FERREIRA, Lasaro Teixeira; GOMES, Aparecida Helena de Souza; PEREIRA-CHIOCCOLA, Vera Lucia
Introduction: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can be caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex. The evolution of ATL initially results in lesions and can develop into disseminated or diffuse forms. The genetic diversity of L. (V.) braziliensis in some endemic areas of Brazil has been poorly studied, such as in the state of São Paulo. This study analyzed the genetic diversity of L. (V.) braziliensis isolates collected from patients and dogs with LTA from the state of São Paulo. Methods: Leishmaniasis diagnosis was determined by PCR. The 132 biopsies were collected in different regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil (36 municipalities). The genetic characterization of L. (V.) braziliensis isolates was tested by RFLP-PCR using DNA extracted from biopsies. The primer set amplified a specific region of Leishmania internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA locus. Results: Of the 132 samples, 52 (40%) were completely genotyped by RFLP-PCR (44 from human patients and eight from dogs). The results showed nine distinct patterns. The majority of the genotyped samples were from Sorocaba (30), and the others were distributed among 14 other municipalities. The first pattern was more frequent (29 samples), followed by pattern 2 (nine samples) and pattern 3 (three samples). Patterns 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were composed of two samples each and pattern 5 of one sample. Conclusion: These results suggest that polymorphic strains of L. (V.) braziliensis circulate in the state of São Paulo. These data agree with studies from other regions of Brazil, showing great variability among the natural populations of endemic foci. PMID:26200968
Torres, Davi Coe; Adaui, Vanessa; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Romero, Gustavo A S; Arévalo, Jorge; Cupolillo, Elisa; Dujardin, Jean-Claude
In Brazil, cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a serious public health problem, and chemotherapy is an important element of the clinical management of this disease. However, treatment efficacy is variable, a phenomenon that might be due to host and parasite (e.g., drug resistance) factors. To better understand the possible contribution of parasite factors to this phenomenon, we characterised 12 Leishmania braziliensis (LB) and 25 Leishmania guyanensis (LG) isolates collected from patients experiencing different antimonial treatment outcomes. For each isolate, promastigote cultures were grown in duplicate and were harvested at the late-log and stationary phases of growth. The RNA expression profiles of six genes encoding proteins with roles in antimony metabolism (AQP1, MRPA, GSH1, GSH2, TRYR and TDR1) were assessed by means of real-time quantitative PCR. Molecular data were compared to the clinical phenotypes. Within LB, we did not find statistically significant differences in the expression levels of the examined genes among isolates from patients with different treatment outcomes. In LG, GSH1 (encoding gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, gamma-GCS) was overexpressed in therapeutic failure isolates regardless of the growth curve phase. This finding reveals the predictive potential of promastigote expression curves for the prognosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by LG in Brazil.
Alves-Ferreira, Eliza V. C.; Toledo, Juliano S.; De Oliveira, Arthur H. C.; Ferreira, Tiago R.; Ruy, Patricia C.; Pinzan, Camila F.; Santos, Ramon F.; Boaventura, Viviane; Rojo, David; López-Gonzálvez, Ángelez; Rosa, Jose C.; Barbas, Coral; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; Cruz, Angela K.
Background Leishmaniasis is a complex disease in which clinical outcome depends on factors such as parasite species, host genetics and immunity and vector species. In Brazil, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is a major etiological agent of cutaneous (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (MCL), a disfiguring form of the disease, which occurs in ~10% of L. braziliensis-infected patients. Thus, clinical isolates from patients with CL and MCL may be a relevant source of information to uncover parasite factors contributing to pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated two pairs of L. (V.) braziliensis isolates from mucosal (LbrM) and cutaneous (LbrC) sites of the same patient to identify factors distinguishing parasites that migrate from those that remain at the primary site of infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed no major genomic divergences among the clinical isolates by molecular karyotype and genomic sequencing. RT-PCR revealed that the isolates lacked Leishmania RNA virus (LRV). However, the isolates exhibited distinct in vivo pathogenesis in BALB/c mice; the LbrC isolates were more virulent than the LbrM isolates. Metabolomic analysis revealed significantly increased levels of 14 metabolites in LbrC parasites and 31 metabolites in LbrM parasites that were mainly related to inflammation and chemotaxis. A proteome comparative analysis revealed the overexpression of LbrPGF2S (prostaglandin f2-alpha synthase) and HSP70 in both LbrC isolates. Overexpression of LbrPGF2S in LbrC and LbrM promastigotes led to an increase in infected macrophages and the number of amastigotes per cell at 24–48 h post-infection (p.i.). Conclusions/Significance Despite sharing high similarity at the genome structure and ploidy levels, the parasites exhibited divergent expressed genomes. The proteome and metabolome results indicated differential profiles between the cutaneous and mucosal isolates, primarily related to inflammation and chemotaxis. BALB/c infection revealed that
Cruz, Antonio Augusto V; Alves-Ferreira, Eliza V C; Milbratz-Moré, Gherusa; Chahud, Fernando; Ruy, Patricia C; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Cruz, Angela Kaysel
Orbital biopsy of nonspecific orbital inflammation, commonly referred to as "orbital pseudotumor," typically shows a combination of polyclonal lymphocytes, plasmocytes, leukocytes, macrophages, and variable degrees of collagen deposition. Herein, we report a patient with a positive history of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis who presented with an orbital mass with a histological profile of idiopathic orbital inflammation. Immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of the orbital specimens demonstrated that the orbital inflammation was associated with the presence of antigens of Leishmania braziliensis and DNA from the parasite.
AD-AL15 528 VIR61NIA UNIV CHARLOTTESVILLE DEPT OF DERMATOLOGY F/G 6/5 INVESTIGATIONS OF CROSS IMMUNITY BETWEEN LEISHMANIA TROPICA (JE--ETC(U) SEP 79...Investigations of Cross Immunity Between First Annual -- Leishmania tropica (Jericho) and Leishmania Feburary 1979-September 1979 braziliensis in... Leishmania tropica (Jericho) and LeisLmania braziliensis panamensis in Experimentally Infected Mystromys albacaudatus" First Annual Report Bruce E
Sinagra, Angel; Luna, Concepción; Abraham, David; Iannella, Maria del Carmen; Riarte, Adelina; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J
New therapeutic alternatives against leishmaniasis remain a priority. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been previously demonstrated. Different responses among species of Leishmania make species-specific drug screening necessary. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was evaluated in golden hamsters infected through footpad injections of metacyclic promastigotes, and compared with untreated controls and animals treated with meglumine antimoniate. Footpad thickness, lesion cultures and dissemination sites were analyzed. Treatment of golden hamsters with oral azithromycin at 450mg/kg had no activity against infections with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. For infections due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, azithromycin demonstrated significant activity relative to untreated controls, but inferior to meglumine antimoniate, for controlling lesion size. Neither drug was able to totally eliminate parasites from the lesions. It was concluded that azithromycin has activity against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis but not against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in this model.
Queiroz, Adriano; Sousa, Rosana; Heine, Claudia; Cardoso, Manuela; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Riley, Lee W.; Wilson, Mary E.
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis causes three main types of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). All forms are observed among individuals of Corte de Pedra, Brazil. We previously used random amplified markers to identify a multiclonal population among L. (V.) braziliensis isolates from ATL patients, defining parasite clades associated with different clinical syndromes. Herein we compared sequences of random amplified markers to identify genotypes of L. (V.) braziliensis recovered from lesions of CL, ML, and DL patients. Six polymorphic genomic loci were sequenced from 35 parasite isolates. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions-deletions (indels) at each locus allowed us to segregate the L. (V.) braziliensis population according to haplotypes. Several SNPs, indels, and haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk of DL. Molecular genotyping may provide markers to identify L. (V.) braziliensis strains likely to cause this emerging, hard-to-treat form of ATL. PMID:23035200
de Oliveira Guerra, Jorge Augusto; Prestes, Suzane Ribeiro; Silveira, Henrique; Coelho, Leila Inês de Aguiar Raposo Câmara; Gama, Pricila; Moura, Aristoteles; Amato, Valdir; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; de Lima Ferreira, Luiz Carlos
Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is a parasite recognized as the most important etiologic agent of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) in the New World. In Amazonia, seven different species of Leishmania, etiologic agents of human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, have been described. Isolated cases of ML have been described for several different species of Leishmania: L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (L.) amazonensis. Methodology Leishmania species were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of tissues taken from mucosal biopsies of Amazonian patients who were diagnosed with ML and treated at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas (FMTAM) in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. Samples were obtained retrospectively from the pathology laboratory and prospectively from patients attending the aforementioned tertiary care unit. Results This study reports 46 cases of ML along with their geographical origin, 30 cases caused by L. (V.) braziliensis and 16 cases by L. (V.) guyanensis. This is the first record of ML cases in 16 different municipalities in the state of Amazonas and of simultaneous detection of both species in 4 municipalities of this state. It is also the first record of ML caused by L. (V.) guyanensis in the states of Pará, Acre, and Rondônia and cases of ML caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in the state of Rondônia. Conclusions/Significance L. (V.) braziliensis is the predominant species that causes ML in the Amazon region. However, contrary to previous studies, L. (V.) guyanensis is also a significant causative agent of ML within the region. The clinical and epidemiological expression of ML in the Manaus region is similar to the rest of the country, although the majority of ML cases are found south of the Amazon River. PMID:21408116
Rowton, E; de Mata, M; Rizzo, N; Navin, T; Porter, C
During a 1-year study, 13 species of sand fly were collected in bite-landing collections on human attractants in Tikal, Guatemala. Using isoenzyme analysis, Leishmania braziliensis was identified among isolates from Lutzomyia ovallesi, Lu. panamensis, and Lu. ylephiletor. Lutzomyia ovallesi, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. cruciata were found with flagellates whose isoenzyme patterns matched unidentified flagellates isolated from a patient with mucosal lesions.
Baptista, Cibele; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Madeira, Maria de Fatima; de Freitas Campos Miranda, Luciana; Guimarães de Souza Pinto, Andressa; Helena da Silva Barros, Juliana; Conceição-Silva, Fatima; Fernandes Pimentel, Maria Ines; da Silva Pacheco, Raquel
The aim of this study was to investigate genetic polymorphism in Leishmania braziliensis population previously typed through isoenzyme electrophoresis, isolated from the same patient in two different moments: (A) before the beginning of treatment and (B) after treatment failure to meglumine antimoniate or reactivation after successful initial treatment. Fifteen pairs of isolates were assessed using the polymorphic molecular marker LSSP-PCR and following the phenetic analysis. The genetic profiles of the 30 samples were grouped in four clusters. Only two patients presented total identity in the A and B isolates. Most isolates presented similarity coefficients varying from 0.63 to 0.91. In this group of patients genetic polymorphisms could be observed indicating low similarity between the pairs of isolates. The results demonstrate the existence of genetic polymorphism between the samples isolated before treatment and after reactivation or treatment failure, suggesting a possible differentiation of the structure of the original parasite population which could be involved in the mechanisms of resistance to treatment or reactivation of lesions in the ATL. This phenomenon is important, although other factors also could be involved in this context and are discussed in this paper. PMID:23304168
de Morais, Rayana Carla Silva; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Suênia da Cunha; Pessoa e Silva, Rômulo; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Kamila Gaudêncio; da Silva, Fernando José; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Paiva-Cavalcanti, Milena
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a disease caused by different species of Leishmania protozoa, Leishmania braziliensis being the main species found in Brazil. In this study, two rural areas in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, where ACL is endemic, were selected. Genomic DNA was extracted from canine ectoparasites (ticks, fleas, and lice) and tested using a conventional PCR and a quantitative real time PCR. A total of 117 ectoparasites were collected, being 50 (42.74%) of them positive for L. braziliensis (in at least one PCR protocol), with a mean parasite load of 14.14 fg/μL. Furthermore, 46 (92.00%) positive ectoparasites were collected from positive dogs and 4 (8.00%) from negative ones. This study reports the detection of L. braziliensis DNA in ectoparasites, but does not prove their vector competence. Certainly, experimental transmission studies are necessary to assess their role, if any, in the transmission of Leishmania parasites to dogs.
Hu, Ricardo V P F; Kent, Alida D; Adams, Emily R; van der Veer, Charlotte; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Mans, Dennis R A; de Vries, Henry J C; Schallig, Henk D F H; Lai A Fat, Rudy F M
The main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname is Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. This case report presents a patient infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a species never reported before in Suriname. This finding has clinical implications, because L. braziliensis has a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a more extensive and destructive form of CL that requires different treatment. Clinicians should be aware that chronic cutaneous ulcers in patients from the Guyana region could be caused by L. braziliensis.
Falcão, Sarah de Athayde Couto; Jaramillo, Tatiana M G; Ferreira, Luciana G; Bernardes, Daniela M; Santana, Jaime M; Favali, Cecília B F
Visceral leishmaniasis is a severe form of the disease, caused by Leishmania infantum in the New World. Patients present an anergic immune response that favors parasite establishment and spreading through tissues like bone marrow and liver. On the other hand, Leishmania braziliensis causes localized cutaneous lesions, which can be self-healing in some individuals. Interactions between host and parasite are essential to understand disease pathogenesis and progression. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) act as essential bridges that connect innate and adaptive immune responses. In this way, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of these two Leishmania species, in some aspects of human DCs' biology for better understanding of the evasion mechanisms of Leishmania from host innate immune response. To do so, DCs were obtained from monocytes from whole peripheral blood of healthy volunteer donors and from those infected with L. infantum or L. braziliensis for 24 h. We observed similar rates of infection (around 40%) as well as parasite burden for both Leishmania species. Concerning surface molecules, we observed that both parasites induced CD86 expression when DCs were infected for 24 h. On the other hand, we detected a lower surface expression of CD209 in the presence of both L. braziliensis and L. infantum, but only the last one promoted the survival of DCs after 24 h. Therefore, DCs infected by both Leishmania species showed a higher expression of CD86 and a decrease of CD209 expression, suggesting that both enter DCs through CD209 molecule. However, only L. infantum had the ability to inhibit DC apoptotic death, as an evasion mechanism that enables its spreading to organs like bone marrow and liver. Lastly, L. braziliensis was more silent parasite, once it did not inhibit DC apoptosis in our in vitro model.
Falcão, Sarah de Athayde Couto; Jaramillo, Tatiana M. G.; Ferreira, Luciana G.; Bernardes, Daniela M.; Santana, Jaime M.; Favali, Cecília B. F.
Visceral leishmaniasis is a severe form of the disease, caused by Leishmania infantum in the New World. Patients present an anergic immune response that favors parasite establishment and spreading through tissues like bone marrow and liver. On the other hand, Leishmania braziliensis causes localized cutaneous lesions, which can be self-healing in some individuals. Interactions between host and parasite are essential to understand disease pathogenesis and progression. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) act as essential bridges that connect innate and adaptive immune responses. In this way, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of these two Leishmania species, in some aspects of human DCs’ biology for better understanding of the evasion mechanisms of Leishmania from host innate immune response. To do so, DCs were obtained from monocytes from whole peripheral blood of healthy volunteer donors and from those infected with L. infantum or L. braziliensis for 24 h. We observed similar rates of infection (around 40%) as well as parasite burden for both Leishmania species. Concerning surface molecules, we observed that both parasites induced CD86 expression when DCs were infected for 24 h. On the other hand, we detected a lower surface expression of CD209 in the presence of both L. braziliensis and L. infantum, but only the last one promoted the survival of DCs after 24 h. Therefore, DCs infected by both Leishmania species showed a higher expression of CD86 and a decrease of CD209 expression, suggesting that both enter DCs through CD209 molecule. However, only L. infantum had the ability to inhibit DC apoptotic death, as an evasion mechanism that enables its spreading to organs like bone marrow and liver. Lastly, L. braziliensis was more silent parasite, once it did not inhibit DC apoptosis in our in vitro model. PMID:27536300
Herrer, A; Christensen, H A
A total of 498 two-toed sloths, Choloepus hoffmanni, collected in central Panama was examined for Leishmania braziliensis over a 10-year period. Isolations of the parasite from 96 (19.3%) of the animals were confirmed by culture and inoculation of golden hamsters. Improved culture techniques developed toward the end of the study assisted in determining a greater prevalence of the disease. Infectins were completely cryptic in all animals, and the parasite was isolated from skin, blood, liver, spleen, bone marrow and lung tissues. Sloths maintained under seminatural conditions remained infected up to 23 months, the longest period of survival. This edentate, considered the principal reservoir host of L. braziliensis in Panama, showed infection rates from 0-59.4% in various communities, which appeared to correlate with the parasite prevalence in the indigenous human populations.
Salay, G.; Dorta, M. L.; Santos, N. M.; Mortara, R. A.; Brodskyn, C.; Oliveira, C. I.; Barbiéri, C. L.; Rodrigues, M. M.
We evaluated whether four recombinant antigens previously used for vaccination against experimental infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) major could also induce protective immunity against a challenge with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the species responsible for 90% of the 28,712 annual cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis recorded in Brazil during the year of 2004. Initially, we isolated the homolog genes encoding four L. (V.) braziliensis antigens: (i) homologue of receptor for activated C kinase, (ii) thiol-specific antioxidant, (iii) Leishmania elongation and initiation factor, and (iv) L. (L.) major stress-inducible protein 1. At the deduced amino acid level, all four open reading frames had a high degree of identity with the previously described genes of L. (L.) major being expressed on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. These genes were inserted into the vector pcDNA3 or expressed as bacterial recombinant proteins. After immunization with recombinant plasmids or proteins, BALB/c mice generated specific antibody or cell-mediated immune responses (gamma interferon production). After an intradermal challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis infective promastigotes, no significant reduction on the lesions was detected. We conclude that the protective immunity afforded by these four vaccine candidates against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) major could not be reproduced against a challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis. Although negative, we consider our results important since they suggest that studies aimed at the development of an effective vaccine against L. (V.) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, should be redirected toward distinct antigens or different vaccination strategies. PMID:17626159
Salay, G; Dorta, M L; Santos, N M; Mortara, R A; Brodskyn, C; Oliveira, C I; Barbiéri, C L; Rodrigues, M M
We evaluated whether four recombinant antigens previously used for vaccination against experimental infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) major could also induce protective immunity against a challenge with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the species responsible for 90% of the 28,712 annual cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis recorded in Brazil during the year of 2004. Initially, we isolated the homolog genes encoding four L. (V.) braziliensis antigens: (i) homologue of receptor for activated C kinase, (ii) thiol-specific antioxidant, (iii) Leishmania elongation and initiation factor, and (iv) L. (L.) major stress-inducible protein 1. At the deduced amino acid level, all four open reading frames had a high degree of identity with the previously described genes of L. (L.) major being expressed on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. These genes were inserted into the vector pcDNA3 or expressed as bacterial recombinant proteins. After immunization with recombinant plasmids or proteins, BALB/c mice generated specific antibody or cell-mediated immune responses (gamma interferon production). After an intradermal challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis infective promastigotes, no significant reduction on the lesions was detected. We conclude that the protective immunity afforded by these four vaccine candidates against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) major could not be reproduced against a challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis. Although negative, we consider our results important since they suggest that studies aimed at the development of an effective vaccine against L. (V.) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, should be redirected toward distinct antigens or different vaccination strategies.
Sousa, Anastácio Q; Pearson, Richard
Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis is a major health problem in the state of Ceará in northeastern Brazil. We propose that the disease emerged as a consequence of the displacement of persons from Ceará to the Amazon region following the Great Drought and smallpox epidemic of 1877-1879. As the economic and social situation in Ceará deteriorated, approximately 55,000 residents migrated to the Amazon region to find work, many on rubber plantations. Those that returned likely introduced L. (V.) brazilensis into Ceará, where the first cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported early in the 20th century. The absence of an animal reservoir in Ceará, apart from dogs, supports the hypothesis. The spread of HIV/AIDS into the region and the possibility of concurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis raise the possibility of future problems.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis is a major health problem in the state of Ceará in northeastern Brazil. We propose that the disease emerged as a consequence of the displacement of persons from Ceará to the Amazon region following the Great Drought and smallpox epidemic of 1877–1879. As the economic and social situation in Ceará deteriorated, ≈55,000 residents migrated to the Amazon region to find work, many on rubber plantations. Those that returned likely introduced L. (V.) brazilensis into Ceará, where the first cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported early in the 20th century. The absence of an animal reservoir in Ceará, apart from dogs, supports the hypothesis. The spread of HIV/AIDS into the region and the possibility of concurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis raise the possibility of future problems. PMID:19523291
Pinto, Juliana Guerra; Fontana, Letícia Correa; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Raniero, Leandro José; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by the Leishmania protozoan. The conventional treatment is long-lasting and aggressive, in addition to causing harmful effect. Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising alternative treatment, which allows local administration with fewer side effects. This study investigated the photodynamic activity of curcumin on Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis promastigote. Both species were submitted to incubation with curcumin in serial dilutions from 500 μg/ml up to 7.8 μg/ml. Control groups were kept in the dark while PDT groups received a fluency of 10 J/cm(2) at 450 nm. Mitochondrial activity was assessed by MTT assay 18 h after light treatment, and viability was measured by Trypan blue dye exclusion test. Morphological alterations were observed by Giemsa staining. Confocal microscopy showed the uptake of curcumin by both tested Leishmania species. Mitochondrial activity was inconclusive to determine viability; however, Trypan blue test was able to show that curcumin photodynamic treatment had a significant effect on viability of parasites. The morphology of promastigotes was highly affected by the photodynamic therapy. These results indicated that curcumin may be a promising alternative photosensitizer, because it presents no toxicity in the dark; however, further tests in co-culture with macrophages and other species of Leishmania should be conducted to determine better conditions before in vivo tests are performed.
Vélez, Iván D.; Carrillo, Lina M.; López, Liliana; Rodríguez, Erwin; Robledo, Sara M.
The largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia's history occurred during 2005–2009 in soldiers of the Colombian Army, with ∼40,000 cases. This outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. The soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. During the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially trained to detect landmines, and therefore, dogs are also exposed to the infected sand flies and show high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This work describes an epidemic outbreak of canine CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis in Colombia, South America. The clinical features of the disease and the response to treatment with pentavalent antimonials observed in 72 guard dogs from the Colombian Army are described. A program for prevention and control of canine CL is also discussed. PMID:22556078
Novais, Fernanda O; Santiago, Rômulo C; Báfica, André; Khouri, Ricardo; Afonso, Lilian; Borges, Valéria M; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; de Oliveira, Camila I
Neutrophils play an active role in the control of infections caused by intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania. In the present study, we investigated the effect of neutrophil depletion at the time of Leishmania braziliensis infection of BALB/c mice and how neutrophils interact with the infected macrophage to promote parasite elimination. The in vivo depletion of neutrophils led to a significant increase in parasite load and enhanced the Th1-Th2 immune response in this experimental model of infection. BALB/c mice coinoculated with both parasites and live neutrophils displayed lower parasite burdens at the site of infection and in the draining lymph nodes. In vitro, we observed that live neutrophils significantly reduced the parasite load in L. braziliensis-infected murine macrophages, an effect not observed with Leishmania major. L. braziliensis elimination was dependent on the interaction between neutrophils and macrophages and was associated with TNF-alpha as well as superoxide production. Furthermore, cooperation between neutrophils and macrophages toward parasite elimination was also observed in experiments performed with L. braziliensis-infected human cells and, importantly, with two other New World Leishmania species. These results indicate that neutrophils play an important and previously unappreciated role in L. braziliensis infection, favoring the induction of a protective immune response.
Soares, Isabel R; Silva, Soraia O; Moreira, Filipe Moraghi; Prado, Luan Gavião; Fantini, Priscila; Maranhão, Renata de Pino Albuquerque; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Melo, Maria Norma; Palhares, Maristela S
This study reports the first evidence of infection by Leishmania infantum in Equus caballus in Americas and the first mixed infection of L. infantum/Leishmania braziliensis on this mammalian species in the world. The diagnoses was based on presence of parasites in lesions and bone marrow aspirates, their identification by using specific primers for L. infantum and L. braziliensis complexes and also serological methods IFAT and ELISA. The analysis of the PCR products suggested mixed infection in three animals. Further studies involving equine leishmaniasis are carrying out in order to clarify the dynamic of Leishmania sp. in this mammalian specie and their role in the transmission of those parasites in urban endemic area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.
Valli, L C; Passos, V M; Dietze, R; Callahan, H L; Berman, J D; Grogl, M
Mucosal leishmaniasis is arguably the most morbid sequelae of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The importance of early diagnosis for effective therapy, coupled with the difficulty of diagnosing the disease parasitologically, prompted this investigation of humoral immune markers of mucosal disease. Promastigote soluble antigens of Leishmania braziliensis, isolated from cutaneous and mucosal lesions, were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; antigens were identified by immunoblotting with parasite-specific IgG antibody-positive sera of patients with mucosal disease (n = 18) and cutaneous disease (n = 23). For antigens of the cutaneous parasite WR 2095, mucosal sera generally reacted intensely to antigens of 75, 66, and 45 kDa and weakly to 48-50-kDa antigens, whereas cutaneous sera generally detected weakly the first 3 antigens and intensely the latter doublet. The data suggest that the transition from the cutaneous antigenic profile to a mucosal antigenic profile could be used to predict mucosal disease in approximately half of mucosal patients. An additional finding was that antibodies present in the sera of patients with mucosal disease labeled a 66-kDa peptide of normal human lip mucosa more intensely than did cutaneous sera. Autoimmune processes stimulated by the reaction of IgG, originally directed against the 66-kDa of L. braziliensis, to the 66-kDa antigen of mucosal tissue may contribute to the clinical presentation of mucosal leishmaniasis.
Galdino, Hélio; Saar Gomes, Rodrigo; Dos Santos, Jessica Cristina; Pessoni, Lívia Lara; Maldaner, Anetícia Eduarda; Marques, Stéfanne Madalena; Gomes, Clayson Moura; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; de Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli; Joosten, Leo A B; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima
While the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been investigated in murine models of tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the interaction between TLRs and Leishmania sp. has not been investigated in human cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of TLR4 in cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by L. braziliensis, and whether the parasite alters the expression of TLR4 on monocytes/macrophages. Amastigote forms were obtained from mice lesions and PBMCs were isolated from healthy donors. PBMCs were cultured in absence or presence of IFNγ, TLR4 neutralizing antibodies, natural antagonist of TLR4 (Bartonella LPS), TLR4 agonist (E. coli LPS), and amastigote forms. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were assayed by ELISA and TLR4 expression by flow cytometry. Amastigotes forms of L. braziliensis induced TNFα and IL-10 production only in IFNγ-primed PBMCs. The TNFα and IL-10 production was inhibited by TLR4 neutralization, both with anti-TLR4 antibodies and Bartonella LPS. Interestingly, addition of E. coli LPS further increased TNFα but not IL-10 production induced by L. braziliensis amastigotes. Amastigotes of L. braziliensis strongly reduced membrane TLR4 expression on monocytes/macrophages, apparently by internalization after the infection. The present study reveals that TLR4 drives the production of TNFα and IL-10 induced by L. braziliensis amastigotes and that the parasites decrease TLR4 expression on monocyte surface.
Costa, Luciana; Pinheiro, Roberta O.; Dutra, Patrícia M. L.; Santos, Rosiane F.; Cunha-Júnior, Edézio F.; Torres-Santos, Eduardo C.; da Silva, Alcides J. M.; Costa, Paulo R. R.; Da-Silva, Silvia A. G.
Previous results demonstrate that the hybrid synthetic pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 presents antileishmanial activity against Leishmania amazonensis in a mouse model. The aim of the present study was to use a hamster model to investigate whether LQB-118 presents antileishmanial activity against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which is the major Leishmania species related to American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of LQB-118 on L. braziliensis was tested on the promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms. The cell death induced by LQB-118 in the L. braziliensis promastigotes was analyzed using an annexin V-FITC/PI kit, the oxidative stress was evaluated by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) and the ATP content by luminescence. In situ labeling of DNA fragments by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to investigate apoptosis in the intracellular amastigotes. L. braziliensis-infected hamsters were treated from the seventh day of infection with LQB-118 administered intralesionally (26 µg/kg/day, three times a week) or orally (4,3 mg/kg/day, five times a week) for eight weeks. LQB-118 was active against the L. braziliensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, producing IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values of 3,4±0,1 and 7,5±0,8 µM, respectively. LQB-118 induced promastigote phosphatidylserine externalization accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species production and ATP depletion. Intracellular amastigote DNA fragmentation was also observed, without affecting the viability of macrophages. The treatment of L. braziliensis-infected hamsters with LQB-118, either orally or intralesionally, was effective in the control of lesion size, parasite load and increase intradermal reaction to parasite antigen. Taken together, these results show that the antileishmanial effect of LQB-118 extends to L. braziliensis in the hamster model, involves the
Higa, Leticia H.; Arnal, Laura; Vermeulen, Mónica; Perez, Ana Paula; Schilrreff, Priscila; Mundiña-Weilenmann, Cecilia; Yantorno, Osvaldo; Vela, María Elena; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder Lilia
Total antigens from Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes, solubilized with sodium cholate (dsLp), were formulated within ultradeformable nanovesicles (dsLp-ultradeformable archaeosomes, (dsLp-UDA), and dsLp-ultradeformable liposomes (dsLp-UDL)) and topically administered to Balb/c mice. Ultradeformable nanovesicles can penetrate the intact stratum corneum up to the viable epidermis, with no aid of classical permeation enhancers that can damage the barrier function of the skin. Briefly, 100 nm unilamellar dsLp-UDA (soybean phosphatidylcholine: Halorubrum tebenquichense total polar lipids (TPL): sodium cholate, 3:3:1 w:w) of -31.45 mV Z potential, containing 4.84 ± 0.53% w/w protein/lipid dsLp, 235 KPa Young modulus were prepared. In vitro, dsLp-UDA was extensively taken up by J774A1 and bone marrow derive cells, and the only that induced an immediate secretion of IL-6, IL-12p40 and TNF-α, followed by IL-1β, by J774A1 cells. Such extensive uptake is a key feature of UDA ascribed to the highly negatively charged archaeolipids of the TPL, which are recognized by a receptor specialized in uptake and not involved in downstream signaling. Despite dsLp alone was also immunostimulatory on J774A1 cells, applied twice a week on consecutive days along 7 weeks on Balb/c mice, it raised no measurable response unless associated to UDL or UDA. The highest systemic response, IgGa2 mediated, 1 log lower than im dsLp Al2O3, was elicited by dsLp-UDA. Such findings suggest that in vivo, UDL and UDA acted as penetration enhancers for dsLp, but only dsLp-UDA, owed to its pronounced uptake by APC, succeeded as topical adjuvants. The actual TPL composition, fully made of sn2,3 ether linked saturated archaeolipids, gives the UDA bilayer resistance against chemical, physical and enzymatic attacks that destroy ordinary phospholipids bilayers. Together, these properties make UDA a promising platform for topical drug targeted delivery and vaccination, that may be of help for countries with
Higa, Leticia H; Arnal, Laura; Vermeulen, Mónica; Perez, Ana Paula; Schilrreff, Priscila; Mundiña-Weilenmann, Cecilia; Yantorno, Osvaldo; Vela, María Elena; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder Lilia
Total antigens from Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes, solubilized with sodium cholate (dsLp), were formulated within ultradeformable nanovesicles (dsLp-ultradeformable archaeosomes, (dsLp-UDA), and dsLp-ultradeformable liposomes (dsLp-UDL)) and topically administered to Balb/c mice. Ultradeformable nanovesicles can penetrate the intact stratum corneum up to the viable epidermis, with no aid of classical permeation enhancers that can damage the barrier function of the skin. Briefly, 100 nm unilamellar dsLp-UDA (soybean phosphatidylcholine: Halorubrum tebenquichense total polar lipids (TPL): sodium cholate, 3:3:1 w:w) of -31.45 mV Z potential, containing 4.84 ± 0.53% w/w protein/lipid dsLp, 235 KPa Young modulus were prepared. In vitro, dsLp-UDA was extensively taken up by J774A1 and bone marrow derive cells, and the only that induced an immediate secretion of IL-6, IL-12p40 and TNF-α, followed by IL-1β, by J774A1 cells. Such extensive uptake is a key feature of UDA ascribed to the highly negatively charged archaeolipids of the TPL, which are recognized by a receptor specialized in uptake and not involved in downstream signaling. Despite dsLp alone was also immunostimulatory on J774A1 cells, applied twice a week on consecutive days along 7 weeks on Balb/c mice, it raised no measurable response unless associated to UDL or UDA. The highest systemic response, IgGa2 mediated, 1 log lower than im dsLp Al2O3, was elicited by dsLp-UDA. Such findings suggest that in vivo, UDL and UDA acted as penetration enhancers for dsLp, but only dsLp-UDA, owed to its pronounced uptake by APC, succeeded as topical adjuvants. The actual TPL composition, fully made of sn2,3 ether linked saturated archaeolipids, gives the UDA bilayer resistance against chemical, physical and enzymatic attacks that destroy ordinary phospholipids bilayers. Together, these properties make UDA a promising platform for topical drug targeted delivery and vaccination, that may be of help for countries with
Medina, Lilian S.; Souza, Bruno Araújo; Queiroz, Adriano; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Lima Machado, Paulo Roberto; M Carvalho, Edgar; Wilson, Mary Edythe; Schriefer, Albert
GP63 or leishmanolysin is the major surface protease of Leishmania spp. involved in parasite virulence and host cell interaction. As such, GP63 is a potential target of eventual vaccines against these protozoa. In the current study we evaluate the polymorphism of gp63 in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolated from two sets of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) cases from Corte de Pedra, Brazil, including 35 cases diagnosed between 1994 and 2001 and 6 cases diagnosed between 2008 and 2011. Parasites were obtained from lesions by needle aspiration and cultivation. Genomic DNA was extracted, and 405 bp fragments, including sequences encoding the putative macrophage interacting sites, were amplified from gp63 genes of all isolates. DNA amplicons were cloned into plasmid vectors and ten clones per L. (V.) braziliensis isolate were sequenced. Alignment of cloned sequences showed extensive polymorphism among gp63 genes within, and between parasite isolates. Overall, 45 different polymorphic alleles were detected in all samples, which could be segregated into two clusters. Cluster one included 25, and cluster two included 20 such genotypes. The predicted peptides showed overall conservation below 50%. In marked contrast, the conservation at segments with putative functional domains approached 90% (Fisher’s exact test p<0.0001). These findings show that gp63 is very polymorphic even among parasites from a same endemic focus, but the functional domains interacting with the mammalian host environment are conserved. PMID:27648939
Bustamante, Marinely; Diaz, Mery; Espinoza, Jorge; Parrado, Rudy; Reithinger, Richard; García, Ana Lineth
Data on the distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bolivia is scarce. Sand flies from an area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis endemicity in the Isiboro-Secure National Park in the Department of Cochabamba were captured and identified to species. In total, 945 sand flies (789 females and 156 males) belonging to 15 species were collected from the four collection points in two study villages in 2007. With 549 (58.1%) specimens, Lutzomyia shawi was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) sp. (22.2%), Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi (8.3%), Lutzomyia antunesi (4.3%), and Lutzomyia olmeca (2.1%). Abundance and species composition varied between rainy and dry seasons, with 99.3% of all sand flies being collected outdoors. Because of species abundance and confirmed Leishmania infection in previous entomological collections, we believe Lu. shawi is the vector of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in Isiboro-Secure National Park.
Truppel, Jessé Henrique; Otomura, Flavio; Teodoro, Ueslei; Massafera, Rubens; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Catarino, Carolina Motter; Dalagrana, Luana; Costa Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Moreira; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete
In this study, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in equids living in endemic regions of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To determine the role of these animals in the Leishmania cycle, we used two approaches: serological and molecular methods. Antibodies to the parasite were assayed using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Blood samples were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the positive products were sequenced. The results showed that 11.0% (25/227) of the equids were seropositive for Leishmania sp, and 16.3% (37/227) were PCR positive. Antibodies were detected in 20 horses, 3 donkeys, and 2 mules, and the parasite DNA was detected in 30 horses, 5 donkeys, and 2 mules. Sequencing the amplified DNA revealed 100% similarity with sequences for Viannia complex, corroborating the results of PCR for L. braziliensis. Our results show that equids are infected with L. braziliensis, which could be food sources for phlebotomines in the peridomiciliary environment and consequently play a role in the cutaneous leishmaniasis cycle. PMID:24721908
Torrico, Faustino; Parrado, Rudy; Castro, Rosario; Marquez, Carla Jimena; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Solano, Marco; Reithinger, Richard; García, Ana Lineth
We describe the first case of Leishmania/HIV co-infection reported in Bolivia. Initially hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and bronchitis, the patient had numerous cutaneous and mucosal lesions caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The patient was also diagnosed as severely immunocompromised because of HIV infection.
Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luís C. C.
Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important
Teixeira, Clarissa; Carvalho, Augusto M.; Mattos, Paulo S.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Muniz, Aline C.; Miranda, José Carlos; Barral, Aldina
Background Previous works showed that immunization with saliva from Lutzomyia intermedia, a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, does not protect against experimental infection. However, L. braziliensis is also transmitted by Lutzomyia whitmani, a sand fly species closely related to Lu. intermedia. Herein we describe the immune response following immunization with Lu. whitmani saliva and the outcome of this response after L. braziliensis infection. Methods and findings BALB/c mice immunized with Lu. whitmani saliva developed robust humoral and cellular immune responses, the latter characterized by an intense cellular infiltrate and production of IFN-γ and IL-10, by both CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Mice immunized as above and challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. whitmani saliva displayed significantly smaller lesions and parasite load at the challenge site. This protection was associated with a higher (p<0.05) IFN-γ production in response to SLA stimulation. Long-term persisting immunity was also detected in mice immunized with Lu. whitmani saliva. Furthermore, individuals residing in an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presented antibody responses to Lu. whitmani saliva. However CL patients, with active lesions, displayed a lower humoral response to Lu. whitmani saliva compared to individuals with subclinical Leishmania infection. Conclusion Pre-exposure to Lu. whitmani saliva induces protection against L. braziliensis in a murine model. We also show that Lu. whitmani salivary proteins are immunogenic in naturally exposed individuals. Our results reinforce the importance of investigating the immunomodulatory effect of saliva from different species of closely related sand flies. PMID:27812113
Schlesinger, M. Ashburner, and A. Tissieres, perature, leishmania promastigotes un- Eds.), pp. 11-18. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, dergo a conversion to heat...induced differ- Cold Spring Harbor , NY. entiating forms. Macrophages may then en- DUNCAN, R., AND HERSHEY, J. W. B. 1984. Heat gulf the parasites...singer, M. Ashburner, and A. Tissieres, Eds.), pp. JACKSON. P. R.. PAPPAS. M. G.. AND HANSEN, b. D. 1-9. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring
Oliveira, Leandro G; Souza-Testasicca, Míriam C; Vago, Juliana P; Figueiredo, Amanda Braga; Canavaci, Adriana M C; Perucci, Luiza Oliveira; Ferreira, Tatiana P Teixeira; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Rocha, Manoel Otávio C; E Silva, Patrícia M R; Ferreira, Cláudia N; Queiroz-Junior, Celso; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Fernandes, Ana Paula
Leishmaniases are diseases caused by several Leishmania species. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis can cause localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), which heals spontaneously, or mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), characterized by chronic and intense inflammation and scanty parasitism. Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a protein involved in modulation and resolution of inflammation through multiple mechanisms. In the present study, the role of AnxA1 was investigated in L. braziliensis-infected BALB/c mice. AnxA1 levels increased at the peak of tissue lesion and parasitism in infected mice. AnxA1 increased also after L. braziliensis infection of BALB/c (wild-type [WT]) bone marrow derived macrophages. Despite a lower parasite intake, parasite burden in bone marrow-derived macrophages from AnxA1(-/-) mice was similar to WT and associated with an early increase of TNF-α and, later, of IL-10. AnxA1(-/-) mice controlled tissue parasitism similarly to WT animals, but they developed significantly larger lesions at later stages of infection, with a more pronounced inflammatory infiltrate and increased specific production of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10. AnxA1(-/-) mice also presented higher phosphorylation levels of ERK-1/2 and p65/RelA (NF-κB) and inducible NO synthase expression, suggesting that AnxA1 may be involved in modulation of inflammation in this model of experimental leishmaniasis. Finally, assessment of AnxA1 levels in sera from patients with LCL or ML revealed that ML patients had higher levels of serum AnxA1 than did LCL patients or control subjects. Collectively, these data indicate that AnxA1 is actively expressed during L. braziliensis infection. In the absence of AnxA1, mice are fully able to control parasite replication, but they present more intense inflammatory responses and delayed ability to resolve their lesion size.
Alcazar, Wilmer; López, Adrian Silva; Alakurtti, Sami; Tuononen, Maija-Liisa; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Ponte-Sucre, Alicia
Leishmaniasis is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, including Venezuela. The incidence of treatment failure and the number of cases with Leishmania-HIV co-infection underscore the importance of developing alternative, economical and effective therapies against this disease. The work presented here analyzed whether terpenoids derived from betulin are active against New World Leishmania parasites. Initially we determined the concentration that inhibits the growth of these parasites by 50% or IC50, and subsequently evaluated the chemotactic effect of four compounds with leishmanicidal activity in the sub-micromolar and micromolar range. That is, we measured the migratory capacity of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis in the presence of increasing concentrations of compounds. Finally, we evaluated their cytotoxicity against the host cell and their effect on the infectivity of L. (V.) braziliensis. The results suggest that (1) compounds 14, 17, 18, 25 and 27 are active at concentrations lower than 10 μM; (2) compound 26 inhibits parasite growth with an IC50 lower than 1 μM; (3) compounds 18, 26 and 27 inhibit parasite migration at pico- to nanomolar concentrations, suggesting that they impair host-parasite interaction. None of the tested compounds was cytotoxic against J774.A1 macrophages thus indicating their potential as starting points to develop compounds that might affect parasite-host cell interaction, as well as being leishmanicidal.
Conceição, Jacilara; Davis, Richard; Carneiro, Pedro Paulo; Giudice, Angela; Muniz, Aline C.; Wilson, Mary E.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Bacellar, Olívia
Infection with different Leishmania spp. protozoa can lead to a variety of clinical syndromes associated in many cases with inflammatory responses in the skin. Although macrophages harbor the majority of parasites throughout chronic infection, neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to migrate to the site of infection. Whether neutrophils promote parasite clearance or exacerbate disease in murine models varies depending on the susceptible or resistant status of the host. Based on the hypothesis that neutrophils contribute to a systemic inflammatory state in humans with symptomatic L. braziliensis infection, we evaluated the phenotype of neutrophils from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) during the course of L. braziliensis infection. After in vitro infection with L. braziliensis, CL patient neutrophils produced more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher levels of CXCL8 and CXCL9, chemokines associated with recruitment of neutrophils and Th1-type cells, than neutrophils from control healthy subjects (HS). Despite this, CL patient and HS neutrophils were equally capable of phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. There was no difference between the degree of activation of neutrophils from CL versus healthy subjects, assessed by CD66b and CD62L expression using flow cytometry. Of interest, these studies revealed that both parasite-infected and bystander neutrophils became activated during incubation with L. braziliensis. The enhanced ROS and chemokine production in neutrophils from CL patients reverted to baseline after treatment of disease. These data suggest that the circulating neutrophils during CL are not necessarily more microbicidal, but they have a more pro-inflammatory profile after parasite restimulation than neutrophils from healthy subjects. PMID:27167379
de Moura, Tatiana R.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Novais, Fernanda O.; Miranda, José Carlos; Clarêncio, Jorge; Follador, Ivonise; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; Brodskyn, Cláudia; de Oliveira, Camila I.
Background Sand fly saliva has an array of pharmacological and immunomodulatory components, and immunity to saliva protects against Leishmania infection. In the present study, we have studied the immune response against Lutzomyia intermedia saliva, the main vector of Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil, and the effects of saliva pre-exposure on L. braziliensis infection employing an intradermal experimental model. Methodology/principal findings BALB/c mice immunized with L. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (SGS) developed a saliva-specific antibody response and a cellular immune response with presence of both IFN-γ and IL-4. The inflammatory infiltrate observed in SGS-immunized mice was comprised of numerous polymorphonuclear and few mononuclear cells. Mice challenged with live L. braziliensis in the presence of saliva were not protected although lesion development was delayed. The inoculation site and draining lymph node showed continuous parasite replication and low IFN-γ to IL-4 ratio, indicating that pre-exposure to L. intermedia saliva leads to modulation of the immune response. Furthermore, in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, patients with active lesions displayed higher levels of anti-L. intermedia saliva antibodies when compared to individuals with a positive skin test result for Leishmania. Conclusion These results show that pre-exposure to sand fly saliva plays an important role in the outcome of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in both mice and humans. They emphasize possible hurdles in the development of vaccines based on sand fly saliva and the need to identify and select the individual salivary candidates instead of using whole salivary mixture that may favor a non-protective response. PMID:18060088
Guimarães, Luiz H.; Saldanha, Maíra; Menezes, Taís; Moreno, Lis; Torres, Alex; Costa, Rúbia; Passos, Sara; Badaró, Roberto; Arruda, Sérgio; Carvalho, Lucas P.
Skin ulcer development in cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis infection is associated with a mononuclear cell infiltrate and high levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Herein, we show that despite the absence of Leishmania-driven TNF, a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developed a skin ulcer. The presence of mononuclear phagocytes and high levels of TNF, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and metalloproteinase-9 in tissue are identified as potential contributors to immunopathology observed in L. braziliensis-infected patients. PMID:26483124
Background Alpha tubulin is a fundamental component of the cytoskeleton which is responsible for cell shape and is involved in cell division, ciliary and flagellar motility and intracellular transport. Alpha tubulin gene expression varies according to the morphological changes suffered by Leishmania in its life cycle. However, the objective of studying the mechanisms responsible for the differential expression has resulted to be a difficult task due to the complex genome organization of tubulin genes and to the non-conventional mechanisms of gene regulation operating in Leishmania. Results We started this work by analyzing the genomic organization of α-tubulin genes in the Leishmania braziliensis genome database. The genomic organization of L. braziliensis α-tubulin genes differs from that existing in the L. major and L. infantum genomes. Two loci containing α-tubulin genes were found in the chromosomes 13 and 29, even though the existence of sequence gaps does not allow knowing the exact number of genes at each locus. Southern blot assays showed that α-tubulin locus at chromosome 13 contains at least 8 gene copies, which are tandemly organized with a 2.08-kb repetition unit; the locus at chromosome 29 seems to contain a sole α-tubulin gene. In addition, it was found that L. braziliensis α-tubulin locus at chromosome 13 contains two types of α-tubulin genes differing in their 3′ UTR, each one presumably containing different regulatory motifs. It was also determined that the mRNA expression levels of these genes are controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms tightly linked to the growth temperature. Moreover, the decrease in the α-tubulin mRNA abundance observed when promastigotes were cultured at 35°C was accompanied by parasite morphology alterations, similar to that occurring during the promastigote to amastigote differentiation. Conclusions Information found in the genome databases indicates that α-tubulin genes have been reorganized in a drastic
Canto-Lara, S B; Cardenas-Maruffo, M F; Vargas-Gonzalez, A; Andrade-Narvaez, F
Seventy-five isolates from the State of Campeche, Mexico, an area endemic for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), were characterized by isoenzyme markers (glucose phosphate isomerase, mannose phospate isomerase, nucleoside hydrolase, phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). Seventy (93.3%) were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and 5 (6.7%) as L. (Viannia) braziliensis. This is the first report of authochthonus human LCL caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.
Tomiotto-Pellissier, Fernanda; Cataneo, Allan Henrique Depieri; Orsini, Tatiane Marcuso; Thomazelli, Ana Paula Fortes Dos Santos; Dalevedo, Gabriela Alcântara; de Oliveira, Admilton Gonçalves; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Costa, Idessania Nazareth; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio
Galleria mellonella is an excellent invertebrate model for the study of diseases that involve interactions with cells from the innate immune system, since they have an innate immune system capable of recognizing the pathogens. Here we present for the first time, an alternative model for an in vitro phagocytic assay using hemocytes of G. mellonella larvae to study infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. We showed that the insect phagocytic cells were able to engulf promastigotes. Furthermore, this infective form differentiated into the amastigote form inside those cells. However, the cells in this model seem resistant to the parasite, since amastigotes were depleted after 24h and NO levels were maintained after infection. Our model opens an avenue of possibilities for new investigations regarding other Leishmania species, mechanisms of invasion and evasion, receptors involved, release of signaling molecules and, above all, it is a novel infection model using invertebrate animals.
Background American tegumentary leishmaniasis is a serious Brazilian public health problem. This diseases is attributed to seven species of Leishmania, however, the majority of cases are associated with Leishmania braziliensis. Some phlebotomine species have been implicated in the transmission of this parasite, nonetheless only Psychodopygus wellcomei has had its vectorial competence demonstrated. Thus this study sought to assess some parameters related to the vectorial capacity of anthropophilic species of sand fly occurring in São Paulo state: Pintomyia fischeri, Migonemyia migonei Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Expapillata firmatoi and Psychodopygus ayrozai, under laboratory conditions. These parameters were the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, proportion of females which feed on hamster, the rate of infection by L. braziliensis and the duration of the extrinsic incubation period. Methods The sandflies were collected in three regions of the São Paulo state: Greater São Paulo and the Mogi Guaçu and Iporanga municipalities. To assess the proportion of engorged females the insects were fed on hamsters to estimate the duration of the gonotrophic cycle. To estimate the susceptibility to infection of each species, their females were fed on hamsters infected with Leishmania braziliensis and dissected to ascertain the localization of the flagellates and estimate the extrinsic incubation period. Results Low hamster attractiveness to Ps. ayrozai was observed. A high proportion of engorged females was observed when the hamster had its whole body exposed. The gonotrophic cycle ranged between three and eight days. Mg. migonei, Pi. fischeri, Ny. neivai, Ny. intermedia, Ny. whitmani and Ex.firmatoi presented susceptibility to infection by L. braziliensis. The highest infection rate (34.4%) was observed for Ny. whitmani and the lowest for Ny. intermedia (6.6%). Mg. migonei presented late-stage infection forms on the fifth day after feeding, but in the other
Rebello, Karina Mastropasqua; Britto, Constança; Pereira, Bernardo Acácio Santini; Pita-Pereira, Daniela de; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Ferreira, Anna Beatriz Robottom; Cysne-Finkelstein, Léa; Otto, Thomas Dan; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; da-Silva, Gabriel Gomes; Alves, Carlos Roberto
Cysteine proteinases are an important virulence factor in Leishmania parasites. In this study we analyzed the cysteine proteinase expression of infective Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes, examining the expression induced by successive in vitro passages in culture. We observed that this parasite presents a decrease in its virulence over BALB/c macrophages, after successive passages in culture, but still they present proteinase activity, being capable of hydrolyzing the substrate pGlu-Phe-Leu-p Nitroanilide at pH 7.0. This proteinase activity also decreases in the course of the successive passages. Additionally, the decrease in the amount of CPB proteins following successive passages of promastigotes was verified by immunoblotting assays, using an anti-CPB antiserum. Real-time PCR assays were performed to assess the relative cpb expression when compared to a housekeeping gene in promastigote cDNA preparations from the first, fourth and seventh passages. Interestingly, the data indicate a relative increase in cpb gene transcripts as the promastigotes were maintained under in vitro culture: 2.2 times higher for fourth and 2.7 times higher for seventh passages when compared to the first passage. Thus, the information gathered here shows that the expression of cysteine proteinases is modified during in vitro cultivation of L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes.
Mendonça, S C; Coutinho, S G; Amendoeira, R R; Marzochi, M C; Pirmez, C
The host defence to Leishmania parasites is believed to depend on cell-mediated immune responses. Three groups of inhabitants from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro were studied: Group I consisted of 28 patients with cutaneous lesions, Group II of 28 healthy persons (without ulcers) but with positive Montenegro skin tests (MST) and Group III of 29 healthy persons with negative MST. The peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferative responses induced by leishmanial-antigens (Leishmania b. braziliensis lymphoproliferative response) as well as by Concanavalin A (Con A-lymphoproliferative response), both measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation were tested in each group. The results showed that: The Leishmania b. braziliensis lymphoproliferative response (L.b.b.-LPR) in healthy persons with positive MST (Group II) was higher than in patients prior to therapy (Group I); A significantly higher L.b.b.-LPR was found in patients and healthy persons with positive MST as compared to Group III (negative MST); The L.b.b.-LPR of Group I (patients) increased during antimonial therapy--this might possibly be related to the destruction of parasites; The levels of L.b.b.-LPR after therapy became similar to the ones before therapy; All individuals from the three groups had a positive Con A-lymphoproliferative response (Con A-LPR); All patients who had a histopathological picture of granulomatous reaction also had a positive L.b.b.-LPR; A poor response to antimonial therapy observed in six patients was associated with a low L.b.b.-LPR. PMID:3742876
Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Tavares, Grasiele de Sousa Vieira; Ramos, Fernanda Fonseca; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz
Vaccination can be considered the most cost-effective strategy to control neglected diseases, but nowadays there is not an effective vaccine available against leishmaniasis. In the present study, a vaccine based on the combination of the Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein (LiHyD) with saponin was tested in BALB/c mice against infection caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis species. This antigen was firstly identified in Leishmania infantum and showed to be protective against infection of BALB/c mice using this parasite species. The immunogenicity of rLiHyD/saponin vaccine was evaluated, and the results showed that immunized mice produced high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation with rLiHyD, as well as by using L. major or L. braziliensis protein extracts. After challenge, vaccinated animals showed significant reductions in the infected footpad swellings, as well as in the parasite burden in the infection site, liver, spleen, and infected paws draining lymph nodes, when compared to those that were inoculated with the vaccine diluent (saline) or immunized with saponin. The immunization of rLiHyD without adjuvant was not protective against both challenges. The partial protection obtained by the rLiHyD/saponin vaccine was associated with a parasite-specific IL-12-dependent IFN-γ secretion, which was produced mainly by CD4(+) T cells. In these animals, a decrease in the parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 responses, associated with the presence of high levels of LiHyD- and parasite-specific IgG2a isotype antibodies, were also observed. The present study showed that a hypothetical protein that was firstly identified in L. infantum, when combined to a Th1 adjuvant, was able to confer a cross-protection against highly infective stationary-phase promastigotes of two Leishmania species causing tegumentary leishmaniasis.
Lanús, Elizabeth Córdoba; Piñero, José Enrique; González, Ana Cristina; Valladares, Basilio; de Grosso, Mercedes Lizarralde; Salomón, Oscar Daniel
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an endemic disease in Northern Argentina. We applied the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a hybridization labelled probe to 21 paraffin embedded human skin biopsies, already analyzed histologically, from leishmaniasis endemic areas in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. We used primers previously designed to detect a Leishmania-specific 120-base-pair fragment of kinetoplast DNA minicircle, other two primer pairs that amplify kDNA minicircles belonging to the L. braziliensis and L. mexicana complexes respectively, and specific oligonucleotide primers to detect L. (V.) braziliensis which amplify the sequence of the ribosomal protein L-14 of this species. The PCR-hybridization showed a sensitivity of 90.5% when compared to the histopathology test which was 61.9%. Five of the total samples analyzed were positive for the L. braziliensis complex whilst none was positive for the L. mexicana complex. The specific primers for L. (V.) braziliensis detected the parasite in four samples. These results are consistent with those reported for close endemic areas and demonstrate that the causative agent of human leishmaniasis in the analyzed cases was L. (V.) braziliensis. PCR should be used as a diagnostic tool for tegumentary leishmaniasis, especially in the mucosal form, and as a valuable technique for the identification of the Leishmania species that causes the disease in certain areas.
Duarte, Mariana Costa; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Salles, Beatriz Cristina Silveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria Ravena Severino; de Oliveira Santos, Thaís Teodoro; Dias, Daniel Silva; Ribeiro, Patrícia Aparecida Fernandes; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo Andrez; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Ferraz Coelho, Eduardo Antonio
In the present study, Leishmania braziliensis enolase was cloned and the recombinant protein (rEnolase) was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniosis (VL). For the canine VL diagnosis, this study examined serum samples of Leishmania infantum-infected dogs, from non-infected animals living in endemic or non-endemic areas of leishmaniosis, as well as those from Leish-Tec(®)-vaccinated dogs and Trypanosoma cruzi or Ehrlichia canis experimentally infected animals. For the human VL diagnosis, this study analyzed serum samples from VL patients, from non-infected subjects living in endemic or non-endemic areas of leishmaniosis, as well as those from T. cruzi-infected patients. In the results, an indirect ELISA method using rEnolase showed diagnostic sensitivity and specificity values of 100% and 98.57%, respectively, for canine VL serodiagnosis, and of 100% and 97.87%, respectively, for human VL diagnosis. These results showed rEnolase with an improved diagnostic performance when compared to the recombinant A2 protein, the crude soluble Leishmania antigenic preparation, and the recombinant K39-based immunochromatographic test. In conclusion, preliminary results suggest that the detection of antibodies against rEnolase improves the serodiagnosis of human and canine visceral leishmaniosis.
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Christensen, Stephen M.; Dillon, Laura A. L.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Passos, Sara; Novais, Fernanda O.; Hughitt, V. Keith; Beiting, Daniel P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Scott, Phillip; El-Sayed, Najib M.
Host and parasite gene expression in skin biopsies from Leishmania braziliensis-infected patients were simultaneously analyzed using high throughput RNA-sequencing. Biopsies were taken from 8 patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis and 17 patients with late cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although parasite DNA was found in all patient lesions at the time of biopsy, the patients could be stratified into two groups: one lacking detectable parasite transcripts (PTNeg) in lesions, and another in which parasite transcripts were readily detected (PTPos). These groups exhibited substantial differences in host responses to infection. PTPos biopsies contained an unexpected increase in B lymphocyte-specific and immunoglobulin transcripts in the lesions, and an upregulation of immune inhibitory molecules. Biopsies without detectable parasite transcripts showed decreased evidence for B cell activation, but increased expression of antimicrobial genes and genes encoding skin barrier functions. The composition and abundance of L. braziliensis transcripts in PTPos lesions were surprisingly conserved among all six patients, with minimal meaningful differences between lesions from patients with early and late cutaneous leishmaniasis. The most abundant parasite transcripts expressed in lesions were distinct from transcripts expressed in vitro in human macrophage cultures infected with L. amazonensis or L. major. Therefore in vitro gene expression in macrophage monolayers may not be a strong predictor of gene expression in lesions. Some of the most highly expressed in vivo transcripts encoded amastin-like proteins, hypothetical genes, putative parasite virulence factors, as well as histones and tubulin. In summary, RNA sequencing allowed us to simultaneously analyze human and L. braziliensis transcriptomes in lesions of infected patients, and identify unexpected differences in host immune responses which correlated with active transcription of parasite genes. PMID:27631090
França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D
This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%.
Differentiation between canine cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis by the detection of immunoglobulin G specific for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi antigens using flow cytometry.
Santiago, Marta de Almeida; Ribeiro, Flávia Coelho; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Nascimento, Lílian Dias; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Madeira, Maria de Fatima; Bertho, Alvaro Luiz
Flow cytometry employing Leishmania (L.) chagasi (Lc) and L. (Viannia) braziliensis (Lb) antigen was used to establish the differential diagnosis between visceral (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in dogs. Flow cytometry permitted the detection of Leishmania-specific immunoglobulin G in sera from 19 dogs: nine with CL and 10 with VL. A significant difference in the percentage of positive staining was observed in sera from dogs with CL between the homologous antigen (69% for Lb) and the heterologous antigen (42% for Lc). However, this difference was not significant in sera from dogs with VL (61% for Lb and 73% for Lc). No significant staining was observed in control sera (0.6% for Lb and 0.4% for Lc) consisting of samples from healthy dogs, or in the group with sporotrichosis (1.8% for Lb and 1.5% for Lc), a differential diagnosis of CL. The results suggest that flow cytometry might be useful for the differentiation between CL and VL in dogs, with practical applications in areas where the two infections overlap.
Cuba Cuba, C A; Miles, M A; Vexenat, A; Barker, D C; McMahon Pratt, D; Butcher, J; Barreto, A C; Marsden, P D
The characterization and identification to species and subspecies of 20 stocks of Leishmania isolated from the region of Três Braços, Bahia, Brazil, are described: 17 stocks were from patients and three from dogs. The following techniques were used (i) biological (growth in culture, hamster tissues and phlebotomine gut), (ii) biochemical (isoenzyme and kinetoplast DNA analysis) and (iii) immunological (using monoclonal antibodies). All except two stocks belong to the L. braziliensis complex. One of these two corresponded to L. mexicana amazonensis but the other, while clearly in the mexicana complex, showed slight differences from the L. mexicana amazonensis reference strain on isoenzyme analysis. Two stocks from different lesions in the same patient and with different growth characteristics in hamster tissues were both identified as L. braziliensis braziliensis. All the fully characterized stocks of the L. braziliensis complex were identified as L. braziliensis braziliensis. L. braziliensis guyanensis was not identified. Dog and human stocks of L. braziliensis braziliensis were indistinguishable. From these findings and other evidence, L. braziliensis braziliensis seems to be the predominant species transmitted in Três Braços.
Rosa, Juan; Pereira, Daniela Pita; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade; Salomón, Oscar; Szelag, Enrique
In Argentina, American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) extends up to 29°S in the phytogeographic regions of the Yungas (west), Chaco (center) and Paranaense (east). Since the Phlebotominae vectors of this disease in the western Chaco (dry Chaco) are unknown, in the present work, we studied the natural infection in Phlebotominae by PCR-ERFLP and Dot blot in order to incriminate these organisms as potential vectors. Captures with CDC-type traps were performed monthly in the domicile, the peridomicile and the forest in the Municipio Misión Nueva Pompeya, Chaco, Argentina, in two sites with human cases of ACL: Los Pozos (24°54'S, 61°22'W) and Fortín Arenales (24°58'S, 61°21'W), from November 2006 to December 2007. A total of 1702 Phlebotominae were captured: Mygonemyia migonei (83.8%), cortelezzii complex (11.1%), Mycropigomyia peresi (3.3%), Mycropygomy quinquefer (1.2%), Pintomyia torresi (0.2%) and Nyssomyia neivai (0.2%). Although no significant differences were found in species diversity, there were significant differences in abundance between both sites studied. A total of 80 phlebotomine females were analyzed: 50 of the cortelezzii complex and 30 My. migonei. No intestinal flagellates were observed by light microscopy. Two pools of 10 individuals of the cortelezzii complex of the peridomicile and forest of Fortín Arenales were reactive by PCR and Dot blot for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. In Argentina, Evandromyia cortelezzii has been incriminated as a likely vector of ACL because of its abundance in areas of sporadic outbreaks. In the present work, Ev. cortelezzii females were found naturally infected, thus reinforcing the hypothesis that the members of the cortelezzii complex act as vectors of the disease.
Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania was examined in the Department of Huanuco of Peru, where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is endemic. A total of 2,997 female sand flies were captured by CDC light traps and Shannon traps, of which 2,931 and 66 flies were identified as Lutzomyia tejadai and Lu fischeri, respectively. Using crude DNA extracted from individual sand flies as a template, Leishmania DNA was detected from one Lu. tejadai. The parasite species was identified as a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana on the basis of cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. The result suggested that Lu. tejadai is responsible for the transmission of the hybrid Leishmania circulating in this area.
The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania was examined in the Department of Huanuco of Peru, where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is endemic. A total of 2,997 female sand flies were captured by CDC light traps and Shannon traps, of which 2,931 and 66 flies were identified as Lutzomyia tejadai and Lu fischeri, respectively. Using crude DNA extracted from individual sand flies as a template, Leishmania DNA was detected from one Lu. tejadai. The parasite species was identified as a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana on the basis of cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. The result suggested that Lu. tejadai is responsible for the transmission of the hybrid Leishmania circulating in this area. PMID:26735142
Background The genetic variability of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis was assessed at intra and interpatient levels of individuals with different clinical manifestations of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). Methods Fifty-two samples, of which 13 originated from cutaneous lesions and 39 from mucosal lesions, provided by 35 patients, were examined by low-stringency single-specific-primer PCR (LSSP-PCR) and phenetic analysis. Genetic variability of L. (V.) braziliensis, in kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) signatures, was compared both from different patients and from different lesions of the same patient. Phenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the degree of heterogeneity of the kDNA minicircles. In order to evaluate inter and intrapatient L. (V.) braziliensis genetic variability, the percentage of shared bands and analysis of the coefficients of similarity were analyzed. Results Different genetic profiles, representing kDNA signatures of the parasite, were obtained by LSSP-PCR analysis of each sample. Phenetic analysis grouped genetic profiles of different levels of differentiation from more similar to most divergent. The percentage of shared bands at the inter and intrapatient levels was 77% and 89%, respectively. Comparison of the average inter and intrapatient coefficients of similarity and their standard deviations were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion Genetic variability at the intrapatient level was less pronounced than that between different patients. A conceptual model was proposed to better understand the complexity at both levels. PMID:23786878
Navarro, P; Sánchez-Moreno, M; Marín, C; García-España, E; Ramírez-Macías, I; Olmo, F; Rosales, M J; Gómez-Contreras, F; Yunta, M J R; Gutierrez-Sánchez, R
The in vitro leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of pyrazole-containing macrocyclic polyamines 1-4 was assayed on Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis species. Compounds 1-4 were more active and less toxic than glucantime and both infection rates and ultrastructural alterations confirmed that 1 and 2 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications in the excretion products of parasites treated with 1-3 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasm alterations. Compound 2 was highlighted as a potent inhibitor of Fe-SOD in both species, whereas its effect on human CuZn-SOD was poor. Molecular modelling suggested that 2 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the enzyme`s antioxidant features.
Nakagaki, Brenda Naemi; Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Canavaci, Adriana Monte Cassiano; Souza Melo, Normanda; Martinelli, Patrícia Massara; Fernandes, Ana Paula; daRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.
Leishmaniasis, a human parasitic disease with manifestations ranging from cutaneous ulcerations to fatal visceral infection, is caused by several Leishmania species. These protozoan parasites replicate as extracellular, flagellated promastigotes in the gut of a sandfly vector and as amastigotes inside the parasitophorous vacuole of vertebrate host macrophages. Amastins are surface glycoproteins encoded by large gene families present in the genomes of several trypanosomatids and highly expressed in the intracellular amastigote stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. Here, we showed that the genome of L. braziliensis contains 52 amastin genes belonging to all four previously described amastin subfamilies and that the expression of members of all subfamilies is upregulated in L. braziliensis amastigotes. Although primary sequence alignments showed no homology to any known protein sequence, homology searches based on secondary structure predictions indicate that amastins are related to claudins, a group of proteins that are components of eukaryotic tight junction complexes. By knocking-down the expression of δ-amastins in L. braziliensis, their essential role during infection became evident. δ-amastin knockdown parasites showed impaired growth after in vitro infection of mouse macrophages and completely failed to produce infection when inoculated in BALB/c mice, an attenuated phenotype that was reverted by the re-expression of an RNAi-resistant amastin gene. Further highlighting their essential role in host-parasite interactions, electron microscopy analyses of macrophages infected with amastin knockdown parasites showed significant alterations in the tight contact that is normally observed between the surface of wild type amastigotes and the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole. PMID:26641088
Téllez, Jair; Romanha, Alvaro José; Steindel, Mario
Cysteine metabolism is considered essential for the crucial maintenance of a reducing environment in trypanosomatids due to its importance as a precursor of trypanothione biosynthesis. Expression, activity, functional rescue, and overexpression of cysteine synthase (CS) and cystathionine β-synthase (CβS) were evaluated in Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes under in vitro stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, or antimonial compounds. Our results demonstrate a stage-specific increase in the levels of protein expression and activity of L. braziliensis CS (LbrCS) and L. braziliensis CβS (LbrCβS), resulting in an increment of total thiol levels in response to both oxidative and nitrosative stress. The rescue of the CS activity in Trypanosoma rangeli, a trypanosome that does not perform cysteine biosynthesis de novo, resulted in increased rates of survival of epimastigotes expressing the LbrCS under stress conditions compared to those of wild-type parasites. We also found that the ability of L. braziliensis promastigotes and amastigotes overexpressing LbrCS and LbrCβS to resist oxidative stress was significantly enhanced compared to that of nontransfected cells, resulting in a phenotype far more resistant to treatment with the pentavalent form of Sb in vitro. In conclusion, the upregulation of protein expression and increment of the levels of LbrCS and LbrCβS activity alter parasite resistance to antimonials and may influence the efficacy of antimony treatment of New World leishmaniasis. PMID:26033728
Bastos, Matheus Silva e; de Souza, Luciana Ângelo; Onofre, Thiago Souza; Silva, Abelardo; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Bressan, Gustavo Costa; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel
BACKGROUND Gene reporter-fluorescent cells have emerged as alternative method for drug screening. OBJECTIVE Achievement of constitutive expression of fluorescent protein GFP by Leishmania braziliensis as alternative method for drug screening. METHODS L. braziliensis-GFP was generated using Leishmania tarentolae pLEXSY-egfp for constitutive expression of GFP. Fluorescent cells were selected and subjected to standardisation tests of anti-promastigote and anti-intracellular amastigote assays. FINDINGS Our results showed that L. braziliensis-GFP method is faster and more sensitive than Allamar Blue-resazurin. MAIN CONCLUSION Transfected parasites maintained stable fluorescence after successive in vitro passages and pLEXSY system can be used to achieve non-L. tarentolae fluorescent cells. PMID:28177050
Carneiro, Marcia W.; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Curvelo, Rebecca P.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Carvalho, Augusto M.; Barral, Aldina
Background The initial response to Leishmania parasites is essential in determining disease development or resistance. In vitro, a divergent response to Leishmania, characterized by high or low IFN-γ production has been described as a potential tool to predict both vaccine response and disease susceptibility in vivo. Methods and findings We identified uninfected and healthy individuals that were shown to be either high- or low IFN-γ producers (HPs and LPs, respectively) following stimulation of peripheral blood cells with Leishmania braziliensis. Following stimulation, RNA was processed for gene expression analysis using immune gene arrays. Both HPs and LPs were shown to upregulate the expression of CXCL10, IFI27, IL6 and LTA. Genes expressed in HPs only (CCL7, IL8, IFI44L and IL1B) were associated with pathways related to IL17 and TREM 1 signaling. In LPs, uniquely expressed genes (for example IL9, IFI44, IFIT1 and IL2RA) were associated with pathways related to pattern recognition receptors and interferon signaling. We then investigated whether the unique gene expression profiles described here could be recapitulated in vivo, in individuals with active Cutaneous Leishmaniasis or with subclinical infection. Indeed, using a set of six genes (TLR2, JAK2, IFI27, IFIT1, IRF1 and IL6) modulated in HPs and LPs, we could successfully discriminate these two clinical groups. Finally, we demonstrate that these six genes are significantly overexpressed in CL lesions. Conclusion Upon interrogation of the peripheral response of naive individuals with diverging IFN-γ production to L. braziliensis, we identified differences in the innate response to the parasite that are recapitulated in vivo and that discriminate CL patients from individuals presenting a subclinical infection. PMID:27870860
Use of ELISA employing Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi antigens for the detection of IgG and IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs.
Ribeiro, Flávia Coelho; de O Schubach, Armando; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Tânia M P; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Marzochi, Mauro C A
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) shows a reduced humoral response in dogs and levels of specific antibodies may therefore not be detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Although the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is higher than that of indirect immunofluorescence, the best antigen for the diagnosis of ATL in dogs has not been defined. The detection of IgG subclasses represents an alternative to increase the efficiency of the serological diagnosis. In Rio de Janeiro, sporotrichosis is the main differential diagnosis of ATL in dogs, and a sensitive, specific and little invasive method that permits the discrimination of the two diseases is desired. In the present study, 69 serum samples, 34 obtained from dogs with ATL and 35 from dogs with sporotrichosis, all of them with a confirmed etiological diagnosis, were tested. The samples were analyzed by ELISA using Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (L.) chagasi antigens for the detection of anti-Leishmania IgG, IgG1 and IgG2. The use of L. (V.) braziliensis antigens for the detection of IgG and IgG2 yielded the best results. Using L. (L.) chagasi antigen, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of IgG were 82.4% and 100%, respectively, whereas both sensitivity and specificity were 97.1% with the L. (V.) braziliensis antigen. No improvement in the performance of the test was observed when IgG2 was analyzed separately. The IgG1 assays presented low accuracy, irrespective of the antigen used: sensitivity and specificity of 58.8% and 60% for L. (V.) braziliensis and of 64.7% and 77.1% for L. (L.) chagasi, respectively. The present results suggest that IgG ELISA using the L. (V.) braziliensis shows the best performance for the diagnosis of ATL, permitting the discrimination between cases of ATL and sporotrichosis in dogs.
Dores-Silva, Paulo R; Nishimura, Letícia S; Kiraly, Vanessa T R; Borges, Júlio C
Heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70) is a conserved molecular chaperone family involved in several functions related to protein homeostasis. In eukaryotes, Hsp70 homologues are found in all cell compartments. The mitochondrial Hsp70 isoform (mtHsp70) is involved in import of mitochondrial matrix proteins as well as their folding and maturation. Moreover, mtHsp70 has the propensity to self-aggregate, and it depends on the action of the co-chaperone Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1) to be produced functional. Here, we analyze the solution structure and function of mtHsp70 of Leishmania braziliensis (LbmtHsp70). This recombinant protein was obtained folded, in the monomeric state and it has an elongated shape. We observed that LbmtHsp70 suffers thermal aggregation that depends on the protein concentration and is composed of domains with different thermal stabilities. LbmtHsp70 interacted with adenosine nucleotides with a thermodynamic signature different from those reported for human orthologues and interacted, driven by both enthalpy and entropy, with L. braziliensis Hep1 (LbHep1) with a nanomolar dissociation constant. Moreover, LbHep1 stimulated the LbmtHsp70 ATPase activity. Since little is known about mitochondrial Hsp70, particularly in protozoa, we believe that our data are of interest for understanding protozoan Hsp70 machinery.
Seraphim, Thiago V; Silva, Kelly P; Dores-Silva, Paulo R; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Borges, Júlio C
Heat shock protein of 90kDa (Hsp90) is an essential molecular chaperone involved in a plethora of cellular activities which modulate protein homeostasis. During the Hsp90 mechanochemical cycle, it undergoes large conformational changes, oscillating between open and closed states. Although structural and conformational equilibria of prokaryotic and some eukaryotic Hsp90s are known, some protozoa Hsp90 structures and dynamics are poorly understood. In this study, we report the solution structure and conformational dynamics of Leishmania braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) investigated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The results indicate that LbHsp90 coexists in open and closed conformations in solution and that the linkers between domains are not randomly distributed. These findings noted interesting features of the LbHsp90 system, opening doors for further conformational studies of other protozoa chaperones.
Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Rodrigues, Bruno Leite; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira
Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp. We tested 450 Culicoides females, divided into 30 pools of 15 individuals each, as follows: nine pools of C. foxi (135 specimens), seven pools of C. filariferus (105), seven pools of C. insignis (105), five pools of C. ignacioi (75), and two pools of C. flavivenula (30). PCR confirmed the presence of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in C. ignacioi (0.14%), C. insignis (0.14%), and C. foxi (0.11); and Le. amazonensis DNA in C. filariferus (0.14%) and C. flavivenula (0.50%). We conclude that these Culicoides species can be naturally infected, but vector competence and transmission capability must be confirmed in future studies. Our results warrant further investigation into the role of these biting midge species in the leishmaniasis epidemiological cycle.
Mendes, Daniella G; Lauria-Pires, Liana; Nitz, Nadjar; Lozzi, Silene P; Nascimento, Rubens J; Monteiro, Pedro S; Rebelo, Manuel M; Rosa, Ana de Cássia; Santana, Jaime M; Teixeira, Antonio R L
Lack of conservation of the Amazon tropical rainforest has imposed severe threats to its human population living in newly settled villages, resulting in outbreaks of some infectious diseases. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 1100 inhabitants of 15 villages of Paço do Lumiar County, Brazil. Thirty-five (3%) individuals had been exposed to Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), 41 (4%) to Leishmania braziliensis (Lb) and 50 (4.5%) to Leishmania chagasi (Lc) infections. Also, 35 cases had antibodies that were cross-reactive against the heterologous kinetoplastid antigens. Amongst these, the Western blot assays revealed that 11 (1%) had Tc and Lb, that seven (0.6%) had Lc and Tc, and that 17 (1.6%) had Lb and Lc infections. All of these cases of exposures to mixed infections with Leishmania sp, and eight of 11 cases of Tc and Lb were confirmed by specific PCR assays and Southern hybridizations. Two cases had triple infections. We consider these asymptomatic cases showing phenotype and genotype markers consistent with mixed infections by two or more kinetoplastid flagellates a high risk factor for association with Psychodidae and Triatominae vectors blood feeding and transmitting these protozoa infections. This is the first publication showing human exposure to mixed asymptomatic kinetoplastid infections in the Amazon.
Guerra Pinto, Juliana; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Mittmann, Josane
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. The treatment may consist of pentavalent antimonials or pentamidine and amphotericin. However, these treatments are extremely aggressive. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) involves the same mechanism of photodynamic therapy which associates a photosensitizer with oxygen and a light source generating a photochemical reaction leading to cell death. The aim of this study was to verify the potential use of silicon bis (dimetilaminoetanoxi)-phthalocyanine (SiPc) compound in photodynamic treatment through evaluation of its phototoxic effect in promastigotes of the genus Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania major. Treatment with SiPc was able to drastically affect the viability of the parasites as well as affect their growth and morphology, after PACT treatment. The data shown in this study allows us to conclude that SiPc is a promising photosensitizer (PS) since it does not affect parasite growth and viability in the dark. After PACT with this phthalocyanine, over 99% of parasites were killed with the higher concentration and a light dose used. These results suggest that SiPc can be used in future to treat CL, however, further studies are necessary to determine whether the PS are toxic to mononuclear phagocytic cells and epithelial cells which will also be affected by therapy when applied topically.
Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Sangiorgi, Bruno B.; Galdino, Suely L.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Barral Netto, Manoel; Correia, Neandder A.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.
Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that affects more than 12 million people in 88 countries worldwide. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the most common species in the Americas and the most important causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. The therapeutic arsenal routinely employed to treat patients with leishmaniasis is limited and unsatisfactory. For cutaneous leishmaniasis, pentavalent antimonials are the first line therapeutic scheme recommended by the WHO. These compounds are highly toxic, poorly tolerated and their effectiveness highly variable. In this work, a technique with, so far, an unknown disadvantage is discussed. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of PACT in vitro, as a new technique for the treatment of Leishmaniasis. For this, semiconductor laser (λ = 660nm, 40mW, 4.2J/cm2, CW) associated to phenothiazine's derivatives (5 and 10 μg/ml, TBO, Methylene Blue or Phenothiazine) on the promastigotes form of Leishmania braziliensis in a single session was used. Viability of the parasites was assessed in quadruplicates of each group. The samples were removed and analyzed in a hemocytometer 72h after PACT. We found an important decrease in the number of viable parasites on all treated groups in comparison to their controls. The results of present study showed significant percentage of lethality (above 95%) of the protocol. The 99.23% of lethality was achieved with 10 μg/ml of TBO. No lethality was seen on groups treated neither with laser nor with each compounds separately. The results are promising and indicative that the use of PACT may be a powerful treatment of leishmaniasis when compared to already available ones.
Duarte, Mariana Costa; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Carvalho, Ana Maria Ravena Severino; Ludolf, Fernanda; Santos, Thaís Teodoro de Oliveira; Vale, Danniele Luciana; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz
In the present study, two proteins cloned from Leishmania braziliensis species, a hypothetical protein (LbHyp) and the eukaryotic initiation factor 5a (EiF5a), were evaluated to protect BALB/c mice against L. amazonensis infection. The animals were immunized with the antigens, either separately or in combination, using saponin as an immune adjuvant in both cases. Spleen cells from vaccinated and later infected mice produced significantly higher levels of protein and parasite-specific IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF, in addition to low levels of IL-4 and IL-10. Evaluating the parasite load by means of a limiting dilution technique and quantitative Real-Time PCR, vaccinated animals presented significant reductions in the parasite load in both infected tissues and organs, as well as lower footpad swelling, when compared to the control (saline and saponin) groups. The best results regarding the protection of the animals were achieved when the combined vaccine was administered into the animals. Protection was associated with an IFN-γ production against parasite antigens, which was mediated by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and correlated with antileishmanial nitrite production. In conclusion, data from the present study show that this polyprotein vaccine, which combines two L. braziliensis proteins, can induce protection against L. amazonensis infection.
Morais-Teixeira, Eliane de; Carvalho, Alcione S de; Costa, Jorge C S da; Duarte, Silvio L; Mendonça, Jorge S; Boechat, Núbia; Rabello, Ana
The leishmanicidal activity of four batches of meglumine antimoniate, produced in Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil (TAMs), was assessed and compared to Glucantime-Aventis Pharma Ltda. Using the amastigote-like in vitro model, the active concentrations of Sb v varied from 10microg/ml to 300microg/ml for L. (L.) chagasi and from 50microg/ml to 300microg/ml for L. (L.) amazonensis, with no statistically significant differences among the four batches of TAMs and Glucantime. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determined by the amastigote-infected macrophage model for TAM01/03 and Glucantime were, respectively: 26.3microg/ml and 127.6microg/ml for L. chagasi, 15.4microg /ml and 22.9microg/ml for L. amazonensis, and 12.1 microg/ml and 24.2microg/ml for L. (V.) braziliensis. The activities of the four batches of TAMs were confirmed in an in vivo model by assessing, during eight weeks skin lesions caused by L. braziliensis in hamster that were treated with 20mg Sb v/Kg/day for 30 consecutive days. The meglumine antimoniate produced by Farmanguinhos was as effective as the reference drug, Glucantime-Aventis, against three species of Leishmania that are of medical importance in Brazil.
Background Leishmania (V.) braziliensis is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. During the parasite life cycle, the promastigotes adhere to the gut of sandflies, to avoid being eliminated with the dejection. The Lulo cell line, derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), is a suitable in vitro study model to understand the features of parasite adhesion. Here, we analyze the role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from Lulo cells and proteins from the parasites in this event. Methods Flagellar (Ff) and membrane (Mf) fractions from promastigotes were obtained by differential centrifugation and the purity of fractions confirmed by western blot assays, using specific antibodies for cellular compartments. Heparin-binding proteins (HBP) were isolated from both fractions using a HiTrap-Heparin column. In addition, binding of promastigotes to Lulo cells or to a heparin-coated surface was assessed by inhibition assays or surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Results The success of promastigotes subcellular fractionation led to the obtainment of Ff and Mf proteins, both of which presented two main protein bands (65.0 and 55.0kDa) with affinity to heparin. The contribution of HBPs in the adherence of promastigotes to Lulo cells was assessed through competition assays, using HS or the purified HBPs fractions. All tested samples presented a measurable inhibition rate when compared to control adhesion rate (17 ± 2.0% of culture cells with adhered parasites): 30% (for HS 20μg/ml) and 16% (for HS 10μg/ml); HBP Mf (35.2% for 10μg/ml and 25.4% for 20μg/ml) and HBP Ff (10.0% for 10μg/ml and 31.4% for 20μg/ml). Additionally, to verify the presence of sulfated GAGs in Lulo cells surface and intracellular compartment, metabolic labeling with radioactive sulfate was performed, indicating the presence of an HS and chondroitin sulfate in both cell sections. The SPR analysis performed further confirmed the presence of GAGs ligands on L. (V
Shender, Lisa A.; De Los Santos, Maxy; Montgomery, Joel M.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Razuri, Hugo; Lescano, Andres G.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.
An estimated 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years are lost globally from leishmaniasis. In Peru's Amazon region, the department of Madre de Dios (MDD) rises above the rest of the country in terms of the annual incidence rates of human leishmaniasis. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the species most frequently responsible for the form of disease that results in tissue destruction of the nose and mouth. However, essentially nothing is known regarding the reservoirs of this vector-borne, zoonotic parasite in MDD. Wild rodents have been suspected, or proven, to be reservoirs of several Leishmania spp. in various ecosystems and countries. Additionally, people who live or work in forested terrain, especially those who are not regionally local and whose immune systems are thus naïve to the parasite, are at most risk for contracting L. (V.) braziliensis. Hence, the objective of this study was to collect tissues from wild rodents captured at several study sites along the Amazonian segment of the newly constructed Transoceanic Highway and to use molecular laboratory techniques to analyze samples for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Liver tissues were tested via polymerase chain reaction from a total of 217 rodents; bone marrow and skin biopsies (ear and tail) were also tested from a subset of these same animals. The most numerous rodent species captured and tested were Oligoryzomys microtis (40.7%), Hylaeamys perenensis (15.7%), and Proechimys spp. (12%). All samples were negative for Leishmania, implying that although incidental infections may occur, these abundant rodent species are unlikely to serve as primary reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in MDD. Therefore, although these rodent species may persist and even thrive in moderately altered landscapes, we did not find any evidence to suggest they pose a risk for L. (V.) braziliensis transmission to human inhabitants in this highly prevalent region. PMID:25062033
Shender, Lisa A; De Los Santos, Maxy; Montgomery, Joel M; Conrad, Patricia A; Ghersi, Bruno M; Razuri, Hugo; Lescano, Andres G; Mazet, Jonna A K
An estimated 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years are lost globally from leishmaniasis. In Peru's Amazon region, the department of Madre de Dios (MDD) rises above the rest of the country in terms of the annual incidence rates of human leishmaniasis. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the species most frequently responsible for the form of disease that results in tissue destruction of the nose and mouth. However, essentially nothing is known regarding the reservoirs of this vector-borne, zoonotic parasite in MDD. Wild rodents have been suspected, or proven, to be reservoirs of several Leishmania spp. in various ecosystems and countries. Additionally, people who live or work in forested terrain, especially those who are not regionally local and whose immune systems are thus naïve to the parasite, are at most risk for contracting L. (V.) braziliensis. Hence, the objective of this study was to collect tissues from wild rodents captured at several study sites along the Amazonian segment of the newly constructed Transoceanic Highway and to use molecular laboratory techniques to analyze samples for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Liver tissues were tested via polymerase chain reaction from a total of 217 rodents; bone marrow and skin biopsies (ear and tail) were also tested from a subset of these same animals. The most numerous rodent species captured and tested were Oligoryzomys microtis (40.7%), Hylaeamys perenensis (15.7%), and Proechimys spp. (12%). All samples were negative for Leishmania, implying that although incidental infections may occur, these abundant rodent species are unlikely to serve as primary reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in MDD. Therefore, although these rodent species may persist and even thrive in moderately altered landscapes, we did not find any evidence to suggest they pose a risk for L. (V.) braziliensis transmission to human inhabitants in this highly prevalent region.
Duarte, Mariana C.; Pimenta, Daniel C.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Magalhães, Rubens D. M.; Diniz, João L. C. P.; Costa, Lourena E.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Lage, Paula S.; Bartholomeu, Daniela C.; Alves, Maria Julia M.; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Gonçalves, Denise U.; Rocha, Manoel O. C.
The serodiagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) presents some problems, such as the low level of antileishmanial antibodies found in most of the patients, as well as the cross-reactivity in subjects infected by other trypanosomatids. In the present study, an immunoproteomic approach was performed aimed at identification of antigens in total extracts of stationary-phase promastigote and amastigote-like forms of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using sera from TL patients. With the purpose of reducing the cross-reactivity of the identified proteins, spots recognized by sera from TL patients, as well as those recognized by antibodies present in sera from noninfected patients living in areas where TL is endemic and sera from Chagas disease patients, were discarded. Two Leishmania hypothetical proteins and 18 proteins with known functions were identified as antigenic. The study was extended with some of them to validate the results of the immunoscreening. The coding regions of five of the characterized antigens (enolase, tryparedoxin peroxidase, eukaryotic initiation factor 5a, β-tubulin, and one of the hypothetical proteins) were cloned in a prokaryotic expression vector, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and evaluated for the serodiagnosis of TL. The antigens presented sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 95.4 to 100% and 82.5 to 100%, respectively. As a comparative antigen, a preparation of Leishmania extract showed sensitivity and specificity values of 65.1 and 57.5%, respectively. The present study has enabled the identification of proteins able to be employed for the serodiagnosis of TL. PMID:26376929
Duarte, Mariana C; Pimenta, Daniel C; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Magalhães, Rubens D M; Diniz, João L C P; Costa, Lourena E; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Lage, Paula S; Bartholomeu, Daniela C; Alves, Maria Julia M; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Gonçalves, Denise U; Rocha, Manoel O C; Coelho, Eduardo A F
The serodiagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) presents some problems, such as the low level of antileishmanial antibodies found in most of the patients, as well as the cross-reactivity in subjects infected by other trypanosomatids. In the present study, an immunoproteomic approach was performed aimed at identification of antigens in total extracts of stationary-phase promastigote and amastigote-like forms of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using sera from TL patients. With the purpose of reducing the cross-reactivity of the identified proteins, spots recognized by sera from TL patients, as well as those recognized by antibodies present in sera from noninfected patients living in areas where TL is endemic and sera from Chagas disease patients, were discarded. Two Leishmania hypothetical proteins and 18 proteins with known functions were identified as antigenic. The study was extended with some of them to validate the results of the immunoscreening. The coding regions of five of the characterized antigens (enolase, tryparedoxin peroxidase, eukaryotic initiation factor 5a, β-tubulin, and one of the hypothetical proteins) were cloned in a prokaryotic expression vector, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and evaluated for the serodiagnosis of TL. The antigens presented sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 95.4 to 100% and 82.5 to 100%, respectively. As a comparative antigen, a preparation of Leishmania extract showed sensitivity and specificity values of 65.1 and 57.5%, respectively. The present study has enabled the identification of proteins able to be employed for the serodiagnosis of TL.
F. Brito, Maria E.; Carvalho, Francisco G.; Carvalho, Ana Waléria S.; Soares, Fábia; Carvalho, Silvia M.; Costa, Pietra L.; Zampieri, Ricardo; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M.; Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Brandão-Filho, Sinval P.
Background The possibility that a multi-host wildlife reservoir is responsible for maintaining transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis causing human cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is tested by comparative analysis of infection progression and infectiousness to sandflies in rodent host species previously shown to have high natural infection prevalences in both sylvatic or/and peridomestic habitats in close proximity to humans in northeast Brazil. Methods The clinical and parasitological outcomes, and infectiousness to sandflies, were observed in 54 colonized animals of three species (18 Necromys lasiurus, 18 Nectomys squamipes and 18 Rattus rattus) experimentally infected with high (5.5×106/ml) or low (2.8×105/ml) dose L. (V.) braziliensis (MBOL/BR/2000/CPqAM95) inoculum. Clinical signs of infection were monitored daily. Whole animal xenodiagnoses were performed 6 months post inoculation using Lutzomyia longipalpis originating from flies caught in Passira, Pernambuco, after this parasite evaluation was performed at necropsy. Heterogeneities in Leishmania parasite loads were measured by quantitative PCR in ear skin, liver and spleen tissues. Results All three rodent species proved to establish infection characterized by short-term self-resolving skin lesions, located on ears and tail but not on footpads (one site of inoculation), and variable parasite loads detected in all three tissues with maximum burdens of 8.1×103 (skin), 2.8×103 (spleen), and 8.9×102 (liver). All three host species, 18/18 N. lasiurus, 10/18 N. squamipes and 6/18 R. rattus, also proved infectious to sandflies in cross-sectional study. R. rattus supported significantly lower tissue parasite loads compared to those in N. lasiurus and N. squamipes, and N. lasiurus appeared to be more infectious, on average, than either N. squamipes or R. rattus. Conclusions A multi-host reservoir of cutaneous leishmaniasis is indicated in this region of Brazil, though with apparent
Romero, Angel H; Medina, Rafael; Alcala, Anamaría; García-Marchan, Yael; Núñez-Duran, Jorge; Leañez, Jacques; Mijoba, Ali; Ciangherotti, Carlos; Serrano-Martín, Xenón; López, Simón E
With the aim to identify a potential drug candidate to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, a series of 1-phthalazinyl hydrazones were synthesized and tested against Leishmania braziliensis parasite, one of the main responsible of this disease in the world. A structure-activity relationship permitted to identify two phthalazines containing nitroheterocyclic moiety 3l and 3m as promising new lead compounds. These compounds showed a significant antileishmanial activity against promastigote form of L. braziliensis, with EC50 values in sub-micromolar and nanomolar ranges. The phthalazine 3l also displayed a selective and excellent activity against the clinically relevant intracellular amastigotes form, with a EC50 value in sub-micromolar range (0.59 μM), without affecting the viability of the host cells. Oxidative stress was identified as the possible mode of action of the most active phthalazine. Considering their significant antileishmanial activity and ease synthesis, the phthalazine containing nitroheterocyclic represents a promising agent against Leishmania braziliensis for the rational design of new leads.
Santos, P L; Costa, R V; Braz, J M; Santos, L F V C; Batista, A C; Vasconcelos, C R O; Rangel, M R; Ribeiro de Jesus, A; de Moura, T R; Leopoldo, P T G; Almeida, R P
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role as a leishmanicidal agent in murine macrophages. NO resistant Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been associated with poor outcomes of their resulting diseases. NO resistant Leishmania braziliensis has also been identified and exacerbates the clinical course of human leishmaniasis. We report, for the first time, natural resistance of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes to NO. These parasites were isolated from humans and dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. We also demonstrate that this resistance profile was associated with a greater survival capacity and a greater parasite burden in murine macrophages, independent of activation and after activation by IFN-γ and LPS.
Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Sangiorgi, Bruno B.; Galdino, Suely L.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.
Leishmaniasis, a protozoan parasitic disease that remains a major worldwide health problem with high endemicity in developing countries. Treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) should be decided by the clinical lesions, etiological species and its potential to develop into mucosal Leishmaniasis. High cost, systemic toxicity, and diminished efficacy due to development of parasite resistance are the serious drawbacks of current treatment options. Thus, identifying new, effective, and safer anti-leishmanial drug(s) is of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of PACT in vitro, as a new technique for the treatment of Leishmaniasis. For this, semiconductor laser (λ = 660nm, 40mW, 8.4J/cm2, CW) associated to phenothiazine's derivatives (5 and 10 μg/ml, TBO, Methylene Blue or Phenothiazine) on the promastigotes form of Leishmania braziliensis in a single session was used. Viability of the parasites was assessed in quadruplicates of each group. The samples were removed and analyzed in a hemocytometer 72h after PACT. We found an important decrease in the number of viable parasites on all treated groups in comparison to their controls. The results of present study showed significant percentage of lethality (above 92%) of the protocol. The 98.33% of lethality was achieved with 10 μg/ml of FTZ. No lethality was seen on groups treated neither with laser nor with each compounds separately. The results are promising and indicative that the use of PACT may be a powerful treatment of Leishmaniasis when compared to already available ones.
Atypical mucocutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient: T-cell responses and remission of lesions associated with antigen immunotherapy.
Da-Cruz, A M; Filgueiras, D V; Coutinho, Z; Mayrink, W; Grimaldi, G; De Luca, P M; Mendonca, S C; Coutinho, S G
An atypical case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated mucocutaneous lesions due to Leishmania braziliensis is described. Many vacuolated macrophages laden with amastigote forms of the parasite were found in the lesions. Leishmanin skin test and serology for leishmaniasis were both negative. The patient was resistant to therapy with conventional drugs (antimonial and amphotericin B). Interestingly, remission of lesions was achieved after an alternative combined therapy of antimonial associated with immunotherapy (whole promastigote antigens). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated and stimulated in vitro with Leishmania antigens to test the lymphoproliferative responses (LPR). Before the combined immunochemotherapy, the LPR to leishmanial antigens was negligible (stimulation index - SI=1.4). After the first course of combined therapy it became positive (SI=4.17). The antigen responding cells were predominantly T-cells (47.5%) most of them with CD8+ phenotype (33%). Very low CD4+ cells (2.2%) percentages were detected. The increased T-cell responsiveness to leishmanial antigens after combined therapy was accompanied by interferon-g (IFN-g) production as observed in the cell culture supernatants. In this patient, healing of the leishmaniasis lesions was associated with the induction of a specific T-cell immune response, characterized by the production of IFN-g and the predominance of the CD8+ phenotype among the Leishmania-reactive T-cells.
Newlove, Tracey; Guimarães, Luiz H.; Morgan, Daniel J.; Alcântara, Leda; Glesby, Marshall J.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Machado, Paulo R.
Helminth infections influence the clinical response to certain diseases and are associated with delayed healing time of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to examine the role of early versus deferred treatment of intestinal helminth infection on the clinical course of patients with CL treated with pentavalent antimony. (Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00469495). A total of 90 patients were enrolled, 51.1% (N = 23) of control patients had persistent lesions at Day 90, compared with 62.2% (N = 28) in the treatment group (difference 11.1%, 95% confidence interval = −9.1–30.0%). There was no statistically significant difference in overall time to cure between groups, although there was a tendency for shorter cure times in the control group. This study shows that early introduction of antihelminthic therapy does not improve clinical outcome in patients co-infected with helminths and L. braziliensis. PMID:21460008
e Silva, Rafael de Freitas; Ferreira, Luiz Felipe Gomes Rebello; Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; de Oliveira, Beatriz Coutinho; da Silva, Ailton Alvaro; de-Melo-Neto, Osvaldo Pompílio; Rezende, Antônio Mauro; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves
The leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases widespread throughout the globe, which are caused by protozoans from the genus Leishmania and are transmitted by infected phlebotomine flies. The development of a safe and effective vaccine against these diseases has been seen as the best alternative to control and reduce the number of cases. To support vaccine development, this work has applied an in silico approach to search for high potential peptide epitopes able to bind to different major histocompatibility complex Class I and Class II (MHC I and MHC II) molecules from different human populations. First, the predicted proteome of Leishmania braziliensis was compared and analyzed by modern linear programs to find epitopes with the capacity to trigger an immune response. This approach resulted in thousands of epitopes derived from 8,000 proteins conserved among different Leishmania species. Epitopes from proteins similar to those found in host species were excluded, and epitopes from proteins conserved between different Leishmania species and belonging to surface proteins were preferentially selected. The resulting epitopes were then clustered, to avoid redundancies, resulting in a total of 230 individual epitopes for MHC I and 2,319 for MHC II. These were used for molecular modeling and docking with MHC structures retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. Molecular docking then ranked epitopes based on their predicted binding affinity to both MHC I and II. Peptides corresponding to the top 10 ranked epitopes were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their capacity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from post-treated cutaneous leishmaniasis patients, with PBMC from healthy donors used as control. From the 10 peptides tested, 50% showed to be immunogenic and capable to stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes from recovered individuals. PMID:27621732
Inacio, Job D. F.; Gervazoni, Luiza; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene M.; Almeida-Amaral, Elmo E.
Background Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease associated with extensive mortality and morbidity. The treatment for leishmaniasis is currently based on pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B; however, these drugs result in numerous adverse side effects. Natural compounds have been used as novel treatments for parasitic diseases. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) on Leishmania braziliensis in vitro and in vivo and described the mechanism of EGCG action against L. braziliensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Methodology/Principal Finding In vitro activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements were determined during the promastigote and intracellular amastigote life stages. The effect of EGCG on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was assayed using JC-1, and intracellular ATP concentrations were measured using a luciferin-luciferase system. The in vivo experiments were performed in infected BALB/c mice orally treated with EGCG. EGCG reduced promastigote viability and the infection index in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 278.8 µM and 3.4 µM, respectively, at 72 h and a selectivity index of 149.5. In addition, EGCG induced ROS production in the promastigote and intracellular amastigote, and the effects were reversed by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-catalase. Additionally, EGCG reduced ΔΨm, thereby decreasing intracellular ATP concentrations in promastigotes. Furthermore, EGCG treatment was also effective in vivo, demonstrating oral bioavailability and reduced parasitic loads without altering serological toxicity markers. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, our study demonstrates the leishmanicidal effects of EGCG against the two forms of L. braziliensis, the promastigote and amastigote. In addition, EGCG promotes ROS production as a part of its mechanism of action, resulting in decreased ΔΨm and reduced intracellular ATP concentrations. These actions ultimately
Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio
Background The early and correct diagnosis of human leishmaniasis is essential for disease treatment. Another important step in the control of visceral leishmaniasis is the identification of infected dogs, which are the main domestic reservoir of L. infantum. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides based on Leishmania genes have emerged as valuable targets for serodiagnosis due to their increased sensitivity, specificity and potential for standardization. Cathepsin L-like genes are surface antigens that are secreted by amastigotes and have little similarity to host proteins, factors that enable this protein as a good target for serodiagnosis of the leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We mapped a linear B-cell epitope within the Cathepsin L-like protein from L. braziliensis. A synthetic peptide containing the epitope and the recombinant protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of human tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis, as well as canine visceral leishmaniasis. Conclusions/Significance The recombinant protein performed best for human tegumentary and canine visceral leishmaniasis, with 96.30% and 89.33% accuracy, respectively. The synthetic peptide was the best to discriminate human visceral leishmaniasis, with 97.14% specificity, 94.55% sensitivity and 96.00% accuracy. Comparison with T. cruzi-infected humans and dogs suggests that the identified epitope is specific to Leishmania parasites, which minimizes the likelihood of cross-reactions. PMID:25569432
Ovalle-Bracho, Clemencia; Londoño-Barbosa, Diana A; Franco-Muñoz, Carlos; Clavijo-Ramírez, Carlos
Leishmaniasis development is multifactorial; nonetheless, the establishment of the infection, which occurs by the survival and replication of the parasite inside its main host cell, the macrophage, is mandatory. Thus, the importance of studying the molecular mechanisms involved in the Leishmania-macrophage interaction is highlighted. The aim of this study was to characterize a cellular model of macrophages derived from U937 cells that would allow for the identification of infection phenotypes induced by genetic silencing with interference RNA in the context of macrophages infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The model was standardized by silencing an exogenous gene (gfp), an endogenous gene (lmna) and a differentially expressed gene between infected and non-infected macrophages (gro-β). The silencing process was successful for the three genes studied, obtaining reductions of 88·9% in the GFP levels, 87·5% in LMNA levels and 74·4% for Gro-β with respect to the corresponding control cell lines. The cell model revealed changes in the infection phenotype of the macrophages in terms of number of amastigotes per infected macrophage, number of amastigotes per sampled macrophage and percentage of infected macrophages as a result of gene silencing. Thus, this cell model constitutes a research platform for the study of parasite-host interactions and for the identification of potentially therapeutic targets.
Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Santos, Thaís Teodoro de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Luíza Teixeira; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; de Carvalho, Silvio Fernando Guimarães; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio
The search toward the establishment of novel serological tests for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and proper differential diagnosis may represent one alternative to the invasive parasitological methods currently used to identify infected individuals. In the present work, we investigated the potential use of recombinant peroxidoxin (rPeroxidoxin) of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis as a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of human tegumentary (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Linear B-cell epitope mapping was performed to identify polymorphic epitopes when comparing orthologous sequences present in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent for Chagas disease (CD), and the Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris hosts. The serological assay (ELISA) demonstrated that TL, VL and CVL individuals showed high levels of antibodies against rPeroxidoxin, allowing identification of infected ones with considerable sensitivity and great ability to discriminate (specificity) between non-infected and CD individuals (98.46% and 100%; 98.18% and 95.71%; 95.79% and 100%, respectively). An rPeroxidoxin ELISA also showed a greater ability to discriminate between vaccinated and infected animals, which is an important requirement for the public campaign control of CVL. A depletion ELISA assay using soluble peptides of this B-cell epitope confirmed the recognition of these sites only by Leishmania-infected individuals. Moreover, this work identifies two antigenic polymorphic linear B-cell epitopes of L. braziliensis. Specific recognition of TL and VL patients was confirmed by significantly decreased IgG reactivity against rPeroxidoxin after depletion of peptide-1- and peptide-2-specific antibodies (peptide 1: reduced by 32%, 42% and 5% for CL, ML and VL, respectively; peptide-2: reduced by 24%, 22% and 13% for CL, ML and VL, respectively) and only peptide-2 for CVL (reduced 9%). Overall, rPeroxidoxin may be a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of TL
de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi
The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 10(6) promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10(7) L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 10(6) L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium.
de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes Júnior, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi
The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 106 promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 107 L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 106 L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921
Avila, J L; Rojas, M
An immunoglobulin M antibody reactive with galactosyl(alpha 1-3)mannose [Gal(alpha 1-3)Man] residues present on phospholipids extracted from Leishmania mexicana and L. braziliensis was found to be present in high titer in the serum of every normal individual studied. Periodate oxidation, acid hydrolysis, or acetylation suppressed immunoreactivity, suggesting that an oligosaccharide chain was responsible for antibody binding. Interaction occurs only with alpha-Gal terminal residues, since treatment of purified glycophospholipids with alpha-galactosidase but not with beta-galactosidase abolished it. Antibody bound to galactosyl(alpha 1-3)galactose-linked synthetic antigens but did not bind to the same residues present in rabbit, rat, and guinea pig erythrocytes or in murine laminin. Antigen-antibody binding was strongly blocked with Gal(alpha 1-3)Man and Gal(beta 1-4)Man. These results plus inhibition studies with several oligosaccharides suggest that they are indeed different from antibodies against the galactosyl(alpha 1-3)galactose residue. Anti-Gal(alpha 1-3)Man antibody values were significantly elevated in 89% of patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, 84% of patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, 69% of patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 44 and 62% of patients with Trypanosoma cruzi or T. rangeli infection, respectively, but not in patients with 15 other different infectious and inflammatory diseases. Anti-Gal(alpha 1-3)Man antibody readily absorbed to American Leishmania and Trypanosoma culture forms, suggesting a surface membrane localization of reactive epitope. Gal(alpha 1-3)Man-bearing glycophospholipid was easily extracted from American Leishmania promastigotes and T. cruzi trypomastigotes as well as from American Trypanosoma culture forms. The possibility that this antibody arises against parasitic glycophospholipid-linked Gal(alpha 1-3)Man terminal residues is proposed. PMID:1696285
Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; Voltarelli, Evandra Maria; Campois, Tácito Graminha; Kimura, Elza; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Caetano, Wilker; Hioka, Noboru; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi
Introduction: The topical and intradermal photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect of methylene blue (MB) using light-emitting diode (LED) as light source (MB/LED-PDT) in the treatment of lesions of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis in hamsters were investigated. Methods: Hamsters were infected in the footpad with 4×107 promastigotes of L. braziliensis and divided in 4 groups: Control group was not treated, AmB group was treated with amphotericin B, MB-Id group received intradermal MB at the edge of the lesion and MB-Tp group received MB topic. After treatment with MB, the animals were illuminated using red LEDs at the 655 nm wavelength for 1 hour. The MB/LED-PDT was carried out three times a week for 12 weeks. Results: Animals of MB-Tp group presented lesion healing with significant diminution in extent of the lesion, and reduced parasite burden compared to control group; however, no significant difference was seen compared to the AmB group. MB-Tp group also showed reconstitution of the epithelium, the formation of collagen fibers, organization in the epidermis, a little disorganization and inflammation in the dermis. MB-Id was ineffective in all parameters evaluated, and it was comparable to the control group results. Conclusion: These data show that PDT with the use of MB-Tp and LED may be an alternative for the treatment of ACL. However, additional studies are being conducted to assess the potential of MB/LED-PDT, alone or in combination with conventional therapy, for the treatment of ACL. PMID:26464777
Increasing in cysteine proteinase B expression and enzymatic activity during in vitro differentiation of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis: First evidence of modulation during morphological transition.
Gomes, Cinthia Bernardes; -Silva, Franklin Souza; Charret, Karen Dos Santos; Pereira, Bernardo Acácio Santini; Finkelstein, Léa Cysne; Santos-de-Souza, Raquel; de Castro Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro; Pereira, Mirian Claudia Souza; Rodrigues de Oliveira, Francisco Odêncio; Alves, Carlos Roberto
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis presents adaptive protease-dependent mechanisms, as cysteine proteinases B (CPB). This study investigates the expression of three cpb gene isoforms and CPB enzymatic activity during the parasite differentiation. Relative expression levels of LbrM.08.0810 gene were assessed, exhibiting a higher quantity of transcripts in the logarithmic promastigotes phase than in the stationary promastigotes phase (>1.5 times). The cbp gene tends to decrease during acid pH shock and increases when the temperature rises (>1.3 times). LbrM.08.0820 and LbrM.08.0830 genes exhibited similar expression profiles to LbrM.08.0810 gene, with lower levels being observed overall. The proteolytic activity exhibits a gradual increase during the parasite's differentiation with low levels in samples of logarithmic promastigotes phase (3.2 ± 0.08 mmol min(-1) mg protein(-1)) to a peak of activity after 72 h of incubation at 32 °C (4.2 ± 0.026 mmol min(-1) mg protein(-1)) followed by a subsequent decrease of 68 % of peak activity levels after 96 h of incubation at 32 °C (2.8 ± 0.37 mmol min(-1) mg protein(-1)). These activities were also measured in the presence of selective inhibitors for cysteine proteinases, such as Z-Phe-Phe-fluoromethyl ketone and trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane, demonstrating their source as cathepsin-like proteinases. To the best of our knowledge, this report presents the first description of a modulation of cathepsin L-like expression during the L. (V.) braziliensis in vitro differentiation induced by acid pH and high temperature.
Pires, Alause da Silva; Borges, Arissa Felipe; Cappellazzo Coelho, Adriano; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Pereira, Ledice Inacia de Araújo; Pinto, Sebastião Alves; Pelli de Oliveira, Milton Adriano; de Matos, Grazzielle Guimarães; Abrahamsohn, Ises A.; Uliana, Silvia Reni B.; Lima, Glória Maria Collet de Araújo; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima
The aim of this study was to characterize clinical field isolates of Leishmania spp. obtained from patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) who live in Goiás state, Brazil. The presumed areas of infection were in Goiás, Tocantins, and Pará states. Three isolates of parasites were identified as L. (Viannia) braziliensis and one as L. (V.) guyanensis. The in vitro growth profiles were found to be similar for all parasites. Nevertheless, in C57BL/6 mice, L. (V.) guyanensis infection was better controlled than L. (V.) braziliensis. Yet in C57BL/6 mice deficient in interferon gamma, L. (V.) guyanensis lesions developed faster than those caused by L. (V.) braziliensis isolates. In BALB/c mice, the development of lesions was similar for isolates from both species; however, on the 11th week of infection, amastigotes could not be observed in macrophages from L. (V.) guyanensis-infected mice. Thus, L. (V.) guyanensis can be circulating in Goiás, a state where autochthonous cases of this species had not yet been reported. Considering the difficulties to differentiate L. (V.) guyanensis from L. (V.) braziliensis at the molecular, morphological, and clinical (human and murine models) levels, the presence of L. (V.) guyanensis infections is possibly underestimated in several regions of Brazil. PMID:26583102
Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Queiroz, Adriano; Silva, Juliana A.; Silva, Silvana C.; Magalhães, Viviane; Lago, Ednaldo L.; Machado, Paulo Roberto L.; Bacellar, Olívia; Wilson, Mary E.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Schriefer, Albert
Background Atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has become progressively more frequent in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. Herein we characterize clinical presentation, antimony response, cytokine production and parasite strains prevailing in ACL. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2005 and 2012, 51 ACL (cases) and 51 temporally matched cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) subjects (controls) were enrolled and followed over time in Corte de Pedra. Clinical and therapeutic data were recorded for all subjects. Cytokine secretion by patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with soluble parasite antigen in vitro, and genotypes in a 600 base-pair locus in chromosome 28 (CHR28/425451) of the infecting L. (V.) braziliensis were compared between the two groups. ACL presented significantly more lesions in head and neck, and higher rate of antimony failure than CL. Cytosine–Adenine substitutions at CHR28/425451 positions 254 and 321 were highly associated with ACL (p<0.0001). In vitro stimulated ACL PBMCs produced lower levels of IFN-γ (p = 0.0002) and TNF (p <0.0001), and higher levels of IL-10 (p = 0.0006) and IL-17 (p = 0.0008) than CL PBMCs. Conclusions/Significance ACL found in Northeast Brazil is caused by distinct genotypes of L. (V.) braziliensis and presents a cytokine profile that departs from that in classical CL patients. We think that differences in antigenic contents among parasites may be in part responsible for the variation in cytokine responses and possibly immunopathology between CL and ACL. PMID:27906988
Santos, Thaís T O; Martins, Vívian T; Lage, Daniela P; Costa, Lourena E; Salles, Beatriz C S; Carvalho, Ana M R S; Dias, Daniel S; Ribeiro, Patrícia A F; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Roatt, Bruno M; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Duarte, Mariana C
In the present study, the Leishmania braziliensis enolase protein was evaluated as a vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The DNA sequence was cloned and the recombinant protein (rEnolase) was evaluated as a vaccine, associated with saponin, as an immune adjuvant. The protective efficacy of the rEnolase plus saponin combination was investigated in BALB/c mice against Leishmania infantum infection. The results revealed that the vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF when a capture ELISA and flow cytometry were performed, as well as an antileishmanial nitrite production after using in vitro stimulation with rEnolase and an antigenic Leishmania preparation. The vaccinated animals, when compared to the control groups, showed a lower parasite burden in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and paws' draining lymph nodes when both a limiting dilution technique and RT-PCR assay were performed. In addition, these mice showed low levels of antileishmanial IL-4, IL-10, and anti-Leishmania IgG1 isotype antibodies. Partial protection was associated with IFN-γ production, which was mainly mediated by CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, the present study's data showed that the L. braziliensis enolase protein could be considered a vaccine candidate that offers heterologous protection against VL.
Arias, J R; Miles, M A; Naiff, R D; Povoa, M M; de Freitas, R A; Biancardi, C B; Castellon, E G
Flagellate infections were found in 1,063 of 18,895 sand flies collected in the states of Amazonas, Pará, Rondonia and Acre, Brazil. Infection rates were 13.4% (species group Shannoni); 7.5% (subgenus Nyssomyia); 6.7% (subgenus Lutzomyia series Cruciata); 0.5% (genus Psychodopygus) and 3.1% for other sand flies (various subgenera). Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis and L. mexicana amazonensis were isolated, respectively, from the known vectors, Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. flaviscutellata. Single stocks of L. braziliensis-like and L. mexicana-like organisms were isolated, respectively, from L. whitmani and L. yuilli. Thirty-eight flagellate stocks, isolated by direct culture from sand flies were characterized in detail by morphology in culture, behavior in hamsters and mice and by enzyme profiles. Sixteen stocks from Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) were identified as Endotrypanum schaudinni; 8 stocks from Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) were identified as Endotrypanum sp.; 7 stocks from Psychodopygus ayrozai and P. paraensis were identified as Leishmania sp. previously isolated from the armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus; 2 stocks of Trypanosoma rangeli were isolated from recently fed Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) sand flies; the remaining 5 stocks from L. umbratilis and L. yuilli could not be identified. Observations suggested that Shannoni group sand flies were the natural vectors of Endotrypanum. Leishmania sp. infections in the man-biting flies P. ayrozai and P. paraensis were restricted to the midgut and associated with recent bloodmeals. Unidentified flagellates in L. umbratilis and L. yuilli were distributed throughout the digestive tract with no trace of bloodmeals.
Comparative Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Compounds Against Leishmania Leishmania donovani and Leishmania Viannia braziliensis 7 IV. Zn vitro...Studies of Oligonucleotides Against Leishmania Leishmania donovani ............................................................ 9 Discussion...for several years in studies to identify new compounds for antileishmanial activity against both visceral (Lelshmania Leishmania donovani ) and
braziliensis (MHOM/BR/75/M2903), L. chagasi (MJOM/BR/82/BA-2,C 1), L. donovani (MHOMiEt/67iHU3), Leishmania guyanensis (MIHOMJBR/75/M4147), L. infantum (IPT-1...comparative test to a variety of other recombinant Leishmania antigens including L. chagasi hsp70, L. braziliensis hsp83/90, L. braziliensis eIF4A, L...34 4. AD CONTRACT NO: DAMD17-92-C-2082 EC•£ 2 j 994 ’i, L TITLE: DIAGNOSTIC ANTIGENS OF LEISHMANIA L PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven G. Reed, Ph.D
leishmaniasis cases in Texas, 2) Lutzomyia anthophora, a sand fly which has transmitted Leishmania mexicana under laboratory conditions (Endris et al., 1984... temperatures > 37 C are all suggestive of L. mexicana. Isozyme characterization determined that the parasite isolated from N. micropus collected in Texas is L...Addis, 1945). Other vertebrates such as opossums, hispid cotton rats, and armadillos and other sand flies such as Lutzomyia diabolica and Lutzomyia texana
TEST FOR FIELD IDENTIFICATION OF LEISHMANIA ISOLATES FROM U. S. MILITARY PERSONNEL Annual Report RICHARD D. KREUTZER 15 AUGUST 1983 Supported by U. S... LEISHMANIA ISOLATES FROM U. S. MILITARY PERSONNEL 1. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Richard D. Kreutzer DAMD1...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES N/A 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side If noceawaetnd Identify by block number) Leishmania ; electrophoresis; identification
Low Resolution Structural Studies Indicate that the Activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1) of Leishmania braziliensis Has an Elongated Shape Which Allows Its Interaction with Both N- and M-Domains of Hsp90
Seraphim, Thiago V.; Alves, Marina M.; Silva, Indjara M.; Gomes, Francisco E. R.; Silva, Kelly P.; Murta, Silvane M. F.; Barbosa, Leandro R. S.; Borges, Júlio C.
The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins’ interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90. PMID:23826147
Canto-Lara, S B; Van Wynsberghe, N R; Vargas-González, A; Ojeda-Farfán, F F; Andrade-Narváez, F J
The genus Leishmania includes 30 described species which infect a wide variety of mammalian hosts. The precise identification of leishmanial parasites at the species level is very important in order to determine whether an organism, causing the disease in a given area, is of the same biotype as that found in suspected mammalian reservoirs. The objectives of the present study were (1) to identify leishmanial parasites isolated from humans and wild rodents from the State of Campeche, an endemic focus of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) in southern Mexico, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) with monoclonal antibodies (Mabs); and (2) to determine if the parasites of the two types of hosts were of the same biotype. All the wild rodents (six Ototylomys phyllotis, eight Oryzomys melanotis, five Peromyscus yucatanicus and two Sigmodon hispidus) and 96% (24/25) of the human isolates were identified as Leishmania (L.) mexicana confirming that this specific LCL focus is a wild zoonosis. The presence of one human isolate of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in the State of Campeche, confirmed the importance of an accurate taxonomic identification at species level.
Marco, Jorge D; Barroso, Paola A; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Cajal, S Pamela; Hoyos, Carlos L; Nevot, M Cecilia; Lauthier, Juan J; Tomasini, Nicolás; Juarez, Marisa; Estévez, J Octavio; Korenaga, Masataka; Nasser, Julio R; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Ruybal, Paula
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection affecting over 350 million people around the world. In Argentina cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in nine provinces and visceral leishmaniasis is spreading from autochthonous transmission foci in seven provinces. However, there is limited information about the diversity of the parasite in this country. Implementation of molecular strategies for parasite typing, particularly multilocus sequence typing (MLST), represents an improved approach for genetic variability and population dynamics analyses. We selected six loci as candidates implemented in reference strains and Argentinean isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed high correlation with taxonomic classification of the parasite. Autochthonous Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis showed higher genetic diversity than L. (Leishmania) infantum but low support was obtained for intra-L. braziliensis complex variants suggesting the need of new loci that contribute to phylogenetic resolution for an improved MLST or nested-MLST scheme. This study represents the first characterization of genetic variability of Leishmania spp. in Argentina.
Khan, Nazma Habib; Messenger, Louisa A; Wahid, Sobia; Sutherland, Colin J
Several species of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan. This study aimed to determine phylogenetic placement of Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan (34 Leishmania tropica, 3 Leishmania infantum), in-relation to species from other geographical areas using gene sequences encoding cytochrome b (cytb) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2). Based on cytochrome b sequence analysis, L. tropica strains from Pakistan and other geographical regions were differentiated into two genotype groups, A and B. Within the province, five distinct L. tropica genotypes were recognized; two in group A, three in group B. Two L. infantum isolates from the province were closely associated with both Afro-Eurasian and American species of the Leishmania donovani complex, including Leishmania chagasi, L. infantum and L. donovani from Sudan and Ethiopia; while a third L. infantum isolate could not be differentiated from visceralizing Kenyan and Indian L. donovani. We observed apposite phylogenetic placement of CL-causing L. tropica and L. infantum from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Affinities ascribed to Leishmania spp. From the region are valuable in tracing potential importation of leishmaniasis.
Pothirat, Thatawan; Tantiworawit, Adisak; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Jariyapan, Narissara; Wannasan, Anchalee; Siriyasatien, Padet; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Bates, Michelle D.; Kwakye-Nuako, Godwin; Bates, Paul A.
Since 1996, there have been several case reports of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in Thailand. Here we report a case in a 52-year-old Thai male from northern Thailand, who presented with subacute fever, huge splenomegaly and pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed numerous amastigotes within macrophages. Isolation of Leishmania LSCM1 into culture and DNA sequence analysis (ribosomal RNA ITS-1 and large subunit of RNA polymerase II) revealed the parasites to be members of the Leishmania enriettii complex, and apparently identical to L. martiniquensis previously reported from the Caribbean island of Martinique. This is the first report of visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. martiniquensis from the region. Moreover, the majority of parasites previously identified as “L. siamensis” also appear to be L. martiniquensis. PMID:25474647
Buitrago, Rosio; Cupolillo, Elisa; Bastrenta, Brigitte; Le Pont, Francois; Martinez, Eddy; Barnabé, Christian; Brenière, Simone Frédérique
Human leishmaniasis is highly endemic in Bolivia and shows a growing incidence. This report reveals the genetic variability of 35 isolates mainly belonging to Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania amazonensis species. Among them, 31 were from human patients with different clinical presentations, 3 strains from Lutzomya nuneztovari anglesi (the proven vector of L. amazonensis) and 1 strain of a mammal (Conepatus chinga). The isolates were analyzed by isoenzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and PCR-RFLP of ITS rRNA genes, a genetic marker highly polymorphic and better adapted to sub-structuring of populations. MLEE and RFLP-ITS were in agreement to discriminate the species, 12 belong to L. (V.) braziliensis, 21 to L. (L.) amazonensis, 1 to Leishmania (V.) lainsoni and 1 to Leishmania (L.) chagasi. Among L. (V.) braziliensis the RFLP-ITS only highlights variability. Ten isolates from either cutaneous or mucocutaneous clinical forms, were grouped together (bootstrap value of 99.8%) apart from two others, one from a mammal (C. chinga), the other from a patient with a cutaneous form. Among L. (L.) amazonensis both markers detect variability but no significant sub-division was identified including isolates from different clinical forms. Moreover, the high frequency of several isolates from cutaneous forms occurred during an outbreak, with putative hybrid character (multiloci heterozygous patterns depicted by MLEE) could be linked to better fitness of these parasites. However, in the absence of observation of hypothetical parents, their hybrid status remains a question.
Background Leishmania species belong to the family Trypanosomatidae and cause leishmaniasis, a geographically widespread disease that infects humans and other vertebrates. This disease remains endemic in China. Due to the large geographic area and complex ecological environment, the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationship of Chinese Leishmania isolates remain uncertain. A recent internal transcribed spacer 1 and cytochrome oxidase II phylogeny of Chinese Leishmania isolates has challenged some aspects of their traditional taxonomy as well as cladistics hypotheses of their phylogeny. The current study was designed to provide further disease background and sequence analysis. Methods We systematically analyzed 50 cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences of 19 isolates (16 from China, 3 from other countries) sequenced after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a special primer for cyt b as well as 31 sequences downloaded from GenBank. After alignment, the data were analyzed using the maximum parsimony, Bayesian and netwok methods. Results Sequences of six haplotypes representing 10 Chinese isolates formed a monophyletic group and clustered with Leishmania tarentolae. The isolates GS1, GS7, XJ771 of this study from China clustered with other isolates of Leishmania donovani complex. The isolate JS1 was a sister to Leishmania tropica, which represented an L. tropica complex instead of clustering with L. donovani complex or with the other 10 Chinese isolates. The isolates KXG-2 and GS-GER20 formed a monophyletic group with Leishmania turanica from central Asia. In the different phylogenetic trees, all of the Chinese isolates occurred in at least four groups regardless of geographic distribution. Conclusions The undescribed Leishmania species of China, which are clearly causative agents of canine leishmaniasis and human visceral leishmaniasis and are related to Sauroleishmania, may have evolved from a common ancestral parasite that came from the Americas and may have
Smith, Barbara A.; Imamura, Hideo; Sanders, Mandy; Svobodova, Milena; Volf, Petr; Berriman, Matthew; Cotton, James A.; Smith, Deborah F.
Although asexual reproduction via clonal propagation has been proposed as the principal reproductive mechanism across parasitic protozoa of the Leishmania genus, sexual recombination has long been suspected, based on hybrid marker profiles detected in field isolates from different geographical locations. The recent experimental demonstration of a sexual cycle in Leishmania within sand flies has confirmed the occurrence of hybridisation, but knowledge of the parasite life cycle in the wild still remains limited. Here, we use whole genome sequencing to investigate the frequency of sexual reproduction in Leishmania, by sequencing the genomes of 11 Leishmania infantum isolates from sand flies and 1 patient isolate in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Çukurova province of southeast Turkey. This is the first genome-wide examination of a vector-isolated population of Leishmania parasites. A genome-wide pattern of patchy heterozygosity and SNP density was observed both within individual strains and across the whole group. Comparisons with other Leishmania donovani complex genome sequences suggest that these isolates are derived from a single cross of two diverse strains with subsequent recombination within the population. This interpretation is supported by a statistical model of the genomic variability for each strain compared to the L. infantum reference genome strain as well as genome-wide scans for recombination within the population. Further analysis of these heterozygous blocks indicates that the two parents were phylogenetically distinct. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium indicate that this population reproduced primarily clonally following the original hybridisation event, but that some recombination also occurred. This observation allowed us to estimate the relative rates of sexual and asexual reproduction within this population, to our knowledge the first quantitative estimate of these events during the Leishmania life cycle. PMID:24453988
Cupolillo, E; Grimaldi, G; Momen, H
More than 250 strains of Leishmania isolated from different localities and hosts in the New World were analyzed by enzyme electrophoresis, and their electromorphic profiles were compared with 19 reference strains representing most of the described species of this parasite. The 18 enzymic loci analyzed were very polymorphic, and the strains were classified into 44 zymodemes, each grouping strains with the same enzyme profiles. Each zymodeme was considered as an elementary taxon and the phenetic and phylogenetic relationships were determined by agglomerative hierarchical, ordination, and cladistic techniques. The different classification methods produced very similar results. The 44 zymodemes could be clustered into two groups, corresponding to the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia, by the numerical methods. The subgenus Viannia was shown to be monophyletic and could be further divided into species complexes representing L. braziliensis, L. naiffi, and L. guyanensis/L. panamensis/L. shawi, as well as some isolated taxa including L. lainsoni. The subgenus Leishmania, on the other hand, was polyphyletic, with New World isolates related to L. major clustered separately from the L. mexicana species complex. Most of the other zymodemes in this group represented independent taxa. The results confirm Viannia as a valid taxon but suggest that the status of the subgenus Leishmania should be further investigated. Leishmania braziliensis and L. naiffi were shown to be the most polymorphic species, while L. guyanensis, in spite of being the most common species found in this study, was remarkably homogeneous. The only variants were found south of the Amazon river. North of this river, the species was monomorphic.
Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Bin Shuaib, Naemah O. M.; Azazy, Ahmed A.; Mahmud, Rohela
Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types. Conclusions/Significance The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person–to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL. PMID:20862227
Rizk, Yasmin Silva; Fischer, Alice; Cunha, Marillin de Castro; Rodrigues, Patrik Oening; Marques, Maria Carolina Silva; Matos, Maria de Fátima Cepa; Kadri, Mônica Cristina Toffoli; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto de
This study is the first phytochemical investigation of Selaginella sellowii and demonstrates the antileishmanial activity of the hydroethanolic extract from this plant (SSHE), as well as of the biflavonoids amentoflavone and robustaflavone, isolated from this species. The effects of these substances were evaluated on intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, an aetiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. SSHE was highly active against intracellular amastigotes [the half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 20.2 µg/mL]. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of the two bioflavonoids with the highest activity: amentoflavone, which was about 200 times more active (IC50 = 0.1 μg/mL) and less cytotoxic than SSHE (IC50 = 2.2 and 3 μg/mL, respectively on NIH/3T3 and J774.A1 cells), with a high selectivity index (SI) (22 and 30), robustaflavone, which was also active against L. amazonensis (IC50 = 2.8 µg/mL), but more cytotoxic, with IC50 = 25.5 µg/mL (SI = 9.1) on NIH/3T3 cells and IC50 = 3.1 µg/mL (SI = 1.1) on J774.A1 cells. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was lower in cells treated with amentoflavone (suggesting that NO does not contribute to the leishmanicidal mechanism in this case), while NO release was higher after treatment with robustaflavone. S. sellowii may be a potential source of biflavonoids that could provide promising compounds for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Rizk, Yasmin Silva; Fischer, Alice; Cunha, Marillin de Castro; Rodrigues, Patrik Oening; Marques, Maria Carolina Silva; Matos, Maria de Fátima Cepa; Kadri, Mônica Cristina Toffoli; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto
This study is the first phytochemical investigation of Selaginella sellowii and demonstrates the antileishmanial activity of the hydroethanolic extract from this plant (SSHE), as well as of the biflavonoids amentoflavone and robustaflavone, isolated from this species. The effects of these substances were evaluated on intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, an aetiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. SSHE was highly active against intracellular amastigotes [the half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 20.2 µg/mL]. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of the two bioflavonoids with the highest activity: amentoflavone, which was about 200 times more active (IC50 = 0.1 μg/mL) and less cytotoxic than SSHE (IC50 = 2.2 and 3 μg/mL, respectively on NIH/3T3 and J774.A1 cells), with a high selectivity index (SI) (22 and 30), robustaflavone, which was also active against L. amazonensis (IC50 = 2.8 µg/mL), but more cytotoxic, with IC50 = 25.5 µg/mL (SI = 9.1) on NIH/3T3 cells and IC50 = 3.1 µg/mL (SI = 1.1) on J774.A1 cells. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was lower in cells treated with amentoflavone (suggesting that NO does not contribute to the leishmanicidal mechanism in this case), while NO release was higher after treatment with robustaflavone. S. sellowii may be a potential source of biflavonoids that could provide promising compounds for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25591109
Castilho, Tiago M.; Shaw, Jeffrey Jon; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is one of the multilocus enzymes used to identify Leishmania by zymodeme analysis. The polymorphic pattern revealed by partial characterization of the gene encoding G6PD generated molecular markers useful in the identification of different Leishmania species by PCR. Initially degenerate oligonucleotides were designed on the basis of data on the conserved active center described for other organisms. Primers for reverse transcription-PCR experiments, designed from the nucleotide sequence of the PCR product, enabled us to characterize the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions and the G6PD open reading frame of reference strains of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana, and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Sets of paired primers were designed and used in PCR assays to discriminate between the parasites responsible for tegumentar leishmaniasis of the subgenera Leishmania (Leishmania) and Leishmania (Viannia) and to distinguish L. (Viannia) braziliensis from others organisms of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia). No amplification products were detected for the DNA of Crithidia fasciculata, Trypanosoma cruzi, or Leishmania (Sauroleishmania) tarentolae or DNA from a healthy human control. The tests proved to be specific and were sensitive enough to detect parasites in human biopsy specimens. The successful discrimination of L. (Viannia) braziliensis from other parasites of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia) opens the way to epidemiological studies in areas where more than one species of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia) exist, such as Amazonia, as well as follow-up studies after chemotherapy and assessment of clinical prognoses. PMID:12574243
FEIZ HADDAD, Mohammad Hossein; GHASEMI, Ezatollah; MARAGHI, Sharif; TAVALA, Mehdi
Background: The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the city of Mehran has risen sharply in recent years because the city borders Iraq, which has allowed entrance of different Leishmania strains. These strains have different shapes, periods of disease, and healing of lesions. The present study identified and determined cutaneous leishmaniasis species in this region. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out by preparing slides from 92 patients with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions from Mehran during 2012–2013. Parasite genomic DNA was extracted and CSB2XF and CSB1XR primers were used to amplify the Leishmania minicircle kDNA regions. The parasite species were detected by specific 13Z and LIR primers by applying nested PCR technique. Results: All banding patterns were diagnosed as L. major parasite by comparison of standard models with amplified fragments 560 bp in length from bands. The patients were 56.5% male and 43.5% female. The most frequently-infected age group was the 21–30 years group at a rate of 27.2%. About 56.3% of patients had a single lesion and a significant correlation was observed between age and number of lesions (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The nested PCR technique was shown to be an effective method with high sensitivity and specificity for identification of human Leishmania parasites. Molecular analysis revealed that parasites isolated from Mehran were identified as L. major and the disease was rural in form. PMID:27095970
SHARIFI-RAD, Mehdi; DABIRZADEH, Mansour; SHARIFI, Iraj; BABAEI, Zahra
Background: Leishmaniasis is important vector-borne parasitic disease worldwide, caused by the genus Leishmania. The objective of the current study was to identify genetic polymorphism in L. major, one of the species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), isolated from southeastern Iran, using Permissively Primed Intergenic Polymorphic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PPIP-PCR) method. Methods: Overall, 340 patients with suspected CL were examined. They referred to the Central Laboratory in Chabahar, Iran during Apr 2013 to Feb 2014. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slides from lesions as well as aspirates cultured in Novy- Mac Neal-Nicolle (NNN) Media was employed in order to diagnose CL in these patients. Our analyses detected 86 suspected subjects as having CL from which 35 isolates were cultured successfully. PPIP-PCR method was performed on extracted genomic DNA from selected isolates in order to determine the genetic polymorphism among L. major isolates. Results: The electrophoresis patterns demonstrated two genetic profiles including A or A1 patterns between all samples tested. Frequency of A and A1 sub-types were 33 (94.3%) and two (5.7%), respectively. Conclusion: Both host and parasite factors may contribute to the clinical profile of human leishmaniasis in the endemic foci of the disease. Here we showed that genetic variations pertaining to the Leishmania parasites might determine, in part, the clinical outcomes of human leishmaniasis. PMID:28127333
Valdivia, Hugo O.; Almeida, Laila V.; Roatt, Bruno M.; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Gontijo, Celia; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Reis, Alexandre B.; Sanders, Mandy J.; Cotton, James A.; Bartholomeu, Daniella C.
Leishmaniasis is a highly diverse group of diseases caused by kinetoplastid of the genus Leishmania. These parasites are taxonomically diverse, with human pathogenic species separated into two subgenera according to their development site inside the alimentary tract of the sand fly insect vector. The disease encompasses a variable spectrum of clinical manifestations with tegumentary or visceral symptoms. Among the causative species in Brazil, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is an important etiological agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis that accounts for more than 8% of all cases in endemic regions. L. (L.) amazonensis is generally found in the north and northeast regions of Brazil. Here, we report the first isolation of L. (L.) amazonensis from dogs with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in Governador Valadares, an endemic focus in the southeastern Brazilian State of Minas Gerais where L. (L.) infantum is also endemic. These isolates were characterized in terms of SNPs, chromosome and gene copy number variations, confirming that they are closely related to a previously sequenced isolate obtained in 1973 from the typical Northern range of this species. The results presented in this article will increase our knowledge of L. (L.) amazonensis-specific adaptations to infection, parasite survival and the transmission of this Amazonian species in a new endemic area of Brazil. PMID:28091623
Batista, Luís Fábio da S; Segatto, Marcela; Guedes, Carlos Eduardo S; Sousa, Rosana S; Rodrigues, Cleusa A T; Brazuna, Júlia Cristina M; Silva, Joselli S; Santos, Silvana O; Larangeira, Daniela; Macedo, Andréa Mara; Schriefer, Albert; Veras, Patrícia S T
Correlations between the genetic diversity of Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) isolates and their respective geographic origins support the theoretic assumption that visceral leishmaniasis probably originated in the Old World. Because dogs are widely considered to be the main reservoir of this disease, the present study aimed to investigate the degree of genetic divergence among 44 leishmanial canine isolates from two Brazilian cities, Jequié and Campo Grande, located approximately 2,028 km from each other. We hypothesized that a low degree of genetic divergence would be observed among these isolates. In fact, statistical analyses found no significant differences between the isolates using both random amplified polymorphic DNA and multilocus microsatellite typing genotyping techniques with three and seven markers, respectively. These findings provide support for the recent introduction of L. infantum into the New World.
da S. Batista, Luís Fábio; Segatto, Marcela; Guedes, Carlos Eduardo S.; Sousa, Rosana S.; Rodrigues, Cleusa A. T.; Brazuna, Júlia Cristina M.; Silva, Joselli S.; Santos, Silvana O.; Larangeira, Daniela; Macedo, Andréa Mara; Schriefer, Albert; Veras, Patrícia S. T.
Correlations between the genetic diversity of Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) isolates and their respective geographic origins support the theoretic assumption that visceral leishmaniasis probably originated in the Old World. Because dogs are widely considered to be the main reservoir of this disease, the present study aimed to investigate the degree of genetic divergence among 44 leishmanial canine isolates from two Brazilian cities, Jequié and Campo Grande, located approximately 2,028 km from each other. We hypothesized that a low degree of genetic divergence would be observed among these isolates. In fact, statistical analyses found no significant differences between the isolates using both random amplified polymorphic DNA and multilocus microsatellite typing genotyping techniques with three and seven markers, respectively. These findings provide support for the recent introduction of L. infantum into the New World. PMID:22556077
Obonaga, Ricardo; Fernández, Olga Lucía; Valderrama, Liliana; Rubiano, Luisa Consuelo; Castro, Maria del Mar; Barrera, Maria Claudia; Gomez, Maria Adelaida
Treatment failure and parasite drug susceptibility in dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) species are poorly understood. Prospective evaluation of drug susceptibility of strains isolated from individual patients before drug exposure and at clinical failure allows intrinsic and acquired differences in susceptibility to be discerned and analyzed. To determine whether intrinsic susceptibility or loss of susceptibility to miltefosine contributed to treatment failure, we evaluated the miltefosine susceptibility of intracellular amastigotes and promastigotes of six Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and six Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis strains isolated sequentially, at diagnosis and treatment failure, from two children and four adults ≥55 years old with concurrent conditions. Four patients presented only cutaneous lesions, one had mucosal disease, and one had disseminated mucocutaneous disease. Expression of the Leishmania drug transporter genes abca2, abca3, abcc2, abcc3, abcg4, abcg6, and LbMT was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Intracellular amastigotes (median 50% effective concentration [EC50], 10.7 μmol/liter) were more susceptible to miltefosine than promastigotes (median EC50, 55.3 μmol/liter) (P < 0.0001). Loss of susceptibility at failure, demonstrated by a miltefosine EC50 of >32 μmol/liter (the upper limit of intracellular amastigote assay), occurred in L. panamensis infection in a child and in L. braziliensis infection in an adult and was accompanied by decreased expression of the miltefosine transporter LbMT (LbMT/β-tubulin, 0.42- to 0.26-fold [P = 0.039] and 0.70- to 0.57-fold [P = 0.009], respectively). LbMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with susceptibility phenotype. Leishmania ABCA3 transporter expression was inversely correlated with miltefosine susceptibility (r = −0.605; P = 0.037). Loss of susceptibility is one of multiple factors involved in failure of miltefosine treatment in dermal
Callahan, H L; Portal, I F; Bensinger, S J; Grogl, M
Since in humans, skin temperature is lower than internal temperature, the temperature sensitivity of Leishmania may influence the tropism of Leishmania in the human host; temperature-sensitive parasites may remain in the skin, temperature-resistant parasites may go to the viscera. In order to pursue the genetic factors controlling Leishmania tropism, we have developed an in vitro promastigote temperature model. Promastigote growth is measured at 30, 32, and 34 degrees C and compared with growth at the control temperature (25 degrees C). The results from tests of the promastigote temperature sensitivity of eight species (33 different strains) show that visceral species (L. donovani and L. chagasi) are more temperature resistant than cutaneous species (L. major, L. tropica, L. mexicana, L. braziliensis, L. panamensis, and L. amazonensis), that Old World species are more temperature-resistant than New World species, and that within the New World cutaneous species there are three distinct temperature sensitivity groupings (L. mexicana > L. braziliensis and L. panamensis > L. amazonensis). Interestingly, viscerotropic L. tropica from Operation Desert Storm and L. donovani complex strains isolated from cutaneous lesions are more and less temperature-sensitive, respectively, than strains of the same species with the expected tropism in vivo.
Hamad, S H; Khalil, E A G; Musa, A M; Ibrahim, M E; Younis, B M; Elfaki, M E E; El-Hassan, A M
Drug unresponsiveness in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a problem in many endemic areas. This study aimed to determine genetic diversity of Leishmania donovani isolates from a VL endemic area in Sudan as a possible explanation for drug unresponsiveness in some patients. Thirty clinically stibogluconate (SSG)-sensitive isolates were made SSG-unresponsive in vitro by gradually increasing SSG concentrations. The sensitive isolates and their SSG-unresponsive counterparts were typed using mini-circle kDNA and categorized using PCR-RAPD. All the isolates were typed as L. donovani, the resulting PCR-RAPD characterization of the SSG-sensitive isolates gave three distinct primary genotypes while, the SSG-unresponsive isolates showed only a single band. L. donovani isolates from eastern Sudan are diverse; this probably resulted from emergence of new L. donovani strains during epidemics due to the pressure of widespread use of antimonials. In this communication the possible role of isolates diversity in antimonial unresponsiveness and the in vitro changing PCR-RAPD band pattern in SSG-unresponsive strains were discussed.
Shirian, Sadegh; Oryan, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholam Reza; Daneshbod, Yahya
Cases of human oro-mucosal leishmaniasis are mainly reported in areas where Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis perpetuates and the damages are mainly located at the cartilaginous nasal septum and frontal portions of the nasal fossa. In Iran, an area free of any L.(V) braziliensis, three Leishmania species are known to perpetuate through distinct (i) blood-feeding sand flies and (ii) rodents or (iii) canidae. Thus while establishing the diagnosis of any human oro-mucosal lesions, three Leishmania species - L. infantum, L. major, and L. tropica - must be considered as potential etiological agents of these damages. With these objectives in mind, features such as localization, extent, severity of oro-mucosal lesions, and duration of symptoms at the time of diagnosis were recorded from 11 patients with respect to the presence or absence of cutaneous lesions in other body parts. The biopsy samples were collected from the oro-mucosal and cutaneous lesions and were processed for further identification of the Leishmania species. The lesions ranged from mucosal nodules without ulceration, nodules with erosion, and shallow to deep ulcerations. Leishmania major was isolated from six (55%) cases showing lesions or scars. The scars were restricted to upper and lower extremities. For the other five patients who did not display any signs of former or active cutaneous leishmaniasis, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum were isolated from their lesions. In conclusion L. major, L. infantum, and L. tropica, regardless of common tropism, can be seen in mucosal tissues. However, L. major was the predominant species detected from the lesions in the nasal, gingival, and hard and soft palates, and L. tropica was isolated from the gingival and lower lip lesions. Leishmania infantum was isolated from two severe cases of deep mucosal damage displayed by the epiglottis, cricoarytenoid muscle, and laryngeal mucosa. One important finding was the association of L. major with active or scarred
Ghatee, Mohammad Amin; Sharifi, Iraj; Kuhls, Katrin; Kanannejad, Zahra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; de Almeida, Marcos E; Hatam, Gholamreza; Mirhendi, Hossein
Most of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur in only 7 countries, including Iran. Leishmania tropica is the main cause of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. In order to study the heterogeneity and phylogeny of L. tropica in southern Iran, a total of 61 isolates were obtained from Bam district and the cities Kerman and Shiraz. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) from the ribosomal DNA locus was amplified and then analysed by sequencing. Analysis of the ITS sequences showed four haplotypes in the isolates, including 3 haplotypes among the 58 isolates from the south eastern region, including Bam district and Kerman city, and 2 haplotypes among the 3 isolates from Shiraz city. The results showed a monophyletic structure for the south eastern population. In comparison to GenBank sequences of L. tropica from different countries, most of the southeast Iranian and Indian isolates are comprised in one cluster, while isolates from other countries and few other Iranian isolates group in a different cluster. Analysis of ITS sequences of south eastern L. tropica showed a homogeneous population which could be the basis for other molecular epidemiology studies using more discriminative markers and tracing possible changes in the population structure of L. tropica.
Chable-Santos, J B; Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Andrade-Narvaez, F J
Leishmania parasites were isolated from four of seven small rodent species captured in the State of Campeche, Mexico. Signs and/or symptoms of leishmanial infection were restricted to the tail of the mice. Peromyscus yucatanicus endemic to the peninsula of Yucatan and Oryzomys melanotis were added to the list of carriers of Leishmania. Leishmania (L.) mexicana, characterized by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody method using monoclonal antibodies, was identified in one Sigmodon hispidus and one Or. melanotis. The possible role of the different species as primary reservoirs of Leishmania in the peninsula of Yucatan is discussed.
de Azevedo, Alana Freire; Dutra, Jorge Luís de Lisboa; Santos, Micheli Luize Barbosa; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; Fernandes, Marcelo Ferreira; Scher, Ricardo; Fernandes, Roberta Pereira Miranda
Fatty acids, especially those from phospholipids (PLFA), are essential membrane components that are present in relatively constant proportions in biological membranes under natural conditions. However, under harmful growth conditions, such as diseases, environmental changes, and chemical exposure, the fatty acid proportions might vary. If such changes could be identified and revealed to be specific for adverse situations, they could be used as biomarkers. Such biomarkers could facilitate the identification of virulence and resistance mechanisms to particular chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, specific biomarkers could lead to better therapeutic decisions that would, in turn, enhance treatment effectiveness. The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid profiles of trivalent antimony and nitric oxide (NO)-resistant and -sensitive Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis isolates. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from total lipids (MIDI), ester-linked lipids (ELFA), and ester-linked phospholipids (PLFA). FAMEs were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Species- or resistance-associated differences in FAME profiles were assessed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling, multiresponse permutation procedures, and indicator species analyses. The isolate groups had different MIDI-FAME profiles. However, neither the ELFA nor PLFA profiles differed between the sensitive and resistant isolates. Levels of the fatty acid 18:1 Δ9c were increased in sensitive isolates (p < 0,001), whereas the fatty acid 20:4 Δ5,8,11,14 showed the opposite trend (p < 0.01). We conclude that these two fatty acids are potential biomarkers for NO and antimony resistance in L. chagasi and L. amazonensis and that they could be helpful in therapeutic diagnoses.
Kuhls, Katrin; Cupolillo, Elisa; Silva, Soraia O.; Schweynoch, Carola; Côrtes Boité, Mariana; Mello, Maria N.; Mauricio, Isabel; Miles, Michael; Wirth, Thierry; Schönian, Gabriele
Background/Objectives: Parasites of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia) cause varying clinical symptoms ranging from cutaneous leishmaniases (CL) with single or few lesions, disseminated CL (DL) with multiple lesions to disfiguring forms of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). In this population genetics study, 37 strains of L. (V.) guyanensis, 63 of L. (V.) braziliensis, four of L. (V.) shawi, six of L. (V.) lainsoni, seven of L. (V.) naiffi, one each of L. (V.) utingensis and L. (V.) lindenbergi, and one L. (V.) lainsoni/L. naiffi hybrid from different endemic foci in Brazil were examined for variation at 15 hyper-variable microsatellite markers. Methodology/Principal findings: The multilocus microsatellite profiles obtained for the 120 strains were analysed using both model- and distance-based methods. Significant genetic diversity was observed for all L. (Viannia) strains studied. The two cluster analysis approaches identified two principal genetic groups or populations, one consisting of strains of L. (V.) guyanensis from the Amazon region and the other of strains of L. (V.) braziliensis isolated along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. A third group comprised a heterogeneous assembly of species, including other strains of L. braziliensis isolated from the north of Brazil, which were extremely polymorphic. The latter strains seemed to be more closely related to those of L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) naiffi, and L. (V.) lainsoni, also isolated in northern Brazilian foci. The MLMT approach identified an epidemic clone consisting of 13 strains of L. braziliensis from Minas Gerais, but evidence for recombination was obtained for the populations of L. (V.) braziliensis from the Atlantic coast and for L. (V.) guyanensis. Conclusions/Significance: Different levels of recombination versus clonality seem to occur within the subgenus L. (Viannia). Though clearly departing from panmixia, sporadic, but long-term sustained recombination might explain the tremendous genetic diversity and
Kumar, Ashish; Das, Sushmita; Purkait, Bidyut; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Abhishek, Kumar; Das, Pradeep
Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene macrolide, is now a first-line treatment of visceral leishmaniasis cases refractory to antimonials in India. AmB relapse cases and the emergence of secondary resistance have now been reported. To understand the mechanism of AmB, differentially expressed genes in AmB resistance strains were identified by a DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) approach. Of the many genes functionally overexpressed in the presence of AmB, the ascorbate peroxidase gene from a resistant Leishmania donovani strain (LdAPx gene) was selected because the gene is present only in Leishmania, not in humans. Apoptosis-like cell death after exposure to AmB was investigated in a wild-type (WT) strain in which the LdAPx gene was overexpressed and in AmB-sensitive and -resistant strains. A higher percentage of apoptosis-like cell death after AmB treatment was noticed in the sensitive strain than in both the resistant isolate and the strain sensitive to LdAPx overexpression. This event is preceded by AmB-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and elevation of the cytosolic calcium level. Enhanced cytosolic calcium was found to be responsible for depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) into the cytosol. The redox behavior of Cyt c showed that it has a role in the regulation of apoptosis-like cell death by activating metacaspase- and caspase-like proteins and causing concomitant nuclear alterations, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA fragmentation in the resistant strain. The present study suggests that constitutive overexpression of LdAPx in the L. donovani AmB-resistant strain prevents cells from the deleterious effect of oxidative stress, i.e., mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular death induced by AmB.
Kumar, Ashish; Das, Sushmita; Purkait, Bidyut; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Abhishek, Kumar
Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene macrolide, is now a first-line treatment of visceral leishmaniasis cases refractory to antimonials in India. AmB relapse cases and the emergence of secondary resistance have now been reported. To understand the mechanism of AmB, differentially expressed genes in AmB resistance strains were identified by a DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) approach. Of the many genes functionally overexpressed in the presence of AmB, the ascorbate peroxidase gene from a resistant Leishmania donovani strain (LdAPx gene) was selected because the gene is present only in Leishmania, not in humans. Apoptosis-like cell death after exposure to AmB was investigated in a wild-type (WT) strain in which the LdAPx gene was overexpressed and in AmB-sensitive and -resistant strains. A higher percentage of apoptosis-like cell death after AmB treatment was noticed in the sensitive strain than in both the resistant isolate and the strain sensitive to LdAPx overexpression. This event is preceded by AmB-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and elevation of the cytosolic calcium level. Enhanced cytosolic calcium was found to be responsible for depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) into the cytosol. The redox behavior of Cyt c showed that it has a role in the regulation of apoptosis-like cell death by activating metacaspase- and caspase-like proteins and causing concomitant nuclear alterations, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA fragmentation in the resistant strain. The present study suggests that constitutive overexpression of LdAPx in the L. donovani AmB-resistant strain prevents cells from the deleterious effect of oxidative stress, i.e., mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular death induced by AmB. PMID:25114128
Guilvard, E; Rioux, J A; Gallego, M; Pratlong, F; Mahjour, J; Martinez-Ortega, E; Dereure, J; Saddiki, A; Martini, A
In a Moroccan focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica, 7,907 female sandflies captured with CDC traps were dissected from summer to autumn 1989. Among species of the genus Phlebotomus, only P. sergenti harbored promastigotes. Eighty-nine strains belonging to the complex L. tropica were isolated. The frequency of vector infection was zero in June, rose to 1.3% in August, and reached 9.9% in October, which indicates that the period of high risk is at the end of the hot season. Out of 89 strains isolated, 74 were completely typed and corresponded to the following four zymodemes: MON-102 (one strain), MON-107 (56 strains), MON-122 (two strains), and MON-123 (15 strains). Only the first two were observed in humans. The distribution of zymodemes MON-102 and MON-107 was very different in humans, dogs, and the vector. In one of the sites surveyed, which was strongly dominated by MON-107, the absence of human cases involving this zymodeme suggests the existence of a wild reservoir.
Field Validation of SYBR Green- and TaqMan-Based Real-Time PCR Using Biopsy and Swab Samples To Diagnose American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in an Area Where Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Is Endemic.
Gomes, Ciro Martins; Cesetti, Mariana Vicente; de Paula, Natália Aparecida; Vernal, Sebastián; Gupta, Gaurav; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro; Roselino, Ana Maria
The precise diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an essential task due to the disease's associated morbidity. A noninvasive, extremely sensitive, and highly specific exam is critical, particularly for mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), in which a low parasite quantity is expected. We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of swab and biopsy sample analysis using SYBR Green- and TaqMan-based real-time PCR (qPCR) assays with that of a composite reference standard consisting of the Montenegro skin test, serology, histopathology, smears, culture, and conventional PCR. In total, 55 patients with ATL (ML, 18 patients; cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL], 37 patients) and 36 patients without ATL were studied. qPCR analysis of swabs was more accurate when using SYBR Green (87.88%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 77.86 to 93.73 patients) than when using TaqMan (78.79%; 95% CI, 67.49 to 86.92%) (P = 0.031). SYBR Green (84.72%; 95% CI, 74.68 to 91.25%) was also more accurate than TaqMan (73.61%; 95% CI, 62.42 to 82.41%) for biopsy samples (P = 0.008). All qPCR methods were 100% specific. Swabs and biopsy specimens had similar sensitivity when using the same chemistry (P = 0.125 for SYBR Green and P = 0.625 for TaqMan). Moreover, qPCR achieved better performance than most existing techniques used for the diagnosis of ATL and also detected the Leishmania parasite in a greater proportion of patients than the associated histopathology, smear, culture, and conventional PCR techniques did. Swabs therefore represent a useful diagnostic tool because they not only are noninvasive but also can achieve an accuracy similar to that of biopsy samples. The high accuracy of SYBR Green-based qPCR may also reduce the requirement for associated parasitological tests for ATL diagnosis.
Tschoeke, Diogo A; Nunes, Gisele L; Jardim, Rodrigo; Lima, Joana; Dumaresq, Aline SR; Gomes, Monete R; de Mattos Pereira, Leandro; Loureiro, Daniel R; Stoco, Patricia H; de Matos Guedes, Herbert Leonel; de Miranda, Antonio Basilio; Ruiz, Jeronimo; Pitaluga, André; Silva, Floriano P; Probst, Christian M; Dickens, Nicholas J; Mottram, Jeremy C; Grisard, Edmundo C; Dávila, Alberto MR
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania species. Leishmania amazonensis is a New World Leishmania species belonging to the Mexicana complex, which is able to cause all types of leishmaniasis infections. The L. amazonensis reference strain MHOM/BR/1973/M2269 was sequenced identifying 8,802 codifying sequences (CDS), most of them of hypothetical function. Comparative analysis using six Leishmania species showed a core set of 7,016 orthologs. L. amazonensis and Leishmania mexicana share the largest number of distinct orthologs, while Leishmania braziliensis presented the largest number of inparalogs. Additionally, phylogenomic analysis confirmed the taxonomic position for L. amazonensis within the “Mexicana complex”, reinforcing understanding of the split of New and Old World Leishmania. Potential non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) were identified between L. amazonensis and Homo sapiens that could provide new drug targets for development. PMID:25336895
Tschoeke, Diogo A; Nunes, Gisele L; Jardim, Rodrigo; Lima, Joana; Dumaresq, Aline Sr; Gomes, Monete R; de Mattos Pereira, Leandro; Loureiro, Daniel R; Stoco, Patricia H; de Matos Guedes, Herbert Leonel; de Miranda, Antonio Basilio; Ruiz, Jeronimo; Pitaluga, André; Silva, Floriano P; Probst, Christian M; Dickens, Nicholas J; Mottram, Jeremy C; Grisard, Edmundo C; Dávila, Alberto Mr
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania species. Leishmania amazonensis is a New World Leishmania species belonging to the Mexicana complex, which is able to cause all types of leishmaniasis infections. The L. amazonensis reference strain MHOM/BR/1973/M2269 was sequenced identifying 8,802 codifying sequences (CDS), most of them of hypothetical function. Comparative analysis using six Leishmania species showed a core set of 7,016 orthologs. L. amazonensis and Leishmania mexicana share the largest number of distinct orthologs, while Leishmania braziliensis presented the largest number of inparalogs. Additionally, phylogenomic analysis confirmed the taxonomic position for L. amazonensis within the "Mexicana complex", reinforcing understanding of the split of New and Old World Leishmania. Potential non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) were identified between L. amazonensis and Homo sapiens that could provide new drug targets for development.
Mazeris, Apostolos; Koutala, Eleni; Vlahou, Antonia; Papadogiorgaki, Sevasti; Antoniou, Maria
Resistance of pathogens to drugs is a growing concern regarding many diseases. Parasites like Leishmania, Plasmodium and Entamoeba histolytica; and neoplastic cells, present the multidrug-resistant phenotype rendering chemotherapy ineffective. The acquired resistance of Leishmania to antimony has generated intense research on the mechanisms involved but the question has not yet been resolved. To test the hypothesis that drug efflux in Leishmania, as measured by flow cytometry using the fluorescent dye Rhodamine-123, is largely dependent on the number of efflux pumps an isolate can express, the amount of Pgp 170 molecules was assessed in ten field isolates (5 “resistant” and 5 “susceptible”) using: Western Blotting, Confocal and Transmission Electron Microscopy, and proteomics. Their survival after exposure to three antileishmanial drugs, in vitro, was evaluated and clinical data were compared to the in vitro results. All isolates were resistant to Glucantime but susceptible to Miltefosine, whilst Amphotericin B was more effective on the “susceptible” isolates. The MDR gene, expressing the transmembrane efflux pump Pgp 170, appears to play a key role in the phenomenon of drug resistance. When “susceptible” versus “resistant” parasites were compared, it was shown that the higher the number of Pgp 170 molecules the higher the Rhodamine-123 efflux from the parasite body and, when exposed to the drug, the number of efflux pumps increased. However, the rate of this increase was not linear and it is possible that there is a maximum number of Pgp 170 molecules an isolate can express. Nevertheless, the phenomenon is a complex one and other factors and proteins are involved in which the HSP-70 group proteins, detected in the “resistant” isolates, may play a significant role. PMID:23776486
Osland, A; Beyene, D; Ashenafi, S; Beetsma, A
A genomic expression library of Leishmania aethiopica was constructed in lambda gt11 and screened with patient sera and sera from healthy people living in an area of endemicity. Forty-five recombinant clones were isolated and partly characterized. Clone-specific antibodies were prepared and used with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblot analysis to estimate the molecular masses of the parasite-derived antigens containing the reactive epitope(s). Antigens with apparent molecular masses of 90, 85, 63, 50, 41, 25 and 24 kDa as well as several antigens with lower molecular masses were detected. The clone-specific antibodies from patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis reacted with high-molecular-weight antigens (30,000 less than Mr less than 90,000), whereas antibodies from patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis recognized low-molecular-weight antigens (Mr less than 25,000). Nine different purified recombinant antigens were obtained from lysogens in Escherichia coli Y1089 by immunoaffinity chromatography on anti-beta-galactosidase columns and were subsequently tested with patient sera. It is suggested that some of these recombinant antigens might be used for immunodiagnostic purposes. Images PMID:1372294
McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Ranasinghe, Shanlindra; Matlashewski, Greg
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts.
Identification and phylogenetic relationship of Iranian strains of various Leishmania species isolated from cutaneous and visceral cases of leishmaniasis based on N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase gene.
Hajjaran, Homa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Teimouri, Aref; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Mirjalali, Hamed; Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Shiee, Mohammad Reza; Naddaf, Saied Reza
The identity of Iranian Leishmania species has been resolved to some extent by some genetic markers. In this study, based on N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) gene, we further elucidated the identity and phylogeny of the prevalent species in this country. DNAs of 121 isolates belonging to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients, canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) cases, and Rhombomys opimus rodents were amplified by targeting a partial sequence of nagt gene. All the amplicons were analyzed with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using Acc1 enzyme, and 49 amplicons representing different reservoir hosts were sequenced and aligned with similar sequences from GenBank database. The RFLP analysis revealed that 41 CL patients were infected Leishmania tropica and 36 with Leishmania major. Among 10 CVL isolates, 6 were identified as Leishmania infantum and 4 as L. tropica. Amongst 34 rodents' isolates, 11 and 23 isolates exhibited patterns similar to those of L. major, and L. tropica/Leishmania turanica, respectively. The sequencing results from all CL patients, CVL cases, and 4 reservoir rodents were in agreement with RFLP analysis and showed 99-100% homologies with the registered species of L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum from Turkey, Tunisia, Iraq and Israel. Of the 7 rodent isolates exhibiting RFLP patterns similar to L. tropica/L. turanica, 3 exhibited the highest homologies (99-100%) with L. turanica and 4 with Leishmania gerbilli. The 49 nagt DNA sequences were grouped into five clusters representing L. major, L. tropica, L. infantum, L. turanica and L. gerbilli species, encompassing 19 haplotypes. No correlation was observed between intraspecies divergence and geographic distribution of haplotypes. The L. tropica haplotypes exhibited more homologies with those of L. infantum than L. major (97.2% vs. 96.9%), a probable indication to the potential ability of L. tropica to visceralize. Characterization of Iranian Leishmania isolates
Nogueira, Paula M.; Assis, Rafael R.; Torrecilhas, Ana C.; Saraiva, Elvira M.; Pessoa, Natália L.; Campos, Marco A.; Marialva, Eric F.; Ríos-Velasquez, Cláudia M.; Pessoa, Felipe A.; Secundino, Nágila F.; Rugani, Jerônimo N.; Nieves, Elsa; Turco, Salvatore J.; Melo, Maria N.
The immunomodulatory properties of lipophosphoglycans (LPG) from New World species of Leishmania have been assessed in Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. This glycoconjugate is highly polymorphic among species with variation in sugars that branch off the conserved Gal(β1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 backbone of repeat units. Here, the immunomodulatory activity of LPGs from Leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, was evaluated in two strains from Brazil. One strain (PH8) was originally isolated from the sand fly and the other (Josefa) was isolated from a human case. The ability of purified LPGs from both strains was investigated during in vitro interaction with peritoneal murine macrophages and CHO cells and in vivo infection with Lutzomyia migonei. In peritoneal murine macrophages, the LPGs from both strains activated TLR4. Both LPGs equally activate MAPKs and the NF-κB inhibitor p-IκBα, but were not able to translocate NF-κB. In vivo experiments with sand flies showed that both stains were able to sustain infection in L. migonei. A preliminary biochemical analysis indicates intraspecies variation in the LPG sugar moieties. However, they did not result in different activation profiles of the innate immune system. Also those polymorphisms did not affect infectivity to the sand fly. PMID:27508930
Schriefer, Albert; Magalhães, Andréa; Meyer, Roberto; Glesby, Marshall J.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Carvalho, Lucas P.
Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies on clinical presentation, parasite isolation, histopathologic evaluation and positive Montenegro skin test. However, the low amounts of parasites in the lesion of these individuals make parasite isolation and histopatologic diagnosis unreliable, often leading to false-negative results. Also, 15% of people living in endemic areas have sub-clinical infection characterized by positive Montenegro skin test, which may contribute to misdiagnosis. Although the main Leishmania killing mechanism is through cell-mediated immune response, antibodies against Leishmania antigens are found in infected individuals. Here our goal was to develop a new serological technique using polystyrene microspheres sensitized with soluble Leishmania antigens as a tool for the detection of IgG in serum from CL patients by flow cytometry. To validate the assay we carried out a comparative test (ELISA) commonly used as a diagnostic test for parasitic diseases. To determine cross-reactivity we used serum from patients with Chagas disease, caused by a trypanosome that has several proteins with high homology to those of the Leishmania genus. We observed that the flow cytometry technique was more sensitive than the ELISA, but, less specific. Our results show that the flow cytometry serologic test can be used to confirm CL cases in L. braziliensis transmission areas, however, presence of Chagas disease has to be ruled out in these individuals. PMID:27622535
Ghosh, A; Bandyopadhyay, K; Kole, L; Das, P K
Extracellular matrix (ECM)-binding proteins on the surface of Leishmania are thought to play a crucial role in the onset of leishmaniasis, as these parasites invade mononuclear phagocytes in various organs after migrating through the ECM. In a previous report, we presented several lines of evidence suggesting that Leishmania has a specific receptor for laminin, a major ECM protein, with a Kd in the nanomolar range. Here we describe the identification, purification and biochemical characterization of the Leishmania laminin receptor. When the outer membrane proteins of L. donovani were blotted on to nitrocellulose paper and probed with laminin, a prominent laminin-binding protein of 67 kDa was identified. The purified protein was isolated by a three-step process involving DEAE-cellulose, Con A (concanavalin A)-Sepharose and laminin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and was used to raise a monospecific antibody. The same protein was obtained when parasite membrane extracts were adsorbed to antibody affinity matrix and eluted with glycine. The affinity-purified protein bound to laminin in a detergent-solubilized form as well as after integration into artificial bilayers, and was subsequently characterized as an integral membrane protein. Metaperiodate oxidation and metabolic inhibition of glycosylation studies indicate the binding protein to be glycoprotein in nature and that N-linked oligosaccharides play a part in the interaction of laminin with the binding protein. Surface-labelled parasites attached to microtitre wells coated with laminin and the 67 kDa protein blocked the adhesion to laminin substrate. We propose that the 67 kDa protein is an adhesin involved in the attachment of Leishmania to host tissues. PMID:9895301
Fernández, Olga; Diaz-Toro, Yira; Valderrama, Liliana; Ovalle, Clemencia; Valderrama, Mabel; Castillo, Harry; Perez, Mauricio; Saravia, Nancy Gore
Resistance to antimonial drugs has been documented in Leishmania isolates transmitted in South America, Europe, and Asia. The frequency and distribution of resistance to these and other antileishmanial drugs are unknown. Technical constraints have limited the assessment of drug susceptibility of clinical strains of Leishmania. Susceptibility of experimentally selected lines and 130 clinical strains of Leishmania panamensis, L. braziliensis, and L. guyanensis to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine was determined on the basis of parasite burden and percentage of infected U-937 human macrophages. Reductions of infection at single predefined concentrations of meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine and 50% effective doses (ED(50)s) were measured and correlated. The effects of 34°C and 37°C incubation temperatures and different parasite-to-host cell ratios on drug susceptibility were evaluated at 5, 10, and 20 parasites/cell. Reduction of the intracellular burden of Leishmania amastigotes in U-937 cells exposed to the predefined concentrations of meglumine antimoniate or miltefosine discriminated sensitive and experimentally derived resistant Leishmania populations and was significantly correlated with ED(50) values of clinical strains (for meglumine antimoniate, ρ = -0.926 and P < 0.001; for miltefosine, ρ = -0.906 and P < 0.001). Incubation at 37°C significantly inhibited parasite growth compared to that at 34°C in the absence of antileishmanial drugs and resulted in a significantly lower ED(50) in the presence of drugs. Susceptibility assessment was not altered by the parasite-to-cell ratio over the range evaluated. In conclusion, measurement of the reduction of parasite burden at a single predetermined drug concentration under standardized conditions provides an efficient and reliable strategy for susceptibility evaluation and monitoring of clinical strains of Leishmania.
Fernández, Olga; Diaz-Toro, Yira; Valderrama, Liliana; Ovalle, Clemencia; Valderrama, Mabel; Castillo, Harry; Perez, Mauricio
Resistance to antimonial drugs has been documented in Leishmania isolates transmitted in South America, Europe, and Asia. The frequency and distribution of resistance to these and other antileishmanial drugs are unknown. Technical constraints have limited the assessment of drug susceptibility of clinical strains of Leishmania. Susceptibility of experimentally selected lines and 130 clinical strains of Leishmania panamensis, L. braziliensis, and L. guyanensis to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine was determined on the basis of parasite burden and percentage of infected U-937 human macrophages. Reductions of infection at single predefined concentrations of meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine and 50% effective doses (ED50s) were measured and correlated. The effects of 34°C and 37°C incubation temperatures and different parasite-to-host cell ratios on drug susceptibility were evaluated at 5, 10, and 20 parasites/cell. Reduction of the intracellular burden of Leishmania amastigotes in U-937 cells exposed to the predefined concentrations of meglumine antimoniate or miltefosine discriminated sensitive and experimentally derived resistant Leishmania populations and was significantly correlated with ED50 values of clinical strains (for meglumine antimoniate, ρ = −0.926 and P < 0.001; for miltefosine, ρ = −0.906 and P < 0.001). Incubation at 37°C significantly inhibited parasite growth compared to that at 34°C in the absence of antileishmanial drugs and resulted in a significantly lower ED50 in the presence of drugs. Susceptibility assessment was not altered by the parasite-to-cell ratio over the range evaluated. In conclusion, measurement of the reduction of parasite burden at a single predetermined drug concentration under standardized conditions provides an efficient and reliable strategy for susceptibility evaluation and monitoring of clinical strains of Leishmania. PMID:22518860
Mrs. Barbara Harris, Miss Laura A. Lamb, and Miss Shannon Waits. tORZWORD Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the...antileishmanial activity against both visceral (Leishmania donovani) and cutaneous (Lebs-Qnia, braziliensis panamensis) leishmaniasis . Among the most promising...active compounds found against visceral leishmaniasis durinq these studies is the 8-aminoquinoline, WR06026. This compound is now undergoing clinical
Dos Santos Thomazelli, Ana Paula Fortes; Tomiotto-Pellissier, Fernanda; da Silva, Suelen Santos; Panis, Carolina; Orsini, Tatiane Marcusso; Cataneo, Allan Henrique Depieri; Miranda-Sapla, Milena Menegazzo; Custódio, Luiz Antonio; Tatakihara, Vera Lúcia Hideko; Bordignon, Juliano; Silveira, Guilherme Ferreira; Sforcin, José Maurício; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério; Conchon-Costa, Ivete
American Tegumentar Leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania parasites with ineffective treatment. The properties of propolis have been studied in different experimental studies, however, few works have investigated the effects of propolis on human-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in leishmaniasis models. Thus, we investigate the immunomodulatory effects of propolis treatment on PBMC from ATL patients and on PBMC from healthy donors infected with Leishmania braziliensis. Our data demonstrate that propolis pretreatment shows immunomodulatory effects on both healthy donors and ATL patients adherent cells, increasing IL-4 and IL-17 and decreasing IL-10, in either the presence or absence of the L. braziliensis infection, demonstrating that propolis contributes with the decrease of the inflammation and could also contribute with parasite control.
Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas.
Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas. PMID:27410039
Hajjaran, H; Azarian, B; Mohebali, M; Hadighi, R; Assareh, A; Vaziri, B
In order to define the protein expressional changes related to the process of meglumine antimoniate resistance in anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), we performed a comparative proteomics analysis on sensitive and resistant strains of Leishmania tropica isolated from Iranian CL patients. Cell proteins were analysed with 2-dimensional electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Image analysis of the matched maps identified 7 proteins that were either over- or down-expressed: activated protein kinase c receptor(LACK), alpha tubulin (x2), prostaglandin f2-alpha synthase, protein disulfide isomerase, vesicular transport protein and a hypothetical protein. The study shows the usefulness of proteomics in identifying proteins that may express differences between sensitive and resistant L. tropica isolates.
Abd El-Salam, Nasser M; Ayaz, Sultan; Ullah, Riaz
Leishmania tropica was isolated from the clinical patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural community of Kohat district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and was identified through PCR, microscopy, and culture techniques. A total of 113 samples from the clinical patients were examined through PCR, microscopy, and culture which showed 87.61% (99/113), 53.98% (61/113), and 46.90% (53/113) prevalence. During the study, 186 bp Leishmania tropica was identified through PCR. Thus the sensitivity of PCR is very high as compared to the conventional techniques.
Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Bose, Dipayan; Banerjee, Somenath; Pal, Prajnamoy; Jha, Tarun; Das Saha, Krishna
Sepsis is the reflection of systemic immune response that manifests in the sequential inflammatory process in presence of infection. This may occur as a result of gram-negative bacterial sepsis including Escherichia coli infection that gives rise to excessive production of inflammatory mediators and causes severe tissue injuries. We have reported earlier that the lipid of attenuated Leishmania donovani suppresses the inflammatory responses in arthritis patients. Using heat killed E. coli stimulated macrophages, we have now investigated the effect of leishmanial total lipid (LTL) isolated from Leishmania donovani (MHO/IN/1978/UR6) for amelioration of the inflammatory mediators and transcriptional factor with suppression of TLR4-CD14 expression. To evaluate the in vivo effect, E. coli induced murine sepsis model was used focusing on the changes in different parameter(s) of lung injury caused by sepsis, namely, edema, vascular permeability, and pathophysiology, and the status of different cytokine-chemokine(s) and adhesion molecule(s). Due to the effect of LTL, E. coli induced inflammatory cytokine-chemokine(s) levels were significantly reduced in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid simultaneously. LTL also improved the lung injury and suppressed the cell adhesion molecules in lung tissue. These findings indicate that LTL may prove to be a potential anti-inflammatory agent and provide protection against gram-negative bacterial sepsis with pulmonary impairment.
Rosypal, Alexa C; Lindsay, David S
Leishmania infantum, an etiologic agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, is endemic in the foxhound population in the United States and Canada. Leishmaniasis is usually transmitted by blood-feeding sand flies; however, epidemiological data do not support a significant role for sand flies in the maintenance of foxhound infections in North America, and an alternate mode of transmission may exist. The present study was conducted to determine if transplacental or direct transmission occurs in pregnant BALB/c mice experimentally infected with L. infantum isolated from a naturally infected foxhound from Virginia as well as to determine if the parasite was directly transmitted to the males used to breed the mice. Female BALB/c mice were intravenously inoculated with 1 x 10(6) promastigotes of the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum. Mice were bred to uninfected male BALB/c mice 2 mo postinoculation. Pregnant mice were killed between days 13 and 18 of gestation. Pups and placentas were collected at necropsy, divided, and used for parasite culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. Culture and PCR analyses were performed on spleens from the male mice to determine the possibility of sexual transmission. Leishmania sp. DNA was detected in 4 of 88 pups and 3 of 16 placentas from LIVT-1-inoculated mice. One male mouse used to breed infected females was PCR positive. This work provides evidence for a low level of nonvector transmission of North American L. infantum in a mouse model.
Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Rasolian, Mohammad; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Doosti, Sogra
Shiraz district in south of Iran is a classical focus of Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and previous research has consistently documented the etiologic agent to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major in urban and rural areas, respectively. However, none of the Phlebotomus sergenti, a known vector for L. tropica, of the region has been found infected. We report the first isolation of L. tropica from sandflies in urban community of southern part of Shiraz city. Parasite polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and gene sequencing analyses indicate CL cases in this community were caused by either L. major or L. tropica. Sandflies of P. sergenti were infrequent, however, three out of 10 (30.0%) females captured in urban area were found infected with L. tropica. But, no human cases were found to be infected with L. tropica. Phlebotomus papatasi were found the most dominant and infected species where 41 out of 207 (20%) tested individuals harboring L. major in suburb area of the city. Patients have been lived in the suburb area of the city where people keep normally domestic animals in their houses which provide appropriate environment for completion of sandfly life cycle and expansion of CL disease in the region.
Brenzan, M A; Santos, A O; Nakamura, C V; Filho, B P Dias; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Young, M C M; Côrrea, A G; Júnior, J Alvim; Morgado-Díaz, J A; Cortez, D A G
We have previously demonstrated antileishmanial activity on Leishmania amazonensis of the natural (1-2), synthetic (7) and derivatives of coumarin (-) mammea A/BB (3-6) isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Calophyllum brasiliense leaves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate morphological and ultrastructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis induced by these compounds. In promastigote forms, all seven compounds produced significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations, as revealed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The compound 5,7-dihydroxy-8-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(3-methylbutyl)-4-phenyl-chroman-2-one (3), the most active antileishmanial with LD₅₀ of 0.9 μM), induced cell shrinkage and a rounded appearance of the cells. Parasites incubated in the presence of compound (3) showed ultrastructural changes, such as the appearance of mitochondrial swelling with a reduction in the density of the mitochondrial matrix and the presence of vesicles inside the mitochondrion, indicating damage and significant change in this organelle; abnormal chromatin condensation, alterations in the nuclear envelope, intense atypical cytoplasmic vacuolization, and the appearance of autophagic vacuoles were also observed. In addition, the compound (3) may be acting to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells, leading to death of the parasite.
Gelanew, Tesfaye; Hailu, Asrat; Schőnian, Gabriele; Lewis, Michael D; Miles, Michael A; Yeo, Matthew
Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) cause widespread and devastating human diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Ethiopia where it has also been responsible for fatal epidemics. It is postulated that genetic exchange in Leishmania has implications for heterosis (hybrid vigour), spread of virulent strains, resistance to chemotherapeutics, and exploitation of different hosts and vectors. Here we analyse 11 natural Ethiopian Leishmania donovani isolates consisting of four putative hybrids, seven parent-like isolates and over 90 derived biological clones. We apply a novel combination of high resolution multilocus microsatellite typing (five loci) and multilocus sequence typing (four loci) that together distinguish parent-like and hybrid L. donovani strains. Results indicate that the four isolates (and their associated biological clones) are genetic hybrids, not the results of mixed infections, each possessing heterozygous markers consistent with inheritance of divergent alleles from genetically distinct Ethiopian L. donovani lineages. The allelic profiles of the putative hybrids may have arisen from a single hybridisation event followed by inbreeding or gene conversion, or alternatively from two or more hybridisation events. Mitochondrial sequencing showed uniparental maxicircle inheritance for all of the hybrids, each possessing a single mitochondrial genotype. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of DNA content demonstrated that all hybrids and their associated clones were diploid. Together the data imply that intra-specific genetic exchange is a recurrent feature of natural L. donovani populations, with substantial implications for the phyloepidemiology of Leishmania.
Kumar, Ashish; Chowdhury, Somenath Roy; Sarkar, Tapas; Chakrabarti, Tulika; Majumder, Hemanta K; Jha, Tarun; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata
Chemical investigation of the stem of Thalictrum foliolosum resulted in the isolation of two new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids (1 and 2) along with known protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids thalifendine (3) and berberine (4). The structures of the new compounds were established by detailed 2D NMR spectral analysis with their configurations determined from their optical rotation values and confirmed using circular dichroism. Inhibitory activities of these four compounds against DNA topoisomerase IB of Leishmania donovani were evaluated. Compound 2 exhibited almost complete inhibition of the enzyme activity at 50 μM concentration and it was found to be effective in killing both wild type as well as SAG resistant promastigotes of the parasite.
Ashutosh; Garg, Mansi; Sundar, Shyam; Duncan, Robert; Nakhasi, Hira L; Goyal, Neena
Emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials has become a severe obstacle in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on the Indian subcontinent. The mechanisms operating in laboratory-generated strains are somewhat known, but the determinants of clinical antimony resistance are not well understood. By utilizing a DNA microarray expression profiling approach, we identified a gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) for the kinetoplast protozoan Leishmania donovani (LdMAPK1) that was consistently downregulated in antimony-resistant field isolates. The expression level of the gene was validated by real-time PCR. Furthermore, decreased expression of LdMAPK1 was also confirmed at the protein level in resistant isolates. Primary structure analysis of LdMAPK1 revealed the presence of all of the characteristic features of MAPK1. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme showed kinase activity with myelin basic protein as the substrate and was inhibited by staurosporine. Interestingly, overexpression of this gene in a drug-sensitive laboratory strain and a resistant field isolate resulted in increased the sensitivity of the transfectants to potassium antimony tartrate, suggesting that it has a role in antimony resistance. Our results demonstrate that downregulation of LdMAPK1 may be in part correlated with antimony drug resistance in Indian VL isolates.
Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khadem-Erfan, Mohammad Bagher; Hajjaran, Homa; Hadighi, Ramtin; Khamesipour, Ali; Rezaie, Sassan; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Heidari, Mansour
The mainstay therapy against leishmaniasis is still pentavalent antimonial drugs; however, the rate of antimony resistance is increasing in endemic regions such as Iran. Understanding the molecular basis of resistance to antimonials could be helpful to improve treatment strategies. This study aimed to recognize genes involved in antimony resistance of Leishmania tropica field isolates. Sensitive and resistant L. tropica parasites were isolated from anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis patients and drug susceptibility of parasites to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) was confirmed using in vitro assay. Then, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) approaches were utilized on mRNAs from resistant and sensitive L. tropica isolates. We identified 2 known genes, ubiquitin implicated in protein degradation and amino acid permease (AAP3) involved in arginine uptake. Also, we identified 1 gene encoding hypothetical protein. Real-time RT-PCR revealed a significant upregulation of ubiquitin (2.54-fold), and AAP3 (2.86-fold) (P<0.05) in a resistant isolate compared to a sensitive one. Our results suggest that overexpression of ubiquitin and AAP3 could potentially implicated in natural antimony resistance.
Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khadem-Erfan, Mohammad Bagher; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Hajjaran, Homa; Hadighi, Ramtin; Khamesipour, Ali; Rezaie, Sassan; Abedkhojasteh, Hoda; Heidari, Mansour
Pentavalent antimonial compounds have been the first line therapy for leishmaniasis; unfortunately the rate of treatment failure of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is increasing due to emerging of drug resistance. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms operating in antimony resistance is critical for development of new strategies for treatment. Here, we used a cDNA-AFLP approach to identify gene(s) which are differentially expressed in resistant and sensitive Leishmania tropica field isolates. We identified five genes, aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) acts in drug uptake, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (MRPA) involved in sequestration of drug, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) implicated in glycolysis metabolism, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) responsible for phosphorylation pathway. The results were confirmed using real time RT-PCR which revealed an upregulation of MRPA, PTP and PGK genes and downregulation of AQP1 and MAPK genes in resistant isolate. To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of PTP and PGK genes potentially implicated in resistance to antimonials. Our findings support the idea that distinct biomolecules might be involved in antimony resistance in L. tropica field isolates.
Garcia, Francielle Pelegrin; Lazarin-Bidóia, Danielle; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Silva, Sueli de Oliveira; Nakamura, Celso Vataru
Leishmania spp. are protozoa responsible for leishmaniasis, a neglected disease that kills up to 50,000 people every year. Current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy and safety and increased drug resistance. An urgent need exists to find new and more affordable drugs. Our previous study demonstrated the antileishmanial activity of eupomatenoid-5, a neolignan obtained from leaves of Piper regnellii var. pallescens. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mode of action of eupomatenoid-5 against L. amazonensis. We used biochemical and morphological techniques and demonstrated that eupomatenoid-5 induced cell death in L. amazonensis promastigotes, sharing some phenotypic features observed in metazoan apoptosis, including increased reactive oxygen species production, hypopolarization of mitochondrial potential, phosphatidylserine exposure, decreased cell volume, and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest.
Garcia, Francielle Pelegrin; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Silva, Sueli de Oliveira
Leishmania spp. are protozoa responsible for leishmaniasis, a neglected disease that kills up to 50,000 people every year. Current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy and safety and increased drug resistance. An urgent need exists to find new and more affordable drugs. Our previous study demonstrated the antileishmanial activity of eupomatenoid-5, a neolignan obtained from leaves of Piper regnellii var. pallescens. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mode of action of eupomatenoid-5 against L. amazonensis. We used biochemical and morphological techniques and demonstrated that eupomatenoid-5 induced cell death in L. amazonensis promastigotes, sharing some phenotypic features observed in metazoan apoptosis, including increased reactive oxygen species production, hypopolarization of mitochondrial potential, phosphatidylserine exposure, decreased cell volume, and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. PMID:23573160
Volpini, A C; Marques, M J; Lopes dos Santos, S; Machado-Coelho, G L; Mayrink, W; Romanha, A J
This study examined the ability of PCR to amplify Leishmania DNA, stored on Giemsa-stained slides, from American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) patients. In total, 475 slides stored for up to 36 years were obtained from an outpatient clinic in a Brazilian ACL-endemic region, and Leishmania DNA was amplified from 395 (83.2%) of the DNA samples using primers specific for the minicircle kinetoplast DNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of these amplicons demonstrated that Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis was the only species present in these samples. The results demonstrated that archived Giemsa-stained slides can provide a Leishmania DNA source for performing clinical and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis.
Hlavacova, J; Votypka, J; Volf, P
The spread of leishmaniasis to areas where it was previously considered nonendemic has been recently found in the New and Old Worlds, and climate changes are suspected as a crucial factor responsible for this spread. Ambient temperature is known to significantly affect the metabolism of sand flies and their developmental times, but little is known about the effect of temperature on the Leishmania life cycle in vectors. This study assesses the effect of temperature on the development of two closely related New World Viannia species, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania peruviana, in the permissive vector Lutzomyia longipalpis, and on the development of New and Old World Leishmania infantum in its natural vectors Lu. longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus, respectively. The mountain species L. peruviana developed well in sand fly females kept at 20 degrees C, whereas at 26 degrees C, most infections were lost during the defecation ofbloodmeal remains; this suggests an adaptation to the slower metabolism of sand flies living at lower ambient temperature. On the contrary, L. infantum and L. braziliensis developed well at both temperatures tested; heavy late-stage infections were observed in a majority of sand fly females maintained at 20 degrees C as well 26 degrees C. Frequent fully developed infections of L. infantum and L. braziliensis at 20 degrees C suggest a certain risk of the spread of these two Leishmania species to higher latitudes and altitudes.
Kavarizadeh, Farzaneh; Khademvatan, Shahram; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Feizhaddad, Mohammad Hossein; Zarean, Mehdi
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is vector borne parasitic disease, considered as public health problem especially in border of Iran and Iraq, Dehloran County (Musian district). The aim of this study was molecular identification of Leishmania parasites in sandfly as vectors of Leishmaniasis. Totally 280 female sandflies were trapped by sticky traps from 7 rural areas of Musiyan in September-November 2012. All sandflies were identified using morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia. DNA was extracted from female sandflies and Leishmania was identified using PCR and sequencing. All 280 trapped sandflies were identified as Phelobotumus Papatasi and Leishmania infections were detected in 3.2 % out of 280 female sandflies. All leishmania were identified as L. major and submitted in Gene bank as: LC014642.1, LC014641.1, LC014640.1 and LC014639.1. Frequency of Phlebotomus Papatasi and infection with L. major in studied regions showed that this vector is dominant in these areas.
Maache, M; Azzouz, S; Diaz de la Guardia, R; Alvarez, P; Gil, R; de Pablos, L M; Osuna, A
SUMMARY We report on the use of Leishmania donovani lipid-binding proteins (LBPs) as antigens capable of being recognized by serum from immunocompetent patients from southern Spain suffering from visceral leishmaniasis and from Peruvian patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. The absorbance found by immunoenzymatic techniques gave significantly different results for the serum samples from patients with and without leishmaniasis. Specificity by ELISA testing was 93.2% and sensibility 100%. Dot blots from human patient serum samples or naturally infected dogs from Spain gave similarly significant results. All the human serum samples from individuals with visceral leishmaniasis and the Leishmania-positive canine samples recognized two bands, with molecular weights of 8 and 57 kDa. The serum from individuals with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis recognized an additional band of 16 kDa. We discuss the role of Leishmania FABP and compare the immunological reactions found with serum samples from other protozoan infections such as toxoplasma and Chagas as well as bacterial infections such as tuberculosis and syphilis.
Sakunpak, A; Matsunami, K; Otsuka, H; Panichayupakaranant, P
On the basis of a leishmanicidal assay-guided isolation, two new monoterpene coumarins, minutin A and minutin B, were purified from Micromelum minutum leaves together with four known coumarins, 8,4″-dihydroxy-3″,4″-dihydrocapnolactone-2',3'-diol, 8-hydroxyisocapnolactone-2',3'-diol, 8-hydroxy-3″,4″-dihydrocapnolactone-2',3'-diol, and clauslactone E. Among these compounds, minutin A, minutin B, 8-hydroxyisocapnolactone-2',3'-diol and clauslactone E showed a significant cytotoxic activity against Leishmania major with IC50 values of 26.2, 20.2, 12.1, and 9.8 μM, respectively, while 8,4″-dihydroxy-3″4″-dihydrocapnolactone-2',3'-diol and 8-hydroxy-3″,4″-dihydrocapnolactone-2',3'-diol were not active. However, all these compounds exhibited some inhibitory activity against one or more lung adenocarcinoma (SBC3 and A549) and leukaemia (K562, and K562/ADM) cell lines. Amongst these, clauslactone E, minutin B and 8-hydroxyisocapnolactone-2',3'-diol possessed the strongest cytotoxic activity against SBC3, A549, K562, and K562/ADM cell lines, with IC50 values of 3.7, 10.4, 12.1, and 10.8 μM for clauslactone E; 9.6, 17.5, 8.7 and 6.7 μM for minutin B; 8.8, 10.1, 16.9, and 10.1 μM for 8-hydroxyisocapnolactone-2',3'-diol, respectively.
Jamal, Qaisar; Khan, Nazma Habib; Wahid, Sobia; Awan, Mahwish Mustafa; Sutherland, Colin; Shah, Akram
In this study, in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of buparvaquone was evaluated against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Pakistani Leishmania tropica isolate KWH23 in relation to the current standard chemotherapy for leishmaniasis (sodium stibogluconate, sodium stibogluconate, amphotericin B and miltefosine). For buparvaquone, mean % inhibition in intracellular amastigotes at four different concentrations (1.35 µM, 0.51 µM, 0.17 µM and 0.057 µM) was 78%, 44%, 20% and 14% respectively, whereas, against promastigotes it was 89%, 77%, 45% and 35% respectively. IC50 values calculated to estimate the anti-leishmanial activity of buparvaquone against intra-cellular amastigotes and promastigotes was 0.53 µM (95% C.I. = 0.32-0.89) and 0.15 µM (95% C.I. = 0.01-1.84) respectively. Amphotericin B was the most potent in-vitro drug tested, with an IC50 of 0.075 µM (95% C.I. = 0.006-0.907) against promastigotes, and 0.065 µM (95% C.I. = 0.048-0.089) against intra-cellular amastigotes. Amphotericin B was more cytotoxic against THP1 cells, with an IC50 of 0.15 µM (95% C.I. = 0.01-0.95) and an apparent in-vitro therapeutic index of 2.0, than was buparvaquone, with an IC50 of 12.03 µM (95% C.I. = 5.36-26.96) against THP1 cells and a therapeutic index of 80.2. The study proposes that buparvaquone may be further investigated as a candidate drug for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando
Leishmania spp are distributed throughout the world and different species are associated with varying degrees of disease severity. However, leishmaniasis is thought to be confined to areas of the world where its insect vectors, sandflies, are present. Phlebotomine sandflies obtain blood meals from a variety of wild and domestic animals and sometimes from humans. These vectors transmit Leishmania spp, the aetiological agent of leishmaniasis. Identification of sandfly blood meals has generally been performed using serological methods, although a few studies have used molecular procedures in artificially fed insects. In this study, cytochrome b gene (cytB) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in DNA samples isolated from 38 engorged Psychodopygus lloydi and the expected 359 bp fragment was identified from all of the samples. The amplified product was digested using restriction enzymes and analysed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). We identified food sources for 23 females; 34.8% yielded a primate-specific banding profile and 26.1% and 39.1% showed banding patterns specific to birds or mixed restriction profiles (rodent/marsupial, human/bird, rodent/marsupial/human), respectively. The food sources of 15 flies could not be identified. Two female P. lloydi were determined to be infected by Leishmania using internal transcribed spacer 1 and heat shock protein 70 kDa PCR-RFLP. The two female sandflies, both of which fed on rodents/marsupials, were further characterised as infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. These results constitute an important step towards applying methodologies based on cytB amplification as a tool for identifying the food sources of female sandflies.
Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Teodoro, Anna Karollina Menezes; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi
Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further.
Vale, A M; Fujiwara, R T; da Silva Neto, A F; Miret, J A; Alvarez, D C C; da Silva, J C F; Campos-Neto, A; Reed, S; Mayrink, W; Nascimento, E
The Leishmania species present a genetic homology that ranges from 69 to 90%. Because of this homology, heterologous antigens have been used in the immunodiagnosis and vaccine development against Leishmania infections. In the current work, we describe the identification of species-specific and cross-reactive antigens among several New World Leishmania species, using symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally Leishmania chagasi-infected dog sera. Soluble antigens from five strains of New World Leishmania were separated by electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted. Different proteins were uniquely recognized in the L. chagasi panel by either symptomatic or asymptomatic dog sera suggesting their use as markers for the progression of disease and diagnosis of the initial (sub-clinical) phase of the infection. Cross-reactive antigens were identified using heterologous antigenic panels (L. amazonensis strains PH8 and BH6, L. guyanensis and L. braziliensis). L. guyanensis panel showed the highest cross-reactivity against L. chagasi specific antibodies, suggesting that proteins from this extract might be suitable for the diagnosis of visceral canine leishmaniasis. Interestingly, the 51 and 97 kDa proteins of Leishmania were widely recognized (77.8% to 100%) among all antigenic panels tested, supporting their potential use for immunodiagnosis. Finally, we identified several leishmanial antigens that might be useful for routine diagnosis and seroepidemiological studies of the visceral canine leishmaniasis.
lesions afte~r YOUNG et al. (1987). Sandfiy pools in cryopreservant inoculation into the footpads of BALB’c mice. were slowly frozen on dry ice and...leishmaniasis lesions fromt patients present- t ~ = - ing with typical lesions . Both sandfll and human isolates were subsequently passagecd into 1-1 On’s...cutaneous lesions in 199-208.Mansour, N. S., Yousscf, F. G., Mohareb, 1". W., Decs, W. man, IF. papatasi is considered to be a grade 3 vector 11
Löfgren, S E; Miletti, L C; Steindel, M; Bachère, E; Barracco, M A
Most of the available animal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been tested against bacteria and fungi, but very few against protozoan parasites. In the present study, we investigated the antiparasitic activity of different AMPs isolated from aquatic animals: tachyplesin (Tach, from Tachypleus tridentatus), magainin (Mag, from Xenopus laevis), clavanin (Clav, from Styela clava), penaeidin (Pen, from Litopenaeus vannamei), mytilin (Myt, from Mytilus edulis) and anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF, from Penaeus monodon). The antiparasitic activity was evaluated against the promastigote form of Leishmania braziliensis and epi and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, through the MTT method. Tach was the most potent peptide, killing completely L. braziliensis and trypomastigote T. cruzi from 12.5microM, whereas Pen and Clav were weakly active against trypomastigotes and Myt against L. braziliensis, only at a high concentration (100microM). Tach and Mag were markedly hemolytic at high concentrations, whereas the other peptides caused only a slight hemolysis (<10% up to 50microM). Our results point to Tach as the only potential candidate for further investigation and potential application as a therapeutic agent.
dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Nakamura, Celso Vataru
In the present study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of sesquiterpene elatol, the major constituent of the Brazilian red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux, against L. amazonensis. Elatol after 72 h of treatment, showed an IC50 of 4.0 μM and 0.45 μM for promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. amazonensis, respectively. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy, parasites treated with elatol revealed notable changes compared with control cells, including: pronounced swelling of the mitochondrion; appearance of concentric membrane structures inside the organelle; destabilization of the plasma membrane; and formation of membrane structures, apparently an extension of the endoplasmic reticulum, which is suggestive of an autophagic process. A cytotoxicity assay showed that the action of the isolated compound is more specific for protozoa, and it is not toxic to macrophages. Our studies indicated that elatol is a potent antiproliferative agent against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms, and may have important advantages for the development of new anti-leishamanial chemotherapies. PMID:21139841
Protozoan parasites in the genus Leishmania are ingested by sand flies with blood and multiply in the gut until they are transmitted to a vertebrate host when the sand fly blood feeds again. Infections of the enzootic vector Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli result in distended midguts with no spontaneous gut contractions. Using a P. papatasi hindgut contraction bioassay, a paralytic factor sensitive to trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase-K, and heating at 56 degrees C was detected in crude lysates of Leishmania major promastigotes. Application of parasite lysate to isolated hindguts resulted in reversible, dose-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contractions. Mean volume of isolated midguts and hindguts increased by 50-60% after application of L. major lysate. L. major paralytic factor was purified 10(4)-fold over the total protein preparation and yielded a hydrophobic 12-kDa peptide. Myoinhibitory activity eluted as a single peak in reverse phase-high-pressure liquid chromatography. Tandem mass spectrometry resulted in 15 amino acid sequences, three of them sharing 45-73% homology with short hypothetical gene products of undefined function from Pseudomonas, Halobacterium, and Drosophila. This unique protozoan peptide mimics the function of endogenous insect neuropeptides that control visceral muscle contractions. By this novel mechanism, parasites persist in the expanded, relaxed midgut after blood meal and peritrophic matrix digestion. This allows time for development and migration of infective forms, facilitating sand fly vector competence and parasite transmission.
Veland, Nicolas; Espinosa, Diego; Valencia, Braulio Mark; Ramos, Ana Pilar; Calderon, Flor; Arevalo, Jorge; Low, Donald E.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Boggild, Andrea K.
We hypothesized that Leishmania kDNA may be present in urine of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Urine samples and standard diagnostic specimens were collected from patients with skin lesions. kDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on samples from patients and 10 healthy volunteers from non-endemic areas. Eighty-six of 108 patients were diagnosed with CL and 18 (21%) had detectable Leishmania Viannia kDNA in the urine. Sensitivity and specificity were 20.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3–29.5%) and 100%. Six of 8 patients with mucocutaneous involvement had detectable kDNA in urine versus 12 of 78 patients with isolated cutaneous disease (P < 0.001). L. (V.) braziliensis (N = 3), L. (V.) guyanensis (N = 6), and L. (V.) peruviana (N = 3) were identified from urine. No healthy volunteer or patient with an alternate diagnosis had detectable kDNA in urine. Sensitivity of urine PCR is sub-optimal for diagnosis. On the basis of these preliminary data in a small number of patients, detectable kDNA in urine may identify less localized forms of infection and inform treatment decisions. PMID:21460009
Fernández, Olga Lucía; Diaz-Toro, Yira; Muvdi, Sandra; Rodríguez, Isabel; Gomez, María Adelaida; Saravia, Nancy Gore
Background Pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in Colombia for over 30 years. Miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. The susceptibility of circulating populations of Leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro susceptibility was determined for intracellular amastigotes of 245 clinical strains of the most prevalent Leishmania Viannia species in Colombia to miltefosine (HePC) and/or meglumine antimoniate (SbV); 163, (80%) were evaluated for both drugs. Additionally, susceptibility to SbV was examined in two cohorts of 85 L. V. panamensis strains isolated between 1980–1989 and 2000–2009 in the municipality of Tumaco. Susceptibility to each drug differed among strains of the same species and between species. Whereas 68% of L. V. braziliensis strains presented in vitro resistance to HePC, 69% were sensitive to SbV. Resistance to HePC and SbV occurred respectively, in 20% y 21% of L. panamensis strains. Only 3% of L. V. guyanensis were resistant to HePC, and none to SbV. Drug susceptibility differed between geographic regions and time periods. Subpopulations having disparate susceptibility to SbV were discerned among L. V. panamensis strains isolated during 1980–1990 in Tumaco where resistant strains belonged to zymodeme 2.3, and sensitive strains to zymodeme 2.2. Conclusions/Significance Large scale evaluation of clinical strains of Leishmania Viannia species demonstrated species, population, geographic, and epidemiologic differences in susceptibility to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine, and provided baseline information for monitoring susceptibility to these drugs. Sensitive and resistant clinical strains within each species, and zymodeme as a proxy marker of antimony susceptibility for L. V. panamensis, will be useful in deciphering factors involved in susceptibility and the distribution
Mukherjee, Debarati; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Dey, Somaditya; Mandal, Supratim; Ghosh, Joydip; Mallick, Suvadip; Hussain, Aabid; Swapana, Ningombam; Ross, Samir Anis; Pal, Chiranjib
In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmania infection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith, has been studied for its pharmacological potential as antiulcer, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial. In this study, we have shown that zerumbone could induce ROS mediated apoptosis in Leishmania donovani promastigotes and also found effective in reducing intracellular amastigotes in infected-macrophages. We emphasized the potential of zerumbone to be employed in the development of new therapeutic drugs against L. donovani infection and provided the basis for future research on the application of transitional medicinal plants.
Regulation of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis protein expression by host T cell dependent responses: differential expression of oligopeptidase B, tryparedoxin peroxidase and HSP70 isoforms in amastigotes isolated from BALB/c and BALB/c nude mice.
Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Velasquez, Leonardo Garcia; Lepique, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Eloiza; Bonatto, José Matheus Camargo; Barcinski, Marcello Andre; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Stolf, Beatriz Simonsen
Leishmaniasis is an important disease that affects 12 million people in 88 countries, with 2 million new cases every year. Leishmania amazonensis is an important agent in Brazil, leading to clinical forms varying from localized (LCL) to diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). One interesting issue rarely analyzed is how host immune response affects Leishmania phenotype and virulence. Aiming to study the effect of host immune system on Leishmania proteins we compared proteomes of amastigotes isolated from BALB/c and BALB/c nude mice. The athymic nude mice may resemble patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, considered T-cell hyposensitive or anergic to Leishmania's antigens. This work is the first to compare modifications in amastigotes' proteomes driven by host immune response. Among the 44 differentially expressed spots, there were proteins related to oxidative/nitrosative stress and proteases. Some correspond to known Leishmania virulence factors such as OPB and tryparedoxin peroxidase. Specific isoforms of these two proteins were increased in parasites from nude mice, suggesting that T cells probably restrain their posttranslational modifications in BALB/c mice. On the other hand, an isoform of HSP70 was increased in amastigotes from BALB/c mice. We believe our study may allow identification of potential virulence factors and ways of regulating their expression.
Background Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases with a variety of clinical manifestations. The form of the disease is highly dependent on the infective Leishmania species and the immunological status of the host. The infectivity of the parasite strain also plays an important role in the progression of the infection. The aim of this work is to understand the influence of the natural infectivity of Leishmania strains in the outcome of visceral leishmaniasis. Methods In this study we have characterized four strains of L. infantum in terms of molecular typing, in vitro cultivation and differentiation. Two strains were isolated from HIV+ patients with visceral leishmaniasis (Bibiano and E390M), one strain was isolated from a cutaneous lesion in an immunocompetent patient (HL) and another internal reference strain causative of visceral leishmaniasis (ST) also from an immunocompetent patient was used for comparison. For this objective, we have compared their virulence by in vitro and in vivo infectivity in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. Results Molecular typing unraveled a new k26 sequence attributed to MON-284 zymodeme and allowed the generation of a molecular signature for the identification of each strain. In vitro cultivation enabled the production of promastigotes with comparable growth curves and metacyclogenesis development. The HL strain was the most infective, showing the highest parasite loads in vitro that were corroborated with the in vivo assays, 6 weeks post-infection in BALB/c mice. The two strains isolated from HIV+ patients, both belonging to two different zymodemes, revealed different kinetics of infection. Conclusion Differences in in vitro and in vivo infectivity found in the murine model were then attributed to intrinsic characteristics of each strain. This work is supported by other studies that present the parasite’s inherent features as factors for the multiplicity of clinical manifestations and severity of leishmaniasis. PMID
Shirian, Sadegh; Oryan, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholam Reza; Daneshbod, Yahya
Mixed infections with different Leishmania species could explain differences in the clinical courses of these infections. On identification of Leishmania parasites from Iranian patients with mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), a patient with both oral and nasal lesions was found to be concomitantly infected with Leishmania tropica and L. major. Mixed infection was identified by PCR amplification of Leishmania kinetoplast DNA on scraping of cytological smears and histopathological sections. L. major and L. tropica were isolated from the nasal and oral lesions, respectively. These species were also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. This seems to be the first reported case of concurrent ML infection with two Leishmania species. It indicates that, at least in this patient, previous infection with one of these Leishmania species did not protect against infection with the other. This result has important implications for the development of vaccines against leishmaniases and implies careful attention in the treatment of this infectious disease.
Martins, V T; Lage, D P; Duarte, M C; Costa, L E; Chávez-Fumagalli, M A; Roatt, B M; Menezes-Souza, D; Tavares, C A P; Coelho, E A F
Experimental vaccine candidates have been evaluated to prevent leishmaniasis, but no commercial vaccine has been proved to be effective against more than one parasite species. LiHyT is a Leishmania-specific protein that was firstly identified as protective against Leishmania infantum. In this study, LiHyT was evaluated as a vaccine to against two Leishmania species causing tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL): Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis. BALB/c mice were immunized with rLiHyT plus saponin and lately challenged with promastigotes of the two parasite species. The immune response generated was evaluated before and 10 weeks after infection, as well as the parasite burden at this time after infection. The vaccination induced a Th1 response, which was characterized by the production of IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF, as well as by high levels of IgG2a antibodies, after in vitro stimulation using both the protein and parasite extracts. After challenge, vaccinated mice showed significant reductions in their infected footpads, as well as in the parasite burden in the tissue and organs evaluated, when compared to the control groups. The anti-Leishmania Th1 response was maintained after infection, being the IFN-γ production based mainly on CD4(+) T cells. We described one conserved Leishmania-specific protein that could compose a pan-Leishmania vaccine.
Strelkova, M V; Eliseev, L N; Ponirovskiĭ, E N; Erokhin, P I; Rakitskaia, T A; Valevich, T A; Sysoev, V V; Allenov, V A; Adamishina, T A; Dergacheva, T I
In 1991-1992, 230 isolates were obtained in the Tedzhen oasis and its adjacent desert areas: 172 isolates from great gerbils, 39 from P. papatasi, and 19 from human cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. All the isolates were identified by the isoenzyme polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by 8 enzymes. The characteristics of Leishmania circulation in the hyperendemic foci of Turkmenistan were similar to those previously studied in the mesoendemic areas of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. L. turanica which is non-pathogenic for man prevailed among infected great gerbils in winter, spring, and early summer, making the natural foci epidemiologically safe in that period of time. It was only in August-September that the great gerbil infection rate by L. major appeared to increase, occasionally reaching 100%. Epizootics due to L. major are developing in the presence of L. turanica, therefore most isolates are clone mixtures of L. major and L. turanica. P. papatasi is the only vector in the Tedzhen oasis; there has been strong evidence for its transmission of both L. major and L. turanica, which makes the concept inconsistent that P. papatasi is associated only with L. major. The overall analysis of recent findings of the distribution of L. major in the populations of great gerbils makes it possible to limit the former endemic zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis areas to 40 degrees N latitude and the southern borders of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Within this area, the distribution of L. major is uneven and associated basically with rivers, valleys, oases, and foothill desert plains.
Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Lyra, Janine Pontes de Miranda; Fagundes, Aline; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases.
Koarashi, Yu; Cáceres, Abraham G; Saca, Florencia Margarita Zúniga; Flores, Elsa Elvira Palacios; Trujillo, Adela Celis; Alvares, José Luis Abanto; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo
A PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) targeting the mannose phosphate isomerase gene was established to differentiate Leishmania species distributed near the Department of Huanuco, Peru. The technique was applied to 267 DNA samples extracted from Giemsa-stained smears of cutaneous lesions taken from patients suspected for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the area, and the present status of causative Leishmania species was identified. Of 114 PCR-amplified samples, 22, 19, 24 and 49 samples were identified to be infected by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, L. (V.) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, and a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana, respectively, and the validity of PCR-RFLP was confirmed by sequence analysis. Since PCR-RFLP is simple and rapid, the technique will be a useful tool for the epidemiological study of leishmaniasis.
Diaz, E; Zacarias, A K; Pérez, S; Vanegas, O; Köhidai, L; Padrón-Nieves, M; Ponte-Sucre, A
In the sand-fly mid gut, Leishmania promastigotes are exposed to acute changes in nutrients, e.g. amino acids (AAs). These metabolites are the main energy sources for the parasite, crucial for its differentiation and motility. We analysed the migratory behaviour and morphological changes produced by aliphatic, monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, heterocyclic and sulphur-containing AAs in Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis and demonstrated that L-methionine (10-12 m), L-tryptophan (10-11 m), L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid (10-6 m), induced positive chemotactic responses, while L-alanine (10-7 m), L-methionine (10-11 and 10-7 m), L-tryptophan (10-11 m), L-glutamine (10-12 m) and L-glutamic acid (10-9 m) induced negative chemotactic responses. L-proline and L-cysteine did not change the migratory potential of Leishmania. The flagellum length of L. braziliensis, but not of L. amazonensis, decreased when incubated in hyperosmotic conditions. However, chemo-repellent concentrations of L-alanine (Hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) and L-glutamic acid (hypo-osmotic conditions) decreased L. braziliensis flagellum length and L-methionine (10-11 m, hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) decreased L. amazonensis flagellum length. This chemotactic responsiveness suggests that Leishmania discriminate between slight concentration differences of small and structurally closely related molecules and indicates that besides their metabolic effects, AAs play key roles linked to sensory mechanisms that might determine the parasite's behaviour.
Tashakori, Mahnaz; Mahnaz, Tashakori; Kuhls, Katrin; Katrin, Kuhls; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Amer, Al-Jawabreh; Mauricio, Isabel L; Isabel, Mauricio; Schönian, Gabriele; Gabriele, Schönian; Farajnia, Safar; Safar, Farajnia; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Hossein, Alimohammadian Mohammad
Protozoan parasites of Leishmania major are the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in different parts of Iran. We applied PCR-based methods to analyze L. major parasites isolated from patients with active lesions from different geographic areas in Iran in order to understand DNA polymorphisms within L. major species. Twenty-four isolates were identified as L. major by RFLP analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicons. These isolates were further studied by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing of ITS1 and ITS2. Data obtained from SSCP analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 loci revealed three and four different patterns among all studied samples, respectively. Sequencing of ITS1 and ITS2 confirmed the results of SSCP analysis and showed the potential of the PCR-SSCP method for assessing genetic heterogeneity within L. major. Different patterns in ITS1 were due to substitution of one nucleotide, whereas in ITS2 the changes were defined by variation in the number of repeats in two polymorphic microsatellites. In total five genotypic groups LmA, LmB, LmC, LmD and LmE were identified among L. major isolates. The most frequent genotype, LmA, was detected in isolates collected from different endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Genotypes LmC, LmD and LmE were found only in the new focus of CL in Damghan (Semnan province) and LmB was identified exclusively among isolates of Kashan focus (Isfahan province). The distribution of genetic polymorphisms suggests the existence of distinct endemic regions of L. major in Iran.
HAJJARAN, Homa; MOHAMMADI BAZARGANI, Mitra; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; BURCHMORE, Richard; HOSSEINI SALEKDEH, Ghasem; KAZEMI-RAD, Elham; KHORAMIZADEH, Mohammad Reza
Background: The mechanisms of virulence and species differences of Leishmania parasites are under the influence of gene expression regulations at posttranscriptional stages. In Iran, L. major and L. tropica are known as principal agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while L. infantum causes visceral leishmaniasis. Methods: As a preliminary study, we compared the proteome mapping of the above three Iranian isolates of Leishmania species through the 2-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE), and identified the prominent proteins by Liquid Chromatography (LC) mass spectrometry. Results: We reproducibly detected about 700 protein spots in each species by using the Melanie software. Totally, 264 proteins exhibited significant changes among 3 species. Forty nine protein spots identified in both L. tropica and L. major were similar in position in the gel, whereas only 35 of L. major proteins and 10 of L. tropica proteins were matched with those of L. infantum. Having identified 24 proteins in the three species, we sought to provide possible explanations for their differential expression patterns and discuss their relevance to cell biology. Conclusion: The comparison of proteome profiling pattern of the 3 species identified limit up and limit down regulated or absent /present proteins. In addition, the LC-MS data analysis showed that most of the protein spots with differential abundance in the 3 species are involved in cell motility and cytoskeleton, cell signaling and vesicular trafficking, intracellular survival / proteolysis, oxidative stress defense, protein synthesis, protein ubiquitination / proteolysis, and stress related proteins. Differentially proteins distributed among the species maybe implicated in host pathogenecity interactions and parasite tropism to cutaneous or visceral tissue macrophages. PMID:26811718
Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan
The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission.
Tripathi, P; Gupta, S K; Sinha, S; Sundar, S; Dube, A; Naik, S
T-cell mediated immune responses are key determinants to the natural course of infection caused by intracellular parasites such as Leishmania. Thus, T-cell activating proteins of these microbes continue to generate active interest particularly in view of their possible role in the design and development of newer and more effective vaccines. We have recently reported the presence of T-cell immunostimulatory antigens with the high-molecular-weight (MW) fractions (134-64.2 kDa) of whole Leishmania donovani antigen (strain 2001), which stimulated variable amounts of IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-10 in exposed immune individuals. The present study was undertaken to further evaluate these high-MW antigenic fractions (MW range >100-60 kDa) for potential protective efficacy. The high-MW region of the parasite was resolved into five antigenic fractions (Prep A-E) using continuous elution gel electrophoresis. Prior to in vivo protection studies in hamsters, these fractions were used to evaluate in vitro cellular responses in eight Leishmania-exposed individuals and treated cured hamsters. The protective efficacy of prep (A + B), C, D and E in combination with BCG was evaluated in inbred hamsters using standard immunization protocol. Proliferative responses were seen in all eight of eight exposed individuals to prep D [median stimulation index (SI): 5.2 (range 3.9-7.1)] and E [median SI: 5.6 (range 4.4-8.2)], five of eight individuals to prep B and prep C and three of eight to prep A [median SI: 0.2 (range 0.1-7.2)]. The median proliferative responses to prep D and prep E were significantly higher than to fraction prep A; (P < 0.05) but not to prep B and prep C. However, prep A-E induced equivalent levels of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-12 cytokines. Fractions D and E also exhibited marked parasite inhibition in spleen (52.5% and 73.7%) and liver (65% and 80.2%) as compared with prep (A + B) (23% in spleen and 24% in liver) and prep C (38% in spleen and 24% in liver). Prep D and prep E
Mosawi, S H; Dalimi, A
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the main public health problems in Afghanistan, particularly in Herat. To identify Leishmania spp., molecular techniques were applied to samples from 64 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients referred to Herat regional hospital during 2013. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) was used. Most of the patients demonstrated dry type single lesions on the head. The results of direct microscopy detection using Giemsastained skin scrapings were compared with that of ITS PCR-RFLP for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Light microscopy examination showed 37/64 positive cases (58%). PCR revealed 50 positive cases (78%), from which ITS PCR-RFLP identified 48 cases (96%) as L. tropica and 2 cases (4%) as L. major. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Herat appears to be endemic and of the clinically dry type, caused mainly by L. tropica and occasionally by L. major.
Sato, Camila Massae; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Celeste, Beatriz Julieta; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Guderian, Jeffrey; Reed, Steven G.; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Campos, Marliane Batista; de Souza Encarnação, Helia Valeria; Guerra, Jorge; de Mesquita, Tirza Gabrielle Ramos; Pinheiro, Suzana Kanawati; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; de Assis Souza, Marina
ABSTRACT American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) (also known as cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL]) is caused by various species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The diagnosis is achieved on a clinical, epidemiological, and pathological basis, supported by positive parasitological exams and demonstration of leishmanin delayed-type hypersensitivity. Serological assays are not routinely used in the diagnosis because many are considered to have low sensitivity and the particular Leishmania species causing the disease can lead to variable performance. In the present study, we generated recombinant versions of two highly conserved Leishmania proteins, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis-derived Lb8E and Lb6H, and evaluated both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Recombinant Lb6H (rLb6H) had better performance and reacted with 100.0% of the ATL and 89.4% of the VL samples. These reactions with rLb6H were highly specific (98.5%) when compared against those for samples from healthy control individuals. We then assessed rLb6H against sera from ATL patients infected with different species of Leishmania prevalent in Brazil [Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, L. (Viannia) braziliensis, and L. (V.) guyanensis] and samples from patients with other infectious diseases. In analyses of 500 sera, ELISA using rLb6H detected all 219 ATL samples (sensitivity of 100.0%) with an overall specificity of 93.9% (considering healthy individuals and other infectious diseases patients). Only a minority of samples from Chagas disease patients possessed antibodies against rLb6H, and all of these responses were low (with a highest reactivity index of 2.2). Taken together, our data support further evaluation of rLb6H and the potential for its routine use in the serological diagnosis of ATL. PMID:27927927
Martín-Montes, Álvaro; Plano, Daniel; Martín-Escolano, Rubén; Alcolea, Verónica; Díaz, Marta; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Espuelas, Socorro; Moreno, Esther; Marín, Clotilde; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Sanmartín, Carmen; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel
In vitro leishmanicidal activity of a series of forty-eight selenium derivatives, recently synthesized, was tested on Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis parasites, using promastigotes and intracellular amastigote forms. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds on J774.2 macrophage cells was also measured in order to establish their selectivity. Six of the tested compounds (8, 10, 11, 15, 45 and 48) showed selectivity indexes higher than those of the reference drug Glucantime for both Leishmania species; in the case of L. braziliensis, compound 20 was also remarkably selective. Moreover, infection rates and amastigote numbers per macrophage data showed that compounds 8, 10, 11, 15, 45 and 48 are the most active against both studied Leishmania species. The changes observed in the excretion product profile of parasites treated with these six compounds were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds were potent inhibitors of Fe-SOD in the two parasite species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. The high activity, low toxicity, stability, low cost of the starting materials and straightforward synthesis make these compounds appropriate molecules for the development of affordable anti-leishmanicidal agents.
Fakhar, Mahdi; Pazoki Ghohe, Hossein; Rasooli, Sayed Abobakar; Karamian, Mehdi; Mohib, Abdul Satar; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin
Despite the high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan, there is a little information concerning epidemiological status of the disease and phylogenetic relationship and population structure of causative agents. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of CL cases and investigate the Leishmania tropica population structure in rural districts of Heart province in the West of Afghanistan in comparison to neighboring foci. Overall, 4189 clinically suspected CL cases from 177 villages (including 12 districts) in Herat province were enrolled in the referral laboratory of WHO sub-office in Herat city from January 2012 to December 2013. 3861 cases were confirmed as CL by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slides. ITS1 PCR-RFLP analysis showed dominance of L. tropica (more than 98%) among 127 randomly chosen samples. Analysis of the ITS1 sequences revealed 4 sequence types among the 21 L. tropica isolates. Comparison of sequence types from Herat rural districts with the representatives of L. tropica from Iran, India, and Herat city showed two main population groups (cluster A and B). All isolates from Herat province, India and Southeast, East, and Central Iran were found exclusively in cluster A. The close proximity of West Afghanistan focus and Birjand county as the capital of Southern Khorasan province in East Iran can explain relatively equal to the genetic composition of L. tropica in these two neighboring regions. In addition, two populations were found among L. tropica isolates from Herat rural districts. Main population showed more similarity to some isolates from Birjand county in East Iran while minor population probably originated from the Southeast and East Iranian L. tropica. Recent study provided valuable information concerning the population structure of L. tropica and epidemiology of ACL in the West of Afghanistan, which could be the basis for molecular epidemiology studies in other regions of Afghanistan.
dos Reis, Priscila G.; do Monte-Neto, Rubens L.; Melo, Maria N.; Frézard, Frédéric
The growing resistance of leishmaniasis to first-line drugs like antimonials in some regions limits the control of this parasitic disease. The precise mechanisms involved in Leishmania antimony resistance are still subject to debate. The reduction of intracellular SbIII accumulation is a common change observed in both laboratory-selected and field isolated resistant Leishmania strains, but the exact transport pathways involved in antimony resistance have not yet been elucidated. In order to functionally characterize the antimony transport routes responsible for resistance, we performed systematic transport studies of SbIII in wild-type and resistant strains of L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis. Those include influx and efflux assays and the influence of ABC transporters and metabolism inhibitors: prochlorperazine, probenecid, verapamil, BSO, and sodium azide. The mRNA levels of genes associated with antimony resistance (MRPA, GSH1, ODC, AQP1, ABCI4, and ARM58) were also investigated in addition to intracellular thiol levels. A strong reduction of Sb influx was observed in L. guyanensis resistant mutant (LgSbR), but not in L. braziliensis (LbSbR). Both mutants showed increased energy-dependent efflux of SbIII, when compared to their respective parental strains. In LgSbR, BSO and prochlorperazine inhibited antimony efflux and resistance was associated with increased MRPA and GSH1 mRNA levels, while in LbSbR antimony efflux was inhibited by probenicid and prochlorperazine in absence of resistance-associated gene modulation. Intracellular thiol levels were increased in both Sb-resistant mutants. An energy-dependent SbIII efflux pathway sensitive to prochlorperazine was clearly evidenced in both Sb-resistant mutants. In conclusion, the present study allowed the biophysical and pharmacological characterization of energy-dependent Sb efflux pathway apparently independent of MRPA, ABCI4, and ARM58 upregulation, in Leishmania (Vianna) mutant selected in vitro
dos Santos, Jéssica Cristina; Heinhuis, Bas; Gomes, Rodrigo Saar; Damen, Michelle S. M. A.; Real, Fernando; Mortara, Renato A.; Keating, Samuel T.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima
Background Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is expressed in lesions of patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL), but its precise role in the disease remains unknown. Methodology/Principal findings In the present study, silencing and overexpression of IL-32 was performed in THP-1-derived macrophages infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis or L. (Leishmania) amazonensis to investigate the role of IL-32 in infection. We report that Leishmania species induces IL-32γ, and show that intracellular IL-32γ protein production is dependent on endogenous TNFα. Silencing or overexpression of IL-32 demonstrated that this cytokine is closely related to TNFα and IL-8. Remarkably, the infection index was augmented in the absence of IL-32 and decreased in cells overexpressing this cytokine. Mechanistically, these effects can be explained by nitric oxide cathelicidin and β-defensin 2 production regulated by IL-32. Conclusions Thus, endogenous IL-32 is a crucial cytokine involved in the host defense against Leishmania parasites. PMID:28241012
Moreira, Douglas S.; Monte Neto, Rubens L.; Andrade, Juvana M.; Santi, Ana Maria M.; Reis, Priscila G.; Frézard, Frédéric; Murta, Silvane M.F.
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been associated with drug resistance in various diseases. The MRPA gene, a transporter of ABCC subfamily, is involved in the resistance by sequestering metal-thiol conjugates in intracellular vesicles of Leishmania parasite. In this study, we performed the molecular characterization of the MRPA transporter, analysis of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and aquaglyceroporin-1 (AQP1) expression, and determination of antimony level in antimony-susceptible and -resistant lines of L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) infantum. PFGE analysis revealed an association of chromosomal amplification of MRPA gene with the drug resistance phenotype in all SbIII-resistant Leishmania lines analyzed. Levels of mRNA from MRPA gene determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed an increased expression of two fold in SbIII-resistant lines of Leishmania guyanensis, Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis. Western blot analysis revealed that Pgp is increased in the SbIII-resistant L. guyanensis and L. amazonensis lines. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed a reduction in the accumulation of this element in SbIII-resistant L. guyanensis, L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis lines when compared to their susceptible counterparts. Interestingly, a down-regulation of AQP1 protein was observed in the SbIII-resistant L. guyanensis and L. amazonensis lines, contributing for decreasing of SbIII entry in these lines. In addition, efflux experiments revealed that the rates of SbIII efflux are higher in the SbIII-resistant lines of L. guyanensis and L. braziliensis, that may explain also the low SbIII concentration within of these parasites. The BSO, an inhibitor of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase enzyme, reversed the SbIII-resistance phenotype of L. braziliensis and caused an increasing in the Sb intracellular level in the LbSbR line. Our data
Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio; Moreira, Davyson Lima; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C.; Meirelles, Maria Nazareth; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira
2′,6′-Dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 μg/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 μg/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 μg of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs. PMID:10223942
Carvalho, G M L; Brazil, R P; Rêgo, F D; Ramos, M C N F; Zenóbio, A P L A; Andrade Filho, J D
Leishmania spp. are distributed throughout the world, and different species are associated with varying degrees of disease severity. In Brazil, Leishmania transmission involves several species of phlebotomine sand flies that are closely associated with different parasites and reservoirs, and thereby giving rise to different transmission cycles. Infection occurs during the bloodmeals of sand flies obtained from a variety of wild and domestic animals, and sometimes from humans. The present study focused on detection of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies from a cave in the state of Minas Gerais. Detection of Leishmania in female sand flies was performed with ITS1 PCR-RFLP (internal transcribed spacer 1) using HaeIII enzyme and genetic sequencing for SSUrRNA target. The survey of Leishmania DNA was carried out on 232 pools and the parasite DNA was detected in four: one pool of Lutzomyia cavernicola (Costa Lima, 1932), infected with Le. infantum (ITS1 PCR-RFLP), two pools of Evandromyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1939), both infected with Leishmania braziliensis complex (SSUrRNA genetic sequencing analysis), and one pool of Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927), infected with subgenus Leishmania (SSUrRNA genetic sequencing analysis). The present study identified the species for Leishmania DNA detected in four pools of sand flies, all of which were captured inside the cave. These results represent the first molecular detection of Lu cavernicola with Le infantum DNA, Sc sordellii with subgenus Leishmania DNA, and Ev sallesi with Leishmania braziliensis complex DNA. The infection rate in females captured for this study was 0.17%.
Lage, Paula S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Mesquita, Juliana T; Mata, Laís M; Fernandes, Simone O A; Cardoso, Valbert N; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Leite, João P V; Tempone, Andre G; Coelho, Eduardo A F
The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antileishmanial activity of strychnobiflavone flavonoid against Leishmania infantum, as well as its mechanism of action, and evaluate the ex vivo biodistribution profile of the flavonoid in naive BALB/c mice. The antileishmanial activity (IC50 value) of strychnobiflavone against stationary promastigote and amastigote-like stages of the parasites was of 5.4 and 18.9 μM, respectively; with a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value of 125.0 μM on murine macrophages, resulting in selectivity index (SI) of 23.2 and 6.6, respectively. Amphotericin B, used as a positive control, presented SI values of 7.6 and 3.3 for promastigote and amastigote-like stages of L. infantum, respectively. The strychnobiflavone was also effective in reducing in significant levels the percentage of infected macrophages, as well as the number of amastigotes per macrophage, after the treatment of infected macrophages using the flavonoid. By using different fluorescent probes, we investigated the bioenergetics metabolism of L. infantum promastigotes and demonstrated that the flavonoid caused the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, without affecting the production of reactive oxygen species. In addition, using SYTOX(®) green as a fluorescent probe, the strychnobiflavone demonstrated no interference in plasma membrane permeability. For the ex vivo biodistribution assays, the flavonoid was labeled with technetium-(99m) and studied in a mouse model by intraperitoneal route. After a single dose administration, the scintigraphic images demonstrated a highest uptake by the liver and spleen of the animals within 60 min, resulting in low concentrations after 24 h. The present study therefore demonstrated, for the first time, the antileishmanial activity of the strychnobiflavone against L. infantum, and suggests that the mitochondria of the parasites may be the possible target organelle. The preferential distribution of this
A clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani with ITS1 sequence polymorphism as a cause of para-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in an Ethiopian human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Gelanew, T; Amogne, W; Abebe, T; Kuhls, K; Hailu, A; Schönian, G
The diagnosis of para-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL/VL), either as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-associated syndrome or as a complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in patients with or without highly active antiretroviral therapy, represents a challenge for prompt treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the causative Leishmania species and to clarify whether the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL)-like lesions appeared as a result of IRIS or not. A 31-year-old Ethiopian male patient, with stage IV HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), was clinically diagnosed with PKDL/VL. He had developed a generalized maculopapular rash on his face after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The Leishmania isolate obtained from the skin lesions was analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and partial coding sequences of the heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70). Restriction analysis of the ITS1 PCR product gave a unique RFLP pattern not seen before for any Leishmania isolate. Sequencing of both the ITS1 and hsp70 PCR products identified the causative species as Leishmania donovani, and further revealed the existence of five different sequence variants of the ITS1 among the 10 clones sequenced. The results indicate that PKDL/VL resulted from an infection by L. donovani. The sequence variants of ITS1 might be due to the presence of multiple strains/clones or the existence of intragenomic variations in the multicopy ITS1, or a combination of both.
Cássia-Pires, Renata; Boité, Mariana C.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.; Herrera, Heitor M.; Cupolillo, Elisa; Jansen, Ana Maria; Roque, André Luiz R.
Background Caviomorph rodents, some of the oldest Leishmania spp. hosts, are widely dispersed in Brazil. Despite both experimental and field studies having suggested that these rodents are potential reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, not more than 88 specimens were analyzed in the few studies of natural infection. Our hypothesis was that caviomorph rodents are inserted in the transmission cycles of Leishmania in different regions, more so than is currently recognized. Methodology We investigated the Leishmania infection in spleen fragments of 373 caviomorph rodents from 20 different species collected in five Brazilian biomes in a period of 13 years. PCR reactions targeting kDNA of Leishmania sp. were used to diagnose infection, while Leishmania species identification was performed by DNA sequencing of the amplified products obtained in the HSP70 (234) targeting. Serology by IFAT was performed on the available serum of these rodents. Principal findings In 13 caviomorph rodents, DNA sequencing analyses allowed the identification of 4 species of the subgenus L. (Viannia): L. shawi, L. guyanensis, L. naiffi, and L. braziliensis; and 1 species of the subgenus L. (Leishmania): L. infantum. These include the description of parasite species in areas not previously included in their known distribution: L. shawi in Thrichomys inermis from Northeastern Brazil and L. naiffi in T. fosteri from Western Brazil. From the four other positive rodents, two were positive for HSP70 (234) targeting but did not generate sequences that enabled the species identification, and another two were positive only in kDNA targeting. Conclusions/Significance The infection rate demonstrated by the serology (51.3%) points out that the natural Leishmania infection in caviomorph rodents is much higher than that observed in the molecular diagnosis (4.6%), highlighting that, in terms of the host species responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild, our current knowledge represents only the
Di-Blasi, Tatiana; Lobo, Amanda R; Nascimento, Luanda M; Córdova-Rojas, Jose L; Pestana, Karen; Marín-Villa, Marcel; Tempone, Antonio J; Telleria, Erich L; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo; McMahon-Pratt, Diane; Traub-Csekö, Yara M
Leishmaniasis is a serious problem that affects mostly poor countries. Various species of Leishmania are the agents of the disease, which take different clinical manifestations. The parasite is transmitted by sandflies, predominantly from the Phlebotomus genus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World. During development in the gut, Leishmania must survive various challenges, which include avoiding being expelled with blood remnants after digestion. It is believed that attachment to the gut epithelium is a necessary step for vector infection, and molecules from parasites and sand flies have been implicated in this attachment. In previous work, monoclonal antibodies were produced against Leishmania. Among these an antibody was obtained against Leishmania braziliensis flagella, which blocked the attachment of Leishmania panamensis flagella to Phlebotomus papatasi guts. The protein recognized by this antibody was identified and named FLAG1, and the complete FLAG1 gene sequence was obtained. This protein was later independently identified as a small, myristoylated protein and called SMP1, so from now on it will be denominated FLAG1/SMP1. The FLAG1/SMP1 gene is expressed in all developmental stages of the parasite, but has higher expression in promastigotes. The anti-FLAG1/SMP1 antibody recognized the flagellum of all Leishmania species tested and generated the expected band by western blots. This antibody was used in attachment and infection blocking experiments. Using the New World vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and Leishmania infantum chagasi, no inhibition of attachment ex vivo or infection in vivo was seen. On the other hand, when the Old World vectors P. papatasi and Leishmania major were used, a significant decrease of both attachment and infection were seen in the presence of the antibody. We propose that FLAG1/SMP1 is involved in the attachment/infection of Leishmania in the strict vector P. papatasi and not the permissive vector L. longipalpis.
Das, Sanchita; Shah, Priyanka; Baharia, Rajendra K.; Tandon, Rati; Khare, Prashant; Sundar, Shyam; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A.; Siddiqi, M. I.; Dube, Anuradha
Background Sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) unresponsiveness of Leishmania donovani (Ld) had effectively compromised the chemotherapeutic potential of SAG. 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a), identified as one of the over-expressed protein in different resistant strains of L.donovani as observed with differential proteomics studies indicates towards its possible involvement in SAG resistance in L.donovani. In the present study 60sRL23a has been characterized for its probable association with SAG resistance mechanism. Methodology and principal findings The expression profile of 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a) was checked in different SAG resistant as well as sensitive strains of L.donovani clinical isolates by real-time PCR and western blotting and was found to be up-regulated in resistant strains. Ld60sRL23a was cloned, expressed in E.coli system and purified for raising antibody in swiss mice and was observed to have cytosolic localization in L.donovani. 60sRL23a was further over-expressed in sensitive strain of L.donovani to check its sensitivity profile against SAG (Sb V and III) and was found to be altered towards the resistant mode. Conclusion/Significance This study reports for the first time that the over expression of 60sRL23a in SAG sensitive parasite decreases the sensitivity of the parasite towards SAG, miltefosine and paramomycin. Growth curve of the tranfectants further indicated the proliferative potential of 60sRL23a assisting the parasite survival and reaffirming the extra ribosomal role of 60sRL23a. The study thus indicates towards the role of the protein in lowering and redistributing the drug pressure by increased proliferation of parasites and warrants further longitudinal study to understand the underlying mechanism. PMID:24340105
Santaella, Julián; Ocampo, Clara B.; Saravia, Nancy G.; Méndez, Fabián; Góngora, Rafael; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Quinnell, Rupert J.
Peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasingly reported and dogs may be a reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia) in this setting. We investigated the prevalence of infection in dogs in Chaparral County, Colombia, the focus of an epidemic of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. Two (0.72%) of 279 dogs had lesions typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis that were biopsy positive by kinetoplast DNA polymerase chain reaction–Southern blotting. Seroprevalence was 2.2% (6 of 279) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Buffy coat and ear skin biopsy specimens were positive by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blotting in 7.3% (10 of 137) and 11.4% (12 of 105) of dogs, respectively. Overall 20% of dogs (21 of 105) showed positive results for one or more tests. Amplification and sequencing of the Leishmania 7SL RNA gene identified L. guyanensis in one dog and L. braziliensis in two dogs. No association was identified between the risk factors evaluated and canine infection. Dogs may contribute to transmission but their role in this focus appears to be limited. PMID:21540374
Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Nathasharma, Yangya Prasad; Patel, Lelin; Rana, Sindhu Prava; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep
A complete understanding of different protein functional families and template information opens new avenues for novel drug development. Protein identification and analysis software performs a central role in the investigation of proteins and leads to the development of refined database for description of proteins of different Leishmania strains. There are certain databases for different strains that lack template information and functional family annotation. Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (RMRIMS) has developed a web-based unique database to provide information about functional families of different proteins and its template information in different Leishmania species. Based on the template information users can model the tertiary structure of protein. The database facilitates significant relationship between template information and possible protein functional families assigned to different proteins by SVMProt. This database is designed to provide comprehensive descriptions of certain important proteins found in four different species of Leishmania i.e. L. donovani, L. infantum, L. major and L. braziliensis. A specific characterization information table provides information related to species and specific functional families. This database aims to be a resource for scientists working on proteomics. The database is freely available at http://biomedinformri.org/calp/. PMID:21464840
da Silva-López, Raquel Elisa; dos Santos, Tatiana Resende; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Tanaka, Marcelo Neves; de Simone, Salvatore Giovanni
The present work reports the isolation, biochemical characterization, and subcellular location of serine proteases from aqueous, detergent soluble, and culture supernatant of Leishmania chagasi promastigote extracts, respectively, LCSII, LCSI, and LCSIII. The active enzyme molecular masses of LCSII were about 105, 66, and 60 kDa; of LCSI, 60 and 58 kDa; and of LCSIII, approximately 76 and 68 kDa. Optimal pH for the enzymes was 7.0 for LCSI and LCSIII and 8.5 for LCSII, and the optimal temperature for all enzymes was 37°C, using α-N-ρ-tosyl-L: -arginine methyl ester as substrate. Assay of thermal stability indicated that LCSIII is the more stable enzyme. Hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and ovalbumin were hydrolyzed by LCSII and LCSI but not by LCSIII. Inhibition studies suggested that enzymes belong to the serine protease class modulated by divalent cations. Rabbit antiserum against 56-kDa serine protease of Leishmania amazonensis identified proteins in all extracts of L. chagasi. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry demonstrated that serine proteases are located in flagellar pocket region and cytoplasmic vesicles of L. chagasi promastigotes. These findings indicate that L. chagasi serine proteases differ from L. amazonensis proteases and all known flagellate proteases, but display some similarities with serine proteases from other Leishmania species, suggesting a conservation of this enzymatic activity in the genus.
Desponds, Chantal; Kuhlmann, F. Matthew; Robinson, John; Hartley, Mary-Anne; Prevel, Florence; Castiglioni, Patrik; Pratlong, Francine; Bastien, Patrick; Müller, Norbert; Parmentier, Laurent; Saravia, Nancy Gore; Beverley, Stephen M.; Fasel, Nicolas
Background Patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by New World Leishmania (Viannia) species are at high risk of developing mucosal (ML) or disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). After the formation of a primary skin lesion at the site of the bite by a Leishmania-infected sand fly, the infection can disseminate to form secondary lesions. This metastatic phenotype causes significant morbidity and is often associated with a hyper-inflammatory immune response leading to the destruction of nasopharyngeal tissues in ML, and appearance of nodules or numerous ulcerated skin lesions in DCL. Recently, we connected this aggressive phenotype to the presence of Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) in strains of L. guyanensis, showing that LRV is responsible for elevated parasitaemia, destructive hyper-inflammation and an overall exacerbation of the disease. Further studies of this relationship and the distribution of LRVs in other Leishmania strains and species would benefit from improved methods of viral detection and quantitation, especially ones not dependent on prior knowledge of the viral sequence as LRVs show significant evolutionary divergence. Methodology/Principal Findings This study reports various techniques, among which, the use of an anti-dsRNA monoclonal antibody (J2) stands out for its specific and quantitative recognition of dsRNA in a sequence-independent fashion. Applications of J2 include immunofluorescence, ELISA and dot blot: techniques complementing an arsenal of other detection tools, such as nucleic acid purification and quantitative real-time-PCR. We evaluate each method as well as demonstrate a successful LRV detection by the J2 antibody in several parasite strains, a freshly isolated patient sample and lesion biopsies of infected mice. Conclusions/Significance We propose that refinements of these methods could be transferred to the field for use as a diagnostic tool in detecting the presence of LRV, and potentially assessing the LRV
Marques, Fernanda A; Soares, Rodrigo P; Almeida, Gregório G; Souza, Carolina C; Melo, Maria N; Pinto, Sebastião A; Quixabeira, Valeria B; Pereira, Ledice I; Dorta, Miriam L; Ribeiro-Dias, Fatima; Silveira, Fernando T; Silva, Sydnei M; Gontijo, Celia M; Tafuri, Wagner L
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a neglected disease widely distributed in Latin America. In Brazil, it is caused by different Leishmania species belonging to the Subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. ATL diagnosis is routinely based on clinical, epidemiological, parasitological and immunological (delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test-DTH) evidences. The main objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of a previous immunohistochemical (IHC) method developed by our group. Seventy eight skin biopsies from patients with different ATL clinical forms and origins were evaluated. The method was previously standardized in ATL patients from the municipality of Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, all infected with Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Here, it is evaluated in patients from the North, Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil. Clinical, parasitological (biopsy PCR) and immunological (Montenegro skin test-MST) diagnosis were performed prior to IHC procedure. The IHC procedure detected 70.5% of the cases having a high agreement with MST diagnosis (kappa=0.84). A distinguished contribution of this work is that IHC succeed in diagnosing some negative DTH patients. Those were infected with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, commonly causing the anergic form of the disease. In conclusion, IHC succeed in detecting ATL caused by different Leishmania species from various geographic regions and clinical status. Although it was not able to detect ATL in all patients, it was better than MST providing an additional tool for the diagnosis of ATL patients. There was no significant correlation between clinical forms and histological features including the presence of necrosis.
Costa Duarte, Mariana; dos Reis Lage, Letícia Martins; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Mesquita, Juliana Tonini; Salles, Beatriz Cristina Silveira; Lavorato, Stefânia Neiva; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Alves, Ricardo José; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Tempone, André Gustavo; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz
The development of new therapeutic strategies to treat leishmaniasis has become a priority. In the present study, the antileishmanial activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQN) was investigated against in vitro promastigotes and in vivo intra-macrophage amastigotes of three Leishmania species: Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Studies were performed to establish the 50% Leishmania inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8-HQN, as well as its 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) on murine macrophages and in human red blood cells. The inhibition of macrophages infection was also evaluated using parasites that were pre-treated with 8-HQN. The effects of this compound on nitric oxide (NO) production and in the mitochondrial membrane potential were also evaluated. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of 8-HQN was assessed in a known murine model, L. amazonensis-chronically infected BALB/c mice. Our results showed that 8-HQN was effective against promastigote and amastigote stages of all tested Leishmania species, presenting a selectivity index of 328.0, 62.0 and 47.0 for L. amazonensis, L. infantum and L. braziliensis, respectively. It was effective in treating infected macrophages, as well as in preventing the infection of these cells using pre-treated parasites. In addition, 8-HQN caused an alteration in the mitochondrial membrane potential of the parasites. When administered at 10mg/kg body weight/day by subcutaneous route, this product was effective in reducing the lesion diameter, as well as the parasite load in evaluated tissues and organs of infected animals. The results showed the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of 8-HQN against three different Leishmania species causing tegumentary and/or visceral leishmaniasis, and it could well be used for future therapeutic optimization studies to treat leishmaniasis.
Beer, María Florencia; Frank, Fernanda Maria; Germán Elso, Orlando; Ernesto Bivona, Augusto; Cerny, Natacha; Giberti, Gustavo; Luis Malchiodi, Emilio; Susana Martino, Virginia; Alonso, María Rosario; Patricia Sülsen, Valeria; Cazorla, Silvia Ines
Context Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis produce significant disability and mortality with great social and economic impact. The genus Stevia (Asteraceae) is a potential source of antiprotozoal compounds. Objective Aerial parts of four Stevia species were screened on Trypanosoma cruzi. Stevia satureiifolia (Lam.) Sch. Bip. var. satureiifolia (Asteraceae) dichloromethane extract was selected for a bioassay-guided fractionation in order to isolate its active compounds. Additionally, the antileishmanial activity and the cytotoxicity of these compounds on mammalian cells were assessed. Materials and methods The dichloromethane extract was fractionated by column chromatography. The isolated compounds were evaluated using concentrations of 0-100 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and on Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes for 72 h, on trypomastigotes and amastigotes of T. cruzi for 24 h and 120 h, respectively. The compounds' cytotoxicity (12.5-500 μg/mL) was assessed on Vero cells by the MTT assay. The structure elucidation of each compound was performed by spectroscopic methods and HPLC analysis. Results The dichloromethane extracts of Stevia species showed significant activity on T. cruzi epimastigotes. The flavonoids eupatorin (1.3%), cirsimaritin (1.9%) and 5-desmethylsinensetin (1.5%) were isolated from S. satureiifolia var. satureiifolia extract. Eupatorin and 5-desmethylsinensetin showed IC50 values of 0.2 and 0.4 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and 61.8 and 75.1 μg/mL on trypomastigotes, respectively. The flavonoid 5-desmethylsinensetin showed moderate activity against T. cruzi amastigotes (IC50 value = 78.7 μg/mL) and was the most active compound on L. braziliensis promastigotes (IC50 value = 37.0 μg/mL). Neither of the flavonoids showed cytotoxicity on Vero cells, up to a concentration of 500 μg/mL.
Ninhydrin ), SDS-PAGE and non-viability testing . See Table 3 below: Table 3: Drug Substance Specifications Test Method Specification SDS-PAGE...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-00-C-0030 TITLE: Leishmania Skin Test PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nielsen, H.S., Jr...TYPE FINAL, PHASE II ADDENDUM 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 APR 2009 - 28 FEB 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leishmania Skin Test 5a
Bualert, Lertwut; Charungkiattikul, Wiwat; Thongsuksai, Paramee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Siripattanapipong, Suradej; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Naaglor, Tawee; Ravel, Christophe; El Baidouri, Fouad; Leelayoova, Saovanee
We report the first establishment of in vitro cultivation and genotypic characterization of Leishmania siamensis isolated from an autochthonous disseminated dermal and visceral leishmaniasis in a Thai acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. The molecular identification has shown that the parasite was identical to L. siamensis, a recently described Leishmania species reported in the southern provinces of Thailand. The phylogenetic analysis has confirmed L. siamensis as closely related to the zoonotic Leishmania species L. enrietti.
Sifontes-Rodríguez, Sergio; Monzote-Fidalgo, Lianet; Castañedo-Cancio, Nilo; Montalvo-Álvarez, Ana Margarita; López-Hernández, Yamilé; Diogo, Niurka Mollineda; Infante-Bourzac, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Martín, Oliver; Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; García-Trevijano, José Antonio Escario; Cabrera-Pérez, Miguel Ángel
Despite recent advances in the treatment of some forms of leishmaniasis, the available drugs are still far from ideal due to inefficacy, parasite resistance, toxicity and cost. The wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity of 2-nitrovinylfuran compounds has been described, as has their activity against Trichomonas vaginalis and other protozoa. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the antileishmanial activities of six 2-nitrovinylfurans in vitro and in a murine model of leishmaniasis. Minimum parasiticide concentration (MPC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for these compounds against the promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis were determined, as were the efficacies of two selected compounds in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by L. amazonensis in BALB/c mice. All of the compounds were active against the promastigotes of the three Leishmania species tested. IC50 and MPC values were in the ranges of 0.8-4.7 µM and 1.7-32 µM, respectively. The compounds 2-bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl)-furan (furvina) and 2-bromo-5-(2-methyl-2-nitrovinyl)-furan (UC245) also reduced lesion growth in vivo at a magnitude comparable to or higher than that achieved by amphotericin B treatment. The results demonstrate the potential of this class of compounds as antileishmanial agents and support the clinical testing of Dermofural(r) (a furvina-containing antifungal ointment) for the treatment of CL. PMID:25946239
Perez, J E; Ogusuku, E; Inga, R; Lopez, M; Monje, J; Paz, L; Nieto, E; Arevalo, J; Guerra, H
Natural infection of Lutzomyia spp. with Leishmania was studied with the aid of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Chaute, Lima, Perú, a locality endemic for Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (uta). The PCR, with primers specific for the L. braziliensis complex, was applied to sandfly pools. Sandflies were sampled from April 1990 to May 1991 with CDC light traps in homes, and from near homes with a Shannon trap using protected human bait. Lu. verrucarum (4 pools) and Lu. peruenis (2 pools) from the anthropophilic collections, and Lu. verrucarum (2 pools) from indoors were found to be infected with Leishmania. The majority of infected sandflies were recorded mainly in April 1991 (4 pools), coinciding with the highest sandfly densities and the maximum number of new cases of uta (7). Non-infected sandflies were found from May to October 1990 and January to March 1991. Thus, these 2 sandfly species play a role in the spread of leishmaniasis among humans and other animals in Chaute.
leishmanlal excreted factor (EF) antibody in rabbit sera was developed. The assay, using Leishmania trop ica and Leishmania donovani promastigote EF...tropica LRC L137 L52 Leishmaniia donovani LRC L52 These strains were obtained from the WHO Leishmania Peference Centre collection maintained in the...FO 0 AD M FINAL REPORT0 (N TARGET ORIENTED DRUGS AGAINST LEISHMANIA I URI ZEHAVI, Ph.D. and JOSEPH EL-ON, Ph.D. Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL
de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sorte, Eveline da Cruz Boa; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda Aranega; Dutra, Valéria; Madeira, Maria de Fátima
In Brazil, although the domestic dog is a major target for the control actions for visceral leishmaniasis, knowledge gaps of the Leishmania species present in those animals still exist in many endemic areas. The objective of this study was the use of parasitological culture as a diagnosis tool and identification of species of Leishmania and other trypanosomatids in the canine population in the city of Cuiaba/Mato Grosso. Biological samples such as blood, intact skin fragments, cutaneous ulcers, and bone marrow were collected during a cross-sectional study and cultured on biphasic medium (Novy-MacNeil-Nicolle [NNN]/Schneider's). Leishmania isolates were characterized through isoenzyme electrophoresis. Isolates were obtained from 11.2% (n=54) of the 482 animals studied considering the different anatomical sites investigated. Leishmania chagasi was confirmed in 8.3% (n=40) dogs and Trypanosoma caninum in 2.9% (n=14). The sample of intact skin presented a higher chance of isolation of L. chagasi in symptomatic dogs and bone marrow in asymptomatic dogs (p<0.05). The results presented in this study emphasize the value of culture and confirm, for the first time, the circulation of L. chagasi in the canine population in different neighborhoods of the city of Cuiaba and broaden the knowledge of the geographical distribution of T. caninum in Brazil.
Background Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania infantum in all Mediterranean countries. The Leishmania parasite is transmitted by the bite of a corresponding sand fly vector and primarily maintained in nature by wild and domestic reservoirs, including dogs, foxes and jackals. Infected dogs are the primary reservoir host in endemic regions and are the most significant risk disposing humans to infection. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of infection with Leishmania and identification of Leishmania infantum in domestic dogs in the West Bank, Palestine. Methods The infection rate among domestic dogs collected from seven districts in the Palestinian West Bank was investigated by examination of parasites in culture from the buffy coat using serological and molecular methods; based on ELISA, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and cysteine protease (CPB) PCR. Results Out of 215 dogs examined for Leishmania, 36 (16.7%) were positive in at least one method. Twenty three animals (11.5%) were positive for Leishmania DNA, whereas, ELISA and culture revealed 16 (7.5%), and 4 (1.5%) respectively. CPB-PCR on one of three culture-positive isolates revealed Leishmania infantum as the causative agent for Leishmania infection in dogs. Conclusions Our study showed that canine leishmania infection is prevalent with varying degrees in all the seven studied districts in Palestine despite the absence of human VL cases in 4 of these districts. The causative agent was confirmed to be Leishmania infantum. PMID:22937916
Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; Hamilton, Nicklas
Gluconeogenesis is an active pathway in Leishmania amastigotes and is essential for their survival within the mammalian cells. However, our knowledge about this pathway in trypanosomatids is very limited. We investigated the role of glycerol kinase (GK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) in gluconeogenesis by generating the respective Leishmania mexicana Δgk, Δpepck, and Δppdk null mutants. Our results demonstrated that indeed GK, PEPCK, and PPDK are key players in the gluconeogenesis pathway in Leishmania, although stage-specific differences in their contribution to this pathway were found. GK participates in the entry of glycerol in promastigotes and amastigotes; PEPCK participates in the entry of aspartate in promastigotes, and PPDK is involved in the entry of alanine in amastigotes. Furthermore, the majority of alanine enters into the pathway via decarboxylation of pyruvate in promastigotes, whereas pathway redundancy is suggested for the entry of aspartate in amastigotes. Interestingly, we also found that l-lactate, an abundant glucogenic precursor in mammals, was used by Leishmania amastigotes to synthesize mannogen, entering the pathway through PPDK. On the basis of these new results, we propose a revision in the current model of gluconeogenesis in Leishmania, emphasizing the differences between amastigotes and promastigotes. This work underlines the importance of studying the trypanosomatid intracellular life cycle stages to gain a better understanding of the pathologies caused in humans. PMID:25288791
Saldarriaga, Omar A.; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Porrozzi, Renato; Baldeviano, Gerald C.; Lescano, Andrés G.; de Los Santos, Maxy B.; Fernandez, Olga L.; Saravia, Nancy G.; Costa, Erika; Melby, Peter C.; Travi, Bruno L.
Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis is widely distributed in Central and South America. Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus are the most frequent species infecting humans. L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis are also responsible for metastatic mucosal leishmaniasis. Conventional or real time PCR is a more sensitive diagnostic test than microscopy, but the cost and requirement for infrastructure and trained personnel makes it impractical in most endemic regions. Primary health systems need a sensitive and specific point of care (POC) diagnostic tool. We developed a novel POC molecular diagnostic test for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp. Parasite DNA was amplified using isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) with primers and probes that targeted the kinetoplast DNA. The amplification product was detected by naked eye with a lateral flow (LF) immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity equivalent to 0.1 parasites per reaction. The test amplified the principal L. Viannia species from multiple countries: L. (V.) braziliensis (n = 33), L. (V.) guyanensis (n = 17), L. (V.) panamensis (n = 9). The less common L. (V.) lainsoni, L. (V.) shawi, and L. (V.) naiffi were also amplified. No amplification was observed in parasites of the L. (Leishmania) subgenus. In a small number of clinical samples (n = 13) we found 100% agreement between PCR and RPA-LF. The high analytical sensitivity and clinical validation indicate the test could improve the efficiency of diagnosis, especially in chronic lesions with submicroscopic parasite burdens. Field implementation of the RPA-LF test could contribute to management and control of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis. PMID:27115155
Saldarriaga, Omar A; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Porrozzi, Renato; Baldeviano, Gerald C; Lescano, Andrés G; de Los Santos, Maxy B; Fernandez, Olga L; Saravia, Nancy G; Costa, Erika; Melby, Peter C; Travi, Bruno L
Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis is widely distributed in Central and South America. Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus are the most frequent species infecting humans. L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis are also responsible for metastatic mucosal leishmaniasis. Conventional or real time PCR is a more sensitive diagnostic test than microscopy, but the cost and requirement for infrastructure and trained personnel makes it impractical in most endemic regions. Primary health systems need a sensitive and specific point of care (POC) diagnostic tool. We developed a novel POC molecular diagnostic test for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp. Parasite DNA was amplified using isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) with primers and probes that targeted the kinetoplast DNA. The amplification product was detected by naked eye with a lateral flow (LF) immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity equivalent to 0.1 parasites per reaction. The test amplified the principal L. Viannia species from multiple countries: L. (V.) braziliensis (n = 33), L. (V.) guyanensis (n = 17), L. (V.) panamensis (n = 9). The less common L. (V.) lainsoni, L. (V.) shawi, and L. (V.) naiffi were also amplified. No amplification was observed in parasites of the L. (Leishmania) subgenus. In a small number of clinical samples (n = 13) we found 100% agreement between PCR and RPA-LF. The high analytical sensitivity and clinical validation indicate the test could improve the efficiency of diagnosis, especially in chronic lesions with submicroscopic parasite burdens. Field implementation of the RPA-LF test could contribute to management and control of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis.
Kato, Hirotomo; Bone, Abdon E; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Shiguango, Gonzalo F; Gonzales, Silvio V; Velez, Lenin N; Guevara, Angel G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
An epidemiological study of leishmaniasis was performed in Amazonian areas of Ecuador since little information on the prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species responsible for the transmission is available. Of 33 clinical specimens from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), causative parasites were identified in 25 samples based on cytochrome b gene analysis. As reported previously, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis were among the causative agents identified. In addition, L. (V.) lainsoni, for which infection is reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, and French Guiana, was identified in patients with CL from geographically separate areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, corroborating the notion that L. (V.) lainsoni is widely distributed in South America. Sand flies were surveyed around the area where a patient with L. (V.) lainsoni was suspected to have been infected. However, natural infection of sand flies by L. (V.) lainsoni was not detected. Further extensive vector searches are necessary to define the transmission cycle of L. (V.) lainsoni in Ecuador.
Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Murta, Silvane Maria Fonseca; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; da Rocha-Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano; Xavier, Ana Amélia Prates; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira
The efficacies of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), and of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for the identification of Leishmania species, have been assessed. Quantitative real-time PCR employing a SYBR Green dye-based system was standardised for the quantification of Leishmania kDNA minicircles. Skin, peripheral blood and bone marrow samples collected from 217 dogs, asymptomatic or symptomatic for CVL, were analysed. The PCR method, which was based on the amplification of a 120 bp kDNA fragment conserved across Leishmania species, was able to detect the presence in clinical samples of protozoan parasite DNA in amounts as low as 0.1 fg. Bone marrow and skin samples proved to be more suitable than peripheral blood for the detection of Leishmania by PCR and presented positive indices of 84.9% and 80.2%, respectively. PCR-RFLP analysis indicated that 192 of the PCR-positive dogs were infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, whilst L. braziliensis was identified in two other animals. Quantitative PCR revealed that bone marrow samples from dogs presenting positive conventional tests contained a higher number of copies of Leishmania kDNA than peripheral blood, although no significant differences were detected between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in terms of parasite load. This study demonstrates that PCR can be used for the detection of Leishmania in clinical samples derived from naturally infected dogs, and that PCR-RFLP represents a rapid and sensitive tool for the identification of Leishmania species. Additionally, qPCR is effective in quantifying Leishmania DNA load in clinical samples.
Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Rugani, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira
Autochthonous cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have been reported since 2001 in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve located in the municipality of São João das Missões in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. In order to study the presence of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies, six entomological collections were carried out from July 2008 through July 2009, using 40 light traps placed in peridomicile areas of 20 randomly selected houses. From October 2011 through August 2012, another six collections were carried out with 20 light traps distributed among four trails (five traps per trail) selected for a previous study of wild and synanthropic hosts of Leishmania. A total of 4,760 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to ten genera and twenty-three species. Single female specimens or pools with up to ten specimens of the same locality, species and date, for Leishmania detection by molecular methods. Species identification of parasites was performed with ITS1 PCR-RFLP using HaeIII enzyme and genetic sequencing for SSU rRNA target. The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in eleven samples from peridomicile areas: Lu. longipalpis (two), Nyssomyia intermedia (four), Lu. renei (two), Lu. ischnacantha, Micropygomyia goiana and Evandromyia lenti (one pool of each specie). The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in twelve samples from among the trails: Martinsmyia minasensis (six), Ny. intermedia (three), Mi. peresi (two) and Ev. lenti (one). The presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in Lu. longipalpis and Leishmania braziliensis DNA in Ny. intermediasupport the epidemiological importance of these species of sand flies in the cycle of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. The results also found other species associated with Leishmania DNA, such as Mt. minasensis and Ev. lenti, which may participate in a wild and/or synanthropic cycle of Leishmania transmission in the studied area. PMID:25853254
Jorquera, Alicia; González, Ricardo; Marchán-Marcano, Edgar; Oviedo, Milagros; Matos, Mercedes
We studied the natural infection of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) sp. with Leishmania in endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Paria peninsula, state of Sucre, Venezuela. Sand flies were collected between March 2001 and June 2003, using Shannon light-traps and human bait. Of the 1291 insects captured, only two species of phlebotomines were identified: L. ovallesi (82.75%) and L. gomezi (17.42%). A sample of the collected sand flies (51 pools of 2-12 individuals) were analyzed by using a multiplex-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of New Word Leishmaniaand Viannia subgenera. The results showed a total of 8 pools (15.68%) infected; of these, 7 were L. ovallesi naturally infected with L. braziliensis (2 pools) and L. mexicana (5 pools) and 1 pool of L. gomezi infected by L. braziliensis.
Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Schweynoch, Carola; Schonian, Gabriele; Jaffe, Charles L
Optimum conditions for generating Leishmania (Leishmania) tropica axenic amastigotes (AxA) in culture were determined, pH 5.5/36 degrees C, and the parasites characterized by different techniques, including light microscopy, macrophage infection, stage specific antigen expression and differential display. AxA were morphologically similar to amastigotes and 15.5-fold more infective than stationary phase promastigotes for mouse peritoneal macrophages. Western blotting with promastigote stage specific monoclonal antibodies to either lipophosphoglycan (T2) or a 60 kDa flagella antigen (F3) showed a dramatic decrease in antigen expression when AxA were compared to promastigotes. Similarly F3 gave strong immune fluorescent staining of the promastigote flagellum, but no fluorescence was detected when AxA were examined. Conversely, Western blotting with the amastigote specific monoclonal antibody (T16) showed that this antigen is more highly expressed in AxA than promastigotes. Differential display-PCR was used to identify several parasite genes showing stage specific expression. One gene selectively expressed by AxA was partially sequenced and identified as Leishmania (L.) tropicaamastin. Amastigote specific expression of this gene was further confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) using AxA and infected macrophages. No amastin expression was observed with promastigotes. Expression of the cysteine protease B (cpb) and protein kinase A catalytic isoform 1 subunit (pkac1) in promastigotes and AxA was also examined by RT-PCR. Pkac1 was strongly expressed by promastigotes, while cpb expression was only seen with AxA or infected macrophages. L. (L.) tropica AxA will prove useful for further studies on parasite differentiation and gene regulation, as well as for drug screening.
Tejera Nevado, Paloma; Bifeld, Eugenia; Höhn, Katharina
The mechanisms underlying the drug resistance of Leishmania spp. are manifold and not completely identified. Apart from the highly conserved multidrug resistance gene family known from higher eukaryotes, Leishmania spp. also possess genus-specific resistance marker genes. One of them, ARM58, was first identified in Leishmania braziliensis using a functional cloning approach, and its domain structure was characterized in L. infantum. Here we report that L. infantum ARM58 is part of a gene cluster at the telomeric end of chromosome 34 also comprising the neighboring genes ARM56 and HSP23. We show that overexpression of all three genes can confer antimony resistance to intracellular amastigotes. Upon overexpression in L. donovani, ARM58 and ARM56 are secreted via exosomes, suggesting a scavenger/secretion mechanism of action. Using a combination of functional cloning and next-generation sequencing, we found that the gene cluster was selected only under antimonyl tartrate challenge and weakly under Cu2+ challenge but not under sodium arsenite, Cd2+, or miltefosine challenge. The selective advantage is less pronounced in intracellular amastigotes treated with the sodium stibogluconate, possibly due to the known macrophage-stimulatory activity of this drug, against which these resistance markers may not be active. Our data point to the specificity of these three genes for antimony resistance. PMID:27324767
Gelanew, Tesfaye; Cruz, Israel; Kuhls, Katrin; Alvar, Jorge; Cañavate, Carmen; Hailu, Asrat; Schönian, Gabriele
In 2004, an outbreak of kala-azar (KA) occurred for the first time in Libo Kemkem district, in the highland area of northwest Ethiopia. In order to track the possible origins of the outbreak parasites, we have investigated 19 strains of Leishmania donovani that were collected during (n = 6) and after (n = 13) the outbreak by using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Unique microsatellite profiles were obtained for all strains from Libo Kemkem. When compared to those of L. donovani strains from different Ethiopian, Kenyan and Sudanese foci, by genetic distance and Bayesian clustering model analyses, most strains from Libo Kemkem grouped with strains from: (i) Humera and Metema in the lowlands and Belessa in the highland of Ethiopia, and (ii) Sudan, at different hierarchal levels. The strains from Libo Kemkem district were assigned at least to three genetically distinct clusters (A, B1 and B2) of which only one, cluster B2, consisted exclusively of strains from Libo Kemkem. The fact that most of the outbreak strains were found to be related to strains from well-known KA foci in northwest Ethiopia and Sudan might suggest multiple introductions of L. donovani strains from these foci into Libo Kemkem district.
Moura, Raniere M; Queiroz, Alexandre F S; Fook, Jacy M S L L; Dias, Anny S F; Monteiro, Norberto K V; Ribeiro, Jannisson K C; Moura, Gioconda E D D; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Santos, Elizeu A; Sales, Maurício P
CvL, a lectin from the marine sponge Cliona varians was purified by acetone fractionation followed by Sepharose CL 4B affinity chromatography. CvL agglutinated papainized treated human erythrocytes with preference for type A erythrocytes. The lectin was strongly inhibited by monosaccharide d-galactose and disaccharide sucrose. CvL is a tetrameric glycoprotein of 28 kDa subunits linked by disulphide bridges with a molecular mass of 106 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 114 kDa by Sephacryl S300 gel filtration. The lectin was Ca2+ dependent, stable up to 60 degrees C for 60 min, with optimum pH of 7.5. CvL displays a cytotoxic effect on gram positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. However, CvL did not affect gram negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Leishmania chagasi promastigotes were agglutinated by CvL up to 2(8) titer. These findings are indicative of the physiological defense roles of CvL and its possible use in the antibiosis of bacteria and protozoa pathogenic.
Margonari, C; Soares, R P; Andrade-Filho, J D; Xavier, D C; Saraiva, L; Fonseca, A L; Silva, R A; Oliveira, M E; Borges, E C; Sanguinette, C C; Melo, M N
The potential of Gafanhoto Park as an American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) focus was evaluated by examination of sand fly vectors of the Leishmania parasite. This forest remnant is located in a periurban area of Divin6polis, Brazil, where autochthonous cases of ACL have been reported. Sand fly populations were monitored over a 2-yr period (2006-2008) by using light traps (HP and Shannon). During systematic collections with HP traps, 824 specimens in total (342 males and 482 females) of 21 species were captured. Most prevalent species were as follows: Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrouse), Lutzomyia aragaoi (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia lutziana (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho). Using Shannon traps, 257 specimens representing 15 species were collected (159 females and 98 males), with a high prevalence of L. whitmani and Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto), both vectors of Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna). To ascertain the level of natural infection, a sample of females captured in Shannon traps was assayed for the presence of Leishmania by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, where 39% of insects were positive. The most infected species was L. whitmani (29 sand flies; 18.2%), followed by L. neivai (21; 13.2%), Lutzomyia christenseni (Young & Duncan) (five; 3.1%), Lutzomyia pessoai (Coutinho & Barreto) (three; 1.9%), L. aragaoi (one; 0.6%), Lutzomyia fischeri (Pinto) (one; 0.6%), Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira) (one; 0.6%), L. lutziana (one; 0.6%), and Lutzomyia monticula (Costa Lima) (one; 0.6%). The finding of potential and incriminated vectors naturally infected with Leishmania reinforces the need of epidemiologic surveillance in the area.
Martínez, Gastón; Defeo, Omar
A full analysis of the reproductive biology of the isopod Excirolana braziliensis Richardson 1912 was conducted in a sandy beach of Uruguay, located at the southernmost edge of its distributional range in the Atlantic Ocean. Reproductive and recruitment periods of E. braziliensis were concentrated in austral summer. Females with oostegites appeared in November, whereas total biomass, individual sizes and fecundity of ovigerous females peaked between December and January. These concurrent traits were responsible for the significant peak of juveniles in January. The size at maturity was 9.88 mm. Four embryonic developmental stages were described and identified: mean length linearly increased from stages I to III, whereas dry weight exponentially decreased from stages I to IV. The high reproductive output (0.41-0.58), reported for the first time in this isopod, exceeds the rates documented for other isopods. Reproduction of E. braziliensis at the southern edge of its range is semelparous: females produce one brood during the reproductive season, exhaust their energy reserves during incubation, and probably die at the end of the reproductive season. A macroscale comparison suggests that E. braziliensis at the southern edge of its range counteracts its narrow reproductive period by a short incubation period with larger individual mature female and embryo sizes, higher fecundity and a higher percentage of ovigerous females than in subtropical and tropical populations. These extreme reproductive indicators could be attributed to the internal retention of embryos that assures offspring survival, coupled with a high adaptation capability to environmental variations across its range.
Background Human leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. Clinical aspects of this disease can vary significantly, reflecting the wide range of parasites in the genus Leishmania. Knowing accurately the Leishmania species infecting humans is important for clinical case management and evaluation of epidemiological risk. Calmodulin is an essential gene in trypanosomatids that modulates the calcium metabolism in various cellular activities. Despite its strong conservation in trypanosomatids, it has been recently observed that its untranslated regions (UTR) diverge among species. Methods In this study we analyzed the sequences and the absolute dinucleotide frequency of the intergenic spacer of the calmodulin gene (containing both, 3′ and 5′UTR) in nine reference Leishmania species and ten clinical isolates obtained from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Results We show that the short calmodulin intergenic spacers exhibit features that make them interesting for applications in molecular characterization and phylogenetic studies of Leishmania. Dendrograms based on sequence alignments and on the dinucleotide frequency indicate that this particular region of calmodulin gene might be useful for species typing between the Leishmania and Viannia subgenera. Conclusions Mutations and composition of the calmodulin intergenic spacer from Leishmania species might have taxonomic value as parameters to define if an isolate is identical to a certain species or belongs to one of the two current subgenera. PMID:24438764
Madeira, M F; Sousa, M A; Barros, J H S; Figueiredo, F B; Fagundes, A; Schubach, A; DE Paula, C C; Faissal, B N S; Fonseca, T S; Thoma, H K; Marzochi, M C A
An unknown Trypanosoma species was isolated from an axenic culture of intact skin from a domestic dog captured in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which was co-infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Giemsa-stained smears of cultures grown in different media revealed the presence of epimastigotes, trypomastigotes, spheromastigotes, transitional stages, and dividing forms (epimastigotes or spheromastigotes). The highest frequency of trypomastigotes was observed in RPMI (15.2%) and DMEM (9.2%) media containing 5% FCS, with a mean length of these forms of 43.0 and 36.0 mum, respectively. Molecular analysis by sequential application of PCR assays indicated that this trypanosome differs from Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli when specific primers were applied. On the other hand, a PCR strategy targeted to the D7 domain of 24salpha rDNA, using primers D75/D76, amplified products of about 250 bp in that isolate (stock A-27), different from the amplification products obtained with T. cruzi and T. rangeli. This organism differs from T. cruzi mainly by the size of its trypomastigote forms and kinetoplasts and the absence of infectivity for macrophages and triatomine bugs. It is also morphologically distinct from salivarian trypanosomes reported in Brazil. Isoenzyme analysis at 8 loci demonstrated a very peculiar banding pattern clearly distinct from those of T. rangeli and T. cruzi. We conclude that this isolate is a new Trypanosoma species. The name T. caninum is suggested.
Shaw, Jeffrey; Pratlong, Francine; Floeter-Winter, Lucile; Ishikawa, Edna; El Baidouri, Fouad; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre
Leishmania parasites isolated, between 1979 and 1988 by the late Bryce Walton, from Dominican Republic (DR) patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, were characterized using a panel of 12 isoenzymes, 23 monoclonal antibodies, small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSu rDNA), and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The isoenzyme and monoclonal antibody profiles and the MLSA results showed that the Dominican Republic parasites were distinct from other described Leishmania species. This new species belongs to the mexicana complex, which is distributed in central and parts of northern South America. It is suggested that the parasites uniqueness from other members of the mexicana complex is related to it being isolated on an island for millions of years. If Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni fails to adapt to some imported mammal, such as the house rat, it will be the only Leishmania to be classified as an endangered species. The excessive destruction of habitats on Hispaniola threatens the survival of its vectors and presumed natural reservoirs, such as the rodent hutias and the small insectivorous mammal solenodon. The concept of Leishmania species is discussed in the light of recent evaluations on criteria for defining bacterial species. PMID:26149864
da Silva, Edson R; Boechat, Nubia; Pinheiro, Luiz C S; Bastos, Monica M; Costa, Carolina C P; Bartholomeu, Juliana C; da Costa, Talita H
Arginase is a glycosomal enzyme in Leishmania that is involved in polyamine and trypanothione biosynthesis. The central role of arginase in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was demonstrated by the generation of two mutants: one with an arginase lacking the glycosomal addressing signal and one in which the arginase-coding gene was knocked out. Both of these mutants exhibited decreased infectivity. Thus, arginase seems to be a potential drug target for Leishmania treatment. In an attempt to search for arginase inhibitors, 29 derivatives of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine system were tested against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis arginase in vitro. The [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine scaffold containing R1 = CF3 exhibited greater activity against the arginase rather than when the substituent R1 = CH3 in the 2-position. The novel compound 2-(5-methyl-2-(trifluoromethyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)hydrazinecarbothioamide (30) was the most potent, inhibiting arginase by a non-competitive mechanism, with the Ki and IC50 values for arginase inhibition estimated to be 17 ± 1 μm and 16.5 ± 0.5 μm, respectively. These results can guide the development of new drugs against leishmaniasis based on [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives targeting the arginase enzyme.
Serological reactions and fermentation tests have been employed in the present investigation as a means of differentiating various strains of herpetomonads from one another as well as from leishmanias. The twelve strains of herpetomonads isolated from insects and plants all proved to be serologically unrelated to any of the leishmanias, and were distinguishable from them by the manner in which they affected various carbohydrates. Three of the strains of herpetomonads tested had been isolated from milkweeds (Asclepias syriaca and A. nivea) and four from bugs which feed on the latices of these plants (Oncopeltus fasciatus, Oncopeltus sp.? from Peru, and Lygæus kalmii). When tested for their serological and carbohydrate-fermenting properties, however, the seven strains proved to be of two kinds only, one represented by the strain first isolated from Oncopeltus fasciatus) and hence named H. oncofelti, the other by H. lygæorum, so named because it was first isolated from Lygæus kalmii. Serologically there was a certain degree of group reaction among the flagellates of these two types, but in their action upon carbohydrates they were entirely different, H. oncopelti splitting thirteen carbohydrates, H. lygæorum only three. Three strains of herpetomonads isolated from flies proved to be distinct both in serological properties and in their action upon carbohydrates. One, derived from the house fly, and called H. muscidarum, was able to ferment most of the carbohydrates tested, including lactose which was not affected by any of the other strains. The other two, isolated from bluebottle flies, behaved much the same as the leishmanias with regard to carbohydrate fermentation, attacking five of the same sugars. One of them fermented galactose in addition, the other both galactose and inulin. Two strains from mosquitoes (Anopheles and Culex) behaved identically in serological reactions and also in fermentation tests. They are regarded as one species and have been named H
Moya, Sofía L; Giuliani, Magalí G; Manteca Acosta, Mariana; Salomón, Oscar D; Liotta, Domingo J
Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of the Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) disease in America, with Lutzomyia longipalpis phlebotomine sandflies as its proven vectors in Argentina, and infected dogs as its main urban reservoir. In Puerto Iguazú City (Misiones province, Argentina), human and canine cases of VL were recorded. Additionally, in the rural area known as "2000 Hectáreas", less than 10km away from the city, several human cases of Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) were registered determining an endemic area with Leishmania braziliensis as the etiological agent. Because of this, several phlebotomine captures were done in this site showing that Nyssomyia whitmani is the most abundant sandfly followed by Migonemyia migonei. In this study, three of the sandflies captured were found infected whit L. infantum parasites, detected by PCR and sequencing. Two of them were N. whitmani and the other one was a M. migonei specimen, being this the first report of L. infantum natural infection for Argentina in these sandfly species. N. whitmani is the main vector of L. braziliensis in this area, and M. migonei has been suggested as a putative vector in other locations where human and canine cases of VL where reported with L. longipalpis apparently absent. In this context, we consider necessary further studies that could define the role of M. migonei and N. whitmani as specific or permissive vectors of L. infantum, their vectorial competence and capacity, and their actual role in the transmission of both Tegumentary and Visceral Leishmaniasis in the study area.
Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the “LbSapSal” vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with “LbSapSal” is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after “LbSapSal” immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the “LbSapSal” vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586
Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro
Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.
Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia) shawi shawi
Jennings, Yara Lins; de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando
We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs). Identifications revealed 11 (25.6%) strains of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, 4 (9.3%) of L. (V.) shawi shawi, 7 (16.3%) of L. (V.) shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9%) of L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) lainsoni, 2 (4.7%) of L. (L.) amazonensis, and 7 (16.3%) of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis/L. (V.) shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V.) braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V.) shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains) expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V.) guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V.) s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains) did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V.) shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V.) s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains), L. (V.) guyanensis/L. (V.) s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V.) guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V.) s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) s. shawi exchange genetic information. PMID:25083790
Sánchez-Moreno, M; Gómez-Contreras, F; Navarro, P; Marín, C; Ramírez-Macías, I; Rosales, M J; Campayo, L; Cano, C; Sanz, A M; Yunta, M J R
The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of a series of imidazole-containing phthalazine derivatives 1-4 was tested on Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania donovani parasites, and their cytotoxicity on J774·2 macrophage cells was also measured. All compounds tested showed selectivity indexes higher than that of the reference drug glucantime for the three Leishmania species, and the less bulky monoalkylamino substituted derivatives 2 and 4 were clearly more effective than their bisalkylamino substituted counterparts 1 and 3. Both infection rate measures and ultrastructural alterations studies confirmed that 2 and 4 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications to the excretion products of parasites treated with 2 and 4 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds 2 and 4 were potent inhibitors of iron superoxide dismutase enzyme (Fe-SOD) in the three species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. Molecular modelling suggests that 2 and 4 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the antioxidant features of the enzyme.
Dujardin, J-C; De Doncker, S; Jacquet, D; Bañuls, A-L; Balavoine, M; Van Bockstaele, D; Tibayrenc, M; Arevalo, J; Le Ray, D
In the present work we studied the karyotype stability during long-term in vitro maintenance in 3 cloned strains of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and a hybrid between both species. Only the L. (V.) peruviana strain showed an unstable karyotype, even after subcloning. Four chromosomes were studied in detail, each of them characterized by homologous chromosomes of different size (heteromorphy). Variations in chromosome patterns during in vitro maintenance were rapid and discrete, involving loss of heteromorphy or appearance of additional chromosome size variants. The resulting pattern was not the same according to experimental conditions (subinoculation rate or incubation temperature), and interestingly, this was associated with differences in growth behaviour of the respective parasites. No change in total ploidy of the cells was observed by flow cytometry. We discuss several mechanisms that might account for this variation of chromosome patterns, but we favour the occurrence of aneuploidy, caused by aberrant chromosome segregation during mitosis. Our results provide insight into the generation of karyotype diversity in natural conditions and highlight the relativity of the clone concept in parasitology.
Richardson, Julia M.; Morrison, Lesley S.; Bland, Nicholas D.; Bruce, Sandra; Coombs, Graham H.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.
Leishmania major, an intracellular parasitic protozoon that infects, differentiates and replicates within macrophages, encodes two closely related MIF-like proteins, which have only ~20% amino acid identity with mammalian MIF. Recombinant L. major MIF1 and MIF2 have been expressed and the structures, resolved by X-ray crystallography, show a trimeric ring architecture similar to mammalian MIF but with some structurally distinct features. LmjMIF1, but not LmjMIF2, has tautomerase activity, indicating that the LmjMIFs have evolved potentially different biological roles. This is further demonstrated by the differential life cycle expression of the proteins. LmjMIF2 is found in all life cycle stages whereas LmjMIF1 is found exclusively in amastigotes, the intracellular stage responsible for mammalian disease. The findings are consistent with parasite MIFs modulating or circumventing the host macrophage response and thereby promoting parasite survival, however analysis of the L. braziliensis genome showed that this species lacks intact MIF genes - highlighting that MIF is not a virulence factor in all species of Leishmania. PMID:19187777
Oliveira, Fabiano; Bafica, Andre; Rosato, Andrea B.; Favali, Cecilia B. F.; Costa, Jackson M.; Cafe, Virginia; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a worldwide disease endemic in several regions of the globe. The hallmark of CL is skin ulcers likely driven by efforts of the immune system to control Leishmania growth. Cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon-gamma can control disease progression in animal models. Nevertheless, the impact of these cytokines in CL ulcer outcome is not well established in humans. In this study, 96 CL patients from an endemic area of Leishmania braziliensis were enrolled for a follow-up study that consisted of clinical and immunological evaluations in a 2-year period. Statistical analysis revealed that healing time (P = 0.029), age (P = 0.002), and TNF levels (P = 0.0002) positively correlate with ulcer size at the time of the first clinical evaluation. Our findings suggest that ulcer size correlates with healing time and TNF levels support the use of TNF inhibitors combined with standard therapy to improve healing in CL patients with severe lesions. PMID:21734128
Bahreini, Mitra; Bolorizadeh, Mehdi; Dabiri, Shahriar; Sharifi, Iraj
Background: The control of leishmaniasis faces serious challenges because of resistance to the first-line antimonial drugs. We aimed to evaluate the differences in organelle changes of cultivated promastigotes obtained from skin lesions of sensitive and unresponsive isolates to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) by electron microscopy. Material and Methods: This study was done in Bam city, southeastern Iran, in which the incidence of disease has sharply increased since the earthquake in 2003. The samples were taken from 66 patients who were referred to the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment center in Bam. A questionnaire was completed for each individual, recording their demographic characteristics and CL status. The scraping smears provided from the edge of active lesions with sterile blades were fixed with methanol, stained by Giemsa, and examined under a compound light microscope for amastigote form simultaneously. To prepare the specimens for transmission electron imaging, promastigotes were centrifuged and resuspened. Results: Transmission electron microscopic study of the cultivated promastigotes revealed that there were alterations in the organelles and structures of sensitive isolates compared with unresponsive and standard ones. Organelles and structures such as mitochondria, kinetoplast, microtubules, cytoplasmic vacuoles, plasma membrane and vesicles were studied. The alterations such as disintegration of kinetoplast into thin filaments and condensation of kinetoplast DNA core, changes in size, number and location of vesicles and microtubules were observed. We noted intense cytoplasmic vacuolization, and considerable swelling of mitochondria. Conclusion: The significance and relevance of these changes might help understand drug resistance patterns and help localize the best target site for inactivating the organism. PMID:26120175
Garnham, P. C. C.
The systematic position of the so-called ”species” of Leishmania is examined and an attempt made to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The morphology of the organisms as seen by light- and electron-microscopy is described; neither method provides useful criteria for the determination of species. The behaviour of the parasites in insect and in vertebrate hosts offers a better method of classification. In this way, the species may be divided into 4 main groups, comprising the mammalian species involving man, the distinctive species L. enriettii in the guinea-pig, those infecting lizards, and species apparently in various stages of evolution in phlebotomines. The so-called ”human” group is divided into visceral forms (originating chiefly in wild canidae) and cutaneous forms (probably of rodent origin). The named species of the former group include L. donovani and L. infantum. The cutaneous species include L. tropica tropica (=minor), L. tropica major, L. brasiliensis, L. peruana, L. guyanensis, and L. mexicana. L. pifanoi is probably not a distinct species but represents various forms as modified by the failure of cell-mediated immunity in the host. Leishmanial infections can be identified first by ascertaining the geographical area where the infection was acquired, and then by more or less complicated laboratory investigations including characteristics in culture, serological tests, the response of special hosts in terms of symptomatology, and the behaviour of the parasite in the phlebotomine host. No test is infallible, and an effective simple test is urgently needed. The preservation of Leishmania strains is an important research procedure and a method for conserving parasites by lyophilization is described briefly. PMID:5316250
López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Martín-Navarro, Carmen; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Maciver, Sutherland K; Piñero, José E
Here the mechanism by which perifosine induced cell death in Leishmania donovani and Leishmania amazonensis is described. The drug reduced Leishmania mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased cellular ATP levels while increasing phosphatidylserine externalization. Perifosine did not increase membrane permeabilization. We also found that the drug inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt in the parasites. These results highlight the potential use of perifosine as an alternative to miltefosine against Leishmania.
Alvar, J; Cañavate, C; Gutiérrez-Solar, B; Jiménez, M; Laguna, F; López-Vélez, R; Molina, R; Moreno, J
Over 850 Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases have been recorded, the majority in Europe, where 7 to 17% of HIV-positive individuals with fever have amastigotes, suggesting that Leishmania-infected individuals without symptoms will express symptoms of leishmaniasis if they become immunosuppressed. However, there are indirect reasons and statistical data demonstrating that intravenous drug addiction plays a specific role in Leishmania infantum transmission: an anthroponotic cycle complementary to the zoonotic one has been suggested. Due to anergy in patients with coinfection, L. infantum dermotropic zymodemes are isolated from patient viscera and a higher L. infantum phenotypic variability is seen. Moreover, insect trypanosomatids that are currently considered nonpathogenic have been isolated from coinfected patients. HIV infection and Leishmania infection each induce important analogous immunological changes whose effects are multiplied if they occur concomitantly, such as a Th1-to-Th2 response switch; however, the consequences of the viral infection predominate. In fact, a large proportion of coinfected patients have no detectable anti-Leishmania antibodies. The microorganisms share target cells, and it has been demonstrated in vitro how L. infantum induces the expression of latent HIV-1. Bone marrow culture is the most useful diagnostic technique, but it is invasive. Blood smears and culture are good alternatives. PCR, xenodiagnosis, and circulating-antigen detection are available only in specialized laboratories. The relationship with low levels of CD4+ cells conditions the clinical presentation and evolution of disease. Most patients have visceral leishmaniasis, but asymptomatic, cutaneous, mucocutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis can be produced by L. infantum. The digestive and respiratory tracts are frequently parasitized. The course of coinfection is marked by a high relapse rate. There is a lack
García Bustos, María F; Barrio, Alejandra; Prieto, Gabriela G; de Raspi, Emma M; Cimino, Rubén O; Cardozo, Rubén M; Parada, Luis A; Yeo, Matthew; Soto, Jaime; Uncos, Delfor A; Parodi, Cecilia; Basombrío, Miguel A
Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus, constitutes a significant health and social problem in many countries and is increasing worldwide. The conventional treatment, meglumine antimoniate (MA), presents numerous disadvantages, including invasiveness, toxicity, and frequent therapeutic failure, justifying the attempts at finding alternatives to the first-line therapy. We have studied the comparative long-term efficacy of MA against miltefosine (MF) in Leishmania infection in experimental mice. The criteria for efficacy evaluation were footpad lesion size, anti-Leishmania antibodies level, histopathology of the site of inoculation (right footpad, RFP), splenic index (SI), and the presence of parasites in RFP, spleen, and liver, determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Swiss mice, infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis were treated, at different time points (5 and 40 days after infection) with either MA or MF. The efficacy of MF was better than that of MA for inhibiting lesions and for reducing tissue damage and presence/load of amastigotes in spleen and liver. Moreover, early administration of MF produced a clear reduction in splenomegaly and was equal in reducing antibody titles in comparison with MA. Our results demonstrated that MF is an effective and safe therapeutic alternative for leishmaniasis by L. (L.) amazonensis and is more efficacious than MA.
Beverley, S M; Ismach, R B; Pratt, D M
Restriction endonuclease DNA fragment patterns have been used to examine the relationships among 28 isolates of Leishmania as well as Crithidia, Endotrypanum, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Fragments of nuclear DNA were generated with six restriction enzymes, and blots were hybridized with probes from three loci. Among the major lineages the fragment patterns are essentially completely different, while within the major lineages various degrees of divergence are found. Molecular evolutionary trees were constructed using the method of Nei and Li to estimate the percent nucleotide sequence divergence among strains from the fraction of fragments shared. Defined groups, such as species or subspecies within the major lineages, are also grouped by nuclear DNA comparisons. Within the donovani complex, we find Leishmania donovani chagasi and Leishmania donovani infantum to be as similar as strains within Leishmania donovani donovani, consistent with the proposal by other workers that New World visceral leishmaniasis originated quite recently. Images PMID:3025876
Rodrigues, Ana Caroline Moura; Melo, Luciana Magalhães; Magalhães, Rafaela Damasceno; de Moraes, Nélio Batista; de Souza Júnior, Antônio Domingos; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. This parasite is transmitted by the bite of a female sand fly. The most important sand fly species in VL transmission is Lutzomyia longipalpis. In Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará State, Brazil, the simultaneous occurrence of Lutzomyia migonei and L. longipalpis was detected in localities where VL transmission is observed. The purpose of this study was to determine conclusively if L. migonei can be found naturally infected with L. infantum in key focus in Fortaleza. Using a CDC traps we performed phlebotomine capture during one year. External morphological features and qPCR targeting species-specific gene sequences of Lutzomyia species were used to identify the female phlebotomine sand flies. The molecular identification of the Leishmania species was performed using qPCR targeting species-specific gene sequences of L. infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. The males L. migonei abundance was higher in the rainy season. Humidity and rainfall positively correlated with males L. migonei abundance, while temperature showed a negative correlation. The correlation between the density of L. migonei female with rainfall, relative air humidity, and temperature were not statistically significant. According to the molecular data produced by qPCR amplifications, three positive sand flies were identified as L. longipalpis, and one was identified as L. migonei. The infection rate was 0.35% and 0.18%, respectively. The parasite load was 32,492±2572 L. infantum in L. migonei while the L. longipalpis had parasite loads between 2,444,964.6±116,000 and 6,287,130±124,277. Our findings confirm L. migonei as a potential vector of VL in Fortaleza at a molecular level.
Andrade, Juvana M.; Baba, Elio H.; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo A.; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Demicheli, Cynthia P.; Frézard, Frédéric
Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (SbIII) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts. Both AQP1-overexpressing lines presented 3- to 4-fold increased AQP1 expression levels compared with those of their untransfected counterparts, leading to an increased SbIII susceptibility of about 2-fold. Competition assays using silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, or silver acetate prior to SbIII exposure increased parasite growth, especially in AQP1-overexpressing mutants. Surprisingly, SbIII-sodium nitrate or SbIII-potassium nitrate combinations showed significantly enhanced antileishmanial activities compared to those of SbIII alone, especially against AQP1-overexpressing mutants, suggesting a putative nitrate-dependent modulation of AQP1 activity. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the concomitant exposure to SbIII and nitrate favors antimony accumulation in the parasite, increasing the toxicity of the drug and culminating with parasite death. This is the first report showing evidence of AQP1-mediated SbIII susceptibility modulation by silver in Leishmania and suggests the potential antileishmanial activity of the combination of nitrate salts and SbIII. PMID:27161624
Andrade, Juvana M; Baba, Elio H; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo A; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Demicheli, Cynthia P; Frézard, Frédéric; Monte-Neto, Rubens L; Murta, Silvane M F
Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (Sb(III)) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts. Both AQP1-overexpressing lines presented 3- to 4-fold increased AQP1 expression levels compared with those of their untransfected counterparts, leading to an increased Sb(III) susceptibility of about 2-fold. Competition assays using silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, or silver acetate prior to Sb(III) exposure increased parasite growth, especially in AQP1-overexpressing mutants. Surprisingly, Sb(III)-sodium nitrate or Sb(III)-potassium nitrate combinations showed significantly enhanced antileishmanial activities compared to those of Sb(III) alone, especially against AQP1-overexpressing mutants, suggesting a putative nitrate-dependent modulation of AQP1 activity. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the concomitant exposure to Sb(III) and nitrate favors antimony accumulation in the parasite, increasing the toxicity of the drug and culminating with parasite death. This is the first report showing evidence of AQP1-mediated Sb(III) susceptibility modulation by silver in Leishmania and suggests the potential antileishmanial activity of the combination of nitrate salts and Sb(III).
Background Leishmania (Leishmania) major, one of the agents causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans, is widely distributed in the Old World where different species of wild rodent and phlebotomine sand fly serve as animal reservoir hosts and vectors, respectively. Despite this, strains of L. (L.) major isolated from many different sources over many years have proved to be relatively uniform. To investigate the population structure of the species highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed for greater discrimination among it's otherwise closely related strains, an approach applied successfully to other species of Leishmania. Results Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT) based on 10 different microsatellite markers was applied to 106 strains of L. (L.) major from different regions where it is endemic. On applying a Bayesian model-based approach, three main populations were identified, corresponding to three separate geographical regions: Central Asia (CA); the Middle East (ME); and Africa (AF). This was congruent with phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances. Re-analysis separated each of the populations into two sub-populations. The two African sub-populations did not correlate well with strains' geographical origin. Strains falling into the sub-populations CA and ME did mostly group according to their place of isolation although some anomalies were seen, probably, owing to human migration. Conclusion The model- and distance-based analyses of the microsatellite data exposed three main populations of L. (L.) major, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, each of which separated into two sub-populations. This probably correlates with the different species of rodent host. PMID:18577226
Silva, Denise Amaro da; Madeira, Maria de Fatima; Barbosa Filho, Carlos José Lima; Schubach, Edvar Yuri Paheco; Barros, Juliana Helena da Silva; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges
Studies report the occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi in northern states of Brazil. In the present investigation, we describe the isolation of L. (L.) hertigi from a porcupine (Coendou sp.) found in Brasília, Federal District, center-west region of Brazil. During a study on canine visceral leishmaniasis conducted in the city of Brasília, Federal District, a porcupine was found dead on a public road. The animal was identified and fragments of intact skin and spleen were collected for isolation of parasite in the culture. This report of the occurrence of L. hertigi in another part of Brazil may help establish the distribution of this parasite in the country. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of L. hertigi in the pathology and pathogenesis of leishmaniasis and its survival in mammals and possible vectors.
First description of Leishmania (Viannia) infection in Evandromyia saulensis, Pressatia sp. and Trichophoromyia auraensis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre state, Amazon Basin, Brazil
de Araujo-Pereira, Thais; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Melo, Myllena; da Costa-Rego, Taiana Amancio; Fuzari, Andressa Alencastre; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Britto, Constança
Studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the Brazilian Amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to Leishmania kDNA and hybridisation, we were able to identify L. (Viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. By sequencing the Leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products from positive samples, infection by L. (V.) braziliensis was confirmed in five sandflies: one Evandromyia saulensis, three Trichophoromyia auraensis and one Pressatia sp. The finding of L. (Viannia) DNA in two Ev. saulensis corresponds to the first record of possible infection associated with this sandfly. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time in Brazil, Th. auraensis and Pressatia sp. infected by L. (Viannia) parasites. PMID:28076470
First description of Leishmania (Viannia) infection in Evandromyia saulensis, Pressatia sp. and Trichophoromyia auraensis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre state, Amazon Basin, Brazil.
Araujo-Pereira, Thais de; Pita-Pereira, Daniela de; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Melo, Myllena; Costa-Rego, Taiana Amancio da; Fuzari, Andressa Alencastre; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Britto, Constança
Studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the Brazilian Amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to Leishmania kDNA and hybridisation, we were able to identify L. (Viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. By sequencing the Leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products from positive samples, infection by L. (V.) braziliensis was confirmed in five sandflies: one Evandromyia saulensis, three Trichophoromyia auraensis and one Pressatia sp. The finding of L. (Viannia) DNA in two Ev. saulensis corresponds to the first record of possible infection associated with this sandfly. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time in Brazil, Th. auraensis and Pressatia sp. infected by L. (Viannia) parasites.
Oyola, Samuel O.; Evans, Krystal J.; Smith, Terry K.; Smith, Barbara A.; Hilley, James D.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Kaye, Paul M.; Smith, Deborah F.
The single gene encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthetase (CFAS) is present in Leishmania infantum, L. mexicana and L. braziliensis but absent from L. major, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In L. infantum, usually causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, the CFAS gene is transcribed in both insect (extracellular) and host (intracellular) stages of the parasite life cycle. Tagged CFAS protein is stably detected in intracellular L. infantum but only during the early log phase of extracellular growth, when it shows partial localisation to the endoplasmic reticulum. Lipid analyses of L. infantum wild type, CFAS null and complemented parasites detect a low abundance CFAS-dependent C19Δ fatty acid, characteristic of a cyclopropanated species, in wild type and add-back cells. Sub-cellular fractionation studies locate the C19Δ fatty acid to both ER and plasma membrane-enriched fractions. This fatty acid is not detectable in wild type L. major, although expression of the L. infantum CFAS gene in L. major generates cyclopropanated fatty acids, indicating that the substrate for this modification is present in L. major, despite the absence of the modifying enzyme. Loss of the L. infantum CFAS gene does not affect extracellular parasite growth, phagocytosis or early survival in macrophages. However, while endocytosis is also unaffected in the extracellular CFAS nulls, membrane transporter activity is defective and the null parasites are more resistant to oxidative stress. Following infection in vivo, L. infantum CFAS nulls exhibit lower parasite burdens in both the liver and spleen of susceptible hosts but it has not been possible to complement this phenotype, suggesting that loss of C19Δ fatty acid may lead to irreversible changes in cell physiology that cannot be rescued by re-expression. Aberrant cyclopropanation in L. major decreases parasite virulence but does not influence parasite tissue tropism. PMID:23251490
Rougeron, Virginie; De Meeûs, Thierry; Hide, Mallorie; Le Falher, Georges; Bucheton, Bruno; Dereure, Jacques; El-Safi, Sayda H; Dessein, Alain; Bañuls, Anne-Laure
Leishmania species of the subgenus Leishmania and especially L. donovani are responsible for a large proportion of visceral leishmaniasis cases. The debate on the mode of reproduction and population structure of Leishmania parasites remains opened. It has been suggested that Leishmania parasites could alternate different modes of reproduction, more particularly clonality and frequent recombinations either between related individuals (endogamy) or between unrelated individuals (outcrossing) within strongly isolated subpopulations. To determine whether this assumption is generalized to other species, a population genetics analysis within Leishmania donovani complex strains was conducted within a single village. The results suggest that a mixed-mating reproduction system exists, an important heterogeneity of subsamples and the coexistence of several genetic entities in Sudanese L. donovani. Indeed, results showed significant genetic differentiation between the three taxa (L. donovani, L. infantum and L. archibaldi) and between the human or canine strains of such taxa, suggesting that there may be different imbricated transmission cycles involving either dogs or humans. Results also are in agreement with an almost strict specificity of L. donovani stricto sensu to human hosts. This empirical study demonstrates the complexity of population structure in the genus Leishmania and the need to pursue such kind of analyses at the smallest possible spatio-temporal and ecological scales.
Medeiros, Angela Rapela; Silva, Wilson A; Roselino, Ana Maria
INTRODUCTION American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) represents one of the most important public health issues in the world. An increased number of autochthonous cases of ATL in the Northeastern region of São Paulo State has been documented in the last few years, leading to a desire to determine the Leishmania species implicated. METHODS PCR followed by DNA sequencing was carried out to identify a 120bp fragment from the universal kDNA minicircle of the genus Leishmania in 61 skin or mucosal biopsies from patients with ATL. RESULTS DNA sequencing permitted the identification of a particular 15bp fragment (5’ …GTC TTT GGG GCA AGT... 3’) in all samples. Analysis by the neighbor-joining method showed the occurrence of two distinct groups related to the genus Viannia (V) and Leishmania (L), each with two subgroups. Autochthonous cases with identity to a special Leishmania sequence not referenced in Genbank predominated in subgroup V.1, suggesting the possible existence of a subtype or mutation of Leishmania Viannia in this region. In the subgroup L.2, which showed identity with a known sequence of L. (L.) amazonensis, there was a balanced distribution of autochthonous and non-autochthonous cases, including the mucosal and mucocutaneus forms in four patients. The last observation may direct us to new concepts, since the mucosal compromising has commonly been attributed to L. (V.) braziliensis, even though L. (L.) amazonensis is more frequent in the Amazonian region. CONCLUSIONS These results confirm the pattern of distribution and possible mutations of these species, as well as the change in the clinical form presentation of ATL in the São Paulo State. PMID:18719754
Silva, T R R; Assis, M D G; Freire, M P; Rego, F D; Gontijo, C M F; Shimabukuro, P H F
Phlebotominae sand flies are of medical importance because they are vectors of human pathogens, such as protozoa of the genus Leishmania Ross, etiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). In Lábrea, a municipality in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, ACL is primarily associated with subsistence activities, such as collection and extraction of forest products, undertaken by both indigenous and nonindigenous people. Data on ACL in indigenous populations are scarce, such that there is little information on the identity of the etiologic agent(s), reservoir host(s) and insect vector(s). The aim of this work was to study the sand fly fauna collected during an 8-d surveillance of different habitats in the Indigenous Reserve Caititu, Lábrea. In total, 1,267 sand flies were collected in different habitats for eight consecutive days, of which 819 (64.6%) were females and 448 (35.4%) males, from 10 genera and 32 species. The most abundant genera were Psychodopygus (34.3%), Trichophoromyia (22.9%), and Nyssomyia (15.3%). The most abundant species were Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira) (n = 235, 18.5%), Psychodopygus davisi (Root) (n = 228, 18.0%) and Nyssomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (n = 135, 10.7%). Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products demonstrated the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in the following species of sand flies: Evandromyia apurinan (Shimabukuro, Silveira, & Silva), Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (Young & Porter), Ps. davisi, Sciopemyia servulolimai (Damasceno & Causey), and Th. ubiquitalis. The presence of natural infection by Leishmania detected in the sand fly species investigated in this study suggests their possible role in the transmission cycle of ACL in the studied area.
Papadopoulou, B; Kündig, C; Singh, A; Ouellette, M
The main line of defense available against parasitic protozoa is chemotherapy. Drug resistance has emerged however, as a primary obstacle to the successful treatment and control of parasitic diseases. Leishmania spp., the causative agents of leishmaniasis, have served as a useful model for studying mechanisms of drug resistance in vitro. Antimonials and amphotericin B are the first line drugs to treat Leishmania followed by pentamidine and a number of other drugs. Parasites resistant against all these classes of drugs have been selected under laboratory conditions. A multiplicity of resistance mechanisms has been detected, the most prevalent being gene amplification and transport mutations. With the tools now available, it should be possible to elucidate the mechanisms that govern drug resistance in field isolates and develop more effective chemotherapeutic agents.
Caldart, Eloiza Teles; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Ruffolo, Bruno Bergamo; Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; Mareze, Marcelle; Garcia, João Luis; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico
This study aimed to detect parasites from Leishmania genus, to determine the prevalence of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies, to identify circulating species of the parasite, and to determine epidemiological variables associated with infection in rats caught in urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Animal capture was carried out from May to December 2006, serological and molecular methods were performed. DNA was extracted from total blood, and nested-PCR, targeting SSu rRNA from Leishmania genus, was performed in triplicate. The positive samples were sequenced twice by Sanger method to species determination. In total, 181 rodents were captured, all were identified as Rattus rattus and none showed clinical alterations. Forty-one of the 176 (23.3%) animals were positive for Leishmania by ELISA and 6/181 (3.3%) were positive by IFAT. Nine of 127 tested animals (7.1%) were positive by PCR; seven were identified as L. (L.) amazonensis, one as L. (L.) infantum. Four rats were positive using more than one test. This was the first description of synanthropic rodents naturally infected by L. (L.) amazonensis (in the world) and by L. (L.) infantum (in South Brazil). Regarding L. (L.) amazonensis, this finding provides new evidence of the urbanization of this etiological agent.
Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; dos Santos, Ana Paula de Azevedo; Freitas, Rui Alves; de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; Rodrigues, Moreno Souza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha
In this study, we identified the phlebotomine sandfly vectors involved in the transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil, which is located on the Brazil-Peru-Bolivia frontier. The genotyping of Leishmania in phlebotomines was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A total of 6,850 sandflies comprising 67 species were captured by using CDC light traps in rural areas of the municipality. Three sandfly species were found in the state of Acre for the first time: Lutzomyia georgii, Lu. complexa and Lu. evangelistai. The predominant species was Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi and Lu. davisi (total 59.27%). 32 of 368 pools were positive for the presence of Leishmania DNA (16 pools corresponding to Lu. davisi, and 16 corresponding to Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi), with a minimal infection prevalence of 1.85% in Lu. davisi and 2.05% in Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi. The Leishmania species found showed maximum identity with L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis in both phlebotomine species. Based on these results and similar scenarios previously described along the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia tri-border, the studied area must take into consideration the possibility of Lu. davisi and Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi as probable vectors of ACL in this municipality. PMID:27304023
Alberio, Sanny O; Dias, Suzana S; Faria, Flávio P; Mortara, Renato A; Barbiéri, Clara L; Freymüller Haapalainen, Edna
The present work showed the presence of a megasome in Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi amastigotes. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of ultrathin serial sections and three-dimensional reconstruction allowed visualization of large structures in amastigote forms of L. (L.) chagasi and a multivesicular tubule-lysosome structure in metacyclic promastigotes. Morphometric data showed that the relative volume occupied by the megasome and the multivesicular tubule (MVT)-lysosome structures was about 5% and 3.2%, respectively, in amastigotes and promastigotes of L. (L.) chagasi. Further characterization of the megasome in L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes was carried out by immunolabeling of cysteine proteinase, whereas the lysosomal content of amastigotes and promastigotes was confirmed by arylsulfatase cytochemistry.
Toledo, Juliano S; Ferreira, Tiago R; Defina, Tânia P A; Dossin, Fernando de M; Beattie, Kenneth A; Lamont, Douglas J; Cloutier, Serge; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Schenkman, Sergio; Cruz, Angela K
Although several stage-specific genes have been identified in Leishmania, the molecular mechanisms governing developmental gene regulation in this organism are still not well understood. We have previously reported an attenuation of virulence in Leishmania major and L. braziliensis carrying extra-copies of the spliced leader RNA gene. Here, we surveyed the major differences in proteome and transcript expression profiles between the spliced leader RNA overexpressor and control lines using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differential display reverse transcription PCR, respectively. Thirty-nine genes related to stress response, cytoskeleton, proteolysis, cell cycle control and proliferation, energy generation, gene transcription, RNA processing and post-transcriptional regulation have abnormal patterns of expression in the spliced leader RNA overexpressor line. The evaluation of proteolytic pathways in the mutant revealed a selective increase of cysteine protease activity and an exacerbated ubiquitin-labeled protein population. Polysome profile analysis and measurement of cellular protein aggregates showed that protein translation in the spliced leader RNA overexpressor line is increased when compared to the control line. We found that L. major promastigotes maintain homeostasis in culture when challenged with a metabolic imbalance generated by spliced leader RNA surplus through modulation of intracellular proteolysis. However, this might interfere with a fine-tuned gene expression control necessary for the amastigote multiplication in the mammalian host.
Kato, Hirotomo; Bone, Abdon E.; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Shiguango, Gonzalo F.; Gonzales, Silvio V.; Velez, Lenin N.; Guevara, Angel G.; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
An epidemiological study of leishmaniasis was performed in Amazonian areas of Ecuador since little information on the prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species responsible for the transmission is available. Of 33 clinical specimens from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), causative parasites were identified in 25 samples based on cytochrome b gene analysis. As reported previously, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis were among the causative agents identified. In addition, L. (V.) lainsoni, for which infection is reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, and French Guiana, was identified in patients with CL from geographically separate areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, corroborating the notion that L. (V.) lainsoni is widely distributed in South America. Sand flies were surveyed around the area where a patient with L. (V.) lainsoni was suspected to have been infected. However, natural infection of sand flies by L. (V.) lainsoni was not detected. Further extensive vector searches are necessary to define the transmission cycle of L. (V.) lainsoni in Ecuador. PMID:27191391
Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Petitdidier, Elodie; Markikou-Ouni, Wafa; Aoun, Karim; Moreno, Javier; Carrillo, Eugenia; Salotra, Poonam; Kaushal, Himanshu; Negi, Narender Singh; Arevalo, Jorge; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Privat, Angela; Cruz, Maria; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard-Marie; Rhouma, Faten Bel Haj; Torres, Pilar; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Chenik, Mehdi; Meddeb-Garnaoui, Amel
PSA (Promastigote Surface Antigen) belongs to a family of membrane-bound and secreted proteins present in several Leishmania (L.) species. PSA is recognized by human Th1 cells and provides a high degree of protection in vaccinated mice. We evaluated humoral and cellular immune responses induced by a L. amazonensis PSA protein (LaPSA-38S) produced in a L. tarentolae expression system. This was done in individuals cured of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major (CCLm) or L. braziliensis (CCLb) or visceral leishmaniasis due to L. donovani (CVLd) and in healthy individuals. Healthy individuals were subdivided into immune (HHR-Lm and HHR-Li: Healthy High Responders living in an endemic area for L. major or L. infantum infection) or non immune/naive individuals (HLR: Healthy Low Responders), depending on whether they produce high or low levels of IFN-γ in response to Leishmania soluble antigen. Low levels of total IgG antibodies to LaPSA-38S were detected in sera from the studied groups. Interestingly, LaPSA-38S induced specific and significant levels of IFN-γ, granzyme B and IL-10 in CCLm, HHR-Lm and HHR-Li groups, with HHR-Li group producing TNF-α in more. No significant cytokine response was observed in individuals immune to L. braziliensis or L. donovani infection. Phenotypic analysis showed a significant increase in CD4+ T cells producing IFN-γ after LaPSA-38S stimulation, in CCLm. A high positive correlation was observed between the percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells and the released IFN-γ. We showed that the LaPSA-38S protein was able to induce a mixed Th1 and Th2/Treg cytokine response in individuals with immunity to L. major or L. infantum infection indicating that it may be exploited as a vaccine candidate. We also showed, to our knowledge for the first time, the capacity of Leishmania PSA protein to induce granzyme B production in humans with immunity to L. major and L. infantum infection. PMID:24786587
Vickers, Tim J; Beverley, Stephen M
Trypanosomatid parasitic protozoans of the genus Leishmania are autotrophic for both folate and unconjugated pteridines. Leishmania salvage these metabolites from their mammalian hosts and insect vectors through multiple transporters. Within the parasite, folates are reduced by a bifunctional DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase)-TS (thymidylate synthase) and by a novel PTR1 (pteridine reductase 1), which reduces both folates and unconjugated pteridines. PTR1 can act as a metabolic bypass of DHFR inhibition, reducing the effectiveness of existing antifolate drugs. Leishmania possess a reduced set of folate-dependent metabolic reactions and can salvage many of the key products of folate metabolism from their hosts. For example, they lack purine synthesis, which normally requires 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, and instead rely on a network of purine salvage enzymes. Leishmania elaborate at least three pathways for the synthesis of the key metabolite 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, required for the synthesis of thymidylate, and for 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, whose presumptive function is for methionyl-tRNAMet formylation required for mitochondrial protein synthesis. Genetic studies have shown that the synthesis of methionine using 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is dispensable, as is the activity of the glycine cleavage complex, probably due to redundancy with serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Although not always essential, the loss of several folate metabolic enzymes results in attenuation or loss of virulence in animal models, and a null DHFR-TS mutant has been used to induce protective immunity. The folate metabolic pathway provides numerous opportunities for targeted chemotherapy, with strong potential for 'repurposing' of compounds developed originally for treatment of human cancers or other infectious agents.
Handman, E.; Schnur, L.F.; Spithill, T.W.; Mitchell, G.F.
Infection of macrophages by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania involves specific attachment to the host membrane, followed by phagocytosis and intracellular survival and growth. Two parasite molecules have been implicated in the attachment event: Leishmania lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) and a glycoprotein (gp63). This study was designed to clarify the role of L-LPS in infection and the stage in the process of infection at which it operates. The authors have recently identified a Leishmania major strain (LRC-L119) which lacks the L-LPS molecule and is not infective for hamsters or mice. This parasite was isolated from a gerbil in Kenya and was identified phenotypically as L. major by isoenzyme and fatty acid analysis. In this study they have confirmed at the genotype level that LRC-L119 is L. major by analyzing and comparing the organization of cloned DNA sequences in the genome of different strains of L. major. Here they show that LRC-L119 promastigotes are phagocytosed rapidly by macrophages in vitro, but in contrast to virulent strains of L. major, they are then killed over a period of 18 hr. In addition, they show that transfer of purified L-LPS from a virulent clone of L. major (V121) into LRC-L119 promastigotes confers on them the ability to survive in macrophages in vitro.
Hartley, Mary-Anne; Ronet, Catherine; Zangger, Haroun; Beverley, Stephen M.; Fasel, Nicolas
The presence of an RNA virus in a South American subgenus of the Leishmania parasite, L. (Viannia), was detected several decades ago but its role in leishmanial virulence and metastasis was only recently described. In Leishmania guyanensis, the nucleic acid of Leishmania RNA virus (LRV1) acts as a potent innate immunogen, eliciting a hyper-inflammatory immune response through toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). The resultant inflammatory cascade has been shown to increase disease severity, parasite persistence, and perhaps even resistance to anti-leishmanial drugs. Curiously, LRVs were found mostly in clinical isolates prone to infectious metastasis in both their human source and experimental animal model, suggesting an association between the viral hyperpathogen and metastatic complications such as mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). MCL presents as chronic secondary lesions in the mucosa of the mouth and nose, debilitatingly inflamed and notoriously refractory to treatment. Immunologically, this outcome has many of the same hallmarks associated with the reaction to LRV: production of type 1 interferons, bias toward a chronic Th1 inflammatory state and an impaired ability of host cells to eliminate parasites through oxidative stress. More intriguing, is that the risk of developing MCL is found almost exclusively in infections of the L. (Viannia) subtype, further indication that leishmanial metastasis is caused, at least in part, by a parasitic component. LRV present in this subgenus may contribute to the destructive inflammation of metastatic disease either by acting in concert with other intrinsic “metastatic factors” or by independently preying on host TLR3 hypersensitivity. Because LRV amplifies parasite virulence, its presence may provide a unique target for diagnostic and clinical intervention of metastatic leishmaniasis. Taking examples from other members of the Totiviridae virus family, this paper reviews the benefits and costs of endosymbiosis, specifically
Zhang, Jun-Rong; Guo, Xian-Guang; Liu, Jin-Long; Zhou, Tian-He; Gong, Xiong; Chen, Da-Li; Chen, Jian-Ping
Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania is still endemic in Northwest China. It has been thought that reptiles could be a reservoir for mammalian leishmaniasis. However, data are still scarce on natural infection of lizards with Leishmania spp. in China. The present study deals with detection, identification and phylogenetic inference of Leishmania parasites at species and intraspecies levels isolated from six desert lizard species from 10 geographical locations in Northwest China using amplification and sequencing of ITS-rDNA. In total, 83 haplotypes were found among 137 ITS1 sequences obtained from up to 64.6% of all captured lizards. Representative sequences of Leishmania available in GenBank were compiled for comparison with the obtained haplotypes. Tree-based species delimitation was achieved by using Bayesian phylogenitc analyses and maximum parsimony approach. Phylogenetic trees congruently supported that the haplotypes were found to belong to three Leishmania species including L. (sauroleishmania) sp., Leishmania tropica and Leishmania donovani complex. A network approach revealed paraphyletic populations of L. (sauroleishmania) sp. and L. tropica at intraspecies level regarding geographical origin and low host specificity. Chinese L. tropica from lizards showed significant heterogeneity as the obtained haplotypes were distributed in different clusters from other countries. Common ancestry was observed between some sequences of L. tropica from lizards and other sequence types from clinical samples from other countries. This may lend support to the potential reservoir role of lizards for human leishmaniasis. Our results appear to be the first molecular evidence for natural infection of lizards in Northwest China with reptilian Leishmania and mammalian Leishmania species. Desert lizards may be considered as putative reservoir hosts for Leishmania in China. Further studies on persistence of the Leishmania parasites in lizards and sandflies are recommended for the
Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando
BACKGROUND Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. METHODS The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. FINDINGS A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region. PMID:28327794
Molina, R; Jiménez, M I; Cruz, I; Iriso, A; Martín-Martín, I; Sevillano, O; Melero, S; Bernal, J
Xenodiagnosis of Leishmania infection in hares (Lepus granatensis) from a focus of human leishmaniasis in Fuenlabrada at southwestern Madrid region (Spain) proved that they are infective to Phlebotomus perniciosus. Molecular characterization of isolates obtained from sand flies infected after xenodiagnosis demonstrates that hares were infected by Leishmania infantum. This is the first evidence of the transmission of L. infantum from hares to sand flies. Moreover the results confirm the role that these animals can play as wild reservoirs of leishmaniasis for the recent outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis in Madrid.
Oliveira, Fernanda S; Pirmez, Claude; Pires, Marize Q; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Pacheco, Raquel S
The technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated to hybridization was used to screen 123 samples collected from wild and synanthropic rodents captured in a cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The detection of Leishmania spp in naturally infected rodents is of fundamental importance for incriminating them as possible reservoir hosts of the diseases in Minas Gerais. A total of 62 specimens belonging to wild (Thrichomys apereoides, Oryzomys subflavus, Galea spixii, Bolomys lasiurus and Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos) and synanthropic (R. rattus) rodent species were captured in different ecotopes. Blood and skin samples were submitted for PCR analyses followed by molecular hybridization with specific probes for the three Leishmania-species complexes. Fifteen samples were found positive after PCR-hybridization and identified as follows: nine belonging to the L. mexicana complex, three to the L. braziliensis complex and three to the L. donovani complex. Positive PCR results were found in 11 out of the 61 (18%) blood samples and in four out of the 62 (6.4%) skin fragments screened. R. rattus and T. apereoides were the most abundant species in the area also presenting high prevalence of natural infection. The presence of parasite DNA belonging to L. braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. donovani complexes was confirmed in several individuals of a rodent species, R. rattus. This work is the first report of the detection of L. (L.) chagasi in a naturally infected T. apereoides. The utility of filter paper as a substrate for PCR analyses and the efficacy of the procedure associated to the hybridization is emphasized.
Jesús Corral-Caridad, María; Moreno, Inmaculada; Toraño, Alfredo; Domínguez, Mercedes; Alunda, José María
Anti-leishmanial activity of allicin (=diallyl thiosulphinate) has been tested in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum. Macrophage infections have been carried out in vitro in the murine cell line J774 and ex vivo with peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice with a modified method to isolate metacyclic promastigotes. The compound has shown a significant in vitro effect on the multiplication of promastigotes of L. donovani and L. infantum in a time- and dose-dependent manner. It has been shown for the first time the inhibition of multiplication of intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania by allicin. Inhibitory concentrations of the compound were in the micromolar range (10-30 μM) for both Leishmania species. Antileishmanial effect of allicin apparently was not related to products of degradation of the molecule as assessed by mass spectrometry analysis. Inhibitory activity of allicin against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes increased when the compound was added to the cultures every 24 h. Two administrations of 5 μM allicin inhibited by ca. 50% the proliferation of Leishmania amastigotes. Low toxicity for mammalian cells of this compound suggests the interest of exploring the value of allicin in combined therapy against leishmanial infections.
Pratlong, F; Rioux, J A; Dereure, J; Mahjour, J; Gallego, M; Guilvard, E; Lanotte, G; Perieres, J; Martini, A; Saddiki, A
Ecoepidemiological analysis of a Moroccan focus of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica revealed considerable enzymatic diversity. Seven zymodemes belonging to the complex were identified in 149 strains isolated from humans, dogs, and the vector Phlebotomus sergenti. Three distinct subgroups were identifiable, two of which were in turn, composed of three "small variant" zymodemes. The diversity appears to be related to the age of the focus, which may have allowed colonization by zymodemes of different geographic origins. Diversification into "small variants" is apparently the result of recent mutation, possibly associated with genetic exchange.
Garcia, Gizele D; Santos, Eidy de O; Sousa, Gabriele V; Zingali, Russolina B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L
Infectious diseases such as white plague syndrome (WPS) and black band disease (BBD) have caused massive coral loss worldwide. We performed a metaproteomic study on the Abrolhos coral Mussismilia braziliensis to define the types of proteins expressed in healthy corals compared to WPS- and BBD-affected corals. A total of 6363 MS/MS spectra were identified as 361 different proteins. Healthy corals had a set of proteins that may be considered markers of holobiont homoeostasis, including tubulin, histone, Rab family, ribosomal, peridinin-chlorophyll a-binding protein, F0F1-type ATP synthase, alpha-iG protein, calmodulin and ADP-ribosylation factor. Cnidaria proteins found in healthy M. braziliensis were associated with Cnidaria-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis and included chaperones (hsp70, hsp90 and calreticulin), structural and membrane modelling proteins (actin) and proteins with functions related to intracellular vesicular traffic (Rab7 and ADP-ribosylation factor 1) and signal transduction (14-3-3 protein and calmodulin). WPS resulted in a clear shift in the predominance of proteins, from those related to aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (i.e. Rhizobiales, Sphingomonadales and Actinomycetales) in healthy corals to those produced by facultative/anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria (i.e. Enterobacteriales, Alteromonadales, Clostridiales and Bacteroidetes) in WPS corals. BBD corals developed a diverse community dominated by cyanobacteria and sulphur cycle bacteria. Hsp60, hsp90 and adenosylhomocysteinase proteins were produced mainly by cyanobacteria in BBD corals, which is consistent with elevated oxidative stress in hydrogen sulphide- and cyanotoxin-rich environments. This study demonstrates the usefulness of metaproteomics for gaining better comprehension of coral metabolic status in health and disease, especially in reef systems such as the Abrolhos that are suffering from the increase in global and local threatening events.
Segatto, Marcela; Ribeiro, Lucas Secchim; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Oliveira, Márcia Rosa de; Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Macedo, Andréa Mara; Valadares, Helder Magno Silva; Dietze, Reynaldo; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de; Lemos, Elenice Moreira
Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. The epidemiology of VL is poorly understood. Therefore, a more detailed molecular characterization at an intraspecific level is certainly needed. Herein, three independent molecular methods, multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT), random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats-polymerase chain reaction (SSR-PCR), were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 53 L. infantum isolates from five different endemic areas in Brazil. Population structures were inferred by distance-based and Bayesian-based approaches. Eighteen very similar genotypes were detected by MLMT, most of them differed in only one locus and no correlation was found between MLMT profiles, geographical origin or the estimated population structure. However, complex profiles composed of 182 bands obtained by both RAPD and SSR-PCR assays gave different results. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean trees built from these data revealed a high degree of homogeneity within isolates of L. infantum. Interestingly, despite this genetic homogeneity, most of the isolates clustered according to their geographical origin.
D,’IBR18 flC FiLE (,QP,Y U. CHEMOTHERAPY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF LEISHMANIA AANNUAL REPORT LINDA L. NOLAN, Ph.D. DECEMBE 198598 Supported by U. S. ARMY...NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER Four 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Chemotherapy and Biochemistry...enzymes may be ex- ploited for chemotherapy . MATERIALS AND METHODS [3H]TP (45 Ci mmole -1 ) was purchased from Amersham. Heparin-Sepharose CL- 6B
Zhang, Kai; Beverley, Stephen M.
In many eukaryotes, phospholipids (PLs) and sphingolipids (SLs) are abundant membrane components and reservoirs for important signaling molecules. In Leishmania, the composition, metabolism, and function of PLs and SLs differ significantly from those in mammalian cells. Although only a handful of enzymes have been experimentally characterized, available data suggest many steps of PL/SL metabolism are critical for Leishmania viability and/or virulence, and could be a source for new drug targets. Further studies of genes involved in the synthesis (de novo and salvage) and degradation of PLs and SLs will reveal their diverse effects on Leishmania pathogenesis. PMID:20026359
Martin, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Iveth; Fasel, Nicolas
The purpose of this chapter is to give insights into metacaspase of Leishmania protozoan parasites as arginine-specific cysteine peptidase. The physiological role of metacaspase in Leishmania is still a matter of debate, whereas its peptidase enzymatic activity has been well characterized. Among the different possible expression systems, metacaspase-deficient yeast cells (Δyca1) have been instrumental in studying the activity of Leishmania major metacaspase (LmjMCA). Here, we describe techniques for purification of LmjMCA and its activity measurement, providing a platform for further identification of LmjMCA substrates.
Kegler, K; Habierski, A; Hahn, K; Amarilla, S P; Seehusen, F; Baumgärtner, W
A 2-year-old female boxer dog was presented with a vaginal serosanguineous discharge not associated with oestrus. There was a friable mass occupying the upper caudal part of the vagina. Cytological and histological examination revealed a monomorphic population of neoplastic round cells consistent with canine transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). In addition, Leishmania spp. amastigotes were found within the neoplastic tissue. In order to characterize whether the amastigotes were present inside macrophages and/or neoplastic cells, a co-localization study using cell- and pathogen-specific markers was performed. To detect Leishmania spp. a 5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) parasite-specific sequence was used for in-situ hybridization and Mac387 was used as a macrophage marker for immunohistochemistry. Leishmania spp. rRNA was detected inside Mac387(+) macrophages and within the cytoplasm of some neoplastic cells. DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and sequencing analysis identified the organism as Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). This is the first report describing infection of tumour cells by L. infantum in a genital TVT from an asymptomatic bitch. Transplantation of Leishmania-laden neoplastic cells could represent an alternative route of venereal transmission of leishmaniasis among dogs.
de Almeida, Marcos E; Koru, Ozgur; Steurer, Francis; Herwaldt, Barbara L; da Silva, Alexandre J
Leishmaniasis in humans is caused by Leishmania spp. in the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia Species identification often has clinical relevance. Until recently, our laboratory relied on conventional PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region (ITS2-PCR) followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product to differentiate Leishmania spp. Here we describe a novel real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach based on the SYBR green technology (LSG-qPCR), which uses genus-specific primers that target the ITS1 region and amplify DNA from at least 10 Leishmania spp., followed by analysis of the melting temperature (Tm) of the amplicons on qPCR platforms (the Mx3000P qPCR system [Stratagene-Agilent] and the 7500 real-time PCR system [ABI Life Technologies]). We initially evaluated the assay by testing reference Leishmania isolates and comparing the results with those from the conventional ITS2-PCR approach. Then we compared the results from the real-time and conventional molecular approaches for clinical specimens from 1,051 patients submitted to the reference laboratory of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for Leishmania diagnostic testing. Specimens from 477 patients tested positive for Leishmania spp. with the LSG-qPCR assay, specimens from 465 of these 477 patients also tested positive with the conventional ITS2-PCR approach, and specimens from 10 of these 465 patients had positive results because of retesting prompted by LSG-qPCR positivity. On the basis of the Tm values of the LSG-qPCR amplicons from reference and clinical specimens, we were able to differentiate four groups of Leishmania parasites: the Viannia subgenus in aggregate; the Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani complex in aggregate; the species L (L) tropica; and the species L (L) mexicana, L (L) amazonensis, L (L) major, and L (L) aethiopica in aggregate.
Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a debilitating, often fatal disease caused by Leishmania donovani complex; however, it is a neglected tropical disease. L. donovani complex comprises two closely related species, L. donovani that is mostly anthroponotic and L. infantum that is zoonotic. Differentiation between these two species is critical due to the differences in their epidemiology and pathology. However, they cannot be differentiated morphologically, and their speciation using isoenzyme-based methods poses a difficult task and may be unreliable. Molecular characterization is now the most reliable method to differentiate between them and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The present study aims to characterize Leishmania species isolated from bone marrows of Yemeni pediatric patients using sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene. Out of 41 isolates from Giemsa-stained bone marrow smears, 25 isolates were successfully amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis using neighbor joining method placed all study isolates in one cluster with L. donovani complex (99% bootstrap). The analysis of ITS1 for microsatellite repeat numbers identified L. infantum in 11 isolates and L. donovani in 14 isolates. These data suggest the possibility of both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission of VL-causing Leishmania species in Yemen. Exploring the possible animal reservoir hosts is therefore needed for effective control to be achieved.
Borghi, Sergio M; Fattori, Victor; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Pavanelli, Wander R; Verri, Waldiceu A
The complex life cycle and immunopathological features underpinning the interaction of Leishmania parasites and their mammalian hosts poses frequent poorly explored and inconclusively resolved questions. The altered nociceptive signals over the course of leishmaniasis remain an intriguing issue for nociceptive and parasitology researchers. Experimental investigations have utilized behavioral, morphological, and neuro-immune approaches in the study of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The data generated indicates new venues for the study of the pathological characteristics of nociceptive processing in this parasitic disease. Leishmania-induced pain may be easily observed in mice and rats. However, nociceptive data is more complex in human investigations, including the occurrence of painless lesions in mucocutaneous and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Data from recent decades indicate that humans can also be affected by pain-related symptoms, often distinct from the region of body infection. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such variable nociceptive states in humans during the course of leishmaniasis are an active area of research. The present article reviews nociception in leishmaniasis, including in experimental models of CL and clinical reports.
Atayde, Vanessa Diniz; Aslan, Hamide; Townsend, Shannon; Hassani, Kasra; Kamhawi, Shaden; Olivier, Martin
Despite several studies describing the secretion of exosomes by Leishmania in vitro, observation of their formation and release in vivo has remained a major challenge. Herein, we show that Leishmania constitutively secretes exosomes within the lumen of the sand fly midgut through a mechanism homologous to the mammalian pathway. Through egestion experiments, we demonstrate that Leishmania exosomes are part of the sand fly inoculum and are co-egested with the parasite during the insect's bite, possibly influencing the host infectious process. Indeed, co-inoculation of mice footpads with L. major plus midgut-isolated or in-vitro-isolated L. major exosomes resulted in a significant increase in footpad swelling. Notably, co-injections produced exacerbated lesions through overinduction of inflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-17a. Our data indicate that Leishmania exosomes are an integral part of the parasite's infectious life cycle, and we propose to add these vesicles to the repertoire of virulence factors associated with vector-transmitted infections.
Atayde, Vanessa Diniz; Suau, Hamide Aslan; Townsend, Shannon; Hassani, Kasra; Kamhawi, Shaden; Olivier, Martin
SUMMARY Despite several studies describing the secretion of exosomes by Leishmania in vitro, observation of their formation and release in vivo has remained a major challenge. Herein, we show that Leishmania constitutively secretes exosomes within the lumen of the sand fly midgut through a mechanism homologous to the mammalian pathway. Through egestion experiments, we demonstrate that Leishmania exosomes are part of the sand fly inoculum and are co-egested with the parasite during the insect’s bite possibly influencing the host infectious process. Indeed, co-inoculation of mice footpads with L. major plus midgut-isolated or in vitro-isolated L. major exosomes resulted in a significant increase in footpad swelling. Notably, co-injections produced exacerbated lesions through overinduction of inflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-17a. Our data indicate that Leishmania exosomes are an integral part of the parasite’s infectious life cycle and propose to add these vesicles to the repertoire of virulence factors associated to vector-transmitted infections. PMID:26565909
Belaz, Sorya; Rattier, Thibault; Lafite, Pierre; Moreau, Philippe; Routier, Françoise H; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Daniellou, Richard
The parasitic life cycle of Leishmania includes an extracellular promastigote stage that occurs in the gut of the insect vector. During that period, the sucrose metabolism and more specifically the first glycosidase of this pathway are essential for growth and survival of the parasite. We investigated the expression of the invertase BfrA in the promastigote and amastigote stages of three parasite species representative of the three various clinical forms and of various geographical areas, namely Leishmania major, L. donovani and L. braziliensis. Thereafter, we cloned, overexpressed and biochemically characterized this invertase BfrA from L. major, heterologously expressed in both Escherichia coli and L. tarentolae. For all species, expression levels of BfrA mRNA were correlated to the time of the culture and the parasitic stage (promastigotes > amastigotes). BfrA exhibited no activity when expressed as a glycoprotein in L. tarentolae but proved to be an invertase when not glycosylated, yet owing low sequence homology with other invertases from the same family. Our data suggest that BfrA is an original invertase that is located inside the parasite. It is expressed in both parasitic stages, though to a higher extent in promastigotes. This work provides new insight into the parasite sucrose metabolism.
Vila-Nova, Nadja Soares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Falcão, Maria José Cajazeiras; Alcantara, Terezinha Thaize Negreiros; Ferreira, Pablito Augusto Travassos; Cavalcanti, Eveline Solon Barreira; Vieira, Icaro Gusmão Pinto; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; Wilson, Mary
Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that can manifest itself in visceral and cutaneous form. The aim of this study was to search for new leishmanicidal compounds. Preliminarily, Artemia salina assay was applied to compounds from two plants found in Northeastern Brazil, Platymiscium floribundum and Annona muricata. Then these compounds were tested against three Leishmania species (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania major). A screening assay using luciferase-expressing promastigote form were used to measure the viability of promastigote One coumarin, scoparone, isolated from P. floribundum and two acetogenins, annonacinone and corossolone isolated from A. muricata showed leishmanicidal activity in all species tested. Nevertheless, Leishmania species indicated different susceptibilities in relation to the tested compounds: L. mexicana was more sensitive to scoparone followed by L. major and L. donovani. The three species presented similar inhibition to corossolone and annonacinone. Acetogenin annonacinone (EC(50)=6.72-8.00 μg/mL) indicated high leishmanicidal activity; corossolone (EC(50)=16.14-18.73 μg/mL) and scoparone (EC(50)=9.11-27.51 μg/mL) moderate activity. A. saline larvae were less sensitive to the coumarin scoparone and acetogenin corossolone was the most toxic. In conclusion, the leishmanicidal activity demonstrated by the coumarin and acetogenins indicate these compounds for further studies aiming the development of new leishmanicidal agents.
Paz, Carlos; Samake, Sibiry; Anderson, Jennifer M; Faye, Ousmane; Traore, Pierre; Tall, Koureishi; Cisse, Moumine; Keita, Somita; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Doumbia, Seydou
Leishmania major is the only species of Leishmania known to cause cutaneous leishmanisis (CL) in Mali. We amplified Leishmania DNA stored on archived Giemsa-stained dermal scraping slides obtained from self-referral patients with clinically suspected CL seen in the Center National d'Appui A La Lutte Contre La Maladie (CNAM) in Bamako, Mali, to determine if any other Leishmania species were responsible for CL in Mali and evaluate its geographic distribution. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using a Leishmania species-specific primer pair that can amplify DNA from L. major, L. tropica, L. infantum, and L. donovani parasites, possible causative agents of CL in Mali. L. major was the only species detected in 41 microscopically confirmed cases of CL from five regions of Mali (Kayes, Koulikoro, Ségou, Mopti, and Tombouctou). These results implicate L. major as the predominant, possibly exclusive species responsible for CL in Mali.
Boitz, Jan M.; Strasser, Rona; Hartman, Charles U.; Jardim, Armando; Ullman, Buddy
Adenine aminohydrolase (AAH) is an enzyme that is not present in mammalian cells and is found exclusively in Leishmania among the protozoan parasites that infect humans. AAH plays a paramount role in purine metabolism in this genus by steering 6-aminopurines into 6-oxypurines. Leishmania donovani AAH is 38 and 23% identical to Saccharomyces cerevisiae AAH and human adenosine deaminase enzymes, respectively, catalyzes adenine deamination to hypoxanthine with an apparent Km of 15.4 μm, and does not recognize adenosine as a substrate. Western blot analysis established that AAH is expressed in both life cycle stages of L. donovani, whereas subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence studies confirmed that AAH is localized to the parasite cytosol. Deletion of the AAH locus in intact parasites established that AAH is not an essential gene and that Δaah cells are capable of salvaging the same range of purine nucleobases and nucleosides as wild type L. donovani. The Δaah null mutant was able to infect murine macrophages in vitro and in mice, although the parasite loads in both model systems were modestly reduced compared with wild type infections. The Δaah lesion was also introduced into a conditionally lethal Δhgprt/Δxprt mutant in which viability was dependent on pharmacologic ablation of AAH by 2′-deoxycoformycin. The Δaah/Δhgprt/Δxprt triple knock-out no longer required 2′-deoxycoformycin for growth and was avirulent in mice with no persistence after a 4-week infection. These genetic studies underscore the paramount importance of AAH to purine salvage by L. donovani. PMID:22238346
Das, Amrita; Ali, Nahid
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum/chagasi represents the second most challenging infectious disease worldwide, leading to nearly 500,000 new cases and 60,000 deaths annually. Zoonotic VL caused by L. infantum is a re-emergent canid zoonoses which represents a complex epidemiological cycle in the New world where domestic dogs serve as a reservoir host responsible for potentially fatal human infection and where dog culling is the only measure for reservoir control. Life-long immunity to VL has motivated development of prophylactic vaccines against the disease but very few have progressed beyond the experimental stage. No licensed vaccine is available till date against any form of leishmaniasis. High toxicity and increasing resistance to the current chemotherapeutic regimens have further complicated the situation in VL endemic regions of the world. Advances in vaccinology, including recombinant proteins, novel antigen-delivery systems/adjuvants, heterologous prime-boost regimens and strategies for intracellular antigen presentation, have contributed to recent advances in vaccine development against VL. Attempts to develop an effective vaccine for use in domestic dogs in areas of canine VL should be pursued for preventing human infection. Studies in animal models and human patients have revealed the pathogenic mechanisms of disease progression and features of protective immunity. This review will summarize the accumulated knowledge of pathogenesis, immune response, and prerequisites for protective immunity against human VL. Authors will discuss promising vaccine candidates, their developmental status and future prospects in a quest for rational vaccine development against the disease. In addition, several challenges such as safety issues, renewed and coordinated commitment to basic research, preclinical studies and trial design will be addressed to overcome the problems faced in developing prophylactic strategies for
4 Introduction: Leishmania are parasitic protozoa that cause devastating diseases throughout much of the tropical and subtropical...inhibitors was dem inhibitor of PfHT. . Introduction Parasitic protozoa such as Leishmania species, Trypanosoma rucei, and Plasmodium falciparum, the
Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Dvorak, Vit; Kostalova, Tatiana; Rohousova, Iva; Frynta, Daniel; Aghova, Tatiana; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Lemma, Wessenseged; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Warburg, Alon; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan
Human visceral (VL, also known as Kala-azar) and cutaneous (CL) leishmaniasis are important infectious diseases affecting countries in East Africa that remain endemic in several regions of Ethiopia. The transmission and epidemiology of the disease is complicated due to the complex life cycle of the parasites and the involvement of various Leishmania spp., sand fly vectors, and reservoir animals besides human hosts. Particularly in East Africa, the role of animals as reservoirs for human VL remains unclear. Isolation of Leishmania donovani parasites from naturally infected rodents has been reported in several endemic countries; however, the status of rodents as reservoirs in Ethiopia remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated natural Leishmania infections in rodents. Animals were trapped in 41 localities of endemic and non-endemic areas in eight geographical regions of Ethiopia and DNA was isolated from spleens of 586 rodents belonging to 21 genera and 38 species. Leishmania infection was evaluated by real-time PCR of kinetoplast (k)DNA and confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Subsequently, parasite species identification was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene. Out of fifty (8.2%) rodent specimens positive for Leishmania kDNA-PCR and sequencing, 10 were subsequently identified by sequencing of the ITS1 showing that five belonged to the L. donovani complex and five to L. tropica. Forty nine kDNA-positive rodents were found in the endemic localities of southern and eastern Ethiopia while only one was identified from northwestern Ethiopia. Moreover, all the ten ITS1-positive rodents were captured in areas where human leishmaniasis cases have been reported and potential sand fly vectors occur. Our findings suggest the eco-epidemiological importance of rodents in these foci of leishmaniasis and indicate that rodents are likely to play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia
KEY WORDS (Continue on reveree side if nocoesary and Identlity by block number) Leishmania donovani WR06026 chemotherapy metabolites golden hamster...primary visceral test system for suppressive activity against Leishmania donovani in golden hamsters. Twenty-nine of these compounds were noted to have...3 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 5 Materials and Methods I. Studies Involving Leishmania donovani
Maia, Carla; Depaquit, Jérôme
Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The parasites, which infect various wild and domestic mammals, including humans, are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to the Phlebotomus genus in the Old World and to several genera (including Lutzomyia, Psychodopygus and Nyssomyia) in the New World. In this paper, we consider the genus Sergentomyia as divided into seven subgenera, mainly based on spermathecal morphology: Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Parrotomyia, Rondanomyia, Capensomyia, Vattieromyia and Trouilletomyia. We also include the groups Grassomyia and Demeillonius but exclude the genera Spelaeomyia and Parvidens. The possible role of Sergentomyia in the circulation of mammalian leishmaniases in the Old World has been considered as Leishmania DNA and/or parasites have been identified in several species. However, several criteria must be fulfilled to incriminate an arthropod as a biological vector of leishmaniasis, namely: it must be attracted to and willing to feed on humans and any reservoir host, and be present in the same environment; several unambiguously identified wild female flies not containing blood meals have to be found infected (through isolation and/or typing of parasites) with the same strain of Leishmania as occurs in humans or any reservoir host; the presence of infective forms of Leishmania on naturally infected females and/or on colonized sand flies infected experimentally should be observed; and finally, the vector has to be able to transmit parasites as a result of blood-feeding on a susceptible mammal. PMID:27921993
Coelho, Adriano C.; Trinconi, Cristiana T.; Senra, Luisa; Yokoyama-Yasunaka, Jenicer K.U.; Uliana, Silvia R.B.
Tamoxifen, an antineoplastic agent, is active in vitro and in vivo against the parasitic protozoa Leishmania. As part of our efforts to unravel this drug's mechanisms of action against the parasite and understand how resistance could arise, we tried to select tamoxifen-resistant Leishmania amazonensis. Three different strategies to generate tamoxifen resistant mutants were used: stepwise increase in drug concentration applied to promastigote cultures, chemical mutagenesis followed by drug selection and treatment of infected mice followed by selection of amastigotes. For amastigote selection, we employed a method with direct plating of parasites recovered from lesions into semi-solid media. Tamoxifen resistant parasites were not rescued by any of these methods. Miltefosine was used as a control in selection experiments and both stepwise selection and chemical mutagenesis allowed successful isolation of miltefosine resistant mutants. These findings are consistent with a multi-target mode of action to explain tamoxifen's leishmanicidal properties. Considering that drug resistance is a major concern in anti-parasitic chemotherapy, these findings support the proposition of using tamoxifen as a partner in drug combination schemes for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26150922
Coelho, Adriano C; Trinconi, Cristiana T; Senra, Luisa; Yokoyama-Yasunaka, Jenicer K U; Uliana, Silvia R B
Tamoxifen, an antineoplastic agent, is active in vitro and in vivo against the parasitic protozoa Leishmania. As part of our efforts to unravel this drug's mechanisms of action against the parasite and understand how resistance could arise, we tried to select tamoxifen-resistant Leishmania amazonensis. Three different strategies to generate tamoxifen resistant mutants were used: stepwise increase in drug concentration applied to promastigote cultures, chemical mutagenesis followed by drug selection and treatment of infected mice followed by selection of amastigotes. For amastigote selection, we employed a method with direct plating of parasites recovered from lesions into semi-solid media. Tamoxifen resistant parasites were not rescued by any of these methods. Miltefosine was used as a control in selection experiments and both stepwise selection and chemical mutagenesis allowed successful isolation of miltefosine resistant mutants. These findings are consistent with a multi-target mode of action to explain tamoxifen's leishmanicidal properties. Considering that drug resistance is a major concern in anti-parasitic chemotherapy, these findings support the proposition of using tamoxifen as a partner in drug combination schemes for the treatment of leishmaniasis.
Avila, J L; Rojas, M; Acosta, A
The glycoinositol phospholipid (GIPL) profiles of American Leishmania spp. (L. mexicana and L. braziliensis), Leishmania donovani, and American Trypanosoma spp. (T. cruzi and T. rangeli) were compared. The major GIPLs in these parasites include tetraglycosyl-, pentaglycosyl-, and hexaglycosylphosphatidylinositol. These were partially identified by their comigration by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with purified L. major GIPLs, gas-liquid chromatography of the monosaccharides released after aqueous HF treatment, N-acetylation and methanolysis, sensitivity to exoglycosidases, and antibody absorption on several specific natural haptens. Members of the genus Leishmania have two other highly polar glycolipids, while the T. rangeli glycolipid profile was quite different from those of other kinetoplastids that were studied. On a weight basis, the glycan core of L. major GIPL-1 is the most reactive, followed by GIPL-3 and GIPL-2. Antibodies to the core glycans of GIPL-1, GIPL-2, and GIPL-3 were present at a low titer in the serum of every normal individual studied, while elevated GIPL-2 antibody levels were present in 80 to 100% of T. cruzi-, T. rangeli-, or L. donovani-infected patients, with lower values being found for GIPL-3 (30 to 60%) and GIPL-1 (30 to 50%). Except for GIPL-2 antibodies, which were mainly located on immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM, GIPL-1 and GIPL-3 antibodies were mainly distributed in IgM, with lower reactivity present in IgG. Antigen-antibody binding was very selectively blocked with Gal(alpha 1-3)Man, or Gal(beta 1-4)Man, Gal(alpha 1-3)Gal, and Gal(alpha 1-6)Gal for GIPL-1, GIPL-2, and GIPL-3 antibodies, respectively. Images PMID:1719024
Chaara, Dhekra; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Haouas, Najoua; Talignani, Loïc; Lami, Patrick; Mezhoud, Habib; Harrat, Zoubir; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Babba, Hamouda; Pratlong, Francine
Leishmania (L.) killicki (syn. L. tropica), which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Maghreb, was recently described in this region and identified as a subpopulation of L. tropica. The present genetic analysis was conducted to explore the spatio-temporal distribution of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) and its transmission dynamics. To better understand the evolution of this parasite, its population structure was then compared with that of L. tropica populations from Morocco. In total 198 samples including 85 L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) (from Tunisia, Algeria and Libya) and 113 L. tropica specimens (all from Morocco) were tested. Theses samples were composed of 168 Leishmania strains isolated from human skin lesions, 27 DNA samples from human skin lesion biopsies, two DNA samples from Ctenodactylus gundi bone marrow and one DNA sample from a Phlebotomus sergenti female. The sample was analyzed by using MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) and MultiLocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT) approaches. Analysis of the MLMT data support the hypothesis that L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) belongs to the L. tropica complex, despite its strong genetic differentiation, and that it emerged from this taxon by a founder effect. Moreover, it revealed a strong structuring in L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) between Tunisia and Algeria and within the different Tunisian regions, suggesting low dispersion of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) in space and time. Comparison of the L. tropica (exclusively from Morocco) and L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) population structures revealed distinct genetic organizations, reflecting different epidemiological cycles.
Suárez, Milagros; Valencia, Braulio M.; Jara, Marlene; Alba, Milena; Boggild, Andrea K.; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Arevalo, Jorge; Adaui, Vanessa
Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a skin disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Few studies have assessed the influence of the sample collection site within the ulcer and the sampling method on the sensitivity of parasitological and molecular diagnostic techniques for CL. Sensitivity of the technique can be dependent upon the load and distribution of Leishmania amastigotes in the lesion. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for Leishmania (Viannia) minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) detection and parasite load quantification in biopsy and scraping samples obtained from 3 sites within each ulcer (border, base, and center) as well as in cytology brush specimens taken from the ulcer base and center. A total of 248 lesion samples from 31 patients with laboratory confirmed CL of recent onset (≤3 months) were evaluated. The kDNA-qPCR detected Leishmania DNA in 97.6% (242/248) of the examined samples. Median parasite loads were significantly higher in the ulcer base and center than in the border in biopsies (P<0.0001) and scrapings (P = 0.0002). There was no significant difference in parasite load between the ulcer base and center (P = 0.80, 0.43, and 0.07 for biopsy, scraping, and cytology brush specimens, respectively). The parasite load varied significantly by sampling method: in the ulcer base and center, the descending order for the parasite load levels in samples was: cytology brushes, scrapings, and biopsies (P<0.0001); in the ulcer border, scrapings had higher parasite load than biopsies (P<0.0001). There was no difference in parasite load according to L. braziliensis and L. peruviana infections (P = 0.4). Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest an uneven distribution of Leishmania amastigotes in acute CL ulcers, with higher parasite loads in the ulcer base and center, which has implications for bedside collection of diagnostic specimens. The use of scrapings and cytology brushes is
Saadabadi, Fatemeh; Mohajery, Masoud; Poostchi, Elham; Shamsian, Seyyed Ali Akbar
Background: Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is considered an important health problem in many parts of Iran including Kharve, Khorasan Razavi province. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by various species of Leishmania, each having a different secondary host. Thus, identifying the parasites’ specie is of paramount importance for containment strategy planning. The morphological differentiation of Leishmania species is not possible, rendering the molecular methods as the sole means to this purpose. Therefore, to identify the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kharve, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) was used. Methods: The disease was first confirmed by direct smears. Samples were gathered from 22 patients with established cutaneous leishmaniasis. The samples were immediately cultured in NNN medium, followed by sub-culture in RPMI-1640. Afterwards, DNA was extracted and amplified using RAPD-PCR. Electrophoresis patterns from each isolate were compared with reference strains of Leishmania major (L. major) and Leishmania tropica (L. tropica). Results: The results of this study indicated that the parasite causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kharve is L. tropica. Conclusion: It seems that L. tropica is the only causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kharve, and RAPD-PCR is a suitable tool for Leishmania characterization in epidemiological studies. PMID:26989711
Colmenares, Maria; Kar, Sujata; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; McMahon-Pratt, Diane
One of the features of the genus Leishmania is the diversity of tropism/disease resulting from infection. With notable exceptions, the form (visceral, cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, mucocutaneous) and severity of disease is a function of the infecting Leishmania species together with host genetics and consequent inflammatory and immune responses. It has become evident from genetic and immunological studies using the murine model that the various members of the genus Leishmania differ in aspects of their 'approach' to the host immune system. We are just beginning to appreciate the complexities of these interactions, which have import for the development of a vaccine against leishmaniasis. In this paper, what is currently understood concerning the mechanisms of leishmanial pathogenesis (based upon studies employing the murine model) is briefly summarized.
Schlein, Y; Jacobson, R L
The sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi transmits Leishmania major, the agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in desert and savannah regions of the Old World, where seasonal stress of dehydration and heat reduces the quantity of sugar in plant leaves. Without essential sugar, only a few flies that feed on leaves can survive for long enough to deposit eggs and transmit Leishmania. Accordingly, selection for hunger tolerance may also select for pathogen susceptibility in flies. Here we provide evidence of a link between these advantageous and costly properties by testing the susceptibility of flies selected by sugar deprivation and of flies from irrigated and arid habitats.
Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Dey, Ranadhir; Nylen, Susanne; Duncan, Robert; Sacks, David; Nakhasi, Hira L
No vaccine is currently available for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. This study addresses whether a live attenuated centrin gene-deleted L. donovani (LdCen1(-/-)) parasite can persist and be both safe and protective in animals. LdCen1(-/-) has a defect in amastigote replication both in vitro and ex vivo in human macrophages. Safety was shown by the lack of parasites in spleen and liver in susceptible BALB/c mice, immune compromised SCID mice, and human VL model hamsters 10 wk after infection. Mice immunized with LdCen1(-/-) showed early clearance of virulent parasite challenge not seen in mice immunized with heat killed parasites. Upon virulent challenge, the immunized mice displayed in the CD4(+) T cell population a significant increase of single and multiple cytokine (IFN-gamma, IL-2, and TNF) producing cells and IFN-gamma/IL10 ratio. Immunized mice also showed increased IgG2a immunoglobulins and NO production in macrophages. These features indicated a protective Th1-type immune response. The Th1 response correlated with a significantly reduced parasite burden in the spleen and no parasites in the liver compared with naive mice 10 wk post challenge. Protection was observed, when challenged even after 16 wk post immunization, signifying a sustained immunity. Protection by immunization with attenuated parasites was also seen in hamsters. Immunization with LdCen1(-/-) also cross-protected mice against infection with L. braziliensis that causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Results indicate that LdCen1(-/-) can be a safe and effective vaccine candidate against VL as well as mucocutaneous leishmaniasis causing parasites.
Ito, Kotaro; Takahara, Masakazu; Ito, Makoto; Oshiro, Minoru; Takahashi, Kenzo; Uezato, Hiroshi; Imafuku, Shinichi
Leishmaniasis is a major world health problem, and 12 million people are estimated to be infected in 88 countries. There have been few reports of leishmaniasis in Japan and all were of foreign origin; therefore diagnosis is difficult for Japanese physicians. There are 21 different pathogenic Leishmania species, and identification is obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report an imported case of leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani infection from Sri Lanka. L. (L.) donovani usually causes visceral leishmaniasis, but in this case, the patient manifested cutaneous leishmaniasis. The identification of Leishmania species by PCR and investigation of the patient's background such as nationality and disease endemicity are important for diagnosis and treatment. This is the first report of cutaneous leishmaniasis by L. (L.) donovani in Japan.
Eroglu, Fadime; Koltas, Ismail S; Alabaz, Derya; Uzun, Soner; Karakas, Mehmet
L. infantum was isolated from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) skin lesions in patients having no signs and symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Similarly, L. tropica had previously been isolated from patients with VL in the absence of cutaneous lesions. It was not certain how visceralization occurred. Smears (207) and bone marrow samples (135) were taken from CL and VL-suspected patients, respectively. Microscopic examination, ITS1-PCR, RFLP and DNA sequencing for all samples were analyzed. The microscopic examination of smears was found to be 61.3% (127/207) in CL-suspected cases and bone marrow samples were found to be positive 8.8% (12/135) in VL-suspected cases. L. tropica 48.6% (72/148), L. infantum 35.8% (53/148), L. major 15.6% (23/148) in CL, and L. infantum 56.3% (18/32), L. donovani 31.2% (10/32), L. tropica 12.5% (4/32) in VL were found with PCR-RFLP. In addition, the DNA sequencing revealed a genetic variation in L. infantum (variants 1-3) and L. tropica (variants 1-5). We assume that the increased disease occurrence may have resulted from geographical expansion of disease, changing patterns of international travel, population migrations, non-immune people into endemic regions of infected people into non-endemic regions. In this study, L. infantum (variant 3) only in CL-patients and L. tropica (variant 2) only in VL-patients were identified. We hypothesize that genetic variation might play a role in the causation of CL and VL in southern Turkey and the genetic variants may differ according to the geographical location among Leishmania strains.
Sarkari, Bahador; Bavarsad Ahmadpour, Niloofar; Moshfe, Abdolali; Hajjaran, Homa
We describe a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) due to Leishmania tropica in a 50-year-old Iranian man lived in a VL-endemic area in southwest of Iran. The patient presented with a 3-month history of fever and splenomegaly. Clinical signs and serological findings were suggestive of VL. Spleen biopsy was taken from the patient and intracellular forms of Leishmania amastigotes was seen in Giemsa stained smears. The patient was treated with pentavalent antimonial compound with complete resolution of his systemic signs and symptoms. DNA was extracted from the microscopic slides of the spleen biopsy and the nagt (N-Acetylglucosamine-1-Phosphate Transferase) gene of Leishmania was PCR-amplified. Sequence analysis of the PCR product demonstrated that the case has 99% identity with those of available sequences of L. tropica. Intra-species variation within isolate was 0-0.1%; whereas, inter-species differences of the isolate with those of L. major and L. infantum was significantly higher.
Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission.
Rugna, Gianluca; Carra, Elena; Corpus, Francesco; Calzolari, Mattia; Salvatore, Daniela; Bellini, Romeo; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Franceschini, Erica; Bruno, Antonella; Poglayen, Giovanni; Varani, Stefania; Vitale, Fabrizio; Merialdi, Giuseppe
Human leishmaniasis is an emerging problem in Italy and is on the increase in the Emilia-Romagna region, northeastern part of the country. Nevertheless, studies dealing with the molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. circulating in these areas are limited. In the present work, we explored the genetic polymorphism of Leishmania isolates from 28 cases of canine leishmaniasis and three cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which occurred in 2013-2014 in the Emilia-Romagna region. The characterization was carried out in comparison with nine human isolates of Leishmania from other VL endemic Italian regions and two reference strains. Nucleic acid from 31 Leishmania-positive phlebotomine sandfly pools, sampled in 2012-2013 in the Emilia-Romagna region, were also evaluated. DNA amplification and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 and of a repetitive nuclear region on chromosome 31 were carried out for genotyping. Two size polymorphic targets were also analyzed by PCR, the cpb E/F-gene and the k26-gene. Altogether, the analysis showed the circulation of different Leishmania infantum genotypes in the Emilia-Romagna region: two genotypes found in dogs from public kennels were similar to VL isolates from other Italian regions, whereas a third genotype was detected in VL cases of the Emilia-Romagna region and in all but one of the sandfly pools. The combined molecular tools applied in this study can constitute a helpful support for parasite tracking (e.g., in outbreak investigations) and for a better understanding of the epidemiological evolution of leishmaniasis in northeastern Italy.
system were noted to have suppressive activity against Leishmania donovani (suppressed parasite numbers in the liver by at least 50% at one of the dosages...dose 3 days prior to infection with Leishmania donovani resulted in lower efficacy in suppressing parasite numbers in the liver than when administered 3... donovani A. Primary Screening Data .. .................. 10 B. Clucantime Reference Data. ................. 10 II. Studies Involving Leishmania
Ramírez, Laura; Santos, Diego M; Souza, Ana P; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Barral, Aldina; Alonso, Carlos; Escutia, Marta R; Bonay, Pedro; de Oliveira, Camila I; Soto, Manuel
Four new antigenic proteins located in Leishmania ribosomes have been characterized: S4, S6, L3 and L5. Recombinant versions of the four ribosomal proteins from Leishmania major were recognized by sera from human and canine patients suffering different clinical forms of leishmaniasis. The prophylactic properties of these proteins were first studied in the experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major inoculation into BALB/c mice. The administration of two of them, LmL3 or LmL5 combined with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) was able to protect BALB/c mice against L. major infection. Vaccinated mice showed smaller lesions and parasite burden compared to mice inoculated with vaccine diluent or vaccine adjuvant. Protection was correlated with an antigen-specific increased production of IFN-γ paralleled by a decrease of the antigen-specific IL-10 mediated response in protected mice relative to non-protected controls. Further, it was demonstrated that BALB/c mice vaccinated with recombinant LmL3 or LmL5 plus CpG-ODN were also protected against the development of cutaneous lesions following inoculation of L. braziliensis. Together, data presented here indicate that LmL3 or LmL5 ribosomal proteins combined with Th1 inducing adjuvants, may be relevant components of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by distinct species.
Melo, Ferdinan; Amaral, Marina; Oliveira, Patricia; Lima, Wanderson; Andrade, Marina; Michalick, Marilene; Raso, Pedro; Tafuri, Washington; Tafuri, Wagner
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffuse intralobular fibrosis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. One hundred five infected animals with positive serologic tests for Leishmania were divided into two clinical groups: 69 symptomatic animals and 36 asymptomatic. Special staining with Gomori, Heidenhain, Silver, and Picrosirius Red was applied to characterize fibrilopoesis. The tissue parasite load was measured by immunohistochemistry and associated histomorphometric analyses. Intralobular fibrosis was observed in all dogs, and more collagen deposition was confirmed in the infected animals than in the controls by these histomorphometric studies. There were significant differences among the distinct clinical groups. In fact, symptomatic dogs showed an increased collagen deposition in the liver compared with asymptomatic ones. A peculiar diffuse intralobular fibrosis, where the collagen fibers encircled small groups of hepatocyte(s), was observed in two cases (1.9%).
Paşa, Serdar; Tetik Vardarlı, Aslı; Erol, Nural; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Atasoy, Abidin; Balcıoğlu, İ Cüneyt; Emek Tuna, Gülten; Ermiş, Özge V; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Özbel, Yusuf
Leishmaniosis is a group of diseases caused by different species of Leishmania parasites in mammalian species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in cats using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) and heat-shock protein 70 gene (Hsp70) regions with Leishmania species-specific primers and probes. Blood samples were collected from 147 cats (73 female; 74 male) in the endemic regions for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the western provinces of Turkey and analyzed using two RT-PCR assays. Additionally, Hsp70 RT-PCR products were sequenced. ELISA assays for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) were also carried out for 145 of the 147 samples. Overall, 13/147 (8.84%) cats were positive for Leishmania by RT-PCR (4 L. major and 9 L. tropica). FIV and FeLV antibody and/or antigen was detected in 4 and 5 cats among Leishmania DNA positives, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate and report the presence of L. major and L. tropica infections in a large group of domestic cats in Turkey. The results obtained indicate that species identification of Leishmania is essential for epidemiological understanding and that clinical signs alone are not indicative for leishmaniosis in cats, as it is in dogs. This study suggests that extensive research should be carried out in cat populations in order to fully understand the role of cats in the epidemiology of the disease.
Barroso, Paola A; Nevot, M Cecilia; Hoyos, Carlos L; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Lauthier, Juan J; Ruybal, Paula; Cardozo, Rubén M; Russo, Pablo D; Vassiliades, Carola N; Mora, María C; Estévez, J Octavio; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Korenaga, Masataka; Basombrío, Miguel A; Marco, Jorge D
Leishmaniases comprise zoonotic diseases caused by protozoan flagellates of the Leishmania genus. They are endemic to South America, and the visceral form has been recently reported in Argentina. Dogs can play different roles in the Leishmania transmission cycles, depending mainly on the species of parasite involved. Here we focused on the clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Northeast Argentina and on the molecular typing of its etiological agent. The nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the Leishmania cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was performed on DNA templates purified from lymph nodes, bone marrow or spleen aspirates obtained from 48 dogs previously diagnosed by the observation of Leishmania amastigotes on smears from these aspirates. Their clinical and epidemiological data were also recorded. Systemic abnormalities were observed in 46 subjects (95.8%), most frequently lymphadenopathy, and emaciation (89.6 and 75%). Furthermore, 87% also presented tegumentary abnormalities, such as alopecia (54.2%) or secondary skin lesions (47.9%), among others. Twenty three dogs were positive for cyt b amplification. The sequence analysis showed the presence of two genotypes, LiA1 and LiA2, assigned to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, with 99.9 and 100% homology with the reference strain MHOM/TN/80/IPT1 respectively. LiA1 was identified in 18 cases (78.3%) and LiA2 in five (21.7%). Two cyt b variants of L. (L.) infantum were incriminated as the causative agents of CanL cases from three cities: Posadas, Garupá, and Ituzaingó. All three cities are located in the northeastern area of the country, where these parasites seem to be spreading in urban areas.
Espiau, Benoît; Vilhena, Virginia; Cuvillier, Armelle; Barral, Aldina; Merlin, Gilles
Leishmania are protozoan parasites that show remarkable diversity, as revealed by the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis, which can range from mild skin lesions to severe metastatic cutaneous/mucosal lesions. The exact nature and extent of Leishmania phenotypic diversity in establishing infection is not fully understood. In order to try to understand some aspects of this diversity, we subcutaneously infected BALB/c mice with first and second generation subclones of a L. amazonensis strain isolated from a patient (BA125) and examined in vivo lesion growth rate and antimony susceptibility. In vivo fast-, medium- and slow-growing subclones were obtained; moreover, fast-growing subclones could generate slow-growing subclones and inversely, revealing the continuous generation of diversity after passage into mice. No antimony-resistant subclone appeared, probably a rare occurrence. By tagging subclone cells with a L. amazonensis genomic cosmid library, we found that only a very small number of founding cells could produce lesions. Leishmania clones transfected with in vivo selected individual cosmids were also diverse in terms of lesion growth rate, revealing the cosmid-independent intrinsic characteristics of each clone. Our results suggest that only a few of the infecting parasites are able to grow and produce lesions; later, within the cell mixture of each lesion, there coexist several parasite populations with different potentialities to grow lesions during the next infection round. This may reflect a sort of programmed heterogeneity of individual parasites, favoring the survival of some individuals in various environmental conditions. PMID:28076468
Mohammad, Bassim I; Al Shammary, Maani N; Abdul Mageed, Roaa H; Yousif, Nasser Ghaly
The present study aims to investigate the effect of some herbal extract such as phenolic compounds on the viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro. Four tested chemical agents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), syringic acid (SA) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA)) were used in this study. The viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes was investigated under five different concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/ml) of each agent after (72 h). CA was the most active agent on the promastigotes viability after 72 h exposure to 30 mg/ml concentration so that the parasiticidal effect reach (53 × 10(4)) promastigote/ml. FA is the second agent in parasiticidal effect that parasiticidal effect reach to (50 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), 4-HBA is the third agent in parasiticidal effect that reach to (48 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), SA is the weakest agent in parasiticidal activity that reach to (44 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml). It can be concluded that (CA, FA, SA and 4-HBA) possess acidal effect on the Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro.
Tsokana, C N; Sokos, C; Giannakopoulos, A; Mamuris, Z; Birtsas, P; Papaspyropoulos, K; Valiakos, G; Spyrou, V; Lefkaditis, M; Chatzopoulos, D C; Kantere, M; Manolakou, K; Touloudi, A; Burriel, A Rodi; Ferroglio, E; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Billinis, C
Although the existence of a sylvatic transmission cycle of Leishmania spp., independent from the domestic cycle, has been proposed, data are scarce on Leishmania infection in wild mammals in Greece. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania infection in the European brown hare in Greece, to infer the phylogenetic position of the Leishmania parasites detected in hares in Greece, and to identify any possible correlation between Leishmania infection in hares with environmental parameters, using the geographical information system (GIS). Spleen samples from 166 hares were tested by internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1)-nested PCR for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece in conjunction with Leishmania sequences from dogs in Greece and 46 Leishmania sequences retrieved from GenBank. The Leishmania DNA prevalence in hares was found to be 23.49 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 17.27-30.69). The phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece belong in the Leishmania donovani complex. The widespread Leishmania infection in hares should be taken into consideration because under specific circumstances, this species can act as a reservoir host. This study suggests that the role of wild animals, including hares, in the epidemiology of Leishmania spp. in Greece deserves further elucidation.
Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; Pavlović, Milorad; Poluga, Jasmina; Stevanović, Goran; Lavadinović, Lidija; Milošević, Branko; Pelemiš, Mijomir; Urošević, Aleksandar; Jovanović, Snežana
Introduction: Retrospective molecular identification of Leishmania parasites in two patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) previously treated in Serbia was carried out. DNA was isolated from unstained bone marrow smears (BMSs) kept for 11 and 8 years. Genus-specific real-time PCR was combined with conventional PCR and sequencing for detection and species identification. Case presentation: In 2003, a 40-year-old Serbian male was admitted to the Clinical Centre of Serbia (CCS) with fever, sweating, fatigue and splenomegaly, which developed over a period of 7 weeks. He had frequently travelled around Europe. VL was confirmed by microscopy of Giemsa-stained BMS. Treatment by pentavalent antimonials was successfully completed. Two years later, the patient developed post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Treatment resulted in symptom resolution. Later on, Leishmania infantum was identified as the causative agent of the VL by sequencing of the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region; mixed Leishmania spp. infection could not be excluded. In 2006, a 33-year-old female from Vojvodina, Serbia, with pre-existing diabetes mellitus and chronic meningoencephalitis and a history of frequent visits to the Montenegrin seacoast, was admitted to the CCS with fever, pancytopenia and moderate hepatosplenomegaly. A stained BMS revealed abundant Leishmania amastigotes. Indirect haemagglutination analysis was positive with a titre of 1 : 2048, and a rapid dipstick rK39 test was also positive. Treatment by liposomal amphotericin B was successful; however, shortly after, the patient developed neural infection and pneumonia and died. The causative agent was identified as L. infantum. Conclusion: Molecular diagnosis of VL and species delineation using DNA from unstained BMSs stored for several years is possible. PMID:28348785
Decuypere, Saskia; Vanaerschot, Manu; Brunker, Kirstyn; Imamura, Hideo; Müller, Sylke; Khanal, Basudha; Rijal, Suman; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Coombs, Graham H.
The evolution of drug-resistance in pathogens is a major global health threat. Elucidating the molecular basis of pathogen drug-resistance has been the focus of many studies but rarely is it known whether a drug-resistance mechanism identified is universal for the studied pathogen; it has seldom been clarified whether drug-resistance mechanisms vary with the pathogen's genotype. Nevertheless this is of critical importance in gaining an understanding of the complexity of this global threat and in underpinning epidemiological surveillance of pathogen drug resistance in the field. This study aimed to assess the molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity that emerges in natural parasite populations under drug treatment pressure. We studied lines of the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L.) donovani with differential susceptibility to antimonial drugs; the lines being derived from clinical isolates belonging to two distinct genetic populations that circulate in the leishmaniasis endemic region of Nepal. Parasite pathways known to be affected by antimonial drugs were characterised on five experimental levels in the lines of the two populations. Characterisation of DNA sequence, gene expression, protein expression and thiol levels revealed a number of molecular features that mark antimonial-resistant parasites in only one of the two populations studied. A final series of in vitro stress phenotyping experiments confirmed this heterogeneity amongst drug-resistant parasites from the two populations. These data provide evidence that the molecular changes associated with antimonial-resistance in natural Leishmania populations depend on the genetic background of the Leishmania population, which has resulted in a divergent set of resistance markers in the Leishmania populations. This heterogeneity of parasite adaptations provides severe challenges for the control of drug resistance in the field and the design of molecular surveillance tools for widespread applicability. PMID:22389733
Zehavi, U.; El-On, J.
Excreted Factor (EF) is a carbohydrate-rich material released by different strains of Leishmania during growth. It has antigenic properties similar to those of the intact parasite and plays a role in the infective process. Isolation and purification of EF is necessary for study of its biological function, its use for diagnostic purposes, its use in immunization experiments, the study of its biosynthesis, and the preparation of inhibitors of particular biosynthetic steps. Purification of EF by affinity chromatography was markedly improved by introducing Ricinus lectin (specific for galactose) column. This enabled us to obtain more reliable amino acid and sugar analysis and will be instrumental in more advanced physical, chemical, and immunological studies. We have developed a radioimmunoassay for leishmaniasis utilizing purified EF. The assay can distinguish between Leishmania strains and once further developed, should prove most valuable for the diagnosis of the disease. EF plays a role in the infective process of Leishmania. We have now shown that surface carbohydrate, related to EF, plays a role in the initial attachment of Leishmania promastigots to macrophages - a stage that is a prelude to their engulfment by the macrophages followed by multiplication in their cells.
Ochsenreither, Sebastian; Kuhls, Katrin; Schaar, Matthias; Presber, Wolfgang; Schönian, Gabriele
The Leishmania donovani complex, which consists of L. donovani, L. infantum-L. chagasi, and L. archibaldi, is responsible for visceral manifestations of leishmaniasis. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis is the standard method for the characterization and identification of strains of Leishmania. For L. infantum, the predominance of zymodeme MON-1 significantly reduces the discriminative power of this approach. In the present study, we developed 17 independent polymorphic microsatellite markers for the typing of strains of L. infantum, with the main emphasis on zymodeme MON-1. The discriminative powers of 11 markers selected from among these markers were tested by using a panel of 63 isolates of the L. donovani complex. Unique multilocus genotypes were observed for the strains analyzed, with only three exceptions. Model-based and distance-based analyses of the data set showed comparable results. It was possible to discriminate between L. donovani sensu stricto, a non-MON-1 group of L. infantum isolates, and a MON-1 group of L. infantum isolates. Within MON-1, three clusters with geographical correlations became apparent. The frequency of heterozygosity in the alleles analyzed varied extremely between the different groups of isolates. The main clusters described are not consistent with species definitions based on isoenzyme analysis but confirm the results of former PCR-based investigations. PMID:16455904
de Souza, Marcos Michel; Manzine, Livia Regina; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius G.; Bettini, Jefferson; Portugal, Rodrigo Vilares; Cruz, Angela Kaysel; Arruda, Eurico; Thiemann, Otavio Henrique
Leishmania RNA Virus (LRV, Totiviridae) infect Leishmania cells and subvert mice immune response, probably promoting parasite persistence, suggesting significant roles for LRV in host-parasite interaction. Here we describe a new LRV1-4 purification protocol, enabling capsid visualization by negatively stained electron microscopy representing a significant contribution to future LRV investigations. PMID:25242960
de Souza, Marcos Michel; Manzine, Livia Regina; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius G; Bettini, Jefferson; Portugal, Rodrigo Vilares; Cruz, Angela Kaysel; Arruda, Eurico; Thiemann, Otavio Henrique
Leishmania RNA Virus (LRV, Totiviridae) infect Leishmania cells and subvert mice immune response, probably promoting parasite persistence, suggesting significant roles for LRV in host-parasite interaction. Here we describe a new LRV1-4 purification protocol, enabling capsid visualization by negatively stained electron microscopy representing a significant contribution to future LRV investigations.
Colmenares, María; Corbí, Angel L; Turco, Salvatore J; Rivas, Luis
Infection of dendritic cells by the human protozoal parasite Leishmania is part of its survival strategy. The dendritic cell receptors for Leishmania have not been established and might differ in their interactions among Leishmania species and infective stages. We present evidence that the surface C-type lectin DC-SIGN (CD 209) is a receptor for promastigote and amastigote infective stages from both visceral (Leishmania infantum) and New World cutaneous (Leishmania pifanoi) Leishmania species, but not for Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes, an Old World species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis. Leishmania binding to DC-SIGN was found to be independent of lipophosphoglycan, the major glycoconjugate of the promastigote plasma membrane. Our findings emphasize the relevance of DC-SIGN in Leishmania-dendritic cell interactions, an essential link between innate and Leishmania-specific adaptive immune responses, and suggest that DC-SIGN might be a therapeutic target for both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis
Rezvan, Hossein; Moafi, Mohammad
Leishmaniasis is one of the major health problems and categorized as a class I disease (emerging and uncontrolled) by World Health Organization (WHO), causing highly significant morbidity and mortality. Indeed, more than 350 million individuals are at risk of Leishmania infection, and about 1.6 million new cases occur causing more than 50 thousands death annually. Because of the severe toxicity and drug resistance, present chemotherapy regimen against diverse forms of Leishmania infections is not totally worthwhile. However, sound immunity due to natural infection, implies that vigor cellular immunity against Leishmania parasites, via their live, attenuated or killed forms, can be developed in dogs and humans. Moreover, genetically conserved antigens (in most of Leishmania species), and components of sand fly saliva confer potential immunogenic molecules for Leishmania vaccination. Vaccines successes in animal studies and some clinical trials clearly justify more researches and investments illuminating opportunities in suitable vaccine designation.
Rezvan, Hossein; Moafi, Mohammad
Leishmaniasis is one of the major health problems and categorized as a class I disease (emerging and uncontrolled) by World Health Organization (WHO), causing highly significant morbidity and mortality. Indeed, more than 350 million individuals are at risk of Leishmania infection, and about 1.6 million new cases occur causing more than 50 thousands death annually. Because of the severe toxicity and drug resistance, present chemotherapy regimen against diverse forms of Leishmania infections is not totally worthwhile. However, sound immunity due to natural infection, implies that vigor cellular immunity against Leishmania parasites, via their live, attenuated or killed forms, can be developed in dogs and humans. Moreover, genetically conserved antigens (in most of Leishmania species), and components of sand fly saliva confer potential immunogenic molecules for Leishmania vaccination. Vaccines successes in animal studies and some clinical trials clearly justify more researches and investments illuminating opportunities in suitable vaccine designation. PMID:25992245
Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika Ivett; Villanueva-Lizama, Liliana Estefanía; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole Raymonde; Canto-Lara, Silvia Beatriz; Batún-Cutz, José Luis; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José
Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) is a primary reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Nitric oxide (NO) generally plays a crucial role in the containment and elimination of Leishmania. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of NO produced by P. yucatanicus infected with L. (L.) mexicana. Subclinical and clinical infections were established in P. yucatanicus through inoculation with 1 x 102 and 2.5 x 106 promastigotes, respectively. Peritoneal macrophages were cultured alone or co-cultured with lymphocytes with or without soluble Leishmania antigen. The level of NO production was determined using the Griess reaction. The amount of NO produced was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.0001) in co-cultured macrophages and lymphocytes than in macrophages cultured alone. No differences in NO production were found between P. yucatanicus with subclinical L. (L.) mexicana infections and animals with clinical infections. These results support the hypothesis that the immunological mechanisms of NO production in P. yucatanicus are similar to those described in mouse models of leishmaniasis and, despite NO production, P. yucatanicus is unable to clear the parasite infection. PMID:23579796
Real, Fernando; Mortara, Renato A; Rabinovitch, Michel
Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania alternate between flagellated, elongated extracellular promastigotes found in insect vectors, and round-shaped amastigotes enclosed in phagolysosome-like Parasitophorous Vacuoles (PVs) of infected mammalian host cells. Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes occupy large PVs which may contain many parasites; in contrast, single amastigotes of Leishmania major lodge in small, tight PVs, which undergo fission as parasites divide. To determine if PVs of these Leishmania species can fuse with each other, mouse macrophages in culture were infected with non-fluorescent L. amazonensis amastigotes and, 48 h later, superinfected with fluorescent L. major amastigotes or promastigotes. Fusion was investigated by time-lapse image acquisition of living cells and inferred from the colocalization of parasites of the two species in the same PVs. Survival, multiplication and differentiation of parasites that did or did not share the same vacuoles were also investigated. Fusion of PVs containing L. amazonensis and L. major amastigotes was not found. However, PVs containing L. major promastigotes did fuse with pre-established L. amazonensis PVs. In these chimeric vacuoles, L. major promastigotes remained motile and multiplied, but did not differentiate into amastigotes. In contrast, in doubly infected cells, within their own, unfused PVs metacyclic-enriched L. major promastigotes, but not log phase promastigotes--which were destroyed--differentiated into proliferating amastigotes. The results indicate that PVs, presumably customized by L. major amastigotes or promastigotes, differ in their ability to fuse with L. amazonensis PVs. Additionally, a species-specific PV was required for L. major destruction or differentiation--a requirement for which mechanisms remain unknown. The observations reported in this paper should be useful in further studies of the interactions between PVs to different species of Leishmania parasites, and of the mechanisms
Real, Fernando; Mortara, Renato A.; Rabinovitch, Michel
Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania alternate between flagellated, elongated extracellular promastigotes found in insect vectors, and round-shaped amastigotes enclosed in phagolysosome-like Parasitophorous Vacuoles (PVs) of infected mammalian host cells. Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes occupy large PVs which may contain many parasites; in contrast, single amastigotes of Leishmania major lodge in small, tight PVs, which undergo fission as parasites divide. To determine if PVs of these Leishmania species can fuse with each other, mouse macrophages in culture were infected with non-fluorescent L. amazonensis amastigotes and, 48 h later, superinfected with fluorescent L. major amastigotes or promastigotes. Fusion was investigated by time-lapse image acquisition of living cells and inferred from the colocalization of parasites of the two species in the same PVs. Survival, multiplication and differentiation of parasites that did or did not share the same vacuoles were also investigated. Fusion of PVs containing L. amazonensis and L. major amastigotes was not found. However, PVs containing L. major promastigotes did fuse with pre-established L. amazonensis PVs. In these chimeric vacuoles, L. major promastigotes remained motile and multiplied, but did not differentiate into amastigotes. In contrast, in doubly infected cells, within their own, unfused PVs metacyclic-enriched L. major promastigotes, but not log phase promastigotes - which were destroyed - differentiated into proliferating amastigotes. The results indicate that PVs, presumably customized by L. major amastigotes or promastigotes, differ in their ability to fuse with L. amazonensis PVs. Additionally, a species-specific PV was required for L. major destruction or differentiation – a requirement for which mechanisms remain unknown. The observations reported in this paper should be useful in further studies of the interactions between PVs to different species of Leishmania parasites, and of the
Ceccarelli, Marcello; Galluzzi, Luca; Migliazzo, Antonella; Magnani, Mauro
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease with a broad clinical spectrum which includes asymptomatic infection. A thorough diagnosis, able to distinguish and quantify Leishmania parasites in a clinical sample, constitutes a key step in choosing an appropriate therapy, making an accurate prognosis and performing epidemiological studies. Several molecular techniques have been shown to be effective in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. In particular, a number of PCR methods have been developed on various target DNA sequences including kinetoplast minicircle constant regions. The first aim of this study was to develop a SYBR green-based qPCR assay for Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum detection and quantification, using kinetoplast minicircle constant region as target. To this end, two assays were compared: the first used previously published primer pairs (qPCR1), whereas the second used a nested primer pairs generating a shorter PCR product (qPCR2). The second aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to discriminate among subgenera Leishmania (Leishmania) and Leishmania (Viannia) using the qPCR2 assay followed by melting or High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis. Both assays used in this study showed good sensitivity and specificity, and a good correlation with standard IFAT methods in 62 canine clinical samples. However, the qPCR2 assay allowed to discriminate between Leishmania (Leishmania) and Leishmania (Viannia) subgenera through melting or HRM analysis. In addition to developing assays, we investigated the number and genetic variability of kinetoplast minicircles in the Leishmania (L.) infantum WHO international reference strain (MHOM/TN/80/IPT1), highlighting the presence of minicircle subclasses and sequence heterogeneity. Specifically, the kinetoplast minicircle number per cell was estimated to be 26,566±1,192, while the subclass of minicircles amplifiable by qPCR2 was estimated to be 1,263±115. This heterogeneity, also observed in canine clinical samples
Harrabi, Myriam; Bettaieb, Jihène; Ghawar, Wissem; Toumi, Amine; Zaâtour, Amor; Yazidi, Rihab; Chaâbane, Sana; Chalghaf, Bilel; Hide, Mallorie; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Ben Salah, Afif
In Tunisia, cases of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major are increasing and spreading from the south-west to new areas in the center. To improve the current knowledge on L. major evolution and population dynamics, we performed multi-locus microsatellite typing of human isolates from Tunisian governorates where the disease is endemic (Gafsa, Kairouan and Sidi Bouzid governorates) and collected during two periods: 1991–1992 and 2008–2012. Analysis (F-statistics and Bayesian model-based approach) of the genotyping results of isolates collected in Sidi Bouzid in 1991–1992 and 2008–2012 shows that, over two decades, in the same area, Leishmania parasites evolved by generating genetically differentiated populations. The genetic patterns of 2008–2012 isolates from the three governorates indicate that L. major populations did not spread gradually from the south to the center of Tunisia, according to a geographical gradient, suggesting that human activities might be the source of the disease expansion. The genotype analysis also suggests previous (Bayesian model-based approach) and current (F-statistics) flows of genotypes between governorates and districts. Human activities as well as reservoir dynamics and the effects of environmental changes could explain how the disease progresses. This study provides new insights into the evolution and spread of L. major in Tunisia that might improve our understanding of the parasite flow between geographically and temporally distinct populations. PMID:26302440
DaMata, Jarina Pena; Mendes, Bárbara Pinheiro; Maciel-Lima, Kátia; Menezes, Cristiane Alves Silva; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Horta, Maria Fátima
Leishmania is an intracellular parasite in vertebrate hosts, including man. During infection, amastigotes replicate inside macrophages and are transmitted to healthy cells, leading to amplification of the infection. Although transfer of amastigotes from infected to healthy cells is a crucial step that may shape the outcome of the infection, it is not fully understood. Here we compare L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis infection in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and investigate the fate of macrophages when infected with these species of Leishmania in vitro. As previously shown, infection of mice results in distinct outcomes: L. amazonensis causes a chronic infection in both strains of mice (although milder in C57BL/6), whereas L. guyanensis does not cause them disease. In vitro, infection is persistent in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages whereas L. guyanensis growth is controlled by host cells from both strains of mice. We demonstrate that, in vitro, L. amazonensis induces apoptosis of both C57BL/6 and BALB/c macrophages, characterized by PS exposure, DNA cleavage into nucleosomal size fragments, and consequent hypodiploidy. None of these signs were seen in macrophages infected with L. guyanensis, which seem to die through necrosis, as indicated by increased PI-, but not Annexin V-, positive cells. L. amazonensis-induced macrophage apoptosis was associated to activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 in both strains of mice. Considering these two species of Leishmania and strains of mice, macrophage apoptosis, induced at the initial moments of infection, correlates with chronic infection, regardless of its severity. We present evidence suggestive that macrophages phagocytize L. amazonensis-infected cells, which has not been verified so far. The ingestion of apoptotic infected macrophages by healthy macrophages could be a way of amastigote spreading, leading to the establishment of infection. PMID:26513474
DaMata, Jarina Pena; Mendes, Bárbara Pinheiro; Maciel-Lima, Kátia; Menezes, Cristiane Alves Silva; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Horta, Maria Fátima
Leishmania is an intracellular parasite in vertebrate hosts, including man. During infection, amastigotes replicate inside macrophages and are transmitted to healthy cells, leading to amplification of the infection. Although transfer of amastigotes from infected to healthy cells is a crucial step that may shape the outcome of the infection, it is not fully understood. Here we compare L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis infection in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and investigate the fate of macrophages when infected with these species of Leishmania in vitro. As previously shown, infection of mice results in distinct outcomes: L. amazonensis causes a chronic infection in both strains of mice (although milder in C57BL/6), whereas L. guyanensis does not cause them disease. In vitro, infection is persistent in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages whereas L. guyanensis growth is controlled by host cells from both strains of mice. We demonstrate that, in vitro, L. amazonensis induces apoptosis of both C57BL/6 and BALB/c macrophages, characterized by PS exposure, DNA cleavage into nucleosomal size fragments, and consequent hypodiploidy. None of these signs were seen in macrophages infected with L. guyanensis, which seem to die through necrosis, as indicated by increased PI-, but not Annexin V-, positive cells. L. amazonensis-induced macrophage apoptosis was associated to activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 in both strains of mice. Considering these two species of Leishmania and strains of mice, macrophage apoptosis, induced at the initial moments of infection, correlates with chronic infection, regardless of its severity. We present evidence suggestive that macrophages phagocytize L. amazonensis-infected cells, which has not been verified so far. The ingestion of apoptotic infected macrophages by healthy macrophages could be a way of amastigote spreading, leading to the establishment of infection.
García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro
Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133
Ouakad, M; Vanaerschot, M; Rijal, S; Sundar, S; Speybroeck, N; Kestens, L; Boel, L; De Doncker, S; Maes, I; Decuypere, S; Dujardin, J-C
Mathematical models predict that the future of epidemics of drug-resistant pathogens depends in part on the competitive fitness of drug-resistant strains. Considering metacyclogenesis (differentiation process essential for infectivity) as a major contributor to the fitness of Leishmania donovani, we tested its relationship with pentavalent antimony (SbV) resistance in clinical lines. Different methods for the assessment of metacyclogenesis were cross-validated: gene expression profiling (META1 and SHERP), morphometry (microscopy and FACS), in vitro infectivity to macrophages and resistance to complement lysis. This was done on a model constituted by 2 pairs of reference strains cloned from a SbV-resistant and -sensitive isolate. We selected the most adequate parameter and extended the analysis of metacyclogenesis diversity to a sample of 20 clinical lines with different in vitro susceptibility to the drug. The capacity of metacyclogenesis, as measured by the complement lysis test, was shown to be significantly higher in SbV-resistant clinical lines of L. donovani than in SbV-sensitive lines. Together with other lines of evidence, it is concluded that L. donovani constitutes a unique example and model of drug-resistant pathogens with traits of increased fitness. These findings raise a fundamental question about the potential risks of selecting more virulent pathogens through massive chemotherapeutic interventions.
Fyfe, Paul K.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Ramos, Tania; Müller, Sylke; Coombs, Graham H.; Hunter, William N.
Cysteine biosynthesis is a potential target for drug development against parasitic Leishmania species; these protozoa are responsible for a range of serious diseases. To improve understanding of this aspect of Leishmania biology, a crystallographic and biochemical study of L. major cysteine synthase has been undertaken, seeking to understand its structure, enzyme activity and modes of inhibition. Active enzyme was purified, assayed and crystallized in an orthorhombic form with a dimer in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data extending to 1.8 Å resolution were measured and the structure was solved by molecular replacement. A fragment of γ-poly-d-glutamic acid, a constituent of the crystallization mixture, was bound in the enzyme active site. Although a d-glutamate tetrapeptide had insignificant inhibitory activity, the enzyme was competitively inhibited (K i = 4 µM) by DYVI, a peptide based on the C-terminus of the partner serine acetyltransferase with which the enzyme forms a complex. The structure surprisingly revealed that the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate had been lost during crystallization. PMID:22750854
Kermani, Elaheh Kordzadeh; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Arjmand, Reza; Saberi, Sedigheh; Eskandarian, Abbas Ali
Background: Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is occasionally highly resistant to pentavalent antimonials, the gold standard in pharmacotherapy of CL. Since there is no effective vaccine, the discovery of natural antileishmanial products as complementary therapeutic agents could be used to improve the current regimens. Objective: In this study in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of osthole, a natural coumarin known to possess antibacterial and parasiticidal activities are evaluated. Materials and Methods: Leishmania major infected J774.A1 macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of osthole. CL lesions of BALB/c mice were treated topically with 0.2% osthole. Results: Osthole exhibited dose-dependent leishmanicidal activity against intracellular amastigotes with IC50 value of 14.95 μg/ml. Treatment of CL lesions in BALB/c mice with osthole significantly declined lesion progression compared to untreated mice (P < 0.05), however did not result in recovery. Conclusion: Osthole demonstrated remarkable leishmanicidal activity in vitro. Higher concentrations of osthole may demonstrate the therapeutic property in vivo. SUMMARY In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of osthole, a pernylated coumarin extracted from Prangos asperula Boiss., are studied against Leishmania major. PMID:27114685
Verissimo-Villela, Erika; Kitahara-Oliveira, Milene Yoko; dos Reis, Ana Beatriz de Bragança; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bello, Alexandre Ribeiro
During its life cycle Leishmania spp. face several stress conditions that can cause DNA damages. Base Excision Repair plays an important role in DNA maintenance and it is one of the most conserved mechanisms in all living organisms. DNA repair in trypanosomatids has been reported only for Old World Leishmania species. Here the AP endonuclease from Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli mutants defective on the DNA repair machinery, that were submitted to different stress conditions, showing ability to survive in comparison to the triple null mutant parental strain BW535. Phylogenetic and multiple sequence analyses also confirmed that LAMAP belongs to the AP endonuclease class of proteins. PMID:27223868
Shehata, Magdi G; Samy, Abdallah M; Doha, Said A; Fahmy, Adel R; Kaldas, Rania M; Furman, Barry D; Villinski, Jeffrey T
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is prevalent in the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula and previous research has consistently documented the etiologic agent to be Leishmania major. We report the first isolation of Leishmania tropica from human cases of CL in a Northern Sinai community bordering Palestine. Parasite culturing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gene sequencing, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses indicate CL cases in this community were caused by either L. major or L. tropica (three cases each). Two wild-caught rodents (Gerbillus pyramidum floweri) were infected with L. tropica. Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies were found harboring L. major, however only non-infected individuals of Phlebotomus sergenti, a vector for L. tropica, were caught. Patients with L. tropica had not traveled from the region in over a year, suggesting these cases are autochthonous. This scenario is consistent with an incursion of L. tropica from bordering countries and raises concerns about expansion of this parasite further into Egypt.
Brasil, Paula Ferreira; de Freitas, Júlia Araújo; Barreto, Anna Léa Silva; Adade, Camila Marques; Reis de Sá, Leandro Figueira; Constantino-Teles, Pamella; Toledo, Fabiano Travanca; de Sousa, Bruno A; Gonçalves, Augusto Cesar; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Comasseto, João V; Dos Santos, Alcindo A; Tessis, Ana Claudia; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Soares, Rosangela Maria A; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio
Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi is one of the agents that cause visceral leishmaniasis. This disease occurs more frequently in third world countries, such as Brazil. The treatment is arduous, and is dependent on just a few drugs like the antimonial derivatives and amphotericin B. Moreover, these drugs are not only expensive, but they can also cause severe side effects and require long-term treatment. Therefore, it is very important to find new compounds that are effective against leishmaniasis. In the present work we evaluated a new group of synthetic amides against the promastigote and amastigote forms of L. infantum chagasi. The results showed that one of these amides in particular, presented very effective activity against the promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum chagasi at low concentrations and it also presented low toxicity for mammal cells, which makes this synthetic amide a promising drug for combating leishmaniasis.
da Silva, Sydnei Magno; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Ribeiro, Raul Rio; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz; Melo, Maria Norma; Michalick, Marilene Suzan Marques
Dogs are the most important reservoir of Leishmania (L.) infantum, the causal agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. Vectorial infection is the main route of transmission of the parasites. This paper reports the first case of vertical transmission of L. infantum in Brazil, confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry techniques in samples from spleen and liver of two stillborn pups from a bitch naturally infected with L. infantum in Belo Horizonte city, endemic area of VL. This result confirms the existence of transplacental transmission of Leishmania between dogs, and suggests the need for further studies to determine the rate of occurrence of this fact in endemic areas and what is their role in the epidemiology of the disease.
Miura, Ryuichi; Kooriyama, Takanori; Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko
Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV-LACK, rCDV-TSA, and rCDV-LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV-TSA- and rCDV-LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV-LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs.
Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko
Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV–LACK, rCDV–TSA, and rCDV–LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV–LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV–TSA- and rCDV–LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV–LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094
Melo, Ferdinan Almeida; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Ribeiro, Raul Rio; Alves, Cíntia Fontes; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; da Silva Calabrese, Kátia; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz
The aim of this work was to study alterations in the extracellular matrix of liver in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi that are correlated with clinical aspects and with histological, parasitological and immunological findings. The study was carried out on 30 dogs, 10 uninfected (control group) and 20 infected. The infected animals were further divided into two groups: an asymptomatic group of 10 dogs without clinical signs of the disease; and a symptomatic group of 10 dogs with classical clinical signs. All thirty animals were mongrel dogs of undefined age, obtained from the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, metropolitan area. During necropsy, liver fragments were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for histological examination. Paraffined sections of the tissues were stained with haematoxylin–eosin, Gomori’s ammoniacal silver stain for reticular fibres and strepto-avidin peroxidase for immunohistochemical detection of Leishmania amastigotes. Frozen tissue sections were stained by immunofluorescence for fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN). Liver collagen deposition was significantly greater in the infected than the control animals and differed significantly between the symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. There was a positive correlation between the parasite load and liver collagen deposition. The increased collagen deposition in infected animal livers may be associated with the parasite burden. Adhesive FN and LN fibres were significantly more highly expressed in the livers of symptomatic than of asymptomatic dogs. Our results demonstrate that canine visceral leishmaniasis causes fibrogenesis in liver, associated with the parasite load and degenerative processes. PMID:19765108
Giunchetti, R C; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O; Carneiro, C M; Corrêa-Oliveira, R; Martins-Filho, O A; Marques, M J; Tafuri, W L; Reis, A B
The skin is the first point of contact with organisms of the genus Leishmania from sand fly vectors, and apparently normal skin of sick dogs harbours amastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. In relation to canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL), the ear skin was examined in 10 uninfected dogs (UDs) and in 31 dogs dogs naturally infected with L. chagasi. The infected animals consisted of 10 symptomless dogs (SLDs), 12 mildly affected dogs (MADs) and nine affected dogs (ADs). A higher parasite burden was demonstrated in ADs than in SLDs by anti-Leishmania immunohistochemistry (P<0.01), and by Leishman Donivan Unit (LDU) indices (P=0.0024) obtained from Giemsa-stained impression smears. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin demonstrated a higher intensity of inflammatory changes in ADs than in SLDs (P<0.05), and in the latter group flow cytometry demonstrated a correlation (P=0.05/r=0.7454) between the percentage of CD14(+) monocytes in peripheral blood and chronic dermal inflammation. Extracellular matrix assessment for reticular fibres by staining of sections with Masson trichrome and Gomori ammoniacal silver demonstrated a decrease in collagen type I and an increase in collagen type III as the clinical signs increased. The data on correlation between cellular phenotypes and histological changes seemed to reflect cellular activation and migration from peripheral blood to the skin, mediated by antigenic stimulation. The results suggested that chronic dermal inflammation and cutaneous parasitism were directly related to the severity of clinical disease.
Marcondes, M; Biondo, A W; Gomes, A A D; Silva, A R S; Vieira, R F C; Camacho, A A; Quinn, John; Chandrashekar, R
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites including L. donovani, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi. As some studies suggest that L. chagasi and L. infantum may be very similar or even the same species, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a commercial rapid ELISA test, originally designed for L. infantum, in the diagnosis of CVL in dogs naturally infected by L. chagasi. A total of 400 serum canine samples, including 283 positive dogs for CVL from an endemic area, 86 clinically healthy dogs from a non-endemic area and 31 dogs seropositive for confounding infectious agents (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis) were used for test validation. An overall sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI=91.41-97.01%) and specificity of 90.6% (95% CI=83.80-95.21%) was found, with a high degree of agreement (k=0.8445) to the indirect ELISA. When confounding infectious diseases were excluded, specificity increased to 100% (95% CI=95.8-100%), with a higher degree of agreement (k=0.8928). In conclusion, the commercial kit designed for L. infantum was a highly sensitive and specific device for detection of L. chagasi infection in dogs, which indicates high immunoreactivity similarities between L. infantum and L. chagasi.
Freitas-Lidani, Kárita Cláudia; de Messias-Reason, Iara J; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Y
The aim of the present study was to detect natural infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis captured in Barcarena, state of Pará, Brazil, through the use of three primer sets. With this approach, it is unnecessary to previously dissect the sandfly specimens. DNA of 280 Lu. longipalpis female specimens were extracted from the whole insects. PCR primers for kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA), the mini-exon gene and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of Leishmania were used, generating fragments of 400 bp, 780 bp and 603 bp, respectively. Infection by the parasite was found with the kDNA primer in 8.6% of the cases, with the mini-exon gene primer in 7.1% of the cases and with the SSU-rRNA gene primer in 5.3% of the cases. These data show the importance of polymerase chain reaction as a tool for investigating the molecular epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis by estimating the risk of disease transmission in endemic areas, with the kDNA primer representing the most reliable marker for the parasite. PMID:25004147
de Andrade, A S; Santoro, M M; de Melo, M N; Mares-Guia, M
A soluble proteinase was purified 90-fold from extracts of promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis using a combination of ion-exchange chromatography in Q-Sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography in Sephacryl HR S-200, and chromatofocusing. The enzyme appeared as a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 101 kDa by silver staining following SDS-PAGE, under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. The proteinase has a pH optimum between 8.0 and 8.5 and an isoelectric point between 5.12 and 5.23, belongs to the serine proteinase class, and is inhibited by Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+. The primary specificity determined using synthetic substrates is for basic amino acids. The kinetic parameters for the Bz-L-Arg-Nam substrate are Km = 26 microM, kcat = 32 min(-1), and Ksi = 1270 microM (the proteinase showed inhibition by excess substrate). The enzyme does not hydrolyze casein, albumin, and gelatin or large peptides like the oxidized insulin B chain, but hydrolyzes small peptides like bradykinin and fragment 4-10 of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, at the carboxyl side of basic residues and aromatic residues preceding basic residues. The enzyme appears, thus, to be restricted in its action, cleaving only small peptide substrates, which characterizes the proteinase as an oligopeptidase. This is the first report of purification of a serine peptidase from Leishmania species and it increases the short list of known oligopeptidases.
Silverman, J Maxwell; Chan, Simon K; Robinson, Dale P; Dwyer, Dennis M; Nandan, Devki; Foster, Leonard J; Reiner, Neil E
Background Leishmania and other intracellular pathogens have evolved strategies that support invasion and persistence within host target cells. In some cases the underlying mechanisms involve the export of virulence factors into the host cell cytosol. Previous work from our laboratory identified one such candidate leishmania effector, namely elongation factor-1α, to be present in conditioned medium of infectious leishmania as well as within macrophage cytosol after infection. To investigate secretion of potential effectors more broadly, we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze the protein content of conditioned medium collected from cultures of stationary-phase promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, an agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Results Analysis of leishmania conditioned medium resulted in the identification of 151 proteins apparently secreted by L. donovani. Ratios reflecting the relative amounts of each leishmania protein secreted, as compared to that remaining cell associated, revealed a hierarchy of protein secretion, with some proteins secreted to a greater extent than others. Comparison with an in silico approach defining proteins potentially exported along the classic eukaryotic secretion pathway suggested that few leishmania proteins are targeted for export using a classic eukaryotic amino-terminal secretion signal peptide. Unexpectedly, a large majority of known eukaryotic exosomal proteins was detected in leishmania conditioned medium, suggesting a vesicle-based secretion system. Conclusion This analysis shows that protein secretion by L. donovani is a heterogeneous process that is unlikely to be determined by a classical amino-terminal secretion signal. As an alternative, L. donovani appears to use multiple nonclassical secretion pathways, including the release of exosome-like microvesicles. PMID:18282296
Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Alkahtani, Saad; Kolli, Bala; Tripathi, Pankaj; Dutta, Sujoy; Al-Kahtane, Abdullah A.; Jiang, Xiong-Jie; Ng, Dennis K. P.
Photodynamic inactivation of Leishmania spp. requires the cellular uptake of photosensitizers, e.g., endocytosis of silicon(IV)-phthalocyanines (PC) axially substituted with bulky ligands. We report here that when substituted with amino-containing ligands, the PCs (PC1 and PC2) were endocytosed and displayed improved potency against Leishmania tropica promastigotes and axenic amastigotes in vitro. The uptake of these PCs by both Leishmania stages followed saturation kinetics, as expected. Sensitive assays were developed for assessing the photodynamic inactivation of Leishmania spp. by rendering them fluorescent in two ways: transfecting promastigotes to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and loading them with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). PC-sensitized Leishmania tropica strains were seen microscopically to lose their motility, structural integrity, and GFP/CFSE fluorescence after exposure to red light (wavelength, ∼650 nm) at a fluence of 1 to 2 J cm−2. Quantitative fluorescence assays based on the loss of GFP/CFSE from live Leishmania tropica showed that PC1 and PC2 dose dependently sensitized both stages for photoinactivation, consistent with the results of a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay. Leishmania tropica strains are >100 times more sensitive than their host cells or macrophages to PC1- and PC2-mediated photoinactivation, judging from the estimated 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of these cells. Axial substitution of the PC with amino groups instead of other ligands appears to increase its leishmanial photolytic activity by up to 40-fold. PC1 and PC2 are thus potentially useful for photodynamic therapy of leishmaniasis and for oxidative photoinactivation of Leishmania spp. for use as vaccines or vaccine carriers. PMID:26824938
Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Todolí, Felicitat; Alberola, Jordi
Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of a widespread serious zoonotic disease that affects both humans and dogs. Prevalence and incidence of the canine infection are important parameters to determine the risk and the ways to control this reemergent zoonosis. Unfortunately, there is not a gold standard test for Leishmania infection. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of commercial tests used to detect antibodies to Leishmania in serum samples from experimental infections. Three ELISA tests (LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test, INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA, and INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET), three immunochromatographic tests (INGEZIM(®) LEISHMACROM, SNAP(®) Leishmania, and WITNESS(®) Leishmania), and one IFAT were evaluated. LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA test achieved the highest sensitivity and accuracy (both 0.98). Specificity was 1 for all tests except for IFAT. All tests but IFAT obtained a positive predictive value of 1, while the maximum negative predictive value was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.93). The best positive likelihood ratio was obtained by INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET (30.26), while the best negative likelihood ratio was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.02). The highest diagnostic odds ratio was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (729.00). The largest area under the ROC curve was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.981). Quantitative ELISA based tests performmed better than qualitative tests ("Rapid Tests"), and the test best suited to detect Leishmania in infected dogs and to provide clinically useful information was LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test. This and other results point also to the need of revising the status of IFAT as a gold standard for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.
Serafim, Tiago Donatelli; Figueiredo, Amanda Braga; Costa, Pedro Augusto Carvalho; Marques-da-Silva, Eduardo Almeida; Gonçalves, Ricardo; de Moura, Sandra Aparecida Lima; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; da Silva, Sydnei Magno; Michalick, Marilene Suzan Marques; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto; de Carvalho, Roberto Paes; Uliana, Silvia Reni Bortolin; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Afonso, Luís Carlos Crocco
Leishmania parasites, the causative agent of leishmaniasis, are transmitted through the bite of an infected sand fly. Leishmania parasites present two basic forms known as promastigote and amastigote which, respectively, parasitizes the vector and the mammalian hosts. Infection of the vertebrate host is dependent on the development, in the vector, of metacyclic promastigotes, however, little is known about the factors that trigger metacyclogenesis in Leishmania parasites. It has been generally stated that “stressful conditions” will lead to development of metacyclic forms, and with the exception of a few studies no detailed analysis of the molecular nature of the stress factor has been performed. Here we show that presence/absence of nucleosides, especially adenosine, controls metacyclogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We found that addition of an adenosine-receptor antagonist to in vitro cultures of Leishmania amazonensis significantly increases metacyclogenesis, an effect that can be reversed by the presence of specific purine nucleosides or nucleobases. Furthermore, our results show that proliferation and metacyclogenesis are independently regulated and that addition of adenosine to culture medium is sufficient to recover proliferative characteristics for purified metacyclic promastigotes. More importantly, we show that metacyclogenesis was inhibited in sand flies infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi that were fed a mixture of sucrose and adenosine. Our results fill a gap in the life cycle of Leishmania parasites by demonstrating how metacyclogenesis, a key point in the propagation of the parasite to the mammalian host, can be controlled by the presence of specific purines. PMID:23050028
Paciello, Orlando; Oliva, Gaetano; Gradoni, Luigi; Manna, Laura; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Wojcik, Slawomir; Trapani, Francesca; Papparella, Serenella
Inflammatory myopathy associated with several infectious diseases occurs in dogs including those caused by Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis. However, muscle disease due to Leishmania infection has been poorly documented. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution and types of cellular infiltrates and expression of MHC class I and II in muscle biopsies obtained from 15 male beagle dogs from a breeder group with an established diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Myopathic features were characterized by necrosis, regeneration, fibrosis and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells and histiocytes. The predominant leukocyte populations were CD3+, CD8+ and CD45RA+ with lesser numbers of CD4+ cells. Many muscle fibers had MHC class I and II positivity on the sarcolemma. There was a direct correlation between the severity of pathological changes, clinical signs, and the numbers of Leishmania amastigotes. Our studies provided evidence that: 1) Leishmania should be considered as a cause of IM in dogs; 2) Leishmania is not present within muscle fibers but in macrophages, and that 3) the muscle damage might be related to immunological alterations associated with Leishmania infection. Leishmania spp. should also be considered as a possible cause in the pathogenesis of human myositis.
Boitz, Jan M; Ullman, Buddy
6-aminopurine metabolism in Leishmania is unique among trypanosomatid pathogens since this genus expresses two distinct routes for adenine salvage: adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and adenine deaminase (AAH). To evaluate the relative contributions of APRT and AAH, adenine salvage was evaluated in Δaprt, Δaah, and Δaprt/Δaah null mutants of L. donovani. The data confirm that AAH plays the dominant role in adenine metabolism in L. donovani, although either enzyme alone is sufficient for salvage. Adenosine salvage was also evaluated in a cohort of null mutants. Adenosine is also primarily converted to hypoxanthine, either intracellularly or extracellularly, but can also be phosphorylated to the nucleotide level by adenosine kinase when the predominant pathways are genetically or pharmacologically blocked. These data provide genetic verification for the relative contributions of 6-aminopurine metabolizing pathways in L. donovani and demonstrate that all of the pathways can function under appropriate conditions of genetic or pharmacologic perturbation.
Gharbi, M; Mhadhbi, M; Rejeb, A; Jaouadi, K; Rouatbi, M; Darghouth, M A
The authors present an overview of canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum. This protozoan is transmitted by sandflies and the disease is frequently characterised by chronic evolution. Cutaneous and visceral clinical signs appear as the infection progresses. Lymph node enlargement, emaciation and skin lesions are the main signs observed in the classical forms of the disease. Control is difficult since infected dogs remain carriers for years and may relapse at any time. The mass screening of infected animals and their treatment or euthanasia represent the best way to reduce the prevalence of this disease in endemic regions. Further research is needed to improve the efficiency of the vaccines available to protect dogs against infection. This disease is zoonotic; in humans, clinical cases are reported mainly in elderly people, the young and those whose immune systems have been compromised.
Da Silva, B J M; Da Silva, R R P; Rodrigues, A P D; Farias, L H S; Do Nascimento, J L M; Silva, E O
Leishmaniasis are a neglected group of emerging diseases that have been found in 98 countries and are caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The therapy for leishmaniasis causes several side effects and leads to drug-resistant strains. Natural products from plants have exhibited activities against Leishmania in various experimental models. Physalis angulata is a widely used plant in popular medicine, and in the literature it has well-documented leishmanicidal activity. However, its mechanism of action is still unknown. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the mechanism driving the leishmanicidal activity of an aqueous extract of P. angulata root (AEPa). AEPa was effective against both promastigotes and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. This effect was mediated by an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not of nitric oxide (NO). The increased production of ROS induces cell death by phenotypes seems by apoptosis cell death in Leishmania, but not autophagy or necrosis. In addition, morphological analysis of macrophages showed that AEPa induced a high number of cytoplasmic projections, increased the volume of cytoplasm and number of vacuoles, caused cytoskeleton alterations and resulted in high spreading ability. AEPa also promoted superoxide anion (O2(-)) production in both uninfected macrophages and those infected with Leishmania. Therefore, these results revealed that AEPa causes cell death by phenotypes seems by apoptosis cell death in L. amazonensis and modulates macrophage activation through morphofunctional alterations and O2(-) generation to induce Leishmania death.
Abánades, Daniel R.; Arruda, Leonardo V.; Arruda, Elaine S.; Pinto, José Roberto A. S.; Palma, Mario S.; Aquino, Dorlene; Caldas, Arlene J.; Soto, Manuel; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel
Background Protection and recovery from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been associated with cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, whereas no protective role has been attributed to humoral responses against specific parasitic antigens. In this report, we compared carefully selected groups of individuals with distinct responses to Leishmania chagasi to explore antigen-recognizing IgG present in resistant individuals. Methodology and Principal Findings VL patients with negative delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were classified into the susceptible group. Individuals who had recovered from VL and converted to a DTH+ response, as well as asymptomatic infected individuals (DTH+), were categorized into the resistant group. Sera from these groups were used to detect antigens from L. chagasi by conventional and 2D Western blot assays. Despite an overall reduction in the reactivity of several proteins after DTH conversion, a specific group of proteins (approximately 110–130 kDa) consistently reacted with sera from DTH converters. Other antigens that specifically reacted with sera from DTH+ individuals were isolated and tandem mass spectrometry followed by database query with the protein search engine MASCO were used to identify antigens. The serological properties of recombinant version of the selected antigens were tested by ELISA. Sera from asymptomatic infected people (DTH+) reacted more strongly with a mixture of selected recombinant antigens than with total soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), with less cross-reactivity against Chagas disease patients' sera. Significance Our results are the first evidence of leishmania proteins that are specifically recognized by sera from individuals who are putatively resistant to VL. In addition, these data highlight the possibility of using specific proteins in serological tests for the identification of asymptomatic infected individuals. PMID:22724032
El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Al-Ali, Khalil H; El-Badry, Ayman A
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by various species of the genus Leishmania. The disease is considered a major health problem in different areas of Saudi Arabia including Al-madinah Al-munawarah province. We aimed to identify Leishmania species isolated from sand fly vectors by molecular analysis. Sand fly sampling was carried out from May 2010 to October 2010 in province of Al-madinah Al-munawarah from four different localities. Female sand flies collected were subjected to DNA extraction followed by molecular analysis using the semi-nested PCR and conventional PCR protocols, respectively, against minicircle kDNA and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1-rDNA). The PCR positive specimens against ITS1-rDNA locus were digested for further confirmation of species identification. A total of 2910 sand flies were collected. Phlebotomus papatasi accounted for 93.8% (1673 males and 1057 females), however, the number of Phlebotomus sergenti was only 180 (109 males and 71 females). Sixty-two out of 250 (23.7%) female P. papatasi tested for Leishmania parasite were positive for Leishmania major using the semi-nested PCR method against kDNA. All of the 62 positive specimens produced a band size 650 bp. A 31% of female P. sergenti were positive against kDNA of Leishmania tropica and produced a 720 bp band. These positive P. sergenti for L. tropica DNA produced ITS1-PCR-RFLP profile showed two bands of ∼200 bp and 57 bp which are specific for L. tropica, confirming the presence of L. tropica in P. sergenti. However, the ITS1-PCR-RFLP profile showed two bands of ∼203 bp and 132 bp which are specific for L. major in P. papatasi. We concluded that, the semi-nested PCR method against kDNA and the ITS1-PCR-RFLP analysis are useful tools for molecular identification of both L. major and L. tropica. A multicenter study is necessary in order to evaluate the extent of the disease and functional analysis of new Leishmania genes.
Vinetz, Joseph M; Soong, Lynn
A 50 year-old man, a United States resident, presented in Texas with a violaceous non-ulcerating lesion, involving the entire lower eyelid. The patient had traveled to a jungle area of Belize several hours drive from the capital city. Leishmania mexicana was isolated. The lesion only partially resolved after an initial course of sodium stibogluconate, requiring retreatment. At two years of follow-up, there was no relapse. The parasite isolated from the patient caused a progressive, non-ulcerating lesion in an experimental mouse footpad infection. This is an unusual case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a traveler. Travelers must be educated about personal protective measures to prevent exotic infections acquired during travel.
Vinetz, Joseph M; Soong, Lynn
A 50 year-old man, a United States resident, presented in Texas with a violaceous non-ulcerating lesion, involving the entire lower eyelid. The patient had traveled to a jungle area of Belize several hours drive from the capital city. Leishmania mexicana was isolated. The lesion only partially resolved after an initial course of sodium stibogluconate, requiring retreatment. At two years of follow-up, there was no relapse. The parasite isolated from the patient caused a progressive, non-ulcerating lesion in an experimental mouse footpad infection. This is an unusual case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a traveler. Travelers must be educated about personal protective measures to prevent exotic infections acquired during travel.
Chowdhury, Sayan; Mukherjee, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Rupkatha; Mukherjee, Budhaditya; Sengupta, Souvik; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Roy, Syamal; Majumder, Hemanta K
Niranthin, a lignan isolated from the aerial parts of the plant Phyllanthus amarus, exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we have shown for the first time that niranthin is a potent anti-leishmanial agent. The compound induces topoisomerase I-mediated DNA–protein adduct formation inside Leishmania cells and triggers apoptosis by activation of cellular nucleases. We also show that niranthin inhibits the relaxation activity of heterodimeric type IB topoisomerase of L. donovani and acts as a non-competitive inhibitor interacting with both subunits of the enzyme. Niranthin interacts with DNA–protein binary complexes and thus stabilizes the ‘cleavable complex’ formation and subsequently inhibits the religation of cleaved strand. The compound inhibits the proliferation of Leishmania amastigotes in infected cultured murine macrophages with limited cytotoxicity to the host cells and is effective against antimony-resistant Leishmania parasites by modulating upregulated P-glycoprotein on host macrophages. Importantly, besides its in vitro efficacy, niranthin treatment leads to a switch from a Th2- to a Th1-type immune response in infected BALB/c mice. The immune response causes production of nitric oxide, which results in almost complete clearance of the liver and splenic parasite burden after intraperitoneal or intramuscular administration of the drug. These findings can be exploited to develop niranthin as a new drug candidate against drug-resistant leishmaniasis. PMID:23027614
Chowdhury, Sayan; Mukherjee, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Rupkatha; Mukherjee, Budhaditya; Sengupta, Souvik; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Roy, Syamal; Majumder, Hemanta K
Niranthin, a lignan isolated from the aerial parts of the plant Phyllanthus amarus, exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we have shown for the first time that niranthin is a potent anti-leishmanial agent. The compound induces topoisomerase I-mediated DNA-protein adduct formation inside Leishmania cells and triggers apoptosis by activation of cellular nucleases. We also show that niranthin inhibits the relaxation activity of heterodimeric type IB topoisomerase of L. donovani and acts as a non-competitive inhibitor interacting with both subunits of the enzyme. Niranthin interacts with DNA-protein binary complexes and thus stabilizes the 'cleavable complex' formation and subsequently inhibits the religation of cleaved strand. The compound inhibits the proliferation of Leishmania amastigotes in infected cultured murine macrophages with limited cytotoxicity to the host cells and is effective against antimony-resistant Leishmania parasites by modulating upregulated P-glycoprotein on host macrophages. Importantly, besides its in vitro efficacy, niranthin treatment leads to a switch from a Th2- to a Th1-type immune response in infected BALB/c mice. The immune response causes production of nitric oxide, which results in almost complete clearance of the liver and splenic parasite burden after intraperitoneal or intramuscular administration of the drug. These findings can be exploited to develop niranthin as a new drug candidate against drug-resistant leishmaniasis.
da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; Mesquita, Eric Takashi Kamakura de Carvalho; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei
Trypanosoma and Leishmania are obligate parasites that cause important diseases in human and domestic animals. Wild mammals are the natural reservoirs of these parasites, which are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of trypanosomatids through serological diagnosis, PCR of whole blood and blood culture (hemoculture), and phylogenetic relationships using small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), cytochrome b, and glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. Samples from 131 wild animals, including rodents, marsupials, and bats, were sampled in six areas in the state of Maranhão, in a transition zone of semiarid climates northeast of the equatorial humid Amazon. Serological analysis for Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi was performed in opossums by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and all animals were serologically negative. Nine positive hemocultures (6.77%) were isolated and cryopreserved and from mammals of the Didelphimorphia and Chiroptera orders and positioned in phylogenies on the basis of sequences from different genes with reference strains of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei and T. cruzi. From primary samples (blood and tissues) only one bat, Pteronotus parnellii, was positive to SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes and grouped with the L. infantum chagasi branch. The studies conducted in Maranhão State provide knowledge of parasite diversity. It is important to determine the presence of trypanosomatids in wild mammals with synanthropic habits.
Morsy, T A; al Dakhil, M A; el Bahrawy, A F
Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major (zoonotic, ZCL) and L. tropica (anthroponotic, ACL) is found in most countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Phlebotomus papatasii is the proven vector of L. major and rodents Rhombomys opimus, Psammomys obesus, Meriones spp. and Gerbillus spp. serve as animal reservoirs. Ph. sergenti is the vector of L. tropica in the majority of endemic foci. On the other hand; in the Eastern African highlands (mainly Ethiopia and Kenya), stable foci of L. aethiopica are maintanined by hyraxes and transmitted by Ph. longipes and Ph. pedifer. In this paper, natural Leishmania sp. infection was demonstrated serologically (IHAT) and parasitologically (smear examination) in two out of four rock hyraxes trapped in the highlands of Najran, southern part of the Kingdom. It is concluded that the identity of the Leishmania parasite(s)in such a focus is essential since it has implication in control and treatment. Also, passive case-detection and isolates from man and sandfly in the vicinity of Najran for typing is a must.
Ono, Masateru; Oda, Satoko; Yasuda, Shin; Mineno, Tomoko; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Miyahara, Kazumoto
Four hexaglycosides of methyl 3S,12S-dihydroxyhexadecanoate (1-4) were provided after treatment of the crude convolvulin fraction from Rhizoma Jalapae Braziliensis (the root of Ipomoea operculata (GOMES) MART., Convolvulaceae) with indium(III) chloride in methanol. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Their sugar moieties were partially acylated with organic acids including (3S,9R)-3,6:6,9-diepoxydecanoic (exogonic) acid, (E)-2-methylbut-2-enoic (tiglic) acid, and isovaleric acid.
Zhang, Wen-Wei; Lypaczewski, Patrick
ABSTRACT CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing has recently been adapted for Leishmania spp. parasites, the causative agents of human leishmaniasis. We have optimized this genome-editing tool by selecting for cells with CRISPR-Cas9 activity through cotargeting the miltefosine transporter gene; mutation of this gene leads to miltefosine resistance. This cotargeting strategy integrated into a triple guide RNA (gRNA) expression vector was used to delete all 11 copies of the A2 multigene family; this was not previously possible with the traditional gene-targeting method. We found that the Leishmania donovani rRNA promoter is more efficient than the U6 promoter in driving gRNA expression, and sequential transfections of the oligonucleotide donor significantly eased the isolation of edited mutants. A gRNA and Cas9 coexpression vector was developed that was functional in all tested Leishmania species, including L. donovani, L. major, and L. mexicana. By simultaneously targeting sites from two different chromosomes, all four types of targeted chromosomal translocations were generated, regardless of the polycistronic transcription direction from the parent chromosomes. It was possible to use this CRISPR system to create a single conserved amino acid substitution (A189G) mutation for both alleles of RAD51, a DNA recombinase involved in homology-directed repair. We found that RAD51 is essential for L. donovani survival based on direct observation of the death of mutants with both RAD51 alleles disrupted, further confirming that this CRISPR system can reveal gene essentiality. Evidence is also provided that microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) plays a major role in double-strand DNA break repair in L. donovani. IMPORTANCE Leishmania parasites cause human leishmaniasis. To accelerate characterization of Leishmania genes for new drug and vaccine development, we optimized and simplified the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing tool for Leishmania. We show that co-CRISPR targeting
Rafizadeh, Sayena; Saraei, Mehrzad; Abaei, Mohammad Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Mohebali, Mehdi; Peymani, Amir; Naserpour-Farivar, Taghi; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yavar
Background: Leishmaniasis is an important public health disease in many developing countries as well in Iran. The main objective of this study was to investigate on leishmania infection of wild caught sand flies in an endemic focus of disease in Esfarayen district, north east of Iran. Methods: Sand flies were collected by sticky papers and mounted in a drop of Puri’s medium for species identification. Polymerase chain reaction techniques of kDNA, ITS1-rDNA, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism were used for identification of DNA of Leishmania parasites within infected sand flies. Results: Among the collected female sand flies, two species of Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus salehi were found naturally infected with Leishmania major. Furthermore, mixed infection of Leishmania turanica and L. major was observed in one specimen of P. papatasi. Sequence analysis revealed two parasite ITS1 haplotypes including three L. major with accession numbers: KJ425408, KJ425407, KM056403 and one L. turanica. (KJ425406). The haplotype of L. major was identical (100%) to several L. major sequences deposited in GenBank, including isolates from Iran, (Gen Bank accession nos.AY573187, KC505421, KJ194178) and Uzbekistan (Accession no.FN677357). Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first detection of L. major within wild caught P. salehi in northeast of Iran. PMID:27308272
Eslami, Gilda; Hajimohammadi, Bahador; Jafari, Abbas Ali; Mirzaei, Farzaneh; Gholamrezai, Mostafa; Anvari, Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali
The most common form of the disease is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) which is a public health and social problem in many countries especially Iran. In endemic areas where other diseases with similar clinical symptoms occur, definitive diagnosis of CL is very important. The detection and identification of Leishmania in infected patients is crucial for achieving a correct treatment and prognosis. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study in terms of geographical distribution and molecular identification of Leishmania tropica isolates in central of Iran. This study was performed between 2010 and 2011, during which 218 CL suspected patients referred to Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd, Iran for confirmation were examined. After microscopic analysis, DNA extraction was performed for identification. The molecular target region was ITS1 gene. Results showed that out of 218 isolates, 102 (46.8%) samples were positive for Leishman body using molecular assay. After PCR-RFLP, analysis identified 50 (49.01%) samples as L. major and 52 (50.98%) as L. tropica. Two samples showed a different pattern that were reported as unknown. Among L. tropica, six different isolates were identified in this endemic area. Finally, this study showed heterozygosity among L. tropica isolates in this endemic area such as some other studies from the world. This heterozygosity among the strains may suggest a sexual recombination or genetic exchange between strains.
Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L
Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages.
Moreira, Vanessa Ribeiro; de Jesus, Luís Cláudio Lima; Soares, Rossy-Eric Pereira; Silva, Luis Douglas Miranda; Pinto, Bruno Araújo Serra; Melo, Maria Norma; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by over 20 species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania Regarding treatment, Glucantime® is the first-choice drug recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of all types of leishmaniasis. However, the mechanisms of action and toxicity of pentavalent antimonials, including genotoxic effetcs, remain unclear. Therefore, the mechanism by which Glucantime® causes DNA damage was investigated in BALB/c mice infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and treated with Glucantime® (20 mg/kg for 20 days). DNA damage was carried out by comet assay using mice leukocytes. Furthermore, comet assays followed by Formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glicosilase and Endonuclease III were performed, which remove oxidized DNA bases. In addition, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also assessed in the animals serum. To investigate mutagenicity, we carried out micronucleus test. Our data demonstrate that Glucantime® as well as Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum infection induce DNA damage in mammalian cell by oxidation of nitrogenous bases. Additionally, the antileishmanial increased the frequency of micronucleated cells, confirming its mutagenic potential. According to our data, either Glucantime® treatment as well as Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum infection promote oxidative stress-derived DNA damage, which promoted overactivation of the SOD-CAT axis, whereas SOD-GPx axis was inhibited as a probable consequence of GSH depletion. Finally, our data still enable us to suggest that Glucantime® regimen, as recommended by World Health Organization, would compromise GPx activity leading to saturation of antioxidant defense systems that use thiol groups and might be harmful to patients under treatment.
Montalvetti, A; Peña-Díaz, J; Hurtado, R; Ruiz-Pérez, L M; González-Pacanowska, D
In eukaryotes the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyses the synthesis of mevalonic acid, a common precursor to all isoprenoid compounds. Here we report the isolation and overexpression of the gene coding for HMG-CoA reductase from Leishmania major. The protein from Leishmania lacks the membrane domain characteristic of eukaryotic cells but exhibits sequence similarity with eukaryotic reductases. Highly purified protein was achieved by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by chromatography on hydroxyapatite. Kinetic parameters were determined for the protozoan reductase, obtaining K(m) values for the overall reaction of 40.3+/-5.8 microM for (R,S)-HMG-CoA and 81.4+/-5.3 microM for NADPH; V(max) was 33.55+/-1.8 units x mg(-1). Gel-filtration experiments suggested an apparent molecular mass of 184 kDa with subunits of 46 kDa. Finally, in order to achieve a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in trypanosomatids, the effect of possible regulators of isoprenoid biosynthesis in cultured promastigote cells was studied. Neither mevalonic acid nor serum sterols appear to modulate enzyme activity whereas incubation with lovastatin results in significant increases in the amount of reductase protein. Western- and Northern-blot analyses indicate that this activation is apparently performed via post-transcriptional control.
Coughlan, Simone; Mulhair, Peter; Sanders, Mandy; Schonian, Gabriele; Cotton, James A.; Downing, Tim
Control of pathogens arising from humans, livestock and wild animals can be enhanced by genome-based investigation. Phylogenetically classifying and optimal construction of these genomes using short sequence reads are key to this process. We examined the mammal-infecting unicellular parasite Leishmania adleri belonging to the lizard-infecting Sauroleishmania subgenus. L. adleri has been associated with cutaneous disease in humans, but can be asymptomatic in wild animals. We sequenced, assembled and investigated the L. adleri genome isolated from an asymptomatic Ethiopian rodent (MARV/ET/75/HO174) and verified it as L. adleri by comparison with other Sauroleishmania species. Chromosome-level scaffolding was achieved by combining reference-guided with de novo assembly followed by extensive improvement steps to produce a final draft genome with contiguity comparable with other references. L. tarentolae and L. major genome annotation was transferred and these gene models were manually verified and improved. This first high-quality draft Leishmania adleri reference genome is also the first Sauroleishmania genome from a non-reptilian host. Comparison of the L. adleri HO174 genome with those of L. tarentolae Parrot-TarII and lizard-infecting L. adleri RLAT/KE/1957/SKINK-7 showed extensive gene amplifications, pervasive aneuploidy, and fission of chromosomes 30 and 36. There was little genetic differentiation between L. adleri extracted from mammals and reptiles, highlighting challenges for leishmaniasis surveillance. PMID:28256610
Lei, Soi Meng; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Dahlin-Laborde, Rebecca R; Mullin, Kathleen; Beetham, Jeffrey K
Leishmania chagasi, a causal agent of visceral leishmaniasis, requires passage through lab animals such as hamsters to maintain its virulence. Hamster infection is typically accomplished via cardiac puncture or intraperitoneal injection, procedures accompanied by risks of increased animal stress and death. The use of the hamster model also necessitates a regular supply of infected animals, because L. chagasi parasites newly isolated from an infected hamster can be grown in culture for only several weeks before loss of function/phenotype occurs. In an effort to decrease animal usage and animal stress, experiments were performed to assess a more gentle inoculation procedure (saphenous vein inoculation) and the use of cryopreserved parasite cells for research experiments. Of 81 hamsters inoculated by the saphenous vein, 80 became infected as determined ante mortem, by display of clinical symptoms of leishmaniasis (onset of symptoms at 105 +/- 22 days post-inoculation), and postmortem by the presence of parasites within the spleen. Splenic parasite load calculated for a subset (n = 34) of infected hamsters was 124 to 26,177 Leishmania donovani infection units. Cryopreserved, and never-stored, cells were equivalent in all properties evaluated, including developmental changes in morphology during culture, culture growth rates, parasite resistance to serum-mediated lysis, and expression of developmentally regulated surface proteins major surface protease and promastigote surface antigen.
Montalvetti, A; Peña-Díaz, J; Hurtado, R; Ruiz-Pérez, L M; González-Pacanowska, D
In eukaryotes the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyses the synthesis of mevalonic acid, a common precursor to all isoprenoid compounds. Here we report the isolation and overexpression of the gene coding for HMG-CoA reductase from Leishmania major. The protein from Leishmania lacks the membrane domain characteristic of eukaryotic cells but exhibits sequence similarity with eukaryotic reductases. Highly purified protein was achieved by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by chromatography on hydroxyapatite. Kinetic parameters were determined for the protozoan reductase, obtaining K(m) values for the overall reaction of 40.3+/-5.8 microM for (R,S)-HMG-CoA and 81.4+/-5.3 microM for NADPH; V(max) was 33.55+/-1.8 units x mg(-1). Gel-filtration experiments suggested an apparent molecular mass of 184 kDa with subunits of 46 kDa. Finally, in order to achieve a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in trypanosomatids, the effect of possible regulators of isoprenoid biosynthesis in cultured promastigote cells was studied. Neither mevalonic acid nor serum sterols appear to modulate enzyme activity whereas incubation with lovastatin results in significant increases in the amount of reductase protein. Western- and Northern-blot analyses indicate that this activation is apparently performed via post-transcriptional control. PMID:10861207
Wu, Ângela C A; Freitas, Michelle A R; Silva, Soraia de O; Nogueira, Paula M; Soares, Rodrigo P; Pesquero, João Bosco; Gomes, Maria A; Pesquero, Jorge L; Melo, Maria N
Leishmania major, the causative agent of zoonotic leishmaniasis, is restricted to Old World countries. Molecular and biochemical techniques have been used to identify some L. major-like isolated in South America including Brazil. Here, two L. major-like strains, one virulent (BH49) and one non-virulent (BH121), were subjected to suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique in order to identify differentially expressed genes. SSH technique identified nine cDNA fragments exhibiting high homology to previously sequenced L. major genes. Five cDNAs (four specific for BH49 and one for BH121) were confirmed by RT-PCR. Among those differentially expressed subtracted genes, some were involved in physiological processes including metabolism, translation and destination of proteins, production of energy, virulence factors and unknown functions. Western-blot analysis confirmed a higher expression level of β-1,3-galactosyl residues in L. major-like lipophosphoglycan (LPG). This molecular analysis opens the possibility for identification of potential virulence factors not only in different strains, but also in others species of Leishmania.
Rai, Keshav; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Vanaerschot, Manu; Imamura, Hideo; Gebru, Gebreyohans; Khanal, Basudha; Rijal, Suman; Boelaert, Marleen; Pal, Chiranjib; Karki, Prahlad; Dujardin, Jean-Claude
Background We designed a straightforward method for discriminating circulating Leishmania populations in the Indian subcontinent (ISC). Research on transmission dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, or Kala-azar) was recently identified as one of the key research priorities for elimination of the disease in the ISC. VL in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal is caused by genetically homogeneous populations of Leishmania donovani parasites, transmitted by female sandflies. Classical methods to study diversity of these protozoa in other regions of the world, such as microsatellite typing, have proven of little use in the area, as they are not able to discriminate most genotypes. Recently, whole genome sequencing (WGS) so far identified 10 different populations termed ISC001-ISC010. Methodology / Principle findings As an alternative to WGS for epidemiological or clinical studies, we designed assays based on PCR amplification followed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing for identification of the non-recombinant genotypes ISC001 up to ISC007. These assays were applied on 106 parasite isolates collected in Nepal between 2011 and 2014. Combined with data from WGS on strains collected in the period 2002–2011, we provide a proof-of-principle for the application of genotyping to study treatment outcome, and differential geographic distribution. Conclusions / Significance Our method can aid in epidemiological follow-up of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent, a necessity in the frame of the Kala-azar elimination initiative in the region. PMID:28249021
Geroldinger, Gerald; Tonner, Matthias; Hettegger, Hubert; Bacher, Markus; Monzote, Lianet; Walter, Martin; Staniek, Katrin; Rosenau, Thomas; Gille, Lars
Endoperoxides (EP) are an emerging class of drugs which have potential in antiparasitic therapy, but also in other fields. For malaria therapy the EP artemisinin (Art) and its derivatives are successfully used. We have shown in the past that the EP ascaridole (Asc) is useful for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a mouse model. Biomimetic experiments suggested that these drugs need activation in the respective target pathogens to exert their function. In spite of this idea, direct activation of EP to radicals inside cells has never been demonstrated. Therefore, this study was initiated to explore the activation of Asc in biomimetic systems and inside Leishmania in comparison to Art. Using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) in combination with spin-trapping we identified the secondary alkyl radical intermediates arising from reduction by Fe(2+) in cell-free systems. Combined GC/NMR analysis confirmed the loss of isopropyl residues from Asc during this process as intermediates. This activation of Asc was stimulated by low molecular Fe(2+) complexes or alternatively by hemin in conjunction with thiol reductants, such as cysteine (Cys). In Leishmania tarentolae promastigotes (LtP) as model for pathogenic forms of Leishmania carbon-centered radicals were identified in the presence of Asc by EPR spin-trapping. Both Asc and Art inhibited the viability in LtP with IC50 values in the low micromolar range while IC50 values for J774 macrophages were considerably higher. A similar structure without EP bridge (1,4-cineole) resulted in no detectable radicals and possessed much less cytotoxicity in LtP and no selectivity for LtP compared to J774 cells. The Asc-derived radical formation in LtP was inhibited by the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO), and stimulated by Cys (a suitable reductant for hemin). The IC50 values for LtP viability in the presence of Asc or Art were increased significantly by the spin trap DMPO, while Cys and DFO increased only IC50
Meddeb-Garnaoui, A; Zrelli, H; Dellagi, K
The nature of early interactions between Leishmania and macrophages which determine the outcome of infection can be related directly to parasite biological properties. Here we compared the capacity of L. major (Lm) strains, reported to be high (LmHV) and low virulent and (LmLV) in the mouse model and L. infantum (Li) strains, dermotropic (LiD) and viscerotropic (LiV), to infect and modulate cytokine production in human peripheral blood derived monocytes. Monocytes were infected with metacyclic promastigotes for 24, 48 and 72 h. Parasite burden was significantly higher in Lm- than in Li-infected monocytes. LmHV and LiD induced a significantly higher parasite burden than LmLV and LiV respectively. Cytokine production was evaluated in monocytes infected for 24 h. Contrary to interleukin (IL)-12p70, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β production was increased significantly in infected monocytes with no differences between strains. Lm isolates induced significantly higher quantities of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α than Li isolates. Low levels of IL-10 were induced by all Leishmania strains and, interestingly, co-stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was accompanied by a dramatic increase in IL-10 production by infected monocytes. In conclusion, Lm isolates displaying different levels of virulence in mice exhibited significant differences in parasite burden but similar abilities to modulate cytokine production in human monocytes. Li strains showed weaker infectivity and TNF-α inducing-capacity compared with Lm strains. The dramatic increase of IL-10 production in infected monocytes co-stimulated by LPS may play a role in disease progression considering the presence of LPS during bacterial superinfections observed during human leishmaniasis. PMID:19040614
Banerjee, Antara; Bhattacharya, Parna; Joshi, Amritanshu B; Ismail, Nevien; Dey, Ranadhir; Nakhasi, Hira L
The clinical outcome of Leishmania pathogenesis ranges from active skin lesions to fatal visceral dissemination and severely impaired T cell immunity. It is well established that a strong Th1 immune response is protective against cutaneous forms of the disease, however a mixed Th1/Th2 response is most commonly observed against visceral infections as evident from previous studies. Aside from Th1/Th2 cytokines, the pro-inflammatory IL-17 cytokine family plays an important role in the clearance of intracellular pathogens. In Leishmania induced skin lesions, IL-17 produced by Th17 cells is shown to exacerbate the disease, suggesting a role in pathogenesis. However, a protective role for IL-17 is indicated by the expansion of IL-17 producing cells in vaccine-induced immunity. In human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) it has been demonstrated that IL-17 and IL-22 are associated with protection against re-exposure to Leishmania, which further suggests the involvement of IL-17 in vaccine induced protective immunity. Although there is no vaccine against any form of leishmaniasis, the development of genetically modified live attenuated parasites as vaccine candidates prove to be promising, as they successfully induce a robust protective immune response in various animal models. However, the role of IL-17 producing cells and Th17 cells in response to these vaccine candidates remains unexplored. In this article, we review the role of IL-17 in Leishmania pathogenesis and the potential impact on vaccine induced immunity, with a special focus on live attenuated Leishmania parasites.
Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Canto Lara, Silvia B; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R; Rebollar-Tellez, Eduardo A; Vargas-Gonzalez, Alberto; Albertos-Alpuche, Nelly E
In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana is a typical wild zoonosis restricted to the forest, and humans are only accidentally involved. The transmission of L. (L.) mexicana has been related to the patient's occupation: "chicleros" (gum collectors) and agricultural workers. The objective of this study was to document L. (L.) mexicana seasonally of transmission in endemic areas of LCL in the state of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The timing of incidence of LCL in humans during 1993-1994, as well as the rate and time of infection in rodents and sand flies between February 1993 and March 1995 were analyzed. Rodents and sand flies were found infected between November and March, when men carried out their field activities and are exposed. Based on results analyzed, it is concluded that L. (L.) mexicana in the endemic area of LCL in the state of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, presents a seasonal transmission restricted to the months of November to March. The knowledge of the timing of the transmission cycle in an endemic area of leishmaniasis is very important because intervention measures on the high-risk focus and population might be restricted.
de Souza Dias, Suzana; da Costa Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique; Katz, Simone; dos Santos, Márcia Regina Machado; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia
A recombinant protein, rLdccys1, which was produced by expression of the gene encoding a 30 kDa cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, was used for detection of antibodies in sera from patients with active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of rLdccys1 showed that it contains all the characteristics of a cysteine proteinase. The ability of the protein to react with sera from humans with VL was also shown by Western blotting. The sensitivity for detection of specific antibodies to L. (L.) chagasi bodies using rLdccys1, L. (L.) chagasi promastigote lysates, and amastigote lysates was 80%, 98%, and 99%, respectively. No cross-reactivity between rLdccys1 and Chagas disease was observed, and there was little positive reactivity with sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and tuberculosis, compared with promastigote and amastigote extracts. Our findings indicate that rLdccys1 from L. (L.) chagasi constitutes a potential tool for the diagnosis of American VL.
Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Azadpour, Mojgan; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh
The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks (Anacardiaceae) alcoholic extract and to compare its efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime), against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. This extract (0–100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. tropica (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in male BALB/c mice with L. major to reproduce the antileishmanial activity topically. In vitro, P. khinjuk extract significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote (IC50 58.6 ± 3.2 µg/mL) and intramacrophage amastigotes (37.3 ± 2.5 µg/mL) of L. tropica as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 30 days of treatment, 75% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 30% extract. After treatment of the subgroups with the concentration of 20 and 30% of P. khinjuk extract, mean diameter of lesions was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. To conclude, the present investigation demonstrated that P. vera extract had in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. major. Obtained findings also provide the scientific evidences that natural plants could be used in the traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of CL. PMID:25815025
Ezatpour, Behrouz; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Azadpour, Mojgan; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh
The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks (Anacardiaceae) alcoholic extract and to compare its efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime), against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. This extract (0-100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. tropica (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in male BALB/c mice with L. major to reproduce the antileishmanial activity topically. In vitro, P. khinjuk extract significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote (IC50 58.6 ± 3.2 µg/mL) and intramacrophage amastigotes (37.3 ± 2.5 µg/mL) of L. tropica as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 30 days of treatment, 75% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 30% extract. After treatment of the subgroups with the concentration of 20 and 30% of P. khinjuk extract, mean diameter of lesions was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. To conclude, the present investigation demonstrated that P. vera extract had in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. major. Obtained findings also provide the scientific evidences that natural plants could be used in the traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of CL.
Mahmoudzadeh-Niknam, Hamid; Kiaei, Simin Sadat; Iravani, Davood
Leishmania (L.) tropica is a causative agent of human cutaneous and viscerotropic leishmaniasis. Immune response to L. tropica in humans and experimental animals are not well understood. We previously established that L. tropica infection induces partial protective immunity against subsequent challenge infection with Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. Aim of the present study was to study immunologic mechanisms of protective immunity induced by L. tropica infection, as a live parasite vaccine, in BALB/c mouse model. Mice were infected by L. tropica, and after establishment of the infection, they were challenged by L. major. Our findings shows that L. tropica infection resulted in protection against L. major challenge in BALB/c mice and this protective immunity is associated with: (1) a DTH response, (2) higher IFN-γ and lower IL-10 response at one week post-challenge, (3) lower percentage of CD4(+) lymphocyte at one month post-challenge, and (4) the source of IFN-γ and IL-10 were mainly CD4(-) lymphocyte up to one month post-challenge suggesting that CD4(-) lymphocytes may be responsible for protection induced by L. tropica infection in the studied intervals.
Martinez, Pedro A; Petersen, Christine A
Leishmania amazonensis is an intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). CL is a neglected tropical disease responsible for infecting millions of people worldwide. L. amazonensis promotes alteration of various signaling pathways that are essential for host cell survival. Specifically, through parasite-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), L. amazonensis inhibits cell-mediated parasite killing and promotes its own survival by co-opting multiple host cell functions. In this review, we highlight Leishmania-host cell signaling alterations focusing on those specific to (1) motor proteins, (2) prevention of NADPH subunit phosphorylation impairing reactive oxygen species production, and (3) localized endosomal signaling to up-regulate ERK phosphorylation. This review will focus upon mechanisms and possible explanations as to how Leishmania spp. evades the various layers of defense employed by the host immune response.
McConville, Malcolm J.; Saunders, Eleanor C.; Kloehn, Joachim; Dagley, Michael J.
A number of medically important microbial pathogens target and proliferate within macrophages and other phagocytic cells in their mammalian hosts. While the majority of these pathogens replicate within the host cell cytosol or non-hydrolytic vacuolar compartments, a few, including protists belonging to the genus Leishmania, proliferate long-term within mature lysosome compartments. How these parasites achieve this feat remains poorly defined. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest that Leishmania virulence is intimately linked to programmed changes in the growth rate and carbon metabolism of the obligate intra-macrophage stages. We propose that activation of a slow growth and a stringent metabolic response confers resistance to multiple stresses (oxidative, temperature, pH), as well as both nutrient limitation and nutrient excess within this niche. These studies highlight the importance of metabolic processes as key virulence determinants in Leishmania. PMID:26594352
de Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Alves, Leucio Camara
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is difficult to diagnosis, mainly due to the presence of asymptomatic animals, the diversity of clinical symptoms and the difficulty in obtaining diagnostic evidence of high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose CVL in urinary sediment of 70 dogs of different breeds, sexes and ages from the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Piauí and Zoonosis Control Center of Teresina, Brazil. The serological tests were TR DPP® for CVL and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for CVL, parasitological exams of bone marrow and lymph nodes and urine sediment cultures. Leishmania was detected in the bone marrow and/or lymph node of 61.0% of the animals (43/70), and urine sediment culture was positive in 9.30% (4/43) of these animals. In the serological exams, 70.0% (49/70) were reactive using the DPP and 78.2% (55/70) were reactive using ELISA. The goal of this study was to diagnose the presence of L. (infantum) chagasi in a culture of urinary sediment.
Stuart, K D; Weeks, R; Guilbride, L; Myler, P J
The complete 5284-nucleotide sequence of the double-stranded RNA genome of Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) was determined and contains three open reading frames (ORFs) on the plus (+) (mRNA) strand. The predicted amino acid sequence of ORF3 has motifs characteristic of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. ORF2, which may encode the major viral coat protein, overlaps ORF3 by 71 nucleotides, suggesting a +1 translational frameshift to produce a gag-pol type of fusion protein. Two alternative models for the frameshift are presented. The 5' splice leader sequence of kinetoplastid mRNAs is not in LRV1 RNA. This suggests that the 450-base region at the 5' end of the LRV1 (+)-strand, which contains ORF1 and is highly conserved among viral strains, does not encode protein but has a role in initiation of translation and/or RNA stability. The similarity of LRV1 genomic organization, replication cycle, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence to those of the yeast virus ScV L-A suggests a common ancestral origin. The possibility that LRV1 affects pathogenesis in leishmaniasis is intriguing. Images PMID:1382295
Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg
Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729
Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg
Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.
Stäger, Simona; Rafati, Sima
Host protection against several intracellular pathogens requires the induction of CD8+ T cell responses. CD8+ T cells are potent effector cells that can produce high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and kill infected target cells efficiently. However, a protective role for CD8+ T cells during Leishmania infections is still controversial and largely depends on the infection model. In this review, we discuss the role of CD8+ T cells during various types of Leishmania infections, following vaccination, and as potential immunotherapeutic targets. PMID:22566891
Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Nolan, Matthew J.; Otranto, Domenico
It has been nearly 10 years since the completion of the first entire genome sequence of a Leishmania parasite. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses have advanced our understanding of the biology of Leishmania, and shed new light on the complex interactions occurring within the parasite–host–vector triangle. Here, we review these advances and examine potential avenues for translation of these discoveries into treatment and control programs. In addition, we argue for a strong need to explore how disease in dogs relates to that in humans, and how an improved understanding in line with the ‘One Health’ concept may open new avenues for the control of these devastating diseases. PMID:25638444
Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Nolan, Matthew J; Otranto, Domenico
It has been nearly 10 years since the completion of the first entire genome sequence of a Leishmania parasite. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses have advanced our understanding of the biology of Leishmania, and shed new light on the complex interactions occurring within the parasite-host-vector triangle. Here, we review these advances and examine potential avenues for translation of these discoveries into treatment and control programs. In addition, we argue for a strong need to explore how disease in dogs relates to that in humans, and how an improved understanding in line with the 'One Health' concept may open new avenues for the control of these devastating diseases.
Samant, Mukesh; Gupta, Reema; Kumari, Shraddha; Misra, Pragya; Khare, Prashant; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Dube, Anuradha
Leishmania produce several types of mucin-like glycoproteins called proteophosphoglycans (PPGs) which exist as secretory as well as surface-bound forms in both promastigotes and amastigotes. The structure and function of PPGs have been reported to be species and stage specific as in the case of Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana; there has been no such information available for Leishmania donovani. We have recently demonstrated that PPG is differentially expressed in sodium stibogluconate-sensitive and -resistant clinical isolates of L. donovani. To further elucidate the structure and function of the ppg gene of L. donovani, a partial sequence of its N-terminal domain of 1.6 kb containing the majority of antigenic determinants, was successfully cloned and expressed in prokaryotic as well as mammalian cells. We further evaluated the DNA-encoding N-terminal domain of the ppg gene as a vaccine in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against the L. donovani challenge. The prophylactic efficacy to the tune of approximately 80% was observed in vaccinated hamsters and all of them could survive beyond 6 mo after challenge. The efficacy was supported by a surge in inducible NO synthase, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-12 mRNA levels along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-beta, IL-4, and IL-10. A rise in the level of Leishmania-specific IgG2 was also observed which was indicative of enhanced cellular immune response. The results suggest the N-terminal domain of L. donovani ppg as a potential DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.
Manjolin, Leticia Correa; dos Reis, Matheus Balduíno Goncalves; Maquiaveli, Claudia do Carmo; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo Andrade; da Silva, Edson Roberto
Fisetin, quercetin, luteolin and 7,8-hydroxyflavone show high activity in Leishmania cultures and present low toxicity to mammalian cells. In this work, the structural aspects of 13 flavonoids were analyzed for their inhibition of the arginase enzyme from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. A higher potency of arginase inhibition was observed with fisetin, which was four and ten times greater than that of quercetin and luteolin, respectively. These data show that the hydroxyl group at position 3 contributed significantly to the inhibitory activity of arginase, while the hydroxyl group at position 5 did not. The absence of the catechol group on apigenin drastically decreased arginase inhibition. Additionally, the docking of compounds showed that the inhibitors interact with amino acids involved in the Mn(+2)-Mn(+2) metal bridge formation at the catalytic site. Due to the low IC50 values of these flavonoids, they may be used as a food supplement in leishmaniasis treatment.
Schnur, Lionel F; Nasereddin, Abdelmageed; Eisenberger, Carol L; Jaffe, Charles L; El Fari, Mustafa; Azmi, Kifaya; Anders, Gerlind; Killick-Kendrick, Mireille; Killick-Kendrick, Robert; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Pratlong, Francine; Kanaan, Moien; Grossman, Tamar; Jacobson, Raymond L; Schonian, Gabrielle; Warburg, Alon
The predominant sand fly species collected inside houses in Kfar Adumim, an Israeli village in the Judean Desert that is a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, was Phlebotomus papatasi, which was also caught attempting to bite humans. Phlebotomus sergenti, which is rarely seen inside houses, constituted the predominant sand fly species in caves near the village. Leishmania isolates from Ph. sergenti and humans typed as Leishmania tropica. Sand fly and human isolates produced similar small nodular cutaneous lesions in hamsters. Isolates produced excreted factor (EF) of subserotypes A(9) or A(9)B(2), characteristic of L. tropica and reacted with L. tropica-specific monoclonal antibodies. Isoenzyme analysis consigned the strains to the L. tropica zymodemes MON-137 and MON-275. Molecular genetic analyses confirmed the strains were L. tropica and intraspecific microheterogeneity was observed. Genomic fingerprinting using a mini-satellite probe separated the L. tropica strains into two clusters that were not entirely congruent with geographic distribution. These results support the heterogeneous nature of L. tropica and incriminate Ph. sergenti as its vector in this Judean Desert focus.
Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix de; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Langoni, Helio; Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão Richini; Abdelnour, Aziz; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva
This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in felines of the city of Andradina, SP, an area considered endemic for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.
Phillips, Megan R; Turco, Salvatore J
The abundant cell-surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of Leishmania parasites plays a central role throughout the eukaryote's life cycle. A number of LPG-defective mutants and their complementing genes have been isolated and have proven invaluable in assessing the importance of LPG and related glycoconjugates in parasite virulence. While ricin agglutination selection protocols frequently result in lpg- mutants, one Leishmania donovani variant we isolated, named JABBA, was found to be lpg+. Procyclic (logarithmic) JABBA expresses significant amounts of a large-sized LPG, larger than observed from procyclic wild type but similar in size to LPG from wild type from metacyclic (stationary) phase. Structural analysis of the LPG from logarithmically grown JABBA by capillary electrophoresis protocols revealed that it averaged 30 repeat units composed of the unsubstituted Gal(β1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 typical of wild-type L. donovani. Analysis of JABBA LPG caps indicated that 20% is branched trisaccharide Gal(β1,4)[Glc(β1,2)]Man and tetrasaccharide Gal(β1,4)[Glc(β1,2)Man(α1,2)]Man instead of the usual Gal(β1,4)Man and Man(α1,2)Man terminating caps. Consistent with these structural observations, analyses of the relevant glycosyltransferases in JABBA microsomes involved in LPG biosynthesis showed a 2-fold increase in elongating mannosylphosphoryltransferase activity and up-regulation of a β-glucosyltransferase activity. Furthermore, the caps of JABBA LPG are cryptic in presentation as shown by the loss of binding by the lectins, ricin, peanut agglutinin and concanavalin A and reduced accessibility of the terminal galactose residues to oxidation by galactose oxidase. These results indicate that LPG from JABBA is intriguingly similar to the larger LPG in wild-type parasites that arises following the differentiation of the non-infectious procyclic promastigotes to infectious, metacyclic forms.
Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Damián-Centeno, A G; Itzá-Ortiz, M F; Andrade-Narváez, F J
In the State of Campeche, Mexico, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis is mainly due to Leishmania (L.) mexicana. The parasite population is maintained in a mammalian species, a reservoir in which the ideal course of infection should be long and relatively nonpathogenic. The objective of the present study was to document the retention of L. (L.) mexicana in 29 naturally infected rodents. These cricetids lived in captivity for up to two years and were tested monthly for the presence of the parasite, by cultures of needle aspirates from the base of the tail. Peromyscus yucatanicus and Ototylomys phyllotis were incriminated as the primary reservoir hosts. The finding that the multiplication of parasites in P. yucatanicus might be triggered by temperature, suggests that this animal would be a good choice for further research on L. (L.) mexicana.
Moraes, Caroline S; Seabra, Sergio H; Castro, Daniele P; Brazil, Reginaldo P; de Souza, Wanderley; Garcia, Eloi S; Azambuja, Patrícia
Studies on the lysis of L. chagasi caused by the bacteria Serratia marcescens were carried out. In vitro experiments demonstrated that S. marcescens variant SM 365, a prodigiosin pigment producer, lysed this species of Leishmania but variant DB11, a nonpigmented bacteria, was unable to lyse the parasite. High concentrations of d-mannose were found to protect L. chagasi markedly diminishing the lysis by S. marcescens SM 365. Promastigotes of L. chagasi bound the lectin Concanavalin A conjugated with FITC, the fluorescence was intensely found at the base of the flagellum (flagellar pocket). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria adherence occurred mainly in the flagellar pocket. S. marcescens SM 365 formed filamentous structures, identified as biofilms, which connect the protozoan to the developing bacterial clusters, in low concentrations of bacteria after 30 min incubation time. We suggest that bacterial mannose-sensitive (MS) fimbriae are relevant to S. marcescens SM 365 in the lysis of L. chagasi.
Gaur Dixit, Upasna; Barker, Jason H.; Teesch, Lynn M.; Love-Homan, Laurie; Donelson, John E.; Wilson, Mary E.
The infectious metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania protozoa establish infection in a mammalian host after they are deposited into the dermis by a sand fly vector. Several Leishmania virulence factors promote infection, including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane-anchored major surface protease (MSP). Metacyclic Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes were treated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a sterol-chelating reagent, causing a 3-fold reduction in total cellular sterols as well as enhancing MSP release without affecting parasite viability in vitro. MβCD-treated promastigotes were more susceptible to complement-mediated lysis than untreated controls and reduced the parasite load 3-fold when inoculated into BALB/c mice. Paradoxically, MβCD-treated promastigotes caused a higher initial in vitro infection rate in human or murine macrophages than untreated controls, although their intracellular multiplication was hindered upon infection establishment. There was a corresponding larger amount of covalently bound C3b than iC3b on the parasite surfaces of MβCD-treated promastigotes exposed to healthy human serum in vitro, as well as loss of MSP, a protease that enhances C3b cleavage to iC3b. Mass spectrometry showed that MβCD promotes the release of proteins into the extracellular medium, including both MSP and MSP-like protein (MLP), from virulent metacyclic promastigotes. These data support the hypothesis that plasma membrane sterols are important for the virulence of Leishmania protozoa at least in part through retention of membrane virulence proteins. PMID:23630964
Roque, André Luiz R.; Jansen, Ana Maria
The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic “puzzle”, as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs). These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders – Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera – responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild. PMID:25426421
Dostálová, Anna; Volf, Petr
Leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases with 0.9 - 1.4 million new human cases each year worldwide. In the vectorial part of the life-cycle, Leishmania development is confined to the digestive tract. During the first few days after blood feeding, natural barriers to Leishmania development include secreted proteolytic enzymes, the peritrophic matrix surrounding the ingested blood meal and sand fly immune reactions. As the blood digestion proceeds, parasites need to bind to the midgut epithelium to avoid being excreted with the blood remnant. This binding is strictly stage-dependent as it is a property of nectomonad and leptomonad forms only. While the attachment in specific vectors (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi and P. sergenti) involves lipophosphoglycan (LPG), this Leishmania molecule is not required for parasite attachment in other sand fly species experimentally permissive for various Leishmania. During late-stage infections, large numbers of parasites accumulate in the anterior midgut and produce filamentous proteophosphoglycan creating a gel-like plug physically obstructing the gut. The parasites attached to the stomodeal valve cause damage to the chitin lining and epithelial cells of the valve, interfering with its function and facilitating reflux of parasites from the midgut. Transformation to metacyclic stages highly infective for the vertebrate host is the other prerequisite for effective transmission. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of molecular interactions occurring in all these distinct phases of parasite colonization of the sand fly gut, highlighting recent discoveries in the field.
de Queiroz, N M G P; da Silveira, R C V; de Noronha, A C F; Oliveira, T M F S; Machado, R Z; Starke-Buzetti, W A
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by a protozoa parasite of the specie Leishmania (L.) chagasi endemic for humans and dogs in many regions of Brazil. The purpose of the present study was the detection of (L.) chagasi in canine skin tissues from three different groups of clinical signs: asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polysymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs. Lesional or non-lesional skin tissue samples from 34 naturally infected dogs were obtained and processed by histochemistry (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IMHC) for direct parasitological examination and the results were compared with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. IMHC and HE methods detected intact Leishmania-amastigote parasites in lesional and no lesional skin, particularly in asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic dogs. 50% of skin samples collected from asymptomatic and 21.4% from oligosymptomatic dogs had parasites in their skins even though with mild inflammatory reaction or without any macroscopic dermatological alterations. On the other hand, 100% of polysymptomatic dogs showed several forms of clinical dermatological alterations and 91.7% had intact amastigotes with parasite load ranging from mild to intense. By PCR, DNA of Leishmania spp. was detected in 97.8% skin samples regardless clinical status of the dogs or IMHC/HE test results. PCR on skin was a sensitive procedure for CVL diagnosis, but direct observation of intact parasite in skin biopsies, particularly by IMHC, may be also considered to support the diagnosis.
Yao, Chaoqun; Gaur Dixit, Upasna; Barker, Jason H; Teesch, Lynn M; Love-Homan, Laurie; Donelson, John E; Wilson, Mary E
The infectious metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania protozoa establish infection in a mammalian host after they are deposited into the dermis by a sand fly vector. Several Leishmania virulence factors promote infection, including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane-anchored major surface protease (MSP). Metacyclic Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes were treated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a sterol-chelating reagent, causing a 3-fold reduction in total cellular sterols as well as enhancing MSP release without affecting parasite viability in vitro. MβCD-treated promastigotes were more susceptible to complement-mediated lysis than untreated controls and reduced the parasite load 3-fold when inoculated into BALB/c mice. Paradoxically, MβCD-treated promastigotes caused a higher initial in vitro infection rate in human or murine macrophages than untreated controls, although their intracellular multiplication was hindered upon infection establishment. There was a corresponding larger amount of covalently bound C3b than iC3b on the parasite surfaces of MβCD-treated promastigotes exposed to healthy human serum in vitro, as well as loss of MSP, a protease that enhances C3b cleavage to iC3b. Mass spectrometry showed that MβCD promotes the release of proteins into the extracellular medium, including both MSP and MSP-like protein (MLP), from virulent metacyclic promastigotes. These data support the hypothesis that plasma membrane sterols are important for the virulence of Leishmania protozoa at least in part through retention of membrane virulence proteins.
Okuda, Kendi; Tong, Mei; Dempsey, Brian; Moore, Kathryn J.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Silverman, Neal
Leishmania amastigotes manipulate the activity of macrophages to favor their own success. However, very little is known about the role of innate recognition and signaling triggered by amastigotes in this host-parasite interaction. In this work we developed a new infection model in adult Drosophila to take advantage of its superior genetic resources to identify novel host factors limiting Leishmania amazonensis infection. The model is based on the capacity of macrophage-like cells, plasmatocytes, to phagocytose and control the proliferation of parasites injected into adult flies. Using this model, we screened a collection of RNAi-expressing flies for anti-Leishmania defense factors. Notably, we found three CD36-like scavenger receptors that were important for defending against Leishmania infection. Mechanistic studies in mouse macrophages showed that CD36 accumulates specifically at sites where the parasite contacts the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Furthermore, CD36-deficient macrophages were defective in the formation of the large parasitophorous vacuole typical of L. amazonensis infection, a phenotype caused by inefficient fusion with late endosomes and/or lysosomes. These data identify an unprecedented role for CD36 in the biogenesis of the parasitophorous vacuole and further highlight the utility of Drosophila as a model system for dissecting innate immune responses to infection. PMID:27280707
Peters, Nathan C; Kimblin, Nicola; Secundino, Nagila; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lawyer, Phillip; Sacks, David L
Numerous experimental vaccines have been developed to protect against the cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis caused by infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania, but a human vaccine still does not exist. Remarkably, the efficacy of anti-Leishmania vaccines has never been fully evaluated under experimental conditions following natural vector transmission by infected sand fly bite. The only immunization strategy known to protect humans against natural exposure is "leishmanization," in which viable L. major parasites are intentionally inoculated into a selected site in the skin. We employed mice with healed L. major infections to mimic leishmanization, and found tissue-seeking, cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells specific for Leishmania at the site of challenge by infected sand fly bite within 24 hours, and these mice were highly resistant to sand fly transmitted infection. In contrast, mice vaccinated with a killed vaccine comprised of autoclaved L. major antigen (ALM)+CpG oligodeoxynucleotides that protected against needle inoculation of parasites, showed delayed expression of protective immunity and failed to protect against infected sand fly challenge. Two-photon intra-vital microscopy and flow cytometric analysis revealed that sand fly, but not needle challenge, resulted in the maintenance of a localized neutrophilic response at the inoculation site, and removal of neutrophils following vector transmission led to increased parasite-specific immune responses and promoted the efficacy of the killed vaccine. These observations identify the critical immunological factors influencing vaccine efficacy following natural transmission of Leishmania.
Salerno Pimentel, Isabella Aparecida; Paladi, Carolina de Siqueira; Katz, Simone; de Souza Júdice, Wagner Alves; Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia
Tellurium compounds have shown several biological properties and recently the leishmanicidal effect of one organotellurane was demonstrated. These findings led us to test the effect of the organotellurium compound RF07 on Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America. In vitro assays were performed in L. (L.) chagasi-infected bone marrow derived macrophages treated with different concentrations of RF07. In in vivo experiments Golden hamsters were infected with L. (L.) chagasi and injected intraperitoneally with RF07 whereas control animals received either Glucantime or PBS. The effect of RF07 on cathepsin B activity of L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes was assayed spectrofluorometrically using fluorogenic substrates. The main findings were: 1) RF07 showed significant leishmanicidal activity against intracellular parasites at submicromolar concentrations (IC50 of 529.7±26.5 nM), and the drug displayed 10-fold less toxicity to macrophages (CC50 of 5,426±272.8 nM); 2) kinetics assays showed an increasing leishmanicidal action of RF07 at longer periods of treatment; 3) one month after intraperitoneal injection of RF07 L. (L.) chagasi-infected hamsters showed a reduction of 99.6% of parasite burden when compared to controls that received PBS; 4) RF07 inhibited the cathepsin B activity of L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes. The present results demonstrated that the tellurium compound RF07 is able to destroy L. (L.) chagasi in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that are non toxic to the host. We believe these findings support further study of the potential of RF07 as a possible alternative for the chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis.
Fiuza, Jacqueline Araújo; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Santiago, Helton da Costa; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Souza, Daniel Menezes; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Lemos-Giunchetti, Denise da Silveira; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nakhasi, Hira L; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio
Live attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites such as LdCen(-/-) have been shown elicit protective immunity against leishmanial infection in mice and hamster models. Previously, we have reported on the induction of strong immunogenicity in dogs upon vaccination with LdCen(-/-) including an increase in immunoglobulin isotypes, higher lymphoproliferative response, higher frequencies of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, IFN-γ production by CD8(+) T cells, increased secretion of TNF-α and IL-12/IL-23p40 and, finally, decreased secretion of IL-4. To further explore the potential of LdCen(-/-) parasites as vaccine candidates, we performed a 24-month follow up of LdCen(-/-) immunized dogs after challenge with virulent Leishmania infantum, aiming determination of parasite burden by qPCR, antibody production (ELISA) and cellular responses (T cell activation and cytokine production) by flow cytometry and sandwich ELISA. Our data demonstrated that vaccination with a single dose of LdCen(-/-) (without any adjuvant) resulted in the reduction of up to 87.3% of parasite burden after 18 months of virulent challenge. These results are comparable to those obtained with commercially available vaccine in Brazil (Leishmune(®)). The protection was associated with antibody production and CD4(+) and CD8(+) proliferative responses, as well as T cell activation and significantly higher production of IFN-γ, IL-12/IL-23p40 and TNF-α, which was comparable to responses induced by immunization with Leishmune(®), with significant differences when compared to control animals (Placebo). Moreover, only animals immunized with LdCen(-/-) expressed lower levels of IL-4 when compared to animals vaccinated either with Leishmune(®) or PBS. Our results support further studies aiming to demonstrate the potential of genetically modified live attenuated L. donovani vaccine to control L. infantum transmission in endemic areas for CVL.
Can, Hüseyin; Döşkaya, Mert; Özdemir, H Gökhan; Şahar, Esra Atalay; Karakavuk, Muhammet; Pektaş, Bayram; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Caner, Ayşe; Döşkaya, Aysu Değirmenci; İz, Sultan Gülce; Özbel, Yusuf; Gürüz, Yüksel
Leishmaniasis caused by more than 20 species of genus Leishmania is transmitted by the bite of infected phlebotomine sand flies. The studies on Leishmania infection in cats is very few in Turkey and therefore we aimed to screen stray cats living in city of İzmir located in western Turkey using nested PCR targeting kinetoplast DNA and serological techniques (ELISA and IFA). Leishmania DNA positive samples were also studied by ITS1 real time PCR. Whole blood and serum samples were obtained from stray cats (n: 1101) living in different counties of İzmir. In serological assays, a serum sample was considered positive in 1:40 dilution in IFA and for ELISA a serum sample was accepted positive when the absorbance value (AV) exceeded the mean AV + Standard Deviation (SD) of the negative control serum samples. According to the results, the seropositivity rates were 10.8% (119/1101) and 15.2% (167/1101) by in house ELISA and IFA, respectively. Among serology coherent samples, the seropositivity rate was 11.1% (116/1047) as detected by both assays after discordant samples (n: 54) were discarded. Of the 1101 stray cats, six (0.54%) were positive by nested PCR while only one of these six samples was positive by ITS1 real time PCR. During PCR, three controls designated as Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica, and Leishmania major were used for species identification. According to nested PCR results, L. tropica was identified in two cats (no.76 and 95). In another cat (no. 269), there were two bands in which one of them was well-matched with L. infantum and the other band had ∼850 bp size which does not match with any controls. Remaining three cats (no. 86, 514, and 622) also had the ∼850 bp atypical band size. ITS1 real time PCR detected L. tropica in only one cat (no. 622) which showed an atypical band size in nested PCR. These results indicated that three cats with only one atypical band (no. 86, 514, and 622) and the cat with mixed infection (no. 269) were
Strelkova, M V; Shendrik, A G; El Fari, M; Schonian, G
A PCR fingerprinting approach with single non-specific primers--(GTG)5 and T3B--was apply to investigate variations in the genotyping of three species of Leishmania species within the Rhombomys opimus area. Forty-three strains of Leishmania major, L. turanica, and L. gerbilli circulating among great gerbils in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia were examined. PCR fingerprint revealed a high genetic intraspecific heterogeneity among L. turanica strains. Three groups of strains were clearly identified. The strains from Mongolia greatly differed from other L. turanica ones. The second group was formed by strains from Kazakhstan, they also demonstrated rather different patterns. L. turanica strains from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan showed only minor differences, but greatly different from those from Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The groups identified by the PCR fingerprint correlate with the conditions of circulation: the duration of a transmission season and as the result of different periods of retention of Leishmania in the skin of great gerbils, as well as the presence or absence of L. major as coexisting species. There were no differences between L. turanica strains isolated from different hosts in the same geographical region, as well as between L. turanica strains isolated in the hyper- or meso and hypoendemic foci. There was no correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of L. turanica. No intraspecific polymorphism was found among L. major and L. gerbilli strains from different geographical regions within the great gerbil area.
Quintella, Leonardo P; Cuzzi, Tullia; Madeira, Maria de F; Okamoto, Thais; Schubach, Armando de O
The present study reports the production of the rabbit anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi hyperimmune serum, the standardization of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique and the evaluation of its employment in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions diagnosed by Leishmania sp. culture isolation. Thirty fragments of active CL lesions were examined as well as 10 fragments of cutaneous mycosis lesions as control group. IHC proved more sensitive in detecting amastigotes than conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained slides: the former was positive in 24 (80%) biopsies whereas the latter, in 16 (53%) (p = 0.028). The reaction stained different fungus species causing cutaneous mycosis. Besides, positive reaction was noticed in mononuclear and endothelial cells. Nevertheless, this finding was present in the control group biopsies. It is concluded that IHC showed good sensitivity in detecting amastigotes.
Ntais, Pantelis; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Pratlong, Francine; Antoniou, Maria
The rare zymodeme, Leishmania tropica MON-58, was isolated from a young Afghan refugee with a facial cutaneous lesion who had come to live in Crete early 2008. The same zymodeme variant was isolated from a local dog that had never travelled outside the island, with symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis, which stayed in the area where the patient worked during the summer months. This is the first record of L. tropica in a host, other than human, in Greece and another example of introduction of a vector borne pathogen in a focus where local vector/s can sustain it, with the risk of initiation of new transmission cycle/s.
Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'.
Córdoba-Lanús, Elizabeth; De Grosso, Mercedes Lizarralde; Piñero, José Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Salomón, Oscar Daniel
The natural infection of Lutzomyia neivai with Leishmania in the endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in northwestern Argentina was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-hybridization technique. Phlebotominae sand flies were captured in the provinces of Tucumán and Salta between 1999 and 2003. From a sample of 440 Lu. neivai females analysed for the detection of the Leishmania (Viannia) and Leishmania (Leishmania) subgenera, 9.1% of the samples resulted infected with a parasite of the subgenus Viannia and none with the Leishmania. This is the first report of naturally infected sand flies in Argentina besides the first report of infected Lu. neivai sensu strictu. Our results contributed to further incrimination of this specie as vector of leishmaniasis in the area and the identification of the main circulating parasite as belonging to the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenera.
Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mirhendi, Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Rassi, Yavar; Bates, Paul; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Abdoli, Hamid; Jalali-zand, Niloufar; Jafari, Reza; Shareghi, Niloufar; Ghanei, Maryam; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza
Many rodent species act as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic areas. In the present study a simple and reliable assay based on nested PCR was developed for the detection and identification of Leishmania parasites from rodent skin samples. We designed Leishmania-specific primers that successfully amplified ITS regions of Leishmania major, Leishmania gerbilli and Leishmania turanica using nested PCR. Out of 95 field collected Rhombomys opimus, 21 were positive by microscopic examination and 48 by nested PCR. The percentage of gerbils infected with L. major, L. gerbilli and L. turanica was 3.2%, 1.1% and 27.4%, respectively. In 15.8% of the rodents, we found mixed natural infections by L. major and L. turanica, 1.1% by L. major and L. gerbilli, and 2.1% by the three species. We concluded that this method is simple and reliable for detecting and identifying Leishmania species circulating in rodent populations. PMID:20566364
Faiman, Roy; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Jaffe, Charles; Motro, Yoav; Nasereddin, Abdelmagid; Schnur, Lionel F.; Torem, Moshe; Pratlong, Francine; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Warburg, Alon
In 2006/7, 18 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were reported for the first time from Sde Eliyahu (pop. 650), a village in the Beit She'an valley of Israel. Between 2007–2011, a further 88 CL cases were diagnosed bringing the total to 106 (16.3% of the population of Sde Eliyahu). The majority of cases resided in the south-western part of the village along the perimeter fence. The causative parasite was identified as Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor, 1914 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli), 1786 (Diptera: Psychodidae) was found to be the most abundant phlebotomine species comprising 97% of the sand flies trapped inside the village, and an average of 7.9% of the females were positive for Leishmania ITS1 DNA. Parasite isolates from CL cases and a sand fly were characterized using several methods and shown to be L. major. During a comprehensive survey of rodents 164 Levant voles Microtus guentheri Danford & Alston, 1880 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) were captured in alfalfa fields bordering the village. Of these 27 (16.5%) tested positive for Leishmania ITS1 DNA and shown to be L. major by reverse line blotting. A very high percentage (58.3% - 21/36) of Tristram's jirds Meriones tristrami Thomas, 1892 (Rodentia: Muridae), found further away from the village also tested positive for ITS1 by PCR. Isolates of L. major were successfully cultured from the ear of a wild jird found positive by ITS1 PCR. Although none of the wild PCR-positive voles exhibited external pathology, laboratory-reared voles that were infected by intradermal L. major inoculation, developed patent lesions and sand flies became infected by feeding on the ears of these laboratory-infected voles. This is the first report implicating M. guentheri and M. tristrami as reservoirs of Leishmania. The widespread co-distribution of M. guentheri and P. papatasi, suggests a significant threat from the spread of CL caused by L. major in the Middle East, central Asia and southern
Background This study describes immunological responses, diagnostic features, follow up and treatment outcomes from seventeen dogs with papular dermatitis due to Leishmania infection diagnosed by cytology or real time-PCR. Methods Specific Leishmania humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated by means of an immunofluorescence antibody test in all cases and a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to leishmanin in eight cases. The extent of infection was studied in several tissues including blood, lymph node, conjunctival and oral swabs, by means of PCR, at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up. Culture was performed on nine dogs from cutaneous lesions and lymph node aspirates and molecular typing was carried out on isolates based on ITS-1, ITS-2 and Haspb gene sequencing analysis. Results Cytological and molecular results from fine needle aspirates of papules were diagnostic in 8 out of 13 (61.5%) cases and in 14 out of 15 dogs (93.3%), respectively. In all dogs, specific anti-Leishmania antibody levels were low or absent. Blood and lymph node PCRs and lymph node culture were negative in all dogs. Three out of the nine dogs (33%) were positive by culture from cutaneous lesions. The three isolates were identified as ITS type A, however, polymorphism was observed in the Haspb gene (PCR products of 626 bp, 962 bp and 371 bp). DTH response was positive in all tested dogs at the time of diagnosis. The majority of dogs were successfully treated with only N-methylglucamine antimoniate, after which cutaneous lesions disappeared or were reduced to depigmented, flattened scars. All dogs remained seronegative and the majority of dogs were negative by PCR in several tissues during follow-up. Conclusions This study points out that papular dermatitis due to L. infantum is probably an underestimated benign cutaneous problem, associated with a parasite specific cell mediated immunity and a poor humoral immune response. Papular dermatitis is seen in young dogs
Quantitation of Medical Research Institute. Nairobi, Kenya. amastigotes of Leishmania donovani in smears of splenic aspirates from patients with...LEISHMANIASIS UNRESPONSIVE TO PENTOSTAM CAUSED BY LEISHMANIA TROPIC IN KENYA YEMANE MEBRAHTU, PHILLIP LAWYER. JOHN GITHURE. JOAB B. WERE, RICHARD MUIGAI...Research Institute. Nairobi. Ken ya: and L’.S. Ary, Medical Research Unit-Kenira Abstract. We report the characterization of 6 Leishmania tropica
brucei-group Trypano- Leishmania donovani in vitro. Comparative Bio- soma. Journal of Protozoology 23, 349-356. chemistry and Physiology 68c, 95-98...NO.ACESON.Ft Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701-5012 ELEMENT NO. ACCESSION NO 11, TITLE (Include Security Classification) LEISHMANIA MEXICANA: UPTAKE OF...RESEARCH BRIEF Leishmania mexicana: Uptake of Sodium Stibogluconate (Pentostam) and Pentamidine by Parasite and Macrophages JONATHAN D. BERMAN
Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; Dayakar, Alti; Veronica, Jalaja; Sundar, Shyam; Maurya, Radheshyam
The aim of this study was to isolate and evaluate the withanolides in inducing apoptotic like death in Leishmania donovani in vitro. Withanolides were fractionated and isolated from the leaves of Withania somnifera and LC-MS/MS analysis of two fractions namely, F5 and F6 of ethanolic extracts, obtained through column chromatography with silica gel, was performed. The antileishmanial effect of withanolides on L. donovani promastigotes was assessed in vitro using PI dye exclusion test. The effect of withanolides on promastigote morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy. To understand their mode of action against L. donovani, DNA fragmentation, quantification of parasites at sub G0/G1 phase, determination of phosphatidylserine externalization, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) were done. Results showed that LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of withanolides in isolated fractions. Treatment with withanolides resulted in morphological alterations from spindle to round shape and loss of flagella/cell integrity in promastigotes. Moreover, it induced DNA nicks, cell cycle arrest at sub G0/G1 phase and externalization of phosphatidylserine in dose and time dependent manner via increase in ROS and decrease in Ψm. Results of this study indicate that withanolides induce apoptotic like death through the production of ROS from mitochondria and disruption of Ψm in promastigotes of L donovani.
Kumar, A; Samant, M; Misra, P; Khare, P; Sundar, S; Garg, Ravendra; Dube, A
Isolation of the soluble exogenous antigens (SEAgs), its immune response study and proteome profiling is an essential prerequisite for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of Leishmania donovani. The immunostimulatory potential of L. donovani SEAgs, purified from culture of L. donovani clinical isolate, was evaluated for their ability to induce cellular responses in treated/cured hamsters. SEAgs induced significant proliferative responses in lymphocytes (SI 5.6 ± 2.3; P < 0.01) isolated from cured hamster. In addition, significant NO production in response to SEAgs was also noticed in macrophages of hamsters, mouse and human cell lines (J774A-1 and THP1). Western blot analyses with antibodies against proteophosphoglycan (PPG; surface-expressed and secreted molecule) of L. donovani revealed that PPG molecules are also present in L. donovani SEAgs. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome analysis of 12 protein bands of SEAgs through MALDI-TOF/TOF endorsed the identification of some Th1-stimulatory immunogenic proteins. These immunogenic proteins may offer increased hope for the discovery of new promising vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The overall results suggest that immunostimulatory molecules are present in the SEAgs, which may be further exploited, for developing a subunit vaccine against VL a fatal human disease.
Campino, Lenea; Cortes, Sofia; Dionísio, Lídia; Neto, Luís; Afonso, Maria Odete; Maia, Carla
Phlebotomine sandflies of the genus Sergentomyia are widely distributed throughout the Old World. It has been suggested that Sergentomyia spp are involved in the transmission of Leishmania in India and Africa, whereas Phlebotomus spp are thought to be the sole vectors of Leishmania in the Old World. In this study, Leishmania major DNA was detected in one Sergentomyia minuta specimen that was collected in the southern region of Portugal. This study challenges the dogma that Leishmania is exclusively transmitted by species of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World. PMID:23828004
de Oliveira, Fernanda Müller; Costa, Luis Henrique Camargo; de Barros, Thainá Landim; Ito, Pier Kenji Rauschkolb Katsuda; Colombo, Fábio Antonio; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Pedro, Wagner André; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Nunes, Cáris Maroni
Leishmania spp. is a protozoan that maintains its life cycle in domestic and wild animals and it may include bats, a population that has increased in urban environments. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. in bats captured strictly in urban areas that are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. The spleen and skin samples of 488 bats from 21 endemic cities in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil, were tested for the presence of Leishmania kDNA using real-time PCR. Differentiation from Trypanosoma spp. was achieved by amplifying a DNA fragment of the ribosomal RNA gene. The presence of Leishmania spp. kDNA was verified in 23.9% of bats and Trypanosoma spp. DNA was identified in 3.9%. Leishmania species differentiation revealed the presence of Leishmania amazonensis in 78.3% of the bats; L. infantum in 17.4%, and 1 sample (4.3%) showed a mix pattern of L. infantum and L. amazonensis. We also detected, for the first time, L. infantum and L. amazonensis DNA in Desmodus rotundus, the hematophagous bat. The presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in bats strictly from urban areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil indicates that these wild and abundant animals are capable of harboring Leishmania spp. in this new scenario. Due to their longevity, high dispersion capacity and adaptability to synanthropic environments, they may play a role in the maintenance of the life cycle of Leishmania parasites.
De Santi, Mauro; Ceccarelli, Marcello; Vitale, Fabrizio; Brandi, Giorgio; Magnani, Mauro
The Leishmaniases are a group of parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus affecting both humans and other vertebrates. Leishmania is an intracellular pathogen able to confer resistance to apoptosis in the early phase of macrophages infection by activation of host PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Intracellular pathogens hijack organelles such as ER to facilitate survival and replication, thus eliciting ER stress and activating/modulating the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the host cell. The UPR is aimed to mitigate ER stress, thereby promoting cell survival. However, prolonged ER stress will activate the apoptotic pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the ER stress response in Leishmania-infected macrophages to gain insights about the mechanisms underlying the apoptosis resistance in parasitized cells. Macrophages differentiated from human monocytic cell lines (U937 and THP-1) and murine primary macrophages were infected with Leishmania infantum MHOM/TN/80/IPT1 (WHO international reference strain). Several ER stress/autophagy expression markers, as well as cell survival/apoptosis markers (phospho-Akt and cleaved caspase-3) were evaluated by qPCR and/or by western blotting. As ER stress positive control, cells were treated with tunicamycin or dithiothreitol (DTT). The gene expression analyses showed a mild but significant induction of the ER stress/autophagy markers. The western blot analyses revealed that the Leishmania infection induced Akt phosphorylation and significantly inhibited the induction of caspase-3 cleavage, eIF2α phosphorylation and DDIT3/CHOP expression in tunicamycin and DTT treated cells. The mild but significant increase in ER stress expression markers and the delay/attenuation of the effects of ER stress inducers in infected cells support the hypothesis that L. infantum could promote survival of host cells by inducing a mild ER stress response. The host ER stress response could be not
Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Lei, Soi Meng; Bellaire, Bryan H; Beetham, Jeffrey K
Previous works demonstrated that various species of Leishmania promastigotes exhibit differential sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis (CML) during development. Upon exposure to normal human serum (NHS), cultures of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes recently isolated from infected hamsters (fewer than 5 in vitro passages) are CML-sensitive when in the logarithmic growth phase but become CML-resistant upon transition to the stationary culture phase. Visualization by light and electron microscopy revealed dramatic morphological differences between promastigotes from the 2 culture phases following exposure to NHS. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that surface deposition of the complement components C3, C5, and C9 correlated inversely with promastigote CML-resistance. The highest levels of complement protein surface accumulation were observed for logarithmic phase promastigotes, while stationary phase promastigotes adsorbed the least amount of complement proteins. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy revealed that C3 and C5 localized in a fairly uniform pattern to the plasma membrane of promastigotes from logarithmic phase cultures, while the staining of promastigotes from stationary phase cultures was indistinguishable from background. By Western blot analysis, high levels of the complement proteins C3, C5, and C9 were detected in the total lysates of NHS-exposed logarithmic phase L. chagasi promastigotes, relative to NHS-exposed stationary phase promastigotes; this finding indicates that the low levels of C3 and C5 seen on the surface of stationary phase promastigotes were not due to protein uptake/internalization. Together, these data demonstrate the differential deposition of complement proteins on the surfaces of logarithmic and stationary phase L. chagasi promastigotes. The data support a model wherein stationary phase L. chagasi promastigotes resist CML by limiting the deposition of C3 and its derivatives, which, in turn, limit surface levels of
Background The extracellular promastigote and the intracellular amastigote stages alternate in the digenetic life cycle of the trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania. Amastigotes develop inside parasitophorous vacuoles of mammalian phagocytes, where they tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Temperature increase and pH decrease are crucial factors in the multifactorial differentiation process of promastigotes to amastigotes. Although expression profiling approaches for axenic, cell culture- and lesion-derived amastigotes have already been reported, the specific influence of temperature increase and acidification of the environment on developmental regulation of genes has not been previously studied. For the first time, we have used custom L. infantum genomic DNA microarrays to compare the isolated and the combined effects of both factors on the transcriptome. Results Immunofluorescence analysis of promastigote-specific glycoprotein gp46 and expression modulation analysis of the amastigote-specific A2 gene have revealed that concomitant exposure to temperature increase and acidification leads to amastigote-like forms. The temperature-induced gene expression profile in the absence of pH variation resembles the profile obtained under combined exposure to both factors unlike that obtained for exposure to acidification alone. In fact, the subsequent fold change-based global iterative hierarchical clustering analysis supports these findings. Conclusions The specific influence of temperature and pH on the differential regulation of genes described in this study and the evidence provided by clustering analysis is consistent with the predominant role of temperature increase over extracellular pH decrease in the amastigote differentiation process, which provides new insights into Leishmania physiology. PMID:20074347
Hanafi, Hanafi A; El-Din, El-Shaimaa M Nour; El-Hossary, Shabaan S I; Kaldas, Rania M; Villinski, Jeffrey T; Furman, Barry D; Fryauff, David J
We report experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania tropica (Wright), by the blood-feeding sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire). Groups of laboratory-reared female sand flies that fed "naturally" on L. tropica-infected hamsters, or artificially, via membrane feeding device, on a suspension of L. tropica amastigotes, were dissected at progressive time points post-feeding. Acquisition, retention and development of L. tropica through procyclic, nectomonad, and leptomonad stages to the infective metacyclic promastigote stage, and anterior progression of the parasites from abdominal midgut bloodmeal to the thoracic midgut were demonstrated in both groups. Membrane feeding on the concentrated amastigote suspension led to metacyclic promastigote infections in 60% of sand flies, whereas only 3% of P. duboscqi that fed naturally on an infected hamster developed metacyclics. Sand flies from both groups re-fed on naïve hamsters, but despite infections in 25-50% of membrane-fed and 2-3.5% of naturally fed flies, no skin lesions developed in the hamsters. After four months of observation these animals were euthanized and necropsied. Screening of the organs and tissue by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that targeted the small subunit RNA gene, amplified generic Leishmania DNA from liver, spleen, bone marrow, and blood, but only from hamsters bitten by membrane-infected P. duboscqi. These results are notable in demonstrating the ability of P. duboscqi, originating from Kenya, to acquire, retain, develop, and transmit a Turkish strain of L. tropica originally isolated from a human case of cutaneous leishmaniasis. This marks the first demonstration of complete development and transmission of L. tropica by a member of the Phlebotomus subgenus of sand flies.
Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Nico, Dirlei; Guan, Rong; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto; Clinch, Keith; Evans, Gary B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Schramm, Vern L.; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.
Chemotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis is associated with high toxicity and drug resistance. Leishmania parasites are purine auxotrophs that obtain their purines from exogenous sources. Nucleoside hydrolases release purines from nucleosides and are drug targets for anti-leishmanial drugs, absent in mammal cells. We investigated the substrate specificity of the Leishmania (L.) donovani recombinant nucleoside hydrolase NH36 and the inhibitory effect of the immucillins IA (ImmA), DIA (DADMe-ImmA), DIH (DADMe-ImmH), SMIH (SerMe-ImmH), IH (ImmH), DIG (DADMe-ImmG), SMIG (SerMe-ImmG) and SMIA (SerME-ImmA) on its enzymatic activity. The inhibitory effects of immucillins on the in vitro multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes were determined using 0.05–500 μM and, when needed, 0.01–50 nM of each drug. The inhibition on multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi intracellular amastigotes in vitro was assayed using 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM of IA, IH and SMIH. The NH36 shows specificity for inosine, guanosine, adenosine, uridine and cytidine with preference for adenosine and inosine. IA, IH, DIH, DIG, SMIH and SMIG immucillins inhibited L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigote growth in vitro at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. Promastigote replication was also inhibited in a chemically defined medium without a nucleoside source. Addition of adenosine decreases the immucillin toxicity. IA and IH inhibited the NH36 enzymatic activity (Ki = 0.080 μM for IA and 0.019 μM for IH). IA, IH and SMIH at 10 μM concentration, reduced the in vitro amastigote replication inside mice macrophages by 95% with no apparent effect on macrophage viability. Transmission electron microscopy revealed global alterations and swelling of L. (L.) infantum chagasi promastigotes after treatment with IA and IH while SMIH treatment determined intense cytoplasm vacuolization, enlarged vesicles and altered kinetoplasts. Our results
Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Nico, Dirlei; Guan, Rong; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto; Clinch, Keith; Evans, Gary B; Tyler, Peter C; Schramm, Vern L; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B
Chemotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis is associated with high toxicity and drug resistance. Leishmania parasites are purine auxotrophs that obtain their purines from exogenous sources. Nucleoside hydrolases release purines from nucleosides and are drug targets for anti-leishmanial drugs, absent in mammal cells. We investigated the substrate specificity of the Leishmania (L.) donovani recombinant nucleoside hydrolase NH36 and the inhibitory effect of the immucillins IA (ImmA), DIA (DADMe-ImmA), DIH (DADMe-ImmH), SMIH (SerMe-ImmH), IH (ImmH), DIG (DADMe-ImmG), SMIG (SerMe-ImmG) and SMIA (SerME-ImmA) on its enzymatic activity. The inhibitory effects of immucillins on the in vitro multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes were determined using 0.05-500 μM and, when needed, 0.01-50 nM of each drug. The inhibition on multiplication of L. (L.) infantum chagasi intracellular amastigotes in vitro was assayed using 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM of IA, IH and SMIH. The NH36 shows specificity for inosine, guanosine, adenosine, uridine and cytidine with preference for adenosine and inosine. IA, IH, DIH, DIG, SMIH and SMIG immucillins inhibited L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigote growth in vitro at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. Promastigote replication was also inhibited in a chemically defined medium without a nucleoside source. Addition of adenosine decreases the immucillin toxicity. IA and IH inhibited the NH36 enzymatic activity (Ki = 0.080 μM for IA and 0.019 μM for IH). IA, IH and SMIH at 10 μM concentration, reduced the in vitro amastigote replication inside mice macrophages by 95% with no apparent effect on macrophage viability. Transmission electron microscopy revealed global alterations and swelling of L. (L.) infantum chagasi promastigotes after treatment with IA and IH while SMIH treatment determined intense cytoplasm vacuolization, enlarged vesicles and altered kinetoplasts. Our results
Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Iam; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz
Nucleoside hydrolases of the Leishmania genus are vital enzymes for the replication of the DNA and conserved phylogenetic markers of the parasites. Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) induced a main CD4+ T cell driven protective response against L. chagasi infection in mice which is directed against its C-terminal domain. In this study, we used the three recombinant domains of NH36: N-terminal domain (F1, amino acids 1–103), central domain (F2 aminoacids 104–198), and C-terminal domain (F3 amino acids 199–314) in combination with saponin and assayed their immunotherapeutic effect on Balb/c mice previously infected with L. amazonensis. We identified that the F1 and F3 peptides determined strong cross-immunotherapeutic effects, reducing the size of footpad lesions to 48 and 64%, and the parasite load in footpads to 82.6 and 81%, respectively. The F3 peptide induced the strongest anti-NH36 antibody response and intradermal response (IDR) against L. amazonenis and a high secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α with reduced levels of IL-10. The F1 vaccine, induced similar increases of IgG2b antibodies and IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but no IDR and no reduction of IL-10. The multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the immune response after immunotherapy and disclosed that the degree of the immunotherapeutic effect is predicted by the frequencies of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-2 or TNF-α or both. Total frequencies and frequencies of double-cytokine CD4 T cell producers were enhanced by F1 and F3 vaccines. Collectively, our multifunctional analysis disclosed that immunotherapeutic protection improved as the CD4 responses progressed from 1+ to 2+, in the case of the F1 and F3 vaccines, and as the CD8 responses changed qualitatively from 1+ to 3+, mainly in the case of the F1 vaccine, providing new correlates of immunotherapeutic protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice based on T-helper TH1 and CD8+ mediated immune responses
Gasparotto, Juciano; Senger, Mario Roberto; Kunzler, Alice; Degrossoli, Adriana; de Simone, Salvatore Giovanni; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Somensi, Nauana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Silva-Jr, Floriano Paes; Gelain, Daniel Pens
Leishmaniasis is a parasitosis caused by several species of the genus Leishmania, an obligate intramacrophagic parasite. Although neurologic symptoms have been observed in human cases of leishmaniasis, the manifestation of neurodegenerative processes is poorly studied. The aim of the present work was to investigate if peripheral infection of BALB/c mice with Leishmania amazonensis affects tau phosphorylation and RAGE protein content in the brain, which represent biochemical markers of neurodegenerative processes observed in diseases with a pro-inflammatory component, including Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome. Four months after a single right hind footpad subcutaneous injection of L. amazonensis, the brain cortex of BALB/c mice was isolated. Western blot analysis indicated an increase in tau phosphorylation (Ser(396)) and RAGE immunocontent in infected animals. Brain tissue TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were not different from control animals; however, increased protein carbonylation, decreased IFN-γ levels and impairment in antioxidant defenses were detected. Systemic antioxidant treatment (NAC 20mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited tau phosphorylation and recovered IFN-γ levels. These data, altogether, indicate an association between impaired redox state, tau phosphorylation and RAGE up-regulation in the brain cortex of animals infected with L. amazonensis. In this context, it is possible that neurologic symptoms associated to chronic leishmaniasis are associated to disruptions in the homeostasis of CNS proteins, such as tau and RAGE, as consequence of oxidative stress. This is the first demonstration of alterations in biochemical parameters of neurodegeneration in an experimental model of Leishmania infection.
Dancik, Garrett M.; Jones, Douglas E.; Dorman, Karin S.
Leishmania are protozoan parasites transmitted by bites of infected sandflies. Over 20 species of Leishmania, endemic in 88 countries, are capable of causing human disease. Disease is either cutaneous, where skin ulcers occur on exposed surfaces of the body, or visceral, with near certain mortality if left untreated. C3HeB/FeJ mice are resistant to L. major, but develop chronic cutaneous lesions when infected with another species L. amazonensis. The well-characterized mechanism of resistance to L. major depends on a CD4+ Thl immune response, macrophage activation, and elimination of the parasite [Sacks 2002]. The factors that account for host susceptibility to L. Amazonensis, however, are not completely understood, despite being generally attributed to a weakened Th1 response [Vanloubbeck 2004].
Dancik, Garrett M.; Jones, Douglas E.; Dorman, Karin S.
Leishmania are protozoan parasites transmitted by bites of infected sandflies. Over 20 species of Leishmania, endemic in 88 countries, are capable of causing human disease. Disease is either cutaneous, where skin ulcers occur on exposed surfaces of the body, or visceral, with near certain mortality if untreated. C3HeB/FeJ mice are resistant to L. major, but develop chronic cutaneous lesions when infected with another species L. amazonensis. The well-characterized mechanism of resistance to L. major depends on a CD4+ Thl immune response, macrophage activation, and elimination of the parasite [Sacks 2002]. The factors that account for host susceptibility to L. Amazonensis, however, are not completely understood, despite being generally attributed to a weakened Th1 response [Vanloubbeck 2004].
García-Velázquez, Daniel; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M.; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, María; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Gutiérrez-Ravelo, Ángel; Piñero, José E.
The in vitro activity of a novel group of compounds, hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives, against two species of Leishmania is described in this study. These compounds showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition effect on the proliferation of the parasites, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 1.23 to 25.05 μM against the promastigote stage and 0.5 to 0.7 μM against intracellular amastigotes. Also, a cytotoxicity assay was carried out to in order to evaluate the possible toxic effects of these compounds. Moreover, different assays were performed to determine the type of cell death induced after incubation with these compounds. The obtained results highlight the potential use of hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives against Leishmania species, and further studies should be undertaken to establish them as novel leishmanicidal therapeutic agents. PMID:25753635
Bodley, A L; McGarry, M W; Shapiro, T A
The trypanosomes and Leishmania species are parasitic protozoa that afflict millions of people throughout the world. If not treated, African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis are fatal. The available drugs are severely limited by toxicity, marginal efficacy, the requirement for parenteral administration, and spreading drug resistance. In this study, a spectrophotometric assay was developed and validated for measuring the cytotoxicity of test compounds against axenically cultured bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei (African trypanosomes) and promastigotes of Leishmania donovani. Enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, monitored by a microtiter plate reader, is a reliable surrogate for parasite cell counts. The assay is simple, inexpensive, and highly reproducible. The coefficient of variation for EC50 values is < 10% for determinations obtained over several months. This method permits the rapid screening of candidates for much-needed new drugs against these parasites.
Gonzalez, J. L.; Gallego, E.; Castaño, M.; Rueda, A.
Thirty hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally with Leishmania donovani. Testes were examined grossly and histologically by light and electron microscopy. Progressive testicular atrophy developed. Spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous tubules showed vacuolar degeneration and decreased in number leading to a total azoospermia in the final weeks of the pathological process. Lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates with macrophages containing leishmanias appeared in the intertubular space. Amyloid deposits in the intertubular space and tubular basement membrane were identified by optical and ultrastructural methods. It has been suggested that testicular amyloidosis may have a pathogenic mechanism related to a dysfunction of plasma cells and stimulation of the reticuloendothial system, due to the antigenic character of the parasite. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6639870
Aluru, Srikanth; Hide, Mallorie; Michel, Gregory; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Marty, Pierre; Pomares, Christelle
Microsatellite markers have been used for Leishmania genetic studies worldwide, giving useful insight into leishmaniasis epidemiology. Understanding the geographic distribution, dynamics of Leishmania populations, and disease epidemiology improved markedly with this tool. In endemic foci, the origins of antimony-resistant strains and multidrug treatment failures were explored with multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT). High genetic variability was detected but no association between parasite genotypes and drug resistance was established. An association between MLMT profiles and clinical disease manifestations was highlighted in only three studies and this data needs further confirmation. At the individual level, MLMT provided information on relapse and reinfection when multiple leishmaniasis episodes occurred. This information could improve knowledge of epidemiology and guide therapeutic choices for active chronic visceral leishmaniasis, the disease form in some HIV-positive patients. PMID:25950900
Seyed, Negar; Taheri, Tahereh; Rafati, Sima
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that primarily affects Asia, Africa, South America, and the Mediterranean basin. Despite extensive efforts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine, no promising vaccine is available yet. However, recent advancements in computational vaccinology on the one hand and genome sequencing approaches on the other have generated new hopes in vaccine development. Computational genome mining for new vaccine candidates is known as reverse vaccinology and is believed to further extend the current list of Leishmania vaccine candidates. Reverse vaccinology can also reduce the intrinsic risks associated with live attenuated vaccines. Individual epitopes arranged in tandem as polytopes are also a possible outcome of reverse genome mining. Here, we will briefly compare reverse vaccinology with conventional vaccinology in respect to Leishmania vaccine, and we will discuss how it influences the aforementioned topics. We will also introduce new in vivo models that will bridge the gap between human and laboratory animal models in future studies. PMID:27092123
Reed, S G; Coler, R N; Mondal, D; Kamhawi, S; Valenzuela, J G
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, fatal if untreated, and with no available human vaccine. In rodents, cellular immunity to Leishmania parasite proteins as well as salivary proteins of the sand fly is associated with protection, making them worthy targets for further exploration as vaccines. This review discusses the notion that a combination vaccine including Leishmania and vector salivary antigens may improve vaccine efficacy by targeting the parasite at its most vulnerable stage just after transmission. Furthermore, we put forward the notion that better modeling of natural transmission is needed to test efficacy of vaccines. For example, the fact that individuals living in endemic areas are exposed to sand fly bites and will mount an immune response to salivary proteins should be considered in pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of leishmaniasis vaccines. Nevertheless, despite remaining obstacles there is good reason to be optimistic that safe and effective vaccines against leishmaniasis can be developed.
Alves, G B B; Pinho, F A; Silva, S M M S; Cruz, M S P; Costa, F A L
Fifteen symptomatic and seven asymptomatic dogs infected naturally with Leishmania chagasi were examined in order to identify the presence of parasites and changes in heart and lung. Histopathological, cytological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on samples of heart and lung tissues. An inflammatory reaction characterized by inflammatory mononuclear, perivascular and intermuscular infiltrates was observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals on histopathological analysis of the heart. In the lung, there was thickening of the alveolar septa due to congestion, edema, inflammatory infiltrate, and fibroblast proliferation. A focal reaction was observed although a diffuse reaction was present in both groups. On cytological examination, heart and lung imprints revealed amastigotes in two symptomatic animals and heart imprints were found in 1 asymptomatic dog. Immunoperoxidase staining showed amastigotes in the lung and heart of only 1 of 6 symptomatic animals examined. Within the ethical principles and limits of this research, it can be inferred that the study of heart and lung alterations in canine visceral leishmaniasis is increasingly important for understanding the problem related to humans. Dogs with visceral leishmaniasis were a good experimental model, since infection was caused by the same agent and the animals developed clinical, pathological and immunological alterations similar to those observed in humans.
Lye, Lon-Fye; Kang, Song Ok; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo; Beverley, Stephen M
Aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) typically use tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)B) as the cofactor. The protozoan parasite Leishmania major requires biopterin for growth and expresses strong salvage and regeneration systems to maintain H(4)B levels. Here we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of the sole L. major phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) to explore whether it could account for the Leishmania H(4)B requirement. L. major PAH resembles AAAHs of other organisms, bearing eukaryotic-type domain organization, and conservation of key catalytic residues including those implicated in pteridine binding. A pah(-) null mutant and an episomal complemented overexpressing derivative (pah-/+PAH) were readily obtained, and metabolic labeling studies established that PAH was required to hydroxylate Phe to Tyr. Neither WT nor overexpressing lines were able to hydroxylate radiolabeled tyrosine or tryptophan, nor to synthesize catecholamines. WT but not pah(-) parasites showed reactivity with an antibody to melanin when grown with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), although the reactive product is unlikely to be melanin sensu strictu. WT was auxotrophic for Phe, Trp and Tyr, suggesting that PAH activity was insufficient to meet normal Tyr requirements. However, pah(-) showed an increased sensitivity to Tyr deprivation, while the pah(-)/+PAH overexpressor showed increased survival and could be adapted to grow well without added Tyr. pah(-) showed no alterations in H(4)B-dependent differentiation, as established by in vitro metacyclogenesis, or survival in mouse or macrophage infections. Thus Leishmania PAH may mitigate but not alleviate Tyr auxotrophy, but plays no essential role in the steps of the parasite infectious cycle. These findings suggest PAH is unlikely to explain the Leishmania requirement for biopterin.
Manhas, Reetika; Gowri, Venkatraman Subramanian; Madhubala, Rentala
The synthesis of selenocysteine, the 21st amino acid, occurs on its transfer RNA (tRNA), tRNASec. tRNASec is initially aminoacylated with serine by seryl-tRNA synthetase and the resulting seryl moiety is converted to phosphoserine by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA kinase (PSTK) in eukaryotes. The selenium donor, selenophosphate is synthesized from selenide and ATP by selenophosphate synthetase. Selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS) then uses the O-phosphoseryl-tRNASec and selenophosphate to form Sec-tRNASec in eukaryotes. Here, we report the characterization of selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase from Leishmania donovani. Kinetoplastid SepSecS enzymes are phylogenetically closer to worm SepSecS. LdSepSecS was found to exist as a tetramer. Leishmania SepSecS enzyme was found to be active and able to complement the ΔselA deletion in Escherichia coli JS1 strain only in the presence of archaeal PSTK, indicating the conserved nature of the PSTK-SepSecS pathway. LdSepSecS was found to localize in the cytoplasm of the parasite. Gene deletion studies indicate that Leishmania SepSecS is dispensable for the parasite survival. The parasite was found to encode three selenoproteins, which were only expressed in the presence of SepSecS. Selenoproteins of L. donovani are not required for the growth of the promastigotes. Auranofin, a known inhibitor of selenoprotein synthesis showed the same sensitivity toward the wild-type and null mutants suggesting its effect is not through binding to selenoproteins. The three-dimensional structural comparison indicates that human and Leishmania homologs are structurally highly similar but their association modes leading to tetramerization seem different. PMID:26586914
Cull, Benjamin; Prado Godinho, Joseane Lima; Fernandes Rodrigues, Juliany Cola; Frank, Benjamin; Schurigt, Uta; Williams, Roderick AM; Coombs, Graham H; Mottram, Jeremy C
Autophagy is a central process behind the cellular remodeling that occurs during differentiation of Leishmania, yet the cargo of the protozoan parasite's autophagosome is unknown. We have identified glycosomes, peroxisome-like organelles that uniquely compartmentalize glycolytic and other metabolic enzymes in Leishmania and other kinetoplastid parasitic protozoa, as autophagosome cargo. It has been proposed that the number of glycosomes and their content change during the Leishmania life cycle as a key adaptation to the different environments encountered. Quantification of RFP-SQL-labeled glycosomes showed that promastigotes of L. major possess ∼20 glycosomes per cell, whereas amastigotes contain ∼10. Glycosome numbers were significantly greater in promastigotes and amastigotes of autophagy-defective L. major Δatg5 mutants, implicating autophagy in glycosome homeostasis and providing a partial explanation for the previously observed growth and virulence defects of these mutants. Use of GFP-ATG8 to label autophagosomes showed glycosomes to be cargo in ∼15% of them; glycosome-containing autophagosomes were trafficked to the lysosome for degradation. The number of autophagosomes increased 10-fold during differentiation, yet the percentage of glycosome-containing autophagosomes remained constant. This indicates that increased turnover of glycosomes was due to an overall increase in autophagy, rather than an upregulation of autophagosomes containing this cargo. Mitophagy of the single mitochondrion was not observed in L. major during normal growth or differentiation; however, mitochondrial remnants resulting from stress-induced fragmentation colocalized with autophagosomes and lysosomes, indicating that autophagy is used to recycle these damaged organelles. These data show that autophagy in Leishmania has a central role not only in maintaining cellular homeostasis and recycling damaged organelles but crucially in the adaptation to environmental change through the
Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Alkahtani, Saad; Kolli, Bala; Tripathi, Pankaj; Dutta, Sujoy; Al-Kahtane, Abdullah A; Jiang, Xiong-Jie; Ng, Dennis K P; Chang, Kwang Poo
Photodynamic inactivation ofLeishmaniaspp. requires the cellular uptake of photosensitizers, e.g., endocytosis of silicon(IV)-phthalocyanines (PC) axially substituted with bulky ligands. We report here that when substituted with amino-containing ligands, the PCs (PC1 and PC2) were endocytosed and displayed improved potency againstLeishmania tropicapromastigotes and axenic amastigotesin vitro The uptake of these PCs by bothLeishmaniastages followed saturation kinetics, as expected. Sensitive assays were developed for assessing the photodynamic inactivation ofLeishmaniaspp. by rendering them fluorescent in two ways: transfecting promastigotes to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and loading them with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). PC-sensitizedLeishmania tropicastrains were seen microscopically to lose their motility, structural integrity, and GFP/CFSE fluorescence after exposure to red light (wavelength, ∼650 nm) at a fluence of 1 to 2 J cm(-2) Quantitative fluorescence assays based on the loss of GFP/CFSE from liveLeishmania tropicashowed that PC1 and PC2 dose dependently sensitized both stages for photoinactivation, consistent with the results of a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay.Leishmania tropicastrains are >100 times more sensitive than their host cells or macrophages to PC1- and PC2-mediated photoinactivation, judging from the estimated 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of these cells. Axial substitution of the PC with amino groups instead of other ligands appears to increase its leishmanial photolytic activity by up to 40-fold. PC1 and PC2 are thus potentially useful for photodynamic therapy of leishmaniasis and for oxidative photoinactivation ofLeishmaniaspp. for use as vaccines or vaccine carriers.
Akhoundi, Mohammad; Kuhls, Katrin; Cannet, Arnaud; Votýpka, Jan; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal; Sereno, Denis
Background The aim of this study is to describe the major evolutionary historical events among Leishmania, sandflies, and the associated animal reservoirs in detail, in accordance with the geographical evolution of the Earth, which has not been previously discussed on a large scale. Methodology and Principal Findings Leishmania and sandfly classification has always been a controversial matter, and the increasing number of species currently described further complicates this issue. Despite several hypotheses on the origin, evolution, and distribution of Leishmania and sandflies in the Old and New World, no consistent agreement exists regarding dissemination of the actors that play roles in leishmaniasis. For this purpose, we present here three centuries of research on sandflies and Leishmania descriptions, as well as a complete description of Leishmania and sandfly fossils and the emergence date of each Leishmania and sandfly group during different geographical periods, from 550 million years ago until now. We discuss critically the different approaches that were used for Leishmana and sandfly classification and their synonymies, proposing an updated classification for each species of Leishmania and sandfly. We update information on the current distribution and dispersion of different species of Leishmania (53), sandflies (more than 800 at genus or subgenus level), and animal reservoirs in each of the following geographical ecozones: Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Malagasy, and Australian. We propose an updated list of the potential and proven sandfly vectors for each Leishmania species in the Old and New World. Finally, we address a classical question about digenetic Leishmania evolution: which was the first host, a vertebrate or an invertebrate? Conclusions and Significance We propose an updated view of events that have played important roles in the geographical dispersion of sandflies, in relation to both the Leishmania species they
Acosta, Igor da C L; Da Costa, Andrea P; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei
Trypanosoma and Leishmania infections affect wild and domestic animals and human populations. The growing process of deforestation and urbanization of Atlantic Rainforest areas has given rise to introduction of humans and domestic animals to the sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Serological, parasitological, and molecular surveys among wild and domestic animals in the Corrego do Veado Biological Reserve, which is an Atlantic Rainforest fragment in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were evaluated. In total, 154 wild animals of 25 species and 67 domestic animals (47 dogs and 20 horses) were sampled. All the domestic animals were serologically negative for anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi antibodies and negative in parasitological approaches. Only the Order Chiroptera presented positive blood cultures and cryopreserved isolates. The phylogenetic trees based on SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes confirmed the occurrence of Trypanosoma dionisii and provided the first record of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei in southeastern Brazil. The studies conducted in Atlantic Rainforest remaining trees provide the knowledge of parasite diversity or detect parasites that can accelerate the loss of hosts diversity.
Sifaoui, Ines; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Maria; Ticona, Juan Carlos; Reyes-Batlle, María; Mejri, Mondher; Jiménez, Antonio Ignacio; Lopez-Bazzocchi, Isabel; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Abderabba, Manef; Piñero, José E
Protozoan diseases, such as leishmaniasis, are a cause of considerable morbidity throughout the world, affecting millions every year. In this study, two triterpenic acids (maslinic and oleanolic acids) were isolated from Tunisian olive leaf extracts and their in vitro activity against the promastigotes stage of Leishmania (L.) infantum and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was investigated. Maslinic acid showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 9.32 ± 1.654 and 12.460 ± 1.25 μg/ml against L. infantum and L. amazonensis, respectively. The mechanism of action of these drugs was investigated by detecting changes in the phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, the plasma membrane permeability, the mitochondrial membrane potential and the ATP level production in the treated parasites. By using the fluorescent probe SYTOX® Green, both triterpenic acids showed that they produce a time-dependent plasma membrane permeabilization in the treated Leishmania species. In addition, spectrofluorimeteric data revealed the surface exposure of PS in promastigotes. Both molecules reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased the ATP levels to 15% in parasites treated with IC90 for 24h. We conclude that the triterpenic acids tested in this study, show potential as future therapeutic alternative against leishmaniasis. Further studies are needed to confirm this.
Castro, Ludiele Souza; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Hans Filho, Günther; Higa Júnior, Minoru German; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Vincent, Isabel M.; Racine, Gina; Légaré, Danielle; Ouellette, Marc
Antimony (SbIII) and miltefosine (MIL) are important drugs for the treatment of Leishmania parasite infections. The mitochondrion is likely to play a central role in SbIII and MIL induced cell death in this parasite. Enriched mitochondrial samples from Leishmania promastigotes selected step by step for in vitro resistance to SbIII and MIL were subjected to differential proteomic analysis. A shared decrease in both mutants in the levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase was observed, as well as a differential abundance in two calcium-binding proteins and the unique dynamin-1-like protein of the parasite. Both mutants presented a shared increase in the succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase and the abundance of numerous hypothetical proteins was also altered in both mutants. In general, the proteomic changes observed in the MIL mutant were less pronounced than in the SbIII mutant, probably due to the early appearance of a mutation in the miltefosine transporter abrogating the need for a strong mitochondrial adaptation. This study is the first analysis of the Leishmania mitochondrial proteome and offers powerful insights into the adaptations to this organelle during SbIII and MIL drug resistance. PMID:28248274
Costagliola, Alessandro; Piegari, Giuseppe; Otrocka-Domagala, Iwona; Ciccarelli, Davide; Iovane, Valentina; Oliva, Gaetano; Russo, Valeria; Rinaldi, Laura; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando
Myocarditis associated with infectious diseases may occur in dogs, including those caused by the protozoa Neospora caninum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis, and Hepatozoon canis. However, although cardiac disease due to Leishmania infection has also been documented, the immunopathological features of myocarditis have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to examine the types of ce