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Sample records for lena triga mark

  1. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Hamzah, N. S. Abi, M. J. B. Rawi, M. Z. M. Rawi Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-12

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  2. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Hamzah, N. S.; J. B., Abi M.; M. Z., M. Rawi; Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  3. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; Rawi, M. Z. M.

    2016-01-22

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  4. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; M. Rawi M., Z.

    2016-01-01

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  5. TRIGA Mark II Criticality Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Persic, Andreja; Ravnik, Matjaz; Zagar, Tomaz

    2000-12-15

    The experimental results of criticality benchmark experiments performed at the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor are presented. The experiments were performed with partly burned fuel in two compact and uniform core configurations in the same arrangements as were used in the fresh fuel criticality benchmark experiment performed in 1991. In the experiments, both core configurations contained only 12 wt% U-ZrH fuel with 20% enriched uranium. The first experimental core contained 43 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.22 MWd or 2.8% {sup 235}U burned. The last experimental core configuration was composed of 48 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.15 MWd or 2.6% {sup 235}U burned. The experimental determination of k{sub eff} for both core configurations, one subcritical and one critical, are presented. Burnup for all fuel elements was calculated in two-dimensional four-group diffusion approximation using the TRIGLAV code. The burnup of several fuel elements was measured also by the reactivity method.

  6. Decommissioning of the TRIGA mark II and III and radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Doo Seong Hwang; Yoon Ji Lee; Gyeong Hwan Chung; Jei Kwon Moon

    2013-07-01

    KAERI has carried out decommissioning projects for two research reactors (KRR-1 and 2). The decommissioning project of KRR-1 (TRIGA Mark II) and 2 (TRIGA Mark III) was launched in 1997 with a total budget of 23.25 million US dollars. KRR-2 and all auxiliary facilities were already decommissioned, and KRR-1 is being decommissioned now. Much more dismantled waste is generated than in any other operations of nuclear facilities. Thus, the waste needs to be reduced and stabilized through decontamination or treatment before disposal. This paper introduces the current status of the decommissioning projects and describes the volume reduction and conditioning of decommissioning waste for final disposal. (authors)

  7. Experimental power density distribution benchmark in the TRIGA Mark II reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Stancar, Z.; Radulovic, V.; Podvratnik, M.; Zerovnik, G.; Trkov, A.; Barbot, L.; Domergue, C.; Destouches, C.

    2012-07-01

    In order to improve the power calibration process and to benchmark the existing computational model of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Josef Stefan Inst. (JSI), a bilateral project was started as part of the agreement between the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives (CEA) and the Ministry of higher education, science and technology of Slovenia. One of the objectives of the project was to analyze and improve the power calibration process of the JSI TRIGA reactor (procedural improvement and uncertainty reduction) by using absolutely calibrated CEA fission chambers (FCs). This is one of the few available power density distribution benchmarks for testing not only the fission rate distribution but also the absolute values of the fission rates. Our preliminary calculations indicate that the total experimental uncertainty of the measured reaction rate is sufficiently low that the experiments could be considered as benchmark experiments. (authors)

  8. Neutron flux characterisation of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II research reactor for radiobiological and microdosimetric applications.

    PubMed

    Alloni, D; Prata, M; Salvini, A; Ottolenghi, A

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays the Pavia TRIGA reactor is available for national and international collaboration in various research fields. The TRIGA Mark II nuclear research reactor of the Pavia University offers different in- and out-core neutron irradiation channels, each characterised by different neutron spectra. In the last two years a campaign of measurements and simulations has been performed in order to guarantee a better characterisation of these different fluxes and to meet the demands of irradiations that require precise information on these spectra in particular for radiobiological and microdosimetric studies. Experimental data on neutron fluxes have been collected analysing and measuring the gamma activity induced in thin target foils of different materials irradiated in different TRIGA experimental channels. The data on the induced gamma activities have been processed with the SAND II deconvolution code and finally compared with the spectra obtained with Monte Carlo simulations. The comparison between simulated and measured spectra showed a good agreement allowing a more precise characterisation of the neutron spectra and a validation of the adopted method.

  9. Technical Specifications for the Neutron Radiography Facility (TRIGA Mark 1 Reactor). Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, R.L.; Perfect, J.F.

    1988-04-01

    These Technical Specifications state the limits under which the Neutron Radiography Facility, with its associated TRIGA Mark I Reactor, is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. These specifications cover operation of the Facility for the purpose of examination of specimens (including contained fissile material) by neutron radiography, for the irradiation of specimens in the pneumatic transfer system and approved in-core or in-pool irradiation facilities and operator training. The Final Safety Analysis Report (TC-344) and its supplements, and these Technical Specifications are the basic safety documents of the Neutron Radiography Facility.

  10. Modification of the radial beam port of ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications.

    PubMed

    Akan, Zafer; Türkmen, Mehmet; Çakir, Tahir; Reyhancan, İskender A; Çolak, Üner; Okka, Muhittin; Kiziltaş, Sahip

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to describe the modification of the radial beam port of ITU (İstanbul Technical University) TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications. Radial beam port is modified with Polyethylene and Cerrobend collimators. Neutron flux values are measured by neutron activation analysis (Au-Cd foils). Experimental results are verified with Monte Carlo results. The results of neutron/photon spectrum, thermal/epithermal neutron flux, fast group photon fluence and change of the neutron fluxes with the beam port length are presented.

  11. Monte Carlo Simulation of the TRIGA Mark II Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jeraj, Robert; Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz

    2002-03-15

    Monte Carlo calculations of a criticality experiment with burned fuel on the TRIGA Mark II research reactor are presented. The main objective was to incorporate burned fuel composition calculated with the WIMSD4 deterministic code into the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code and compare the calculated k{sub eff} with the measurements. The criticality experiment was performed in 1998 at the ''Jozef Stefan'' Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with the same fuel elements and loading pattern as in the TRIGA criticality benchmark experiment with fresh fuel performed in 1991. The only difference was that in 1998, the fuel elements had on average burnup of {approx}3%, corresponding to 1.3-MWd energy produced in the core in the period between 1991 and 1998. The fuel element burnup accumulated during 1991-1998 was calculated with the TRIGLAV in-house-developed fuel management two-dimensional multigroup diffusion code. The burned fuel isotopic composition was calculated with the WIMSD4 code and compared to the ORIGEN2 calculations. Extensive comparison of burned fuel material composition was performed for both codes for burnups up to 20% burned {sup 235}U, and the differences were evaluated in terms of reactivity. The WIMSD4 and ORIGEN2 results agreed well for all isotopes important in reactivity calculations, giving increased confidence in the WIMSD4 calculation of the burned fuel material composition. The k{sub eff} calculated with the combined WIMSD4 and MCNP4B calculations showed good agreement with the experimental values. This shows that linking of WIMSD4 with MCNP4B for criticality calculations with burned fuel is feasible and gives reliable results.

  12. Development of neutron beam projects at the University of Texas TRIGA Mark II Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Unlu, Kenan; Bauer, Thomas L.; Wehring, Bernard W.

    1992-07-01

    Recently, the UT-TRIGA research reactor was licensed and has become fully operational. This reactor, the first new US university reactor in 17 years, is the focus of a new reactor laboratory facility which is located on the Balcones Research Center at The University of Texas at Austin. The TRIGA Mark II reactor is licensed for 1.1 MW steady power operation, 3 dollar pulsing, and includes five beam ports. Various neutron beam-line projects have been assigned to each beam port. Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) and the Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) are close to completion and will be operational in the near future. The design of the NDP instrument has been completed, a target chamber has been built, and the thermal neutron collimator, detectors, data acquisition electronics, and data processing computers have been acquired. The target chamber accommodates wafers up to 12'' in diameter and provides remote positioning of these wafers. The design and construction of the TCNS has been completed. The TCNS consists of a moderator (mesitylene), a neon heat pipe, a cryogenic refrigerator, and neutron guide tubes. In addition, fission-fragment research (HIAWATHA), Neutron Capture Therapy, and Neutron Radiography are being pursued as projects for the other three beam ports. (author)

  13. Relative fission product yield determination in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, Michael A.

    Fission product yield data sets are one of the most important and fundamental compilations of basic information in the nuclear industry. This data has a wide range of applications which include nuclear fuel burnup and nonproliferation safeguards. Relative fission yields constitute a major fraction of the reported yield data and reduce the number of required absolute measurements. Radiochemical separations of fission products reduce interferences, facilitate the measurement of low level radionuclides, and are instrumental in the analysis of low-yielding symmetrical fission products. It is especially useful in the measurement of the valley nuclides and those on the extreme wings of the mass yield curve, including lanthanides, where absolute yields have high errors. This overall project was conducted in three stages: characterization of the neutron flux in irradiation positions within the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Mark I Reactor (GSTR), determining the mass attenuation coefficients of precipitates used in radiochemical separations, and measuring the relative fission products in the GSTR. Using the Westcott convention, the Westcott flux, modified spectral index, neutron temperature, and gold-based cadmium ratios were determined for various sampling positions in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor. The differential neutron energy spectrum measurement was obtained using the computer iterative code SAND-II-SNL. The mass attenuation coefficients for molecular precipitates were determined through experiment and compared to results using the EGS5 Monte Carlo computer code. Difficulties associated with sufficient production of fission product isotopes in research reactors limits the ability to complete a direct, experimental assessment of mass attenuation coefficients for these isotopes. Experimental attenuation coefficients of radioisotopes produced through neutron activation agree well with the EGS5 calculated results. This suggests mass attenuation coefficients of molecular

  14. Neutron spectra at two beam ports of a TRIGA Mark III reactor loaded with HEU fuel.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, H R; Hernández-Dávila, V M; Aguilar, F; Paredes, L; Rivera, T

    2014-01-01

    The neutron spectra have been measured in two beam ports, one radial and another tangential, of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Measurements were carried out with the reactor core loaded with high enriched uranium fuel. Two reactor powers, 5 and 10 W, were used during neutron spectra measurements using a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a (6)LiI(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 in.-diameter high-density polyethylene spheres. The neutron spectra were unfolded using the NSDUAZ unfolding code. For each spectrum total flux, mean energy and ambient dose equivalent were determined. Measured spectra show fission, epithermal and thermal neutrons, being harder in the radial beam port.

  15. Production and release rate of (37)Ar from the UT TRIGA Mark-II research reactor.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christine; Biegalski, Steven R; Artnak, Edward J; Moll, Ethan; Haas, Derek A; Lowrey, Justin D; Aalseth, Craig E; Seifert, Allen; Mace, Emily K; Woods, Vincent T; Humble, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Air samples were taken at various locations around The University of Texas at Austin's TRIGA Mark II research reactor and analyzed to determine the concentrations of (37)Ar, (41)Ar, and (133)Xe present. The measured ratio of (37)Ar/(41)Ar and historical records of (41)Ar releases were then utilized to estimate an annual average release rate of (37)Ar from the reactor facility. Using the calculated release rate, atmospheric transport modeling was performed in order to determine the potential impact of research reactor operations on nearby treaty verification activities. Results suggest that small research reactors (∼1 MWt) do not release (37)Ar in concentrations measurable by currently proposed OSI detection equipment.

  16. Neutron detection of the Triga Mark III reactor, using nuclear track methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, G. Golzarri, J. I.; Raya-Arredondo, R.; Cruz-Galindo, S.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-23

    Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM), based on the neutron-proton interaction is one often employed alternative for neutron detection. In this paper we apply NTM to determine the Triga Mark III reactor operating power and neutron flux. The facility nuclear core, loaded with 85 Highly Enriched Uranium as fuel with control rods in a demineralized water pool, provide a neutron flux around 2 × 10{sup 12} n cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, at the irradiation channel TO-2. The neutron field is measured at this channel, using Landauer{sup ®} PADC as neutron detection material, covered by 3 mm Plexiglas{sup ®} as converter. After exposure, plastic detectors were chemically etched to make observable the formed latent tracks induced by proton recoils. The track density was determined by a custom made Digital Image Analysis System. The resulting average nuclear track density shows a direct proportionality response for reactor power in the range 0.1-7 kW. We indicate several advantages of the technique including the possibility to calibrate the neutron flux density measured at low reactor power.

  17. Testing the applicability of the k0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siong, Wee Boon; Dung, Ho Manh; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abd.; Elias, Md. Suhaimi

    2006-08-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA ( k0-NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k0-NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters ( α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k0-NAA method at the MINT.

  18. Implementation of k0-INAA standardisation at ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Turkey based on k0-IAEA software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Ayse Nur; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of k0-INAA method at the Istanbul Technical University TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The neutron spectrum parameters such as epithermal neutron flux distribution parameter (α), thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and thermal neutron flux (φth) were determined at the central irradiation channel of the ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor using bare triple-monitor method. HPGe detector calibrations and calculations were carried out by k0-IAEA software. The α, f and φth values were calculated to be -0.009, 15.4 and 7.92·1012 cm-2 s-1, respectively. NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash and intercomparison samples consisting of clay and sandy soil samples were used to evaluate the validity of the method. For selected elements, the statistical evaluation of the analysis results was carried out by z-score test. A good agreement between certified/reported and experimental values was obtained.

  19. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of new irradiation channels inside the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor core.

    PubMed

    Chham, E; El Bardouni, T; Benaalilou, K; Boukhal, H; El Bakkari, B; Boulaich, Y; El Younoussi, C; Nacir, B

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to improve the capacity of radioisotope production in the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor, which is considered as one of the most important applications of research reactors. The aim of this study is to enhance the utilization of TRIGA core in the field of neutron activation and ensure an economic use of the fuel. The main idea was to create an additional irradiation channel (IC) inside the core. For this purpose, three new core configurations are proposed, which differ according to the IC position in the core. Thermal neutron flux distribution and other neutronic safety parameters such as power peaking factors, excess reactivity, and control rods worth reactivity were calculated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) code and neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VII evaluation. The calculated thermal flux in the central thimble (CT) and in the added IC for the reconfigured core is compared with the thermal flux in the CT of the existing core, which is taken as a reference. The results show that all the obtained fluxes in CTs are very close to the reference value, while a remarkable difference is observed between the fluxes in the new ICs and reference. This difference depends on the position of IC in the reactor core. To demonstrate that the Moroccan TRIGA reactor could safely operate at 2MW, with new configurations based on new ICs, different safety-related thermal-hydraulic parameters were investigated. The PARET model was used in this study to verify whether the safety margins are met despite the new modifications of the core. The results show that it is possible to introduce new ICs safely in the reactor core, because the obtained values of the parameters are largely far from compromising the safety of the reactor.

  20. Long-lived activation products in TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield: calculation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.

  1. Design of sample carrier for neutron irradiation facility at TRIGA MARK II nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Y.; Hamid, N. A.; Mansor, M. A.; Ahmad, M. H. A. R. M.; Yusof, M. R.; Yazid, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work is to design a sample carrier for neutron irradiation experiment at beam ports of research nuclear reactor, the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). The sample carrier was designed so that irradiation experiment can be performed safely by researchers. This development will resolve the transferring of sample issues faced by the researchers at the facility when performing neutron irradiation studies. The function of sample carrier is to ensure the sample for the irradiation process can be transferred into and out from the beam port of the reactor safely and effectively. The design model used was House of Quality Method (HOQ) which is usually used for developing specifications for product and develop numerical target to work towards and determining how well we can meet up to the needs. The chosen sample carrier (product) consists of cylindrical casing shape with hydraulic cylinders transportation method. The sample placing can be done manually, locomotion was by wheel while shielding used was made of boron materials. The sample carrier design can shield thermal neutron during irradiation of sample so that only low fluencies fast neutron irradiates the sample.

  2. Neutronics and thermal hydraulic analysis of TRIGA Mark II reactor using MCNPX and COOLOD-N2 computer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiyapun, K.; Wetchagarun, S.

    2017-06-01

    The neutronic analysis of TRIGA Mark II reactor has been performed. A detailed model of the reactor core was conducted including standard fuel elements, fuel follower control rods, and irradiation devices. As the approach to safety nuclear design are based on determining the criticality (keff), reactivity worth, reactivity excess, hot rod power factor and power peaking of the reactor, the MCNPX code had been used to calculate the nuclear parameters for different core configuration designs. The thermal-hydraulic model has been developed using COOLOD-N2 for steady state, using the nuclear parameters and power distribution results from MCNPX calculation. The objective of the thermal-hydraulic model is to determine the thermal safety margin and to ensure that the fuel integrity is maintained during steady state as well as during abnormal condition at full power. The hot channel fuel centerline temperature, fuel surface temperature, cladding surface temperature, the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and DNB ratio were determined. The good agreement between experimental data and simulation concerning reactor criticality proves the reliability of the methodology of analysis from neutronic and thermal hydraulic perspective.

  3. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, I.; Yunus, S. M.; Datta, T. K.; Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S.; Berliner, R.; Yelon, W. B.

    2016-07-01

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30˚ (2θ) at each step and covers 120˚ in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20˚ at each step and covers 120˚ in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  4. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, I. Yunus, S. M. Datta, T. K. Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S.; Berliner, R.; Yelon, W. B.

    2016-07-12

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6 mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3 mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30° (2θ) at each step and covers 120° in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20° at each step and covers 120° in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  5. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by U-235 fission neutrons: I. Irradiation of human blood samples in the "dry cell" of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Fajgelj, A; Lakoski, A; Horvat, D; Remec, I; Skrk, J; Stegnar, P

    1991-11-01

    A set-up for irradiation of biological samples in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana is described. Threshold activation detectors were used for characterisation of the neutron flux, and the accompanying gamma dose was measured by TLDs. Human peripheral blood samples were irradiated "in vitro" and biological effects evaluated according to the unstable chromosomal aberrations induced. Biological effects of two types of cultivation of irradiated blood samples, the first immediately after irradiation and the second after 96 h storage, were studied. A significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations between these two types of samples was obtained, while our dose-response curve fitting coefficients alpha 1 = (7.71 +/- 0.09) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (immediate cultivation) and alpha 2 = (11.03 +/- 0.08) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (96 h delayed cultivation) are in both cases lower than could be found in the literature.

  6. Optimised k0-instrumental neutron activation method using the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, M. Â. B. C.; Jaćimović, R.

    2006-08-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Centre/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CDTN/CNEN, is the only Brazilian Institution to apply the k0-standardisation method of instrumental neutron activation technique determining elements using its own nuclear reactor, TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1. After changes in the reactor core configuration, the reactor neutron flux distribution in typical irradiation channels had to be updated, as well as the parameters f and α, needed to apply the k0-method of neutron activation analysis. The neutron flux distribution in the rotary rack was evaluated through the specific count rate of 198Au and the parameters f and α, were determined in five selected channels applying the "Cd-ratio for multi-monitor" method, using a set of Al-(0.1%)Au and Zr (99.8%) monitors. Several reference materials were analysed, indicating the effectiveness of the improved method.

  7. Estimation of (41)Ar activity concentration and release rate from the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor.

    PubMed

    Hoq, M Ajijul; Soner, M A Malek; Rahman, A; Salam, M A; Islam, S M A

    2016-03-01

    The BAEC TRIGA research reactor (BTRR) is the only nuclear reactor in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority (BAERA) regulations require that nuclear reactor licensees undertake all reasonable precautions to protect the environment and the health and safety of persons, including identifying, controlling and monitoring the release of nuclear substances to the environment. The primary activation product of interest in terms of airborne release from the reactor is (41)Ar. (41)Ar is a noble gas readily released from the reactor stacks and most has not decayed by the time it moves offsite with normal wind speed. Initially (41)Ar is produced from irradiation of dissolved air in the primary water which eventually transfers into the air in the reactor bay. In this study, the airborne radioisotope (41)Ar generation concentration, ground level concentration and release rate from the BTRR bay region are evaluated theoretically during the normal reactor operation condition by several governing equations. This theoretical calculation eventually minimizes the doubt about radiological safety to determine the radiation level for (41)Ar activity whether it is below the permissible limit or not. Results show that the estimated activity for (41)Ar is well below the maximum permissible concentration limit set by the regulatory body, which is an assurance for the reactor operating personnel and general public. Thus the analysis performed within this paper is so much effective in the sense of ensuring radiological safety for working personnel and the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej

    2014-02-01

    The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor.

  9. Design, construction, and demonstration of a neutron beamline and a neutron imaging facility at a Mark-I TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Aaron E.

    The fleet of research and training reactors is aging, and no new research reactors are planned in the United States. Thus, there is a need to expand the capabilities of existing reactors to meet users' needs. While many research reactors have beam port facilities, the original design of the United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) did not include beam ports. The MInes NEutron Radiography (MINER) facility developed by this thesis and installed at the GSTR provides new capabilities for both researchers and students at the Colorado School of Mines. The facility consists of a number of components, including a neutron beamline and beamstop, an optical table, an experimental enclosure and associated interlocks, a computer control system, a multi-channel plate imaging detector, and the associated electronics. The neutron beam source location, determined through Monte Carlo modeling, provides the best mixture of high neutron flux, high thermal neutron content, and low gamma radiation content. A Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the neutron beam provides researchers with a tool for designing experiments before placing objects in the neutron beam. Experimental multi-foil activation results, compared to calculated multi-foil activation results, verify the model. The MCNP model predicts a neutron beamline flux of 2.2*106 +/- 6.4*105 n/cm2-s based on a source particle rate determined from the foil activation experiments when the reactor is operating at a power of 950 kWt with the beam shutter fully open. The average cadmium ratio of the beamline is 7.4, and the L/D of the neutron beam is approximately 200+/-10. Radiographs of a sensitivity indicator taken using both the digital detector and the transfer foil method provide one demonstration of the radiographic capabilities of the new facility. Calibration fuel pins manufactured using copper and stainless steel surrogate fuel pellets provide additional specimens for demonstration of the new facility and offer a

  10. Measurements of miniature ionization chamber currents in the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor demonstrate the importance of the delayed contribution to the photon field in nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Kaiba, Tanja; Gašper, Žerovnik; Snoj, Luka

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of experimental locations of a research nuclear reactor implies the determination of neutron and photon flux levels within, with the best achievable accuracy. In nuclear reactors, photon fluxes are commonly calculated by Monte Carlo simulations but rarely measured on-line. In this context, experiments were conducted with a miniature gas ionization chamber (MIC) based on miniature fission chamber mechanical parts, recently developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) irradiated in the core of the Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The aim of the study was to compare the measured MIC currents with calculated currents based on simulations with the MCNP6 code. A discrepancy of around 50% was observed between the measured and the calculated currents; in the latter taking into consideration only the prompt photon field. Further experimental measurements of MIC currents following reactor SCRAMs (reactor shutdown with rapid insertions of control rods) provide evidence that over 30% of the total measured signal is due to the delayed photon field, originating from fission and activation products, which are untreated in the calculations. In the comparison between the measured and calculated values, these findings imply an overall discrepancy of less than 20% of the total signal which is still unexplained.

  11. Lena River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from June 28, 2002, shows numerous burn scars dotting the northern Siberian landscape along the Lena River. In the true-color image, the burn scars appear dark grayish-brown, while in the false-color image they appear red, as does the bare exposed soil of the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range to the east of the north-flowing Lena. A tinge of blue along the mountains in the false-color image means there is some lingering snow or ice, and that the bare soil is due to spring's late arrival there, and not to burn scars. At the top, sea ice still fills the Laptev Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Lena River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from June 28, 2002, shows numerous burn scars dotting the northern Siberian landscape along the Lena River. In the true-color image, the burn scars appear dark grayish-brown, while in the false-color image they appear red, as does the bare exposed soil of the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range to the east of the north-flowing Lena. A tinge of blue along the mountains in the false-color image means there is some lingering snow or ice, and that the bare soil is due to spring's late arrival there, and not to burn scars. At the top, sea ice still fills the Laptev Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Deployment of a three-dimensional array of Micro-Pocket Fission Detector triads (MPFD3) for real-time, in-core neutron flux measurements in the Kansas State University TRIGA Mark-II Nuclear Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmes, Martin Francis

    A Micro-Pocket Fission Detector (MPFD) is a miniaturized type of fission chamber developed for use inside a nuclear reactor. Their unique design allows them to be located between or even inside fuel pins while being built from materials which give them an operational lifetime comparable to or exceeding the life of the fuel. While other types of neutron detectors have been made for use inside a nuclear reactor, the MPFD is the first neutron detector which can survive sustained use inside a nuclear reactor while providing a real-time measurement of the neutron flux. This dissertation covers the deployment of MPFDs as a large three-dimensional array inside the Kansas State University TRIGA Mark-II Nuclear Reactor for real-time neutron flux measurements. This entails advancements in the design, construction, and packaging of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Triads with incorporated Thermocouple, or MPFD3-T. Specialized electronics and software also had to be designed and built in order to make a functional system capable of collecting real-time data from up to 60 MPFD3-Ts, or 180 individual MPFDs and 60 thermocouples. Design of the electronics required the development of detailed simulations and analysis for determining the theoretical response of the detectors and determination of their size. The results of this research shows that MPFDs can operate for extended times inside a nuclear reactor and can be utilized toward the use as distributed neutron detector arrays for advanced reactor control systems and power mapping. These functions are critical for continued gains in efficiency of nuclear power reactors while also improving safety through relatively inexpensive redundancy.

  14. Applications of the Dow TRIGA research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, C.W.; Quinn, T.J.; Krueger, D.A.

    1982-07-01

    The Dow TRIGA Mark I reactor is a one-hundred kilowatt nuclear reactor installed by General Atomics using the Torrey Pines reactor console, seventy-five used stainless-steel clad fuel elements and one new aluminium clad fuel element. The reactor is equipped with a forty-position rotating Lazy Susan in the reflector, a pneumatic transfer system with its terminal in the F-ring of the core, and a central thimble which can be used for irradiation of samples in the center of the core or which can be emptied of the shielding water to produce a beam of neutrons and gamma rays in the area atop the pool. Samples can also be irradiated in or near the core. There is no provision for pulsing this TRIGA reactor. The neutron activation analysis program uses the Dow TRIGA reactor as a source of thermal neutrons and a Kaman A711 generator as a source of 14-MeV neutrons. The associated counting equipment includes one Gel(Li) detector and two Nal(Tl) detectors, each using a 100-position sample changer and all interfaced to a Tracor-Northern TN-11 data acquisition and computing system, one Ge(Li) detector and its TN-11 system for the pneumatic transfer system and the beam tube experiments, and two NaKTl)detectors with a TN-4000 system used with the Kaman neutron generator. The activation analysis program gets samples from all parts of the manufacturing and research efforts at Dow: raw materials, intermediates, products, effluents, research samples, samples from customers who use Dow products, and environmental samples. This presentation is devoted to the progress made in the past year on the pneumatic transfer system and the renewed work on prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy including the extensive process of method validation.

  15. Benchmarking criticality analysis of TRIGA fuel storage racks.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew Loren; DeBey, Timothy M; Higginbotham, Jack F

    2017-01-01

    A criticality analysis was benchmarked to sub-criticality measurements of the hexagonal fuel storage racks at the United States Geological Survey TRIGA MARK I reactor in Denver. These racks, which hold up to 19 fuel elements each, are arranged at 0.61m (2 feet) spacings around the outer edge of the reactor. A 3-dimensional model was created of the racks using MCNP5, and the model was verified experimentally by comparison to measured subcritical multiplication data collected in an approach to critical loading of two of the racks. The validated model was then used to show that in the extreme condition where the entire circumference of the pool was lined with racks loaded with used fuel the storage array is subcritical with a k value of about 0.71; well below the regulatory limit of 0.8. A model was also constructed of the rectangular 2×10 fuel storage array used in many other TRIGA reactors to validate the technique against the original TRIGA licensing sub-critical analysis performed in 1966. The fuel used in this study was standard 20% enriched (LEU) aluminum or stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel.

  16. Mark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Matthew; Smith, Theresa L., Ed.

    Mark is the central character in this story designed to help adolescents formulate a philosophy of values. The story is well suited for use in high school social studies courses and/or in philosophy or guidance units. Mark's thoughts and actions are reported as he interacts with his family, friends, acquaintances, and individuals of authority…

  17. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  20. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  1. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Tim Z.

    1994-07-01

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  2. People of the ancient rainforest: late Pleistocene foragers at the Batadomba-lena rockshelter, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Perera, Nimal; Kourampas, Nikos; Simpson, Ian A; Deraniyagala, Siran U; Bulbeck, David; Kamminga, Johan; Perera, Jude; Fuller, Dorian Q; Szabó, Katherine; Oliveira, Nuno V

    2011-09-01

    Batadomba-lena, a rockshelter in the rainforest of southwestern Sri Lanka, has yielded some of the earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in South Asia. H. sapiens foragers were present at Batadomba-lena from ca. 36,000 cal BP to the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene. Human occupation was sporadic before the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Batadomba-lena's Late Pleistocene inhabitants foraged for a broad spectrum of plant and mainly arboreal animal resources (monkeys, squirrels and abundant rainforest snails), derived from a landscape that retained equatorial rainforest cover through periods of pronounced regional aridity during the LGM. Juxtaposed hearths, palaeofloors with habitation debris, postholes, excavated pits, and animal and plant remains, including abundant Canarium nutshells, reflect intensive habitation of the rockshelter in times of monsoon intensification and biome reorganisation after ca. 16,000 cal BP. This period corresponds with further broadening of the economic spectrum, evidenced though increased contribution of squirrels, freshwater snails and Canarium nuts in the diet of the rockshelter occupants. Microliths are more abundant and morphologically diverse in the earliest, pre-LGM layer and decline markedly during intensified rockshelter use on the wane of the LGM. We propose that changing toolkits and subsistence base reflect changing foraging practices, from shorter-lived visits of highly mobile foraging bands in the period before the LGM, to intensified use of Batadomba-lena and intense foraging for diverse resources around the site during and, especially, following the LGM. Traces of ochre, marine shell beads and other objects from an 80 km-distant shore, and, possibly burials reflect symbolic practices from the outset of human presence at the rockshelter. Evidence for differentiated use of space (individual hearths, possible habitation structures) is present in LGM and terminal Pleistocene layers. The record of Batadomba-lena demonstrates

  3. Lena River delta formation during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshiyanov, D.; Makarov, A.; Savelieva, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Lena River delta, the largest delta of the Arctic Ocean, differs from other deltas because it consists mainly of organomineral sediments, commonly called peat, that contain a huge organic carbon reservoir. The analysis of delta sediment radiocarbon ages showed that they could not have formed as peat during floodplain bogging; rather, they accumulated when Laptev Sea water level was high and green mosses and sedges grew and were deposited on the surface of flooded marshes. The Lena River delta formed as organomineral masses and layered sediments accumulated during transgressive phases when sea level rose. In regressive phases, the islands composed of these sediments and other, more ancient islands were eroded. Each new sea transgression led to further accumulation of layered sediments. As a result of alternating transgressive and regressive phases, the first alluvial-marine terrace formed, consisting of geological bodies of different ages. Determining the formation age of different areas of the first terrace and other marine terraces on the coast allowed the periods of increasing (8000-6000 BP (years before present), 4500-4000, 2500-1500, and 400-200 BP) and decreasing (5000, 3000, and 500 BP) Laptev Sea levels to be distinguished in the Lena Delta area.

  4. 78 FR 26811 - Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor; Supplemental Information and Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor,'' to inform the public that the NRC is considering issuance of a...

  5. Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    AD-A270 956 L11L1I~I1 11 11 :1Ji ili! August 1993 AFRRI 93-5 TECHNICAL REPORT Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water L OCT 1 93 John Dickson Robert...COVER~ED I August 1993 Technical Report 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE S.FNDN NUMBERS Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water PE: NWED QAXM 6, AUTHOR(S) Dickson...AVAILABIIY STATEMENT 1 2b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT tMaxtm -um 200 words ) 14. SUBJECTTERMS 1S

  6. The LENA ASIC: Emulating an Obsolete Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carayon, J. L.; Mary, L.; Bertrand, J.; Manni, F.

    2013-08-01

    From 10 years, CNES and his partners TAS and Astrium have developed and flown with great success a serie of microsatellites (Demeter, Parasol, Picard etc..), which avionics is based onto a central OBC computer. The OBC is built around a central transputer IMST805 processor, which is now obsolete: the strategic procurement lot done at the beginning of the project is too old now for Quality insurance reasons. The paper describes the LENA ASIC (Logic Emulation for New Architectures) and the approach taken at CNES for the replacement of the Transputer T805 used for Myriade OBC computer to allow production of new microsatellites at a low cost in the next decade.

  7. Reconstruction of GeV Neutrino Events in LENA

    SciTech Connect

    Moellenberg, R.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hellgartner, D.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Winter, J.; Wurm, M.; Peltoniemi, J.

    2011-10-06

    LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a proposed next generation liquid-scintillator detector with about 50 kt target mass. Besides the detection of solar neutrinos, geoneutrinos, supernova neutrinos and the search for the proton decay, LENA could also be used as the far detector of a next generation neutrino beam. The present contribution outlines the status of the Monte Carlo studies towards the reconstruction of GeV neutrinos in LENA. Both the tracking capabilities at a few hundred MeV, most interesting for a beta beam, and above 1 GeV for a superbeam experiment are presented.

  8. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system.

  9. Natural and mixed convection in the cylindrical pool of TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Tiselj, I.; Matkovič, M.

    2017-02-01

    Temperature fields within the pool of the JSI TRIGA MARK II nuclear research reactor were measured to collect data for validation of the thermal hydraulics computational model of the reactor tank. In this context temperature of the coolant was measured simultaneously at sixty different positions within the pool during steady state operation and two transients. The obtained data revealed local peculiarities of the cooling water dynamics inside the pool and were used to estimate the coolant bulk velocity above the reactor core. Mixed natural and forced convection in the pool were simulated with a Computational Fluid Dynamics code. A relatively simple CFD model based on Unsteady RANS turbulence model was found to be sufficient for accurate prediction of the temperature fields in the pool during the reactor operation. Our results show that the simple geometry of the TRIGA pool reactor makes it a suitable candidate for a simple natural circulation benchmark in cylindrical geometry.

  10. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  11. Archaeometry using the Cornell TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.Z.; Bentley, R.A.; Clark, D.D.; Keyser, P.T.; Sadlikova, K.; Silverman, A.; Whitehead, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    There are several archaeological studies in progress at Cornell, and the various excavations include Etruscan (Siena, Italy), Neolithic (Halai, Greece), and late Classical (Sula Valley, northwest Honduras) Honduran sites. As part of these investigations, samples from these sites are analyzed using the Cornell TRIGA reactor. Cornell TRIGA is a 500-kW reactor well suited for high-sensitivity neutron activation analysis (NAA) and prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA). The NAA facilities include several 20 to 30% efficient high-purity germanium detectors coupled to several personal computer-based analyzers. A PGNAA facility using a cold neutron beam is currently under development. The Cornell cold neutron beam is designed for a temperature of {approximately}30 K and a flux of {approximately}1 x 10{sup 7} n /cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s thermal equivalent. The guided beam is extracted and taken 13 m from the TRIGA core into an adjoining laboratory area, where the PGNAA irradiation and counting station will be set up.

  12. A LENA Instrument onboard BepiColombo and Chandrayaan-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kazama, Yoichi; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Asamura, Kazushi; Wurz, Peter

    2009-06-16

    Low-energy neutral atom (LENA) observations bring us important information on particle environments around planetary objects such as Mercury and the Moon. In this paper, we report on a new development of a LENA instrument of light weight ({approx}2 kg) for planetary explorations. The instrument is capable of energy and mass discrimination with a large sensitivity by utilizing surface ionization followed by an electrostatic analyzer and a time-of-flight velocity spectrometer. The performance of the instrument is investigated by numerical simulations. This enables us to obtain detailed performance characterization of LENA measurements by the instrument. We also made trajectory tracing of photons entering the instrument to examine photon rejection capability. The simulations show that the energy range is from {approx}10 eV to >3.3 keV and the angular resolutions are 10 degx25 deg for 25-eV LENAs, which are sufficient for planetary LENA observations. Laboratory tests of a prototype model of the instruments developed with this study are now ongoing. According to the initial tests, the measurement principle of the instrument has been verified. This LENA instrument has been selected for both the Indian Moon exploration mission Chandrayaan-1 and the European-Japanese Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo.

  13. Arkansas Tech University TRIGA nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sankoorikal, J.; Culp, R.; Hamm, J.; Elliott, D.; Hodgson, L.; Apple, S.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the TRIGA nuclear reactor (ATUTR) proposed for construction on the campus of Arkansas Tech University in Russellville, Arkansas. The reactor will be part of the Center for Energy Studies located at Arkansas Tech University. The reactor has a steady state power level of 250 kW and can be pulsed with a maximum reactivity insertion of $2.0. Experience gained in dismantling and transporting some of the components from Michigan State University, and the storage of these components will be presented. The reactor will be used for education, training, and research. (author)

  14. A Summer View of Russia Lena Delta and Olenek

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-01

    These views of the Russian Arctic were acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on July 11, 2004, when the brief arctic summer had transformed the frozen tundra and the thousands of lakes, channels, and rivers of the Lena Delta into a fertile wetland.

  15. Oblique nonvolcanic seafloor spreading in Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Jonathan E.; Hellebrand, Eric; von der Handt, Anette; Nauret, Francois; Gao, Yongjun; Schenke, Hans Werner

    2011-10-01

    Passive rifting and the early non-volcanic formation of ocean basins are fundamental aspects of the plate tectonic cycle. Cenozoic plate margins where this has occurred are rare. Here we present new observations from Lena Trough in the Arctic Ocean that bear on the early phase of oceanic spreading in such rifts. Lena Trough is an oblique seafloor rift system bounding the North American and Eurasian plates, and connecting neighboring Gakkel Ridge with the rest of the global mid-ocean ridge system. Mapping and sampling show widespread mantle outcrop along two parallel basement ridges bounded by steeply dipping normal faults. Volcanism is limited to the intersection with Gakkel Ridge and to minor eruption of strongly potassic alkali basalts in a single location. Non-eruptive magmatism is shown by an increase in plagioclase- and vein-bearing lithologies over residual peridotite in the center of Lena Trough. Normal mid-ocean ridge stairstep geometry and obvious low-angle detachments as seen at other ridges are absent. Lena Trough thus is an example of a young nonvolcanic continental rift that is just now beginning the transition to oblique nonvolcanic seafloor spreading. This style of oblique rifting, without the formation of striated large-scale low-angle detachments appears to be a major mode of crust formation on ultraslow spreading ridges. The sharp transition from the continental margins on either side to nonvolcanic rifting, with mantle slab exhumation in the rift may provide a model for the early evolution of oblique continental rifts, such as the Cote d'Ivoire/NE Brazil conjugate margins.

  16. Upgrade of the Dow TRIGA research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    Useful operation of the Dow TRIGA{sup a} research reactor over a period of >20 years has led to a commitment to upgrades enabling another two decades of use with increased capabilities. The reactor utilization program and the upgrades are described in this paper. These included requesting a 20-yr license instead of the 10-yr license, which had been used previously; changing the license to allow operation at power levels of up to 300 kW, which provided improved analytical sensitivity; adding fuel elements to the core, which allowed better performance at the higher power levels; renovating the laboratories, which included consolidating the radioactive materials handling areas and improving the sample preparation areas; installing new shielding, detectors, computers, and sample-handling robots for greater productivity and sensitivity; replacing the 1967-1974 era control console and renovating the control rod drives to provide greater safety, reliability, and maintenance capabilities; and identifying, training, and licensing more senior reactor operators to allow the staff to continue operating and improving this system well past the turn of the century.

  17. Automated power control system for reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Anith Khairunnisa; Minhat, Mohd Sabri; Hassan, Mohd Khair

    2017-01-01

    Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) Mark II type undergoes safe operation for more than 30 years and the only research reactor exists in Malaysia. The main safety feature of Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system design is such that any failure in the electronic, or its associated components, does not lead to an uncontrolled rate of reactivity. The existed controller using feedback approach to control the reactor power. This paper introduces proposed controllers such as Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) and Proportional Integral Derivatives (PID) controller for the RTP simulation. In RTP, the most important considered parameter is the reactor power and act as nervous system. To design a controller for complex plant like RTP is quite difficult due to high cost and safety factors cause by the failure of the controller. Furthermore, to overcome these problems, a simulator can be used to replace functions the hardware and test could then be simulated using this simulator. In order to find the best controller, several controllers were proposed and the result will be analysed for study the performances of the controller. The output result will be used to find out the best RTP power controller using MATLAB/Simulink and gives result as close as the real RTP performances. Currently, the structures of RTP was design using MATLAB/Simulink tool that consist of fission chamber, controller, control rod position, height-to-worth of control rods and a RTP model. The controller will control the control rod position to make sure that the reactivity still under the limitation parameter. The results given from each controller will be analysed and validated through experiment data collected from RTP.

  18. ORIGEN2 calculations supporting TRIGA irradiated fuel data package

    SciTech Connect

    Schmittroth, F.A.

    1996-09-20

    ORIGEN2 calculations were performed for TRIGA spent fuel elements from the Hanford Neutron Radiography Facility. The calculations support storage and disposal and results include mass, activity,and decay heat. Comparisons with underwater dose-rate measurements were used to confirm and adjust the calculations.

  19. Extraction of pure thermal neutron beam for the proposed PGNAA facility at the TRIGA research reactor of AERE, Savar, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Sabina; Zaman, M. A.; Islam, S. M. A.; Ahsan, M. H.

    1993-10-01

    A study on collimators and filters for the design of a spectrometer for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) at one of the radial beamports of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at AERE, Savar has been carried out. On the basis of this study a collimator and a filter have been designed for the proposed PGNAA facility. Calculations have been done for measuring neutron flux at various positions of the core of the reactor using the computer code TRIGAP. Gamma dose in the core of the reactor has also been measured experimentally using TLD technique in the present work.

  20. Operation and reactivity measurements of an accelerator driven subcritical TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    Experiments were performed at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) in 2005 and 2006 in which a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator operating as a photoneutron source was coupled to the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics) Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) to simulate the operation and characteristics of a full-scale accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS). The experimental program provided a relatively low-cost substitute for the higher power and complexity of internationally proposed systems utilizing proton accelerators and spallation neutron sources for an advanced ADSS that may be used for the burning of high-level radioactive waste. Various instrumentation methods that permitted ADSS neutron flux monitoring in high gamma radiation fields were successfully explored and the data was used to evaluate the Stochastic Pulsed Feynman method for reactivity monitoring.

  1. Implementation of an aerodynamic lens for TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grund, J.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Nagy, Sz.; van de Laar, J. J. W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the optimization of the gas-jet system employed to couple the TRIGA-SPEC experiment to the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. CdI2 aerosol particles suspended in N2 as carrier gas are used for an effective transport of fission products from neutron induced 235 U fission from the target chamber to a surface ion source. Operating conditions of the gas-jet were modified to enable the implementation of an aerodynamic lens, fitting into the limited space available in front of the ion source. The lens boosts the gas-jet efficiency by a factor of 4-10. The characterization of the gas-jet system as well as the design of the aerodynamic lens and efficiency studies are presented and discussed.

  2. High-Precision Mass Measurements At TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Knuth, K.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-04-01

    In order to study neutron-rich nuclides far from the valley of stability as well as long-lived actinoids the double Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been recently installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. Short-lived neutron-rich fission products are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoid target installed close to the reactor core. A helium gas-jet system with carbon aerosol particles is used to extract the fission products to the experiment. The Penning trap system has already been commissioned. Off-line mass measurements are routinely performed using a recently developed laser ablation ion source, and the gas-jet system has been tested. An overview of the experiment and current status will be given.

  3. TRIGA: Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Pingree, Paula J.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Telecommunications protocol processing subsystem using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA), a novel approach that unifies fault tolerance, error correction coding and interplanetary communication protocol off-loading to implement CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Datalink layers. The new reconfigurable architecture offers more than one order of magnitude throughput increase while reducing footprint requirements in memory, command and data handling processor utilization, communication system interconnects and power consumption.

  4. TRIGA: Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Pingree, Paula J.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Telecommunications protocol processing subsystem using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA), a novel approach that unifies fault tolerance, error correction coding and interplanetary communication protocol off-loading to implement CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Datalink layers. The new reconfigurable architecture offers more than one order of magnitude throughput increase while reducing footprint requirements in memory, command and data handling processor utilization, communication system interconnects and power consumption.

  5. Using Model-Based Reasoning for Autonomous Instrument Operation - Lessons Learned From IMAGE/LENA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael A.; Rilee, Michael L.; Truszkowski, Walt; Bailin, Sidney C.

    2001-01-01

    Model-based reasoning has been applied as an autonomous control strategy on the Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) instrument currently flying on board the Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. Explicit models of instrument subsystem responses have been constructed and are used to dynamically adapt the instrument to the spacecraft's environment. These functions are cast as part of a Virtual Principal Investigator (VPI) that autonomously monitors and controls the instrument. In the VPI's current implementation, LENA's command uplink volume has been decreased significantly from its previous volume; typically, no uplinks are required for operations. This work demonstrates that a model-based approach can be used to enhance science instrument effectiveness. The components of LENA are common in space science instrumentation, and lessons learned by modeling this system may be applied to other instruments. Future work involves the extension of these methods to cover more aspects of LENA operation and the generalization to other space science instrumentation.

  6. Steady-State Axial Temperature and Flow Velocity in Triga Channel.

    SciTech Connect

    ZEFRAN, BOJAN

    2007-02-28

    Version 00 TRISTAN-IJS is a computer program for calculating steady-state axial temperature distribution and flow velocity through a vertical coolant channel in low power TRIGA reactor core, cooled by natural circulation. It is designed for steady-state thermohydraulic analysis of TRIGA research reactors operating at a low power level of 1-2 MW.

  7. An RFQ cooler and buncher for the TRIGA-SPEC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Frömmgen, N.; Geppert, C.; Gorges, C.; Grund, J.; Hammen, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Krieger, A.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörterhäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Smorra, C.; Will, E.

    2014-01-01

    A linear Paul trap for cooling of ion beams, the former cooler for emittance elimination radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) at MISTRAL/ISOLDE, has been installed and commissioned at the TRIGA-SPEC experiment located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. It is connected to a hot-surface-ionization ion source and a subsequent mass separator for ionization and pre-separation of neutron-rich fission products as delivered from the reactor. The capability of accumulating and bunching ion beams has been implemented to provide low-emittance ion pulses of 250 ns width containing up to 106 ions. A technical description of the upgraded RFQ as well as its characterization with stable ions is presented. Its installation allows delivery of low-emittance ion bunches to the two branches of the TRIGA-SPEC experiment, namely TRIGA-TRAP and TRIGA-LASER.

  8. A Summer View of Russia's Lena Delta and Olenek

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These views of the Russian Arctic were acquired by NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on July 11, 2004, when the brief arctic summer had transformed the frozen tundra and the thousands of lakes, channels, and rivers of the Lena Delta into a fertile wetland, and when the usual blanket of thick snow had melted from the vast plains and taiga forests. This set of three images cover an area in the northern part of the Eastern Siberian Sakha Republic. The Olenek River wends northeast from the bottom of the images to the upper left, and the top portions of the images are dominated by the delta into which the mighty Lena River empties when it reaches the Laptev Sea. At left is a natural color image from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, in which the rivers appear murky due to the presence of sediment, and photosynthetically-active vegetation appears green. The center image is also from MISR's nadir camera, but is a false color view in which the predominant red color is due to the brightness of vegetation at near-infrared wavelengths. The most photosynthetically active parts of this area are the Lena Delta, in the lower half of the image, and throughout the great stretch of land that curves across the Olenek River and extends northeast beyond the relatively barren ranges of the Volyoi mountains (the pale tan-colored area to the right of image center).

    The right-hand image is a multi-angle false-color view made from the red band data of the 60o backward, nadir, and 60o forward cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. Water appears blue in this image because sun glitter makes smooth, wet surfaces look brighter at the forward camera's view angle. Much of the landscape and many low clouds appear purple since these surfaces are both forward and backward scattering, and clouds that are further from the surface appear in a different spot for each view angle, creating a rainbow-like appearance. However, the vegetated

  9. The SANS facility at the Pitesti 14MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ionita, I. Grabcev, B.; Todireanu, S.; Constantin, F.; Shvetsov, V.; Anghel, E.; Popescu, G.; Mincu, M.; Datcu, A.

    2006-12-15

    The SANS facility existing at the Pitesti 14MW TRIGA reactor is presented. The main characteristics and the preliminary evaluation of the installation performances are given. A monochromatic neutron beam with 1.5 A {<=} {lambda} {<=} 5 A is produced by a mechanical velocity selector with helical slots. A fruitful partnership was established between INR Pitesti (Romania) and JINR Dubna (Russia). The first step in this cooperation consists in the manufacturing in Dubna of a battery of gas-filled positional detectors devoted to the SANS instrument.

  10. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Nurhayati; Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Husain, Nurfazila; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd; Ramli, Shaharum; Adnan, Amirul Syazwan; Abidin, Nurul Husna Zainal

    2016-01-01

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program.

  11. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, Nurhayati Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Husain, Nurfazila; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd; Ramli, Shaharum; Maskin, Mazleha; Adnan, Amirul Syazwan; Abidin, Nurul Husna Zainal

    2016-01-22

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program.

  12. Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system in preschool classrooms with children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Jessica R; Sabatos-Devito, Maura G; Irvin, Dwight W; Boyd, Brian A; Hume, Kara A; Odom, Sam L

    2013-09-01

    This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data on adult and child language. Standardized assessments were administered to obtain language, cognitive, and autism severity scores for participants. With a mean of over 5 hours of recording across two days several months apart, there was a mean of 3.6 child vocalizations per minute, 1.0 conversational turns (in which either the adult or child respond to the other within 5 seconds) per minute, and 29.2 adult words per minute. Two of the three LENA variables were significantly correlated with language age-equivalents. Cognitive age-equivalents were also significantly correlated with two LENA variables. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule severity scores and LENA variables were not significantly correlated. Implications for using the LENA system with children with ASD in the school environment are discussed.

  13. Transport of fission products with a helium gas-jet at TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibach, M.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Herfurth, F.; Geppert, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Krämer, J.; Krieger, A.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Smorra, C.

    2010-02-01

    A helium gas-jet system for the transport of fission products from the research reactor TRIGA Mainz has been developed, characterized and tested within the TRIGA-SPEC experiment. For the first time at TRIGA Mainz carbon aerosol particles have been used for the transport of radionuclides from a target chamber with high efficiency. The radionuclides have been identified by means of γ-spectroscopy. Transport time, efficiency as well as the absolute number of transported radionuclides for several species have been determined. The design and the characterization of the gas-jet system are described and discussed.

  14. A Holocene molluscan succession from floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River (Lake Baikal region), Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Dustin; Preece, Richard C.; Shchetnikov, Alexander A.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Dlussky, Konstantin G.

    2008-05-01

    Floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River near Basovo in south-central Siberia have yielded the most detailed Holocene molluscan succession yet reported from the entire eastern Palaearctic. Over 72,500 shells from at least 28 species of terrestrial and 23 species of freshwater mollusc have been recovered, an abundance and diversity far higher than previously reported from the region. The molluscan assemblages are dominated by land snails, especially members of the genus Vallonia, represented by five species including Vallonia tenuilabris and two poorly known species Vallonia kamtschatica and Vallonia cf. chinensis. Other noteworthy species recovered include Gastrocopta theeli, Carychium pessimum, Vertigo extima (southernmost record), Vertigo microsphaera and the first Asian records of three other taxa ( Vertigo geyeri, Vertigo genesii and Vertigo parcedentata). Illustrations are provided for the critical species, since opinions differ about the status of various taxa and the correct names that should be used. The molluscan assemblages show clear successional trends during the early to mid-Holocene, reflecting episodes of dryness/wetness on the floodplain. Drier conditions at ca 6350 14C yr BP coincide with major changes in the archaeological record seen at other sites in the region but it remains unclear whether the two are linked. A prominent charcoal-rich horizon dated to ca 2800 14C yr BP marks a burning event in the catchment, which resulted in a two-fold increase in sediment accumulation rate. Remains of small mammals occurred throughout the sequence including a tooth of Microtus cf. maximowiczii, possibly the first occurrence of Ungar vole west of Lake Baikal. The faunal analyses have been integrated with a detailed pedological study of the sedimentary profile and a chronology was obtained by means of 12 AMS radiocarbon dates. This study provides the first detailed palaeoecological information relating to Holocene molluscan assemblages from the Cis

  15. An Analysis of Decommissioning Costs for the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Laboratory, as provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission publication NUREG /CR-1756. The data in this study were adapted to reflect the decommissioning requirements of the AFRRI TRIGA reactor facility.

  16. TRIGA-SPEC: the prototype of MATS and LaSpec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Geppert, C.; Gorges, C.; Grund, J.; Hammen, M.; Krämer, J.; Nagy, Sz; Nörtershäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K.

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of short-lived nuclei is a challenging task that MATS and LaSpec will handle at the low energy branch of Super-FRS at FAIR. The groundwork for those experiments is laid-out already today at the TRIGA-SPEC facility as a powerful development platform located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. The latest status, new developments and first results of commissioning runs are presented here.

  17. Production of 37Ar in The University of Texas TRIGA reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Egnatuk, Christine M.; Lowrey, Justin; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Haas, Derek A.; Orrell, John L.; Woods, Vincent T.; Keillor, Martin E.

    2011-06-19

    The detection of {sup 37}Ar is important for on-site inspections for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring. In an underground nuclear explosion this radionuclide is produced by {sup 40}Ca(n,{alpha}){sup 37}Ar reaction in surrounding soil and rock. With a half-life of 35 days, {sup 37}Ar provides a signal useful for confirming the location of an underground nuclear event. An ultra-low-background proportional counter developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is used to detect {sup 37}Ar, which decays via electron capture. The irradiation of Ar gas at natural enrichment in the 3L facility within the Mark II TRIGA reactor facility at The University of Texas at Austin provides a source of {sup 37}Ar for the calibration of the detector. The {sup 41}Ar activity is measured by the gamma activity using an HPGe detector after the sample is removed from the core. Using the {sup 41}Ar/{sup 37}Ar production ratio and the {sup 41}Ar activity, the amount of {sup 37}Ar created is calculated. The {sup 41}Ar decays quickly (half-life of 109.34 minutes) leaving a radioactive sample of high purity {sup 37}Ar and only trace levels of {sup 39}Ar.

  18. TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor facility. Final report, 1 July 1980--30 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a final culmination of activities funded through the Department of Energy`s (DOE) University Reactor Sharing Program, Grant DE-FG02-80ER10273, during the period 1 July 1980 through 30 June 1995. Progress reports have been periodically issued to the DOE, namely the Reactor Facility Annual Reports C00-2082/2219-7 through C00-2082/10723-21, which are contained as an appendix to this report. Due to the extent of time covered by this grant, summary tables are presented. Table 1 lists the fiscal year financial obligations of the grant. As listed in the original grant proposals, the DOE grant financed 70% of project costs, namely the total amount spent of these projects minus materials costs and technical support. Thus the bulk of funds was spent directly on reactor operations. With the exception of a few years, spending was in excess of the grant amount. As shown in Tables 2 and 3, the Reactor Sharing grant funded a immense number of research projects in nuclear engineering, geology, animal science, chemistry, anthropology, veterinary medicine, and many other fields. A list of these users is provided. Out of the average 3000 visitors per year, some groups participated in classes involving the reactor such as Boy Scout Merit Badge classes, teacher`s workshops, and summer internships. A large number of these projects met the requirements for the Reactor Sharing grant, but were funded by the University instead.

  19. Tri-Gas Pressurization System Testing and Modeling for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B.; Polsgrove, R.; Stephens, J.; Hedayat, A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Tri-gas in rocket propulsion systems is somewhat of a new technology. This paper defines Tri-gas as a mixture of gases composed largely of helium with a small percentage of a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. When exposed to a catalyst the hydrogen and oxygen in the mixture combusts, significantly raising the temperature of the mixture. The increase in enthalpy resulting from the combustion process significantly decreases the required quantity of gas needed to pressurize the ullage of the vehicle propellant tanks. The objective of this effort was to better understand the operating characteristics of Tri-gas in a pressurization system with low temperature applications. In conjunction with ongoing programs at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, an effort has been undertaken to evaluate the operating characteristics of Tri-gas through modeling and bench testing. Through improved understanding of the operating characteristics, the risk of using this new technology in a launch vehicle propulsion system was reduced. Bench testing of Tri-gas was a multistep process that targeted gas characteristics and performance aspects that pose a risk to application in a pressurization system. Pressurization systems are vital to propulsion system performance. Keeping a target ullage pressure in propulsions tanks is necessary to supply propellant at the conditions and flow rates required to maintain desired engine functionality. The first component of testing consisted of sampling Tri-gas sources that had been stagnant for various lengths of time in order to determine the rate at which stratification takes place. Second, a bench test was set up in which Tri-gas was sent through a catalyst bed. This test was designed to evaluate the performance characteristics of Tri-gas, under low temperature inlet temperatures, in a flight-like catalyst bed reactor. The third, most complex, test examined the performance characteristics of Tri-gas at low temperature temperatures

  20. Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System in Preschool Classrooms with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, Jessica R.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G.; Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Sam L.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data…

  1. "A Deep Passion for Reading and Writing": An Interview with Lena Townsend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Matters, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Robert Bowne Foundation (RBF), which published "Afterschool Matters" from 2003 to 2008 and continues to fund the journal and related projects, is closing in December. "Afterschool Matters" sat down with Lena Townsend, executive director, to talk about RBF's legacy and continuing influence on literacy work in afterschool…

  2. Constructing a Life and a Community: A Partial Story of Maggie Lena Walker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elsa Barkley

    1993-01-01

    Relates the accomplishments of Maggie Lena Walker, an African-American social activist in Richmond, Virginia, during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Describes how Walker used education, religion, and community organizations to further her goals of improving economic and social conditions for blacks. (CFR)

  3. Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System in Preschool Classrooms with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, Jessica R.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G.; Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Sam L.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data…

  4. An Exploratory Study of "Quantitative Linguistic Feedback": Effect of LENA Feedback on Adult Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Dana; Leffel, Kristin R.; Hernandez, Marc W.; Sapolich, Shannon G.; Suskind, Elizabeth; Kirkham, Erin; Meehan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A child's early language environment is critical to his or her life-course trajectory. Quantitative linguistic feedback utilizes the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) technology as a tool to analyze verbal interactions and reinforce behavior change. This exploratory pilot study evaluates the feasibility and efficacy of a novel behavior-change…

  5. An Exploratory Study of "Quantitative Linguistic Feedback": Effect of LENA Feedback on Adult Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Dana; Leffel, Kristin R.; Hernandez, Marc W.; Sapolich, Shannon G.; Suskind, Elizabeth; Kirkham, Erin; Meehan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A child's early language environment is critical to his or her life-course trajectory. Quantitative linguistic feedback utilizes the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) technology as a tool to analyze verbal interactions and reinforce behavior change. This exploratory pilot study evaluates the feasibility and efficacy of a novel behavior-change…

  6. Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2013-02-01

    The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a~continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This is likely to profoundly change the discharge rates of the Lena River and the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients, DOC and importantly methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of and interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, forming the basis of the food web. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic plankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and linked foodweb interactions within the delta need to be established. As part of the AWI Lena Delta Programme in 2010 the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small a shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykovskaya channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore (transect 3). Of the five stations in this area three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects on the other hand salinities varied between 5-30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and

  7. 76 FR 69296 - University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed... University of Utah (UU, the licensee), which authorizes continued operation of the UU TRIGA Nuclear Reactor...

  8. 77 FR 68155 - The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute TRIGA Reactor: Facility Operating License No. R-84

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... the licensee to operate the AFFRI TRIGA Reactor up to a steady-state thermal power of 1.1 MW for an additional 20 years from the date of issuance. DATES: Submit comments by December 17, 2012. Requests for a... authorize the licensee to operate the AFFRI TRIGA Reactor up to a steady-state thermal power of 1.1 MW...

  9. License renewal and power upgrade of the Cornell University TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aderhold, Howard C.

    1984-07-01

    The Cornell Mark II TRIGA reactor has been a principal facility for instruction and research in nuclear science and engineering at Cornell, and it has been extensively used by other departments at Cornell and by nearby universities and industries. Initially the fuel was low hydride, 8.5w/o 19%-enriched, aluminum clad; in 1974 it was changed to high-hydride, stainless-steel-clad. The maximum power has been 100 kW, with pulses to $2, and operation has been on a one-shift demand basis. Annual energy generation of 50 MWH has been typical. Standard features include a 4-inch tangential port and our 6-inch radial ports, a thermal column with hohlraum and vertical access, a central thimble, a 'rabbit', and a set of dry irradiation tubes, replacing the 'Lazy Susan'. The license was renewed and amended in November 1983; the new limits are 500 kW and $3 pulses. Physical changes to the facility included addition of a water-to-water heat exchanger and of a diffuser at the water outlet {approx} 60 cm above the core. The flow rate is 300 liters per minute in the primary (reactor) side of the heat exchanger. The temperature of the chilled water entering the secondary of the exchanger is {approx} 12?C; its flow rate is adjusted by a servo-controlled by-pass valve to maintain the desired range of pool water temperature. Steps taken to go to higher power included rearrangement of fuel elements to increase excess reactivity, recalibration of control rods, and power vs ion chamber current calibrations at successively higher power by comparing the rate of rise of pool temperature with a known rate using electrical heating elements. Steady-state operation has been done up to 480 kW (nominal) but pulsing at the newly allowed higher levels has not been tested as yet.

  10. Experimental study of radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Ajijul Hoq, M; Malek Soner, M A; Salam, M A; Haque, M M; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S M

    2017-09-09

    The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been under operation for about thirty years since its commissioning at 1986. In accordance with the demand of fundamental nuclear research works, the reactor has to operate at different power levels by utilizing a number of experimental facilities. Regarding the enquiry for safety of reactor operating personnel and radiation workers, it is necessary to know the radiation level at different strategic points of the reactor where they are often worked. In the present study, neutron, beta and gamma radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the reactor facility with reactor power level of 2.4MW was measured to estimate the rising level of radiation due to its operational activities. From the obtained results high radiation dose is observed at the measurement position of the piercing beam port which is caused by neutron leakage and accordingly, dose rate at the stated position with different reactor power levels was measured. This study also deals with the gamma dose rate measurements at a fixed position of the reactor pool top surface for different reactor power levels under both Natural Convection Cooling Mode (NCCM) and Forced Convection Cooling Mode (FCCM). Results show that, radiation dose rate is higher for NCCM in compared with FCCM and increasing with the increase of reactor power. Thus, concerning the radiological safety issues for working personnel and the general public, the radiation dose level monitoring and the experimental analysis performed within this paper is so much effective and the result of this work can be utilized for base line data and code verification of the nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterisation of Fe-bearing particles and colloids in the Lena River basin, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Catherine; Andersson, Per S.; Shaw, Samuel; Burke, Ian T.; Kutscher, Liselott; Murphy, Melissa J.; Maximov, Trofim; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Porcelli, Don

    2017-09-01

    Rivers are significant contributors of Fe to the ocean. However, the characteristics of chemically reactive Fe remain poorly constrained, especially in large Arctic rivers, which drain landscapes highly susceptible to climate change and carbon cycle alteration. The aim of this study was a detailed characterisation (size, mineralogy, and speciation) of riverine Fe-bearing particles (>0.22 μm) and colloids (1 kDa-0.22 μm) and their association with organic carbon (OC), in the Lena River and tributaries, which drain a catchment almost entirely underlain by permafrost. Samples from the main channel and tributaries representing watersheds that span a wide range in topography and lithology were taken after the spring flood in June 2013 and summer baseflow in July 2012. Fe-bearing particles were identified, using Transmission Electron Microscopy, as large (200 nm-1 μm) aggregates of smaller (20-30 nm) spherical colloids of chemically-reactive ferrihydrite. In contrast, there were also large (500 nm-1 μm) aggregates of clay (illite) particles and smaller (100-200 nm) iron oxide particles (dominantly hematite) that contain poorly reactive Fe. TEM imaging and Scanning Transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) indicated that the ferrihydrite is present as discrete particles within networks of amorphous particulate organic carbon (POC) and attached to the surface of primary produced organic matter and clay particles. Together, these larger particles act as the main carriers of nanoscale ferrihydrite in the Lena River basin. The chemically reactive ferrihydrite accounts for on average 70 ± 15% of the total suspended Fe in the Lena River and tributaries. These observations place important constraints on Fe and OC cycling in the Lena River catchment area and Fe-bearing particle transport to the Arctic Ocean.

  12. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: a case study on Lena River.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, André; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km(2) watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between -26% and 23% for calibration and -30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-Term Warm-Season Stream Temperature Variations and Changes Over Siberian Lena River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Yang, D.

    2003-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important environmental variable that has considerable significance in regional hydrology, climate, and ecology systems. Few investigations on long-term stream temperature variations in Arctic regions have been undertaken. This research examined and analyzed long-term (1950-1992) stream temperature data collected at dozens of stations in the Lena River basin during (open water) warm seasons. Preliminary results show that: (1) the stream temperature across the whole basin shows a significant positive trend during early warm season, which may indicate a response of early snowmelt due to climate warming in the winter and spring seasons; (2) over the Aldan tributary, stream temperatures collected at elevated locations are much lower than those at low valley stations; (3) in the Upper Lena river, stream temperatures have very strong negative trend in late July to early August, which imply certain climatic factors is affecting the stream temperature regime during this period; and, (4) in the Vilui subbasin, stream temperatures are strongly affected by reservoir regulations, for instance, extremely strong positive and negative trends appear at the station close to reservoir in early and middle warm season, respectively. The research has defined stream temperature regime and identified its long-term changes/variations over Lena river basin. Our future work will examine the impacts of climate change on river thermal condition. We will also study the effects of local environmental settings to stream temperatures and aquatic life.

  14. Stretch Marks

    MedlinePlus

    ... like during puberty), that person may get fine lines on the body called stretch marks. Stretch marks happen when the skin is pulled by rapid growth or stretching. Although the skin is usually fairly elastic, when it's overstretched, the normal production of collagen (the major protein that makes up ...

  15. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  16. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  17. The Lena River Delta Observatory, Arctic Siberia: a Contribution to the ESA DUE Permafrost Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Birgit; Boike, Julia; Moritz, Langer; Annett, Bartsch; Sina, Muster; Jennifer, Sobiech; Konstanze, Piel; Günter, Stoof; Anne, Morgenstern; Mathias, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The major task of the ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST is to develop and use Earth Observation services specifically for monitoring and modelling of permafrost. In order to setup the required information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Long-term ground data series and multidisciplinary ongoing projects make the Lena River delta (Arctic Siberia) a prime study region for evaluation and validation of the DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing products. The Lena River Delta located in the zone of continuous permafrost is a key region for Arctic system science. Since 1998, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research AWI in collaboration with the Lena Delta Reserve in Tiksi has operated the German-Russian research station Samoylov. Relevant ground-based data (air temperature, radiation, snow, albedo, soil temperature and moisture) are collected continuously. The high landscape heterogeneity (wet polygonal centres, dry polygonal rims, ponds and lakes) challenges all ground data observations. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and location are being built up. Exclusion and selection criteria will be based on experience, especially the knowledge on parameter variability in time and space. The main focus are the remote sensing products ‘surface temperature', ‘surface moisture', ‘albedo', ‘vegetation' and ‘water'. Statistical and contextural methods will be used for the upscaling from the plot to the meso-scale. Problems will have to be identified such as process-dependent scales and the water body ratio within the pixel.

  18. Seasonal variability of trace metals in the Lena River and the southeastern Laptev Sea: Impact of the spring freshet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölemann, J. A.; Schirmacher, M.; Prange, A.

    2005-09-01

    The distribution of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb) was studied for the first time during the spring high flow period of the Lena River (Arctic Siberia). The results show that concentrations of dissolved metals in the river Lena during the spring high flow in June 1996 (spring freshet) were significantly higher than those reported for the rest of the year. For example the measured average concentration of dissolved Fe (6349 ± 2122 nM) during the high flow is approximately 7 times higher than previously published concentrations measured during the summer months. Dissolved Fe concentrations in the freshwater (salinity < 1) are positively correlated with the amount of suspended particulate matter (SPM) ( p < 0.01), but negatively correlated with the Fe concentrations in SPM ( p < 0.01). The data showed that the aluminium-normalized concentrations of particulate Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Zn in the freshwater are negatively correlated with SPM. This suggests that the mobilization of metals from suspended particulate matter is the driving force for the observed high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb in the water of the Lena River during the spring freshet. During the high flow period in June about 35% of the total annual flow of the river Lena flows into the Laptev Sea. Previously published metal budgets for the river Lena that did not incorporate data from the spring high flow period, therefore, underestimate the fluxes of dissolved trace metals from the Siberian rivers to the Arctic Ocean. For instance, the estimated input of dissolved Fe in June 1996 is approximately 4.5 times higher than the average annual dissolved Fe input calculated on the basis of summer data. The results of this study demonstrate that the previous evaluations of the trace metal flux of the Lena river-which are based on data obtained from August to October-may underestimate the total riverine input of dissolved trace metals to the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Transient modeling of the ground thermal conditions using satellite data in the Lena River delta, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westermann, Sebastian; Peter, Maria; Langer, Moritz; Schwamborn, Georg; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Permafrost is a sensitive element of the cryosphere, but operational monitoring of the ground thermal conditions on large spatial scales is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate a remote-sensing-based scheme that is capable of estimating the transient evolution of ground temperatures and active layer thickness by means of the ground thermal model CryoGrid 2. The scheme is applied to an area of approximately 16 000 km2 in the Lena River delta (LRD) in NE Siberia for a period of 14 years. The forcing data sets at 1 km spatial and weekly temporal resolution are synthesized from satellite products and fields of meteorological variables from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. To assign spatially distributed ground thermal properties, a stratigraphic classification based on geomorphological observations and mapping is constructed, which accounts for the large-scale patterns of sediment types, ground ice and surface properties in the Lena River delta. A comparison of the model forcing to in situ measurements on Samoylov Island in the southern part of the study area yields an acceptable agreement for the purpose of ground thermal modeling, for surface temperature, snow depth, and timing of the onset and termination of the winter snow cover. The model results are compared to observations of ground temperatures and thaw depths at nine sites in the Lena River delta, suggesting that thaw depths are in most cases reproduced to within 0.1 m or less and multi-year averages of ground temperatures within 1-2 °C. Comparison of monthly average temperatures at depths of 2-3 m in five boreholes yielded an RMSE of 1.1 °C and a bias of -0.9 °C for the model results. The highest ground temperatures are calculated for grid cells close to the main river channels in the south as well as areas with sandy sediments and low organic and ice contents in the central delta, where also the largest thaw depths occur. On the other hand, the lowest temperatures are modeled for the eastern part, which is an

  20. A bio-optical model for remote sensing of Lena water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Örek, H.; Doerffer, R.; Röttgers, R.; Boersma, M.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2013-03-01

    Bio-optical measurements and sampling were carried out in the delta of the Lena River (Northern Siberia, Russia) during the high water run-off period between 26 June 2011 and 4 July 2011. The aim of this study was to determine the inherent optical properties of the Lena water, i.e. absorption, attenuation and scattering coefficients, during the period of maximum run-off. In this context CDOM (Colored Dissolved Organic Matter), total particle absorption, total suspended matter and phytoplankton-pigments were measured. CDOM was found to be the most dominant parameter affecting the optical properties of the river, with an absorption coefficient of 4.5-5 m-1 at 442 nm, which was almost four times higher than total particle absorption values at visible wavelength range during the first week of the campaign. This difference decreased over the following days when Total Suspended Matter (TSM) concentration increased. The wavelength dependent absorption spectra of the water constituents were characterized by determining the semi logarithmic spectral slope. Mean CDOM, and Detritus slopes, were 0.0149 nm-1(stdev = 0.0003, n = 18), and 0.0057 nm-1 (stdev = 0.0017, n = 19), respectively, values which are typical for water bodies with high concentrations of dissolved and particulate carbon. Mean total chlorophyll a, and total suspended matter, were also measured to determine the relationship between concentrations and optical properties. Mean chlorophyll a and total suspended matter were 1.821 mg m-3 (stdev = 0.734 n = 18) and 31.89 mg L-1 (stdev = 19.94) respectively. The light penetration depth (Secchi disc depth) was highly correlated with the suspended matter concentration with a maximum of 90 cm. We conclude that the bio-optical properties of the Lena River are rather complex because of the high CDOM and variable particle load which may change within a matter of days. Furthermore, the chlorophyll concentration constitutes a small fraction. Our results will improve the

  1. Oedipus in Brooklyn: reading Freud on women, watching Lena Dunham's girls.

    PubMed

    Buchberg, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Through an examination of Freud's Lecture 33, "Femininity" (1933), and "Mourning and Melancholia" (1917), the author proposes a reading of Freud's description of the girl becoming a woman. Female development is retold as a melancholic narrative-one in which the girl's entrance into the positive Oedipus is founded on unconscious grievance and unmourned loss of the early relationship with her mother. Castration and penis envy are reconceived as melancholic markers-the manifest content of the subjectivity of refusal, loss, and imagined repair of the early maternal relationship. Lena Dunham's HBO television series Girls is analyzed as an illustration of these theoretical understandings.

  2. Uneasy marks.

    PubMed

    Rublee, D

    1998-05-05

    Germany earned a reputation as a European nirvana, marked by a booming job market and generous health and social programs. Now, thanks to the high costs of rebuilding the former East Germany and other factors, national health programs face cutbacks. But just about everyone has a stake in guarding the status quo.

  3. ICESat-Derived Elevation Changes on the Lena Delta and Laptev Sea, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, Reginald

    2014-05-01

    We employ elevation data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) to investigate surface changes across the Lena Delta and sea ice of the coastal Laptev Sea, Siberia during winters of 2003 through 2008. We compare ICESat GLAS-derived elevation changes on sea ice and the Bykovskaya and Sardakhskaya Channels with datum-corrected tide gauge height measurements from Danai, Sannikova and Tiksi stations. We find the coastal sea ice and large inland ice covered channels elevation changes are in phase with the tide-height changes on a same-month-year and datum controlled basis. Furthermore, we find elevation change on tundra drained lake basins to be +0.03 +/- 0.02 m, on average. These findings indicate ICESat GLAS is capable of detection of tide fluxes of ice covered coastal rivers and with a small error range is suitable for investigations of active-layer and permafrost dynamics associated with seasonal freezing (heave) and thawing (subsidence) using repeat-location profiles. Ref.: Muskett, R.R., "ICESat-Derived Elevation Changes on the Lena Delta and Laptev Sea, Siberia," Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 4 (1), pp. 1-9, 2014. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=41709.

  4. Spatial variation in concentration and sources of organic carbon in the Lena River, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutscher, Liselott; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Porcelli, Don; Hirst, Catherine; Maximov, Trofim C.; Petrov, Roman E.; Andersson, Per S.

    2017-08-01

    Global warming in permafrost areas is expected to change fluxes of riverine organic carbon (OC) to the Arctic Ocean. Here OC concentrations, stable carbon isotope signatures (δ13C), and carbon-nitrogen ratios (C/N) are presented from 22 sampling stations in the Lena River and 40 of its tributaries. Sampling was conducted during two expeditions: the first in July 2012 in the south and southeastern region and the second in June 2013 in the northern region of the Lena basin. The data showed significant spatial differences in concentrations and major sources of OC. Mean subcatchment slopes were correlated with OC concentrations, implying that mountainous areas in general had lower concentrations than lowland areas. δ13C and C/N data from tributaries originating in mountainous areas indicated that both dissolved and particulate OC (DOC and POC) were mainly derived from soil organic matter (SOM). In contrast, tributaries originating in lowland areas had larger contributions from fresh vegetation to DOC, while aquatically produced OC was the major source of POC. We suggest that these differences in dominant sources indicated differences in dominant flow pathways. Tributaries with larger influence of fresh vegetation probably had surficial flow pathways, while tributaries with more SOM influence had deeper water flow pathways. Thus, the future export of OC to the Arctic Ocean will likely be controlled by changes in spatial patterns in hydroclimatology and the depth of the active layers influencing the dominant water flow pathways in Arctic river basins.

  5. Dose calculation in biological samples in a mixed neutron-gamma field at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Mainz.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Tobias; Blaickner, Matthias; Schütz, Christian; Wiehl, Norbert; Kratz, Jens V; Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael H; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Otto, Gerd; Hampel, Gabriele

    2010-10-01

    To establish Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for non-resectable liver metastases and for in vitro experiments at the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz, Germany, it is necessary to have a reliable dose monitoring system. The in vitro experiments are used to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of liver and cancer cells in our mixed neutron and gamma field. We work with alanine detectors in combination with Monte Carlo simulations, where we can measure and characterize the dose. To verify our calculations we perform neutron flux measurements using gold foil activation and pin-diodes. Material and methods. When L-α-alanine is irradiated with ionizing radiation, it forms a stable radical which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The value of the ESR signal correlates to the amount of absorbed dose. The dose for each pellet is calculated using FLUKA, a multipurpose Monte Carlo transport code. The pin-diode is augmented by a lithium fluoride foil. This foil converts the neutrons into alpha and tritium particles which are products of the (7)Li(n,α)(3)H-reaction. These particles are detected by the diode and their amount correlates to the neutron fluence directly. Results and discussion. Gold foil activation and the pin-diode are reliable fluence measurement systems for the TRIGA reactor, Mainz. Alanine dosimetry of the photon field and charged particle field from secondary reactions can in principle be carried out in combination with MC-calculations for mixed radiation fields and the Hansen & Olsen alanine detector response model. With the acquired data about the background dose and charged particle spectrum, and with the acquired information of the neutron flux, we are capable of calculating the dose to the tissue. Conclusion. Monte Carlo simulation of the mixed neutron and gamma field of the TRIGA Mainz is possible in order to characterize the neutron behavior in the thermal column. Currently we also

  6. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Tri-gas Thruster Performance Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorado, Vanessa; Grunder, Zachary; Schaefer, Bryce; Sung, Meagan; Pedersen, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Historically, spacecraft reaction control systems have primarily utilized cold gas thrusters because of their inherent simplicity and reliability. However, cold gas thrusters typically have a low specific impulse. It has been determined that a higher specific impulse can be achieved by passing a monopropellant fluid mixture through a catalyst bed prior to expulsion through the thruster nozzle. This research analyzes the potential efficiency improvements from using tri-gas, a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen, and an inert gas, which in this case is helium. Passing tri-gas through a catalyst causes the hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water vapor, ultimately heating the exiting fluid and generating a higher specific impulse. The goal of this project was to optimize the thruster performance by characterizing the effects of varying several system components including catalyst types, catalyst lengths, and initial catalyst temperatures.

  7. Verifying the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method using the TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon-Sam; Leyine, S.H.

    1984-07-01

    A new experimental/analytical method has been developed using the Penn State Breazeale (TRIGA) reactor, to measure the k{sub eff} of a damaged core, e.g., the TMI-2 core, and unfold its k{sub infinity} distribution. This new method, the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method, uses the response of several neutron detectors in fixed positions around the core periphery (and possibly in the core) when a neutron source is placed sequentially in different discrete core positions. Experiments have been performed with the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR) and analyzed with appropriate neutron calculations, using PSU-LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II (EXT-II), to verify the method.

  8. Carbon Stocks in Permafrost-Affected Soils of the Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Grosse, G.; Desyatkin, A.; Pfeiffer, E.

    2012-12-01

    The soil organic carbon stock (SSOC) of soils in arctic permafrost regions is known to be significant but is insufficiently investigated so far. Previous SSOC studies report mainly the gravimetric carbon (C) contents and are limited to the active layer depth at the time of sampling. Since C deposits in permafrost regions are likely to become a future C source, more detailed investigations of the presently frozen likely carbon-rich sediment and soil layers are of importance. Our investigations were performed on Samoylov Island in the southern-central part of the Lena River Delta (32,000 km2) which is the largest arctic delta and the fifth largest delta worldwide. Samoylov Island is representative for the Lena River Delta's first terrace and the active floodplains. Within this study a new portable Snow-Ice-Permafrost-Research-Establishment (SIPRE) auger was used during a spring field session to obtain 1 m deep frozen soil cores (n = 29) distributed over all known soil and vegetation units. These cores are analyzed for bulk contents of nitrogen (N) and C, ice content and bulk density (BD) and to determine the SSOC including the rarely investigated currently permanently frozen layers up to 1 m depth on Samoylov Island. Our study provides evidence for high SSOC for a depth of 1 m for the investigated area ranging between 7 kg m-2 and 48 kg m-2. Considering the spatial extent of different soil units on the two geomorphological units of Samoylov Island, the area-weighted average SSOC were 29 kg m-2 (n = 22) for the first terrace and 14 kg m-2 (n = 7) for the active floodplain. For the correspondent soil units of Turbels and Orthels in circumpolar permafrost regions a mean SSOC of 27 kg m-2 (min: 0.1 kg m-2, max: 126 kg m-2) for a depth of 1 m was reported [1]. For up-scaling solely over the soil-covered areas of the Lena River Delta, we excluded all water bodies >3,600 m2 from the geomorphological units studied (first river terrace and the active floodplains) and

  9. The diversity of permafrost-affected soils in the Lena River Delta and its hinterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Kutzbach, Lars; Yakshina, Irina; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2013-04-01

    The North-Siberian Lena River Delta is the largest Arctic delta and an important interface between the Arctic Ocean in the North and the large Siberian land masses in the South. This delta consists not only of Holocene deltaic sediment deposits as a river terrace and the modern active floodplains but also of remnants of the former Pleistocene mainland including large islands of ice-complex sediments and the Arga-Muora-Sise Island, which is composed of pure sand sediments of still debated origin. The highly diverse landscape structure of the Lena River Delta is reflected by a great variety of permafrost-affected soils (gelisols). This study aims at describing this great gelisol diversity and at analysing the dominant soil-forming processes in this comparatively scarcely studied soil region. The soil development in the investigated continuous permafrost region is limited by the short thawing period of around three months (June to September) and takes place in the shallow (< 1 m) seasonally thawed active layer. The geological parent material plays an important role for the development of soils in the Lena River Delta region. The distribution of the various soil types closely follows the pattern of the geomorphic units characterised by differing sedimentation conditions. The properties and genesis of the soils on the Holocene river terrace and the modern floodplains are strongly affected by the enormous amounts of fluvial sediments (about 12 x 106 tons per year) brought by the Lena River into its delta. The fluvial sedimentation together with the also pronounced aeolian sedimentation results in a fast vertical growth of soils. The upward rise of the soil surface leads to an upward movement of the permafrost table resulting in fast incorporation of soil material formed in the supra-permafrost zone into the permafrost. Due to the morphodynamics of ice-wedge polygons and resulting formation of patterned ground with elevated rims and depressed and water-saturated centres

  10. Production of {sup 99}Mo using LEU and molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    The production of {sup 99}Mo using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and natural molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor is investigated. The successive linear programming technique is applied to minimize the target loadings for different yield constraints. The irradiation time is related to the kinetics of the growth and decay of {sup 99}Mo. The feasibility of a neutron generated based {sup 99}Mo production system is discussed.

  11. Conceptual design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, Shalina Sheik; Hamzah, Mohd Arif Arif B.

    2014-02-01

    Spent fuel transfer cask is used to transfer a spent fuel from the reactor tank to the spent fuel storage or for spent fuel inspection. Typically, the cask made from steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed. The cylinder is enclosed with additional steel, concrete, or other material to provide radiation shielding and containment of the spent fuel. This paper will discuss the Conceptual Design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA Puspati (RTP).

  12. Conceptual design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    SciTech Connect

    Muhamad, Shalina Sheik; Hamzah, Mohd Arif Arif B.

    2014-02-12

    Spent fuel transfer cask is used to transfer a spent fuel from the reactor tank to the spent fuel storage or for spent fuel inspection. Typically, the cask made from steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed. The cylinder is enclosed with additional steel, concrete, or other material to provide radiation shielding and containment of the spent fuel. This paper will discuss the Conceptual Design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA Puspati (RTP)

  13. Fundamental approach to TRIGA steady-state thermal-hydraulic CHF analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-03-30

    Methods are investigated for predicting the power at which critical heat flux (CHF) occurs in TRIGA reactors that rely on natural convection for primary flow. For a representative TRIGA reactor, two sets of functions are created. For the first set, the General Atomics STAT code and the more widely-used RELAP5-3D code are each employed to obtain reactor flow rate as a function of power. For the second set, the Bernath correlation, the 2006 Groeneveld table, the Hall and Mudawar outlet correlation, and each of the four PG-CHF correlations for rod bundles are used to predict the power at which CHF occurs as a function of channel flow rate. The two sets of functions are combined to yield predictions of the power at which CHF occurs in the reactor. A combination of the RELAP5-3D code and the 2006 Groeneveld table predicts 67% more CHF power than does a combination of the STAT code and the Bernath correlation. Replacing the 2006 Groeneveld table with the Bernath CHF correlation (while using the RELAP5-3D code flow solution) causes the increase to be 23% instead of 67%. Additional RELAP5-3D flow-versus-power solutions obtained from Reference 1 and presented in Appendix B for four specific TRIGA reactors further demonstrates that the Bernath correlation predicts CHF to occur at considerably lower power levels than does the 2006 Groeneveld table. Because of the lack of measured CHF data in the region of interest to TRIGA reactors, none of the CHF correlations considered can be assumed to provide the definitive CHF power. It is recommended, however, to compare the power levels of the potential limiting rods with the power levels at which the Bernath and 2006 Groeneveld CHF correlations predict CHF to occur.

  14. Transport model based on three-dimensional cross-section generation for TRIGA core analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriangchaiporn, Nateekool

    This dissertation addresses the development of a reactor core physics model based on 3-D transport methodology utilizing 3-D multigroup fuel lattice cross-section generation and core calculation for PSBR. The proposed 3-D transport calculation scheme for reactor core simulations is based on the TORT code. The methodology includes development of algorithms for 2-D and 3-D cross-section generation. The fine- and broad-group structures for the TRIGA cross-section generation problems were developed based on the CPXSD (Contributon and Point-wise Cross-Section Driven) methodology that selects effective group structure. Along with the study of cross section generation, the parametric studies for SN calculations were performed to evaluate the impact of the spatial meshing, angular, and scattering order variables and to obtain the suitable values for cross-section collapsing of the TRIGA cell problem. The TRIGA core loading 2 is used to verify and validate the selected effective group structures. Finally, the 13 group structure was selected to use for core calculations. The results agree with continuous energy for eigenvalues and normalized pin power distribution. The Monte Carlo solutions are used as the references.

  15. Modeling of γ field around irradiated TRIGA fuel elements by R2S method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemen, Ambrožič; Luka, Snoj

    2017-09-01

    The JSI TRIGA reactor has several irradiation facilities with well characterized neutron fields. The characterization was performed by measurements and by utilizing Monte Carlo particle transport computational methods. Because of this, JSI TRIGA has become a reference center for neutron irradiation of detectors for ATLAS experiment (CERN). Thorough γ characterization of the reactor is however yet to be performed. Current Monte Carlo particle transport code only account for the prompt generation of neutron induced γ rays, which have been characterized, but are neglecting the time dependent delayed part, which may in some cases amount to more then 30% of total γ flux in an operation reactor, and is the only source of γ-rays after reactor shutdown. Several common approaches of modeling delayed -rays , namely D1S and R2S exist. In this paper an in-house developed R2S method code is described, coupling a Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP6 and neutron activation code FISPACT-II, with intermediate steps performed by custom Python scripts. An example of its capabilities is presented in terms of evaluation of utilization of JSI TRIGA nuclear fuel as a viable γ-ray source. In the model, fresh nuclear fuel is considered and a silicon pipe sample is modeled in. Fuel activities, dose and kerma rates on the sample, as well as emitted γ-ray spectra and isotopic contribution to the contact dose are calculated and presented.

  16. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff Anuar, Abul Adli Idris, Hairul Nizam Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-12

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  17. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff; Anuar, Abul Adli; Idris, Hairul Nizam; Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-01

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  18. Fluid Flow Characteristic Simulation of the Original TRIGA 2000 Reactor Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon

    2010-06-22

    Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.

  19. Use of tri-gas incubator for routine culture of Campylobacter species from fecal specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J S; Hodge, D S; Smith, D E; Yong, Y A

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated a tri-gas incubator for Campylobacter isolation to be used instead of an anaerobic jar. Fecal specimens were cultured in duplicate onto charcoal selective medium and incubated at 43 degrees C for 48 h in two different environments: a tri-gas incubator (Forma Scientific) adjusted to provide an atmosphere of 10% CO2, 10% O2, and the balance N2; and evacuated anaerobic jars with a replacement gas mixture of 10% CO2, 5% O2, and 85% N2. A total of 106 Campylobacter jejuni and 8 Campylobacter coli isolates were obtained from 2,348 stool specimens. Of the positive specimens, 113 isolates came from the incubator and 111 isolates came from the anaerobic jars. An additional 32 previously positive specimens were replated onto charcoal selective medium and retested by both methods. We recovered 27 C. jejuni isolates, 26 isolates by each method. The isolates from the incubator typically produced discrete colonies, while the isolates from the anaerobic jar showed some degree of swarming in colony formation. The tri-gas incubator provided a cost-effective method for culturing Campylobacter spp. PMID:2280012

  20. Exploring the Acceptability of Innovative Technology: A Pilot Study Using LENA with Parents of Young Deaf Children in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Sarah; Crawford, Paul; Mulla, Imran

    2017-01-01

    Early intervention is widely recommended for children at risk of difficulties with speech, language and communication. Evidence for effective practice remains limited due in part to inherent difficulties in defining complex interventions and measuring change. The innovative Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system has exciting potential for…

  1. High H2O/Ce of K-rich MORB from Lena Trough and Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. E.; Feig, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    Lena Trough in the Arctic ocean is the oblique spreading continuation of Gakkel Ridge through the Fram Strait (eg Snow et al. 2011). Extreme trace element and isotopic compositions seen in Lena Trough basalt appear to be the enriched end member dominating the geochemistry of the Western Volcanic Zone of the Western Gakkel Ridge as traced by Pb isotopes, K2O/TiO2, Ba/Nb and other isotopic, major and trace element indicators of mixing (Nauret et al., 2011). This is in contrast to neighboring Gakkel Ridge which has been spreading for 50-60 million years. Basalts from Lena Trough also show a pure MORB noble gas signature (Nauret et al., 2010) and peridotites show no evidence of ancient components in their Os isotopes (Lassiter, et al., in press). The major and trace element compositions of the basalts, however are very distinct from MORB, being far more potassic than all but a single locality on the SW Indian Ridge. We determined H2O and trace element composiitions of a suite of 17 basalt glasses from the Central Lena Trough (CLT) and the Gakkel Western Volcanic Zone, including many of those previously analyzed by Nauret et al. (2012). The Western Gakkel glasses have high H2O/Ce for MORB (>300) suggesting a water rich source consistent with the idea that the northernmost Atlantic mantle is enriched in water (Michael et al., 1995). They are within the range of Eastern Gakkel host glasses determined by Wanless et al, 2013. The Lena Trough (CLT) glasses are very rich in water for MORB (>1% H2O) and are among the highest H2O/Ce (>400) ever measured in MORB aside from melt inclusions in olivine. Mantle melting dynamics and melt evolution cannot account for the H2O/Ce variations in MORB, as these elements have similar behavior during melting and crustal evolution. Interestingly, the H2O/K2O ratios in the basalts are only around 1. This is because the K2O levels in the CLT glasses are very high as well relative to REE. The absolutely linear relationship between H2O and K2O

  2. Seasonal changes in particulate and dissolved organic matter composition and quality in the Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Winterfeld, M.; Hefter, J.; Bodenstab, L.; Morgenstern, A.; Eulenburg, A.; Heim, B.; Koch, B.; Schefuss, E.; Moerth, C. M.; Rethemeyer, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic rivers are known to export large quantities of carbon by discharge of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), and in a warming and progressively moister Arctic, these exports may increase resulting in a reduction of arctic continental carbon stocks. These rivers have highly variable discharge rates with a pronounced maximum during the spring freshet associated with highest concentrations of DOC and POC. Most studies investigating the isotopic composition and quality of carbon exported by Arctic rivers rely on samples taken in summer during base flow, which is due to the logistical challenges associated with sampling in the remote Arctic permafrost regions. Here we present a record of δ13C and ∆14C of DOC and POC collected between late May during the freshet and late August 2014 in the Lena River Delta. POC ∆14C shows an initial trend towards older values in the spring samples, which is reversed in summer, associated with a shift towards more depleted δ13C values. We interpret this aging trend as reflecting progressive thawing throughout the ice-free season, resulting in mobilization of progressively older carbon from deeper thawed layers. The summer reversal indicates admixture of aquatic organic matter. DOC ∆14C, in contrast, remains at relatively modern levels with rather constant δ13C values throughout the sampling period. We furthermore analysed the biomarker composition of Lena Delta particulate OM collected in spring and summer. From spring to summer, we observe trends in abundance of individual leaf-wax derived biomarkers indicating higher abundance of algal biomass in the summer particles. Trends in soil microbial biomarkers and compound-specific δD of leaf-wax lipids suggest a shift in sources towards higher contributions from the southern catchment in summer. DOC composition investigated with FT-ICR-MS changes from spring with higher abundances of compounds with high H/C and low O/C ratios to late summer, when fewer compounds

  3. Contribution to a bio-optical model for remote sensing of Lena River water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Örek, H.; Doerffer, R.; Röttgers, R.; Boersma, M.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2013-11-01

    Bio-optical measurements and sampling were carried out in the delta of the Lena River (northern Siberia, Russia) between 26 June and 4 July 2011. The aim of this study was to determine the inherent optical properties of the Lena water, i.e., absorption, attenuation, and scattering coefficients, during the period of maximum runoff. This aimed to contribute to the development of a bio-optical model for use as the basis for optical remote sensing of coastal water of the Arctic. In this context the absorption by CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) and particles, and the concentrations of total suspended matter, phytoplankton-pigments, and carbon were measured. CDOM was found to be the most dominant parameter affecting the optical properties of the river, with an absorption coefficient of 4.5-5 m-1 at 442 nm, which was almost four times higher than total particle absorption values at visible wavelength range. The wavelenght-dependence of absorption of the different water constituents was chracterized by determining the semi logarithmic spectral slope. Mean CDOM, and detritus slopes were 0.0149 nm-1(standard deviation (stdev) = 0.0003, n = 18), and 0.0057 nm-1 (stdev = 0.0017, n = 19), respectively, values which are typical for water bodies with high concentrations of dissolved and particulate carbon. Mean chlorophyll a and total suspended matter were 1.8 mg m-3 (stdev = 0.734 n = 18) and 31.9 g m-3 (stdev = 19.94, n = 27), respectively. DOC (dissolved organic carbon) was in the range 8-10 g m-3 and the total particulate carbon (PC) in the range 0.25-1.5 g m-3. The light penetration depth (Secchi disc depth) was in the range 30-90 cm and was highly correlated with the suspended matter concentration. The period of maximum river runoff in June was chosen to obtain bio-optical data when maximum water constituents are transported into the Laptev Sea. However, we are aware that more data from other seasons and other years need to be collected to establish a general bio

  4. Age distribution of permfrost soil & surface water particulate organic carbon in the Lena Delta, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterfeld, M.; Flerus, R.; Koch, B.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Since several millennia huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) are stored frozen in circumarctic permafrost soils making up almost twice the amount of carbon currently present in the atmosphere. During the course of a proposed rapid climate change in the Arctic large quantities of this old OC are expected to be remobilized in dissolved (DOC) and particulate phases (POC) and exported to the Arctic shelf seas. Previous studies have shown that at present, DOC in Arctic river runoff is predominantly composed of relatively fresh organic material likely derived from the uppermost soil horizons. POC age data are scarce and where present show that it is substantially older than DOC. With our study we want to add information on the riverine POC exported by the Lena River to the Laptev Sea. Permafrost soil samples and surface water particulate matter (SPM) were collected in July/August 2009/2010 throughout the delta. Additional SPM samples were taken May/June 2011 during the spring flood and shortly after off the Island of Samoylov within the delta. Particulate organic carbon (POC) contents for 2009 vary between 280µg/L and 2155µg/L with an average of 918µg/L which is within the range of previously reported values. The Δ14C concentrations for POC of the same year show a broad range from -262‰ to -55‰ (average -158‰), which translates into ages of 2380±30yrs BP and 395±35yrs BP respectively (average ca. 1300yrs BP). The POC Δ14C concentrations reflect the age distribution found in the upper 1.4m of a permafrost peat cliff on Samoylov Island (-274‰ or 2510±30yrs BP). Karlsson et al (2011) found that POC samples in the SE Laptev Sea just off the Lena Delta contain young and bioavailable material interpreted to be derived from surface soils, which is in agreement with our late summer data. With the surface water POC contents in the Lena Delta of three consecutive years including one spring flood event presented here we improve our understanding of the interannual

  5. Hydrosweep Measurements During the Expedition ARK XX-2 to Lena Trough and Western Gakkel Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauger, S.; Kohls, T.; Roeber, S.; Snow, J.

    2004-12-01

    The region of Lena Trough and Western Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean was the object of an expedition in the summer of 2004. This region is of particular geoscientific interest because of its extremely slow spreading rates and the variety of morphologic forms that are produced in this tectonic environment. Therefore, the multibeam measurement system was of particular importance to the scientific goals of the cruise. The main characteristic of the Hydrosweep DS-2 deep-water sounding system aboard RV Polarstern is the 90° or 120° coverage angle in which the seafloor is depicted with 59 specific values for water depths perpendicular to the ship's long axis. The accuracy of the measurement is approx. 1% of water depth, the frequency of the acoustic signal is 15.5 kHz. The refraction of the sonar beams was corrected by automatic crossfan calibration. By regular transmission and measurement of a sweep profile in the ship's longitudinal direction and comparison of the slant beams with the vertical beam, the mean sound velocity over the vertical water column is determined and is used for the depth computation. The data collected include depth, sidescan (2048 values per scan), and backscatter information on each of the 59 beams. During this cruise, the Lena Trough was surveyed systematically for the first time by a multibeam sonar system. The recorded area has an expanse of approx. 100000 km2 and connects previously mapped areas of the Eurasian - North-American plate boundary between Fram Strait and Gakkel Ridge. The region of Western Gakkel Ridge, mapped in 2001 (AMOR-Expedition) by RV Polarstern and USCGC Healy (USA), was extended by two more profiles (each 220 km long) along the ridge. In order to produce working maps for the expedition, the multibeam sonar data were gridded with a spacing of 50 m, producing plots with various contour line intervals. For further morphological interpretation of Lena Trough and Gakkel Ridge slope magnitude maps, slope direction maps and

  6. Nuclear Astrophysics at the LENA facility: The γ-ray detection system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longland, Richard; Iliadis, Christian; Champagne, Arthur; Fox, Chris; Newton, Joe

    2006-10-01

    Details of the detection system used at The Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics is described, including methods for measuring weak capture-γ-ray resonances. γγ-coincidence techniques with a large solid angle NaI(Tl) annulus are described, as well as their effects on background count rates in the energy regions of interest at LENA. In order to reduce the background further, cosmic muon induced counts can be decreased with the aid of an anti-coincidence plastic scintillator shield. In order to create a compact detection system, a novel, wavelength shifting fibre method of light readout has been used. These techniques are shown to reduce background count rates significantly for cascade decays in our regions of interest, and are shown to have a significant improvement over our previous results.

  7. Trends in annual and extreme flows in the Lena River basin, Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananaev, N. I.; Makarieva, O. M.; Lebedeva, L. S.

    2016-10-01

    A long-term daily streamflow data set, covering the period from 1925 to 2013, was compiled for the Lena River basin, with an average record length of 49 years. Time series of mean annual daily flow (MADF) and extreme (maximum, Qmax, and minimum, Qmin) daily flows were subject to trend detection and change point detection analysis. Significant changes result mostly from rapid "breakpoint" homogeneity disruptions. Thirty one time series showed trends in MADF, 10, in Qmax, and 32 of the 55 records with nonzero Qmin, significant at p ≤ 0.05. Upward trends prevail in both mean annual and extreme flows, with average magnitudes of 47% (MADF), 56% (Qmax), and 68% (Qmin). Two to three stations in each subset showed downward trends (averaging -20%, -39%, and -38%, respectively). Abrupt changes are observed in the 1990s and early 2000s mostly in the headwaters of the basin, underlain by discontinuous permafrost.

  8. How lake morphometry reflects environmental conditions in the permafrost-dominated Lena Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, A.; Grosse, G.; Schirrmeister, L.

    2007-12-01

    Numerous lakes characterize the landscape of the northeast Siberian Lena Delta, which is situated in the zone of continuous permafrost. We provide a detailed lake inventory of this largest Arctic delta. The inventory is based on Landsat-7 ETM+ image data and spatial analysis in ArcGIS. Several morphometric lake attributes were determined from the resulting data set and statistically analysed regarding the lakes' association with one of the three geomorphological main units of the Lena delta. Significant differences in the morphometric lake characteristics allowed the distinction of a mean lake type for each main unit. The lake types reflect the special lithological and cryolithological conditions and geomorphologic processes prevailing on each terrace. The first main unit, which represents the modern active delta, is characterized by small lakes of irregular shape, like meander scrolls and oxbow lakes. Large oriented lakes dominate on the second terrace that consists of Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene sands. On the third terrace, which is represented by relics of a Late Pleistocene accumulation plain with fine-grained and ice-rich deposits, typical thermokarst lakes with regular, circular shorelines prevail. Most studied lakes are thermokarst lakes by their nature, as they have been or still are expanding by thermoabrasion of shore banks and deepening of the lake basin. However, a distinction between primary and secondary thermokarst lakes can be made. Primary lakes are those initially formed by thaw subsidence, i.e. the third terrace lakes. Secondary thermokarst lakes are typically formed by other processes, e.g. the change of the fluvial channel network on the first terrace. The role of lakes on the second terrace is still debated. They appear to be typical thermokarst lakes by morphometry, but their primary initiation might have been related to inter-dune or old fluvial water bodies.

  9. High Resolution Partitioning of Soil Properties and Soil Organic Carbon Storage in the Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugelius, G.; Siewert, M. B.; Heim, B.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution vertical and spatial information on SOC storage and other key properties of permafrost-affected soils is key for the assessment and modeling of the vulnerability of permafrost carbon. We present findings of soil investigations from the high Arctic Lena river delta. In total 50 soil pedons have been sampled from different geomorphological units (delta terraces) in the delta in late summer 2013. All pedons have been classified according to the U.S. soil taxonomy. We described and sampled 19 Turbels, 27 Orthels and 4 Histels. On average 7.9±2.7 samples have been analyzed from each profile, including samples of the upper permafrost down to one meter depth. Soil horizons are described from open soil pits and their respective thicknesses are calculated from perspective-corrected photographs. Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density, as well as content of water/ice soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N). The data is aggregated for the different geomorphological units and partitioned at centimeter level. High resolution vertical depth plots of different soil properties, including C%, N%, water and ice content and soil horizon distribution, are generated to demonstrate the information density of the dataset. A high-resolution land cover classification is generated for a subregion of the delta using advanced remote sensing classification methods. The soil pedon data and the land cover classification are combined for thematic upscaling of SOC and N stocks. We identify major geomorphological units of the Lena delta to control SOC storage in the subregion. We can show that SOC storage is highly variable with depth. Strong cryoturbation contributes to much deep SOC storages on the relatively stable first and third delta terraces, while fluvial deposition controls SOC storage in the recent alluvial floodplain. Soils sampled on thermokarst-affected rims of the third terrace show lower SOC storages indicating considerable reworking of the SOC.

  10. Methane concentrations and oxidation in nearshore waters of the Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, S. B.; Samarkin, V.; Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is warming dramatically, with potentially catastrophic impacts on climate change through rapid mobilization of labile carbon reservoirs sequestered presently in permafrost. Increasingly, Arctic feedbacks are recognized as key contributors to climate change, including cycles associated with the powerful greenhouse gas methane, whose atmospheric concentration has more than doubled since the pre-industrial epoch. Sustained methane release to the atmosphere from thawing Arctic permafrost and delivery to the coastal ocean through groundwater or riverine discharge or expulsion from the seabed is a positive and likely highly significant feedback to climate warming. Microbially-mediated methane oxidation provides a key sink and effective biofilter that can limit methane fluxes from coastal environments to the atmosphere. We examined methane dynamics on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf by determining concentrations and oxidation rates at a series of stations near the Lena River Delta and moving offshore. Methane concentrations and oxidation rates were highly elevated in and near the river mouth compared to offshore waters, except when the offshore waters were impacted by seabed methane seepage. The regulation of methane oxidation in Arctic waters appears two-fold: first, rates are strongly related to methane availability and second, in the presence of methane, nutrient availability strongly regulates methane consumption. Along the Lena river delta, elevated concentrations of both nutrients and methane create ideal conditions to support high rates of pelagic methanotrophy. Offshore, where nutrient concentrations are lower and more limiting, methane oxidation rates are considerably lower. These data suggest that, at present, nearshore waters are fairly efficient methane sinks while in offshore waters, pelagic methanotrophy is inefficient, allowing methane to escape to the atmosphere.

  11. Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) in Phelan-McDermid Syndrome: Validity and Suggestions for Use in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Rankine, Jacquelin; Li, Erin; Lurie, Stacey; Rieger, Hillary; Fourie, Emily; Siper, Paige M; Wang, A Ting; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Kolevzon, Alexander

    2017-03-02

    Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a single-locus cause of developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and minimal verbal abilities. There is an urgent need to identify objective outcome measures of expressive language for use in this and other minimally verbal populations. One potential tool is an automated language processor called Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA). LENA was used to obtain over 542 h of audio in 18 children with PMS. LENA performance was adequate in a subset of children with PMS, specifically younger children and those with fewer stereotypic vocalizations. One LENA-derived language measure, Vocalization Ratio, had improved accuracy in this sample and may represent a novel expressive language measure for use in severely affected populations.

  12. The history and perspective of Romania-USA cooperation in the field of technologic transfer of TRIGA reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocaanescu, M.; Ionescu, M.

    1996-08-01

    The cooperation between Romania and the USA in the field of technologic transfer of nuclear research reactor technology began with the steady state 14 MW{sub t} TRIGA reactor, installed at INR Pitesti, Romania. It is the first in the range of TRIGA reactors proposed as a materials testing reactor. The first criticality was reached in November 19, 1979 and first operation at 14 MW{sub t} level was in February 1980. The paper will present the short history of this cooperation and the perspective for a new cooperation for building a Nuclear Heating Plant using the TRIGA reactor concept for demonstration purpose. The energy crisis is a world-wide problem which affects each country in different ways because the resources and the consumption are unfairly distributed. World-wide research points out that the fossil fuel sources are not to be considered the main energy sources for the long term as they are limited.

  13. High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

    2012-09-01

    Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725°C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800°C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

  14. Argon-41 production and evolution at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor (OSTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Anellis, L.G.; Johnson, A.G.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1988-07-01

    In this study, argon-41 concentrations were measured at various locations within the reactor facility to assess the accuracy of models used to predict argon-41 evolution from the reactor tank, and to determine the relationship between argon gas evolution from the tank and subsequent argon-41 concentrations throughout the reactor room. In particular, argon-41 was measured directly above the reactor tank with the reactor tank lids closed, at other accessible locations on the reactor top with the tank lids both closed and open, and at several locations on the first floor of the reactor room. These measured concentrations were then compared to values calculated using a modified argon-41 production and evolution model for TRIGA reactor tanks and ventilation values applicable to the OSTR facility. The modified model was based in part on earlier TRIGA models for argon-41 production and release, but added features which improved the agreement between predicted and measured values. The approximate dose equivalent rate due to the presence of argon-41 in reactor room air was calculated for several different locations inside the OSTR facility. These dose rates were determined using the argon-41 concentration measured at each specific location, and were subsequently converted to a predicted quarterly dose equivalent for each location based on the reactor's operating history. The predicted quarterly dose equivalent values were then compared to quarterly doses measured by film badges deployed as dose-integrating area radiation monitors at the locations of interest. The results indicate that the modified production and evolution model is able to predict argon-41 concentrations to within a factor of ten when compared to the measured data. Quarterly dose equivalents calculated from the measured argon-41 concentrations and the reactor's operating history seemed consistent with results obtained from the integrating area radiation monitors. Given the argon-41 concentrations measured

  15. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dris, Zakaria bin; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A.; Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal

    2016-01-01

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  16. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    SciTech Connect

    Dris, Zakaria bin; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A.; Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal

    2016-01-22

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  17. Reconstructing the landscape structure of the Lena-Angara interfluve (south part of Eastern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atutova, Zhanna

    2015-04-01

    Historical-geographical reconstructions of the landscape structure of territories developed in the remote past constitute the necessary element in the chain of research into the dynamics and the degree of transformation of geosystems caused by the influence of the natural regularities and anthropogenic factors. The objective of this study is to determine the specific features of the territory of the Lena-Angara interfluve in the late 19th - early 20th centuries in the interest of a subsequent different-time comparative analysis of the landscape situation. An analysis of the features inherent in the functioning of the geosystems of the Lena-Angara interfluve was made by using, as an example, an elevated plateau with the sources of the Kuda river as well as of the Ilga and Kuda rivers. The relief is represented by a tableland with narrow crests of the watersheds, heavily dissected by a dense network of the valleys of rivers. The denudation processes created planate table-shaped elevations and plateaus whose range of absolute altitudes varies between 400 and 1000 m. The analysis of the landscape structure showed that the study territory was the home for mountain-taiga dark-coniferous and deciduous classes of facies. Larch, spruce-larch and, in places, pine-larch subshrub-grass-moss forests grew within the basins of the Ilga and Kulenga rivers. The watershed spaces of the Ilga-Kuda interfluve, and also the slopes of the upper reaches of the Kuda river were occupied by Siberian stone pine and larch-spruce subshrub-moss groups of facies. In spite of the ubiquitous occurrence of taiga-forest ranges, most of them transformed to derivative groups of facies. Forest fires gave impetus to a widespread occurrence of coniferous/small-leaved complexes in burned-over areas. The study area was poorly populated at the period under investigation; therefore, cultivated lands occupied very small territories. The upper reaches of the Kulenga river included small tracts of arable land

  18. Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Arctic Deltaic Sediments: Investigations in the Lena River Delta.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Desyatkin, A.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil organic carbon stock (SSOC) of deltaic sediments in arctic permafrost regions is known to be significant but is insufficiently investigated so far. Previous SSOC studies were conducted mainly in the comparatively well studied Mackenzie River Delta (area: 13,000 km2) in Canada. The few studies from other arctic delta regions report only the gravimetric carbon (C) contents and are limited to the active layer depth at the time of sampling. Since C deposits in permafrost regions are likely to become a future C source, more detailed investigations of the presently frozen likely carbon-rich sediment and soil layers in other arctic delta regions are of importance. Our investigations were performed on Samoylov Island in the southern-central part of the Lena River Delta (32,000 km2) which is the largest arctic delta and the fifth largest delta worldwide. Samoylov Island is representative for the Lena River Delta's first terrace and the active floodplains. Within this study a new portable Snow-Ice-Permafrost-Research-Establishment (SIPRE) auger was used during a spring field session to obtain 1 m deep frozen soil cores (n = 37) distributed over all known soil and vegetation units. These cores are analyzed for bulk contents of nitrogen (N) and C, ice content and bulk density (BD) and to determine the SSOC including the rarely investigated currently permanently frozen layers up to 1 m depth on Samoylov Island. Our study provides evidence for high SSOC for a depth of 1 m for the investigated area ranging between 6 kg m2 and 54 kg m2. Considering the spatial extent of different soil units on the two geomorphological units of Samoylov Island, the area-weighted average SSOC were 31 kg m2 (n = 31) for the first terrace and 15 kg m2 (n = 6) for the active floodplain. For the correspondent soil units of Turbels and Orthels in circumpolar permafrost regions, Tarnocai et al. 2009 reported a mean SSOC of 27 kg m2 (min: 0.1 kg m2, max: 126 kg m2) for a depth of 1 m. For up

  19. A Record of Dissolved Metal Concentrations in the Lena River During the Period of Ice Breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, O. D.; Guay, C. K.; Holmes, R. M.; Zhulidov, A. V.

    2004-12-01

    The PARTNERS project is a 5-year research program (2002-2007) funded by the Arctic System Science Program of the U.S. National Science Foundation. The objective of the PARTNERS project is to measure several biogeochemical parameters in the six largest rivers that drain the watershed of the Arctic Ocean (Yenisey, Lena, Ob, Mackenzie, Yukon, and Kolyma) as a means to study the origins and fates of continental runoff. As part of the PARTNERS field program for 2004, samples were collected on the Lena River in the spring (May-June) during the period of peak discharge and ice breakup. Samples were collected from the bank at the town of Zhigansk (66.75 N, 23.38 E) once daily from May 28th through June 7th, 2004. The river was completely ice covered at the beginning of this period. The river level rose dramatically each day until ice breakup, which occurred on May 30th. Following breakup, the river level began to drop steadily. Visual observation of daily water samples indicated a darkening of the tannic brown color of the river water as discharge levels increased up until breakup, suggesting an increase in DOC concentrations associated with the peak discharge and ice breakup period. Water samples for metals analyses were syringe filtered in the field through 0.45 um polypropylene and 0.02 um Anotop filter discs and acidified under clean conditions upon return to the laboratory. The samples were analyzed by high-resolution ICPMS for a suite of metals including Ba, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Re, Sr, Tl, U, V, and Zn. Here we report the results from these analyses as a daily time series of metal concentrations bracketing the ice breakup and peak discharge events. During this relatively short amount of time, significant fluctuations in metal concentrations were observed, which are likely related to concurrent fluctuations in DOC concentrations and other changes in river chemistry occurring during this dynamic period of the annual hydrologic cycle in

  20. Sources of particulate organic matter discharged by the Lena River using lignin phenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterfeld, M.; Trojahn, S.; Hefter, J.; Pittauer, D.; Zubrzycki, S.; Han, P.; Rethemeyer, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2016-12-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) discharged by rivers and deposited offshore their mouths is generally assumed to record an integrated signal from the watershed and therefore provides an archive of past environmental changes. Yet, in large river systems the riverine POM might be trapped in flood plains and the lower reaches resulting in an inefficient transport of POM particularly from the distal parts of the watershed. Further, the POM likely undergoes degradation during transport from source to sink. The Lena River is one of these large river systems stretching from 53°N to 71°N in central Siberia. The watershed can be broadly divided into two different biomes, taiga in the south and tundra in the northernmost part. The relative contribution of these biomes to the POM load of the river and its discharge to the ocean as well as the changes it is undergoing during transport are not well understood. Here we present the lignin phenol composition of different grain size fractions (bulk, 2mm-63µm, <63µm) of soil samples taken along a latitudinal transect (63°N to 72°N) as well as in marine surface sediments and two short sediment cores covering the last 120 years offshore the main Lena discharge channels. The lignin phenol composition of the soil samples (bulk, 2mm-63µm, <63µm) reflects the change in vegetation from south to north with increasing contribution of tundra vegetation. The degree of degradation between the soil sample locations as well as grain size fractions was very heterogeneous and did not show a clear trend. However, the POM seems to be slightly more degraded in the tundra, which is unexpected as the summer period when degradation in the upper thawed part of the soil can take place is shorter in the tundra compared to the southern taiga region. The marine surface sediments were dominated by gymnosperm-derived POM, particularly close to the river mouth and in the <63µm fraction. Because of the large heterogeneity of organic matter degradation

  1. Assessing Silicate Weathering in Permafrost-Dominated Catchments Using Lithium Isotopes: The Lena River, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. J.; Pogge von Strandmann, P.; Porcelli, D.; Katchinoff, J. A.; Moreras Martí, A.; Hirst, C. A.; Andersson, P. S.; Maximov, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    Rising global temperatures have the potential to influence the Earth's climate feedback cycles due to permafrost thawing, altering the freshwater input and trace metal and carbon fluxes into the ocean and atmosphere. Riverine lithium isotope ratios (d7Li) are a tracer of silicate weathering processes, which are key in the removal of atmospheric CO2 over geological timescales. Despite this, little is known about the effects of permafrost thawing on d7Li variations. Strong seasonal changes in the thawed active layer thickness dictate surficial water flow paths, which may influence intra-annual riverine d7Li signatures. We present a study of the dissolved d7Li from the large permafrost-dominated watersheds of the Lena River (Siberia), which drain into the Arctic Ocean. This work comprises a temporal study during the May 2015 spring flood, from ice breakup through peak flooding, thus monitoring changes in water-rock and water-soil interaction, both processes that control weathering and hence Li isotopes. Before riverine ice started to break up, high [Li] are observed as the river signature is governed by winter base flow conditions. As the river ice breaks up, surface runoff flows over the impermeable permafrost, interacting with leaf litter, diluting the [Li]. We compare d7Li over the spring flood period with a greater spatial study conducted over two summer field seasons (2012/2013) of the main Lena River channel and its tributaries, which drain a variety of lithologies/topographies. During the summer, the thawed active layer promotes deeper water flow paths, greater water-rock interaction and enhanced secondary minerals formation which preferentially take up 6Li. Summer riverine d7Li typically fall between +14.5 ‰ to +28.5 ‰, with rivers draining the Central Siberian Plateau typically exhibiting high [Li], but similar δ7Li to rivers draining the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range. Overall, this study demonstrates how Li isotopes respond to weathering in a permafrost

  2. Radionuclide mass inventory, activity, decay heat, and dose rate parametric data for TRIGA spent nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    Parametric burnup calculations are performed to estimate radionuclide isotopic mass and activity concentrations for four different Training, Research, and Isotope General Atomics (TRIGA) nuclear reactor fuel element types: (1) Aluminum-clad standard, (2) Stainless Steel-clad standard, (3) High-enrichment Fuel Life Improvement Program (FLIP), and (4) Low-enrichment Fuel Life Improvement Program (FLIP-LEU-1). Parametric activity data are tabulated for 145 important radionuclides that can be used to generate gamma-ray emission source terms or provide mass quantity estimates as a function of decay time. Fuel element decay heats and dose rates are also presented parametrically as a function of burnup and decay time. Dose rates are given at the fuel element midplane for contact, 3.0-feet, and 3.0-meter detector locations in air. The data herein are estimates based on specially derived Beginning-of-Life (BOL) neutron cross sections using geometrically-explicit TRIGA reactor core models. The calculated parametric data should represent good estimates relative to actual values, although no experimental data were available for direct comparison and validation. However, because the cross sections were not updated as a function of burnup, the actinide concentrations may deviate from the actual values at the higher burnups.

  3. Electron versus proton accelerator driven sub-critical system performance using TRIGA reactors at power

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, M.; Burgio, N.; D'Angelo, A.; Santagata, A.; Petrovich, C.; Schikorr, M.; Beller, D.; Felice, L. S.; Imel, G.; Salvatores, M.

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison of the performance of an electron accelerator-driven experiment, under discussion within the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project, being conducted within the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and of the proton-driven experiment TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) originally planned at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. Both experiments foresee the coupling to sub-critical TRIGA core configurations, and are aimed to investigate the relevant kinetic and dynamic accelerator-driven systems (ADS) core behavior characteristics in the presence of thermal reactivity feedback effects. TRADE was based on the coupling of an upgraded proton cyclotron, producing neutrons via spallation reactions on a tantalum (Ta) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 200 kW. RACE is based on the coupling of an Electron Linac accelerator, producing neutrons via photoneutron reactions on a tungsten-copper (W-Cu) or uranium (U) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 50 kW. The paper is focused on analysis of expected dynamic power response of the RACE core following reactivity and/or source transients. TRADE and RACE target-core power coupling coefficients are compared and discussed. (authors)

  4. 78 FR 5840 - Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is noticing the termination of Facility Operating...

  5. Variations of hydrological characteristics at the rivers of different size in the Lena river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, Olga; Tananaev, Nikita; Lebedeva, Luidmila; Popova, Evdokiya

    2016-04-01

    There are many speculations about possible impact of climate change at hydrological regime of Northern Eurasia, and permafrost basins in particular. Though the changes of flow of large rivers are relatively well described, the trends for small and middle-size watersheds are unknown. After the papers by Shiklomanov et al. (2007) and Smith et al. (2007) examining the variations of maximum and minimum flow in Northern Russia by 2001 there was no much update in this issue. In this study we compiled the database of continuous daily runoff for about 110 gauges within the Lena River basin with the order of basin area from 10 to 100000 sq.km. All currently functioning flow gauges with continuous observations not less than 35 years were selected for the database which contains the data up to 2013. For chosen gauges the parameters of row-correlation, cyclic recurrence and the stationarity of main runoff characteristics (mean, maximum and minimum flow) were estimated. The conclusions are drawn about the evidence of unsteadiness and/or internal correlation in runoff series; the robust indicators of the intensity of detected changes are evaluated; the duration of water cycles and evaluation the spatial correlation between water cycles are explored. The study is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 15-35-21146 mol_a).

  6. Methane turnover and methanotrophic communities in arctic aquatic ecosystems of the Lena Delta, Northeast Siberia.

    PubMed

    Osudar, Roman; Liebner, Susanne; Alawi, Mashal; Yang, Sizhong; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Wagner, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    Large amounts of organic carbon are stored in Arctic permafrost environments, and microbial activity can potentially mineralize this carbon into methane, a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, we assessed the methane budget, the bacterial methane oxidation (MOX) and the underlying environmental controls of arctic lake systems, which represent substantial sources of methane. Five lake systems located on Samoylov Island (Lena Delta, Siberia) and the connected river sites were analyzed using radiotracers to estimate the MOX rates, and molecular biology methods to characterize the abundance and the community composition of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). In contrast to the river, the lake systems had high variation in the methane concentrations, the abundance and composition of the MOB communities, and consequently, the MOX rates. The highest methane concentrations and the highest MOX rates were detected in the lake outlets and in a lake complex in a flood plain area. Though, in all aquatic systems, we detected both, Type I and II MOB, in lake systems, we observed a higher diversity including MOB, typical of the soil environments. The inoculation of soil MOB into the aquatic systems, resulting from permafrost thawing, might be an additional factor controlling the MOB community composition and potentially methanotrophic capacity. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Microdosimetric measurements in the thermal neutron irradiation facility of LENA reactor.

    PubMed

    Colautti, P; Moro, D; Chiriotti, S; Conte, V; Evangelista, L; Altieri, S; Bortolussi, S; Protti, N; Postuma, I

    2014-06-01

    A twin TEPC with electric-field guard tubes has been constructed to be used to characterize the BNCT field of the irradiation facility of LENA reactor. One of the two mini TEPC was doped with 50ppm of (10)B in order to simulate the BNC events occurring in BNCT. By properly processing the two microdosimetric spectra, the gamma, neutron and BNC spectral components can be derived with good precision (~6%). However, direct measurements of (10)B in some doped plastic samples, which were used for constructing the cathode walls, point out the scarce accuracy of the nominal (10)B concentration value. The influence of the Boral(®) door, which closes the irradiation channel, has been measured. The gamma dose increases significantly (+51%) when the Boral(®) door is closed. The crypt-cell-regeneration weighting function has been used to measure the quality, namely the RBEµ value, of the radiation field in different conditions. The measured RBEµ values are only partially consistent with the RBE values of other BNCT facilities.

  8. Diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in a permafrost active layer soil of the Lena Delta, Siberia.

    PubMed

    Liebner, Susanne; Rublack, Katja; Stuehrmann, Torben; Wagner, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    With this study, we present first data on the diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (MOB) in an Arctic permafrost active layer soil of the Lena Delta, Siberia. Applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and pmoA gene fragments of active layer samples, we found a general restriction of the methanotrophic diversity to sequences closely related to the genera Methylobacter and Methylosarcina, both type I MOB. In contrast, we revealed a distinct species-level diversity. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, two new clusters of MOB specific for the permafrost active layer soil of this study were found. In total, 8 out of 13 operational taxonomic units detected belong to these clusters. Members of these clusters were closely related to Methylobacter psychrophilus and Methylobacter tundripaludum, both isolated from Arctic environments. A dominance of MOB closely related to M. psychrophilus and M. tundripaludum was confirmed by an additional pmoA gene analysis. We used diversity indices such as the Shannon diversity index or the Chao1 richness estimator in order to compare the MOB community near the surface and near the permafrost table. We determined a similar diversity of the MOB community in both depths and suggest that it is not influenced by the extreme physical and geochemical gradients in the active layer.

  9. Bacterial diversity and community structure in polygonal tundra soils from Samoylov Island, Lena Delta, Siberia.

    PubMed

    Liebner, Susanne; Harder, Jens; Wagner, Dirk

    2008-09-01

    During the Arctic summer, bacteria are active above the permafrost in an environment with sharp temperature and oxygen gradients. The present study addressed the diversity and abundance of bacteria in soil layers near the surface and above the permafrost of the rim and center of a low-centered polygon in the Lena Delta, Siberia. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the presence of all major soil bacterial groups and of the candidate divisions OD1, OP5, and OP11, and indicated a small-scale heterogeneity of these polygonal tundra soils. The diversity at the top of the elevated polygon rim was significantly different from that of the bottom and from both water-saturated sites of the polygon's center. The overall species-level diversity was very high (Shannon index of 5.3) but varied within the sites and decreased towards the permafrost table, coinciding with decreasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phosphate concentrations. According to the number of operational taxonomical units (OTUs) and cells visualized by fluorescence in-situ hybridization, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the dominant members of the bacterial community in all sites. Bacteroidetes contributed almost 50% to all Bacteria cells while sequences affiliated with Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi represented on average 23% of all OTUs. Our results provide evidence of the extremely diverse bacterial communities present in permafrost soils and of the influence of nutrient concentrations, oxygen, and DOC on diversity.

  10. University of Illinois nuclear pumped laser program. [experiments with a TRIGA pulsed reactor with a broad pulse and a low peak flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of nuclear pumped lasers with improved efficiency, energy storage capability, and UF6 volume pumping is reviewed. Results of nuclear pumped laser experiments using a TRIGA-type pulsed reactor are outlined.

  11. Dose estimation in B16 tumour bearing mice for future irradiation in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor after B/Gd/LDL adduct infusion.

    PubMed

    Protti, N; Ballarini, F; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Stella, S; Geninatti, S; Alberti, D; Aime, S; Altieri, S

    2011-12-01

    To test the efficacy of a new (10)B-vector compound, the B/Gd/LDL adduct synthesised at Torino University, in vivo irradiations of murine tumours are in progress at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Pavia University. A localised B16 melanoma tumour is generated in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infused with the adduct. During the irradiation, the mouse will be put in a shield to protect the whole body except the tumour in the back-neck area. To optimise the treatment set-up, MCNP simulations were performed. A very simplified mouse model was built using MCNP geometry capabilities, as well as the geometry of the shield made of 99% (10)B enriched boric acid. A hole in the shield is foreseen in correspondence of the back-neck region. Many configurations of the shield were tested in terms of neutron flux, dose distribution and mean induced activity in the tumour region and in the radiosensitive organs of the mouse. In the final set-up, up to five mice can be treated simultaneously in the reactor thermal column and the neutron fluence in the tumour region for 10 min of irradiation is of about 5×10(12) cm(-2).

  12. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-22

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 ({sup 233}U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  13. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (233U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  14. A carbon-cluster laser ion source for TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Blaum, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz

    2009-08-01

    A new laser ablation ion source was developed and tested for the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP in order to provide carbon-cluster ions for absolute mass calibration. Ions of different cluster sizes up to C+24 were successfully produced, covering the mass range up to the heavy actinide elements. The ions were captured in a Penning trap, and their time-of-flight cyclotron resonances recorded in order to determine their cyclotron frequency. Furthermore, the same ion source was used to produce GdO+ ions from a gadolinium target in sufficient amount for mass spectrometry purposes. The design of the source and its characteristics are presented. This paper comprises partly the PhD theses of J Ketelaer and C Smorra.

  15. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Wahida, Nurul; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Irwan, M. N.; Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy

    2014-09-03

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 65}Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs were leached out from the spent resin while {sup 60}Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  16. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahida, Nurul; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy, Irwan, M. N.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of 134Cs, 137Cs, 152Eu, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co and 65Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of 152Eu and 134Cs were leached out from the spent resin while 60Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  17. Genesis and Diversity of Cryosols of the Northeast Siberian Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Kutzbach, Lars

    2017-04-01

    The North-Siberian Lena River Delta (LRD) is the largest Arctic delta and an important interface between the Arctic Ocean in the North and the large Siberian land masses in the South. LRD consists not only of Holocene deltaic sediment deposits as a river terrace and the modern active floodplains but also of remnants of the former Pleistocene mainland including large islands of ice-complex sediments and the Arga-Muora-Sise Island, which is composed of pure sand sediments of still debated origin. The highly diverse landscape structure of LRD is reflected by a great variety of permafrost-affected soils (cryosols). This study aims at describing this great cryosol diversity and at analysing the dominant soil-forming processes in this comparatively scarcely studied soil region. The soil development in the investigated continuous permafrost region is limited by the short thawing period of around three months (June to September) and takes place in the shallow (below 1 m) seasonally thawed active layer. The geological parent material plays an important role for the development of soils in the LRD region. The distribution of the various soil types closely follows the pattern of the geomorphic units characterised by differing sedimentation conditions. The properties and genesis of the soils on the Holocene river terrace and the modern floodplains are strongly affected by the enormous amounts of fluvial sediments (about 12 x 106 tons per year) brought by the Lena River into its delta. The fluvial sedimentation together with the also pronounced aeolian sedimentation results in a fast vertical growth of soils. The upward rise of the soil surface leads to an upward movement of the permafrost table resulting in fast incorporation of soil material formed in the supra-permafrost zone into the permafrost. Due to the morphodynamics of ice-wedge polygons and resulting formation of patterned ground with elevated rims and depressed and water-saturated centres, the Holocene river terrace

  18. Cryosols of the Northeast Siberian Lena River Delta and its hinterland - genesis and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Kutzbach, Lars; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2016-04-01

    The North-Siberian Lena River Delta (LRD) is the largest Arctic delta and an important interface between the Arctic Ocean in the North and the large Siberian land masses in the South. LRD consists not only of Holocene deltaic sediment deposits as a river terrace and the modern active floodplains but also of remnants of the former Pleistocene mainland including large islands of ice-complex sediments and the Arga-Muora-Sise Island, which is composed of pure sand sediments of still debated origin. The highly diverse landscape structure of LRD is reflected by a great variety of permafrost-affected soils (cryosols). This study aims at describing this great cryosol diversity and at analysing the dominant soil-forming processes in this comparatively scarcely studied soil region. The soil development in the investigated continuous permafrost region is limited by the short thawing period of around three months (June to September) and takes place in the shallow (below 1 m) seasonally thawed active layer. The geological parent material plays an important role for the development of soils in the LRD region. The distribution of the various soil types closely follows the pattern of the geomorphic units characterised by differing sedimentation conditions. The properties and genesis of the soils on the Holocene river terrace and the modern floodplains are strongly affected by the enormous amounts of fluvial sediments (about 12 x 106 tons per year) brought by the Lena River into its delta. The fluvial sedimentation together with the also pronounced aeolian sedimentation results in a fast vertical growth of soils. The upward rise of the soil surface leads to an upward movement of the permafrost table resulting in fast incorporation of soil material formed in the supra-permafrost zone into the permafrost. Due to the morphodynamics of ice-wedge polygons and resulting formation of patterned ground with elevated rims and depressed and water-saturated centres, the Holocene river terrace

  19. IMAGE/LENA ISN Observations from 2003-2005: Implications for a Secondary Neutral Stream at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Ghielmetti, A. G.; Wurz, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora: Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft included a Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager that imaged neutrals in the energy range from about 10 eV to 300 eV. The imager used a tungsten conversion surface to convert low energy neutrals to negative ions. Higher energy neutrals were also detected by sputtering of negative ions (primarily water products) from the conversion surface. From December 2000 to about March 2001, a signal was observed in the LENA imager that was interpreted as a secondary stream of neutral atoms inside the heliosphere arriving from about 285 degrees ecliptic longitude. The primary neutral atom stream comes from ~254 degrees ecliptic longitude, or about 30 degrees away from this secondary stream. The interpretation of this secondary stream was based partly on the fact that the neutral atom flux peaked around 10 January 2001, which is about 30 days later than expected date for the peak flux for the primary neutral atom stream. To date, only the 2000-2001 and 2001- 2002 interstellar neutral atom observations have been analyzed. From 2002 to 2003, the spacecraft was in the ecliptic plane and background due to radiation belts was significant compared to the weak interstellar neutral signal. Here, fluxes from 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 are analyzed. The peak flux appears to be located near 10 January, in agreement with earlier observations. However, the final loss of the interstellar neutral signal from the LENA field of view in 2005 has important implications on the existence and properties of the secondary stream.

  20. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Zubrzycki, S.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bol'shiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N-69.5° N) representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island) showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were similar to

  1. Acceleration of the Arctic Water Cycle: evidence from the Lena Basin, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, J. E.; Alexeev, V.; Liepert, B.; Groisman, P.; Romanovsky, V.

    2006-12-01

    Strong positive climate feedbacks cause much of the Arctic to warm faster than the global average (IPCC, 2001; ACIA, 2004). The global hydrologic cycle is expected to accelerate in a warmer world because a warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapor. However, an important question that has not been adequately addressed is whether thawing of permafrost and deepening of the soil's active layer, which pulls moisture away from the surface into deeper reservoirs, will lead to a wetter or dryer Arctic climate (Vörösmarty et al., 2001). There is an apparent paradox in the Arctic between increasing annual precipitation trends (ACIA, 2004), increasing occurrence of forest fires (Kasischke et al., 1999; Korovin and Zukkert 2003), and the drying of surface lakes (Smith et al., 2005). Our investigation of hydroclimatological change in the Lena basin (Russia) points to an increasingly wet Arctic. Though much of the near-surface air temperature (SAT) warming is occurring when the ground is covered by snow, increases in frozen precipitation are also contributing to warmer soil temperatures by increasing soil insulation. A deeper active layer caused by spring and summer warming holds more soil moisture and is leading to increasing potential evapotranspiration (shown in the model), increasing hydrologic baseflow (modeled and observed), and increasing summer nighttime cloudiness (observed). Changes in summer cloud types are suppressing warming during the days, but warming the nights significantly even during the polar day (Groisman et al. 1996). Earlier onset of snow cover in autumn traps the spring and summer warming, a trend that leads to further deepening of the active layer. These observed and modeled feedbacks describe an Arctic hydroclimatological regime in which water storage and flow has increased and moved from the surface to the subsurface.

  2. Neutron flux and spectrum characterization in the University of Illinois TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, R.O.; Williams, J.G.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1988-07-01

    The principal irradiation facilities at the University of Illinois TRIGA are a central thimble, a pneumatic 'rabbit' tube in the G-hexagon, a forty- position Lazy Susan facility in the reflector, a through-port passing tangentially through the reflector, and a recently installed rotating tube in a three-element cluster position in the F- and G-hexagons. These facilities are used primarily for thermal and epithermal neutron activation, and for radiation damage studies in semiconductor and other materials. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rates have recently been measured by means of radiometric monitors in all the core and reflector facilities at a variety of reactor power levels. In addition, the fast neutron fluences have been characterized by means of threshold and non-threshold activation reaction rates measured in those positions used for radiation damage studies. Unfolding of neutron spectra from the measured reaction rates was done by means of the code LSL-M2, which was made available in 1986 from the Radiation Shielding Information Center. This code uses the generalized least squares method and incorporates a full propagation of uncertainties due to errors in measured reaction rates, cross section data, and input neutron spectra. The input spectra, needed in LSL-M2, were taken from the General Atomic report GA4361 which includes 24-group spectra, calculated by the code GAZE, for the center of the core, the F-hexagon and the Lazy Susan. These positions, and some of the material and geometrical specifications, do not correspond exactly with the actual ones at the University of Illinois TRIGA, but the differences in the neutron spectra were found to be small. The unfolded neutron spectra may be used to obtain fast neutron spectrum parameters needed in radiation damage studies and hardness testing. For example, the 1-MeV equivalent fluence rates for displacement damage in silicon, calculated according to the ASTM Standard E722, are reported. (author)

  3. Criticality safety assessment of a TRIGA reactor spent-fuel pool under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Glumac, B; Ravnik, M.; Logar, M.

    1997-02-01

    Additional criticality safety analysis of a pool-type storage for TRIGA spent fuel at the Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, is presented. Previous results have shown that subcriticality is not guaranteed for some postulated accidents (earthquake with subsequent fuel rack disintegration resulting in contact fuel pitch) under the assumption that the fuel rack is loaded with fresh 12 wt% standard fuel. To mitigate this deficiency, a study was done on replacing a certain number of fuel elements in the rack with cadmium-loaded absorber rods. The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4A with an ENDF/B-V library and detailed three-dimensional geometrical model of the spent-fuel rack was used for this purpose. First, a minimum critical number of fuel elements was determined for contact pitch, and two possible geometries of rack disintegration were considered. Next, it was shown that subcriticality can be ensured when pitch is decreased from a rack design pitch of 8 cm to contact, if a certain number of fuel elements (8 to 20 out of 70) are replaced by absorber rods, which are uniformly mixed into the lattice. To account for the possibility that random mixing of fuel elements and absorber rods can occur during rack disintegration and result in a supercritical configuration, a probabilistic study was made to sample the probability density functions for random absorber rod lattice loadings. Results of the calculations show that reasonably low probabilities for supercriticality can be achieved (down to 10{sup {minus}6} per severe earthquake, which would result in rack disintegration and subsequent maximum possible pitch decrease) even in the case where fresh 12 wt% standard TRIGA fuel would be stored in the spent-fuel pool.

  4. High Temperature Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions Between TRIGA Fuels and 304 Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Emmanuel; Keiser, Jr., Dennis D.; Forsmann, Bryan; Janney, Dawn E.; Henley, Jody; Woolstenhulme, Eric C.

    2016-02-01

    High-temperature fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) between TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) fuel elements and the 304 stainless steel (304SS) are of interest to develop an understanding of the fuel behavior during transient reactor scenarios. TRIGA fuels are composed of uranium (U) particles dispersed in a zirconium-hydride (Zr-H) matrix. In reactor, the fuel is encased in 304-stainless-steel (304SS) or Incoloy 800 clad tubes. At high temperatures, the fuel can readily interact with the cladding, resulting in FCCI. A number of FCCI can take place in this system. Interactions can be expected between the cladding and the Zr-H matrix, and/or between the cladding and the U-particles. Other interactions may be expected between the Zr-H matrix and the U-particles. Furthermore, the fuel contains erbium-oxide (Er-O) additions. Interactions can also be expected between the Er-O, the cladding, the Zr-H and the U-particles. The overall result is that very complex interactions may take place as a result of fuel and cladding exposures to high temperatures. This report discusses the characterization of the baseline fuel microstructure in the as-received state (prior to exposure to high temperature), characterization of the fuel after annealing at 950C for 24 hours and the results from diffusion couple experiments carries out at 1000C for 5 and 24 hours. Characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with sample preparation via focused ion beam in situ-liftout-technique.

  5. Proposed design for the PGAA facility at the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Bruno T; Jacimovic, Radojko; Menezes, Maria Angela Bc; Leal, Alexandre S

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an initial proposed design of a Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) facility to be installed at the TRIGA IPR-R1, a 60 years old research reactor of the Centre of Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) in Brazil. The basic characteristics of the facility and the results of the neutron flux are presented and discussed. The proposed design is based on a quasi vertical tube as a neutron guide from the reactor core, inside the reactor pool, 6 m below the room's level where shall be located the rack containing the set sample/detector/shielding. The evaluation of the thermal and epithermal neutron flux in the sample position was done considering the experimental data obtained from a vertical neutron guide, already existent in the reactor, and the simulated model for the facility. The experimental determination of the neutron flux was obtained through the standard procedure of using Au monitors in different positions of the vertical tube. In order to validate both, this experiment and calculations of the simulated model, the flux was also determined in different positions in the core used for sample irradiation. The model of the system was developed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The preliminary results suggest the possibility of obtaining a beam with minimum thermal flux of magnitude 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), which confirm the technical feasibility of the installation of PGAA at the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor. This beam would open new possibilities for enhancing the applications using the reactor.

  6. Numerical modelling of channel processes and analysis of possible channel improvement measures on the Lena River near city Yakutsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylenko, Inna; Belikov, Vitaly; Zavadskii, Aleksander; Borisova, Natalya; Golovlyov, Pavel; Rumyantsev, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    City Yakutsk (administrative, culture and industrial center of the North East of Russia) situated on the left bank of large Russian river Lena last decades has faced with many problems, concerning intensive channel processes. Most dramatic among them are sediment accumulation near main water intake structure, supplying city Yakutsk by the drinking water, and deterioration in conditions of the navigation roots to the main city ports. Hydrodynamic modelling has been chosen as the main tool for analyses of the modern tendencies in channel processes and for the evaluation of possible channel improvement measures efficiency. STREAM_2D program complex (authors V. Belikov et al.), which is based on the numerical solution of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on a hybrid curvilinear quadrangular and rectangular mesh and take into account sediment transport, was used for the simulations. Detailed field data about water regime of the Lena river, bathymetry of the channels and topography of the floodplains was collected for model developing. Model area has covered 75 km of the Lena river valley including branched channels and wide floodplain from Tabaga to Kangalassy gauge cites. Data of these stations were used for model boundary conditions assigning. Data of gauge station city Yakutsk as well as measured during field campaign water levels and flow velocities was taken into account for model calibration and validation. Results of modelling has demonstrated close correspondence with observed water levels and discharges distribution between channel branches for different hydrological situations. Different combinations of hydrographs of 1, 10, 50% exceedance probability was used as input for modelling of channel deformations. Simulation results has shown that in future 10 years aligning of water discharges distribution between main Lena river branches near Yakutsk is possible, that is a positive tendency from the point of view of water supply of the city. More than 15

  7. Preparation and planning for the replacement of the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor rotary specimen rack assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.V.; Dodd, B.; Johnson, A.G.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1984-07-01

    Recently there have been a number of indications that the rotating rack may be approaching the end of its useful life. In order to benefit from the experience of other reactors who have removed and replaced their rotating racks, General Atomic (GA) was contacted and previous TRIGA Conference proceedings were scanned. It was determined that a number of facilities, had experienced difficulties with their lazy susans and eventually had to replace them. However, most of the written descriptions of this project were not sufficiently detailed to be of great use. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the more important questions related to the replacement of our rotating rack assembly and OSU's currently proposed solutions, with a view towards soliciting ideas from other members of the TRIGA reactor community.

  8. Novel methodology to examine cognitive and experiential factors in language development: combining eye-tracking and LENA technology.

    PubMed

    Odean, Rosalie; Nazareth, Alina; Pruden, Shannon M

    2015-01-01

    Developmental systems theory posits that development cannot be segmented by influences acting in isolation, but should be studied through a scientific lens that highlights the complex interactions between these forces over time (Overton, 2013a). This poses a unique challenge for developmental psychologists studying complex processes like language development. In this paper, we advocate for the combining of highly sophisticated data collection technologies in an effort to move toward a more systemic approach to studying language development. We investigate the efficiency and appropriateness of combining eye-tracking technology and the LENA (Language Environment Analysis) system, an automated language analysis tool, in an effort to explore the relation between language processing in early development, and external dynamic influences like parent and educator language input in the home and school environments. Eye-tracking allows us to study language processing via eye movement analysis; these eye movements have been linked to both conscious and unconscious cognitive processing, and thus provide one means of evaluating cognitive processes underlying language development that does not require the use of subjective parent reports or checklists. The LENA system, on the other hand, provides automated language output that describes a child's language-rich environment. In combination, these technologies provide critical information not only about a child's language processing abilities but also about the complexity of the child's language environment. Thus, when used in conjunction these technologies allow researchers to explore the nature of interacting systems involved in language development.

  9. Hydrological projections of climate change scenarios in the Lena and the Mackenzie basins: modeling and uncertainty issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfan, Alexander; Gustafsson, David; Motovilov, Yury; Arheimer, Berit; Kalugin, Andrei; Krylenko, Inna; Lavrenov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The ECOMAG and the HYPE regional hydrological models were setup to assess possible impacts of climate change on the hydrological regime of two pan-Arctic great drainage basins: the Lena and the Mackenzie rivers. We firstly assessed the reliability of the hydrological models to reproduce the historical streamflow series and analyse the hydrological projections from the climate change scenarios. The impacts were assessed in three 30-year periods: early- (2006-2035), mid- (2036-2065) and end-century (2070-2099) using an ensemble of five GCMs and four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios. Results show, particularly, that the basins react with multi-year delay to changes in the RCP2.6 mitigation (peak-and-decline) scenario, and consequently to the potential mitigation measures. Then we assessed the hydrological projections' uncertainty, which is caused by the GCM's and RCP's variabilities, and indicated that the uncertainty rises with the time horizon of the projection and, generally, the uncertainty interval is wider for Mackenzie than for Lena. We finally compare the potential future hydrological impacts predicted based on the GCM-scenario ensemble approach and the delta-change transformation method of the historical observations. We found that the latter method can produce useful information about the climate change impact in the great Arctic rivers, at least for the nearest decades.

  10. Novel methodology to examine cognitive and experiential factors in language development: combining eye-tracking and LENA technology

    PubMed Central

    Odean, Rosalie; Nazareth, Alina; Pruden, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental systems theory posits that development cannot be segmented by influences acting in isolation, but should be studied through a scientific lens that highlights the complex interactions between these forces over time (Overton, 2013a). This poses a unique challenge for developmental psychologists studying complex processes like language development. In this paper, we advocate for the combining of highly sophisticated data collection technologies in an effort to move toward a more systemic approach to studying language development. We investigate the efficiency and appropriateness of combining eye-tracking technology and the LENA (Language Environment Analysis) system, an automated language analysis tool, in an effort to explore the relation between language processing in early development, and external dynamic influences like parent and educator language input in the home and school environments. Eye-tracking allows us to study language processing via eye movement analysis; these eye movements have been linked to both conscious and unconscious cognitive processing, and thus provide one means of evaluating cognitive processes underlying language development that does not require the use of subjective parent reports or checklists. The LENA system, on the other hand, provides automated language output that describes a child’s language-rich environment. In combination, these technologies provide critical information not only about a child’s language processing abilities but also about the complexity of the child’s language environment. Thus, when used in conjunction these technologies allow researchers to explore the nature of interacting systems involved in language development. PMID:26379591

  11. Characterization of particulate organic matter in the Lena River delta and adjacent nearshore zone, NE Siberia - Part I: Radiocarbon inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterfeld, M.; Laepple, T.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2015-06-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) derived from permafrost soils and transported by the Lena River represents a quantitatively important terrestrial carbon pool exported to Laptev Sea sediments (next to POM derived from coastal erosion). Its fate in a future warming Arctic, i.e., its remobilization and remineralization after permafrost thawing as well as its transport pathways to and sequestration in marine sediments, is currently under debate. We present one of the first radiocarbon (14C) data sets for surface water POM within the Lena Delta sampled in the summers of 2009-2010 and spring 2011 (n = 30 samples). The bulk Δ14C values varied from -55 to -391 ‰ translating into 14C ages of 395 to 3920 years BP. We further estimated the fraction of soil-derived POM to our samples based on (1) particulate organic carbon to particulate nitrogen ratios (POC : PN) and (2) on the stable carbon isotope (δ13C) composition of our samples. Assuming that this phytoplankton POM has a modern 14C concentration, we inferred the 14C concentrations of the soil-derived POM fractions. The results ranged from -322 to -884 ‰ (i.e., 3060 to 17 250 14C years BP) for the POC : PN-based scenario and from -261 to -944 ‰ (i.e., 2370 to 23 100 14C years BP) for the δ13C-based scenario. Despite the limitations of our approach, the estimated Δ14C values of the soil-derived POM fractions seem to reflect the heterogeneous 14C concentrations of the Lena River catchment soils covering a range from Holocene to Pleistocene ages better than the bulk POM Δ14C values. We further used a dual-carbon-isotope three-end-member mixing model to distinguish between POM contributions from Holocene soils and Pleistocene Ice Complex (IC) deposits to our soil-derived POM fraction. IC contributions are comparatively low (mean of 0.14) compared to Holocene soils (mean of 0.32) and riverine phytoplankton (mean of 0.55), which could be explained with the restricted spatial distribution of IC deposits within the

  12. Soil controls on land-atmosphere methane fluxes from an arctic floodplain of the Lena River Delta, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, Benjamin; Sabrekov, Alexander; Glagolev, Mikail; Kutzbach, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Accurately quantifying methane emissions from permafrost tundra landscapes into the atmosphere is a major concern of the global climate modeling community. A better, data-driven understanding of the drivers of soil-atmosphere CH4 fluxes could help constrain the global methane balance, offer predictions in response to global climate change, and advance understanding of these regions' soil biogeochemistry and landscape ecology. Previous research at our Lena River Delta research site (72° N, 126° E) has found relatively low methane emissions (~18-30 mg m2 d1) in the polygonal tundra of the delta's Holocene river terrace (Sachs et al., 2008; Wille et al., 2008). In fall 2013 we compare methane emissions from this landscape type to the adjacent active river floodplain, a sandy, Equisetum - Salix -Alopecurus alpinus community ecosystem. This landscape has backswamp regions with higher organic matter accumulation though is generally dominated by soils with high sand contents, low organic matter content, and lower water tables than the Holocene terrace (Boike et al., 2013). The wet parts of a similar landscape unit in the Indigirka lowlands (71° N, 147° E) have been demonstrated to have greater methane emissions which were in part attributed to the annual deposition of nutrients via flooding, increased primary productivity and associated root exudates, and higher soil temperatures. The results presented in this study compare methane fluxes derived from the closed chamber technique from the two landscape units. In addition to descriptions of the inundation height and vegetation cover, we examine soil chemical and physical characteristics to test how these factors help control CH4 fluxes. We find, for example, relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon at sites with relatively high CH4 production. As the modern floodplain landscape type covers 40% of the soil-covered area of the Lena River Delta and is analogous to similar regions across the Arctic

  13. Characterization of terrestrial organic matter transported through the Lena River Delta (NE Siberia) to its adjacent nearshore zone using lignin phenols, δ13C and ∆14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goni, M. A.; Just, J.; Hefter, J.; Han, P.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial organic matter (OMterr) from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea and the Arctic Ocean. Permafrost soils from its vast catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, we analyzed the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ13C and ∆14C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters collected in spring and summer, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta. A simple linear mixing model based on the lignin phenol distributions indicates OM in TSM samples from the delta and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments contains comparable contributions from gymnosperm sources, which are primarily from the taiga forests south of the delta, and angiosperm material typical for tundra vegetation. Considering the small area covered by tundra (~12% of total catchment), the input of tundra-derived OM input is substantial and likely to increase in a warming Arctic. Radiocarbon compositions (∆14C) of bulk OM in TSM samples varied from -55 to -391‰, i.e. 14C ages of 395 to 3920 yrs BP. Using δ13C compositions to estimate the fraction of phytoplankton-derived OM and assuming that this material has a modern 14C signature, we inferred the ∆14C compositions of OMterr in TSM exported by the Lena River to range between -190 and -700‰. Such variability in the ages of OMTERR (i.e. 1640 to 9720 14C yrs BP) reflects the heterogeneous composition and residence time of OM in the Lena River catchment soils (Holocene to Pleistocene ages). Lignin phenol and ∆14C compositions of surface sediments from the adjacent Buor Khaya Bay suggest that OMTERR deposited there is older and more degraded than materials present in river particles and catchment soils. Stronger

  14. The Effect of Pitch, Burnup, and Absorbers on a TRIGA Spent-Fuel Pool Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Marjan; Jeraj, Robert; Glumac, Bogdan

    2003-02-15

    It has been shown that supercriticality might occur for some postulated accident conditions at the TRIGA spent-fuel pool. However, the effect of burnup was not accounted for in previous studies. In this work, the combined effect of fuel burnup, pitch among fuel elements, and number of uniformly mixed absorber rods for a square arrangement on the spent-fuel pool k{sub eff} is investigated.The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4B with the ENDF-B/VI library and detailed three dimensional geometry was used. The WIMS-D code was used to model the isotopic composition of the standard TRIGA and FLIP fuel for 5, 10, 20 and 30% burnup level and 2- and 4-yr cooling time.The results show that out of the three studied effects, pitch from contact (3.75 cm) up to rack design pitch (8 cm), number of absorbers from zero to eight, and burnup up to 30%, the pitch has the greatest influence on the multiplication factor k{sub eff}. In the interval in which the pitch was changed, k{sub eff} decreased for up to {approx}0.4 for standard and {approx}0.3 for FLIP fuel. The number of absorber rods affects the multiplication factor much less. This effect is bigger for more compact arrangements, e.g., for contact of standard fuel elements with eight absorber rods among them, k{sub eff} values are smaller for {approx}0.2 ({approx}0.1 for FLIP) than for arrangements without absorber rods almost regardless of the burnup. The effect of burnup is the smallest. For standard fuel elements, it is {approx}0.1 for almost all pitches and numbers of absorbers. For FLIP fuel, it is smaller for a factor of 3, but increases with the burnup for compact arrangements. Cooling time of fuel has just a minor effect on the k{sub eff} of spent-fuel pool and can be neglected in spent-fuel pool design.

  15. K/sub infinity/-meter concept verified via subcritical-critical TRIGA experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo Mansilla, H.

    1983-01-01

    This work presents a technique for building a device to measure the k/sub infinity/ of a spent nuclear fuel assembly discharged from the core of a nuclear power plant. The device, called a k/sub infinity/-meter, consists of a cross-shaped subcritical assembly, two artificial neutron sources, and two separate neutron counting systems. The central position of the subcritical assembly is used to measure k/sub infinity/ of the spent fuel assembly. The initial subcritical assembly is calibrated to determine its k/sub eff/ and verify the assigned k/sub infinity/ of a selected fuel assembly placed in the central position. Count rates are taken with the fuel assembly of known k/sub infinity/'s placed in the central position and then repeated with a fuel assembly of unknown k/sub infinity/ placed in the central position. The count rate ratio of the unknown fuel assembly to the known fuel assembly is used to determine the k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly. The k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly is represented as a polynomial function of the count rate ratios. The coefficients of the polynomial equation are determined using the neutronic codes LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II. The analytical approach has been validated by performing several subcritical/critical experiments, using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR), and comparing the experimental results with the calculations.

  16. Estimation of Na-24 activity concentration in BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajijul Hoq, M.; Malek Soner, M. A.; Salam, M. A.; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S. M.

    The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) TRIGA Research Reactor is a unique nuclear installation of the country generally implemented for a wide variety of research applications and serves as an excellent source of neutron. During reactor operation it is necessary to measure and control the activity concentration of the pool water for fuel element failure detection and for the determination of contamination. The present study deals with the estimation of activity concentration for Na-24 present in water coolant produced as a result of 23Na (n, γ) 24Na reaction. Several governing equations have been employed to estimate the Na-24 activity concentrations theoretically at different reactor power levels including maximum reactor power of 2.4 MW. From the obtained result it is ensured that the estimated Na-24 activity of 8.83 × 10-3 μCi /cm3 is not significant enough for any radiological hazard. Thus for ensuring radiological safety issues of the research reactor the assessment performed under the present study has an implication.

  17. Refurbishment of the rotating rack of the OSU TRIGA MKII reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, J.F.; Dodd, B.; Pratt, D.S.; Anderson, T.V.

    1992-07-01

    Many TRIGA reactors have experienced operational difficulties with the rotating racks used for sample irradiation. Generally the rack gradually becomes more difficult to rotate until it finally seizes. The recommended action at that point is replacement of the entire facility at a significant cost. The purpose of this paper is to describe the symptoms leading to rack failure and to present the results of a refurbishment procedure that does not involve the use of solvents which create mixed chemical and radioactive hazardous waste. The primary reason for rack failure is the buildup of sludge produced through irradiation of lubrication oil. The refurbishment procedure involves using a commercially available degreasing solution which can be pumped into and out of the rack with the objective of removing this sludge. The solution used is sold under the trade name 'Simple Green'. No radioactive material was detected on smear or air samples taken of the work area during the reifurbishment activities and the rack rotates freely in both direction even after eighteen months of operation. The only disadvantage to performing this procedure has been the need to maintain a very aggressive contamination control program when unloading samples from the rack. A very fine particulate material attaches to the outside of tubes used to encapsulate samples. This material can produce contamination levels of 10,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} in the worst cases but will typically produce local hot spots on the order of 1000 dpm. (author)

  18. Assessment and mitigation of power quality problems for PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Mohd Fazli; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.

    2017-01-01

    An electrical power systems are exposed to different types of power quality disturbances. Investigation and monitoring of power quality are necessary to maintain accurate operation of sensitive equipment especially for nuclear installations. This paper will discuss the power quality problems observed at the electrical sources of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP). Assessment of power quality requires the identification of any anomalous behavior on a power system, which adversely affects the normal operation of electrical or electronic equipment. A power quality assessment involves gathering data resources; analyzing the data (with reference to power quality standards) then, if problems exist, recommendation of mitigation techniques must be considered. Field power quality data is collected by power quality recorder and analyzed with reference to power quality standards. Normally the electrical power is supplied to the RTP via two sources in order to keep a good reliability where each of them is designed to carry the full load. The assessment of power quality during reactor operation was performed for both electrical sources. There were several disturbances such as voltage harmonics and flicker that exceeded the thresholds. To reduce these disturbances, mitigation techniques have been proposed, such as to install passive harmonic filters to reduce harmonic distortion, dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) to reduce voltage disturbances and isolate all sensitive and critical loads.

  19. Organic Carbon Deposits of Soils Overlying the Ice Complex in the Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Kutzbach, Lars; Desiatkin, Aleksei

    2017-04-01

    The Lena River Delta (LRD) is located in northeast Siberia and extends over a soil covered area of around 21,500 km2. LRD likely stores more than half of the entire soil organic carbon (SOC) mass stored in deltas affected by permafrost. LRD consists of several geomorphic units. Recent studies showed that the spatially dominating Holocene units of the LRD (61 % of the area) store around 240 Tg of SOC and 12 Tg of nitrogen (N) within the first meter of ground. These units are a river terrace dominated by wet sedge polygons and the active floodplains. About 50 % of these reported storages are located in the perennially frozen ground below 50 cm depth and are excluded from intense biogeochemical exchange with the atmosphere today. However, these storages are likely to be mineralized in near future due to the projected temperature increases in this region. A substantial part of the LRD (1,712 km2) belongs to the so-called Ice Complex (Yedoma) Region, which formed during the Late Pleistocene. This oldest unit of the LRD is characterized by extensive plains incised by thermo-erosional valleys and large thermokarst depressions. Such depressions are called Alases and cover around 20 % of the area. Ice Complex deposits in the LDR are known to store high amounts of SOC. However, within the LRD no detailed spatial studies on SOC and N in the soils overlying Ice Complex and thermokarst depressions were carried out so far. We present here our "investigation in progress" on soils in these landscape units of the LRD. Our first estimates, based on 69 pedons sampled in 2008, show that the mean SOC stocks for the upper 30 cm of soils on both units were estimated at 13.0 kg m2 ± 4.8 kg m2 on the Ice Complex surfaces and at 13.1 kg m2 ± 3.8 kg m2 in the Alases. The stocks of N were estimated at 0.69 kg m2 ± 0.25 kg m2 and at 0.70 kg m2 ± 0.18 kg m2 on the Ice Complex surfaces and in the Alases, respectively. The estimated SOC and N pools for the depth of 30 cm within the

  20. Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Storages of Soils Overlying Yedoma Deposits in the Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Kutzbach, Lars; Desiatkin, Aleksei; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2016-04-01

    The Lena River Delta (LRD) is located in northeast Siberia and extends over a soil covered area of around 21,500 km2. LRD likely stores more than half of the entire soil organic carbon (SOC) mass stored in deltas affected by permafrost. LRD consists of several geomorphic units. Recent studies showed that the spatially dominating Holocene units of the LRD (61 % of the area) store around 240 Tg of SOC and 12 Tg of nitrogen (N) within the first meter of ground. These units are a river terrace dominated by wet sedge polygons and the active floodplains. About 50 % of these reported storages are located in the perennially frozen ground below 50 cm depth and are excluded from intense biogeochemical exchange with the atmosphere today. However, these storages are likely to be mineralised in near future due to the projected temperature increases in this region. A substantial part of the LRD (1,712 km2) belongs to the so-called Yedoma Region, which formed during the Late Pleistocene. This oldest unit of the LRD is characterised by extensive plains incised by thermo-erosional valleys and large thermokarst depressions. Such depressions are called Alases and cover around 20 % of the area. Yedoma deposits in the LDR are known to store high amounts of SOC. However, within the LRD no detailed spatial studies on SOC and N in the soils overlying Yedoma and thermokarst depressions were carried out so far. We present here our "investigation in progress" on soils in these landscape units of the LRD. Our first estimates, based on 69 pedons sampled in 2008, show that the mean SOC stocks for the upper 30 cm of soils on both units were estimated at 13.0 kg m2 ± 4.8 kg m2 on the Yedoma surfaces and at 13.1 kg m2 ± 3.8 kg m2 in the Alases. The stocks of N were estimated at 0.69 kg m2 ± 0.25 kg m2and at 0.70 kg m2 ± 0.18 kg m2 on the Yedoma surfaces and in the Alases, respectively. The estimated SOC and N pools for the depth of 30 cm within the investigated part of the LRD add to 20.9 Tg

  1. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland, northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to buffer and immobilize substances of natural and anthropogenic origin to prevent their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since Arctic ecosystems are considered to be highly sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterises background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5-69.5° N), representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on the element content of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest median concentrations of Fe and Mn were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) while the highest median values of Ni, Pb and Zn were found in soils of both the ice-complex and the Holocene estuarine terrace of the Lena River delta region, as well as in the southernmost study unit of the hinterland area. Detailed observations of trace metal distribution on the micro scale showed that organic matter content, soil texture and iron-oxide contents influenced by cryogenic processes, temperature, and hydrological regimes are the most important factors determining the metal abundance in permafrost-affected soils. The observed range of trace element background concentrations was similar to trace metal levels reported for other pristine northern areas.

  2. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  3. Mastering Marking Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are smart people, so why does marking reduce them to stressed and soulless messes? Because in their hearts they know that students do not learn from it, and that drives them nuts. Researchers like Lorna Earl and Dylan Wiliam have looked closely at marking systems and have proven what teachers already know deep down: marking student work…

  4. Confirmation of a realistic reactor model for BNCT dosimetry at the TRIGA Mainz

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegner, Markus; Schmitz, Tobias; Hampel, Gabriele; Khan, Rustam; Blaickner, Matthias; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Böck, Helmuth

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In order to build up a reliable dose monitoring system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the TRIGA reactor in Mainz, a computer model for the entire reactor was established, simulating the radiation field by means of the Monte Carlo method. The impact of different source definition techniques was compared and the model was validated by experimental fluence and dose determinations. Methods: The depletion calculation code ORIGEN2 was used to compute the burn-up and relevant material composition of each burned fuel element from the day of first reactor operation to its current core. The material composition of the current core was used in a MCNP5 model of the initial core developed earlier. To perform calculations for the region outside the reactor core, the model was expanded to include the thermal column and compared with the previously established ATTILA model. Subsequently, the computational model is simplified in order to reduce the calculation time. Both simulation models are validated by experiments with different setups using alanine dosimetry and gold activation measurements with two different types of phantoms. Results: The MCNP5 simulated neutron spectrum and source strength are found to be in good agreement with the previous ATTILA model whereas the photon production is much lower. Both MCNP5 simulation models predict all experimental dose values with an accuracy of about 5%. The simulations reveal that a Teflon environment favorably reduces the gamma dose component as compared to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Conclusions: A computer model for BNCT dosimetry was established, allowing the prediction of dosimetric quantities without further calibration and within a reasonable computation time for clinical applications. The good agreement between the MCNP5 simulations and experiments demonstrates that the ATTILA model overestimates the gamma dose contribution. The detailed model can be used for the planning of structural

  5. New data on mammoth fauna mammals in the central Lena River basin (Yakutia, Lenskie Stolby National Nature Park and adjacent areas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeskorov, G. G.; Nogovitsyn, P. R.; Mashchenko, E. N.; Belolyubsky, I. N.; Stepanov, A. D.; Plotnikov, V. V.; Protopopov, A. V.; Shchelchkova, M. V.; van der Plicht, J.; Solomonov, N. G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the data on new findings of mammoth fauna remains in the Middle Lena basin used to specify the species composition of large Late Neopleistocene mammals represented by eleven species. The obtained range of radiocarbon dates made it possible to state that mass burials of Pleistocene mammal remains were formed in the region during the Karginsk Interstadial (24 000-55 000 years ago).

  6. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  7. On denture marking.

    PubMed

    Borrman, H I; DiZinno, J A; Wasén, J; René, N

    1999-06-01

    During the last decades in Sweden dentures have been permanently marked with a stainless steel metal band incorporated into the acrylic and containing the patient's birth date, a special number, and "S" for Sweden. The last recommendation issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare states that "the patients shall always be offered denture marking and be informed about the benefit thereof. Denture marking is not permitted if the patient refuses it". Requirements for denture markers have been that they should be biologically inert (when incorporated into the denture), not be expensive, be easy to inscribe, be possible to retrieve after an accident, and survive elevated temperatures for a reasonable time under normal circumstances. Although the frequency of edentulousness has decreased in recent years due to the improvement in oral health there remains a need to address the issue of marking of complete dentures, because there is a large variation in the oral status of populations in different countries. Given that only one marked denture can reveal the identity of a deceased person when all other methods fail to do so, makes it worthwhile. Furthermore, denture marking is important in long-term care facilities. We have investigated the issue of denture marking in Europe and in the United States. The results from the European survey show that denture marking is, to our knowledge regulated by law only in Sweden and Iceland. In the US denture marking is so far mandatory in 21 states while New York State requires dentures to be marked if the patient requests it and several other states impose the obligation to mark dentures on long-term care facilities. Since there is no international consensus regarding the issue of denture marking it is important to address it. A survey from the Nordic countries has shown that if denture marking was in general use, the contribution to the establishment of identity by forensic odontology in cases of fire would increase by about 10

  8. The exchange of carbon dioxide between wet arctic tundra and the atmosphere at the Lena River Delta, Northern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzbach, L.; Wille, C.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2007-10-01

    The exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide between wet arctic polygonal tundra and the atmosphere were investigated by the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. The investigation site was situated in the centre of the Lena River Delta in Northern Siberia (72°22' N, 126°30' E). The study region is characterized by a polar and distinctly continental climate, very cold and ice-rich permafrost and its position at the interface between the Eurasian continent and the Arctic Ocean. The soils at the site are characterized by high organic matter content, low nutrient availability and pronounced water logging. The vegetation is dominated by sedges and mosses. The micrometeorological campaigns were performed during the periods July-October 2003 and May-July 2004 which included the period of snow and soil thaw as well as the beginning of soil refreeze. The main CO2 exchange processes, the gross photosynthesis and the ecosystem respiration, were found to be of a generally low intensity. The gross photosynthesis accumulated to -432 g m-2 over the photosynthetically active period (June-September). The contribution of mosses to the gross photosynthesis was estimated to be about 40%. The diurnal trend of the gross photosynthesis was mainly controlled by the incoming photosynthetically active radiation. During midday, the photosynthetic apparatus of the canopy was frequently near saturation and represented the limiting factor on gross photosynthesis. The synoptic weather conditions strongly affected the exchange fluxes of CO2 by changes in cloudiness, precipitation and pronounced changes of air temperature. The ecosystem respiration accumulated to +327 g m-2 over the photosynthetically active period, which corresponds to 76% of the CO2 uptake by photosynthesis. However, the ecosystem respiration continued at substantial rates during autumn when photosynthesis had ceased and the soils were still largely unfrozen. The temporal variability of the ecosystem respiration during summer

  9. The exchange of carbon dioxide between wet arctic tundra and the atmosphere at the Lena River Delta, Northern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzbach, L.; Wille, C.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2007-06-01

    The exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide between wet arctic polygonal tundra and the atmosphere were investigated by the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. The investigation site was situated in the centre of the Lena River Delta in Northern Siberia (72°22' N, 126°30' E). The study region is characterized by a polar and distinctly continental climate, very cold and ice-rich permafrost and its position at the interface between the Eurasian continent and the Arctic Ocean. The soils at the site are characterized by high organic matter content, low nutrient availability and pronounced water logging. The vegetation is dominated by sedges and mosses. The micrometeorological campaigns were performed during the periods July-October 2003 and May-July 2004 which included the period of snow and soil thaw as well as the beginning of soil refreeze. The main CO2 exchange processes, the gross photosynthesis and the ecosystem respiration, were found to be of a generally low intensity. The gross photosynthesis accumulated to -432 g m-2 over the photosynthetically active period (June-September). The contribution of mosses to the gross photosynthesis was estimated to be about 40%. The diurnal trend of the gross photosynthesis was mainly controlled by the incoming photosynthetically active radiation. During midday the photosynthetic apparatus of the canopy was frequently near saturation and represented the limiting factor on gross photosynthesis. The synoptic weather conditions strongly affected the exchange fluxes of CO2 by changes in cloudiness, precipitation and pronounced changes of air temperature. The ecosystem respiration accumulated to +327 g m-2 over the photosynthetically active period, which corresponds to 76% of the CO2 uptake by photosynthesis. However, the ecosystem respiration continued at substantial rates during autumn when photosynthesis had ceased and the soils were still largely unfrozen. The temporal variability of the ecosystem respiration during summer

  10. Linkage between seasonal hydrology and carbon flux dynamics in tundra ponds: Samoylov Island, Lena River Delta, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abnizova, Anna; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia

    2010-05-01

    Arctic ponds have been recently recognized as being highly sensitive to changing climate. To date, ponds and lakes are disappearing in Alaska, Siberia and Canadian High Arctic because of climate warming (Fitzgerald et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2005; and Smol et al. 2007). While numerous limnological studies have been done on arctic ponds located in the Canadian High Arctic (Douglas and Smol, 1994; Hamilton et al. 2001; Lim et al., 2001), there is a limited number of studies on tundra ponds located in other circumpolar environments (e.g. Northern Siberia). Duff et al. (1999) describes tundra lakes in northern Russia as clear, dilute, oligotrophic lakes with low nutrients and dissolved organic carbon concentration. While numerous ponds and lakes exists in the Lena River Delta averaging to 2120 lakes of all sizes for every 1000 km2, no studies have been done to understand carbon flux dynamics of these freshwater ecosystems. In this study hydrological monitoring based on water balance framework was applied to a series of ponds and lakes located on Samoylov Island, 120 km south of the Arctic Ocean in the southern central Lena River Delta (72° 22' N, 126 ° 30' E) from July to September 2008. To better understand spatial differences in pond hydrology and carbon flux dynamics, the physical and biochemical data was collected from 42 tundra ponds. The selection of the ponds was based on their size (small, medium, large) and depth values ranging from 10 to 120 cm. The estimation of the seasonal water budget in 2008 showed that losses through evapotranspiration were offset by similar precipitation inputs and resulted in the equilibrium storage values in the study ponds prior to the freeze-back. Preliminary analysis showed that more than 50% of the ponds had DOC > 6.5 mg/l which exceeds average value of other Arctic ponds reported in literature (Duff et al. 1999 and Hamilton et al. 2001). Elevated DOC concentrations (> 8 mg/l) were found in the small and medium ponds with depth

  11. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  12. Characterization of particulate organic matter in the Lena River Delta and adjacent nearshore zone, NE Siberia - Part 1: Lignin-derived phenol compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goñi, M. A.; Just, J.; Hefter, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2014-10-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial organic matter (OM) from its vast catchment area to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea and the Arctic Ocean. The permafrost soils of its far south stretching catchment, which store huge amounts of OM, will most likely respond differently to climate warming and remobilize previously frozen OM with distinct properties specific for the source vegetation and soil. To characterize the material discharged by the Lena River, we analyzed the lignin phenol composition in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface water collected in spring and summer, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex), and plant samples. Our results show that lignin-derived cinnamyl:vanillyl (C/V) and syringyl:vanillyl (S/V) ratios are >0.14 and 0.25, respectively, in TSM and surface sediments, whereas in delta soils they are >0.16 and >0.51, respectively. These lignin compositions are consistent with significant inputs of organic matter from non-woody angiosperm sources mixed with organic matter derived from woody gymnosperm sources. We applied a simple linear mixing model based on the C/V and S/V ratios and the results indicate the organic matter in delta TSM samples and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments contain comparable contributions from gymnosperm material, which is primarily derived from the taiga forests south of the delta, and angiosperm material typical for tundra vegetation. Considering the small catchment area covered by tundra (∼12%), the input is substantial and tundra-derived OM input is likely to increase in a warming Arctic. The similar and high acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl (Ad/AlV, S) in Lena Delta summer TSM (>0.7 and >0.5, respectively) and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments (>1.0 and >0.9, respectively) suggest that the OM is highly degraded and Lena River summer TSM could

  13. Characterization of particulate organic matter in the Lena River delta and adjacent nearshore zone, NE Siberia - Part 2: Lignin-derived phenol compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goñi, M. A.; Just, J.; Hefter, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2015-04-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial organic matter (OM) from its vast catchment area to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea and the Arctic Ocean. The permafrost soils of its far south-stretching catchment, which store huge amounts of OM, will most likely respond differently to climate warming and remobilize previously frozen OM with distinct properties specific for the source vegetation and soil. To characterize the material discharged by the Lena River, we analyzed the lignin phenol composition in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface water collected in spring and summer, surface sediments from Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex), and plant samples. Our results show that lignin-derived cinnamyl : vanillyl (C / V) and syringyl : vanillyl (S / V) ratios are > 0.14 and 0.25, respectively, in TSM and surface sediments, whereas in delta soils they are > 0.16 and > 0.51, respectively. These lignin compositions are consistent with significant inputs of organic matter from non-woody angiosperm sources mixed with organic matter derived from woody gymnosperm sources. We applied a simple linear mixing model based on the C / V and S / V ratios, and the results indicate the organic matter in delta TSM samples and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments contain comparable contributions from gymnosperm material, which is primarily derived from the taiga forests south of the delta, and angiosperm material typical for tundra vegetation. Considering the small catchment area covered by tundra (~ 12%), the input is substantial and tundra-derived OM input is likely to increase in a warming Arctic. The similar and high acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl (Ad / AlV, S) in Lena Delta summer TSM (> 0.7 and > 0.5, respectively) and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments (> 1.0 and > 0.9, respectively) suggest that the OM is highly degraded and Lena River

  14. Reactivity and mobilization of permafrost-derived organic matter along the Lena River Delta - Laptev Sea transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Boris P.; Dubinenkov, Ivan; Flerus, Ruth; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kattner, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    The impact of global warming on organic carbon budgets in permafrost systems are not well constrained. Changes in organic carbon fluxes caused by permafrost thaw depend on microbial activity, coastal erosion, mobilization of organic matter by increased porewater fluxes, and the inherent chemical stability of organic matter in permafrost soils. Here we aim at the identification and molecular characterization of active and inactive dissolved organic matter (DOM) components within the river-ocean transition. We studied four transects in the coastal Laptev Sea characterized by steep physico-chemical gradients. Molecular information on solid-phase extracted DOM was derived from ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Changes of the chemical composition with salinity were used as a measure for DOM reactivity. Although changes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the estuary suggested conservative mixing, only 27% of the identified molecular formulas behaved conservatively, 32% were moderately affected, and 41% were actively involved in estuarine processes. The molecular complexity in the DOM samples increased with growing marine influence and the average elemental composition (i.e. relative contribution of organic nitrogen and oxygen compounds) changed significantly with increasing salinity. These chemical changes were consistent with the results of a 20-day microbial incubation experiment, during which more than half of the permafrost-derived DOC was mineralized. We conclude that, although the DOC gradient in the estuary suggests conservative behavior, terrestrial DOM is substantially affected by estuarine processes which in turn also impact organic carbon budgets in the Lena Delta.

  15. Abundance, distribution and potential activity of methane oxidizing bacteria in permafrost soils from the Lena Delta, Siberia.

    PubMed

    Liebner, Susanne; Wagner, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    The methane oxidation potential of active layer profiles of permafrost soils from the Lena Delta, Siberia, was studied with regard to its respond to temperature, and abundance and distribution of type I and type II methanotrophs. Our results indicate vertical shifts within the optimal methane oxidation temperature and within the distribution of type I and type II methanotrophs. In the upper active layer, maximum methane oxidation potentials were detected at 21 degrees C. Deep active layer zones that are constantly exposed to temperatures below 2 degrees C showed a maximum potential to oxidize methane at 4 degrees C. Our results indicate a dominance of psychrophilic methanotrophs close to the permafrost table. Type I methanotrophs dominated throughout the active layer profiles but their number strongly fluctuated with depth. In contrast, type II methanotrophs were constantly abundant through the whole active layer and displaced type I methanotrophs close to the permafrost table. No correlation between in situ temperatures and the distribution of type I and type II methanotrophs was found. However, the distribution of type I and type II methanotrophs correlated significantly with in situ methane concentrations. Beside vertical fluctuations, the abundance of methane oxidizers also fluctuated according to different geomorphic units. Similar methanotroph cell counts were detected in samples of a flood plain and a polygon rim, whereas cell counts in samples of a polygon centre were up to 100 times lower.

  16. Bacterial community structure and carbon turnover in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena Delta, northeastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Dirk; Kobabe, Svenja; Liebner, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Arctic permafrost environments store large amounts of organic carbon. As a result of global warming, intensified permafrost degradation and release of significant quantities of the currently conserved organic matter is predicted for high latitudes. To improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, the present study investigates structure and carbon turnover of the bacterial community in a permafrost-affected soil of the Lena Delta (72 degrees 22'N, 126 degrees 28'E) in northeastern Siberia. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the presence of all major soil bacterial groups and of the canditate divisions OD1 and OP11. A shift within the bacterial community was observed along the soil profile indicated by the absence of Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and a simultaneous increase in abundance and diversity of fermenting bacteria like Firmicutes and Actinobacteria near the permafrost table. BIOLOG EcoPlates were used to describe the spectrum of utilized carbon sources of the bacterial community in different horizons under in situ temperature conditions in the presence and absence of oxygen. The results revealed distinct qualitative differences in the substrates used and the turnover rates under oxic and anoxic conditions. It can be concluded that constantly negative redox potentials as characteristic for the near permafrost table horizons of the investigated soil did effectively shape the structure of the indigenous bacterial community limiting its phylum-level diversity and carbon turnover capacity.

  17. Marking: A Critical Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Having pupils critique their own work is an alternative to marking that is worthy of consideration. Pupil critique fosters in students a willingness to take responsibility for the quality of their work products. (RM)

  18. Ames Fellows Award - Mark

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Dr. Hans Mark is a leading expert in the fields of aerospace design and national defense policy. From 1969 to 1977, he served as Director of the NASA Ames Research Center. During his tenure, Ames b...

  19. Mark IVA microprocessor support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements and plans for the maintenance support of microprocessor-based controllers in the Deep Space Network Mark IVA System are discussed. Additional new interfaces and 16-bit processors have introduced problems not present in the Mark III System. The need for continuous training of maintenance personnel to maintain a level of expertise consistent with the sophistication of the required tools is also emphasized.

  20. Meetings with Mark Vishik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikinskaya, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Mark Iosifovich Vishik was my husband Vladimir Chepyzhov's advisor during his years as a student in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at Moscow State University, and afterwards they worked together for almost 30 years. This is why I knew him personally while not being a mathematician myself: we sometimes talked on the phone, and met during common trips and a few holidays. In his last years, after the death of his devoted wife who was also his best friend, my husband and I decided to visit Mark regularly in order to comfort him in his loneliness, and many other of his friends did the same. I can say without exaggeration that Mark loved to talk with me about everyday matters, to reminisce about his wife Asya Moiseevna, their friends and relatives, to tell stories of his youth and the wonderful encounters that had so enriched his life. We had the idea to write down our conversations and publish them as a book. Unfortunately, few such conversations lay ahead. The last one took place in January 2010. We did not write a book, but we did write an article [1], which was published in English in the form of an interview with Mark. The present article is based on our conversations with Mark. Here I will try to recount his memories about people who played an important role in his life.

  1. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  2. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  3. Thermal processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia - observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boike, J.; Georgi, C.; Kirilin, G.; Muster, S.; Abramova, K.; Fedorova, I.; Chetverova, A.; Grigoriev, M.; Bornemann, N.; Langer, M.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst lakes are typical features of the northern permafrost ecosystems, and play an important role in the thermal exchange between atmosphere and subsurface. The objective of this study is to describe the main thermal processes of the lakes and to quantify the heat exchange with the underlying sediments. The thermal regimes of five lakes located within the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia (Lena River Delta) were investigated using hourly water temperature and water level records covering a 3-year period (2009-2012), together with bathymetric survey data. The lakes included thermokarst lakes located on Holocene river terraces that may be connected to Lena River water during spring flooding, and a thermokarst lake located on deposits of the Pleistocene Ice Complex. Lakes were covered by ice up to 2 m thick that persisted for more than 7 months of the year, from October until about mid-June. Lake-bottom temperatures increased at the start of the ice-covered period due to upward-directed heat flux from the underlying thawed sediment. Prior to ice break-up, solar radiation effectively warmed the water beneath the ice cover and induced convective mixing. Ice break-up started at the beginning of June and lasted until the middle or end of June. Mixing occurred within the entire water column from the start of ice break-up and continued during the ice-free periods, as confirmed by the Wedderburn numbers, a quantitative measure of the balance between wind mixing and stratification that is important for describing the biogeochemical cycles of lakes. The lake thermal regime was modeled numerically using the FLake model. The model demonstrated good agreement with observations with regard to the mean lake temperature, with a good reproduction of the summer stratification during the ice-free period, but poor agreement during the ice-covered period. Modeled sensitivity to lake depth demonstrated that lakes in this climatic zone with mean depths > 5 m develop

  4. Multi-annual Turbulent Energy Fluxes in the Lena River Delta: Eddy Covariance and Remote Sensing in Siberian Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B.; Wille, C.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.; Sachs, T.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Kutzbach, L.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the energy and water balances in permafrost tundra, establishing hydrological conditions for the next year and controlling several aspects of the carbon cycle. Both the energy balance and hydrological conditions of the landscape surface are important drivers of how Arctic climate change will impact landscape processes, including the carbon feedback. The accurate measurement of evapotranspiration within an energy balance context therefore provides crucial information on ecosystem functioning and raises our predictive capacity for estimating the impact of climate change. In this study we report field measurements from 13 summers (2002-14) using the eddy covariance method in a lowland ice-wedge polygon landscape within Russia's Lena River Delta. These time-series are gap-filled and extrapolated with both statistical and process-based models to generate estimates of growing season ET. We find that interannual differences - including two August periods with high ET and two with low ET - are locally driven more by changes in air temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) than in land surface characteristics or radiation. Except for periods of high VPD, aerodynamic resistance was greater than canopy surface resistance. We explore predictive relationships between various land surface indicators (e.g., NDVI, LAI, LST, Growing season length) derived from remote sensing products (MODIS) to quantify local mechanisms necessary for upscaling to the Delta region. Nighttime land surface temperature (MODIS) is found to be a strong predictor of evaporative flux at weekly to monthly time scales. Contrary to expectations resulting from climate change studies, we do not see evidence of a sustained interannual trend in ET or sensible heat flux. We conclude with implications for the local energy balance and responses to changes in sea ice extent and a warming climate.

  5. Monitoring Bedfast Ice in Lakes of the Lena River Delta Using TerraSAR-X Backscatter and Coherence Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonova, S.; Duguay, C. R.; Kaeaeb, A.; Heim, B.; Langer, M.; Westermann, S.; Boike, J.

    2016-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes and ponds are major elements of permafrost landscapes, occupying up to 40% of the land area in some Arctic regions. Deeper lakes (> 2 m) remain unfrozen beneath floating ice during winter, leading to the formation of talik, facilitating microbial activity and greenhouse gases production throughout the year. Shallower lakes (< 2 m) experience complete freezing down to the bottom which prevents talik formation and limits the length of the greenhouse gases production period. Thus, distinguishing floating from grounded lake ice is crucial for evaluating the thermal and geobiochemical state of tundra landscapes. A remote sensing method based on differences between radar backscatter intensity signatures is most frequently used to distinguish floating from bedfast ice. Although the method has been known since the 1970s, the potential of new generation satellite radar imagery has yet to be evaluated. Our study is based on a unique TerraSAR-X (TSX) data set that spans three winter seasons (2012-2013, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015). We investigate the viability of TSX backscatter intensity time series with high spatial (10 m) and temporal (11 days) resolution for monitoring bedfast lake ice in the zone of continuous permafrost in the Lena River Delta, Siberia. In situ ice thickness measurements from a number of lakes were used for validation. Additionally, an 11-day sequential interferometric coherence time series was analysed as a supplementary approach for the bedfast ice monitoring and as an explorative step for a possible derivation of shallow lakes bathymetry based on InSAR. Results demonstrate that TSX backscatter intensity time series is an excellent tool for the monitoring floating/grounded lake ice regime. Particularly, due to a better temporal resolution of TSX data, retrieval of the timing of ice grounding is improved compared to previous studies which used RADARSAT or ERS data. The coherence time series is shown to detect most ice grounding and to

  6. Mass measurements on stable nuclides in the rare-earth region with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaer, J.; Audi, G.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Droese, C.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Smorra, C.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Noertershaeuser, W.; Wang, M.

    2011-07-15

    The masses of 15 stable nuclides in the rare-earth region have been measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. This is the first series of absolute mass measurements linking these nuclides to the atomic-mass standard {sup 12}C. Previously, nuclear reaction studies almost exclusively determined the literature values of these masses in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. The TRIGA-TRAP results show deviations on the order of 3-4 standard deviations from the latest published values of the Atomic-Mass Evaluation 2003 for some cases. However, the binding-energy differences that are important for nuclear structure studies have been confirmed and improved. The new masses are discussed in the context of valence proton-neutron interactions using double differences of binding energies, {delta}V{sub pn}(Z,N).

  7. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  8. Double Marking Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published the report of an independent panel of experts into maintaining standards at Advanced Level (A-Level). One of its recommendations was for: limited experimental double marking of scripts in subjects such as English to determine whether the strategy would significantly reduce errors…

  9. Airbag bounce marks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  11. Digitally Marking RSA Moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.M.

    2000-10-09

    The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

  12. Little Jiffy, Mark IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Rice, John

    1974-01-01

    In this paper three changes and one new development for the method of exploratory factor analysis (a second generation Little Jiffy) developed by Kaiser are described. Following this short description a step-by-step computer algorithm of the revised method, dubbed Little Jiffy, Mark IV is presented. (MP)

  13. Marking Advanced Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Michael

    1978-01-01

    A list of points to aid essay writers is suggested as the basis of a marking system for the teacher of English as a foreign language. The checklist, obtained from a book on higher education by Ruth Beard, can be adapted to the English as a foreign language situation. (SW)

  14. Fathoming Mark Twain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggar, Joanna

    1988-01-01

    Relates the efforts of completing two collections of the works and papers of Mark Twain. Describes the combined efforts of the University of Iowa and the University of California to publish both a scholarly edition and a reader's edition devoted to Twain. (KO)

  15. Curiosity Leaves Its Mark

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-29

    This image shows a close-up of track marks from the first test drive of NASA Curiosity rover. The rover arm is visible in the foreground. A close inspection of the tracks reveals a unique, repeating pattern: Morse code for JPL.

  16. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  17. Rehab Mark. Trainer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; And Others

    This manual is written for trainers working in the RehabMark system of employer development in vocational rehabilitation services. Videotapes are available to accompany lectures and other training activities, and materials for transparencies are provided in an appendix. After an introductory chapter, the first half of the manual contains training…

  18. Rehab Mark. Participant's Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; And Others

    This manual is the employer-focused component workbook of a vocational rehabilitation program. Goals of the RehabMark approach include increased exposure of the rehabilitation agency in the local community, expanded contributions by the agency to community members, and services benefiting numerous clients simultaneously. The first half of the…

  19. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  20. Mark Twain on phrenology.

    PubMed

    Stone, James L

    2003-12-01

    Mark Twain was a noted 19th century American writer and humorist. He often elaborated upon the personalities of his characters, and his observational skills reflected a strong interest in psychology. Similarly, he found an interest in phrenology, a pseudoscience that purported to characterize personality traits according to elevations or depressions on the head. Twain's style is clearly reflected in the interesting essay he wrote regarding his personal experience with phrenology.

  1. Obstruction Marking and Lighting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-09-01

    Overhead Wires. Markers displayed on overhead wires should be spherical in shape with a diameter of not less than 20 incites, or may be of another shape...150 feet, or fraction thereof, of the overall length of the overhead line. These markers should be placed at equal intervals not more than 150 feet...obstructions by "colors." The distance between mark- ers on overhead wires located more than 15,000 feet from the refer- ence point of any landing area

  2. Photochemical and microbial transformation of terrestrial dissolved organic matter - Lena River vs. rivers in mid and low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vähätalo, A. V.; Aarnos, H.; Paolucci, E. M.; Musibono, D. E.; Khan, S. R.; Gelinas, Y.; Shantz, A.; Huang, Q.; Schneider, W.; Rezende, C. E.; Petrescu, E.; Reader, H. E.

    2012-04-01

    biodegradability model based on a reactivity continuum to the observed biodegradation of DOC. In the dark control samples, the biodegradation of DOC was moderate, but the irradiation speeded up the decomposition of DOC a lot. The potential photodecomposition of DOM can be realized with a few hundred kilometers from the mouth of those rivers discharging to the mid- or low-latitude ocean. For the DOM of Lena River, the potential photodegradation is realized only partially in the receiving Laptev Sea having seasons with no or little solar radiation and additionally covered by sea ice over most of year.

  3. Auroral, Polar Cap, and Polar Cusp Modeling and Data Analysis for the IMAGE Mission and LENA Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gordon R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the chief mysteries in the LENA perigee pass data is the lack of an apparent auroral oval in the images. Another is that in some cases ENA are seen from any direction near the Earth regardless of the latitude of the spacecraft. These facts lead one to ask a fundamental question: Is the instrument responding to ENA primarily? One possible way to get out of the "ambiguity" of the data is to assume that at least part of the signal is produced by something other than ENA. The two main candidates for this "something else" are UV light and energetic charged particles. UV light could only effect the instrument when its fan shaped aperture points toward the source. The most intense of which will be the sun, with day glow being the second strongest and the auroral zone, the third. We can rule out UV light as a prime source of counts in the perigee pass data for the following reasons: 1) The perigee pass signal is different in form and much stronger than the sun pulse signal seen just before or just after perigee; 2) There is no indication of the auroral zone, which would produce at least two peaks in the counts versus spin phase curve; 3) Mike Colliers' analysis of the sun pulse signal shows that it varies with the flux of the solar wind and not with variations in the solar UV flux. Charge particles that enter the aperture of the instrument and produce counts would show up when the instrument looks in the direction from which they come. In all of the data I am analyzing voltages were being applied to the collimators so that most charged particles should have been excluded from the instrument but this effect could still show up where the flux of energetic particles is high enough. The most likely place would be in the auroral zone where energetic electrons and protons precipitate. If these particles are producing counts then they should be seen when the instrument looks in and near the zenith direction. In nearly all of the perigee passes the zenith direction is

  4. Mark 3 system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    The Mark 3 very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) system, comprising a complete end to end VLBI system optimized for both high accuracy geodesy and radio astronomy, is described. The data flow, the data base handler system, and the field station component and configurations are briefly discussed. The use of mobile and transportable stations allows measurements to be taken from a large number of sites with relatively few sets of equipment. Fixed stations form a long term reference network for tying together the measurements with the mobile and transportable stations.

  5. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  6. Case Marking Strategies in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John

    Case marking strategies in Kope, a Papuan language of Papua New Guinea, are analyzed in light of previous claims that most Papuan languages have one strategy for marking core relations and another for marking peripheral relations. A brief grammatical overview illustrates how core and peripheral relations are marked in Kope, including nominal case…

  7. Analytical analyses of startup measurements associated with the first use of LEU fuel in Romania's 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L. ); Ciocanescu, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) is located in Pitesti, Romania. Beginning with an HEU core (10 wt% U), the reactor first went critical in November 1979 but was shut down ten years later because of insufficient excess reactivity. Last November the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), which operates the SSR, received from the ANL RERTR program a shipment of 125 LEU pins fabricated by General Atomics and of the same geometry as the original fuel but with an enrichment of 19.7% 235U and a loading of 45 wt% U. Using 100 of these pins, four LEU clusters, each containing a 5 x 5 square array of fuel rods, were assembled. These four LEU clusters replaced the four most highly burned HEU elements in the SSR. The reactor resumed operations last February with a 35-element mixed HEU/LEU core configuration. In preparation for full power operation of the SSR with this mixed HEU/LEU core, a number of measurements were made. These included control rod calibrations, excess reactivity determinations, worths of experiment facilities, reaction rate distributions, and themocouple measurements of fuel temperatures as a function of reactor power. This paper deals with a comparison of some of these measured reactor parameters with corresponding analytical calculations.

  8. Comparison of EPR response of alanine and Gd₂O₃-alanine dosimeters exposed to TRIGA Mainz reactor.

    PubMed

    Marrale, M; Schmitz, T; Gallo, S; Hampel, G; Longo, A; Panzeca, S; Tranchina, L

    2015-12-01

    In this work we report some preliminary results regarding the analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) response of alanine pellets and alanine pellets added with gadolinium used for dosimetry at the TRIGA research reactor in Mainz, Germany. Two set-ups were evaluated: irradiation inside PMMA phantom and irradiation inside boric acid phantom. We observed that the presence of Gd2O3 inside alanine pellets increases the EPR signal by a factor of 3.45 and 1.24 in case of PMMA and boric acid phantoms, respectively. We can conclude that in the case of neutron beam with a predominant thermal neutron component the addition of gadolinium oxide can significantly improve neutron sensitivity of alanine pellets. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of both response of alanine and Gd-added alanine pellets with FLUKA code were performed and a good agreement was achieved for pure alanine dosimeters. For Gd2O3-alanine deviations between MC simulations and experimental data were observed and discussed.

  9. OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (OSU) TRAINING RESEARCH ISOTOPE GENERAL ATOMICS (TRIGA) OVERPACK CLOSURE WELDING PROCESS PARAMETER DEVELOPMENT & QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2006-09-11

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the Oregon State University (OSU) TRIGA{reg_sign} Reactor is currently being stored in thirteen 55-gallon drums at the Hanford Site's low-level burial grounds. This fuel is soon to be retrieved from buried storage and packaged into new containers (overpacks) for interim storage at the Hanford Interim Storage Area (ISA). One of the key activities associated with this effort is final closure of the overpack by welding. The OSU fuel is placed into an overpack, a head inserted into the overpack top, and welded closed. Weld quality, for typical welded fabrication, is established through post-weld testing and nondestructive examination (NDE); however, in this case, once the SNF is placed into the overpack, routine testing and NDE are not feasible. An alternate approach is to develop and qualify the welding process/parameters, demonstrate beforehand that they produce the desired weld quality, and then verify parameter compliance during production welding. Fluor engineers have developed a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) technique and parameters, demonstrating that weld quality requirements for closure of packaged SNF overpacks are met, using this alternate approach. The following reviews the activities performed for this development and qualification effort.

  10. The Mark 3 Haploscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Logar, N. D.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-operated binocular vision testing device was developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to evaluate the visual function of astronauts during spaceflight. This particular device, called the Mark 3 Haploscope, employs semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phoria, fixation disparity, refractive state and accommodation/convergence relationships. Test procedures are self-administered and can be used repeatedly without subject memorization. The Haploscope was designed as one module of the complete NASA Vision Testing System. However, it is capable of stand-alone operation. Moreover, the compactness and portability of the Haploscope make possible its use in a broad variety of testing environments.

  11. Lena Horne Recognition Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Alcee L. [D-FL-23

    2011-05-10

    04/18/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Lena Horne Recognition Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Alcee L. [D-FL-23

    2011-05-10

    Senate - 04/18/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Lena Horne Recognition Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-12-14

    Senate - 12/14/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Lena Horne Recognition Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Alcee L. [D-FL-23

    2011-05-10

    04/18/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Lena Horne Recognition Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2013-02-27

    Senate - 02/27/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Tracing the catchment-scale hydrology of polygonal tundra and implications for lateral fluxes of carbon and nitrogen, Lena River Delta, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Helbig, Manuel; Knoblauch, Christian; Kutzbach, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Surface-water hydrology changes the thermal regime of permafrost, carries varying amounts of nutrients depending on its flowpath, and provides a fuel for biogeochemical reactions, including the biological production of methane and carbon dioxide by soil microbes. In this work we present the findings of hydrological investigations in the ice-wedge polygon tundra of the Samoylov Research Island in Russia's Lena River Delta. We compare the catchment-scale behaviour of two adjacent watersheds through stable isotope analysis conducted over two years of sampling (2012-13). This work also incorporates the use of conservative natural tracers such as silica concentration and sheds light on mechanisms for the transport of dissolved organic carbon into the Lena River system. Hydrological discharge measurements taken over three years (2011-13) reveal generally similar patterns in rainfall response and permafrost thaw between two adjacent watersheds - one smaller (0.02 km2) and dominantly comprised of the characteristic polygonal tundra and the second larger one (0.6 km2) also containing two large surface-water reservoirs, namely a degraded ice-wedge network and a lake. However, stable isotope measurements of hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ18O) reveal that the latter watershed maintains a significant surface-water isotopic signature throughout the summer period, with greater influence of evaporation on watershed dynamics. The smaller, characteristic polygon catchment shows ever-increasing influence of deeper flow paths as the thaw depth increases over the season. These small catchments release low amounts of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen both in terms of concentration (< 10 ppm and < 1 ppm, respectively) and as proportion of the watershed's annual carbon budget (< 1 % of CO2 uptake). These findings will interest permafrost researchers studying polygonal tundra, Arctic floodplains, interactions between the water, carbon, and energy cycles. Furthermore, modeling strategies

  17. Modification of the rotary specimen rack (Lazy Susan) at the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) to permit pneumatic unloading of samples

    SciTech Connect

    Heifer, P.G.; Rusling, D.H.

    1986-07-01

    With a continuing sample load of about 18,000 samples per year, the U.S.G.S. TRIGA facility has installed a modified rotary specimen rack that allows samples to be unloaded from the rack using a closed loop blower system. The radiation exposure to operating personnel is lowered due to remote operation. Time required to unload large numbers of samples is reduced dramatically, and the sample capacity of the lazy susan can be doubled due to design changes of the. irradiation capsule allowed by the pneumatic unloading system. The safety, versatility, time and costs are improved by the addition of the pneumatic unloading lazy susan. (author)

  18. Adaption of a PIN-diode detector as an online neutron monitor for the thermal column of the TRIGA research reactor.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Tobias; Blaickner, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    A BNCT online neutron monitoring system was tested in a TRIGA reactor, using a silicon PIN-diode with a conversion foil. The setup was tested with different reactor powers at the hot and cold ends of the irradiation channel, using activation foils to compare with measured fluxes. The results demonstrate good reproducibility and show a linear correlation between signal of the PIN-diode and neutron flux at all positions, demonstrating this approach to be suitable for online monitoring of the neutron flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Calculation of the Activity Inventory for the TRIGA Reactor at the Medical University of Hannover (MHH) in Preparation for Dismantling the Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, G.; Scheller, F.; Bernnat, W.; Pfister, G.; Klaux, U.; Gerhards, E.

    2002-02-25

    It is planned to dismantle the TRIGA reactor facility at the Medical University of Hannover (MHH). Radioactive waste resulting from this dismantling will be disposed of externally, any remaining materials as well as the building structures will then be measured to ensure there is no residual activity. In preparation for this and to plan the techniques which will be used to dismantle the reactor, calculations were made in order to determine the amount of activity and the dose rates for the reactor tank and its inside components as well as for the biological shield and its radial beam tube.

  20. Research pilot Mark Pestana

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-16

    Mark Pestana is a research pilot and project manager at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. He is a pilot for the Beech B200 King Air, the T-34C and the Predator B. He flies the F-18 Hornet as a co-pilot and flight test engineer. Pestana has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of military and civilian flight experience. He was also a flight engineer on the NASA DC-8 flying laboratory. Pestana was the project manager and pilot for the Hi–rate Wireless Airborne Network Demonstration flown on the NASA B200 research aircraft. He flew B200 research missions for the X-38 Space Integrated Inertial Navigation Global Positioning System experiment. Pestana also participated in several deployments of the DC-8, including Earth science expeditions ranging from hurricane research over the Caribbean Sea to ozone studies over the North Pole, atmospheric chemistry over the South Pacific, rain forest health in Central America, Rocky Mountain ice pack assessment, and volcanic and tectonic activity around the Pacific Rim. He came to Dryden as a DC-8 mission manager in June 1998 from NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, where he served as the Earth and Space Science discipline manager for the International Space Station Program at Johnson. Pestana also served as a flight crew operations engineer in the Astronaut Office, developing the controls, displays, tools, crew accommodations and procedures for on-orbit assembly, test, and checkout of the International Space Station. He led the analysis and technical negotiations for modification of the Russian Soyuz spacecraft as an emergency crew return vehicle for space station crews. He joined the U.S. Air Force Reserve in 1991 and held various positions as a research and development engineer, intelligence analyst, and Delta II launch vehicle systems engineer. He retired from the U.S. Air Force Reserve with the rank of colonel in 2005. Prior to 1990, Pestana was on active duty with the U.S. Air Force as the director of mi

  1. The Mark III VLBI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Levine, J. I.; Nesman, E. F.; Webber, J. C.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Geodetic measurements have errors in centimeter range. Collection of three reports describes both equipment and results of some measurements taken with Mark III very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) system. Has demonstrated high accuracy over short baselines, where phase-delay measurements used. Advanced hardware, called Mark III A, developed to improve system performance and efficiency. Original Mark III hardware and III A subsystem upgrades developed as part of NASA Crustal Dynamics Project at Haystack Observatory.

  2. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  3. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  4. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark must be... unit to the surface of the water, except that where a unit has a permanent appendage extending below... surface of the water. (e) In cases where draft marks are obscured due to operational constraints or...

  5. An Approach to Mark Arthropods for Mark Capture Type Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of studies were conducted to validate methods for marking a wide variety of arthropods with inexpensive proteins for mark-capture dispersal research. The markers tested included egg albumin protein in chicken egg whites and casein protein in bovine milk. The first study qualified the effec...

  6. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are…

  7. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are…

  8. NotaMark industrial laser marking system: a new security marking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Vincent G.

    2004-06-01

    Up until now, the only variable alphanumeric data which could be added to banknotes was the number, applied by means of impact typographical numbering boxes. As an additional process or an alternative to this mechanical method, a non-contact laser marking process can be used offering high quality and greater levels of flexibility. For this purpose KBA-GIORI propose an exclusive laser marking solution called NotaMark. The laser marking process NotaMark is the ideal solution for applying variable data and personalizing banknotes (or any other security documents) with a very high resolution, for extremely large production volumes. A completely integrated solution has been developed comprised of laser light sources, marking head units, and covers and extraction systems. NotaMark allows the marking of variable data by removing locally and selectively, specific printed materials leaving the substrate itself untouched. A wide range of materials has already been tested extensively. NotaMark is a new security feature which is easy to identify and difficult to counterfeit, and which complies with the standard mechanical and chemical resistance tests in the security printing industry as well as with other major soiling tests. The laser marking process opens up a whole new range of design possibilities and can be used to create a primary security feature such as numbering, or to enhance the value of existing features.

  9. Swash mark and grain flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.

    1981-01-01

    Swash marks composed entirely of coarse sand are commonly found on coarse-sand beaches. These swash marks are 10 to 30 centimeters in width and a few millimeters to one centimeter in height. Previous observations, mostly on finer-sand beaches, indicate swash marks are seldom over a few millimeters in height and are commonly composed of material readily floated by surface tension (e.g., mica flakes and shell fragments). Swash marks composed of coarse sand have both fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size. Apparently, the leading margin of a wave upwash drives a highly concentrated flow of grains in which both grain size and grain velocity decrease with depth. Therefore, large grains are transported at greater velocities than are smaller grains. Thus, at the maximum advance of an upwash, a swash mark is deposited which has the observed fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size.

  10. The Design and Construction of a Cold Neutron Source for Use in the Cornell University Triga Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Lydia Jane

    A cold neutron source has been designed and constructed for insertion into the 6"-radial beam port of the Cornell University TRIGA reactor for use with a neutron guide tube system. The main differences between this cold source and other existing sources are the use of heat conduction as the method of cooling and the use of mesitylene (1,3,5 -trimethylbenzene; melting point, 228(DEGREES)K; boiling point, 437(DEGREES)K) as the moderating material. This thesis describes the design and construction details of the cold neutron source, discusses its safety aspects, and presents its cryogenic performance curves and also the results of a test of its neutron moderating ability. A closed-cycle helium gas refrigerator, located outside the reactor shielding, cools the 500 cm('3) moderator chamber and its surrounding heat shield by heat conduction through two meters of copper and rod tubing. Moderator temperatures of 23 (+OR-) 3(DEGREES)K have been achieved. Mesitylene, a hydrocarbon, is an effective cold moderator because even at low temperatures the weakly hindered rotational motions of its methyl groups enable the absorption of small amounts of energy ((LESSTHEQ) 0.005 eV) from neutrons. The use of mesitylene simplifies the cold source design because it is a liquid at room temperature and thus, the usual design safeguards required for sources using gaseous moderators are not necessary. Moreover, the flammability of mesitylene is much smaller than that of hydrogen and methane, which are the commonly used cold moderators. A method of transferring and handling the mesitylene, a carcinogen, was devised to ensure minimal contact with this substance. To test the neutron moderating ability of the cold neutron source, an out-of-reactor neutron transmission experiment was performed with the moderator chamber first at room temperature and then at about 23(DEGREES)K. The results indicate that the neutron energy spectrum is strongly shifted to lower energies when the chamber is cold

  11. Mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Michal; Gilbert, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    An objective of randomized placebo-controlled preventive HIV vaccine efficacy (VE) trials is to assess the relationship between vaccine effects to prevent HIV acquisition and continuous genetic distances of the exposing HIVs to multiple HIV strains represented in the vaccine. The set of genetic distances, only observed in failures, is collectively termed the 'mark.' The objective has motivated a recent study of a multivariate mark-specific hazard ratio model in the competing risks failure time analysis framework. Marks of interest, however, are commonly subject to substantial missingness, largely due to rapid post-acquisition viral evolution. In this article, we investigate the mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks and develop two inferential procedures based on (i) inverse probability weighting (IPW) of the complete cases, and (ii) augmentation of the IPW estimating functions by leveraging auxiliary data predictive of the mark. Asymptotic properties and finite-sample performance of the inferential procedures are presented. This research also provides general inferential methods for semiparametric density ratio/biased sampling models with missing data. We apply the developed procedures to data from the HVTN 502 'Step' HIV VE trial.

  12. CE Marking - the Essential Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Mervyn

    The European Union (EU) harmonisation project introduced the CE marking of products to enable the free, unhindered movement of goods throughout the European market. The CE mark replaced the EC mark in the mid 1990s and is fundamental to the New Approach Directives. When a product falls within the scope of a New Approach Directive the manufacturer must comply with the 'goal setting' essential requirements of the directive, to follow one of the conformity assessment procedures provided for, and to draw up the technical documentation specified. Although not mandatory, a manufacturer can choose to satisfy the essential requirements through the application of European harmonised standards.

  13. Metagenomic analysis reveals a functional signature for biomass degradation by cecal microbiota in the leaf-eating flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena).

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsiao-Pei; Wang, Yu-bin; Huang, Shiao-Wei; Lin, Chung-Yen; Wu, Martin; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Yu, Hon-Tsen

    2012-09-10

    Animals co-evolve with their gut microbiota; the latter can perform complex metabolic reactions that cannot be done independently by the host. Although the importance of gut microbiota has been well demonstrated, there is a paucity of research regarding its role in foliage-foraging mammals with a specialized digestive system. In this study, a 16S rRNA gene survey and metagenomic sequencing were used to characterize genetic diversity and functional capability of cecal microbiota of the folivorous flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena). Phylogenetic compositions of the cecal microbiota derived from 3 flying squirrels were dominated by Firmicutes. Based on end-sequences of fosmid clones from 1 flying squirrel, we inferred that microbial metabolism greatly contributed to intestinal functions, including degradation of carbohydrates, metabolism of proteins, and synthesis of vitamins. Moreover, 33 polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and 2 large genomic fragments containing a series of carbohydrate-associated genes were identified. Cecal microbiota of the leaf-eating flying squirrel have great metabolic potential for converting diverse plant materials into absorbable nutrients. The present study should serve as the basis for future investigations, using metagenomic approaches to elucidate the intricate mechanisms and interactions between host and gut microbiota of the flying squirrel digestive system, as well as other mammals with similar adaptations.

  14. Metagenomic analysis reveals a functional signature for biomass degradation by cecal microbiota in the leaf-eating flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Animals co-evolve with their gut microbiota; the latter can perform complex metabolic reactions that cannot be done independently by the host. Although the importance of gut microbiota has been well demonstrated, there is a paucity of research regarding its role in foliage-foraging mammals with a specialized digestive system. Results In this study, a 16S rRNA gene survey and metagenomic sequencing were used to characterize genetic diversity and functional capability of cecal microbiota of the folivorous flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena). Phylogenetic compositions of the cecal microbiota derived from 3 flying squirrels were dominated by Firmicutes. Based on end-sequences of fosmid clones from 1 flying squirrel, we inferred that microbial metabolism greatly contributed to intestinal functions, including degradation of carbohydrates, metabolism of proteins, and synthesis of vitamins. Moreover, 33 polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and 2 large genomic fragments containing a series of carbohydrate-associated genes were identified. Conclusions Cecal microbiota of the leaf-eating flying squirrel have great metabolic potential for converting diverse plant materials into absorbable nutrients. The present study should serve as the basis for future investigations, using metagenomic approaches to elucidate the intricate mechanisms and interactions between host and gut microbiota of the flying squirrel digestive system, as well as other mammals with similar adaptations. PMID:22963241

  15. Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  16. 19 CFR 134.21 - Special marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Marking of Containers or Holders § 134.21 Special marking. This subpart includes only country of origin marking requirements and exceptions under section 304(b), Tariff Act of 1930,...

  17. 46 CFR 160.064-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manufacturer or distributor). (Lot No.). (b) Durability of marking. Marking shall be of a type which will be... instructions for use. (b) Durability of marking. Marking must be of a type which will be durable and legible...

  18. Inflectional marking in Hungarian aphasics.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, B; Osmán-Sági, J

    1991-08-01

    How do aphasics deal with the rich inflectional marking available in agglutinative languages like Hungarian? For the Hungarian noun alone, aphasics have to deal with over 15 basic case markings and dozens of possible combinations of these basic markings. Using the picture description task of MacWhinney and Bates (1978), this study examined the use of inflectional markings in nine Broca's and five Wernicke's aphasic speakers of Hungarian. The analysis focused on subject, direct object, indirect object, and locative nominal arguments. Compared to normals, both groups had a much higher rate of omission of all argument types. Subject ellipsis was particularly strong, as it is in normal Hungarian. There was a tendency for Broca's to omit the indirect object and for Wernicke's to omit the direct object. Across argument types, Wernicke's had a much higher level of pronoun usage than did Broca's. Broca's also showed a very high level of article omission. Compared to similar data reported by Slobin (this issue) for Turkish, the Hungarian aphasics showed an elevated level of omission of case markings. Addition errors were quite rare, but there were 14 substitutions of one case marking for another. These errors all involved the substitution of some close semantic competitor. There were no errors in the basic rules for vowel harmony or morpheme order. Overall the results paint a picture of a group of individuals whose grammatical abilities are damaged and noisy, but still largely functional. Neither the view of Broca's as agrammatic nor the view of Wernicke's as paragrammatic was strongly supported.

  19. Fabrication and testing of a 4-node micro-pocket fission detector array for the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nichols, Daniel M.; Stevenson, Sarah R.; Swope, Tanner M.; Hilger, Caden W.; Unruh, Troy C.; McGregor, Douglas S.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2017-08-01

    Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFDs) have been fabricated and tested previously, but successful testing of these prior detectors was limited to single-node operation with specialized designs. Described in this work is a modular, four-node MPFD array fabricated and tested at Kansas State University (KSU). The four sensor nodes were equally spaced to span the length of the fuel-region of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor core. The encapsulated array was filled with argon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the MPFDs. The unified design improved device ruggedness and simplified construction over previous designs. A 0.315-in. (8-mm) penetration in the upper grid plate of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor was used to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The MPFD array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been developed to support pulse-mode operation. Neutron-induced pulses were observed on all four sensor channels. Stable device operation was confirmed by testing under steady-state reactor conditions. Each of the four sensors in the array responded to changes in reactor power between 10 kWth and full power (750 kWth). Reactor power transients were observed in real-time including positive transients with periods of 5, 15, and 30 s. Finally, manual reactor power oscillations were observed in real-time.

  20. Better marking means cheaper pruning.

    Treesearch

    Kenneth R. Eversole

    1953-01-01

    Careful selection of trees to be pruned can make the difference between profit and loss on the pruning investment, especially in stands where no thinning is contemplated. Expert marking is required to make sure that the pruned trees will grow rapidly. The most important variable influencing the cost of clear wood produced by pruning is growth rate. For example, at 3...

  1. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  2. Reference Point Marking in Emai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Ronald P.

    Semantic noun classes in Emai, an Edoid language of Nigeria, are examined with respect to a process of Reference Point Marking (RPM) in order to explore the relationship between discourse and lexical semantics. Across pre- and post-verbal positions subcategorized by verbs like "rere" ("to be far"), these classes are shown to…

  3. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  4. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  5. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  6. Spear-Marked Black Moth

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Werner; Bruce H. Baker

    1977-01-01

    The spear-marked black moth, Rheumaptera hastata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a serious defoliator of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) in interior Alaska. Epidemic populations have occurred at 15- to 17- year intervals, persisted for 2 years, and then collapsed. Recorded outbreaks occurred in 1941, acreage unknown; from 1957 to 1958, 5 million acres (2...

  7. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  8. Estimating Spatially Heterogeneous Contributions to Ecosystem Scale Fluxes Directly From Eddy Covariance Measurements: A Case Study in Siberian wet Polygonal Tundra on Samoylov Island, Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, T.; Eugster, W.

    2008-12-01

    The eddy covariance method is used widely to measure the turbulent exchange fluxes of climate relevant gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. One important assumption in eddy covariance theory is homogeneity of the surface over which measurements are conducted. However, in reality the method is often applied in very heterogeneous areas and the effect of that heterogeneity on the measurement time series is not fully agreed on in the scientific community. Since the eddy covariance method relies on the time-for- space substitution concept (Taylor's frozen turbulence field assumption), spatial disturbance of the assumed homogeneity should leave similar traces in the time series data that could be detected with state-of-the-art times series statistics approaches, primarily frequency analysis. This should be easiest to detect where the observed heterogeneity is characterized by the steepest possible small-scale spatial contrast of fluxes while also exhibiting certain regularity. Thus, polygonal tundra with its regular micro-relief of very wet polygon depressions with high rates of photosynthesis and methane emission on the one hand and relatively "dry" elevated polygon rims with lower rates of photosynthesis, higher rates of respiration, and extremely low methane emissions on the other hand is considered well-suited to explore the performance of this technique of flux footprint separation. We present a case study using eddy covariance data of water vapour, carbon dioxide and methane from the Lena River Delta, Siberia, and high-resolution aerial photography to demonstrate that spatial heterogeneity correlates with deviations in eddy covariance co-spectra from the idealized co-spectra. This new method - if successful beyond a single case study - could become widely used wherever fluxes are measured over spatially heterogeneous surfaces. It would be especially helpful to move towards more accurate upscaling in areas where emission rates and processes vary greatly on

  9. Fate of terrigenous organic matter across the Laptev Sea from the mouth of the Lena River to the deep sea of the Arctic interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bröder, Lisa; Tesi, Tommaso; Salvadó, Joan A.; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2016-09-01

    Ongoing global warming in high latitudes may cause an increasing supply of permafrost-derived organic carbon through both river discharge and coastal erosion to the Arctic shelves. Mobilized permafrost carbon can be either buried in sediments, transported to the deep sea or degraded to CO2 and outgassed, potentially constituting a positive feedback to climate change. This study aims to assess the fate of terrigenous organic carbon (TerrOC) in the Arctic marine environment by exploring how it changes in concentration, composition and degradation status across the wide Laptev Sea shelf. We analyzed a suite of terrestrial biomarkers as well as source-diagnostic bulk carbon isotopes (δ13C, Δ14C) in surface sediments from a Laptev Sea transect spanning more than 800 km from the Lena River mouth (< 10 m water depth) across the shelf to the slope and rise (2000-3000 m water depth). These data provide a broad view on different TerrOC pools and their behavior during cross-shelf transport. The concentrations of lignin phenols, cutin acids and high-molecular-weight (HMW) wax lipids (tracers of vascular plants) decrease by 89-99 % along the transect. Molecular-based degradation proxies for TerrOC (e.g., the carbon preference index of HMW lipids, the HMW acids / alkanes ratio and the acid / aldehyde ratio of lignin phenols) display a trend to more degraded TerrOC with increasing distance from the coast. We infer that the degree of degradation of permafrost-derived TerrOC is a function of the time spent under oxic conditions during protracted cross-shelf transport. Future work should therefore seek to constrain cross-shelf transport times in order to compute a TerrOC degradation rate and thereby help to quantify potential carbon-climate feedbacks.

  10. 15 CFR 272.3 - Approved markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAKING OF TOY, LOOK-ALIKE, AND IMITATION FIREARMS MARKING OF TOY, LOOK-ALIKE AND IMITATION FIREARMS § 272.3 Approved markings. The following markings are...

  11. Laser marking of component parts

    SciTech Connect

    Gress, A.V. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Permanent identification of components and subassemblies for traceability and historical purposes is essential for assemblies subject to long term storage. Marketing requirements run the gamut from simple functional alphanumerics for terminal or wire numbers to complex component identification involving program nomenclature, part number, manufacturer's code, serial number, data code, and lot or batch number. The wide range of opaque materials marked includes both ferrous and nonferrous materials, plastics, composites, and ceramics.

  12. Marked Initial Pitch in Questions Signals Marked Communicative Function.

    PubMed

    Sicoli, Mark A; Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    In conversation, the initial pitch of an utterance can provide an early phonetic cue of the communicative function, the speech act, or the social action being implemented. We conducted quantitative acoustic measurements and statistical analyses of pitch in over 10,000 utterances, including 2512 questions, their responses, and about 5000 other utterances by 180 total speakers from a corpus of 70 natural conversations in 10 languages. We measured pitch at first prominence in a speaker's utterance and discriminated utterances by language, speaker, gender, question form, and what social action is achieved by the speaker's turn. Through applying multivariate logistic regression we found that initial pitch that significantly deviated from the speaker's median pitch level was predictive of the social action of the question. In questions designed to solicit agreement with an evaluation rather than information, pitch was divergent from a speaker's median predictably in the top 10% of a speakers range. This latter finding reveals a kind of iconicity in the relationship between prosody and social action in which a marked pitch correlates with a marked social action. Thus, we argue that speakers rely on pitch to provide an early signal for recipients that the question is not to be interpreted through its literal semantics but rather through an inference.

  13. Laser therapy of stretch marks.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, David H

    2002-01-01

    Striae distensae, better known as stretch marks, are a common disfiguring skin disorder of significant cosmetic concern. Many sources have reported the use of lasers to diminish the appearance of striae. Controlled clinical studies of the various treatment modalities available for striae are relatively uncommon, and much of the clinical data are anecdotal. The use of lasers alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities can provide a safe and effective reduction in the appearance of both red and white striae distensae. Many of these therapies require special measures for darker skin phototypes. This article reviews the historical use of laser therapy for this disorder and discusses current therapeutic options.

  14. Recent results for Mark III

    SciTech Connect

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-..pi../sup 0/'s D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to K..pi pi.. is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  15. A unique solar marking construct.

    PubMed

    Sofaer, A; Zinser, V; Sinclair, R M

    1979-10-19

    An assembly of stone slabs on an isolated butte in New Mexico collimates sunlight onto spiral petroglyphs carved on a cliff face. The light illuminates the spirals in a changing pattern throughout the year and marks the solstices and equinoxes with particular images. The assembly can also be used to observe lunar phenomena. It is unique in archeoastronomy in utilizing the changing height of the midday sun throughout the year rather than its rising and setting points. The construct appears to be the result of deliberate work of the Anasazi Indians, the builders of the great pueblos in the area.

  16. 49 CFR 1520.13 - Marking SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must mark the record by placing the protective marking conspicuously on the.... 552 and 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. (d) Other types of records. In the case of non-paper records that...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 23.1555 Section 23.1555... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and simple push button type starter switches, must be plainly marked as to its function and method...

  18. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... from a distance of three feet. (b) Prominence. Each marking required in paragraph (d) of this section, except vital care and use instructions, if any, must be less prominent and in smaller print than markings... smaller than required markings. The marking “ADULT” must be in at least 18 mm (3/4 inch) high bold capital...

  19. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... from a distance of three feet. (b) Prominence. Each marking required in paragraph (d) of this section, except vital care and use instructions, if any, must be less prominent and in smaller print than markings... smaller than required markings. The marking “ADULT” must be in at least 18 mm (3/4 inch) high bold capital...

  20. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67...

  1. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  2. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  3. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  4. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  5. Reading Skill, Textbook Marking, and Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Kenneth E.; Limber, John E.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed students enrolled in Introductory Psychology courses about their text marking preferences and analyzed the marking in their textbooks. Low-skill readers report more reliance on highlighting strategies and actually mark their texts more than better readers. In addition, low-skilled readers prefer to buy used, previously marked texts…

  6. The fluvial geochemistry of the rivers of Eastern Siberia: I. tributaries of the Lena River draining the sedimentary platform of the Siberian Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Youngsook; Tsoi, Mai-Yin; Zaitsev, Alexandr; Edmond, John M.

    1998-05-01

    The response of continental weathering rates to changing climate and atmospheric PCO 2 is of considerable importance both to the interpretation of the geological sedimentary record and to predictions of the effects of future anthropogenic influences. While comprehensive work on the controlling mechanisms of contemporary chemical and mechanical weathering has been carried out in the tropics and, to a lesser extent, in the strongly perturbed northern temperate latitudes, very little is known about the peri-glacial environments in the subarctic and arctic. Thus, the effects of climate, essentially temperature and runoff, on the rates of atmospheric CO 2 consumption by weathering are not well quantified at this climatic extreme. To remedy this lack a comprehensive survey has been carried out of the geochemistry of the large rivers of Eastern Siberia, the Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma, Anadyr, and numerous lesser streams which drain a pristine, high-latitude region that has not experienced the pervasive effects of glaciation and subsequent anthropogenic impacts common to western Eurasia and North America. The scale of the terrain sampled, in terms of area, is comparable to that of the continental United States or the Amazon/Orinoco and includes a similarly diverse range of geologic and climatic environments. In this paper the chemical fluxes from the western region, the very large, ancient, and geologically stable sedimentary basin, Precambrian to Quaternary, of the Siberian Platform will be presented and compared to published results from analogous terrains in the tropical basins of China. While the range in the chemical signatures of the various tributaries included here (˜60 sampled) is large, this mainly reflects lithology rather than the weathering environment. The areal chemical fluxes are comparable to those of the Chinese rivers, being dominated by the dissolution of carbonates and evaporites. The net consumption of atmospheric CO 2 by aluminosilicate

  7. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  8. Analytical analyses of startup measurements associated with the first use of LEU fuel in Romania`s 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Ciocanescu, M.

    1992-12-01

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) is located in Pitesti, Romania. Beginning with an HEU core (10 wt% U), the reactor first went critical in November 1979 but was shut down ten years later because of insufficient excess reactivity. Last November the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), which operates the SSR, received from the ANL RERTR program a shipment of 125 LEU pins fabricated by General Atomics and of the same geometry as the original fuel but with an enrichment of 19.7% 235U and a loading of 45 wt% U. Using 100 of these pins, four LEU clusters, each containing a 5 x 5 square array of fuel rods, were assembled. These four LEU clusters replaced the four most highly burned HEU elements in the SSR. The reactor resumed operations last February with a 35-element mixed HEU/LEU core configuration. In preparation for full power operation of the SSR with this mixed HEU/LEU core, a number of measurements were made. These included control rod calibrations, excess reactivity determinations, worths of experiment facilities, reaction rate distributions, and themocouple measurements of fuel temperatures as a function of reactor power. This paper deals with a comparison of some of these measured reactor parameters with corresponding analytical calculations.

  9. Methods to Mark Termites with Protein for Mark-Release-Recapture and Mark-Capture Type Studies.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture type studies. Qualitative laboratory studies were conducted to de...

  10. The research of laser marking control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  11. Readers of histone methylarginine marks.

    PubMed

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Bedford, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) that alters roughly 0.5% of all arginine residues in the cells. There are three types of arginine methylation: monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). These three PTMs are enriched on RNA-binding proteins and on histones, and also impact signal transduction cascades. To date, over thirty arginine methylation sites have been cataloged on the different core histones. These modifications alter protein structure, impact interactions with DNA, and also generate docking sites for effector molecules. The primary "readers" of methylarginine marks are Tudor domain-containing proteins. The complete family of thirty-six Tudor domain-containing proteins has yet to be fully characterized, but at least ten bind methyllysine motifs and eight bind methylarginine motifs. In this review, we will highlight the biological roles of the Tudor domains that interact with arginine methylated motifs, and also address other types of interactions that are regulated by these particular PTMs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mark III results from SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Toki, W.

    1983-11-01

    First results from the MARK III detector at SPEAR are presented based on 2.7 million J/psi decays. The eta/sub c/ is observed in three modes, J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..eta/sub c/, (eta/sub c/ ..-->.. rho anti rho, eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/, and phi phi). Using the phi phi mode, the eta/sub c/ spin-parity is determined to be 0/sup -/. The known radiative J/psi decays J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..f(f ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/), ..gamma..eta'(eta' ..-->.. ..gamma..rho/sup 0/, eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/), ..gamma..f'(f' ..-->.. kappa/sup +/kappa/sup -/), ..gamma..theta(theta ..-->.. kappa anti kappa), and ..gamma..iota(iota ..-->.. ..pi..kappa anti kappa) are observed and their branching ratios found to be in agreement with previous measurements. In the J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..kappa/sup +/kappa/sup -/ mode a new state is observed at 2.22 GeV and in the J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..rho/sup 0/ and ..gamma..eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ modes evidence for new structures near 1.4 GeV is presented. 29 references.

  13. [Marked hemosiderosis in myelodysplastic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Klinz, C

    1999-01-29

    A 68-year-old man was admitted because of symptoms of lumbar pain. He was known to have chronic anemia with ring sideroblasts and diabetes melitus and to be in heart failure. Three months before he had been given 7 units of red cell concentrate. On admission the outstanding features were brown discoloration of the skin, absent body hair, tachycardia, hepatomegaly and small testicles. He had a normocytic anemia, hyperglycemia and raised transaminases, hypogonadism and vitamin D3 deficiency. The serum levels of iron, transferrin saturation and feritin were markedly elevated. Liver iron content/g dried liver was 4.2 g (by biomagnetometer). Radiology of the lumbar vertebrae showed osteoporosis and sonography confirmed hepatomegaly. The known myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) had fed to secondary hemosiderosis with heart failure, liver involvement, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and osteoporosis. Symptomatic treatment was unsuccessfully complemented by desferoxamine (up to 4 g/12 h) to release iron. But very good iron excretion was then achieved with deferiprone (3 x 1 g/d). The patient later died of the sequelae of hemosiderosis. Even when they have not required transfusions, patients with long-standing MDS should be examined regularly for the possible development of secondary hemosiderosis so that iron-chelating agents can be administered as needed.

  14. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector valve control must be marked to indicate the...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector valve control must be marked to indicate the...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector valve control must be marked to indicate the...

  17. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have been...

  18. 46 CFR 160.002-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in waterproof...

  19. 46 CFR 160.005-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 52 and 56 § 160.005-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in...

  20. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  1. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  2. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  3. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.29 Approval marking. (a) Approved brattice cloth shall be legibly and permanently marked with the assigned...

  4. 46 CFR 160.026-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (b) Other marking. In addition to any other marking placed on the smallest packing carton or box in which emergency drinking water containers are placed prior to shipment, each carton or box shall be...

  5. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  6. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  7. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  8. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall be... and commuter trains in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be lighted under...

  9. Degradation Modeling of Polyurea Pavement Markings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS THESIS Jonathan D. Needham, Captain, USAF AFIT/GEM/ENV/11-M05 DEPARTMENT OF THE...DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Management Graduates School of...DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS Jonathan D. Needham, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  10. The Text Marking Patterns of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Katie

    1989-01-01

    Examines patterns in college students' text markings using texts from three content areas: history, political science, and sociology. Indicates little differential marking between various text-types. Concludes that students seem to have little idea how to mark text efficiently. (MG)

  11. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking devices. 221.14 Section 221.14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking...

  12. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  13. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  14. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  15. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  16. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Identification and Markings § 2001.25 Declassification markings. (a) General. A uniform security...

  17. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must mark the record by placing the protective marking conspicuously on the top, and the distribution... types of records. In the case of non-paper records that contain SSI, including motion picture films...

  18. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words “Thermal...

  19. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words “Thermal...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant fuel...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 27.1555 Section 27.1555... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... fuel controls— (1) Each fuel tank selector control must be marked to indicate the position...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant fuel...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control markings. 23.1555 Section 23.1555... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75763, December 2, 2011. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and simple push button type starter...

  4. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  5. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  6. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  7. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  8. 40 CFR 262.32 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.32 Marking. (a) Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must mark each package of... transportation off-site, a generator must mark each container of 119 gallons or less used in such transportation...

  9. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-5 Marking. (a) Each motor must have a marking or nameplate that meets either Section 430...

  10. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-5 Marking. (a) Each motor must have a marking or nameplate that meets either Section...

  11. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-5 Marking. (a) Each motor must have a marking or nameplate that meets either Section...

  12. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-5 Marking. (a) Each motor must have a marking or nameplate that meets either Section...

  13. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-5 Marking. (a) Each motor must have a marking or nameplate that meets either Section...

  14. 48 CFR 752.7009 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 752.7009 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7009 Marking. The following clause is for use in all USAID contracts performed in whole or in part overseas. Marking (JAN 1993)...

  15. 48 CFR 752.7009 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 752.7009 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7009 Marking. The following clause is for use in all USAID contracts performed in whole or in part overseas. Marking (JAN 1993)...

  16. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  17. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  18. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  19. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  20. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  1. Classroom Mark-Recapture with Crickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Andrew R.; Woolfe, Jennifer; Kennedy, Kathleen; Oberbillig, David; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques are commonly used by ecologists to estimate abundance of naturally occurring animals and are an important component of ecology curricula. This investigation teaches a mark-recapture technique using store-bought crickets in 10-gallon aquaria and provides an inexpensive way to teach students about mark-recapture in a real…

  2. Classroom Mark-Recapture with Crickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Andrew R.; Woolfe, Jennifer; Kennedy, Kathleen; Oberbillig, David; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques are commonly used by ecologists to estimate abundance of naturally occurring animals and are an important component of ecology curricula. This investigation teaches a mark-recapture technique using store-bought crickets in 10-gallon aquaria and provides an inexpensive way to teach students about mark-recapture in a real…

  3. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this chapter...

  4. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  5. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...

  6. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk... “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal for...

  7. Marking Student Programs Using Graph Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Kevin A.; Greyling, Jean H.; Vogts, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automated marking of student programming assignments. Our technique quantifies the structural similarity between unmarked student submissions and marked solutions, and is the basis by which we assign marks. This is accomplished through an efficient novel graph similarity measure ("AssignSim"). Our experiments…

  8. 49 CFR 178.318-3 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 178.318-3 Section 178.318-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-3 Marking. Each container must be marked as...

  9. 49 CFR 178.318-3 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 178.318-3 Section 178.318-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-3 Marking. Each container must be marked as...

  10. 49 CFR 178.318-3 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking. 178.318-3 Section 178.318-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-3 Marking. Each container must be marked as...

  11. 49 CFR 178.318-3 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking. 178.318-3 Section 178.318-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-3 Marking. Each container must be marked as...

  12. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of...

  13. The Text Marking Patterns of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Katie

    1989-01-01

    Examines patterns in college students' text markings using texts from three content areas: history, political science, and sociology. Indicates little differential marking between various text-types. Concludes that students seem to have little idea how to mark text efficiently. (MG)

  14. Petroleum geology and resources of the Nepa-Botuoba High, Angara-Lena Terrace, and Cis-Patom Foredeep, southeastern Siberian Craton, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    Three structural provinces of this report, the Nepa-Botuoba High, the Angara-Lena Terrace, and the Cis-Patom Foredeep, occupy the southeastern part of the Siberian craton northwest of the Baikal-Patom folded region (fig. 1). The provinces are similar in many aspects of their history of development, stratigraphic composition, and petroleum geology characteristics. The sedimentary cover of the provinces overlies the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement of the Siberian craton. Over most of the area of the provinces, the basement is covered by Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 Ma) clastic and carbonate rocks. Unlike the case in the more northwestern areas of the craton, older Riphean sedimentary rocks here are largely absent and they appear in the stratigraphic sequence only in parts of the Cis-Patom Foredeep province. Most of the overlying sedimentary section consists of Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate and clastic rocks, and it includes a thick Lower Cambrian salt-bearing formation. Younger rocks are thin and are present only in marginal areas. 1 A single total petroleum system (TPS) embraces all three provinces. The TPS is unique in two aspects: (1) its rich hydro-carbon reserves are derived from Precambrian source rocks and (2) preservation of oil and gas fields is extremely long owing to the presence of the Lower Cambrian undeformed salt seal. Discovered reserves of the TPS are about 2 billion barrels of oil and more than 30 trillion cubic feet of gas. The stratigraphic distribution of oil and gas reserves is narrow; all fields are in Vendian to lowermost Cambrian clastic and carbonate reservoirs that occur below Lower Cambrian salt. Both structural and stratigraphic traps are known. Source rocks are absent in the sedimentary cover of the provinces, with the possible exception of a narrow zone on the margin of the Cis-Patom Foredeep province. Source rocks are interpreted here to be Riphean and Vendian organic-rich shales of the Baikal-Patom folded region

  15. Spatio-temporal variability of CH4 fluxes and environmental drivers on a modern flood plain of the Siberian Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rößger, Norman; Wille, Christian; Kutzbach, Lars

    2016-04-01

    In the course of the amplified climate change in the Arctic, methane emissions may considerably increase due to more suitable production conditions comprising enhanced temperatures, greater abundance of moisture and increased availability of the carbon stock to microorganisms. Since methane exhibits a much higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide, a comprehensive understanding of its spatio-temporal dynamics as well as its key controls is of great importance. We study the carbon turnover with a focus on methane on the modern flood plain of Samoylov Island in the Lena River Delta (72°22'N, 126°28'E) using the eddy covariance technique. The heterogeneous area around the flux tower (footprint) is characterised by annual flooding, a variety of non-cryoturbated permafrost-affected soils with different degrees of organic matter accumulation, a tundra vegetation dominated by shrubs and sedges and a slightly undulating relief forming elevated, well drained areas und wet, partially inundated depressions. The measurements ran between June 2014 and September 2015 when methane fluxes were determined using a LICOR 7700 open-path CH4 analyser. The main emissions occurred between June and September determined by spring thaw and refreezing in autumn. The highest methane emissions took place in early August reaching up to 0.03 μmol m-2 s-1. Over the season, the mean methane flux amounted to 0.012 μmol m-2 s-1. This average is based on a large variability of methane fluxes which is to be attributed to the complexity of the footprint. The methane sources are unevenly distributed; thus, the capture of methane fluxes is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions such as stratification and wind direction. Explaining the variability in methane fluxes is based on three modelling approaches: step-wise regression, neural network and deterministic modelling using exponential relationships for flux drivers. For the identification of suitable flux drivers, a comprehensive data

  16. Studies on CO 2 laser marking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Saitoh, Yoshikazu; Hachisuka, Hideki; Ishigaki, Hiroyuki; Gokoh, Yukihiro; Mantani, Hiroshi

    The nature of CO 2 laser marking was studied with a view to putting these lasers to practical use in the semiconductor industry. The marking is found to be due to surface spattering rather than burning, which is the main factor in YAG laser marking. The visibility greatly increases by the application of a surface treatment such as marker ink, varnish or poster color. The CO 2 laser may therefore be used in place of the YAG laser, now widely used for marking, with some merits: CO 2 laser marking is cheaper and faster, and in addition there is no danger of injury from irradiating laser light.

  17. Standards and practices for bite mark photography.

    PubMed

    Golden, G S

    2011-12-01

    In most crimes where bite marks are discovered, photographic accuracy is crucial to the investigative process since in many instances the bite mark(s) may be the only evidence linking a particular suspect to the crime. Therefore, the rationale for employing superior photographic principles is mandatory for the investigation team. This paper will discuss current standards, best practice, and armamentaria for digital photography of bite mark injuries on skin. Full spectrum protocols will be described including Alternate Light Imaging, Reflective Ultra-violet, and Infrared techniques for photo-documentation of images of bite marks and other bruise patterns that have been inflicted on human skin.

  18. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chester; Romney, Jon; Owens, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  19. New excimer laser marking method using MMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntze, Thomas H.; Panzner, Michael; Klotzbach, Udo; Beyer, Eckhard

    2003-11-01

    Higher and higher through-puts in marking industry are todays requirements. Mainly packaging industry or cable marking companies ask for part-by-part varying markings like serial numbers, weight, date or barcodes. That gives a need to develop a flexible, high-speed on-the-fly marking technique. Current laser marking techniques like direct writing using a scanned laser beam or excimer laser fixed mask projection offer proven quality and either flexibility or detailism. Their drawbacks are limited speed (direct writing) and invariability (fixed mask projection). The Fraunhofer IWS developed a marking system using excimer laser mask projection with a micro mirror device (MMD) as computer-controlled 'flexible mask.' The idea is to generate complex markings within one laser pulse so the marking speed is only limited by the laser repetition rate. The IWS used a 308nm excimer laser and a reflective phase-shifting mask from Fh IMS to demonstrate the marking capabilities. It was possible to generate free-programmable, high-contrast markings on common materials like paper and plastic. Furthermore, it could be shown that the technique is also usable to generate 3D structures in PI. Result of the studies is the development of a very fast marking technique using MMDs in combination with short wavelength and short pulse lasers. It also has high potential in 3D laser micromachining.

  20. RGB marking facilitates multicolor clonal cell tracking.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristoffer; Thomaschewski, Michael; Warlich, Michael; Volz, Tassilo; Cornils, Kerstin; Niebuhr, Birte; Täger, Maike; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Pollok, Jörg-Matthias; Stocking, Carol; Dandri, Maura; Benten, Daniel; Fehse, Boris

    2011-04-01

    We simultaneously transduced cells with three lentiviral gene ontology (LeGO) vectors encoding red, green or blue fluorescent proteins. Individual cells were thereby marked by different combinations of inserted vectors, resulting in the generation of numerous mixed colors, a principle we named red-green-blue (RGB) marking. We show that lentiviral vector-mediated RGB marking remained stable after cell division, thus facilitating the analysis of clonal cell fates in vitro and in vivo. Particularly, we provide evidence that RGB marking allows assessment of clonality after regeneration of injured livers by transplanted primary hepatocytes. We also used RGB vectors to mark hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that generated colored spleen colonies. Finally, based on limiting-dilution and serial transplantation assays with tumor cells, we found that clonal tumor cells retained their specific color-code over extensive periods of time. We conclude that RGB marking represents a useful tool for cell clonality studies in tissue regeneration and pathology.

  1. Pavement-marking materials: New York's experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryden, J. E.; Gurney, G. F.

    1984-04-01

    A wide range of stripping materials is available for pavement-marking programs. The four basic systems; traffic paint, thermoplastic, preformed tape, and field-reacted materials are described, as well as the various materials used in each system, including cost, durability, methods of installation and mantenance, visibility, and handling safety. New York State's pavement marking policies are described. Information on stripping costs, material usage, and results of durability studies is provided, based on New York's experience with most currently available marking materials.

  2. Maintenance Operations Degradation of Airfield Pavement Markings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    the amount of light, which after emitted from a headlight is reflected from the pavement marker back to the driver (ASTM, 2005). Pavement markings...The geometry is based on the driver sitting 1.3 meters above the ground seeing the pavement marking 30 meters in front of the headlight . Figure 1...is the measure of how much light from a headlight reflects off of the marking and is directed back to the driver’s eye (ASTM 2005). Roadway

  3. Laser soft marking on silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoong, L. E.; Lam, Y. C.; Zheng, H. Y.; Chen, X.

    2010-03-01

    A laser soft marking technique is developed for laser markings on a silicon wafer. Due to negligible surface modification, the laser soft wafer markings are invisible by naked eyes under room condition and are undetectable using sophisticated instruments. However, these laser markings are found to be visible to naked eyes through a differential condensation of water droplets on the laser-marked and unmarked silicon surfaces. To understand this phenomenon, a model is established to study the condensation of water droplets on laser-marked and unmarked silicon surfaces. Experimental observations and simulation results indicate that the laser soft marking could have modified the silicon surface with a thin polycrystalline silicon layer which has a much lower conductivity than the crystalline silicon. In addition, this thin layer exhibits a thermal conductivity which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that of its equivalent bulk material. As a result, heat transfer on the laser-marked silicon surface is much lower than the crystalline silicon and thus makes these laser soft markings easily visible visually under condensation.

  4. An analysis of hospital brand mark clusters.

    PubMed

    Vollmers, Stacy M; Miller, Darryl W; Kilic, Ozcan

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzed brand mark clusters (i.e., various types of brand marks displayed in combination) used by hospitals in the United States. The brand marks were assessed against several normative criteria for creating brand marks that are memorable and that elicit positive affect. Overall, results show a reasonably high level of adherence to many of these normative criteria. Many of the clusters exhibited pictorial elements that reflected benefits and that were conceptually consistent with the verbal content of the cluster. Also, many clusters featured icons that were balanced and moderately complex. However, only a few contained interactive imagery or taglines communicating benefits.

  5. Causes of urine marking in cats and effects of environmental management on frequency of marking.

    PubMed

    Pryor, P A; Hart, B L; Bain, M J; Cliff, K D

    2001-12-15

    To evaluate effects of environmental management alone on marking frequency in cats with urine marking and to obtain demographic data on cats with urine marking and data on owner-perceived factors that contributed to urine marking behavior. Single-intervention study. 40 neutered male and 7 spayed female cats. During a 2-week baseline phase, owners maintained a daily record of the number of urine marks. This phase was followed by a 2-week environmental management phase during which owners cleaned recently deposited urine marks daily, scooped waste from the litter box daily, and changed the litter and cleaned the litter box weekly while continuing to record urine marks. Male cats and cats from multicat households were significantly overrepresented, compared with the general pet cat population in California. The most commonly mentioned causative factors for urine marking were agonistic interactions with other cats outside or inside the home. Environmental management procedures resulted in an overall reduction in urine marking frequency. Among cats that marked > or = 6 times during the baseline phase, females were significantly more likely to respond to treatment (> or = 50% reduction in marking frequency) than were males. Results suggest that male cats and cats from multicat households are more likely to exhibit urine marking behavior than females and cats from single-cat households. Results also suggest that attention to environmental and litter box hygiene can reduce marking frequency in cats, regardless of sex or household status of the cats, and may come close to resolving the marking problem in some cats.

  6. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  7. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  8. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  9. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  10. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking. (a...

  11. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket...

  12. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket...

  13. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket...

  14. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket...

  15. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-5 Marking. (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows: (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket...

  16. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...

  17. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...

  18. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...

  19. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...

  20. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF... AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each article... visible to the customer and that affords the customer a reasonable opportunity to learn the price of the...

  1. Credit Documentation and the Mark 15 Subroutine

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, J.E.

    2001-08-16

    This report documents the rewrite of the heat transfer subroutine. Part of the process of preparing the Mark 15 assembly for production operation is the development of thermal-hydraulic limits for the assembly. These limits require, among other items, the development of a Mark 15 assembly subroutine for the CREDIT code.

  2. Effects of heat on cut mark characteristics.

    PubMed

    Waltenberger, Lukas; Schutkowski, Holger

    2017-02-01

    Cut marks on bones provide crucial information about tools used and their mode of application, both in archaeological and forensic contexts. Despite a substantial amount of research on cut mark analysis and the influence of fire on bones (shrinkage, fracture pattern, recrystallisation), there is still a lack of knowledge in cut mark analysis on burnt remains. This study provides information about heat alteration of cut marks and whether consistent features can be observed that allow direct interpretation of the implemented tools used. In a controlled experiment, cut marks (n=25) were inflicted on pig ribs (n=7) with a kitchen knife and examined using micro-CT and digital microscopy. The methods were compared in terms of their efficacy in recording cut marks on native and heat-treated bones. Statistical analysis demonstrates that floor angles and the maximum slope height of cuts undergo significant alteration, whereas width, depth, floor radius, slope, and opening angle remain stable. Micro-CT and digital microscopy are both suitable methods for cut mark analysis. However, significant differences in measurements were detected between both methods, as micro-CT is less accurate due to the lower resolution. Moreover, stabbing led to micro-fissures surrounding the cuts, which might also influence the alteration of cut marks.

  3. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 25... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 25... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant...

  5. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... may be reduced in size proportionately down to a minimum of 5 cm (2 inches) on each side. (b) Small PCB Mark—M s. Mark Ms shall be as shown in Figure 2, letters and striping on a white or...

  6. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... may be reduced in size proportionately down to a minimum of 5 cm (2 inches) on each side. (b) Small PCB Mark—M s. Mark Ms shall be as shown in Figure 2, letters and striping on a white or...

  7. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... may be reduced in size proportionately down to a minimum of 5 cm (2 inches) on each side. (b) Small PCB Mark—M s. Mark Ms shall be as shown in Figure 2, letters and striping on a white or...

  8. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  9. 33 CFR 62.31 - Special marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special marks. 62.31 Section 62.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.31 Special marks....

  10. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  11. 33 CFR 62.31 - Special marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special marks. 62.31 Section 62.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.31 Special marks....

  12. 33 CFR 62.31 - Special marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special marks. 62.31 Section 62.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.31 Special marks....

  13. 33 CFR 62.31 - Special marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special marks. 62.31 Section 62.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.31 Special marks....

  14. 33 CFR 62.31 - Special marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special marks. 62.31 Section 62.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.31 Special marks....

  15. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  16. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  17. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  18. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  19. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  20. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  1. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the serial number for the gun, the official Coast Guard...

  2. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the serial number for the gun, the official Coast Guard...

  3. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the serial number for the gun, the official Coast Guard...

  4. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the serial number for the gun, the official Coast Guard...

  5. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the serial number for the gun, the official Coast Guard...

  6. 46 CFR 169.545 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.545 Markings. (a) Each personal flotation device must... persons onboard, the containers in which they are stowed must be marked “adult personal flotation devices” or “child personal flotation devices”, as appropriate, and with the number contained therein, in...

  7. 46 CFR 161.012-15 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings. 161.012-15 Section 161.012-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Personal Flotation Device Lights § 161.012-15 Markings. (a)...

  8. 46 CFR 160.064-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Marine Buoyant Devices § 160.064-4 Marking. (a) Each water safety buoyant device must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (1) For... recreational boats and on uninspected commercial vessels less than 40 feet in length not carrying...

  9. 15 CFR 1150.3 - Approved markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved markings. 1150.3 Section 1150.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARKING OF TOY, LOOK-ALIKE AND IMITATION FIREARMS § 1150.3...

  10. 15 CFR 1150.3 - Approved markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approved markings. 1150.3 Section 1150.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARKING OF TOY, LOOK-ALIKE AND IMITATION FIREARMS § 1150.3...

  11. 15 CFR 1150.3 - Approved markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approved markings. 1150.3 Section 1150.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARKING OF TOY, LOOK-ALIKE AND IMITATION FIREARMS § 1150.3...

  12. 15 CFR 1150.3 - Approved markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approved markings. 1150.3 Section 1150.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARKING OF TOY, LOOK-ALIKE AND IMITATION FIREARMS § 1150.3...

  13. RANDOM PULSE GENERATOR PRODUCING FIDUCIAL MARKS

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, W.F.

    1960-02-01

    The apparatus for automatically applying a fiducial marking, having a nonrepetitive pattern, to a plurality of simultaneously made records comprises, in series, a bypass filter, a trigger circuit, and a pulse generator, with printing means connected to and controlled by the pulse generator for simultaneously making the visible fiducial marks on a plurality of simultaneously produced records.

  14. Chapter 9: Marking and assessing forest heterogeneity

    Treesearch

    M. North; J. Sherlock

    2012-01-01

    Marking guidelines commonly use stocking level, crown class, and species preferences to meet management objectives. Traditionally, these guidelines were applied across the extent of the stand. Current marking guidelines are more flexible, responding to within-stand variability with different stocking level, crown class, and species preference guidelines in...

  15. Fantasy and Reality in Mark Twain's Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Robert R.

    Psychoanalysis, a favorite method for studying personality and motivation, cannot be used on the dead. Instead, biographical analysis must be employed. This study examines Mark Twain's aggression by analyzing his writings, social behavior, and environmental aspects of his life. In viewing Mark Twain's novels as representing fantasy, 17 categories…

  16. 27 CFR 19.752 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marks. 19.752 Section 19.752 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Marks. (a) Fuel alcohol. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must place a conspicuous and...

  17. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking....

  18. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking....

  19. 46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam § 160.049-6 Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof....). (Size; width, thickness, and length, including both top and bottom for trapezoidal cushions.). (2) In...

  20. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion, Fibrous Glass § 160.048-6 Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... length, including both top and bottom for trapezoidal cushions.). (2) In letters that are distinctively...

  1. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion, Fibrous Glass § 160.048-6 Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... length, including both top and bottom for trapezoidal cushions.). (2) In letters that are distinctively...

  2. 46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam § 160.049-6 Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof....). (Size; width, thickness, and length, including both top and bottom for trapezoidal cushions.). (2) In...

  3. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion, Fibrous Glass § 160.048-6 Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... length, including both top and bottom for trapezoidal cushions.). (2) In letters that are distinctively...

  4. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion, Fibrous Glass § 160.048-6 Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... length, including both top and bottom for trapezoidal cushions.). (2) In letters that are distinctively...

  5. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... following data: (1) The name or identifying trademark of the manufacturer. (2) Manufacturer's design or type number. (3) Size __ inches. (The pipe size of the valve inlet). (4) Set pressure __ p.s.i. (5) Rated...

  6. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... following data: (1) The name or identifying trademark of the manufacturer. (2) Manufacturer's design or type number. (3) Size __ inches. (The pipe size of the valve inlet). (4) Set pressure __ p.s.i. (5) Rated...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  8. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  9. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  10. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  11. 30 CFR 7.509 - Approval markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval markings. 7.509 Section 7.509 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Refuge Alternatives § 7.509 Approval markings. (a...

  12. 30 CFR 7.509 - Approval markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval markings. 7.509 Section 7.509 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Refuge Alternatives § 7.509 Approval markings. (a...

  13. 46 CFR 160.024-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-5 Marking. (a) Cartridge. Each pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked as follows: Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal 20,000 candela—30 seconds burning...

  14. 46 CFR 160.024-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-5 Marking. (a) Cartridge. Each pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked as follows: Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal 20,000 candela—30 seconds burning...

  15. 46 CFR 160.024-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-5 Marking. (a) Cartridge. Each pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked as follows: Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal 20,000 candela—30 seconds burning...

  16. 46 CFR 160.024-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-5 Marking. (a) Cartridge. Each pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked as follows: Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal 20,000 candela—30 seconds burning...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  18. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  19. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be plainly and permanently marked with the following... kit, the Coast Guard approval number, and the words “First-Aid Kit—For Inflatable Life Rafts”. If...

  20. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be permanently marked with the following information: name of... Guard Approval Number, and the words “FIRST-AID KIT.” This information may be embossed on the...

  1. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be permanently marked with the following information: name of... Guard Approval Number, and the words “FIRST-AID KIT.” This information may be embossed on the...

  2. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be plainly and permanently marked with the following... kit, the Coast Guard approval number, and the words “First-Aid Kit—For Inflatable Life Rafts”. If...

  3. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be permanently marked with the following information: name of... Guard Approval Number, and the words “FIRST-AID KIT.” This information may be embossed on the...

  4. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be plainly and permanently marked with the following... kit, the Coast Guard approval number, and the words “First-Aid Kit—For Inflatable Life Rafts”. If...

  5. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be plainly and permanently marked with the following... kit, the Coast Guard approval number, and the words “First-Aid Kit—For Inflatable Life Rafts”. If...

  6. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be permanently marked with the following information: name of... Guard Approval Number, and the words “FIRST-AID KIT.” This information may be embossed on the...

  7. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be permanently marked with the following information: name of... Guard Approval Number, and the words “FIRST-AID KIT.” This information may be embossed on the...

  8. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be plainly and permanently marked with the following... kit, the Coast Guard approval number, and the words “First-Aid Kit—For Inflatable Life Rafts”. If...

  9. DSN Command System Mark IV-85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorman, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    A functional description of command subsystem software modifications providing computer-controlled prepass data transfer, validation tests, and revised displays are described. The Mark 4-A implementation schedule is presented and subsystems configurations for the Mark 4-85 system summarized.

  10. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of the manufacturer and the type or model designation for the lamp. (b) ...

  11. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of the manufacturer and the type or model designation for the lamp. (b) ...

  12. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of the manufacturer and the type or model designation for the lamp. (b) ...

  13. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of the manufacturer and the type or model designation for the lamp. (b) ...

  14. 46 CFR 160.016-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels § 160.016-4 Marking. (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name and address of the manufacturer and the type or model designation for the lamp. (b) ...

  15. 30 CFR 7.49 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval marking. 7.49 Section 7.49 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.49 Approval marking. Each approved battery assembly shall be identified by a legible and permanent approval plate inscribed with the...

  16. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons have...

  17. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons have...

  18. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...

  19. 46 CFR 160.076-39 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section. (b) PFD Type. Based on its approval certificate, each PFD must be marked as follows— (l) “Type I... of the inflation mechanism approved for use on the PFD. (2) (e) Inflation mechanisms. Each manual, automatic, or manual-auto inflation mechanism must be permanently marked with its unique model number....

  20. 49 CFR 450.7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... construction begins on or after January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must be consistent with the maximum gross weight information on the safety approval plate. (b) On each container that construction begins before January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must...

  1. 49 CFR 450.7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... construction begins on or after January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must be consistent with the maximum gross weight information on the safety approval plate. (b) On each container that construction begins before January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must...

  2. 49 CFR 450.7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... construction begins on or after January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must be consistent with the maximum gross weight information on the safety approval plate. (b) On each container that construction begins before January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must be...

  3. 49 CFR 450.7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... construction begins on or after January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must be consistent with the maximum gross weight information on the safety approval plate. (b) On each container that construction begins before January 1, 1984, all maximum gross weight markings on the container must be...

  4. 49 CFR 180.515 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... marked in letters and figures at least 0.95 cm (0.375 inch) high on the outside of the manway nozzle or the edge of the manway nozzle flange on the left side of the car. The marking may have the last...

  5. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section 2.44 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an...

  6. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2.43 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an...

  7. 37 CFR 2.83 - Conflicting marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conflicting marks. 2.83 Section 2.83 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.83 Conflicting marks. (a...

  8. 37 CFR 2.83 - Conflicting marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflicting marks. 2.83 Section 2.83 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.83 Conflicting marks. (a...

  9. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45 Section 2.45 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an...

  10. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section 2.44 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an...

  11. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45 Section 2.45 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an...

  12. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2.43 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an...

  13. 7 CFR 956.162 - Container markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container markings. 956.162 Section 956.162... WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.162 Container markings. Effective April 15, 1997, no handler shall ship any container of Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  14. 33 CFR 175.128 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marking. 175.128 Section 175.128 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Visual Distress Signals § 175.128 Marking. No person may use a boat unless...

  15. 33 CFR 401.6 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Markings. 401.6 Section 401.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.6 Markings. (a) Vessels of more than...

  16. 7 CFR 51.311 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Marking Requirements § 51.311 Marking requirements... minimum diameter of apples packed in a closed container shall be indicated on the container. For apple... varieties, the minimum diameter and minimum weight of apples packed in a closed container shall be indicated...

  17. 7 CFR 51.311 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Marking Requirements § 51.311 Marking requirements... minimum diameter of apples packed in a closed container shall be indicated on the container. For apple... varieties, the minimum diameter and minimum weight of apples packed in a closed container shall be indicated...

  18. 7 CFR 51.311 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Marking Requirements § 51.311 Marking requirements... minimum diameter of apples packed in a closed container shall be indicated on the container. For apple... varieties, the minimum diameter and minimum weight of apples packed in a closed container shall be indicated...

  19. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow background and shall be sufficiently durable to equal or exceed the life (including storage for disposal) of... PCB Mark—M s. Mark Ms shall be as shown in Figure 2, letters and striping on a white or...

  20. 46 CFR 162.050-11 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 162.050-11 Section 162.050-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-11 Marking. (a) Each...

  1. Fantasy and Reality in Mark Twain's Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Robert R.

    Psychoanalysis, a favorite method for studying personality and motivation, cannot be used on the dead. Instead, biographical analysis must be employed. This study examines Mark Twain's aggression by analyzing his writings, social behavior, and environmental aspects of his life. In viewing Mark Twain's novels as representing fantasy, 17 categories…

  2. 9 CFR 316.9 - Products to be marked with official marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... liver, beef tongue, and beef heart which has been inspected and passed shall be marked with the official..., brisket, chuck, and shank. (c) Beef livers shall be marked with the official inspection legend...

  3. 9 CFR 316.9 - Products to be marked with official marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... liver, beef tongue, and beef heart which has been inspected and passed shall be marked with the official..., brisket, chuck, and shank. (c) Beef livers shall be marked with the official inspection legend containing...

  4. Creams for preventing stretch marks in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Young, G L; Jewell, D

    2000-01-01

    Many women develop stretch marks (striae gravidarum) during pregnancy. A number of creams have been used to remove these stretch marks. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of topical treatments to prevent the development of stretch marks. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. In addition, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL/CCTR) was searched. Date of last search: April 1999. Randomised trials comparing active creams with placebo for the treatment of stretch marks in pregnant women. Trial quality was assessed and data were extracted independently by two reviewers. One study involving 100 women was included. Compared to placebo, treatment with a cream containing Centella asiatica extract, alpha tocopherol and collagen-elastin hydrolysates was associated with less women developing stretch marks (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.99). One particular cream appears to help prevent the development of stretch marks in pregnancy, but only for women who had previously suffered stretch marks in pregnancy. There is no evidence of benefit for general use.

  5. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Fernández, A.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2015-05-01

    Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks.

  6. Preoperative breast marking in reduction mammaplasty.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1987-10-01

    A simple method of preoperative marking for reduction mammaplasty is described. This method may be used in macromastias when the technique chosen implies a postoperative scar with the shape of an inverted T. The marking sequence follows standard steps, but the drawing is always different because it is a consequence of the shape of the breast. This marking method reduces the chance of making mistakes due to excessive personal evaluations or to the use of standard drawing patterns that may be not suitable for all breast shapes.

  7. Elemental marking of arthropod pests in agricultural systems: single and multigenerational marking

    Treesearch

    Jane Leslie Hayes

    1991-01-01

    Use of elemental markers to study movement of arthropod pests of field crops is reviewed. Trace elements, rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs), have provided a nondisruptive method of marking natural adult populations via developmental stage consumption of treated host plants. Multigenerational marking occurs with the transfer of elemental markers from marked adults to...

  8. A Robust Approach for Mapping Group Marks to Individual Marks Using Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatar, Ciprian; Penna, Nigel; Mills, Henny; Kutija, Vedrana; Cooke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Group work can form a substantial component of degree programme assessments. To satisfy institutional and student expectations, students must often be assigned individual marks for their contributions to the group project, typically by mapping a single holistic group mark to individual marks using peer assessment scores. Since the early 1990s,…

  9. A Robust Approach for Mapping Group Marks to Individual Marks Using Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatar, Ciprian; Penna, Nigel; Mills, Henny; Kutija, Vedrana; Cooke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Group work can form a substantial component of degree programme assessments. To satisfy institutional and student expectations, students must often be assigned individual marks for their contributions to the group project, typically by mapping a single holistic group mark to individual marks using peer assessment scores. Since the early 1990s,…

  10. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include the following data: (1) The name or identifying trademark of the manufacturer. (2) Manufacturer's design or...

  11. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include the following data: (1) The name or identifying trademark of the manufacturer. (2) Manufacturer's design or...

  12. 46 CFR 164.023-15 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... The manufacturer must ensure that each shipping label, and each spool or individual unit of put-up, is... markings specified in paragraph (a) of this section, each unit of put-up of non-standard thread must...

  13. 30 CFR 7.409 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approval number in addition to the number and size (gauge) of conductors and cable type. For cables containing electric conductors, the marking shall also include the voltage rating. For splices, the...

  14. 46 CFR 160.076-39 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the inflation mechanism approved for use on the PFD. (2) (e) Inflation mechanisms. Each manual, automatic, or manual-auto inflation mechanism must be permanently marked with its unique model number....

  15. 46 CFR 162.161-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems § 162.161-8 Marking. The following information must be displayed on a permanent metal or pressure-sensitive...

  16. 46 CFR 162.161-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems § 162.161-8 Marking. The following information must be displayed on a permanent metal or pressure-sensitive...

  17. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... from a distance of three feet. (b) Prominence. Each marking required in paragraph (d) of this section...). When fully inflated this lifejacket provides a minimum buoyant force of (insert the design buoyancy in...

  18. Mark Twain, Fenimore Cooper, and Batman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Robert Alan

    1992-01-01

    Describes how Mark Twain's essay "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses" helped students to get interested in writing and inspired them to write a similar essay critiquing the movie "Batman." Provides excerpts from students' essays. (PRA)

  19. 46 CFR 162.050-11 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-11 Marking. (a) Each... other chemical compounds that do not impair operation of the item. (8) If the item is an oil...

  20. 46 CFR 162.050-11 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-11 Marking. (a) Each... other chemical compounds that do not impair operation of the item. (8) If the item is an oil...