations and Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article discuss the potential impact of Black Greek-Lettered Organizations (BGLOs) in advancing African American civil and political rights. During the antebellum years and Jim Crow era, barriers to Black voting included enslavement, anti-literacy laws, violence and intimidation, grandfather clauses, gerrymandering, literacy requirements,…

  2. The JIM interview. Art Levinson, PhD.

    PubMed

    Levinson, A

    1997-06-01

    In the early 1980s several prominent scientists left the hallowed halls of respected universities seeking to exploit the revolution occurring in biology in an environment devoid of the bureaucratic and political confines of academia. The emergence of the biotechnology industry has been marked by both spectacular failures and success stories. Genentech was founded in 1976 by biochemist Herbert Boyer and venture capitalist Robert Swanson and went public in 1980. In 1995 Genentech merged with Roche Holdings Ltd., of Basel Switzerland. Distinguished from other biotech companies by the varied array of products it has brought to market, Genentech has also developed a unique corporate culture embodying many traditional academic values. Just as Genentech went public in 1980, Arthur D. Levinson, PhD, finished a post-doctoral appointment in Michael Bishop's lab at the University of California, San Francisco. Despite the disapproval of colleagues, he joined the fledgling company as a senior scientist. Working his way though the ranks, Levinson became Vice President of Research Technology in 1989 and was named President and CEO in 1995. Interviewed at the sprawling corporate headquarters in South San Francisco, Levinson reflected on the process of high risk science, the benefits of the private sector, and the changing relationship between biotech companies and the academic world.

  3. STS-114: Crew Interviews: 1. Jim Kelly 2. Charlie Camarda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1) STS-114 Pilot James Kelly mentions his primary job as the Pilot is to back up Commander Eileen Collins all through the flight. James discusses in detail his robotics operations for all of the extravehicular activities and spacewalk work, as well as moving the logistics module back and forth, onto the station and back in the payload bay. He shares his thoughts on the Columbia, the STS-114 mission as a new chapter in space exploration, and the International Space Station. 2) STS-114 Mission Specialist Charlie Camarda discusses his major role in the mission, his feelings for this being his first Space Shuttle flight; shares his thoughts on the Columbia; mentioned that STS-114 is a baby step to what is needed to do for the next step in space exploration, and gave some examples on how the International Space Station can help pave the path to future space exploration.

  4. Rabbits and Flying Warriors: The Postindian Imagery of Jim Denomie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, David

    2011-01-01

    In an art world dominated by non-Indian curators and experts, being "Indian" was confined to an ethnographic fiction of storytellers, dancers, and medicine men attired in traditional clothing and regalia, in which the colonization of indigenous lands and peoples is left to the margins like an Edward S. Curtis portrait. These are the notions about…

  5. Intentionalist Values and Literary Education: A Reply to Jim Gribble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patrick

    1981-01-01

    A reply to Gribble's article, "Literary Intention and Literary Education" (v15 n1 p53-63 1981). Examines Gribble's criticism of the approach to literature appreciation in which students analyze the author's intentions in writing his work. The author refutes Gribble's insistence that students may understand the author's intended meaning without…

  6. Synthetic Biology: Life, Jim, but Not As We Know It

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallinan, Jennifer

    Frankenstein, Mary Shelley's classic tale of horror, warns of the perils of hubris: of the terrible fate that awaits when Man plays God and attempts to create life. Molecular biologists are clearly not listening. Not content with merely inserting the occasional gene into the genome of an existing organism. they are developing a whole new field, Synthetic Biology, which aims to engineer from first principles organisms with desirable, controllable qualities.

  7. Teaching Selected Poems from Jim Wayne Miller's "The Brier Poems."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tammy

    All lessons in this unit of study are designed to introduce some of the basic elements of poetry (simile, metaphor, alliteration, sensory language, etc.) while exposing students to a realistic slice of Appalachian life. Appropriate grade levels and a time frame are suggested, and relevant Virginia Standards of Learning are outlined in the unit.…

  8. Under the Jade Vault Lei Feng Salutes Mark Twain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krysl, Marilyn

    1984-01-01

    The experiences of a teacher who lectured undergraduates in the People's Republic of China on the American short story and taught a refresher course for Chinese teachers of English at the Tianjin Foreign Language Institute are presented. (Author/MLW)

  9. Why Do Cocks Crow? Children's Concepts About Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan; Fančovičová, Jana

    2007-10-01

    Research into children’s ideas showed that children’s interpretations of natural phenomena often differ from those of scientists. The aim of our study was to identify children’s ideas of various age classes (7/8-14/15) about birds. A questionnaire with 31 multiple choice and open ended questions and eight photographs were administered to 495 children from 10 elementary schools in Slovakia. Children’s ideas were examined in six dimensions (bird classification, food, senses, communication, migration and breeding including parental care). We found several misconceptions, some of them with both anthropomorphical and teleological reasoning of the children about birds within each dimension. In general, misconceptions were more frequently found in younger children, but several misconceptions were similarly distributed across all age classes.

  10. [Confidentiality in medical oaths: (When the white crow becomes gray...)].

    PubMed

    Gelpi, R J; Pérez, M L; Rancich, A M; Mainetti, J A

    2000-01-01

    Confidentiality, together with the ethical principles of beneficence and non-maleficence, is the most important rule in Medical Oaths at the present time. However, the scientific-technical advances in medicine have made this rule one of the most controversial ones because of its exceptions. In consequence, the aim of the present paper is to comparatively analyze the rule of confidentiality in Medical Oaths of different places, times, origins and in different versions of the Hippocratic Oath in order to determine what should be kept a secret and with what degree of commitment (absolute or "prima facie"). Of the thirty six analyzed Oaths, twenty-seven manifest this rule and nine do not. No relation was found between the manifestation of this rule and the place, time, origin and different versions of the Hippocratic Oath. Most pledges suggest not to reveal what has been seen or heard during the medical act, the same as in the Hippocratic Oath. Seven texts point out that confidentiality should be absolute and four give exceptions in connection with beneficence and justice principles and the moral duty of causing no damage to third parties. Two pledges specify protection of privacy. In conclusion, today confidentiality is considered to be a moral duty for the benefit of the patient and out of consideration for his autonomy; however, at the present time in medicine the duty of keeping absolute secrecy is being reconsidered.

  11. Crow Tribe Water Rights Settlement Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Tester, Jon [D-MT

    2009-02-04

    01/21/2010 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 259. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4783, which became Public Law 111-291 on 12/8/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Why Do Cocks Crow? Children's Concepts about Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan; Fancovicova

    2007-01-01

    Research into children's ideas showed that children's interpretations of natural phenomena often differ from those of scientists. The aim of our study was to identify children's ideas of various age classes (7/8-14/15) about birds. A questionnaire with 31 multiple choice and open ended questions and eight photographs were administered to 495…

  13. Weaving a Tapestry from Threads Spun by Geneticists: The Series Perspectives on Genetics, 1987-2008.

    PubMed

    Dove, William F

    2016-07-01

    The Perspectives column was initiated in 1987 when Jan Drake, Editor-in-Chief of GENETICS, invited Jim Crow and William Dove to serve as coeditors of "Anecdotal, Historical, and Critical Commentaries." As the series evolved over 21 years, under the guidance of Crow and Dove, the input of stories told by geneticists from many countries created a panorama of 20th-century genetics. Three recurrent themes are visible: how geneticists have created the science (as solitary investigators, in pairs, or in cooperative groups); how geneticists work hard, but find ways to have fun; and how public and private institutions have sustained the science of genetics, particularly in the United States. This article ends by considering how the Perspectives series and other communication formats can carry forward the core science of genetics from the 20th into the 21st century.

  14. Black physicians and the struggle for civil rights: lessons from the Mississippi experience: part 2: their lives and experiences.

    PubMed

    deShazo, Richard D; Smith, Robert; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2014-11-01

    Little information is available on the lives and experiences of black physicians who practiced in the South during the Jim Crow era of legalized segregation. In Mississippi and elsewhere, it is a story of disenfranchised professionals who risked life, limb, and personal success to improve the lot of those they served. In this second article on this topic, we present the stories of some of the physicians who were leaders in the civil rights movement in Mississippi as examples. Because the health disparities they sought to address have, not of their own making, been passed on to the next generation of physicians, the lessons learned from their experience are worthy of consideration.

  15. Altruistic Leadership Strategies in Coaching: A Case Study of Jim Tressel of The Ohio State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa M.; Carpenter, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    Intercollegiate and high school coaches are faced with the difficult challenge of representing their school in a positive way. How a coach represents the school may be determined by his/her underlying motivation for coaching. Coaches may be driven by a variety of factors, such as: winning, financial success, or improving the well-being of the…

  16. Food for thought: what Jim Joseph taught me about aging and nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motor and cognitive behavioral deficits occur in senescence, and in cases of severe deficits, hospitalization and/or custodial care would be a likely outcome. Unless some way is found to reduce these age-related decrements in neuronal function, health care costs will continue to rise exponentially. ...

  17. The Emerging National Information Infrastructure: An Interview with Paul Evan Peters and Jim Neal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Fred M.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses national information networks from the points of view of an academic librarian and the director of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI). Topics addressed include the roles of libraries, the government, professional library associations, library administrators, and the private sector; user fees; and intellectual property rights.…

  18. Reservoir heterogeneity in middle Frio fluvial sandstones: Case studies in Seeligson field, Jim Wells County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, L.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Detailed evaluation of middle Frio (Oligocene) fluvial sandstones reveals a complex architectural style potentially suited to the addition of gas reserves through recognition of poorly drained reservoir compartments and bypassed gas zones. Seeligson field is being studied as part of a Gas Research Institute/US Department of Energy/State of Texas-sponsored program, with the cooperation of Oryx Energy Company and Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Inc. Four reservoirs, Zones 15, 16D, 16E, and 19C, were studied in a 20 mi{sup 2} area within Seeligson field. Collectively, these reservoirs have produced more than 240 bcf of gas from wells within the study area. Detailed electric log correlation of individual reservoirs enabled subdivision of aggregate producing zones into component genetic units. Cross sections, net-sandstone maps, and log-facies maps were prepared to illustrate depositional style, sand-body geometry, and reservoir heterogeneity. Zones 15 and 19C are examples of laterally stacked fluvial architecture. Individual channel-fill sandstones range from 10 to 50 ft thick, and channel widths are approximately 2,500 ft. Crevasse-splay sandstones may extend a few thousand feet from the main channel system. Multiple, overlapping channel and splay deposits commonly form sand-rich belts that result in leaky reservoir compartments that may be incompletely drained. Zones 16D and 16E are examples of vertically stacked fluvial architecture, with discrete, relatively thin and narrow channel and splay sandstones generally encased within floodplain muds. This architectural style is likely to form more isolated reservoir compartments. Although all of these reservoirs are currently considered nearly depleted, low-pressure producers, recent well completions and bottomhole pressure data indicate that untapped or poorly drained compartments are being encountered.

  19. An environmental partnership - hawks and highwalls at the Jim Bridger mine

    SciTech Connect

    Harshbarger, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Can industry and the environment coexist to the benefit of both? More specifically can coal mining and the environment have beneficial partnerships? Based on information normally available in the popular press, a partnership would seem impossible. Millions of pages and thousands of hours of air time have been used to convey a misinformed message that mining is always detrimental to the environment. The message is clear and one sided. Mining companies destroy the environment in their greed to extract mineral wealth from the ground. They leave barren, disturbed landscapes devoid of life. Mining and the environment can not coexist. There can be no partnership. Bridger Coal Company`s environmental programs, including the raptor mitigation program, demonstrate that mining companies in cooperation with regulatory agencies can utilize the latest scientific developments to protect environmental resources, maintain operational efficiency and in the process raise the industry standard.

  20. Redesigning Racial Caste in America via Mass Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Graff, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a new tactic in the history of American racism. Slavery was ended by the Civil War, but after Reconstruction, the gains of the former slaves were eroded by Jim Crow (a rigid pattern of racial segregation), lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, tenantry, unequal educational resources, terrorism, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Movement struck down legal barriers, but we have chosen to deal with the problems of poverty and race not so differently than we have in the past. The modern version of convict leasing, is mass incarceration. This article documents the dramatic change in American drug policy beginning with Reagan's October, 1982 announcement of the War on Drugs, the subsequent 274 percent growth in the prison and jail populations, and the devastating and disproportionate effect on inner city African Americans. Just as the Jim Crow laws were a reaction to the freeing of the slaves after the Civil War, mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement.

  1. Redesigning Racial Caste in America via Mass Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Graff, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a new tactic in the history of American racism. Slavery was ended by the Civil War, but after Reconstruction, the gains of the former slaves were eroded by Jim Crow (a rigid pattern of racial segregation), lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, tenantry, unequal educational resources, terrorism, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Movement struck down legal barriers, but we have chosen to deal with the problems of poverty and race not so differently than we have in the past. The modern version of convict leasing, is mass incarceration. This article documents the dramatic change in American drug policy beginning with Reagan's October, 1982 announcement of the War on Drugs, the subsequent 274 percent growth in the prison and jail populations, and the devastating and disproportionate effect on inner city African Americans. Just as the Jim Crow laws were a reaction to the freeing of the slaves after the Civil War, mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. PMID:26462404

  2. Das Studium: Vom Start zum Ziel: Lei(d)tfaden für Studierende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messing, Barbara

    Wer studieren will, hat viele Fragen und muss viele Entscheidungen treffen. Dieser Leitfaden hilft, eine Wahl zutreffen, sich an der Hochschule zurecht zu finden und Hürden rechtzeitig zu erkennen und zu bewältigen. Es geht um Fragen wie: Wer unterstützt mich finanziell? Studentenwohnheim oder WG? Was bringt eine Vorlesung? Wie komme ich an eine Abschlussarbeit - und wie schreibe ich sie? Weitere Themen sind: Struktur der Hochschule, Lebensabschnitt Studium, Motivation beim Lernen, Zeitmanagement im Studium, Recherchieren und Lesen, Verstehen und Entwickeln, Mathematik im Studium, Vorträge halten und Prüfungen bestehen.

  3. A Crow Doesn't Need a Shadow: A Guide to Writing Poetry from Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferra, Lorraine

    This book focuses on the integration of an individual's inner and outer landscape. It contains a series of invitations for young people to look out upon their own landscapes and to write the important themes of their lives. The writing experiences outlined in the book give children (and adults) space to become quiet and focused and to tap into…

  4. Rehabilitation engineering as the crow flies. Part IV--Criteria and constraints.

    PubMed

    Foort, J; Hannah, R; Cousins, S

    1978-08-01

    When engineers function in a biomechanics clinic team, collecting information for the definition and solution of problems, and developing solutions in a logical pattern, then establishment of criteria by which to judge actions and results at various stages are essential. In our procedures, we make the most general statement we can which will indicate the goal we have for the patient or the type of patient being considered. Based on this, we proceed with a breakdown of the goal into increasingly explicit statements keeping the objective in focus. Eventually, with the criteria we need in order to decide "yes or no" to any aspect of the solution developing, we consider the constraints. These we see as imposed by the life-requirements of the patient, the effects of the physical environment, the limitations imposed by the social environment, and the limits of available technology including the skills of the designers, the manufacturing capabilities and the distribution system with which the designers must cope. When a "checklist" of requirements and limits has been established, the "critical eye" watches over the rehabilitation engineer as he in effect watches over himself! PMID:724421

  5. As the Crow Flies. A Social Studies/Newspaper Guide. A Newspaper in Education Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Lynn J.

    Appropriate for intermediate grades through high school, this social studies newspaper guide suggests learning activities using newspapers. The areas covered are history, geography, current events, the working class, sociology, the political scene, cultures, government, and travel. Suggested assignments include writing a feature or news interview…

  6. 78 FR 9945 - Crow Butte Resources, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... delegation by the Commission, see 37 FR 28,710 (Dec. 29, 1972), and the Commission=s regulations, see 10 CFR... consolidated group of petitioners comprised of Antonia Loretta Afraid of Bear Cook, Bruce McIntosh, Debra White... Board Panel, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001; Dr. Richard E....

  7. Combined Anterior and Posterior Approach in Total Hip Arthroplasty for Crowe IV Dysplasia or Ankylosed Hips.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Kim, Ki-Choul; Ha, Yong-chan; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated 70 patients (71 hips) who underwent complex total hip arthroplasty (THA) through the combined anterior and posterior approach. Sixty-five patients (32 dislocated hips and 34 ankylosed hips) were followed-up at a minimum of 3 years (median, 6 years; range, 3-10 years). Seven patients (10.6%), who had transient paresthesia on the anterior thigh, recovered within 3 months. All patients had a good clinical outcome in terms of range of motion, pain and recovery of walking. At the latest follow-up, all prostheses had bone-ingrown stability without any detectable wear or osteolysis. The combined approach allows an excellent exposure of the acetabulum for accurate cup alignment, leg lengthening and mobilization of joint in complex THA without trochanteric osteotomy, excessive abductor release and femoral shortening osteotomy. PMID:25682205

  8. From Sheryl Crow to Homer Simpson: Literature and Composition through Pop Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    Students use analyzing themes in song lyrics, rhetorical devices in essays and advertisements, and psychology in contemporary film, to improve their skills in critical thinking and writing. Popular culture is deduced to have an important place in English curricula.

  9. From the Rainbow Crow To Polar Bears: Introducing Science Concepts through Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John Eric

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that integrates chemistry, physics, and a Native American legend to help students imitate the thought processes of scientists who have observed chemical decomposition and the refraction of light. Includes a laboratory experiment for sugar decomposition. (DKM)

  10. Roe v Wade and the New Jane Crow: Reproductive Rights in the Age of Mass Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    All pregnant women, not just those who seek to end a pregnancy, have benefited from Roe v Wade. Today’s system of mass incarceration makes it likely that if Roe is overturned women who have abortions will go to jail. Efforts to establish separate legal “personhood” for fertilized eggs, embryos, and fetuses, however, are already being used as the basis for the arrests and detentions of and forced interventions on pregnant women, including those who seek to go to term. Examination of these punitive actions makes clear that attacks on Roe threaten all pregnant women not only with the loss of their reproductive rights and physical liberty but also with the loss of their status as full constitutional persons. PMID:23153159

  11. Roe v Wade and the new Jane Crow: reproductive rights in the age of mass incarceration.

    PubMed

    Paltrow, Lynn M

    2013-01-01

    All pregnant women, not just those who seek to end a pregnancy, have benefited from Roe v Wade. Today's system of mass incarceration makes it likely that if Roe is overturned women who have abortions will go to jail. Efforts to establish separate legal "personhood" for fertilized eggs, embryos, and fetuses, however, are already being used as the basis for the arrests and detentions of and forced interventions on pregnant women, including those who seek to go to term. Examination of these punitive actions makes clear that attacks on Roe threaten all pregnant women not only with the loss of their reproductive rights and physical liberty but also with the loss of their status as full constitutional persons.

  12. 75 FR 75153 - Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Rusty Blackbird and Tamaulipas (Mexican) Crow From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... species, see our proposed rule published December 8, 2008 (73 FR 74447). III. Additional Regulatory... Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we have... CFR Sec. 21.43 concerning this point. Lead shot can have detrimental effects on scavengers and...

  13. Dynamics of the Eigen and the Crow-Kimura models for molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Saakian, David B; Rozanova, Olga; Akmetzhanov, Andrei

    2008-10-01

    We introduce an alternative way to study molecular evolution within well-established Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, showing that for a broad class of fitness landscapes it is possible to derive dynamics analytically within the 1N accuracy, where N is the genome length. For a smooth and monotonic fitness function this approach gives two dynamical phases: smooth dynamics and discontinuous dynamics. The latter phase arises naturally with no explicite singular fitness function, counterintuitively. The Hamilton-Jacobi method yields straightforward analytical results for the models that utilize fitness as a function of Hamming distance from a reference genome sequence. We also show the way in which this method gives dynamical phase structure for multipeak fitness. PMID:18999456

  14. Ground water in the Crow Creek-Sand Lake area, Brown and Marshall Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopman, F. C.

    1957-01-01

    Transpiration by vegetation and evaporation account for most of the ground water discharged in the area; relatively little ground water is discharged by streams, wells, and springs, or as underflow out of the area. Much of the low-lying land is waterlogged. However, by improving and cleaning both the natural and artifical drains and by lowering the water table by pumping, waterlogging can be materially decreased and its recurrence prevented.

  15. Greybull Sandstone Petroleum Potential on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, David A.

    2002-05-13

    The focus of this project was to explore for stratigraphic traps that may be present in valley-fill sandstone at the top of the Lower Cretaceous Kootenai Formation. This sandstone interval, generally known as the Greybull Sandstone, has been identified along the western edge of the reservation and is a known oil and gas reservoir in the surrounding region. The Greybull Sandstone was chosen as the focus of this research because it is an excellent, well-documented, productive reservoir in adjacent areas, such as Elk Basin; Mosser Dome field, a few miles northwest of the reservation; and several other oil and gas fields in the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin.

  16. VISITOR CENTER BRANCH CHIEF JIM BALL SPEAKS AT THE APOLLO/SATURN V CENTER RIBBON-CUTTING CEREMONY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    James E. Ball, chief of the Visitor Center Branch of KSC/NASA Public Affairs, speaks to the guests invited to the ribbon-cutting ceremony which officially opens the new Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center. The 100,000-square-foot facility includes two theaters, various exhibits and an Apollo-era Saturn V rocket, which formerly was on display outside the Vehicle Assembly Building and is one of only three moon rockets remaining in existence. The new center is located off the Kennedy Parkway at the Banana Creek launch viewing site.

  17. Fluvial architecture and reservoir heterogeneity of middle Frio sandstones, Seeligson field, Jim Wells and Kleberg Counties, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, L.A.; Kerr, D.R.; Zinke, S.G.; Finley, R.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Evaluation of fluvial Frio reservoirs in south Texas reveals a complex architectural style potentially suited to the addition of incremental gas reserves through recognition of untapped compartments or bypassed gas zones. Seeligson field is being studied as part of a GRI/DOE/Texas-sponsored program, in cooperation with Oryx Energy Company and Mobil Exploration and Production U.S., Inc., and is designed to develop technologies and methodologies for increasing gas reserves from conventional reservoirs in mature fields. Seeligson field, discovered in 1937, has produced 2.2 tcf of gas from more than 50 middle Frio reservoirs. Cross sections as well as net sand and log facies maps illustrate depositional style, sandstone geometry, and reservoir heterogeneities. Far-offset vertical seismic profiles show laterally discontinuous reflections corresponding to the reservoirs. Lenticular lateral-bar sandstones dominate channel-fill deposits that together are commonly less than 50 ft thick, forming belts of sandstone approximately 2,500 ft wide. Crevasse-splay deposits commonly extend a few thousand feet beyond the channel system. Sand-rich channel-fill deposits are flanked by levee and overbank mudstones, isolating the reservoirs in narrow, dip-elongate trends. Deposition on an aggrading coastal plain resulted in a pattern of laterally stacked sandstone bodies that are widespread across the study area. Alternating periods of more rapid aggradation resulted in deposition of vertically stacked sandstones with limited areal distribution. Facies architecture of both depositional styles has implications for reservoir compartmentalization. Reservoir compartments within a laterally stacked system may be leaky, resulting from sandstone contact from producing wells along depositional axes. This effect is a major factor controlling incremental recovery. Reservoirs in vertically stacked systems should be better isolated.

  18. An Unwilling Partnership With the Great Society Part I: Head Start and the Beginning of Change in the White Medical Community.

    PubMed

    deShazo, Richard D; Minor, Wilson F Bill; Smith, Robert; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2016-07-01

    By 1965, the policies and programs of Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society brought optimism to black physicians and a new wave of resistance against black civil rights advocates in the American South. The largest of the first Head Start programs, Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM), had its roots in Freedom Summer 1964 and the Medical Committee for Human Rights. Like other proposed programs with strong medical components, CDGM was caught in a legislative Bermuda triangle created by the powerful Mississippi congressional delegation to maintain white supremacy and plantation economics. Physician-led investigations exposed the extraordinary level of poor health among Mississippi's black children, supported Head Start as a remedy, and awakened the white medical establishment to health disparities of the Jim Crow period. It was also the beginning of positive change in the previously silent white medical community in the South and their support of civil justice in health. PMID:27432044

  19. Relies of reconciliation: the Confederate Museum and Civil War memory in the New South.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Reiko

    2011-11-01

    This article examines the Confederate Memorial Literary Society (CMLS), an organization of elite white women in Richmond, Virginia who founded the Confederate Museum in the 1890s. Faced with the plunder of Civil War relics and cultural homogenization on northern terms, the CMLS founded the Confederate Museum to document and defend the Confederate cause and to uphold the antebellum mores that the New South's business ethos threatened to erode. In the end, however, the museum's version of the Lost Cause served the New South. By focusing on military sacrifice, the Confederate Museum aided the process of sectional reconciliation. By depicting slavery as benevolent, the museum's exhibits reinforced the notion that Jim Crow was a just and effective means of managing postwar southern society. Lastly, by glorifying the common soldier and portraying the South as "solid," the museum promoted obedience to the mandates of industrial capitalism. Thus, the Confederate Museum both critiqued and eased the economic transformations of the New South.

  20. Doing Violence, Making Race: Southern Lynching and White Racial Group Formation.

    PubMed

    Smångs, Mattias

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested. Highlighting that racialized inequalities cannot be properly understood apart from collective processes of racial group boundary and identity making, the article offers clues to the mechanisms by which past racial domination influences contemporary race relations.

  1. Go tell it on the mountain: Hilla Sheriff and public health in the South Carolina Piedmont, 1929 to 1940.

    PubMed

    Hill, P E

    1995-04-01

    As director of the South Carolina units of the American Women's Hospitals and as the state's first female county health official, Hilla Sheriff combined elements of the Progressive Era's social gospel; the New Deal notion that concerned, public-spirited officials could make a difference; and a nascent feminism that led her into the controversial fields of family planning and nutrition. Sheriff's responses to endemic pellagra, innovative maternal and child health campaigns, and contraceptive research for the Milbank Memorial Fund attracted national attention and spawned programs based on her models throughout the South. Her ability to tailor programs to diverse communities--mothers who bore double burdens as textile workers, isolated farm families, mountaineers, and African Americans denied access to most health care facilities in the Jim Crow South--serves as a timeless example for those committed to community medicine. PMID:7702129

  2. Black physicians and the struggle for civil rights: lessons from the Mississippi experience: part 2: their lives and experiences.

    PubMed

    deShazo, Richard D; Smith, Robert; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2014-11-01

    Little information is available on the lives and experiences of black physicians who practiced in the South during the Jim Crow era of legalized segregation. In Mississippi and elsewhere, it is a story of disenfranchised professionals who risked life, limb, and personal success to improve the lot of those they served. In this second article on this topic, we present the stories of some of the physicians who were leaders in the civil rights movement in Mississippi as examples. Because the health disparities they sought to address have, not of their own making, been passed on to the next generation of physicians, the lessons learned from their experience are worthy of consideration. PMID:24950485

  3. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    PubMed

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.

  4. Doing Violence, Making Race: Southern Lynching and White Racial Group Formation.

    PubMed

    Smångs, Mattias

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested. Highlighting that racialized inequalities cannot be properly understood apart from collective processes of racial group boundary and identity making, the article offers clues to the mechanisms by which past racial domination influences contemporary race relations. PMID:27092388

  5. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    PubMed

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present. PMID:27108470

  6. An Unwilling Partnership With the Great Society Part I: Head Start and the Beginning of Change in the White Medical Community.

    PubMed

    deShazo, Richard D; Minor, Wilson F Bill; Smith, Robert; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2016-07-01

    By 1965, the policies and programs of Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society brought optimism to black physicians and a new wave of resistance against black civil rights advocates in the American South. The largest of the first Head Start programs, Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM), had its roots in Freedom Summer 1964 and the Medical Committee for Human Rights. Like other proposed programs with strong medical components, CDGM was caught in a legislative Bermuda triangle created by the powerful Mississippi congressional delegation to maintain white supremacy and plantation economics. Physician-led investigations exposed the extraordinary level of poor health among Mississippi's black children, supported Head Start as a remedy, and awakened the white medical establishment to health disparities of the Jim Crow period. It was also the beginning of positive change in the previously silent white medical community in the South and their support of civil justice in health.

  7. Revisiting Robinson: The perils of individualistic and ecologic fallacy

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S V; Jones, Kelvyn; Kaddour, Afamia; Krieger, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background W S Robinson made a seminal contribution by demonstrating that correlations for the same two variables can be different at the individual and ecologic level. This study reanalyzes and historically situates Robinson's influential study that laid the foundation for the primacy of analyzing data at only the individual level. Methods We applied a binomial multilevel logistic model to analyse variation in illiteracy as enumerated by the 1930 US. Census (the same data as used by Robinson). The outcome was log odds of being illiterate, while predictors were race/nativity (‘native whites’, ‘foreign-born whites’ and ‘negroes’) at the individual-level, and presence of Jim Crow segregation laws for education at the state-level. We conducted historical research to identify the social and scientific context within which Robinson's study was produced and favourably received. Results Empirically, the substantial state variations in illiteracy could not be accounted by the states' race/nativity composition. Different approaches to modelling state-effects yielded considerably attenuated associations at the individual-level between illiteracy and race/nativity. Furthermore, state variation in illiteracy was different across the race/nativity groups, with state variation being largest for whites and least for foreign-born whites. Strong effects of Jim Crow education laws on illiteracy were observed with the effect being strongest for blacks. Historically, Robinson's study was consonant with the post-World War II ascendancy of methodological individualism. Conclusion Applying a historically informed multilevel perspective to Robinson's profoundly influential study, we demonstrate that meaningful analysis of individual-level relationships requires attention to substantial heterogeneity in state characteristics. The implication is that perils are posed by not only ecological fallacy but also individualistic fallacy. Multilevel thinking, grounded in historical and

  8. Salinity and Temperature Constraints on Microbial Methanogenesis in the Lei-Gong-Huo Mud Volcano of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Lin, L.; Wang, P.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial mud volcano is thought to be one of the most important natural sources of methane emission. Previous studies have shown that methane cycling in terrestrial mud volcanoes involves a complex reaction network driven by the interactions between subsurface and surface abiotic and microbial processes. In situ methanogenesis appears to produce methane at quantities exceeding those of deeply-sourced thermogenic methane and the capacities of anaerobic methanotrophy at shallow depth levels, thereby contributing significantly to the methane emission. Various degrees of evaporation at surface also lead to the enhancement of chloride concentrations in pore water, favoring the proliferation of halo-tolerant and/or halophilic methanogens. The goal of this study is to investigate the extent of methanogenesis in terrestrial mud volcanoes by incubating mud slurries with various precursors (H2/CO2, acetate, methanol, and methylamine) at different salinities (up to 2000 mM) and temperatures (up to 50 oC). Methane concentrations were monitored through time and molecular analyses were applied to investigate the changes of methanogenic communities. Methanogenesis was stimulated by any investigated precursor at room temperature. However, the methanogenic response to salinity varied. Of the investigated precursors, H2/CO2 and methyl-compounds (methanol and methylamine) stimulated methanogenesis at all investigated salinities. The rates and yields of hydrogen- and methyl-utilizing methanogenesis declined significantly at salinities greater than 1500 mM. Acetate-utilizing methanogenesis proceeded at salinities less than 700 mM. At 40 oC, methanogenesis was stimulated by all investigated precursors at the in situ salinity (~400 mM). At 50 oC, only H2-utilizing methanogenesis was stimulated. Analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) for 16S rRNA genes revealed various patterns upon different precursors and salinities. The TRFLP results combined with clone library analyses indicated that major RFs recovered from incubations with methyl-compounds at room temperature and 40 oC were represented by sequences affiliated with Methanococcoides spp., Methanosarcina spp., and Methanolobus spp. In particular, only Methanosarcina- and Methanococcoides-related members were detected at salinities greater than 1000 mM or at 40 oC. RFs recovered from incubations with H2/CO2 at room temperature and 40 oC were represented by sequences related to different Methanococcus spp. Overall, methanogens utilizing H2/CO2 and methyl-compounds appear to be capable of actively producing methane at salinities greater than acetate-utilizing methanogens could tolerate. These methanogens might adapt better to the fluctuation of salinity or extremely high salinity induced by the surface evaporation in terrestrial mud volcanoes. When considering the overall methane emission from terrestrial mud volcanoes, these halo-tolerant methanogens become a significant factor. Key words: mud volcano, Methane, Methanogenesis, Salinity

  9. 75 FR 49506 - Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... major disaster: Cameron, Hidalgo, Jim Hogg, Maverick, Starr, Val Verde, Webb, and Zapata Counties for Individual Assistance. Cameron, Hidalgo, Jim Hogg, Jim Wells, Maverick, Starr, Webb, Willacy, and...

  10. Estimation of inbreeding by isonymy in Iberoamerican populations: an extension of the method of Crow and Mange.

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Cisternas, J; Pineda, L; Barrai, I

    1985-01-01

    The method of isonymy for the estimation of inbreeding levels was extended to use the potentialities offered by the Iberoamerican surname system, in which a child inherits his surnames both from the father and the mother. Four possible types of isonymy were recognized between the family names of a husband-wife pair. It was found that, limited to simple consanguinity, the ratio between isonymy and the inbreeding coefficient of consanguineous individuals, starting from first cousins, is constant and equal to 16. Consanguinity levels were studied in four Venezuelan groups, Isla de Toas, Los Teques, Quibor, and Colonia Tovar, using genealogies, classical isonymy, and the extended method. It was found that, for Iberoamerican populations, the extended method is more precise than the classical method. PMID:3985012

  11. 77 FR 71454 - Crow Butte Resources, Inc. License SUA-1534, License Amendment To Construct and Operate Marsland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... petitioner and specifically explain the reasons why intervention should be permitted with particular... for amendment that the petitioner disputes and the supporting reasons for each dispute, or, if the... required by law, the identification of each failure and the supporting reasons for the petitioner's...

  12. The New Juan Crow in Education: Revealing Panoptic Measures and Inequitable Resources That Hinder Latina/o Postsecondary Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrigal-Garcia, Yanira I.; Acevedo-Gil, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the distribution of inequitable resources, a culture of control, and implications for postsecondary pathways for Latinas/os in five California high schools. This study integrated critical race theory in education, school culture, and the concept of "panopticon" to examine school structures, climate, and…

  13. Valley-Fill Sandstones in the Koontenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, David A.

    1999-10-28

    Subsurface data continues to be collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from most of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base; only a few wells outside the reservation remain to be incorporated.

  14. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-08-01

    Kami menjalankan beberapa eksperimen aviari untuk mengenal pasti kesan warna ke atas pemilihan kuantiti oleh dua jenis burung, burung gagak (Corvus splendens) dan burung tiung (Acridotheres tristis). Cacing dalam kuantiti berbeza (tujuh pembahagian berlainan) diberikan kepada burung dalam turutan rawak menggunakan cacing dicat dengan warna merah bagi eksperimen 1 dan menggunakan cacing dicat warna hijau bagi eksperimen 2. Kedua-dua warna cacing merah dan hijau tidak memberi kesan kepada pemilihan kuantiti gagak (merah: ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.748, p = 0.144; dan hijau: ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.085, p = 0.394). Namun demikian, burung tiung menunjukkan kesan pengaruh kuat bagi warna merah ke atas pemilihan kuantiti (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.922, p = 0.023), dengan burung berjaya memilih jumlah makanan yang lebih besar antara dua cawan, tetapi tidak apabila cacing berwarna hijau ditawarkan (ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.183, p = 0.342). Dalam eksperimen seterusnya, hipotesis kami ialah kedua-dua burung gagak dan burung tiung akan memilih makanan berwarna merah berbanding warna hijau apabila faktor jumlah makanan adalah sama. Kami memilih untuk menguji warna merah dan warna hijau kerana kedua-dua warna memainkan peranan penting dalam pemilihan makanan burung. Keputusan menunjukkan tiada perbezaan signifikan bagi pemilihan cacing merah dan hijau bagi kedua-dua burung gagak (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.310, p = 0.06) dan burung tiung (ANOVA: F6,30 = 0.823, p = 0.561).

  15. Total hip arthroplasty (S-ROM stem) and subtrochanteric osteotomy for Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangtao; Yu, Mingyang; Yang, Chen; Gu, Guishan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in adults with severe pain and disability is best treated by total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy combined with THA using S-ROM stem for those severe patients with a special focus on the effect of two shapes in the subtrochanteric osteotomy ends: Oblique and transverse. Materials and Methods: Twenty one cases with mean age of 43.6 years who met inclusion criteria and were operated between February 2007 and February 2012 were included in the study. Those cases had been divided into two groups (oblique vs. transverse) and all records between the two groups were analyzed. Results: The Harris hip score significantly improved from 30.6 (range 18–59) preoperatively to 91.2 (range 87–98) postoperatively by the latest followup. Complications including one deep venous thrombosis, one intraoperative fracture of femur and two dislocations occurred while they were addressed properly afterward. The oblique group showed significant advantages in operative time, union time and additional fixation in comparison with the transverse group. Conclusions: In the primary THA for the treatment of irreducible DDH, subtrochanteric oblique osteotomy combined with the freely-rotatable S-ROM stem provided favorable short term outcomes by affording both morphological and functional advantages. PMID:27053810

  16. Jim Sanovia - South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Undergrad: Geological Engineering (Jr.) September 7, 2004 thesanoves@hotmail.com Abstract Experiences Interning at NASA/GSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanovia, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    In the summer of 2001 and 2004 I experienced internships at the NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Through these internships I was introduced to Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing. My experiences at NASA have also helped me acquire the ability to learn how I can now best utilize my networking contacts at NASA and other connections to facilitate my future plans as an engineer working on Indian and non-Indian Reservation lands. My experiences working at a large agency such as NASA have shown me the significance how a Native American engineer can strive to improve and preserve Indian and non-Indian lands for future generations. Formulating new and inventive methodologies on how to better approach Indian Reservation research while incorporating Native American culture I feel are vital for success. My accomplishments throughout the recent past years have also allowed me conduct outreach to Indian K-12 kids and college students alike.

  17. Using General-Head Boundary Condition in Groundwater Flow Model Eddy Teasdale, PG; Jim Zhang, PhD, PE; and Liz Elliot, PG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, E.

    2010-12-01

    : In groundwater flow model development, setting appropriate boundary conditions is difficult if the edges of the model domain are not natural groundwater or known hydraulic boundaries (i.e., rivers, faults). Often the prescribed-head or prescribed-flux boundary condition does not apply to these non-natural boundaries, and a general-head boundary (GHB) condition has to be implemented. GHB allows groundwater to move either into or out of the model domain (depending on groundwater elevation changes along the boundary). GHB conditions can approximate the hydraulic response of the boundaries to the groundwater condition variations if it is specified appropriately. Although hydraulic conductance and the reference head are the only two parameters used in GHB, determing these two parameters is always a challenging task, especially if little is known about the regional flow system. This paper presents the main issues in the application of GHB conditions and provides some guidance in determing the hydraulic conductance and the reference head values. Numerical test runs have been conducted to illustrate the effects varying GHB conditions have on the flow simulation results.

  18. Assisting American Indian Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan Cope with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Lessons from Vietnam Veterans and the Writings of Jim Northrup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The country is at war in Iraq and Afghanistan, and, as has been the case throughout the history of the United States, American Indians have answered the call and are serving bravely in the armed forces. As in years past, there are also a cadre of American Indian veterans returning from the battlefield, scarred and wounded in body, heart, and mind.…

  19. School Dropouts: Education Could Play a Stronger Role in Identifying and Disseminating Promising Prevention Strategies. Report to the Honorable Jim Gibbons, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    This report examines national and regional dropout rate trends; factors associated with dropping out; efforts these factors; and federal efforts to reduce dropout rates. Information came from interviews with National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) officials; review of NCES data and reports by dropout prevention experts; site visits at…

  20. Medaling in Education: Elder of the Year Teaches TCU Students to Walk on Both Sides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brien, Luella

    2010-01-01

    The heart of Little Big Horn College (LBHC) is wrapped in the passion of Joseph Medicine Crow. Medicine Crow, 96, a nationally renowned tribal elder and historian, has been influencing education on the Crow Reservation in Montana for decades. As one of the founding members of the Crow Education Commission, he helped start LBHC in 1980. Medicine…

  1. Two-Stage Progressive Femoral Lowering Followed by Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty for Treating Crowe IV-Hartofilakidis Type 3 Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Binazzi, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    High developmental dysplasia of the hip is commonly treated with total hip arthroplasty and shortening osteotomy. We present a two stage technique, consisting of progressive femoral lowering followed by total hip arthroplasty. The clinico-radiographic results of eleven patients (twelve hips) who were operated on with the two-stage technique were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 11 ± 5 years. At the final follow-up, ten patients (eleven hips) had a mean Harris hip score of 85 ± 5 points with no implant loosening. One patient (one hip) was revised at 5 years due to infection. No neurovascular complications were observed in any patients. With this technique, we could place the cup in the anatomical position and obtain complete limb symmetry with excellent clinical results at long-term. PMID:25599863

  2. Inferring the effects of potential dispersal routes on the metacommunity structure of stream insects: as the crow flies, as the fish swims or as the fox runs?

    PubMed

    Kärnä, Olli-Matti; Grönroos, Mira; Antikainen, Harri; Hjort, Jan; Ilmonen, Jari; Paasivirta, Lauri; Heino, Jani

    2015-09-01

    1. Metacommunity research relies largely on proxies for inferring the effect of dispersal on local community structure. Overland and watercourse distances have been typically used as such proxies. A good proxy for dispersal should, however, take into account more complex landscape features that can affect an organism's movement and dispersal. The cost distance approach does just that, allowing determining the path of least resistance across a landscape. 2. Here, we examined the distance decay of assemblage similarity within a subarctic stream insect metacommunity. We tested whether overland, watercourse and cumulative cost distances performed differently as correlates of dissimilarity in assemblage composition between sites. We also investigated the effect of body size and dispersal mode on metacommunity organization. 3. We found that dissimilarities in assemblage composition correlated more strongly with environmental than physical distances between sites. Overland and watercourse distances showed similar correlations to assemblage dissimilarity between sites, being sometimes significantly correlated with biological variation of entire insect communities. In metacommunities deconstructed by body size or dispersal mode, contrary to our expectation, passive dispersers showed a slightly stronger correlation than active dispersers to environmental differences between sites, although passive dispersers also showed a stronger correlation than active dispersers to physical distances between sites. The strength of correlation between environmental distance and biological dissimilarity also varied slightly among the body size classes. 4. After controlling for environmental differences between sites, cumulative cost distances were slightly better correlates of biological dissimilarities than overland or watercourse distances between sites. However, quantitative differences in correlation coefficients were small between different physical distances. 5. Although environmental differences typically override physical distances as determinants of the composition of stream insect assemblages, correlations between environmental distances and biological dissimilarities are typically rather weak. This undetermined variation may be attributable to dispersal processes, which may be captured using better proxies for the process. We suggest that further modifying the measurement of cost distances may be a fruitful avenue, especially if complemented by more direct natural history information on insect dispersal behaviour and distances travelled by them.

  3. Microevolution of African American dental morphology.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Heather J H

    2007-04-01

    The African American (AA) gene pool is primarily the result of gene flow between two biologically disparate groups: West Africans (WA) and Americans of western European descent (EA). This research utilizes characteristics of dental morphology to trace genetic relationships among WA, western Europeans (EU), AA, and European Americans. Dental morphological traits are useful for this purpose because they are heritable, do not remodel during life (although they can be lost to wear or pathology), and can be compared equally among samples from past and present populations. The results of this research provide new information about human microevolution through time and space in a biocultural setting. The mean measure of divergence is used to analyze dental morphological data from 1,265 individuals in 25 samples grouped by ancestry and time. Three hypotheses associated with admixture in AA are tested. When compared with known history, results from dental morphological data are equivocal in documenting admixture in AA. Dental morphological traits do appear to reflect admixture in AA. However, changes in trait frequencies do not closely correspond with important cultural events and trends such as the institutionalized racism of the Civil War and Jim Crow era. Results are mixed concerning whether AA with greater admixture were more likely to take part in the Great Migration to southern urban centers and to the North.

  4. Viewpoint: Cultural competence and the African American experience with health care: The case for specific content in cross-cultural education.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Arnold R; Ellis, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Achieving cultural competence in the care of a patient who is a member of an ethnic or racial minority is a multifaceted project involving specific cultural knowledge as well as more general skills and attitude adjustments to advance cross-cultural communication in the clinical encounter. Using the important example of the African American patient, the authors examine relevant historical and cultural information as it relates to providing culturally competent health care. The authors identify key influences, including the legacy of slavery, Jim Crow discrimination, the Tuskegee syphilis study, religion's interaction with health care, the use of home remedies, distrust, racial concordance and discordance, and health literacy. The authors propose that the awareness of specific information pertaining to ethnicity and race enhances cross-cultural communication and ways to improve the cultural competence of physicians and other health care providers by providing a historical and social context for illness in another culture. Cultural education, modular in nature, can be geared to the specific populations served by groups of physicians and provider organizations. Educational methods should include both information about relevant social group history as well as some experiential component to emotively communicate particular cultural needs. The authors describe particular techniques that help bridge the cross-cultural clinical communication gaps that are created by patients' mistrust, lack of cultural understanding, differing paradigms for illness, and health illiteracy.

  5. White Anglo-Saxon hopes and black Americans' Atlantic dreams: Jack Johnson and the British boxing colour bar.

    PubMed

    Runstedtler, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the controversy surrounding Jack Johnson's proposed world heavyweight title fight against the British champion Bombardier Billy Wells in London (1911). In juxtaposing African Americans' often glowing discussions of European tolerance with the actual white resistance the black champion faced in Britain, including the Home Office's eventual prohibition of the match, the article explores the period's transnational discourses of race and citizenship. Indeed, as white sportsmen on both sides of the Atlantic joined together in their search for a "White Hope" to unseat Johnson, the boxing ring became an important cultural arena for interracial debates over the political and social divisions between white citizens and nonwhite subjects. Although African Americans had high hopes for their hero's European sojourn, the British backlash against the Johnson-Wells match underscored the fact that their local experiences of racial oppression were just one facet of a much broader global problem. At the same time, the proposed prizefight also made the specter of interracial conflict in the colonies all the more tangible in the British capital, provoking public discussions about the merits of U.S. racial segregation, along with the need for white Anglo-Saxon solidarity around the world. Thus, this article not only exposes the underlying connections between American Jim Crow and the racialized fault lines of British imperialism, but it also traces the "tense and tender ties" linking U.S. and African American history with the new imperial history and postcolonial studies. PMID:21510333

  6. Native Health Research Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... Big Lagoon Rancheria Big Pine Band Blackfeet Blue Lake Rancheria Boise Forte Caddo Cahuilla Band of Indians ... Creek Crow Crow Creek Sioux Delaware Dene Devil's Lake Sioux Dogrib Eastern Band of Cherokee Elk Valley ...

  7. Cognitive Ability and Continuous Measures of Relative Hand Skill: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. "Neuropsychologia", 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is…

  8. Good-to-Great Superintendents: An Examination of Jim Collins' Good-to-Great Level Five Leadership Attributes as Demonstrated by the Leadership Behaviors of Superintendents of High-Performing California Public Single-School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Collins' good-to-great Level Five leadership attributes, as demonstrated by the leadership behaviors of superintendents of high-performing California public single-school districts. Methodology: The researcher used a case study design to conduct this study. Personal interviews were conducted in…

  9. Congratulating Jim Boeheim, head coach of the Syracuse University Orange men's basketball team and a native of Lyons, New York, for receiving many coaching awards for the impressive achievements of the Syracuse University Orange 2009-2010 men's basketball team.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Maffei, Daniel B. [D-NY-25

    2010-04-29

    05/27/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. The highest-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn.

    PubMed

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Shosei; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-07-23

    The "cock-a-doodle-doo" crowing of roosters, which symbolizes the break of dawn in many cultures, is controlled by the circadian clock. When one rooster announces the break of dawn, others in the vicinity immediately follow. Chickens are highly social animals, and they develop a linear and fixed hierarchy in small groups. We found that when chickens were housed in small groups, the top-ranking rooster determined the timing of predawn crowing. Specifically, the top-ranking rooster always started to crow first, followed by its subordinates, in descending order of social rank. When the top-ranking rooster was physically removed from a group, the second-ranking rooster initiated crowing. The presence of a dominant rooster significantly reduced the number of predawn crows in subordinates. However, the number of crows induced by external stimuli was independent of social rank, confirming that subordinates have the ability to crow. Although the timing of subordinates' predawn crowing was strongly dependent on that of the top-ranking rooster, free-running periods of body temperature rhythms differed among individuals, and crowing rhythm did not entrain to a crowing sound stimulus. These results indicate that in a group situation, the top-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn, and that subordinate roosters are patient enough to wait for the top-ranking rooster's first crow every morning and thus compromise their circadian clock for social reasons.

  11. The highest-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn

    PubMed Central

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Shosei; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The “cock-a-doodle-doo” crowing of roosters, which symbolizes the break of dawn in many cultures, is controlled by the circadian clock. When one rooster announces the break of dawn, others in the vicinity immediately follow. Chickens are highly social animals, and they develop a linear and fixed hierarchy in small groups. We found that when chickens were housed in small groups, the top-ranking rooster determined the timing of predawn crowing. Specifically, the top-ranking rooster always started to crow first, followed by its subordinates, in descending order of social rank. When the top-ranking rooster was physically removed from a group, the second-ranking rooster initiated crowing. The presence of a dominant rooster significantly reduced the number of predawn crows in subordinates. However, the number of crows induced by external stimuli was independent of social rank, confirming that subordinates have the ability to crow. Although the timing of subordinates’ predawn crowing was strongly dependent on that of the top-ranking rooster, free-running periods of body temperature rhythms differed among individuals, and crowing rhythm did not entrain to a crowing sound stimulus. These results indicate that in a group situation, the top-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn, and that subordinate roosters are patient enough to wait for the top-ranking rooster’s first crow every morning and thus compromise their circadian clock for social reasons. PMID:26203594

  12. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    44 submitted posters covered recent advances in these topics. These proceedings present papers on 35 of the invited talks. The Local Organizers gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the University of Kentucky College of Arts and Sciences, and the University of Kentucky Department of Physics and Astronomy. We also thank Carol Cotrill, Eva Ellis, Diane Yates, Sarah Crowe, and John Nichols, of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky for their invaluable assistance in the smooth running of the conferences; Oleksandr Korneta for taking the group photograph; and Emily Martin for helping accompanying persons. Nicholas L S Martin University of Kentucky Bruno A deHarak Illinois Wesleyan University International Scientific Organizing Committee Co-Chairs Don Madison (USA)Klaus Bartschat (USA) Members Lorenzo Avaldi (Italy)Nils Andersen (Denmark) Jamal Berakdar (Germany)Uwe Becker (Germany) Michael Brunger (Australia)Igor Bray (Australia) Greg Childers (USA)Nikolay Cherepkov (Russia) JingKang Deng (China)Albert Crowe (UK) Alexander Dorn (Germany)Danielle Dowek (France) Jim Feagin (USA)Oscar Fojon (Argentina) Nikolay Kabachnik (Russia)Tim Gay (USA) Anatoli Kheifets (Australia)Alexei Grum-Grzhimailo (Russia) George King (UK)Friedrich Hanne (Germany) Tom Kirchner (Germany)Alan Huetz (France) Azzedine Lahmam-Bennani (France)Morty Khakoo (USA) Julian Lower (Australia)Birgit Lohmann (Australia) William McCurdy (USA)Bill McConkey (Canada) Andrew Murray (UK)Rajesh Srivastava (India) Bernard Piraux (Belgium)Al Stauffer (Canada) Tim Reddish (Canada)Jim Williams (Australia) Roberto Rivarola (Argentina)Akira Yagishita (Japan) Michael Schulz (USA)Peter Zetner (Canada) Anthony Starace (USA)Joachim Ullrich (Germany) Giovanni Stefani (Italy)Erich Weigold (Australia) Masahiko Takahashi (Japan) Conference photograph

  13. Range of Hip Joint Motion in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Patients Following Total Hip Arthroplasty With the Surgical Technique Using the Concept of Combined Anteversion: A Study of Crowe I and II Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Wei, Jianhe; Mao, Yuanqing; Li, Huiwu; Xie, Youzhuan; Zhu, Zhenan

    2015-12-01

    The combined anteversion surgical technique has been proposed and used in clinical practice. To more objectively evaluate the feasibility of this surgical technique using combined anteversion concept for DDH patients, we studied 34 DDH patients (40 hips) in this research. Every patient underwent pelvic CT scans before and after surgery and the HHSs were recorded. Optimal range of joint motion was measured using a three-dimensional reconstruction technique and a dynamic measurement technique. The results revealed that joint function met the requirements of daily life and the range of motion was not over-limited by impingement between the prosthesis and the skeleton. Moreover, the combined anteversion was found to be the most critical parameter in this study. PMID:26228491

  14. Range of Hip Joint Motion in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Patients Following Total Hip Arthroplasty With the Surgical Technique Using the Concept of Combined Anteversion: A Study of Crowe I and II Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Wei, Jianhe; Mao, Yuanqing; Li, Huiwu; Xie, Youzhuan; Zhu, Zhenan

    2015-12-01

    The combined anteversion surgical technique has been proposed and used in clinical practice. To more objectively evaluate the feasibility of this surgical technique using combined anteversion concept for DDH patients, we studied 34 DDH patients (40 hips) in this research. Every patient underwent pelvic CT scans before and after surgery and the HHSs were recorded. Optimal range of joint motion was measured using a three-dimensional reconstruction technique and a dynamic measurement technique. The results revealed that joint function met the requirements of daily life and the range of motion was not over-limited by impingement between the prosthesis and the skeleton. Moreover, the combined anteversion was found to be the most critical parameter in this study.

  15. Significant improvement in crow's feet after treatment with Jet-M and a mixed solution of copper-GHK, oligo-hyaluronic acid, rhodiolar extract, tranexamic acid, and β-glucan (GHR formulation).

    PubMed

    Byun, Sang-Young; Chae, Je-Byeong; Na, Jung-Im; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-10-01

    Jet-M (Tav-Tech Ltd., Israel) is an instrument for skin resurfacing. When it sprays microdroplets of solution or shoots air on the skin, exfoliation and stretching of superficial layers can occur. Thus, it will increase percutaneous absorption of vitamins and other cosmetic agents. A cosmetic preparation containing copper-glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine, oligo-hyaluronic acid, rhodiolar extract, tranexamic acid, and β-glucan was used with Jet-M in one patient. Anesthesia was not administered and there was no pain during the treatment. A male aged 59 years was treated once a week for 12 weeks. In the clinical photographs, wrinkles around the treated eye were greatly decreased. Skin biopsies were taken from treated and untreated areas. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed increased collagen production in the upper dermis. On the other hand, collagen IV production was slightly increased. Fibrillin-1 and procollagen type 1 were greatly increased and tropoelastin was also increased. There was no adverse effect during and after treatment.

  16. 76 FR 62096 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... petition was filed by Jim Cooper, Mayor of Redmon, Illinois (Petitioner) and is postmarked September 22... filed by Jim Cooper, Mayor of Redmon, Illinois (Petitioner) and is postmarked September 22, 2011....

  17. 75 FR 17917 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on Seven Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Mercury and Basin Floodway. Dissolved Oxygen. 010401 East Atchafalaya Mercury. Basin and Morganza Floodway South to Interstate 10 Canal. 010501 Lower Atchafalaya Mercury. Basin Floodway. 010601 Crow Bayou,...

  18. 50 CFR 32.57 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... squirrels, grouse, rabbit, pheasant, quail, woodchuck, crow, fox, raccoon, opossum, skunk, weasel, coyote... grouse, squirrel, rabbit, woodchuck, pheasant, quail, raccoon, fox, coyote, skunk, and opossum...

  19. West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Docherty, D.E.; Hansen, W.R.; Sileo, L.; Mcnamara, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    The ecology of the strain of West Nile virus (WNV) introduced into the United States in 1999 has similarities to the native flavivirus, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, but has unique features not observed with SLE virus or with WNV in the old world. The primary route of transmission for most of the arboviruses in North America is by mosquito, and infected native birds usually do not suffer morbidity or mortality. An exception to this pattern is eastern equine encephalitis virus, which has an alternate direct route of transmission among nonnative birds, and some mortality of native bird species occurs. The strain of WNV circulating in the northeastern United States is unique in that it causes significant mortality in exotic and native bird species, especially in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Because of the lack of information on the susceptibility and pathogenesis of WNV for this species, experimental studies were conducted at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center. In two separate studies, crows were inoculated with a 1999 New York strain of WNV, and all experimentally infected crows died. In one of the studies, control crows in regular contact with experimentally inoculated crows in the same room but not inoculated with WNV succumbed to infection. The direct transmission between crows was most likely by the oral route. Inoculated crows were viremic before death, and high titers of virus were isolated from a variety of tissues. The significance of the experimental direct transmission among captive crows is unknown.

  20. Managing IT from the Top Down

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael M. Crow, president of Arizona State University; Nathan O. Hatch, president of Wake Forest University; Philip E. Long, CIO at Yale University; and Bonnie Neas, deputy CIO and executive director of ConnectND. They share their views on issues and practices in information technology. Crow worries the…

  1. 76 FR 34982 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians and Elizabeth Crowe in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: WildEarth Guardians and Elizabeth Crowe v. Jackson, No. 4:11-cv-02205-SI... hereby given of a proposed consent decree, between Petitioners: WildEarth Guardians and Elizabeth...

  2. 25 CFR 153.1 - Purpose of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose of regulations. 153.1 Section 153.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW... the competency of Crow Indians under Public Law 303, 81st Congress, approved September 8, 1949....

  3. 25 CFR 153.1 - Purpose of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of regulations. 153.1 Section 153.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW... the competency of Crow Indians under Public Law 303, 81st Congress, approved September 8, 1949....

  4. 50 CFR 32.36 - Kentucky.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... goose, coot, crow, and waterfowl listed in 50 CFR 10.13 under DUCKS on designated areas of the refuge in... Game Hunting. We allow hunting of squirrel, rabbit, quail, raccoon, opossum, and coyote on designated.... Conditions A1 through A16 apply. 2. We close squirrel, rabbit, crow, woodcock, snipe, dove, and quail...

  5. 50 CFR 32.36 - Kentucky.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... goose, coot, crow, and waterfowl listed in 50 CFR 10.13 under DUCKS on designated areas of the refuge in... Game Hunting. We allow hunting of squirrel, rabbit, quail, raccoon, opossum, and coyote on designated.... Conditions A1 through A16 apply. 2. We close squirrel, rabbit, crow, woodcock, snipe, dove, and quail...

  6. Power for all? Electricity and uneven development in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Conor M.

    Many towns in eastern North Carolina face a number of challenges common to the rural South, including high rates of poverty and diminishing employment opportunities. However, some residents of this region also confront a unique hardship---electricity prices that are vastly higher than those of surrounding areas. This dissertation examines the origins of pricing inequalities in the electricity market of eastern North Carolina---namely how such inequalities developed and their role in the production of racial and economic disparities in the South. This dissertation examines the evolving relations between federal and state agencies, corporations, and electric utilities, and asks why these interactions produced varying social outcomes across different places and spatial settings. The research focuses on the origins and subsequent development of electric utilities in eastern North Carolina, and examines how electricity as a material technology interacted with geographies of race and class, as well as the dictates of capital accumulation. This approach enables a rethinking of several concepts that are rarely examined by scholars of electric utilities, most notably the monopoly service territory, which I argue served as a spatial fix to accumulation problems in the industry. Further, examining the way that electric utilities developed in North Carolina during the 20th century brings to the forefront the at times contradictory relationships among systems of electricity provision, Jim Crow segregation, the Progressive Era, and the New Deal. Such a focus highlights the important role that the control of electricity provision played in shaping racial inequalities that continue to persist in the region. With most urban areas were electrified in the 1930s, the research also traces the electricity distribution lines as they moved out of cities through rural electrification programs, a shift that highlights the state as a multi-scalar and variegated actor that both aided and

  7. Assessing black progress: voting and citizenship rights, residency and housing, education.

    PubMed

    Farley, R

    1986-01-01

    Farley discusses progress US blacks have made in the areas of voting and citizenship rights, residency and housing, and education. A major goal of the civil rights movement was to permit blacks to influence the electoral process in the same manner as whites. Most important in this regard was the Voting Rights Act of 1965; the proportion of southern blacks casting ballots increased sharply since the early 1960s. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 outlawed racial segregation in public accommodations, but by the turn of the century, Jim Crow laws in southern states called for segregation in most public places. Common customs and government policy in the North resulted in similar segregation of blacks from whites. The Montgomery bus boycott and similar protests in dozens of other cities led to enactment of Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which proscribed such racial practices. By the late 1960s, blacks in all regions could use the same public accommodations as whites. In most metropolitan areas, de facto racial segregation persisted long after the laws were changed. Supreme Court decisions and local open-housing ordinances supported the right of blacks to live where they could afford. However the major change was the Fair Housing Act of 1968, which outlawed racial discrimination in the sale or rental of most housing units. The separation of blacks from whites did not end in the 1970s. Today, in areas which have large black populations, there are many central city neighborhoods and a few in the suburbs which are either all-black or are becoming exclusively black enclaves. Most other neighborhoods have no more than token black populations. Another major effort of civil rights organizations has been the upgrading of housing quality for blacks. By 1980, only 6% of the homes and apartments occupied by blacks lacked complete plumbing facilities (down from 50% in 1940). Unlike the modest changes in residential segregation, racial differences in housing quality have been

  8. Assessing black progress: voting and citizenship rights, residency and housing, education.

    PubMed

    Farley, R

    1986-01-01

    Farley discusses progress US blacks have made in the areas of voting and citizenship rights, residency and housing, and education. A major goal of the civil rights movement was to permit blacks to influence the electoral process in the same manner as whites. Most important in this regard was the Voting Rights Act of 1965; the proportion of southern blacks casting ballots increased sharply since the early 1960s. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 outlawed racial segregation in public accommodations, but by the turn of the century, Jim Crow laws in southern states called for segregation in most public places. Common customs and government policy in the North resulted in similar segregation of blacks from whites. The Montgomery bus boycott and similar protests in dozens of other cities led to enactment of Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which proscribed such racial practices. By the late 1960s, blacks in all regions could use the same public accommodations as whites. In most metropolitan areas, de facto racial segregation persisted long after the laws were changed. Supreme Court decisions and local open-housing ordinances supported the right of blacks to live where they could afford. However the major change was the Fair Housing Act of 1968, which outlawed racial discrimination in the sale or rental of most housing units. The separation of blacks from whites did not end in the 1970s. Today, in areas which have large black populations, there are many central city neighborhoods and a few in the suburbs which are either all-black or are becoming exclusively black enclaves. Most other neighborhoods have no more than token black populations. Another major effort of civil rights organizations has been the upgrading of housing quality for blacks. By 1980, only 6% of the homes and apartments occupied by blacks lacked complete plumbing facilities (down from 50% in 1940). Unlike the modest changes in residential segregation, racial differences in housing quality have been

  9. Mutations on the hinge region of leukocyte elastase inhibitor determine the loss of inhibitory function.

    PubMed

    Perani, P; Zeggai, S; Torriglia, A; Courtois, Y

    2000-08-11

    Leukocyte elastase inhibitor (LEI) is a cytosolic component of lung macrophages and blood leukocytes that inhibits neutrophil elastase. LEI is a member of the serpin superfamily, these proteins, mostly protease inhibitors, are thought to undergo a conformational change upon complex formation with proteinase that involves partial insertion of the hinge region of the reactive centre loop into a beta-sheet of the inhibitor. In this work three mutations were produced in the hinge region of elastase inhibitor that abolish the inhibition activity of LEI and transform the protein in a substrate of the elastase. This result demonstrates that the inhibitory mechanism of serpin is common to LEI.

  10. Lower Limbs Alignment in Patients with a Unilateral Completely Dislocated Hip

    PubMed Central

    Someya, Shinsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Ide, Shuya; Nagamine, Satomi; Tajima, Tomonori; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Severe hip osteoarthritis is known to lead to secondary osteoarthritis of the knee joint. It is not clear whether contracture or a leg length discrepancy is more important in determining the knee alignment. Methods: In this study, 48 hips in 48 patients with a unilateral completely dislocated hip (Crowe IV) were recruited. The patients were divided into two groups (Crowe IVa and IVb). The Crowe IVa group had completely dislocation with psudo-articulation, and the Crowe IVb group had completely dislocation without psudo-articulation. The lower limb alignment was divided into three patterns according to the femorotibial angle; varus (≥176 degrees), neutral(170 to 175 degrees) and valgus(≤169 degrees). Results: The combination of valgus alignment on the affected side and varus alignment on the unaffected side, so-called “windswept deformity” was observed in 12.5% of the patients; this included 18.2% and 7.7%, in the Crowe IVa and Crowe IVb groups, respectively. The valgus alignment on the unaffected side, namely “long leg arthropathy,” was found to have occurred in 6.3% of the patients, including 13.6% of the patients in the Crowe IVa group; there were no cases of long “leg arthropathy” in the Crowe IVb group. Conclusion: The lower limb alignment on the unaffected side had a tendency to be varus in the Crowe IV patients. The “windswept deformity” was observed in each of the groups; however, “long leg arthropathy” was only found in the Crowe IVa group. PMID:27733883

  11. A NEW SPECIES OF Bolivar Zaldívar-Riverón et Rodríguez-Jiménez (BRACONIDAE, DORYCTINAE) FROM BRAZIL, WITH NEW RECORDS OF THE AMAZONIAN B. ecuadorensis Zaldívar-Riverón et López-Estrada.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Juliano Fiorelini; Penteado-Dias, Angelica Maria; Souza-Gadelha, Sian De; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the doryctine genus Bolivar (Braconidae), B. brasiliensis sp. nov., is described from the Atlantic coastal region in Brazil. New records and taxonomic notes of the Amazonian B. ecuadorensis Zaldívar-Riverón et López-Estrada are also provided. PMID:27394864

  12. Power, Politics, Bilingual Education, and School Success. A Review of: "Language, Power and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire" (Jim Cummins); "At War with Diversity: U.S. Language Policy in an Age of Anxiety" (James Crawford); and "The Politics of Multiculturalism and Bilingual Education: Students and Teachers Caught in the Cross Fire" (Carlos J. Ovando and Peter McLaren, Eds.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    2001-01-01

    Reviews three new books about the current political battle over bilingual education, focusing on: bilingual education theory and the importance of transformative pedagogy; political analysis of bilingual education and key issues in indigenous language loss; and politics of multiculturalism. Discusses the maturation of bilingual education since…

  13. Toward an Alternative Learning Environment Interface for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed

    2013-01-01

    An effective learning environment interface (LEI) is a means to enable students to focus on learning and to understand content, while establishing connections and relationships among course activities. Using this fundamental premise, we propose a flexible, user-centered, and seamless LEI which is intended to remediate the fragmented interface…

  14. Limits to Sensitivity in Laser Enhanced Ionization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Laser enhanced ionization (LEI) occurs when a tunable dye laser is used to excite a specific atomic population in a flame. Explores the origin of LEI's high sensitivity and identifies possible avenues to higher sensitivity by describing instrument used and experimental procedures and discussing ion formation/detection. (Author/JN)

  15. The laboratory efficiencies initiative: partnership for building a sustainable national public health laboratory system.

    PubMed

    Ridderhof, John C; Moulton, Anthony D; Ned, Renée M; Nicholson, Janet K A; Chu, May C; Becker, Scott J; Blank, Eric C; Breckenridge, Karen J; Waddell, Victor; Brokopp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in early 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories launched the Laboratory Efficiencies Initiative (LEI) to help public health laboratories (PHLs) and the nation's entire PHL system achieve and maintain sustainability to continue to conduct vital services in the face of unprecedented financial and other pressures. The LEI focuses on stimulating substantial gains in laboratories' operating efficiency and cost efficiency through the adoption of proven and promising management practices. In its first year, the LEI generated a strategic plan and a number of resources that PHL directors can use toward achieving LEI goals. Additionally, the first year saw the formation of a dynamic community of practitioners committed to implementing the LEI strategic plan in coordination with state and local public health executives, program officials, foundations, and other key partners.

  16. The Laboratory Efficiencies Initiative: Partnership for Building a Sustainable National Public Health Laboratory System

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Anthony D.; Ned, Renée M.; Nicholson, Janet K.A.; Chu, May C.; Becker, Scott J.; Blank, Eric C.; Breckenridge, Karen J.; Waddell, Victor; Brokopp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in early 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories launched the Laboratory Efficiencies Initiative (LEI) to help public health laboratories (PHLs) and the nation's entire PHL system achieve and maintain sustainability to continue to conduct vital services in the face of unprecedented financial and other pressures. The LEI focuses on stimulating substantial gains in laboratories' operating efficiency and cost efficiency through the adoption of proven and promising management practices. In its first year, the LEI generated a strategic plan and a number of resources that PHL directors can use toward achieving LEI goals. Additionally, the first year saw the formation of a dynamic community of practitioners committed to implementing the LEI strategic plan in coordination with state and local public health executives, program officials, foundations, and other key partners. PMID:23997300

  17. Genetics Home Reference: spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for making an enzyme called tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5 (TRAP). The TRAP enzyme primarily regulates ... A, Lebon P, Crow YJ. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase deficiency causes a bone dysplasia with autoimmunity and ...

  18. Ultra-sensitive chip scale Sagnac gyroscope based on periodically modulated coupling of a coupled resonator optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Christopher; Toland, John R E; Search, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the sensitivity to inertial rotations Ω of a micron scale integrated gyroscope consisting of a coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW). We show here that by periodic modulation of the evanescent coupling between resonators, the sensitivity to rotations can be enhanced by a factor up to 10(9) in comparison to a conventional CROW with uniform coupling between resonators. Moreover, the overall shape of the transmission through this CROW superlattice is qualitatively changed resulting in a single sharp transmission resonance located at Ω = 0s-1 instead of a broad transmission band. The modulated coupling therefore allows the CROW gyroscope to operate without phase biasing and with sensitivities suitable for inertial navigation even with the inclusion of resonator losses.

  19. 77 FR 10575 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Relating to Fukushima Accident) Sept. 8, 2011 (Sept. 23, 2011) (Tentative) b. Crow Butte Resources, Inc... another format (e.g. braille, large print), please notify Bill Dosch, Chief, Work Life and Benefits...

  20. Large Eddy Simulation of Aircraft Wake Vortices: Atmospheric Turbulence Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kao, C.-T.

    1997-01-01

    Crow instability can develop in most atmospheric turbulence levels, however, the ring vortices may not form in extremely strong turbulence cases due to strong dissipation of the vortices. It appears that strong turbulence tends to accelerate the occurrences of Crow instability. The wavelength of the most unstable mode is estimated to be about 5b(sub 0), which is less than the theoretical value of 8.6b(sub 0) (Crow, 1970) and may be due to limited domain size and highly nonlinear turbulent flow characteristics. Three-dimensional turbulence can decay wake vortices more rapidly. Axial velocity may be developed by vertical distortion of a vortex pair due to Crow instability or large turbulent eddy motion. More experiments with various non-dimensional turbulence levels are necessary to get useful statistics of wake vortex behavior due to turbulence. Need to investigate larger turbulence length scale effects by enlarging domain size or using grid nesting.

  1. Introducing National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR) Informatics (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Crow, John [National Center for Genome Resources

    2016-07-12

    John Crow from the National Center for Genome Resources discusses his organization's informatics at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  2. Introducing National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR) Informatics (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, John

    2012-06-01

    John Crow from the National Center for Genome Resources discusses his organization's informatics at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  3. Joint venture arrangement for RN to BSN. A model of synergy between academia and service.

    PubMed

    Bargagliotti, L A; Jones, D L; Trygstad, L; Hayward, M; Crow, G; Bower, F L

    1991-09-01

    The joint venture between or among educational and practice institutions is fast becoming the norm in nursing education and practice. Authors Bargagliotti, Jones, Trygstad, Hayward, Crow, and Bower, describe one such program enabling RNs to pursue the BSN degree.

  4. 50 CFR 20.1 - Scope of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations contained in this part relate only to the hunting of migratory game birds, and crows. (b) Procedural and substantive requirements. Migratory game birds may be taken, possessed, transported,...

  5. 50 CFR 20.1 - Scope of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations contained in this part relate only to the hunting of migratory game birds, and crows. (b) Procedural and substantive requirements. Migratory game birds may be taken, possessed, transported,...

  6. 50 CFR 20.1 - Scope of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regulations contained in this part relate only to the hunting of migratory game birds, and crows. (b) Procedural and substantive requirements. Migratory game birds may be taken, possessed, transported,...

  7. Corvus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Crow; abbrev. Crv, gen. Corvi; area 184 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies between Virgo and Hydra, and culminates at midnight in late March. It represents the crow that in Greek mythology was sent by the god Apollo with a cup for water but loitered at a fig tree until the fruit became ripe and then returned, having eaten its fill, with a water-snake which it blamed for delaying i...

  8. 77 FR 64437 - Airworthiness Directives; Burkhart GROB Luft-und Raumfahrt GmbH Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Rutherford, Aerospace...: (816) 329-4165; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: jim.rutherford@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  9. Perfecting the Formula: Effective Strategies = Educational Success. A Report from the 2009 Governors Education Symposium (Cary, North Carolina, June 14-15, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NGA Center for Best Practices, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 "Governors Education Symposium" was co-hosted by the James B. Hunt, Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy and the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices on June 14-15, 2009, in Cary, North Carolina. Vermont Governor Jim Douglas and former North Carolina Governor Jim Hunt served as co-chairs. This year's…

  10. Issues in Design and Technology Teaching. Issues in Subject Teaching Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayers, Su, Ed.; Morley, Jim, Ed.; Barnes, Bob, Ed.

    These papers examine concerns about design and technology teaching. There are 14 papers in four parts. Part 1, "Issues of Definition," includes (1) "The Challenge for Design and Technology Education" (Jim Morley); (2) "How Can We Meet the Challenges Posed by a New Model of Practical Scholarship?" (Jim Morley); (3) "Designing: What Does it Mean at…

  11. James F. T. Bugental (1915-2008).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kirk J; Greening, Tom

    2009-01-01

    James F. T. Bugental died peacefully at age 92 at his Petaluma, California, home on September 18, 2008. Jim was a leading psychotherapist and a founding father, with Abraham Maslow and others, of humanistic psychology, or the "third force" (in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism). Jim was also the creator, along with Rollo May, of existential-humanistic psychotherapy. Jim was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on Christmas Day in 1915. Jim earned his doctorate in 1948 from Ohio State University, where he was influenced by Victor Raimy and George Kelly. After a brief time on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) faculty in psychology, Jim resigned in 1953 to found the first group practice of psychotherapy, Psychological Service Associates, with Alvin Lasko. With Abraham Maslow and others, Jim was a cofounder of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (JHP) and the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1961. Jim also wrote many books on the topic of psychotherapy during his lifetime. Jim was a great and bold spirit--his many writings and teachings are cherished today widely, and the field of psychology is much richer for his efforts.

  12. 76 FR 22919 - Protective Helmet Standard Special Technical Committee Request for Proposals for Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Technical Committee (STC), comprised of practitioners from the field, researchers, testing experts... Wong is the point of contact for Ms. Stoe. Responses to this request for proposals shall be submitted to Jim Wong at jim.wong@srnl.doe.gov by May 13, 2011. The submissions will be reviewed,...

  13. James F. T. Bugental (1915-2008).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kirk J; Greening, Tom

    2009-01-01

    James F. T. Bugental died peacefully at age 92 at his Petaluma, California, home on September 18, 2008. Jim was a leading psychotherapist and a founding father, with Abraham Maslow and others, of humanistic psychology, or the "third force" (in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism). Jim was also the creator, along with Rollo May, of existential-humanistic psychotherapy. Jim was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on Christmas Day in 1915. Jim earned his doctorate in 1948 from Ohio State University, where he was influenced by Victor Raimy and George Kelly. After a brief time on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) faculty in psychology, Jim resigned in 1953 to found the first group practice of psychotherapy, Psychological Service Associates, with Alvin Lasko. With Abraham Maslow and others, Jim was a cofounder of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (JHP) and the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1961. Jim also wrote many books on the topic of psychotherapy during his lifetime. Jim was a great and bold spirit--his many writings and teachings are cherished today widely, and the field of psychology is much richer for his efforts. PMID:19203148

  14. Selected Papers from the 1990 Meeting of the American Journalism Historians' Association (Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, October 2-7, 1990): Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The following 12 papers, on a variety of topics, were given at the 1990 meeting of the American Journalism Historians' Association: (1) "'Let Jim Handle It': President Dwight D. Eisenhower's First Heart Attack and Jim Hagerty's Handling of the Media" (Joseph V. Trahan, III); (2) "Eisenhower's Pyrrhic Victory in 1956: Mixed Lessons from the First…

  15. Variable content and distribution of arabinogalactan proteins in banana (Musa spp.) under low temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yonglian; Takáč, Tomáš; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Enfeng; Xie, Ling; Su, Zhaohua; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Information on the spatial distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in plant organs and tissues during plant reactions to low temperature (LT) is limited. In this study, the extracellular distribution of AGPs in banana leaves and roots, and their changes under LT stress were investigated in two genotypes differing in chilling tolerance, by immuno-techniques using 17 monoclonal antibodies against different AGP epitopes. Changes in total classical AGPs in banana leaves were also tested. The results showed that AGP epitopes recognized by JIM4, JIM14, JIM16, and CCRC-M32 antibodies were primarily distributed in leaf veins, while those recognized by JIM8, JIM13, JIM15, and PN16.4B4 antibodies exhibited predominant sclerenchymal localization. Epitopes recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 antibodies were distributed in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Both genotypes accumulated classical AGPs in leaves under LT treatment, and the chilling tolerant genotype contained higher classical AGPs at each temperature treatment. The abundance of JIM4 and JIM16 epitopes in the chilling-sensitive genotype decreased slightly after LT treatment, and this trend was opposite for the tolerant one. LT induced accumulation of LM2- and LM14-immunoreactive AGPs in the tolerant genotype compared to the sensitive one, especially in phloem and mesophyll cells. These epitopes thus might play important roles in banana LT tolerance. Different AGP components also showed differential distribution patterns in banana roots. In general, banana roots started to accumulate AGPs under LT treatment earlier than leaves. The levels of AGPs recognized by MAC207 and JIM13 antibodies in the control roots of the tolerant genotype were higher than in the chilling sensitive one. Furthermore, the chilling tolerant genotype showed high immuno-reactivity against JIM13 antibody. These results indicate that several AGPs are likely involved in banana tolerance to chilling injury. PMID:26074928

  16. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  17. What then do we do about computer security?

    SciTech Connect

    Suppona, Roger A.; Mayo, Jackson R.; Davis, Christopher Edward; Berg, Michael J.; Wyss, Gregory Dane

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the answers that an informal and unfunded group at SNL provided for questions concerning computer security posed by Jim Gosler, Sandia Fellow (00002). The primary purpose of this report is to record our current answers; hopefully those answers will turn out to be answers indeed. The group was formed in November 2010. In November 2010 Jim Gosler, Sandia Fellow, asked several of us several pointed questions about computer security metrics. Never mind that some of the best minds in the field have been trying to crack this nut without success for decades. Jim asked Campbell to lead an informal and unfunded group to answer the questions. With time Jim invited several more Sandians to join in. We met a number of times both with Jim and without him. At Jim's direction we contacted a number of people outside Sandia who Jim thought could help. For example, we interacted with IBM's T.J. Watson Research Center and held a one-day, videoconference workshop with them on the questions.

  18. Cellular and molecular changes associated with somatic embryogenesis induction in Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Portillo, L; Olmedilla, A; Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, F

    2012-10-01

    In spite of the importance of somatic embryogenesis for basic research in plant embryology as well as for crop improvement and plant propagation, it is still unclear which mechanisms and cell signals are involved in acquiring embryogenic competence by a somatic cell. The aim of this work was to study cellular and molecular changes involved in the induction stage in calli of Agave tequilana Weber cultivar azul in order to gain more information on the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis in this species. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques were used to identify differences between embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells from several genotypes. Presence of granular structures was detected after somatic embryogenesis induction in embryogenic cells; composition of these structures as well as changes in protein and polysaccharide distribution was studied using Coomassie brilliant blue and Periodic Acid-Schiff stains. Distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins was investigated in embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells by immunolabelling using anti-AGP monoclonal antibodies (JIM4, JIM8 and JIM13) as well as an anti-methyl-esterified pectin-antibody (JIM7), in order to evaluate major modifications in cell wall composition in the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis. Our observations pointed out that induction of somatic embryogenesis produced accumulation of proteins and polysaccharides in embryogenic cells. Presence of JIM8, JIM13 and JIM7 epitopes were detected exclusively in embryogenic cells, which supports the idea that specific changes in cell wall are involved in the acquisition of embryogenic competence of A. tequilana.

  19. Effects of frequency- and direction-dependent elastic materials on linearly elastic MRE image reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreard, I. M.; Pattison, A. J.; Doyley, M.; McGarry, M. D. J.; Barani, Z.; Van Houten, E. E.; Weaver, J. B.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2010-11-01

    The mechanical model commonly used in magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is linear elasticity. However, soft tissue may exhibit frequency- and direction-dependent (FDD) shear moduli in response to an induced excitation causing a purely linear elastic model to provide an inaccurate image reconstruction of its mechanical properties. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of reconstructing FDD data using a linear elastic inversion (LEI) algorithm. Linear and FDD phantoms were manufactured and LEI images were obtained from time-harmonic MRE acquisitions with variations in frequency and driving signal amplitude. LEI responses to artificially imposed uniform phase shifts in the displacement data from both purely linear elastic and FDD phantoms were also evaluated. Of the variety of FDD phantoms considered, LEI appeared to tolerate viscoelastic data-model mismatch better than deviations caused by poroelastic and anisotropic mechanical properties in terms of visual image contrast. However, the estimated shear modulus values were substantially incorrect relative to independent mechanical measurements even in the successful viscoelastic cases and the variations in mean values with changes in experimental conditions associated with uniform phase shifts, driving signal frequency and amplitude were unpredictable. Overall, use of LEI to reconstruct data acquired in phantoms with FDD material properties provided biased results under the best conditions and significant artifacts in the worst cases. These findings suggest that the success with which LEI is applied to MRE data in tissue will depend on the underlying mechanical characteristics of the tissues and/or organs systems of clinical interest.

  20. Procedures for Identifying Infectious Prions After Passage Through the Digestive System of an Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Justin W; Nichols, Tracy A; Phillips, Gregory E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    Infectious prion (PrPRes) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases1. Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal2,3 as well as from environmental sources4-6. Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrPRes material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrPRes material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger7. We describe procedures used to document passage of PrPRes material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice. PMID:24300668

  1. Chicks of the great spotted cuckoo may turn brood parasitism into mutualism by producing a foul-smelling secretion that repels predators.

    PubMed

    Röder, Gregory; Canestrari, Daniela; Bolopo, Diana; Marcos, José M; Villard, Neil; Baglione, Vittorio; Turlings, Ted C J

    2014-04-01

    The great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) is an important brood parasite of carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in northern Spain. We recently found that, unlike what is commonly known for cuckoo-host interactions, the great spotted cuckoo has no negative impact on average crow fitness in this region. The explanation for this surprising effect is a repulsive secretion that the cuckoo chicks produce when they are harassed and that may protect the brood against predation. Here, we provide details on the chemical composition of the cuckoo secretion, as well as conclusive evidence that the dominating volatile chemicals in the secretion are highly repellent to model species representative of common predators of the crows. These results support the notion that, in this particular system, the production of a repulsive secretion by the cuckoo chicks has turned a normally parasitic interaction into a mutualistic one. PMID:24760177

  2. Key role in ecosystem functioning of scavengers reliant on a single common species.

    PubMed

    Inger, Richard; Per, Esra; Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-07-12

    The importance of species richness in maintaining ecosystem function in the field remains unclear. Recent studies however have suggested that in some systems functionality is maintained by a few abundant species. Here we determine this relationship by quantifying the species responsible for a key ecosystem role, carcass removal by scavengers. We find that, unlike those within largely unaltered environments, the scavenger community within our highly altered system is dominated by a single species, the Carrion crow, despite the presence of a number of other scavenging species. Furthermore, we find no relationship between abundance of crows and carcass removal. However, the overall activity of crows predicts carcass biomass removal rate in an asymptotic manner, suggesting that a relatively low level of abundance and scavenging activity is required to maintain this component of ecosystem function.

  3. Chicks of the great spotted cuckoo may turn brood parasitism into mutualism by producing a foul-smelling secretion that repels predators.

    PubMed

    Röder, Gregory; Canestrari, Daniela; Bolopo, Diana; Marcos, José M; Villard, Neil; Baglione, Vittorio; Turlings, Ted C J

    2014-04-01

    The great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) is an important brood parasite of carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in northern Spain. We recently found that, unlike what is commonly known for cuckoo-host interactions, the great spotted cuckoo has no negative impact on average crow fitness in this region. The explanation for this surprising effect is a repulsive secretion that the cuckoo chicks produce when they are harassed and that may protect the brood against predation. Here, we provide details on the chemical composition of the cuckoo secretion, as well as conclusive evidence that the dominating volatile chemicals in the secretion are highly repellent to model species representative of common predators of the crows. These results support the notion that, in this particular system, the production of a repulsive secretion by the cuckoo chicks has turned a normally parasitic interaction into a mutualistic one.

  4. Combinatory actions during object play in psittaciformes (Diopsittaca nobilis, Pionites melanocephala, Cacatua goffini) and corvids (Corvus corax, C. monedula, C. moneduloides).

    PubMed

    Auersperg, Alice M I; van Horik, Jayden O; Bugnyar, Thomas; Kacelnik, Alex; Emery, Nathan J; von Bayern, Auguste M P

    2015-02-01

    The playful (i.e., not overtly functional) combination of objects is considered a potential ontogenetic and phylogenetic precursor of technical problem solving abilities, as it may lead to affordance learning and honing of mechanical skills. We compared such activities in 6 avian species: 3 psittaciforms (black-headed caiques, red-shouldered macaws, and Goffin cockatoos) and 3 corvids (New Caledonian crows, ravens, and jackdaws). Differences in the type and frequency of object combinations were consistent with species' ecology. Object caching was found predominately in common ravens, which frequently cache food. The most intrinsically structured object combinations were found in New Caledonian crows and Goffin cockatoos, which both stand out for their problem solving abilities in physical tasks. Object insertions prevailed in New Caledonian crows that naturally extract food using tools. Our results support the idea that playful manipulations of inedible objects are linked to physical cognition and problem-solving abilities.

  5. Key role in ecosystem functioning of scavengers reliant on a single common species

    PubMed Central

    Inger, Richard; Per, Esra; Cox, Daniel T.C.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of species richness in maintaining ecosystem function in the field remains unclear. Recent studies however have suggested that in some systems functionality is maintained by a few abundant species. Here we determine this relationship by quantifying the species responsible for a key ecosystem role, carcass removal by scavengers. We find that, unlike those within largely unaltered environments, the scavenger community within our highly altered system is dominated by a single species, the Carrion crow, despite the presence of a number of other scavenging species. Furthermore, we find no relationship between abundance of crows and carcass removal. However, the overall activity of crows predicts carcass biomass removal rate in an asymptotic manner, suggesting that a relatively low level of abundance and scavenging activity is required to maintain this component of ecosystem function. PMID:27404915

  6. Identification of antibodies against hydropericardium syndrome in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, S; Hussain, Z; Rahman, S U; Hussain, I

    2013-06-01

    1. Domestic fowl and free-living birds were examined for the presence or absence of antibodies against hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) using an indirect haemagglutination assay. 2. Two-hundred and eighty serum samples of commercial (45 broilers, 20 adult layers and 15 Fayoumi fowl) and wild birds, including 65 peafowl, 45 pigeons, 10 crows, 30 house sparrows, 10 doves, 15 ducks, 10 parrots and 15 guinea fowl, were collected and examined. 3. The percentage of HPS-positive serum samples was 80% in house crows, 78% in pigeons, 7% in house sparrows and 6% in peafowl. 4. The sera obtained from parrots, doves, ducks and guinea fowl were all negative. 5. This study suggests that crows and pigeons could be carriers of the HPS agent.

  7. Combinatory actions during object play in psittaciformes (Diopsittaca nobilis, Pionites melanocephala, Cacatua goffini) and corvids (Corvus corax, C. monedula, C. moneduloides).

    PubMed

    Auersperg, Alice M I; van Horik, Jayden O; Bugnyar, Thomas; Kacelnik, Alex; Emery, Nathan J; von Bayern, Auguste M P

    2015-02-01

    The playful (i.e., not overtly functional) combination of objects is considered a potential ontogenetic and phylogenetic precursor of technical problem solving abilities, as it may lead to affordance learning and honing of mechanical skills. We compared such activities in 6 avian species: 3 psittaciforms (black-headed caiques, red-shouldered macaws, and Goffin cockatoos) and 3 corvids (New Caledonian crows, ravens, and jackdaws). Differences in the type and frequency of object combinations were consistent with species' ecology. Object caching was found predominately in common ravens, which frequently cache food. The most intrinsically structured object combinations were found in New Caledonian crows and Goffin cockatoos, which both stand out for their problem solving abilities in physical tasks. Object insertions prevailed in New Caledonian crows that naturally extract food using tools. Our results support the idea that playful manipulations of inedible objects are linked to physical cognition and problem-solving abilities. PMID:25437492

  8. Identification of antibodies against hydropericardium syndrome in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, S; Hussain, Z; Rahman, S U; Hussain, I

    2013-06-01

    1. Domestic fowl and free-living birds were examined for the presence or absence of antibodies against hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) using an indirect haemagglutination assay. 2. Two-hundred and eighty serum samples of commercial (45 broilers, 20 adult layers and 15 Fayoumi fowl) and wild birds, including 65 peafowl, 45 pigeons, 10 crows, 30 house sparrows, 10 doves, 15 ducks, 10 parrots and 15 guinea fowl, were collected and examined. 3. The percentage of HPS-positive serum samples was 80% in house crows, 78% in pigeons, 7% in house sparrows and 6% in peafowl. 4. The sera obtained from parrots, doves, ducks and guinea fowl were all negative. 5. This study suggests that crows and pigeons could be carriers of the HPS agent. PMID:23796117

  9. Key role in ecosystem functioning of scavengers reliant on a single common species.

    PubMed

    Inger, Richard; Per, Esra; Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    The importance of species richness in maintaining ecosystem function in the field remains unclear. Recent studies however have suggested that in some systems functionality is maintained by a few abundant species. Here we determine this relationship by quantifying the species responsible for a key ecosystem role, carcass removal by scavengers. We find that, unlike those within largely unaltered environments, the scavenger community within our highly altered system is dominated by a single species, the Carrion crow, despite the presence of a number of other scavenging species. Furthermore, we find no relationship between abundance of crows and carcass removal. However, the overall activity of crows predicts carcass biomass removal rate in an asymptotic manner, suggesting that a relatively low level of abundance and scavenging activity is required to maintain this component of ecosystem function. PMID:27404915

  10. Preview of Mars Curiosity Parade Float

    NASA Video Gallery

    Jim Green, Director of the Science Mission Directorate Planetary Systems Division at NASA Headquarters, describes the replica of the Mars Curiosity Rover on the second NASA float in Monday's inaugu...

  11. 75 FR 22558 - Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... to as the Panel). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Advisory Committee Management... environment, including issues of technology, manpower, strategy and policy; b. Current and projected Navy... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel;...

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH COMMUNICATIONS SUPERVISOR, YVONNE WALDIN, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH COMMUNICATIONS SUPERVISOR, YVONNE WALDIN, AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, BOB SWEENEY. - Jim Walter Resources, Incorporated, Brookwood No. 5 Mine, Control Operations Room, 12972 Lock 17 Road, Brookwood, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  13. A New Planet In Our Solar System? NASA Takes A Look

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Director of Planetary Science, Jim Green, discusses the Jan. 20 Astronomical Journal science paper that points to the possibility of a new “Planet 9” in our solar system beyond Pluto, examin...

  14. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  15. STS-79 Pilot Terrence Wilcutt in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt chats with white room closeout crew lead Rick Welty before climbing into the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A; at right is closeout crew member Jim Davis.

  16. Apollo 8's Christmas Eve 1968 Message

    NASA Video Gallery

    Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts--Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell, and Lunar...

  17. Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fletcher, Madilyn

    2001-05-01

    Jim contributed a chapter to this book, in addition to co-editing it with Madilyn Fletcher. Fredrickson, J. K., and M. Fletcher. (eds.) 2001 Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York.

  18. 78 FR 18623 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Trust Funds for Tribes and Individual Indians

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act of 1994 (the Reform Act) makes provisions for the Office... Management and Budget control number. Dated: March 15, 2013. Jim James, Deputy Special...

  19. 75 FR 4070 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Air Quality Modeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Modeling. Draft Report, September 30, 2008. Prepared by ICF International for James B. DeMocker, EPA Office... II Study, Memorandum from Sharon Douglas and Tom Myers, ICF International to Jim DeMocker, EPA...

  20. New Model Predicts Fire Activity in South America

    NASA Video Gallery

    UC Irvine scientist Jim Randerson discusses a new model that is able to predict fire activity in South America using sea surface temperature observations of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The find...

  1. 11th Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology 2003 (ISMB 2003)

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    This report profiles the keynote talks given at ISMB03 in Brisbane, Australia by Ron Shamir, David Haussler, John Mattick, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Sydney Brenner, the Overton Prize winner, Jim Kent, and the ISCB Senior Accomplishment Awardee, David Sankov. PMID:18629025

  2. Colocalization of low-methylesterified pectins and Pb deposits in the apoplast of aspen roots exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Rabęda, Irena; Bilski, Henryk; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Suski, Szymon; Woźny, Adam; Krzesłowska, Magdalena

    2015-10-01

    Low-methylesterified homogalacturonans have been suggested to play a role in the binding and immobilization of Pb in CW. Using root apices of hybrid aspen, a plant with a high phytoremediation potential, as a model, we demonstrated that the in situ distribution pattern of low-methylesterified homogalacturonan, pectin epitope (JIM5-P), reflects the pattern of Pb occurrence. The region which indicated high JIM5-P level corresponded with "Pb accumulation zone". Moreover, JIM5-P was especially abundant in cell junctions, CWs lining the intercellular spaces and the corners of intercellular spaces indicating the highest accumulation of Pb. Furthermore, JIM5-P and Pb commonly co-localized. The observations indicate that low-methylesterified homogalacturonan is the CW polymer that determines the capacity of CW for Pb sequestration. Our results suggest a promising directions for CW modification for enhancing the efficiency of plant roots in Pb accumulation, an important aspect in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with trace metals.

  3. Exploring the Inner Solar System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chief Scientist of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Dr. Jim Garvin, takes us on a journey of Earth, the moon, and our neighboring planets. Why does space matter? Why is exploring these destinati...

  4. Apollo A-7L Spacesuit Tests and Certification, and Apollo 7 Through 14 Missions Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBarron, James W., II

    2015-01-01

    As a result of his 50 years of experience and research, Jim McBarron shared his significant knowledge about Apollo A-7L spacesuit certification testing and Apollo 7 through 14 missions' spacesuit details.

  5. Astronaut Neil Armstrong in Launch Complex 16 trailer during suiting up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot of the Gemini 8 space flight, sits in the Launch Complex 16 trailer during suiting up operations for the Gemini 8 mission. Suit technician Jim Garrepy assists.

  6. 78 FR 48714 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal and Opportunity for Public Meeting; New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... including maps may be examined by contacting Jim Goodbar of the BLM Carlsbad Field Office at the above... will be published in the Federal Register and through local media, newspapers, and the BLM Web site...

  7. NASA Now Minute: Real World Applications of Mathematics

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now program, Jim Garvin, Ph.D, chief scientist at NASA’sGoddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., explains how mathematicsis a vital tool not only in everything happening at N...

  8. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  9. Goddard Virtual Tour: Part 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Goddard Chief Scientist Jim Garvin takes us on a tour of the life of a spacecraft, from the idea to the collection of data in orbit. Each segment looks at a different phase of the spacecraft and it...

  10. STS-79 Mission Specialist John Blaha in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Mission Specialist John E. Blaha shares a light moment with white room closeout crew members Rick Welty (No. 1) and Jim Davis (right), before entering the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A.

  11. STS-80 Commander Kenneth D. Cockrell in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 Commander Kenneth D. Cockrell prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B, with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Ray Villalobos, Troy Stewart and Jim Martin.

  12. 7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... following districts of the production area are hereby initially established: District No. 1: (Coastal Bend) The Counties of Victoria, Calhoun, Goliad, Refugio, Bee, Live Oak, San Patricio, Aransas, Jim...

  13. 7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following districts of the production area are hereby initially established: District No. 1: (Coastal Bend) The Counties of Victoria, Calhoun, Goliad, Refugio, Bee, Live Oak, San Patricio, Aransas, Jim...

  14. 33 CFR 3.35-1 - Seventh district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Woodruff Reservoir; thence along the east bank of the Jim Woodruff Reservoir and the east bank of the Flint River up stream to Montezuma, GA, thence northwesterly to West Point, GA. Also included is the...

  15. 33 CFR 3.35-1 - Seventh district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Woodruff Reservoir; thence along the east bank of the Jim Woodruff Reservoir and the east bank of the Flint River up stream to Montezuma, GA, thence northwesterly to West Point, GA. Also included is the...

  16. 33 CFR 3.35-1 - Seventh district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Woodruff Reservoir; thence along the east bank of the Jim Woodruff Reservoir and the east bank of the Flint River up stream to Montezuma, GA, thence northwesterly to West Point, GA. Also included is the...

  17. 33 CFR 3.35-1 - Seventh district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Woodruff Reservoir; thence along the east bank of the Jim Woodruff Reservoir and the east bank of the Flint River up stream to Montezuma, GA, thence northwesterly to West Point, GA. Also included is the...

  18. 33 CFR 3.35-1 - Seventh district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Woodruff Reservoir; thence along the east bank of the Jim Woodruff Reservoir and the east bank of the Flint River up stream to Montezuma, GA, thence northwesterly to West Point, GA. Also included is the...

  19. 75 FR 1024 - Proposed Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances; Reopening of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... technical information contact: Jim Alwood, Chemical Control Division (7405M), Office of Pollution Prevention... Chemical Substances; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... November 6, 2009, concerning proposed significant new use rules for certain chemical substances. EPA...

  20. NASA Now: Got Math?

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now program, Jim Garvin, Ph.D, chief scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., explains how mathematics is a vital tool not only in everything happening at N...