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Sample records for lens target moderator

  1. Calibration Target as Seen by Mars Hand Lens Imager

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-07

    During pre-flight testing, the Mars Hand Lens Imager MAHLI camera on NASA Mars rover Curiosity took this image of the MAHLI calibration target from a distance of 3.94 inches 10 centimeters away from the target.

  2. Theoretical evaluation of moderately focused spherical transducers and multi-focus acoustic lens/transducer systems for ultrasound thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Sherar, Michael

    2002-05-07

    Impractically long treatment times are required for highly focused spherical transducers to destroy large tumours because thermal lesions generated by these transducers are small and a large number of such lesions are required. Moderately focused spherical transducers and multi-focus acoustic lens/transducer systems can generate larger thermal lesions compared to those produced by highly focused spherical transducers, and therefore shorter treatment times can be expected. The decrease in total treatment time by the use of moderately focused spherical transducers and acoustic lens/transducer systems was quantified in this study. A 3D ultrasound thermal model was developed to predict thermal lesion volumes generated by ultrasound transducers. A target model was constructed in order to compare various transducer designs under identical treatment conditions and with identical treatment goals. A design method was developed to determine the thickness of lens elements for production of specified multi-focus fields. Then, a highly focused and a moderately focused spherical transducer, and an acoustic lens/transducer system were compared in terms of total time required to treat a tumour. These transducers had identical apertures and operating frequencies. The radius of curvature of the moderately focused spherical transducer was chosen such that the length of thermal lesions it generated over 10 s single exposures was slightly greater than that of the target. The lens/transducer system was designed to produce a 9 focus field. The simulation results show that for the treatment of a 2 x 2 x 2 cm3 tumour at a depth of 5 cm in the body, the highly focused spherical transducer, the moderately focused spherical transducer and the lens/transducer system required 150, 42 and 30 min, respectively.

  3. SNS second target station moderator performance update

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, Franz X.

    2010-03-08

    In its first years of operations of its first target station, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is working towards a facility upgrade by a megawatt-class second target station operated at 20 Hz repetition rate, which is intended to complement the existing ORNL neutron sources, the first SNS target station and the HFIR reactor, with high-intensity cold neutron beams.The first round of optimization calculations converged on larger-volume cylindrical para-hydrogen moderators placed in wing configuration on top and bottom of a flat mercury target, pre-moderated by layers of ambient water and surrounded by beryllium reflector. The metric of these optimization calculations was time-averaged and energy-integrated neutron brightness below 5 meV with the requirement to be able to serve 20 ports with neutrons. A summary of these calculations will be given including lessons learned from the variety of simulated configurations and detailed neutron performance characteristics like spectral intensities, emission time distributions, local variations of moderator brightness at the viewed areas, and sensitivity of the optimization metric to optimized parameters for the most promising configuration.

  4. SECOND TARGET STATION MODERATOR PERFORMANCE WITH A ROTATING TARGET

    SciTech Connect

    Remec, Igor; Gallmeier, Franz X; Rennich, Mark J; McManamy, Thomas J; Lu, W.

    2016-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory manages and operates the Spallation Neutron Source and the High Flux Isotope Reactor, two of the world's most advanced neutron scattering facilities. Both facilities are funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science, and are available to researchers from all over the world. Delivering cutting edge science requires continuous improvements and development of the facilities and instruments. The SNS was designed from the outset to accommodate an additional target station, or Second Target Station (STS), and an upgraded accelerator feeding proton beams to STS and the existing First Target Station (FTS). Upgrade of the accelerator and the design and construction of STS are being proposed. The presently considered STS configuration is driven with short (<1 s) proton pulses at 10 Hz repetition rate and 467 kW proton beam power, and is optimized for high intensity and high resolution long wavelength neutron applications. STS will allow installation of 22 beamlines and will expand and complement the current national neutron scattering capabilities. In 2015 the STS studies were performed for a compact tungsten target; first a stationary tungsten plate target was analyzed to considerable details and then dropped in favor of a rotating target. For both target options the proton beam footprint as small as acceptable from mechanical and heat removal aspects is required to arrive at a compact-volume neutron production zone in the target, which is essential for tight coupling of target and moderators and for achieving high-intensity peak neutron fluxes. This paper will present recent STS work with the emphasis on neutronics and moderator performance.

  5. Refractive outcomes and safety of the implantable collamer lens in young low-to-moderate myopes

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Paul J; Priver, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate visual and refractive outcomes and safety of implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation in low-to-moderate myopia. Setting Private Practice – Dougherty Laser Vision, Westlake Village, CA, USA. Methods A chart review was performed in 56 (104 eyes) consecutive patients who underwent implantation of the Visian ICL V4 model. Inclusion criteria were age between 21 and 40 years, spherical equivalent between −3.00 D and −10.00 D, and cylinder up to −5 D. Data on visual acuity, refraction, and complications were collected. Results The mean time to the last postoperative visit was 13.1±14.0 months (range, 2 to 50 months). The mean preoperative spherical equivalent was −6.96±1.60 D and the mean preoperative cylinder was −1.03±0.88 D. The mean preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 20/20 (range, 20/15 to 20/80) that remained unchanged at last postoperative visit. At the last postoperative visit, the spherical equivalent was −0.08±0.01 D and the cylinder was 0.29±0.71 D. Comparison of postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA) to preoperative CDVA indicated that 27 eyes (26%) had better postoperative UCDVA and 61 eyes (59%) had UDVA equivalent to the preoperative CDVA. Postoperatively, 4 eyes lost 1 line of CDVA and no eyes lost >1 line of CDVA. There were 32 eyes that gained at least ≥1 of CDVA. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperatively, 3 patients (6 eyes) had dry eye, and 1 patient complained of nighttime halos in 1 eye. At the last postoperative visit, there were no eyes with lens opacity or glaucoma. Conclusion ICL implantation for low and moderate myopia up to −10 D in patients up to 40 years of age was safe, accurate, and efficacious. ICL implantation may be a good alternative to laser in situ keratomileusis for young myopes less than −10.00 D. PMID:28203053

  6. Comparison of tacrolimus, fluorometholone, and saline in mild-to-moderate contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Diao, Hongxing; She, Zhihui; Cao, Dan; Wang, Zhichong; Lin, Z

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of tacrolimus, fluorometholone, and saline in the treatment of mild to moderate contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC). This was a double-masked, randomized pilot study. A total of 18 soft contact lens users (n = 36 eyes) with mild to moderate papillary conjunctivitis were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned into three groups to receive tacrolimus 0.05%, fluorometholone 0.1%, or saline (sodium chloride 0.9%). Drugs were prescribed at the baseline visit (visit 1) and instilled twice daily for 4 weeks. Follow-up visits were taken at week 1 (visit 2), week 2 (visit 3), week 4 (visit 4, drug usage suspended at this visit), and week 6 (visit 5, 2 weeks after interrupting eye drops). Contact lens use was discontinued during the 6 weeks of the study, and variables assessed were symptoms and signs, tear film status, and intraocular pressures. Conjunctival impression cytology was performed at baseline and visit 5 to assess ocular surface status. Mean roughness and redness scores decreased significantly from visit 1 to visit 5, but the variation tendency was comparable in all groups (P = 0.180 and 0.889, respectively). Subjective symptom parameters were improved in all CLPC patients at visit 5, and there was no remarkable difference in symptom reduction in three groups. The mean Schirmer value and mean break-up time (BUT) did not change significantly in the three groups during the study. Ocular surface findings by impression cytology improved significantly after three treatments. Intraocular pressure fluctuation from baseline to 6-week follow-up was not statistically significant in all subjects. No adverse treatment-related event was observed in any study group. Tacrolimus 0.05% may be a safe and effective treatment for mild to moderate CLPC and is comparable with fluorometholone 0.1% in efficacy. Contact lens cessation accompanied with saline may also be effective in treating mild to moderate CLPC.

  7. Extraction of Target Scatterings from Received Transients on Target Detection Trial of Ambient Noise Imaging with Acoustic Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    We have already designed and fabricated an aspherical lens with an aperture diameter of 1.0 m to develop a prototype system for ambient noise imaging (ANI). It has also been verified that this acoustic lens realizes a directional resolution, which is a beam width of 1° at the center frequency of 120 kHz over the field of view from -7 to +7°. In this study, a sea trial of silent target detection using the prototype ANI system was conducted under only natural ocean ambient noise at Uchiura Bay, in November of 2010. There were many transients in the received sound. These transients were classified roughly into directly received noises and target scatterings. We proposed a classification method to extract transients of only target scatterings. By analyzing transients extracted as target scatterings, it was verified that the power spectrum density levels of the on-target directions were greater than those of the off-target directions in the higher frequency band over 60 kHz. These results showed that the targets are successfully detected under natural ocean ambient noise, mainly generated by snapping shrimps.

  8. Focusing of photomechanical waves with an optical lens for depth-targeted molecular delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takuichirou; Sato, Shunichi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Ashida, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2014-02-01

    We have been developing molecular delivery systems based on photomechanical waves (PMWs), which are generated by the irradiation of a laser absorbing material with nanosecond laser pulses. This method enables highly site-specific delivery in the horizontal plane of the tissue. However, targeting in the vertical direction is a remaining challenge. In this study, we developed a novel PMW focusing device for deeper tissue targeting. A commercial optical concave lens and black natural rubber sheet (laser absorber) were attached to the top and bottom end of a cylindrical spacer, respectively, which was filled with water. A laser pulse was transmitted through the lens and water and hit the rubber sheet to induce a plasma, generating a PMW. The PMW was propagated both downward and upward. The downward wave (1st wave) was diffused, while the upward (2nd wave) wave was reflected with the concave surface of the lens and focused at a depth determined by the geometrical parameters. To attenuate the 1st wave, a small-diameter silicon sponge rubber disk was adhered just under the rubber sheet concentrically with the laser axis. With the lens of f = -40 mm, the 2nd wave was focused to a diameter of 5.7 mm at a targeted depth of 20 mm, which was well agreed with the result of calculation by ray tracing. At a laser fluence of 5.1 J/cm2, peak pressure of the PMW reached ~40 MPa at the depth of 20 mm. Under this condition, we examined depth-targeted gene delivery to the rat skin.

  9. FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design)

    SciTech Connect

    Hurh, P.G.; Tang, Z.

    2001-06-22

    The AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens is a pulsed device which focuses anti-protons just downstream of the Target. Since the angles at which the anti-protons depart the Target can be quite large, a very high focusing strength is required to maximize anti-proton capture into the downstream Debuncher Ring. The current design of the Collection Lens was designed to operate with a focusing gradient of 1,000 T/m. However, multiple failures of early devices resulted in lowering the normal operating gradient to about 750 T/m. At this gradient, the Lens design fares much better, lasting several million pulses, but ultimately still fails. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been performed on this Collection Lens design to help determine the cause and/or nature of the failures. The Collection Lens magnetic field is created by passing high current through a central conductor cylinder. A uniform current distribution through the cylinder will create a tangential or azimuthal magnetic field that varies linearly from zero at the center of the cylinder to a maximum at the outer surface of the cylinder. Anti-proton particles passing through this cylinder (along the longitudinal direction) will see an inward focusing kick back toward the center of the cylinder proportional to the magnetic field strength. For the current Lens design a gradient of 1,000 T/m requires a current of about 580,000 amps. Since the DC power and cooling requirements would be prohibitive, the Lens is operated in a pulsed mode. Each pulse is half sine wave in shape with a pulse duration of about 350 microseconds. Because of the skin effect, the most uniform current density actually occurs about two-thirds of the way through the pulse. This means that the maximum current of the pulse is actually higher than that required in the DC case (about 670,000 amps). Since the beam must pass through the central conductor cylinder it must be made of a conducting material that is also very 'transparent' to the beam. For the

  10. Management of moderate and severe corneal astigmatism with AcrySof® toric intraocular lens implantation – Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Koul, Archana; Dutta, Ranjan; Shroff, Noshir Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Visual performance following toric intraocular lens implantation for cataract with moderate and severe astigmatism. Setting Cataract services, Shroff Eye Centre, New Delhi, India. Design Case series. Method This prospective study included 64 eyes of 40 patients with more than 1.50 dioptre (D) of pre-existing corneal astigmatism undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of the AcrySof® toric IntraOcular Lens (IOL). The unaided visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), residual refractive sphere and refractive cylinders were evaluated. Toric IOL axis and alignment error was measured by slit lamp method and Adobe Photoshop (version 7) method. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire at 3 months. Results The mean residual refractive astigmatism was 0.57 D at the final follow-up of 3 months. Mean alignment error was 3.44 degrees (SD = 2.60) by slit lamp method and 3.88 degrees (SD = 2.86) by Photoshop method. Forty-six (71.9%) eyes showed misalignment of 5 degrees or less, and 60 (93.8%) eyes showed misalignment of 10 degrees or less. The mean log MAR UCVA at 1st post-op day was 0.172 (SD = 0.02), on 7th post-op day was 0.138 (SD = 0.11), and on 30th post-op day was 0.081 (SD = 0.11). The mean log MAR BCVA at three months was −0.04 (SD = 0.76). Conclusion We believe that implantation of AcrySof® toric IOL is an effective, safe and predictable method to correct high amounts of corneal astigmatism during cataract surgery. PMID:26586976

  11. Management of moderate and severe corneal astigmatism with AcrySof® toric intraocular lens implantation - Our experience.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Koul, Archana; Dutta, Ranjan; Shroff, Noshir Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Visual performance following toric intraocular lens implantation for cataract with moderate and severe astigmatism. Cataract services, Shroff Eye Centre, New Delhi, India. Case series. This prospective study included 64 eyes of 40 patients with more than 1.50 dioptre (D) of pre-existing corneal astigmatism undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of the AcrySof® toric IntraOcular Lens (IOL). The unaided visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), residual refractive sphere and refractive cylinders were evaluated. Toric IOL axis and alignment error was measured by slit lamp method and Adobe Photoshop (version 7) method. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire at 3 months. The mean residual refractive astigmatism was 0.57 D at the final follow-up of 3 months. Mean alignment error was 3.44 degrees (SD = 2.60) by slit lamp method and 3.88 degrees (SD = 2.86) by Photoshop method. Forty-six (71.9%) eyes showed misalignment of 5 degrees or less, and 60 (93.8%) eyes showed misalignment of 10 degrees or less. The mean log MAR UCVA at 1st post-op day was 0.172 (SD = 0.02), on 7th post-op day was 0.138 (SD = 0.11), and on 30th post-op day was 0.081 (SD = 0.11). The mean log MAR BCVA at three months was -0.04 (SD = 0.76). We believe that implantation of AcrySof® toric IOL is an effective, safe and predictable method to correct high amounts of corneal astigmatism during cataract surgery.

  12. Clinical Performance of Toris K Contact Lens in Patients with Moderate to Advanced Keratoconus: A Real Life Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ihsan; Ozcelik, Ferah; Basarir, Berna; Demir, Gokhan; Durusoy, Gonul; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the visual performance of Toris K soft contact lenses in patients with moderate-to-advanced keratoconus and also to compare the results according to cone types, cone location, and severity of keratoconus. Materials and Methods. Sixty eyes of 40 participants were included in this retrospective study. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA), best-contact lens corrected visual acuity (BCLCVA), and comfort rating via visual analogue scales (VAS) were measured. Results. The mean age was 27.3 ± 8.6 years (range: 18 to 54). The mean logMAR UCVA, BCVA, and BCLCVA were 0.85 ± 0.38 (range: 0.30–1.30), 0.47 ± 0.27 (range: 0.10–1.30), and 0.16 ± 0.20 (range: 0–1.00). There were significant increases in visual acuities with contact lenses (p < .05). BCLCVA was significantly better in oval type than globus type (p = .022). UCVA and BCLCVA were significantly better in moderate keratoconus group (p = .015, p = .018). The mean line gain in Snellen was 3.6 ± 1.8 lines (range: 0–7 lines). The mean line gain was higher in central cone group than paracentral cone group and oval group than globus group (p = .014, p = .045). The mean VAS score was 8.14 ± 1.88 (range: 6–10). Conclusions. Toris K can improve visual acuity of patients with keratoconus. Toris K is successful even in the moderate and advanced form of the disease. PMID:27144012

  13. AcrySof phakic angle-supported intraocular lens for the correction of moderate-to-high myopia: one-year results of a multicenter European study.

    PubMed

    Kohnen, Thomas; Knorz, Michael C; Cochener, Béatrice; Gerl, Ralf H; Arné, Jean-Louis; Colin, Joseph; Alió, Jorge L; Bellucci, Roberto; Marinho, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the safety and effectiveness of the AcrySof phakic angle-supported intraocular lens (IOL) (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) for correction of moderate-to-high myopia in adults. One-year interim analysis of a phase 3, nonrandomized, open-label, prospective, multicenter European clinical study. A total of 190 subjects (190 eyes) with moderate-to-high myopia. The preoperative mean manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) was -10.38 diopters (D) +/-2.43 standard deviation (SD). Unilateral implantation of the AcrySof phakic angle-supported IOL. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA), predictability and stability of MRSE, adverse events, and endothelial cell density. Of 190 subjects enrolled, 161 completed the 1-year postoperative visit. No subjects lost > or =2 lines BSCVA. A UCVA of 20/20 or better was achieved by 57.8%; 99.4% had 20/40 or better. A BSCVA of 20/32 or better was achieved by 100% of subjects; 85.7% had 20/20 or better. The mean MRSE was -0.23 D (+/-0.50 D: -2.50 to 0.75 D). Residual refractive error was within +/-1.0 D from the target for 95.7% of subjects and within +/-0.5 D for 72.7% of subjects. The overall mean percentage change in central endothelial cell density 1 year after surgery was -4.77+/-8.04% (n = 139). No pupil ovalization, pupillary block, or retinal detachment events were observed. The AcrySof phakic angle-supported IOL yielded excellent refractive correction and predictability with acceptable safety in subjects with moderate-to-high myopia. These 1-year interim analysis findings demonstrate preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of this IOL.

  14. Development of design of CLA: target lens line-focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechun; Zhu, Jianqiang

    1999-08-01

    In this paper the principle of CLA-target system to obtain focal line with homogenous intensity distribution was described. And tow new structure modal CLA used for improving the homogeneous of focal line was described and the numerical results of the classical CLA and new type CLA was also given. Those result showed that the focal line long-range intensity distribution can be improved greatly by using CLA with optimized unequal cylindrical lens element for beam with Gaussian intensity distribution and by using hybrid element CLA for the case of super-Gaussian distribution. The optimal process was treated by simulated annealing method. The intensity modulation decreased to 0.7 percent for optimized 4-element unequal width CLA system when incident laser with Gaussian section distribution.

  15. Moderate exercise combined with dietary vitamins C and E counteracts oxidative stress in the kidney and lens of streptozotocin-induced diabetic-rat.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Mehmet; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Simşek, Halil; Yilmaz, Turgut; Sahap Kükner, A

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cataract formation and nephropathy. Daily moderate exercise and vitamins C and E (VCE) supplementation can be beneficial to diabetes due to reducing blood glucose and free radical production. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of moderate exercise with vitamin VCE on lipid peroxidation (LP) and antioxidative systems in the kidneys and lens of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty female Wistar rats were used. They were randomly divided into four groups. The first and second groups were used as control and diabetic groups. The third group was the diabetic-exercise group. VCE-supplemented feed was given to diabetic-exercise rats constituting the fourth group. Animals in the exercised groups were moderately exercised daily on a treadmill for three weeks (five days a week). Diabetes was induced on day zero of exercise. Body weights in the four groups were recorded weekly. Lens and kidney samples were taken from all animals on day 20. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin E, and beta-carotene levels in kidney and lens, albumin in plasma, and body weight were significantly lower in the diabetic group than in the control group, whereas there was a significant increase in LP of kidney and lens as well as plasma glucose, urea, and creatinine levels in the diabetic group. The decrease in antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and albumin and the increase in LP and glucose levels in diabetic rats were significantly improved with exercise and VCE supplementation. In the diabetic animals, the decreased beta-carotene and vitamins A levels in kidney did not improve through exercise only, although their levels were increased by exercise plus VCE supplementation. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that lipid peroxidation increases in the lens and kidney of diabetic animals and this could be due to decreases in antioxidant vitamins and enzymes. However, dietary VCE

  16. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design.

    PubMed

    Howe, George W; Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Wyman, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.

  17. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design

    PubMed Central

    Howe, George W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Wyman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach. PMID:26779062

  18. The phaco hemi-flip: a method of lens removal in nuclei of soft to moderate density.

    PubMed

    Tam, Diamond Y; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2011-01-01

    Although endocapsular nuclear fragmentation chopping techniques have allowed surgeons to decrease the amount of dissipated phaco energy in the anterior chamber and improve lens removal efficiency when compared with previous techniques, chopping maneuvers carry a small risk of capsular and zonular injury. Furthermore, in softer lenses, chopping techniques may be limited in providing sufficient nuclear cracking. Additionally, with torsional phaco technologies, adequate lens purchase may be suboptimal and lead to inefficient chopping. Supracapsular phaco techniques improve capsular safety, but may be challenging in small pupil/capsulorrhexis cases and place the corneal endothelium and anterior chamber tissues at greater risk to trauma from ultrasound energy. The phaco hemi-flip technique combines the advantages of these two approaches with a single endocapsular quick chop, followed by phacoaspiration removal of each heminucleus in the iris plane without further chopping or segmentation.

  19. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been identified using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm2 to 20 × 20 mm2. This increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments' sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. A first effort was undertaken to group decoupled moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  20. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    DOE PAGES

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; ...

    2016-06-14

    We identified candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared tomore » the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm2 to 20 × 20 mm2. Furthermore, this increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. Our first effort decoupled group moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.« less

  1. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L.

    2016-06-14

    We identified candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm2 to 20 × 20 mm2. Furthermore, this increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. Our first effort decoupled group moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  2. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F. X. Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L.

    2016-06-15

    Candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been identified using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm{sup 2} to 20 × 20 mm{sup 2}. This increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. A first effort was undertaken to group decoupled moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  3. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L.

    2016-06-14

    We identified candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm2 to 20 × 20 mm2. Furthermore, this increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. Our first effort decoupled group moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  4. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  5. [Lens platform].

    PubMed

    Łukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Kałuzny, Józef

    2010-01-01

    The lens platform defines lens structure and lens material. Evolution of lens comprises change in their shape, angulation of haptens and transition of three-piece lens into one-piece lens. The lens fall into two categories: rigid (PMMA) and soft (siliconic, acrylic, colameric). The main lens maaterials are polymers (hydrophilic and hydrophobic). The lens platform has an effect on biocompatibility, bioadhesion, stability of lens in capsule, degree of PCO evolution and sensitiveness to laser damages.

  6. Comparison of Toric Foldable Iris-Fixated Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation and Limbal Relaxing Incisions for Moderate-to-High Myopic Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeihoon; Lee, Hun; Kang, David Sung Yong; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Tae Im

    2016-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of toric foldable iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation and non-toric foldable iris-fixated pIOL implantation with limbal relaxing incisions (LRIs) for correcting moderate-to-high astigmatism in myopic eyes. The medical records of 146 patients (195 eyes) with myopic astigmatism who underwent toric foldable iris-fixated pIOL implantation (toric group; 94 eyes) or non-toric foldable iris-fixated pIOL implantation with concurrent LRIs (LRI group; 101 eyes) were retrospectively reviewed. For subgroup analysis, the two groups were subdivided according to preoperative astigmatic severity [moderate, 2.00 to <3.00 diopters (D); high, 3.00-4.00 D]. Visual and astigmatic outcomes were compared 6 months postoperatively. The uncorrected distance visual acuity was at least 20/25 in 100% and 98% of the toric and LRI group eyes, respectively. The toric group had lower mean residual cylindrical error (-0.67±0.39 D vs. -1.14±0.56 D; p<0.001) and greater mean cylindrical error change (2.17±0.56 D vs. 1.63±0.72 D; p<0.001) than the LRI group, regardless of the preoperative astigmatic severity. The mean correction index (1.10±0.16 vs. 0.72±0.24; p<0.001) and success index (0.24±0.14 vs. 0.42±0.21; p<0.001) also differed significantly between the groups. Both surgical techniques considerably reduced astigmatism and had comparable visual outcomes. However, toric foldable iris-fixated pIOL implantation was more reliable for correcting moderate-to-high astigmatism in myopic eyes.

  7. The cylindrical air holes of the negative-refraction photonic crystal double flat lens group for lightwave target detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian; Shen, Yang; Shen, TingGen; Lian, YingFei; Wang, FeiFei; Xu, Yang

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the cylindrical air holes of the negative-refraction photonic crystal (NR-PC) double flat lens group on the performance of lightwave target detection and imaging is studied in this paper using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Numerical simulations indicate that significant enhancement of the scattering signal can be obtained by using a NR-PC flat lens; consequently, great improvement of the refocusing gain as well as the imaging resolution will be provided. We further research the effects of different positions for target detection by using a NR-PC double flat lens group with cylindrical air holes. Then we use defective air holes instead of perfect ones. By using a dynamic scanning scheme, we find that the distance between two flats could be changed flexibly. And it could improve the lateral resolution of target scanning and enlarge the distance between the target and flat greatly. In conclusion, our investigation optimized the performance of the detection and imaging system, and provided the basis for converting an idealized left-handed material lens into a physically realizable NR-PC double flat lens group.

  8. Multiple target tracking algorithm research on IR fish-eye lens system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Lu, Xuguang; He, Yongqiang; Shen, HongBin; Xu, ChunMei; Wang, Yuanbo

    2009-11-01

    The paper presents the algorithms of data process on multi-target tracking and threat level sequence in large visual area IR (infrared ray) fish-eye system. The targeting information is associated and filtered with the polar coordinates. Firstly,The characteristic point of every target is picked up and tracked with special restriction for each of them. Secondly,the parameters of fairway, which are gained by aberration revising and researching the characters of temperature area, are picked up from serial images. The threat level of attacking objects is sorted by the speed, acceleration and direction of all targets. Finding out the most prior target which is in the certain distance in order to make sure that effective warning information is emitted in time. The algorithms are proved to be quick and effective through simulation and the muiti-target experiment system developed by the writers.

  9. Free-form lens for rectangular illumination with the target plane rotating at a certain angle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dianhong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Chen

    2015-11-01

    We have proposed a method for rectangular illumination in a (u, v) coordinate system with high collection efficiency and favorable uniformity. In our proposed approach, with the target plane rotating at a certain angle around the z axis, one of the diagonals on the rectangular target plane moves to the coordinate axis; then, we partition the light source and target plane into grids. The intersection points of the grids are in one-to-one correspondence from the source to the target plane. This improved method will avoid the one-to-many correspondence topological relationship in the traditional (u, v) mapping method; uniformity of the illuminance pattern will be promoted. Based on this method, lenses are designed for rectangular target plane illumination; uniformity over 0.83 and efficiency of about 0.92 are obtained with a 1  mm×1  mm LED Lambertian source.

  10. Carbon-Nanotube Optoacoustic Lens for Focused Ultrasound Generation and High-Precision Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baac, Hyoung Won; Ok, Jong G.; Maxwell, Adam; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Chen, Yu-Chih; Hart, A. John; Xu, Zhen; Yoon, Euisik; Guo, L. Jay

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a new optical approach to generate high-frequency (>15 MHz) and high-amplitude focused ultrasound, which can be used for non-invasive ultrasound therapy. A nano-composite film of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and elastomeric polymer is formed on concave lenses, and used as an efficient optoacoustic source due to the high optical absorption of the CNTs and rapid heat transfer to the polymer upon excitation by pulsed laser irradiation. The CNT-coated lenses can generate unprecedented optoacoustic pressures of >50 MPa in peak positive on a tight focal spot of 75 μm in lateral and 400 μm in axial widths. This pressure amplitude is remarkably high in this frequency regime, producing pronounced shock effects and non-thermal pulsed cavitation at the focal zone. We demonstrate that the optoacoustic lens can be used for micro-scale ultrasonic fragmentation of solid materials and a single-cell surgery in terms of removing the cells from substrates and neighboring cells. PMID:23251775

  11. Nonspecific provocation of target organs in allergic diseases: EAACI-GA(2)LEN consensus report.

    PubMed

    Bonini, S; Rasi, G; Brusasco, V; Carlsen, K-H; Crimi, E; Popov, T; Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Gramiccioni, C; Bonini, M; Passali, D; Bachert, C; van Cauwenberge, P B; Bresciani, M; Bonini, S; Calonge, M; Montan, P G; Serapiao Dos Santos, M; Belfort, R; Lambiase, A; Sacchetti, M

    2007-06-01

    It is widely accepted that nonspecific tissue reactivity is a distinct pathophysiological hallmark of allergic diseases, influenced by genetic and environmental factors different from those involved in causing sensitization and allergen response of target organs. This consensus document aims at reviewing procedures currently used for nonspecific provocation of the bronchi, nose and eye and for measuring their responsiveness to nonspecific stimuli.

  12. Infrared zoom lens design based on target correlation recognition and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Duan, Jin; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Wen-sheng

    2015-10-01

    To expand the infrared (IR) target detection scope of tank, according to the requirements of real-time recognition and tracking for target with joint transform correlator (JTC) a set of infrared (IR) continuous zoom optical system with 8-12 μm long-wave-band was designed, which applied long-wave 384× 288 element uncooled thermal IR focal plane array detector. In this system, the zoom ratio is 8× , the range of the focal length is 30mm-240mm, F number is 2 and during the zoom process the relative aperture is invariant. This system used the mechanical compensation method, after designed and optimized, it can be composed of 6 spherical lenses with Ge and ZnS only. The design results show that when the cutoff frequency is 14lp/mm, in the whole range of the focal length the MTF curves are all above 0.52 which all approach to the diffraction limit curves. And the spot size is smaller than the pixel size of the receiver. It can meet the requirement of long IR target recognition and tracking in the practical application.

  13. Hybrid method of free-form lens design for arbitrary illumination target.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufei; Zhang, Hang; Su, Zeyu; He, Yu; Xu, Liang; Liu, Xu; Li, Haifeng

    2015-05-10

    We propose a hybrid method of free-form illumination design for an arbitrary target form, imposing no restriction on the boundary of the irradiance distribution. Smooth continuous surfaces and continuous irradiance distributions are achieved with two independent steps. Initial solutions of the illumination problem are obtained with the method of supporting paraboloids, and final solutions are acquired by numerically solving the elliptic Monge-Ampére equations. Lenses, which are able to produce complex irradiance distributions, can be achieved with this method and fabricated in practice. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by some examples with experimental results.

  14. SiRNA Targeting mTOR Effectively Prevents the Proliferation and Migration of Human Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Jingjing; Jin, Na; Zhang, Guiming; Xi, Yahui; Liu, Hongling

    2016-01-01

    Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication that causes visual decrease after extracapsular cataract surgery. The primary cause of PCO formation is the proliferation of the residual lens epithelial cells (LECs). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in the growth and migration of LECs. In the current study, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically attenuate mTOR in human lens epithelial B3 cells (HLE B3). We aimed to examine the effect of mTOR-siRNA on the proliferation, migration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HLE B3 cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. The mTOR-siRNA was transfected into HLE B3 cells using lipofectamine 2000. The mRNA and protein levels of mTOR were examined to confirm the efficiency of mTOR-siRNA. The levels of mRNA and protein as well as the activity of mTOR down-stream effectors p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and protein kinase B (PKB, AKT) were examined using real-time PCR or Western blot, respectively. The cell proliferation was determined using cell counting kit (CCK) 8 and cell growth curve assay. The cell migration was examined using Transwell system and Scratch assay. MTOR-siRNA effectively eliminated mTOR mRNA and protein. The proliferation and migration were significantly suppressed by mTOR-siRNA transfection. mTOR-siRNA reduced the mRNA of p70S6K and AKT in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of p70S6K and AKT was decreased by mTOR-siRNA. MTOR-siRNA also eliminated the formation of mTORC1 and mTORC2 protein complex and blocked the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced EMT. Our results suggested that mTOR-siRNA could effectively inhibit the proliferation, migration and EMT of HLE B3 cells through the inhibition of p70S6K and AKT. These results indicated that mTOR-siRNA might be an effective agent inhibiting HLE cells growth and EMT following cataract surgery and provide an alternative therapy for preventing

  15. Target Organ Specific Activity of Drosophila MRP (ABCC1) Moderates Developmental Toxicity of Methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Lisa; Korbas, Malgorzata; Davidson, Philip; Broberg, Karin; Rand, Matthew Dearborn

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous and persistent neurotoxin that poses a risk to human health. Although the mechanisms of MeHg toxicity are not fully understood, factors that contribute to susceptibility are even less well known. Studies of human gene polymorphisms have identified a potential role for the multidrug resistance-like protein (MRP/ABCC) family, ATP-dependent transporters, in MeHg susceptibility. MRP transporters have been shown to be important for MeHg excretion in adult mouse models, but their role in moderating MeHg toxicity during development has not been explored. We therefore investigated effects of manipulating expression levels of MRP using a Drosophila development assay. Drosophila MRP (dMRP) is homologous to human MRP1–4 (ABCC1–4), sharing 50% identity and 67% similarity with MRP1. A greater susceptibility to MeHg is seen in dMRP mutant flies, demonstrated by reduced rates of eclosion on MeHg-containing food. Furthermore, targeted knockdown of dMRP expression using GAL4>UAS RNAi methods demonstrates a tissue-specific function for dMRP in gut, Malpighian tubules, and the nervous system in moderating developmental susceptibility to MeHg. Using X-ray synchrotron fluorescence imaging, these same tissues were also identified as the highest Hg-accumulating tissues in fly larvae. Moreover, higher levels of Hg are seen in dMRP mutant larvae compared with a control strain fed an equivalent dose of MeHg. In sum, these data demonstrate that dMRP expression, both globally and within Hg-targeted organs, has a profound effect on susceptibility to MeHg in developing flies. Our findings point to a potentially novel and specific role for dMRP in neurons in the protection against MeHg. Finally, this experimental system provides a tractable model to evaluate human polymorphic variants of MRP and other gene variants relevant to genetic studies of mercury-exposed populations. PMID:24863968

  16. Target organ specific activity of drosophila MRP (ABCC1) moderates developmental toxicity of methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Prince, Lisa; Korbas, Malgorzata; Davidson, Philip; Broberg, Karin; Rand, Matthew Dearborn

    2014-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous and persistent neurotoxin that poses a risk to human health. Although the mechanisms of MeHg toxicity are not fully understood, factors that contribute to susceptibility are even less well known. Studies of human gene polymorphisms have identified a potential role for the multidrug resistance-like protein (MRP/ABCC) family, ATP-dependent transporters, in MeHg susceptibility. MRP transporters have been shown to be important for MeHg excretion in adult mouse models, but their role in moderating MeHg toxicity during development has not been explored. We therefore investigated effects of manipulating expression levels of MRP using a Drosophila development assay. Drosophila MRP (dMRP) is homologous to human MRP1-4 (ABCC1-4), sharing 50% identity and 67% similarity with MRP1. A greater susceptibility to MeHg is seen in dMRP mutant flies, demonstrated by reduced rates of eclosion on MeHg-containing food. Furthermore, targeted knockdown of dMRP expression using GAL4>UAS RNAi methods demonstrates a tissue-specific function for dMRP in gut, Malpighian tubules, and the nervous system in moderating developmental susceptibility to MeHg. Using X-ray synchrotron fluorescence imaging, these same tissues were also identified as the highest Hg-accumulating tissues in fly larvae. Moreover, higher levels of Hg are seen in dMRP mutant larvae compared with a control strain fed an equivalent dose of MeHg. In sum, these data demonstrate that dMRP expression, both globally and within Hg-targeted organs, has a profound effect on susceptibility to MeHg in developing flies. Our findings point to a potentially novel and specific role for dMRP in neurons in the protection against MeHg. Finally, this experimental system provides a tractable model to evaluate human polymorphic variants of MRP and other gene variants relevant to genetic studies of mercury-exposed populations.

  17. Fabry lens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michlovic, J.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the properties, operation, and applications of the Fabry lens. As used in stellar photometry, a Fabry lens is nothing more than a simple converging lens inserted into the optical train of a photometer to construct an image of the objective on the photomultiplier cathode. The thereby derived advantages are reviewed, and some techniques designed to maximize these advantages are outlined.

  18. Moderators of the Association Between Peer and Target Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Vitaro, Frank; Séguin, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Associating with substance using peers is generally considered as one of the most important predictors of adolescent substance use. However, peer association does not affect all adolescents in the same way. To better understand when and under what conditions peer association is most linked with adolescent substance use (SU), this review focuses on the factors that may operate as moderators of this association. The review highlighted several potential moderators reflecting adolescents’ individual characteristics (e.g., pubertal status, genes and personality), peer and parental factors (e.g., nature of relationships and parental monitoring), and contextual factors (e.g., peer, school and neighborhood context). As peer association is a broad concept, important methodological aspects were also addressed in order to illustrate how they can potentially bias interpretation. Taking these into account, we suggest that, while the effects of some moderators are clear (e.g., parental monitoring and sensation seeking), others are less straightforward (e.g., neighborhood) and need to be further examined. This review also provides recommendations for addressing different methodological concerns in the study of moderators, including: the use of longitudinal and experimental studies and the use of mediated moderation. These will be key for developing theory and effective prevention. PMID:24183303

  19. Masked priming by misspellings: Word frequency moderates the effects of SOA and prime-target similarity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    University students made lexical decisions to eight- or nine-letter words preceded by masked primes that were the target, an unrelated word, or a typical misspelling of the target. At a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 47 ms, primes that were misspellings of the target produced a priming benefit for low-, medium-, and high-frequency words, even when the misspelled primes were changed to differ phonologically from their targets. At a longer SOA of 80 ms, misspelled primes facilitated lexical decisions only to medium- and low-frequency targets, and a phonological change attenuated the benefit for medium-frequency targets. The results indicate that orthographic similarity can be preserved over changes in letter position and word length, and that the priming effect of misspelled words at the shorter SOA is orthographically based. Orthographic-priming effects depend on the quality of the orthographic learning of the target word.

  20. Photoacoustic imaging with an acoustic lens detects prostate cancer cells labeled with PSMA-targeting near-infrared dye-conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogra, Vikram; Chinni, Bhargava; Singh, Shalini; Schmitthenner, Hans; Rao, Navalgund; Krolewski, John J.; Nastiuk, Kent L.

    2016-06-01

    There is an urgent need for sensitive and specific tools to accurately image early stage, organ-confined human prostate cancers to facilitate active surveillance and reduce unnecessary treatment. Recently, we developed an acoustic lens that enhances the sensitivity of photoacoustic imaging. Here, we report the use of this device in conjunction with two molecular imaging agents that specifically target the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expressed on the tumor cell surface of most prostate cancers. We demonstrate successful imaging of phantoms containing cancer cells labeled with either of two different PSMA-targeting agents, the ribonucleic acid aptamer A10-3.2 and a urea-based peptidomimetic inhibitor, each linked to the near-infrared dye IRDye800CW. By specifically targeting cells with these agents linked to a dye chosen for optimal signal, we are able to discriminate prostate cancer cells that express PSMA.

  1. Kicking the (barking) dog effect: the moderating role of target attributes on triggered displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, William C; Bushman, Brad J; Vasquez, Eduardo A; Miller, Norman

    2008-10-01

    Sometimes aggression is displaced onto a target who is not totally innocent but emits a mildly irritating behavior called a triggering event. In three experiments, the authors examine stable personal attributes of targets that can impact such triggered displaced aggression (TDA). Lower levels of TDA were directed to targets whose attitudes were similar as compared to dissimilar to those of the actor (Experiment 1) and to targets who were ingroup as compared to out-group members (Experiment 2). Conceptually replicating the findings of Experiments 1 and 2, the manipulated valence of the target (viz., liked, neutral, and disliked) functioned in a similar manner, with positive valence serving a buffering function against a triggering action that followed an initial provocation (Experiment 3). The results from all three experiments are consistent with cognitive neoassociationist theory.

  2. Fresnel lens study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Thick film sol-gel technology was evaluated to determine the feasibility of utilizing sol-gels to produce embossable materials ultimately for the production of all-glass Fresnel optics. The feasibility study has utilized the relatively undeveloped branch of organically modified sol-gels. The results of this work shown that organically modified sol-gels posses properties which allow the formation of thick, patternable and adherent coatings. The study resulted in the fabrication of over 600 samples based on over 100 sol-gel formulations. Samples were evaluated for clarity, transmittance and other optical properties. Environmental tests were performed on selected groups. Although moderate success was obtained on producing a Fresnel lens layer bonded to glass, a fully densified lens was not achieved. The process and chemistries indicate that improvements based on these materials and techniques may lead to an acceptable all-glass Fresnel lens.

  3. Fresnel lens study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-05-01

    Thick film sol-gel technology was evaluated to determine the feasibility of utilizing sol-gels to produce embossable materials ultimately for the production of all-glass Fresnel optics. The feasibility study has utilized the relatively undeveloped branch of organically modified sol-gels. The results of this work show that organically modified sol-gels possess properties which allow the formation of thick, patternable and adherent coatings. The study resulted in the fabrication of over 600 samples based on over 100 sol-gel formulations. Samples were evaluated for clarity, transmittance and other optical properties. Environmental tests were performed on selected groups. Although moderate success was obtained on producing a Fresnel lens layer bonded to glass, a fully densified lens was not achieved. The process and chemistries indicate that improvements based on these materials and techniques may lead to an acceptable all-glass Fresnel lens.

  4. Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Ihmels, Max; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    In evaluative priming, positive or negative primes facilitate reactions to targets that share the same valence. While this effect is commonly explained as reflecting invariant structures in semantic long-term memory or in the sensorimotor system, the present research highlights the role of integrativity in evaluative priming. Integrativity refers to the ease of integrating two concepts into a new meaningful compound representation. In extended material tests using paired comparisons from two pools of positive and negative words, we show that evaluative congruity is highly correlated with integrativity. Therefore, in most priming studies, congruity and integrativity are strongly confounded. When both aspects are disentangled by manipulating congruity and integrativity orthogonally, three priming experiments show that evaluative-priming effects were confined to integrative prime-target pairs. No facilitation of prime-congruent targets was obtained for non-integrative stimuli. These findings are discussed from a broader perspective on priming conceived as flexible, context-dependent, and serving a generative adaptation function.

  5. Design of the Fifth-Generation Target-Moderator-Reflector-Shield Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Nowicki, Suzanne Florence; Mocko, Michal

    2015-11-16

    The facilities at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center are described first. The target is being redesigned so that the Flight Paths (FP) in the upper tier provide a higher intensity in the epithermal and medium energy range. It is found that a 3-piece design looks promising: intensity in epithermal and medium energy range in upper tier is an order of magnitude higher than current Mark III, and intensity in the thermal energy range is higher in the lower tier than current Mark III. Time emission spectra show a bump due to the scattering of fast neutrons. Other investigations such as the addition of wings around the upper target will be conducted.

  6. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  7. Targeted Naltrexone Treatment Moderates the Relations Between Mood and Drinking Behavior Among Problem Drinkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzler, Henry P.; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard

    2004-01-01

    One hundred fifty-three problem drinkers were randomly assigned to receive naltrexone 50 mg or placebo on a daily or targeted (to high-risk drinking situations) basis. Using structured nightly diaries, participants recorded negative and positive mood, desire to drink, and alcohol consumption over 8 weeks. Results indicated that individuals engaged…

  8. Moderate repetition rate ultra-intense laser targets and optics using variable thickness liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, P. L.; Willis, C.; Cochran, G. E.; Hanna, R. T.; Andereck, C. D.; Schumacher, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    Liquid crystal films are variable thickness, planar targets for ultra-intense laser matter experiments such as ion acceleration. Their target qualities also make them ideal for high-power laser optics such as plasma mirrors and waveplates. By controlling parameters of film formation, thickness can be varied on-demand from 10 nm to above 50 μm, enabling real-time optimization of laser interactions. Presented here are results using a device that draws films from a bulk liquid crystal source volume with any thickness in the aforementioned range. Films form within 2 μm of the same location each time, well within the Rayleigh range of even tight F / # systems, thus removing the necessity for realignment between shots. The repetition rate of the device exceeds 0.1 Hz for sub-100 nm films, facilitating higher repetition rate operation of modern laser facilities.

  9. Moderate repetition rate ultra-intense laser targets and optics using variable thickness liquid crystal films

    DOE PAGES

    Poole, P. L.; Willis, C.; Cochran, G. E.; ...

    2016-10-10

    Liquid crystal films are variable thickness, planar targets for ultra-intense laser matter experiments such as ion acceleration. Their target qualities also make them ideal for high-power laser optics such as plasma mirrors and waveplates. By controlling parameters of film formation, thickness can be varied on-demand from 10 nm to above 50 μm, enabling real-time optimization of laser interactions. Presented here are results using a device that draws films from a bulk liquid crystal source volume with any thickness in the aforementioned range. Films form within 2 μm of the same location each time, well within the Rayleigh range of evenmore » tight F/# systems, thus removing the necessity for realignment between shots. As a result, the repetition rate of the device exceeds 0.1 Hz for sub-100nm films, facilitating higher repetition rate operation of modern laser facilities.« less

  10. Moderate repetition rate ultra-intense laser targets and optics using variable thickness liquid crystal films

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, P. L.; Willis, C.; Cochran, G. E.; Hanna, R. T.; Andereck, C. D.; Schumacher, D. W.

    2016-10-10

    Liquid crystal films are variable thickness, planar targets for ultra-intense laser matter experiments such as ion acceleration. Their target qualities also make them ideal for high-power laser optics such as plasma mirrors and waveplates. By controlling parameters of film formation, thickness can be varied on-demand from 10 nm to above 50 μm, enabling real-time optimization of laser interactions. Presented here are results using a device that draws films from a bulk liquid crystal source volume with any thickness in the aforementioned range. Films form within 2 μm of the same location each time, well within the Rayleigh range of even tight F/# systems, thus removing the necessity for realignment between shots. As a result, the repetition rate of the device exceeds 0.1 Hz for sub-100nm films, facilitating higher repetition rate operation of modern laser facilities.

  11. Bounded openness: The effect of openness to experience on intolerance is moderated by target group conventionality.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Mark J; Chambers, John R; Crawford, Jarret T; Wetherell, Geoffrey; Reyna, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Openness to experience is consistently associated with tolerance. We suggest that tests of the association between openness to experience and tolerance have heretofore been incomplete because they have primarily focused on prejudice toward unconventional target groups. We test (a) the individual difference perspective, which predicts that because people who are high in openness are more open to diverse and dissimilar people and ideas, they will express more tolerance than people who are low in openness and (b) the worldview conflict perspective, which predicts that people high and low in openness will both be intolerant toward those with different worldviews. Four studies, using both conventional and unconventional target groups, find support for an integrative perspective. People high in openness do appear more tolerant of diverse worldviews compared with people low in openness; however, at the same time, people both high and low in openness are more intolerant of groups whose worldviews conflict with their own. These findings highlight the need to consider how individual difference variables and features of the target groups may interact in important ways to influence the expression of prejudice.

  12. An ecological momentary assessment of comparison target as a moderator of the effects of appearance-focused social comparisons.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Crowther, Janis H

    2008-09-01

    This research examined whether comparison target moderates the effects of naturally occurring appearance-focused social comparisons on women's affect, appearance esteem, and dieting thoughts. During daily activities, body-satisfied (BS) women and body-dissatisfied (BD) women recorded their comparison targets and reactions to comparison information. For BS women, upward comparisons with peers were associated with more positive affect (PA) and appearance esteem and less guilt than upward comparisons with media images and downward comparisons with peers were associated with less PA than downward comparisons with media images. For BD women, upward comparisons with peers were associated with more appearance esteem and diet thoughts than upward comparisons with media images and downward comparisons with peers were associated with less PA, appearance esteem, and diet thoughts and more guilt than downward comparisons with media images.

  13. Two-dimensional of uniform irradiation on target with the use of the concentricity deviation lens arrays focus system of variable focus length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian-zhou; Yu, Qing-xu; Lu, Yong-jun; Guan, Shou-hua; Dong, Bin

    2012-10-01

    An optical system consisted of lens array with variable focus width has been proposed for providing uniform irradiation on targets in inertial confinement fusion. This system was composed of two lenses arrays and the aspheric lens. Based on the adaxial matrix optics and the generalized diffraction integral theory, the principle of controllable focus profile was analyzed and the optimum design of the system parameters were presented, respectively. The simulated results showed that two-dimensional uniform focusing of laser beams with controllable width in the range of several hundred microns to several millimeters can be achieved by choosing appropriate system parameters. The system converted a circular laser beam into a flat-top square focused spot, presenting the transformation of beamshape and the uniform distribution of the spatial intensity at the same time. Appropriate concentricity deviation of LA was made in the design of LA focus system, so that the diffraction patterns of different beamlets did not completely overlap and the large-scale intensity fluctuation reduced effectively, and a well-irradiated laser spot and great energy efficiency can be obtained in this scheme.

  14. Fresnel Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Scott, Steve; Lamb, David; Zimmerman, Joe E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fresnel lenses span the full range of sizes from lens a few micrometers in diameter to lens several meters in diameter. These lenses are utilized in various fields including optical communication, theatrical lighting, office equipment, video entertainment systems, solar concentrators, and scientific research instruments. These lenses function either as diffractive or refractive optical elements depending on the geometrical feature size of the lens. The basic functions of these lenses is described followed by an overview of fabrication methods. A summary of applications is then provided illustrating the rich variety of applications for which fresnel lenses may be designed to fulfill.

  15. Virtual-screening targeting Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 integrase-lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75 interaction for drug development.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wan-Gang; Liu, Bai-Nan; Yuan, Jun-Fa

    2015-02-01

    Three integrase (IN) inhibitors have been approved by FDA for clinical treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This stimulates more researchers to focus their studies on this target for anti-HIV drug development. Three steps regarding of IN activity have been validated for inhibitor discovery: strand transfer, 3'-terminal processing, and IN-lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 interaction. Among them, IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction is a new target validated in recent years. Emergence of drug-resistant virus strains makes this target appealing to pharmacologists. Compared with the traditional screening methods such as AlphaScreen and cell-based screening developed for IN inhibitor discovery, virtual screening is a powerful technique in modern drug discovery. Here we summarized the recent advances of virtual-screening targeting IN-LEDFG/p75 interaction. The combined application of virtual screening and experiments in drug discovery against IN-LEDFG/p75 interaction sheds light on anti-HIV research and drug discovery.

  16. Compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Brixner, B.B.; Klein, M.M.; Winkler, M.A.

    1980-05-21

    The disclosure relates to at least one calcium fluoride optical element used in combination with at least two ordinary crown glass lens elements to greatly reduce secondary spectrum in optical systems.

  17. Compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Brixner, Berlyn B.; Klein, Morris M.; Winkler, Max A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to at least one calcium fluoride optical element used in combination with at least two ordinary crown glass lens elements to greatly reduce secondary spectrum in optical systems.

  18. Barlow Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    An additional lens that increases the effective focal length and magnification of a telescope. It is a negative diverging lens (either concave on both sides or, more usually, `plano-concave'—flat on one side and concave on the other) that is placed in the converging cone of light a short distance in front of the focal plane of the objective or primary mirror. By decreasing the angle at which the ...

  19. Sunglass Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    Foster Grant's Space Technology Lens, manufactured under license from NASA, combines NASA technology with Foster Grant's own technology. The NASA contribution was a highly abrasion-resistant coating developed at Ames Research Center as a means of protecting plastic surfaces of aerospace equipment from the sometimes harsh environments to which they are subjected. The Space Tech Lens, now manufactured by Fosta-Tek, surpasses glass in abrasion resistant properties and has five times better scratch resistance than the most popular corrective lenses.

  20. Moderate elevation of intracellular creatine by targeting the creatine transporter protects mice from acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lygate, Craig A.; Bohl, Steffen; ten Hove, Michiel; Faller, Kiterie M.E.; Ostrowski, Philip J.; Zervou, Sevasti; Medway, Debra J.; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Wallis, Julie; Clarke, Kieran; Watkins, Hugh; Schneider, Jürgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aims Increasing energy storage capacity by elevating creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels to increase ATP availability is an attractive concept for protecting against ischaemia and heart failure. However, testing this hypothesis has not been possible since oral creatine supplementation is ineffectual at elevating myocardial creatine levels. We therefore used mice overexpressing creatine transporter in the heart (CrT-OE) to test for the first time whether elevated creatine is beneficial in clinically relevant disease models of heart failure and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and results CrT-OE mice were selected for left ventricular (LV) creatine 20–100% above wild-type values and subjected to acute and chronic coronary artery ligation. Increasing myocardial creatine up to 100% was not detrimental even in ageing CrT-OE. In chronic heart failure, creatine elevation was neither beneficial nor detrimental, with no effect on survival, LV remodelling or dysfunction. However, CrT-OE hearts were protected against I/R injury in vivo in a dose-dependent manner (average 27% less myocardial necrosis) and exhibited greatly improved functional recovery following ex vivo I/R (59% of baseline vs. 29%). Mechanisms contributing to ischaemic protection in CrT-OE hearts include elevated PCr and glycogen levels and improved energy reserve. Furthermore, creatine loading in HL-1 cells did not alter antioxidant defences, but delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in response to oxidative stress, suggesting an additional mechanism to prevent reperfusion injury. Conclusion Elevation of myocardial creatine by 20–100% reduced myocardial stunning and I/R injury via pleiotropic mechanisms, suggesting CrT activation as a novel, potentially translatable target for cardiac protection from ischaemia. PMID:22915766

  1. Clinical efficacy and IL-17 targeting mechanism of Indigo naturalis as a topical agent in moderate psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui-Man; Wu, Yang-Chang; Wang, Qingmin; Song, Michael; Wu, Jackson; Chen, Dion; Li, Katherine; Wadman, Eric; Kao, Shung-Te; Li, Tsai-Chung; Leon, Francisco; Hayden, Karen; Brodmerkel, Carrie; Chris Huang, C

    2017-09-02

    Indigo naturalis is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ingredient long-recognized as a therapy for several inflammatory conditions, including psoriasis. However, its mechanism is unknown due to lack of knowledge about the responsible chemical entity. We took a different approach to this challenge by investigating the molecular profile of Indigo naturalis treatment and impacted pathways. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was conducted using Indigo naturalis as topical monotherapy to treat moderate plaque psoriasis in a Chinese cohort (n = 24). Patients were treated with Indigo naturalis ointment (n = 16) or matched placebo (n = 8) twice daily for 8 weeks, with 1 week of follow-up. At week 8, significant improvements in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores from baseline were observed in Indigo naturalis-treated patients (56.3% had 75% improvement [PASI 75] response) compared with placebo (0.0%). A gene expression signature of moderate psoriasis was established from baseline skin biopsies, which included the up-regulation of the interleukin (IL)-17 pathway as a key component; Indigo naturalis treatment resulted in most of these signature genes returning toward normal, including down-regulation of the IL-17 pathway. Using an in vitro keratinocyte assay, an IL-17-inhibitory effect was observed for tryptanthrin, a component of Indigo naturalis. This study demonstrated the clinical efficacy of Indigo naturalis in moderate psoriasis, and exemplified a novel experimental medicine approach to understand TCM targeting mechanisms. NCT01901705 .

  2. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Alaa M.; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Lumley, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study, the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions—expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)—had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate that greater acculturative stress at baseline predicted greater improvement from both interventions, compared with control. Women benefited more from AT than EW, except that EW improved women’s physical symptoms. Men benefited more from EW than AT. Students with limited emotional awareness and expression tended to benefit from both interventions, relative to control. Finally, nation of origin cultural differences generally did not predict outcomes. It is concluded that the benefits of EW and AT and can be enhanced by targeting these interventions to specific subgroups of international students. PMID:21660220

  3. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M; Lumley, Mark A

    2011-06-01

    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study, the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions-expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)-had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate that greater acculturative stress at baseline predicted greater improvement from both interventions, compared with control. Women benefited more from AT than EW, except that EW improved women's physical symptoms. Men benefited more from EW than AT. Students with limited emotional awareness and expression tended to benefit from both interventions, relative to control. Finally, nation of origin cultural differences generally did not predict outcomes. It is concluded that the benefits of EW and AT and can be enhanced by targeting these interventions to specific subgroups of international students.

  4. Using Simultaneous Prompting to Teach Restaurant Words and Classifications as Non-Target Information to Secondary Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bethany R.; Schuster, John W.; Collins, Belva; Kleinert, Harold

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews selected literature pertaining to simultaneous prompting and the acquisition of non-target information for individuals with moderate to severe disabilities. The purpose of this review was to discuss the definition of non-target information (NTI) and the various places it can be embedded within an instructional trial. The…

  5. Using Simultaneous Prompting to Teach Restaurant Words and Classifications as Non-Target Information to Secondary Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bethany R.; Schuster, John W.; Collins, Belva; Kleinert, Harold

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews selected literature pertaining to simultaneous prompting and the acquisition of non-target information for individuals with moderate to severe disabilities. The purpose of this review was to discuss the definition of non-target information (NTI) and the various places it can be embedded within an instructional trial. The…

  6. A comparison of sedation protocols for gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection: moderate sedation with analgesic supplementation vs analgesia targeted light sedation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Y C; Park, C H; Shin, S; Park, Y; Lee, S K; Min, K T

    2015-07-01

    Moderate to deep sedation has been recommended during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). However, it is often accompanied by adverse events such as respiratory depression or aspiration pneumonia. This study investigated the respiratory complications and ESD outcomes of two sedation protocols: moderate sedation with analgesic supplementation (MSAS) and analgesia targeted light sedation (ATLS). The clinical data of 293 patients who underwent ESD between May and December 2012 were reviewed. During the first 4 months, 155 patients were managed by moderate sedation [Modified Observer Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) at 2-3] with the MSAS protocol. During the latter period, 138 patients were managed using the ATLS protocol (MOAA/S at 4-5). For both protocols, propofol and remifentanil were infused for sedation and pain control, respectively. The ATLS protocol required less propofol [22.9 (sd 17.3) vs 88.1 (44.0) µg kg(-1) min(-1), P<0.001] and more remifentanil [6.8 (sd 3.1) vs 4.9 (3.0) µg kg(-1) hr(-1), P<0.001] than the MSAS protocol. The desaturation events during the procedure occurred significantly less often (2.2 vs 12.9%, P=0.001) and recovery was significantly faster [19.7 (sd 4.8) vs 27.9 (16.0) min, P<0.001] with the ATLS protocol than with the MSAS protocol. The incidence of aspiration pneumonia with the ATLS protocol was 1.4% compared with 5.2% with the MSAS protocol (P=0.109). There were no differences in outcomes and complications of ESD. The ATLS protocol reduced the incidence of desaturation events without affecting ESD performance compared with the MSAS protocol. There was also a trend towards a low incidence of aspiration pneumonia with the ATLS protocol. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Lens Biodiversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Lens genus includes the cultivated L. culinaris, and wild subspecies orientalis - the progenitor, tomentosus, and odemensis, are in the primary genepool, while L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. lamottei are in the secondary – tertiary gene pool. The Middle East is the primary centre of diversity ...

  8. Data analysis results of the second sea trial of ambient noise imaging with acoustic lens in 2014: Two-dimensional target images affected by direction of field of view and spatial noise distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    An aspherical lens with an aperture diameter of 1.0 m has been designed and fabricated to develop a prototype system for ambient noise imaging (ANI). A sea trial of silent target detection using the prototype ANI system was conducted under only natural ocean ambient noise at Uchiura Bay in November 2010. It was verified that targets are successfully detected under natural ocean ambient noise, mainly generated by snapping shrimps. Recently, we have built a second prototype ANI system using an acoustic lens with a two-dimensional (2D) receiver array with 127 elements corresponding to a field of view (FOV) spanning 15° horizontally by 9° vertically. In this study, we investigated the effects of the direction of the FOV and the spatial noise distribution on the 2D target image obtained by ANI. Here, the noise sources in front of the target are called “front light”, and those at the rear of the target are called “back light”. The second sea trial was conducted to image targets arranged in the FOV and measure the positions of noise sources at Uchiura Bay in November 10-14, 2014. For front light, the pixel values in the on-target directions were greater than those in other directions owing to the dominant target scatterings. Reversely, for back light, the pixel values in the on-target directions were lower than those in other directions owing to the dominant direct noises such as “silhouette”.

  9. Fluidic adaptive lens of transformable lens type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Ying; Justis, Nicole; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2004-05-01

    Fluidic adaptive lenses with a transformable lens type were demonstrated. By adjusting the fluidic pressure, not only can the lens properties, such as the focal distance and numerical aperture, be tuned dynamically but also different lens types, such as planoconvex, planoconcave, biconvex, biconcave, positive meniscus, and negative meniscus lenses, can be formed. The shortest focal length for a 20 mm aperture adaptive lens is 14.3 mm when the device is transformed into a positive lens, and -6.3 mm when transformed into a negative lens. The maximum resolution of the fluidic lens is better than 40 line pairs/mm.

  10. Broadband Achromatic Telecentric Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2007-01-01

    A new type of lens design features broadband achromatic performance as well as telecentricity, using a minimum number of spherical elements. With appropriate modifications, the lens design form can be tailored to cover the range of response of the focal-plane array, from Si (400-1,000 nm) to InGaAs (400-1,700 or 2,100 nm) or InSb/HgCdTe reaching to 2,500 nm. For reference, lenses typically are achromatized over the visible wavelength range of 480-650 nm. In remote sensing applications, there is a need for broadband achromatic telescopes, normally satisfied with mirror-based systems. However, mirror systems are not always feasible due to size or geometry restrictions. They also require expensive aspheric surfaces. Non-obscured mirror systems can be difficult to align and have a limited (essentially one-dimensional) field of view. Centrally obscured types have a two-dimensional but very limited field in addition to the obscuration. Telecentricity is a highly desirable property for matching typical spectrometer types, as well as for reducing the variation of the angle of incidence and cross-talk on the detector for simple camera types. This rotationally symmetric telescope with no obscuration and using spherical surfaces and selected glass types fills a need in the range of short focal lengths. It can be used as a compact front unit for a matched spectrometer, as an ultra-broadband camera objective lens, or as the optics of an integrated camera/spectrometer in which the wavelength information is obtained by the use of strip or linear variable filters on the focal plane array. This kind of camera and spectrometer system can find applications in remote sensing, as well as in-situ applications for geological mapping and characterization of minerals, ecological studies, and target detection and identification through spectral signatures. Commercially, the lens can be used in quality-control applications via spectral analysis. The lens design is based on the rear landscape

  11. An Essential Component in Chloroplast Development and Maintenance at Moderate High Temperature in Higher Plants: Chloroplast-targeted FtsH11 Proteases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Among the 12 predicted FtsH proteases in Arabidopsis, AtFtsH11 is the only metalloprotease targeting to both chloroplast and mitochondria and the only one essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate heat stress at all developmental stages. Under optimal conditions, atftsh11 mutants were...

  12. Interaction of AR and iNOS in lens epithelial cell: A new pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets of diabetic cataract.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Liu, Wenping; Huang, Xinduo; Xiong, Jianping; Wei, Xiaoyong

    2017-02-01

    Although there is significant interest in revealing the role of aldose reductase (AR) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in diabetic cataract (DC), the interaction of AR and iNOS remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the pathogenesis mechanisms and explore as a new potential therapeutic targets for DC. This study investigated the interaction of AR-iNOS through the methods of enzyme kinetics, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The IC50 of AR for inhibition of iNOS activity is 0.04 μM, and the IC50 of iNOS for inhibition of AR activity is 0.042 μM through enzyme kinetics; the interface showed that ARG99 on AR and GLU317 on iNOS played the key roles in the interaction of AR-iNOS predicted by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Co-immunoprecipitation of protein complexes in human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) demonstrated that AR could association with iNOS in cell; and the interaction distance of AR-iNOS was 6.50 ± 0.22 nm detected by FRET. This study exhibited a direct inhibition interaction between AR and iNOS in HLECs. It is the first report of inhibition interaction between AR and iNOS, suggesting a new pathophysiological mechanism and providing a new insight into the therapeutic mechanism of DC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Collection Mode Lens System

    DOEpatents

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Kino, Gordon S.

    2002-11-05

    A lens system including a collection lens and a microlens spaced from the collection lens adjacent the region to be observed. The diameter of the observablel region depends substantially on the radius of the microlens.

  14. Refracting solar energy concentrator and thin flexible fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect

    Appeldorn, R.H.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a solar energy concentrator. It comprises: a target area; lens means including a sheet of thin flexible transparent polymeric film having a first surface and a second surface, and having a plurality of lenticular light refracting prisms forming the second surface for refracting incident solar radiation striking the lens means at an acute angle to the lens means; support means for supporting the lens means above the target area and the lens means being mounted upon the support means to open toward the target area whereby the lens means is folded at at least one line parallel to the lenticular light refracting prisms to define at least two sections, and the light refracting prisms being defined for focusing the incident solar radiation onto the target area. The efficiency of the concentrator is not materially affected by image deterioration at the target area due to bowing of the sections of the lens means during use.

  15. Performance of a slow positron beam using a hybrid lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. K.; Naik, P. S.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.; Weng, H. M.

    2006-02-01

    The University of Hong Kong positron beam employs conventional magnetic field transport to the target, but has a special hybrid lens design around the positron moderator that allows the beam to be focused to millimeter spot sizes at the target. The good focusing capabilities of the beam are made possible by extracting work-function positrons from the moderator in a magnetic field free region using a conventional Soa lens thus minimizing beam canonical angular momentum. An Einzel lens is used to focus the positrons into the magnetic funnel at the end of transportation magnetic field while at the same time bringing up the beam energy to the intermediate value of 7.5 keV. The beam is E × B filtered at this intermediate energy. The final beam energy is obtained by floating the Soa-Einzel system, E × B filter and flight tube, and accelerating the positrons just before the target. External beam steering saddle coils fine tune the position, and the magnetic field around the target chamber is adjusted so as to keep one of the beam foci always on the target. The system is fully computer controlled. Variable energy-Doppler broadened annihilation radiation (VEDBAR) data for a GaN sample are shown which demonstrate the performance of the positron beam system.

  16. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  17. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  18. Contact lens in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  19. The Lens Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Danysh, Brian P.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2009-01-01

    The lens capsule is a modified basement membrane that completely surrounds the ocular lens. It is known that this extracellular matrix is important for both the structure and biomechanics of the lens in addition to providing informational cues to maintain lens cell phenotype. This review covers the development and structure of the lens capsule, lens diseases associated with mutations in extracellular matrix genes and the role of the capsule in lens function including those proposed for visual accommodation, selective permeability to infectious agents, and cell signaling. PMID:18773892

  20. Coworker incivility and incivility targets' work effort and counterproductive work behaviors: the moderating role of supervisor social support.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenji; Jex, Steve M

    2012-04-01

    This study addresses the relationships between coworker incivility and both work effort and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). It was expected that employees who experienced high levels of incivility from their coworkers would report reductions in work effort and higher levels of CWBs. Also, based on the emotion-centered model of work behaviors (Spector & Fox, 2002), it was expected that negative emotions would mediate the relationships between coworker incivility and both work effort and CWBs. Finally, we examined supervisor social support as a moderator of relationships between negative emotions and both work effort and CWBs. Two hundred nine full-time university employees completed a two-wave survey over a two-month time period. Results supported the hypothesized mediated relationships. It was also found that supervisor social support moderated the relationship between negative emotions and work effort but not the relationship between negative emotions and CWBs. Study implications and limitations are discussed.

  1. [Contact lens-related keratitis].

    PubMed

    Steiber, Zita; Berta, András; Módis, László

    2013-11-10

    Nowadays, keratitis, corneal infection due to wearing contact lens means an increasingly serious problem. Neglected cases may lead to corneal damage that can cause blindness in cases of otherwise healthy eyes. Early diagnosis based on the clinical picture and the typical patient history is an important way of prevention. Prophylaxis is substantial to avoid bacterial and viral infection that is highly essential in this group of diseases. Teaching contact lens wearers the proper contact lens care, storage, sterility, and hygiene regulations is of great importance. In case of corneal inflammation early accurate diagnosis supported by microbiological culture from contact lenses, storage boxes or cornea is very useful. Thereafter, targeted drug therapy or in therapy-resistant cases surgical treatment may even be necessary in order to sustain suitable visual acuity.

  2. Formation of cylindrical micro-lens array in fused silica glass using laser irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hun-Kook; Ahsan, Md. Shamim; Yoo, Dongyoon; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Kim, Jin Tae; Jung, Deok; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we report the development of plano-convex cylindrical micro-lens array on the surface of fused silica glass using laser processing technology. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are irradiated on the target fused silica glass substrate to pattern periodic micro-grooves. Afterwards, laser beam from CO2 laser source is applied several times on the previously micro-patterned fused silica glass surface, the purpose of which is to polish the micro-patterned glass surface. As a consequence, periodic plano-convex cylindrical micro-lens array is evolved on the glass surface. The micro-lens array shows great consistency in size and shape throughout the sample area. We also investigate various optical properties of the micro-lenses evolved glass substrates including the diffraction pattern and diffraction efficiency of light. The glass sample comprising cylindrical micro-lens array can diffract light with moderate diffraction efficiency. We strongly believe that, it is possible to engineer cylindrical micro-lens array on the surface of a variety of transparent materials including glasses and polymers over a large area.

  3. Accelerator driven neutron source design via beryllium target and (208)Pb moderator for boron neutron capture therapy in alternative treatment strategy by Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Abdollah

    2017-01-01

    The reactor has increased its area of application into medicine especially boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT); however, accelerator-driven neutron sources can be used for therapy purposes. The present study aimed to discuss an alternative method in BNCT functions by a small cyclotron with low current protons based on Karaj cyclotron in Iran. An epithermal neutron spectrum generator was simulated with 30 MeV proton energy for BNCT purposes. A low current of 300 μA of the proton beam in spallation target concept via 9Be target was accomplished to model neutron spectrum using 208Pb moderator around the target. The graphite reflector and dual layer collimator were planned to prevent and collimate the neutrons produced from proton interactions. Neutron yield per proton, energy distribution, flux, and dose components in the simulated head phantom were estimated by MCNPX code. The neutron beam quality was investigated by diverse filters thicknesses. The maximum epithermal flux transpired using Fluental, Fe, Li, and Bi filters with thicknesses of 7.4, 3, 0.5, and 4 cm, respectively; as well as the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio was 161. Results demonstrated that the induced neutrons from a low energy and low current proton may be effective in tumor therapy using 208Pb moderator with average lethargy and also graphite reflector with low absorption cross section to keep the generated neutrons. Combination of spallation-based BNCT and proton therapy can be especially effective, if a high beam intensity cyclotron becomes available.

  4. A study on repainting strategies for treating moderately moving targets with proton pencil beam scanning at the new Gantry 2 at PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenklusen, S. M.; Pedroni, E.; Meer, D.

    2010-09-01

    Treating moving targets using a scanning gantry for proton therapy is a promising but very challenging, not yet clinically demonstrated treatment modality. The interference of organ motion with the sequence of the beam delivery produces uncontrolled dose inhomogeneities within the target. One promising approach to overcome this difficulty is to increase the speed of scanning in order to apply the dose repeatedly (so-called repainting). To obtain sufficiently high scanning speeds a new, technologically improved gantry—Gantry 2—has been designed and is currently under construction at PSI. As there are many possible repainting strategies, the way repainting will be implemented on Gantry 2 will depend on the result of a careful analysis of the various treatment delivery strategies available. To achieve this aim, and prior to the start of experimental work with Gantry 2, simulations of dose distribution errors due to organ motion under various beam delivery strategies were investigated. The effects of motion on the dose distribution were studied for moderate motion amplitudes (5 mm) for spherical target volumes in a homogeneous medium and with homogeneous dose. In total over 200 000 dose distributions have been simulated and analyzed and selected results are discussed. From the obtained results we are confident to be able to treat moderately moving targets on Gantry 2 using repainted pencil-beam spot scanning. Continuous line scanning seems to be the most elegant solution; it provides higher repainting rates and produces superior results but is probably more difficult to realize. For larger motion amplitudes, continuous line scanning still shows good results, but we plan anyways to use a gating system for these cases, not only to reduce the inhomogeneity within the target volume but also to reduce safety margins.

  5. Lens-less surface second harmonic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sly, Krystal L.; Nguyen, Trang T.; Conboy, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Lens-less surface second harmonic generation imaging (SSHGI) is used to image an SHG active molecule, (S)-( + )-1,1’-bi-2-naphthol (SBN), incorporated into a lipid bilayer patterned with the 1951 United States Air Force resolution test target. Data show the coherent plane-wave nature of SHG allows direct imaging without the aid of a lens system. Lens-less SSHGI readily resolves line-widths as small as 223 μm at an object-image distance of 7.6 cm and line-widths of 397 μm at distances as far as 30 cm. Lens-less SSHGI simplifies the detection method, raises photon collection efficiency, and expands the field-of-view. These advantages allow greater throughput and make lens-less SSHGI a potentially valuable detection method for biosensors and medical diagnostics. PMID:23037346

  6. Lens-less surface second harmonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sly, Krystal L; Nguyen, Trang T; Conboy, John C

    2012-09-24

    Lens-less surface second harmonic generation imaging (SSHGI) is used to image an SHG active molecule, (S)-(+)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (SBN), incorporated into a lipid bilayer patterned with the 1951 United States Air Force resolution test target. Data show the coherent plane-wave nature of SHG allows direct imaging without the aid of a lens system. Lens-less SSHGI readily resolves line-widths as small as 223 μm at an object-image distance of 7.6 cm and line-widths of 397 μm at distances as far as 30 cm. Lens-less SSHGI simplifies the detection method, raises photon collection efficiency, and expands the field-of-view. These advantages allow greater throughput and make lens-less SSHGI a potentially valuable detection method for biosensors and medical diagnostics.

  7. Human amygdala engagement moderated by early life stress exposure is a biobehavioral target for predicting recovery on antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Green, Erin; Suppes, Trisha; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Hastie, Trevor; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Williams, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala circuitry and early life stress (ELS) are both strongly and independently implicated in the neurobiology of depression. Importantly, animal models have revealed that the contribution of ELS to the development and maintenance of depression is likely a consequence of structural and physiological changes in amygdala circuitry in response to stress hormones. Despite these mechanistic foundations, amygdala engagement and ELS have not been investigated as biobehavioral targets for predicting functional remission in translational human studies of depression. Addressing this question, we integrated human neuroimaging and measurement of ELS within a controlled trial of antidepressant outcomes. Here we demonstrate that the interaction between amygdala activation engaged by emotional stimuli and ELS predicts functional remission on antidepressants with a greater than 80% cross-validated accuracy. Our model suggests that in depressed people with high ELS, the likelihood of remission is highest with greater amygdala reactivity to socially rewarding stimuli, whereas for those with low-ELS exposure, remission is associated with lower amygdala reactivity to both rewarding and threat-related stimuli. This full model predicted functional remission over and above the contribution of demographics, symptom severity, ELS, and amygdala reactivity alone. These findings identify a human target for elucidating the mechanisms of antidepressant functional remission and offer a target for developing novel therapeutics. The results also offer a proof-of-concept for using neuroimaging as a target for guiding neuroscience-informed intervention decisions at the level of the individual person. PMID:27791054

  8. Contact Lens Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... 1088, www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative ...

  9. Optimization Experiments With A Double Gauss Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brixner, Berlyn; Klein, Morris M.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes how a lens can be generated by starting from plane surfaces. Three different experiments, using the Los Alamos National Laboratory optimization procedure, all converged on the same stable prescriptions in the optimum minimum region. The starts were made first from an already optimized lens appearing in the literature, then from a powerless plane-surfaces configuration, and finally from a crude Super Angulon configuration. In each case the result was a double Gauss lens, which suggests that this type of lens may be the best compact six-glass solution for one imaging problem: an f/2 aperture and a moderate field of view. The procedures and results are discussed in detail.

  10. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Targets Individualized to Pressure-Reactivity Index in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Needham, Edward; McFadyen, Charles; Newcombe, Virginia; Synnot, Anneliese J; Czosnyka, Marek; Menon, David

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently triggers a disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) at which autoregulation is optimal ("CPPopt") varies between individuals, and can be calculated based on fluctuations between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. This review assesses the effect of individualizing CPP targets to pressure reactivity index (a measure of autoregulation) in patients with TBI. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE®, Embase, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched in March 2015 for studies assessing the effect of targeting CPPopt in TBI. We included all studies that assessed the impact of targeting CPPopt on outcomes including mortality, neurological outcome, and physiological changes. Risk of bias was assessed using the RTI Item Bank and evidence quality was considered using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Eight cohort studies (based on six distinct data sets) assessing the association between CPPopt and mortality, Glasgow Outcome Scale and physiological measures in TBI were included. The quality of evidence was deemed very low based on the GRADE criteria. Although the data suggest an association between variation from CPPopt and poor clinical outcome at 6 months, the quality of evidence prevents firm conclusions, particularly regarding causality, from being drawn. Available data suggest that targeting CPPopt might represent a technique to improve outcomes following TBI, but currently there is insufficient high-quality data to support a recommendation for use in clinical practice. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies should be undertaken to clarify its role in the acute management of TBI.

  11. Identification of miRNAs and their targets in wild tomato at moderately and acutely elevated temperatures by high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rong; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Fangling; Cao, Xue; Sun, Mintao; Liu, Min; Wu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 19–24 nucleotide (nt) noncoding RNAs that play important roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. High temperatures have been the subject of considerable attention due to their negative effects on plant growth and development. Heat-responsive miRNAs have been identified in some plants. However, there have been no reports on the global identification of miRNAs and their targets in tomato at high temperatures, especially at different elevated temperatures. Here, three small-RNA libraries and three degradome libraries were constructed from the leaves of the heat-tolerant tomato at normal, moderately and acutely elevated temperatures (26/18 °C, 33/33 °C and 40/40 °C, respectively). Following high-throughput sequencing, 662 conserved and 97 novel miRNAs were identified in total with 469 conserved and 91 novel miRNAs shared in the three small-RNA libraries. Of these miRNAs, 96 and 150 miRNAs were responsive to the moderately and acutely elevated temperature, respectively. Following degradome sequencing, 349 sequences were identified as targets of 138 conserved miRNAs, and 13 sequences were identified as targets of eight novel miRNAs. The expression levels of seven miRNAs and six target genes obtained by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were largely consistent with the sequencing results. This study enriches the number of heat-responsive miRNAs and lays a foundation for the elucidation of the miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanism in tomatoes at elevated temperatures. PMID:27653374

  12. Direct detection of delayed high energy electrons from the 181Ta target irradiated by a moderate intensity femtosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savel’ev, A.; Chefonov, O.; Ovchinnikov, A.; Agranat, M.; Spohr, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    We depict an experimental study of delayed fast, negatively charged particles from femtosecond laser-plasma interaction at an intensity of I ∼ 1017 W cm‑2. Plates of 2 mm thickness made of 181Ta (∼100% abundance) and natural W were used as targets. We distinguished certain delayed events due to detection of negative H‑, C‑ and O‑ ions. However, most events which were delayed by 0.5–5 μs with respect to the instantaneous plasma formation caused by the laser pulses, were identified as electrons with energies of 3–7 keV. A comparative analysis between the tantalum and tungsten spectra was undertaken. This revealed a close similarity between the measured spectrum for tantalum and the predicted spectrum for electrons arising from to the internal conversion decay of the 6.237 keV nuclear isomeric state in 181Ta.

  13. LENS: Prototyping Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, S. Derek

    2013-04-01

    The Low-Energy Neutrino Spectrometer (LENS) prototyping program is broken into two phases. The first of these is μLENS, a small prototype to study the light transmission in the as built LENS scintillation lattice--- a novel detector method of high segmentation in a large liquid scintillation detector. The μLENS prototype is currently deployed and taking data at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) near Virginia Tech. I will discuss the Scintillation Lattice construction methods and schemes of the μLENS program for running with minimal channels instrumented to date ˜41 compared to full coverage 216). The second phase of prototyping is the miniLENS detector for which construction is under way. I will discuss the overall design from the miniLENS Scintillation Lattice to the shielding.

  14. Method and apparatus for sputtering with a plasma lens

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre

    2016-09-27

    A plasma lens for enhancing the quality and rate of sputter deposition onto a substrate is described herein. The plasma lens serves to focus positively charged ions onto the substrate while deflecting negatively charged ions, while at the same time due to the line of sight positioning of the lens, allowing for free passage of neutrals from the target to the substrate. The lens itself is formed of a wound coil of multiple turns, inside of which are deposed spaced lens electrodes which are electrically paired to impress an E field overtop the B field generated by the coil, the potential applied to the electrodes increasing from end to end towards the center of the lens, where the applied voltage is set to a high potential at the center electrodes as to produce a potential minimum on the axis of the lens.

  15. Complementarity to an miRNA seed region is sufficient to induce moderate repression of a target transcript in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Tomohito; Voshall, Adam; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Moriyama, Etsuko; Cerutti, Heriberto; Ohama, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-24 nt non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in a broad range of eukaryotes by pairing with mRNAs to direct post-transcriptional repression. The mechanistic details of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation have been well documented in multicellular model organisms. However, this process remains poorly studied in algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and specific features of miRNA biogenesis, target mRNA recognition and subsequent silencing are not well understood. In this study, we report on the characterization of a Chlamydomonas miRNA, cre-miR1174.2, which is processed from a near-perfect hairpin RNA. Using Gaussia luciferase (gluc) reporter genes, we have demonstrated that cre-miR1174.2 is functional in Chlamydomonas and capable of triggering site-specific cleavage at the center of a perfectly complementary target sequence. A mismatch tolerance test assay, based on pools of transgenic strains, revealed that target hybridization to nucleotides of the seed region, at the 5' end of an miRNA, was sufficient to induce moderate repression of expression. In contrast, pairing to the 3' region of the miRNA was not critical for silencing. Our results suggest that the base-pairing requirements for small RNA-mediated repression in C. reinhardtii are more similar to those of metazoans compared with the extensive complementarity that is typical of land plants. Individual Chlamydomonas miRNAs may potentially modulate the expression of numerous endogenous targets as a result of these relaxed base-pairing requirements. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Discovery of the Eureka volcanogenic massive sulphide lens using downhole electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paggi, Jacob; Macklin, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The Eureka volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) lens forms part of the Stockman Project in north-east Victoria. Eureka was discovered in early 2013, heralding the first new VMS mineralised zone to be discovered at the project since 1979. Key drivers to the detection of Eureka included the combination of downhole electromagnetics (EM) and a robust geological model. The lens is located 350 m to the north-east of the Currawong deposit, at a vertical depth of 360 m. Surface EM methods played a significant role in the discovery of the nearby Currawong and Wilga deposits during the late 1970s. Despite this, modern day airborne and fixed-loop transient EM (FLTEM) surveys failed to detect Eureka, most likely due to its depth, moderate conductance and loop-edge effects masking anomalies. The key component in discovering the lens was the interpretation of two subtle downhole transient electromagnetics (DHTEM) responses from 2012 exploration drillholes. These responses were further strengthened by structural and short wave infrared modelling, presenting a compelling multi-component drill target. The lens was discovered soon thereafter, with a discovery intercept of 22.65 m at 1.2% Cu, 0.7% Pb, 3.9% Zn, 43 g/t Ag and 1.3 g/t Au.

  17. Ion-kinetic simulations of D-3He gas-filled inertial confinement fusion target implosions with moderate to large Knudsen number

    DOE PAGES

    Larroche, O.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; ...

    2016-01-06

    Experiments designed to investigate the transition to non-collisional behavior in D3He-gas inertial confinement fusion target implosions display increasingly large discrepancies with respect to simulations by standard hydrodynamics codes as the expected ion mean-free-paths λc increase with respect to the target radius R (i.e., when the Knudsen number NK = λc/R grows). To take properly into account large NK's, multi-ion-species Vlasov-Fokker-Planck computations of the inner gas in the capsules have been performed, for two different values of NK, one moderate and one large. The results, including nuclear yield, reactivity-weighted ion temperatures, nuclear emissivities, and surface brightness, have been compared with themore » experimental data and with the results of hydrodynamical simulations, some of which include an ad hocmodeling of kinetic effects. The experimental results are quite accurately rendered by the kinetic calculations in the smaller-NK case, much better than by the hydrodynamical calculations. The kinetic effects at play in this case are thus correctly understood. However, in the higher-NK case, the agreement is much worse. Furthermore, the remaining discrepancies are shown to arise from kinetic phenomena (e.g., inter-species diffusion) occurring at the gas-pusher interface, which should be investigated in the future work.« less

  18. Biomechanical responses of PMHS in moderate-speed rear impacts and development of response targets for evaluating the internal and external biofidelity of ATDS.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun-Seok; Bolte, John H; Moorhouse, Kevin; Donnelly, Bruce; Herriott, Rodney; Mallory, Ann

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain biomechanical responses of post mortem human subjects (PMHS) by subjecting them to two moderate-speed rear impact sled test conditions (8.5g, 17 km/h; 10.5g, 24 km/h) while positioned in an experimental seat system, and to create biomechanical targets for internal and external biofidelity evaluation of rear impact ATDs. The experimental seat was designed to measure external loads on the head restraint (4 load cells), seat back (6 load cells), and seat pan (4 load cells) such that subject dynamic interaction with the seat could be evaluated. This seat system was capable of simulating the dynamic characteristics of modern vehicle seat backs by considering the moment-rotation properties of a typical passenger vehicle, thus providing a more realistic test environment than using a rigid seat with a non-rotating seat back as done in previous studies. Instrumentation used to measure biomechanical responses of the PMHS included both accelerometers and angular rate sensors (ARS). A total of fourteen sled tests using eight PMHS (males 175.8 ± 6.2 cm of stature and 78.4 ± 7.2 kg of weight) provided data sets of seven PMHS for both test conditions. The biomechanical responses are described at both speeds, and cervical spine injuries are documented. Biomechanical targets are also created for internal and external biofidelity evaluation of rear impact anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs).

  19. Ion-kinetic simulations of D-3He gas-filled inertial confinement fusion target implosions with moderate to large Knudsen number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larroche, O.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Atzeni, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Séguin, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments designed to investigate the transition to non-collisional behavior in D3He-gas inertial confinement fusion target implosions display increasingly large discrepancies with respect to simulations by standard hydrodynamics codes as the expected ion mean-free-paths λc increase with respect to the target radius R (i.e., when the Knudsen number NK=λc/R grows). To take properly into account large NK's, multi-ion-species Vlasov-Fokker-Planck computations of the inner gas in the capsules have been performed, for two different values of NK, one moderate and one large. The results, including nuclear yield, reactivity-weighted ion temperatures, nuclear emissivities, and surface brightness, have been compared with the experimental data and with the results of hydrodynamical simulations, some of which include an ad hoc modeling of kinetic effects. The experimental results are quite accurately rendered by the kinetic calculations in the smaller-NK case, much better than by the hydrodynamical calculations. The kinetic effects at play in this case are thus correctly understood. However, in the higher-NK case, the agreement is much worse. The remaining discrepancies are shown to arise from kinetic phenomena (e.g., inter-species diffusion) occurring at the gas-pusher interface, which should be investigated in the future work.

  20. Ion-kinetic simulations of D-3He gas-filled inertial confinement fusion target implosions with moderate to large Knudsen number

    SciTech Connect

    Larroche, O.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Atzeni, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Seguin, F. H.

    2016-01-06

    Experiments designed to investigate the transition to non-collisional behavior in D3He-gas inertial confinement fusion target implosions display increasingly large discrepancies with respect to simulations by standard hydrodynamics codes as the expected ion mean-free-paths λc increase with respect to the target radius R (i.e., when the Knudsen number NK = λc/R grows). To take properly into account large NK's, multi-ion-species Vlasov-Fokker-Planck computations of the inner gas in the capsules have been performed, for two different values of NK, one moderate and one large. The results, including nuclear yield, reactivity-weighted ion temperatures, nuclear emissivities, and surface brightness, have been compared with the experimental data and with the results of hydrodynamical simulations, some of which include an ad hocmodeling of kinetic effects. The experimental results are quite accurately rendered by the kinetic calculations in the smaller-NK case, much better than by the hydrodynamical calculations. The kinetic effects at play in this case are thus correctly understood. However, in the higher-NK case, the agreement is much worse. Furthermore, the remaining discrepancies are shown to arise from kinetic phenomena (e.g., inter-species diffusion) occurring at the gas-pusher interface, which should be investigated in the future work.

  1. Lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75 qualifies as a target for HIV gene therapy in the NSG mouse model.

    PubMed

    Vets, Sofie; Kimpel, Janine; Volk, Andreas; De Rijck, Jan; Schrijvers, Rik; Verbinnen, Bert; Maes, Wim; Von Laer, Dorothee; Debyser, Zeger; Gijsbers, Rik

    2012-05-01

    Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is an essential cofactor of HIV integration. Both stable overexpression of the C-terminal part of LEDGF/p75 (LEDGF(325-530)) containing the integrase (IN)-binding domain (IBD) and stable knockdown (KD) of LEDGF/p75 are known to inhibit HIV infection in laboratory cell lines. Here, primary human CD(4)(+) T-cells were transduced with lentiviral vectors encoding LEDGF(325-530), the interaction-deficient mutant LEDGF(325-530)D366N, or a hairpin depleting LEDGF/p75 and challenged with HIV. Maximal protection of primary T-cells from HIV infection was obtained after LEDGF(325-530) overexpression reducing HIV replication 40-fold without evidence of cellular toxicity. This strategy was subsequently evaluated in the NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) mouse model. Threefold reduction in mean plasma viral load was obtained in mice engrafted with CD(4)(+) T-cells expressing LEDGF(325-530) in comparison with engraftment with LEDGF(325-530)D366N cells. Four weeks after transplantation with LEDGF(325-530)D366N cells, 70% of the CD(4)(+) cells were lost due to ongoing HIV replication. However, in mice transplanted with LEDGF(325-530) cells only a 20% decrease in CD(4)(+) cells was measured. Liver and spleen sections of LEDGF(325-530) mice contained less HIV than LEDGF(325-530)D366N mice as measured by p24 antigen detection. LEDGF(325-530) overexpression potently inhibits HIV replication in vivo and protects against HIV mediated cell killing of primary CD(4)(+) T-cells.

  2. Lens Epithelium-derived Growth Factor/p75 Qualifies as a Target for HIV Gene Therapy in the NSG Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Vets, Sofie; Kimpel, Janine; Volk, Andreas; De Rijck, Jan; Schrijvers, Rik; Verbinnen, Bert; Maes, Wim; Von Laer, Dorothee; Debyser, Zeger; Gijsbers, Rik

    2012-01-01

    Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is an essential cofactor of HIV integration. Both stable overexpression of the C-terminal part of LEDGF/p75 (LEDGF325–530) containing the integrase (IN)-binding domain (IBD) and stable knockdown (KD) of LEDGF/p75 are known to inhibit HIV infection in laboratory cell lines. Here, primary human CD4+ T-cells were transduced with lentiviral vectors encoding LEDGF325–530, the interaction-deficient mutant LEDGF325–530D366N, or a hairpin depleting LEDGF/p75 and challenged with HIV. Maximal protection of primary T-cells from HIV infection was obtained after LEDGF325–530 overexpression reducing HIV replication 40-fold without evidence of cellular toxicity. This strategy was subsequently evaluated in the NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) mouse model. Threefold reduction in mean plasma viral load was obtained in mice engrafted with CD4+ T-cells expressing LEDGF325–530 in comparison with engraftment with LEDGF325–530D366N cells. Four weeks after transplantation with LEDGF325–530D366N cells, 70% of the CD4+ cells were lost due to ongoing HIV replication. However, in mice transplanted with LEDGF325–530 cells only a 20% decrease in CD4+ cells was measured. Liver and spleen sections of LEDGF325–530 mice contained less HIV than LEDGF325–530D366N mice as measured by p24 antigen detection. LEDGF325–530 overexpression potently inhibits HIV replication in vivo and protects against HIV mediated cell killing of primary CD4+ T-cells. PMID:22334021

  3. Improved optical lens system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, L. F.

    1970-01-01

    Objective lens produces a backwardly curving image of a star field that matches the similarly curved surface of the photocathode of an image dissector tube. Lens eliminates the need for a fiber-optics translation between the flat plane image and curved photocathode.

  4. Contact lens hygiene compliance and lens case contamination: A review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yvonne Tzu-Ying; Willcox, Mark; Zhu, Hua; Stapleton, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    A contaminated contact lens case can act as a reservoir for microorganisms that could potentially compromise contact lens wear and lead to sight threatening adverse events. The rate, level and profile of microbial contamination in lens cases, compliance and other risk factors associated with lens case contamination, and the challenges currently faced in this field are discussed. The rate of lens case contamination is commonly over 50%. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens are frequently recovered from lens cases. In addition, we provide suggestions regarding how to clean contact lens cases and improve lens wearers' compliance as well as future lens case design for reducing lens case contamination. This review highlights the challenges in reducing the level of microbial contamination which require an industry wide approach. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The oblique electron lens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Hallam, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    An oblique electron lens is described that is especially applicable to image converters and camera tubes employing flat opaque photocathodes. The use of optical lenses, corrector plates, and/or mirrors (often employed in other electron lenses designed for use with opaque photocathodes) are eliminated. The oblique electron lens is well suited to ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet image converters, and to image converters employing opaque negative electron affinity photocathodes. It is also possible to use this oblique electron lens for electronography. Measurements on an experimental tube show that a limiting resolution of 50 line pairs/mm is possible, but the intrinsic lens quality is believed to approach that of a conventional electromagnetic lens having uniform and colinear electric and magnetic fields.

  6. Sns Moderator Poison Design and Experiment Validation of the Moderator Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W.; Iverson, E. B.; Ferguson, P. D.; Crabtree, J. A.; Gallmeier, F. X.; Remec, I.; Baxter, D. V.; Lavelle, C. M.

    2009-08-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory reached 180 kW in August 2007, becoming the brightest pulsed neutron source in the world. At its full power of 1.4 MW, SNS will have thermal neutron fluxes approximately an order of magnitude greater than any existing pulsed spallation source. It thus brings a serious challenge to the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The SNS moderators are integrated with the inner reflector plug (IRP) at a cost of $2 million a piece. A replacement of the IRP presents a significant drawback to the facility due to the activation and the operation cost. Although there are many factors limiting the lifetime of the IRP, such as radiation damage to the structural material and helium production in beryllium, the limiting factor is the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The current operating target system of SNS was built with thick Gd poison sheets at a projected lifetime of 3 years. A recent design based on the MCNPX calculation proposed to replace the Gd poison sheets with even thicker Cd poison sheets, aiming to extend the poison sheet lifetime from 3 to 4 years accompanied by an approximate 5% gain of the moderator performance. An experiment was carried out to verify the calculated moderator performance at the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS), Indiana University, where the spectra of two polyethylene moderators were measured. The moderators are Cd-decoupled and are poisoned with 0.8 mm Gd and 1.2 mm Cd, respectively. The preliminary analysis of the experiment data shows that the characteristics of the measured spectra of the Gd- and Cd-poisoned moderators agree well with what the calculation predicted. A better moderator performance is observed in the Cd-poisoned moderator. The measured ratio of Cd over Gd on the moderator performance is in a reasonable agreement with the calculation. Further investigation is underway for a better understanding of the difference between the experiment and the

  7. Rethinking contact lens aftercare.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B

    2017-09-01

    The evolution of contact lens technology and clinical practice over the past three decades has been remarkable, with dramatic improvements in material biocompatibility, better lens designs and care systems, and more flexible and convenient modalities of wear. However, our approach to the aftercare examination has remained conservative, with the general modus operandi having not fully evolved from the difficult, early years of fitting non-regular replacement rigid and low water content hydrogel lenses. In this paper, we review current aftercare practice and in particular, the preferred frequency that lens wearers should return for routine visits and the appropriateness of regulations governing contact lens prescription expiry. Four key clinical reasons for conducting a routine aftercare visit are identified: preserving ocular health, maintaining good vision, optimising comfort and ensuring satisfactory lens fitting performance. Commercial reasons for conducting aftercare visits are also considered. A decision matrix is presented to help practitioners decide on an appropriate time interval between routine aftercare visits. The first aftercare visit should always take place within one to two weeks of lens dispensing. After this, the following time intervals between routine aftercare visits are advised as a general guideline: soft daily disposable, 24 months; soft daily reusable and rigid daily wear, 12 months; soft and rigid extended wear, six months. These aftercare visit frequencies may need to be adjusted when rapid rates of refractive change are anticipated, such as every six months during child/teenager myopic progression and every 12 months during the advancement of presbyopia. Numerous clinical caveats for varying these recommended aftercare frequencies are also discussed. Those new to lens wear should be seen within the first two months of lens dispensing. Regulatory authorities charged with the responsibility of stipulating the validity of a contact

  8. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3−1) and oblique trefoil (Z3−3) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg). PMID:26713216

  9. Gain versus loss framing in adherence-promoting communication targeting patients with chronic diseases: the moderating effect of individual time perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Villagran, Melinda M; Kreps, Gary L; McHorney, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the joint effect of message framing and time perspective in adherence-promoting communication targeting patients with chronic diseases. Based on previous framing and time perspective research, it was hypothesized that the gain frame would show an advantage over the loss frame among future-oriented patients; for present-oriented patients, it was hypothesized that the framing effect would be relatively indistinct. In total, 1,108 currently nonadherent patients with chronic disease participated in an experiment where they were randomly assigned to either gain- or loss-framed messages addressing key beliefs underlying their nonadherence or a no-message control condition. Intention and attitude regarding future adherence as well as message perceptions were measured after message presentation. Results of this study generally supported the hypotheses. Message topics-whether the messages addressed patients' perceived need for medications or concerns about side effects-did not moderate the effect of framing or the interaction between framing and time perspective. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. Newborn mouse lens proteome and its alteration by lysine 6 mutant ubiquitin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ubiquitin is a tag that often initiates degradation of proteins by the proteasome in the ubiquitin proteasome system. Targeted expression of K6W mutant ubiquitin (K6W-Ub) in the lens results in defects in lens development and cataract formation, suggesting critical functions for ubiquitin in lens. T...

  11. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  12. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Salazar, Mike A.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  13. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  14. The lens circulation.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Richard T; Kistler, Joerg; Donaldson, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The lens is the largest organ in the body that lacks a vasculature. The reason is simple: blood vessels scatter and absorb light while the physiological role of the lens is to be transparent so it can assist the cornea in focusing light on the retina. We hypothesize this lack of blood supply has led the lens to evolve an internal circulation of ions that is coupled to fluid movement, thus creating an internal micro-circulatory system, which makes up for the lack of vasculature. This review covers the membrane transport systems that are believed to generate and direct this internal circulatory system.

  15. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  16. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  17. Reflections From a Fresnel Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2005-01-01

    Reflection of light by a convex Fresnel lens gives rise to two distinct images. A highly convex inverted real reflective image forms on the object side of the lens, while an upright virtual reflective image forms on the opposite side of the lens. I describe here a set of laser experiments performed upon a Fresnel lens. These experiments provide…

  18. Reflections From a Fresnel Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2005-01-01

    Reflection of light by a convex Fresnel lens gives rise to two distinct images. A highly convex inverted real reflective image forms on the object side of the lens, while an upright virtual reflective image forms on the opposite side of the lens. I describe here a set of laser experiments performed upon a Fresnel lens. These experiments provide…

  19. Contact Lens Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... contact lenses to any water: tap, bottled, distilled, lake or ocean water. Never use non-sterile water ( ... from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage ...

  20. Plasmonic achromatic doublet lens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyookeun; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-03-09

    An achromatic doublet lens (ADL) for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is designed. Similar to the conventional ADL, the proposed plasmonic ADL is composed of two lens layers with different dispersion relations. Considering these layers as effective media, their refractive indices with respect to the free-space wavelength are calculated. Geometric parameters of the lens are initially set according to the geometrical optic theory, and then optimized by reduced dimensional calculations. The performance of proposed device is verified by using full-wave simulations and compared with a double-convex plasmonic lens to verify its achromatic characteristics. It is shown that the standard deviation of the focal length shift is reduced from 668 nm to 168 nm, after introducing the ADL.

  1. The low-field permanent magnet electrostatic plasma lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A.; Gorshkov, V.; Maslov, V.; Zadorozhny, V.; Brown, I.

    2004-05-01

    We describe the status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens as used for the manipulation of high current broad beams of heavy ions of moderate energy. In some collaborative work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory the lens was used to good effect for carrying out high dose ion implantation processing. In the process of this work a very narrow range of low magnetic field was found for which the ion-optical characteristics of the lens improved markedly. Subsequent theoretical analysis and computer modeling has led to an understanding of this phenomenon. These serendipitous results open up some attractive possibilities for the development of a new compact and low cost plasma lens based on permanent magnets rather than on current-driven field coils surrounding the lens volume. The development of this kind of lens, including both very low noise and minimal spherical aberration effects, may lead to a tool suitable for use in the injection beam lines of high current heavy ion linear accelerators. Here we briefly review the lens fundamentals, some characteristics of focusing heavy ion beams at low magnetic fields, and summarize recent theoretical and experimental developments, with emphasis on the relevance and suitability of the lens for accelerator injection application.

  2. Tunable Polymer Lens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-04

    Sylgard® 184). Poly ( methyl methacrylate ) (PMMA) was provided by Atofina Chemicals, Inc. (Plexiglas V920). The SEBS copolymer and PMMA resins...convex poly ( methyl methacrylate ) (PMMA) lens, R=25.8 mm, with a tunable elastomeric lens membrane, R=38.6 mm. The PMMA is rigid; the variable focal...using a combination of deformable and rigid polymeric materials. An elastomeric styrene- ethylene /butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer was

  3. Lens auto-centering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Doucet, Michel; Côté, Patrice; Gauvin, Jonny; Anctil, Geneviève; Tremblay, Mathieu

    2015-09-01

    In a typical optical system, optical elements usually need to be precisely positioned and aligned to perform the correct optical function. This positioning and alignment involves securing the optical element in a holder or mount. Proper centering of an optical element with respect to the holder is a delicate operation that generally requires tight manufacturing tolerances or active alignment, resulting in costly optical assemblies. To optimize optical performance and minimize manufacturing cost, there is a need for a lens mounting method that could relax manufacturing tolerance, reduce assembly time and provide high centering accuracy. This paper presents a patent pending lens mounting method developed at INO that can be compared to the drop-in technique for its simplicity while providing the level of accuracy close to that achievable with techniques using a centering machine (usually < 5 μm). This innovative auto-centering method is based on the use of geometrical relationship between the lens diameter, the lens radius of curvature and the thread angle of the retaining ring. The autocentering principle and centering test results performed on real optical assemblies are presented. In addition to the low assembly time, high centering accuracy, and environmental robustness, the INO auto-centering method has the advantage of relaxing lens and barrel bore diameter tolerances as well as lens wedge tolerances. The use of this novel lens mounting method significantly reduces manufacturing and assembly costs for high performance optical systems. Large volume productions would especially benefit from this advancement in precision lens mounting, potentially providing a drastic cost reduction.

  4. Evaluation of the internal and external biofidelity of current rear impact ATDs to response targets developed from moderate-speed rear impacts of PMHS.

    PubMed

    Moorhouse, Kevin; Donnelly, Bruce; Kang, Yun-Seok; Bolte, John H; Herriott, Rodney

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate both the internal and external biofidelity of existing rear impact anthropomorphic test devices (BioRID II, RID3D, Hybrid III 50th) in two moderate-speed rear impact sled test conditions (8.5g, 17 km/h; 10.5g, 24 km/h) by quantitatively comparing the ATD responses to biomechanical response targets developed from PMHS testing in a corresponding study. The ATDs and PMHS were tested in an experimental seat system that is capable of simulating the dynamic seat back rotation response of production seats. The experimental seat contains a total of fourteen load cells installed such that external loads from the ATDs and PMHS can be measured to evaluate external biofidelity. The PMHS were instrumented to correspond to the instrumentation contained in the ATDs so that direct comparison between ATDs and PMHS could be made to evaluate internal biofidelity. The NHTSA Biofidelity Ranking system was used to quantitatively evaluate the biofidelity of the ATDs and an additional tool was introduced and utilized which allows for the biofidelity score to be partitioned into components of amplitude, phase, and shape. For internal biofidelity, the BioRID II and RID3D were more biofidelic than the Hybrid III in the 17 km/h test, and the BioRID II was most biofidelic in the 24 km/h test. For external biofidelity, the BioRID II was most biofidelic in the 17 km/h test, while both the BioRID II and the RID3D were more biofidelic than the Hybrid III in the 24 km/h test. Overall, the BioRID II demonstrated the best biofidelity in both the 17 km/h and 24 km/h tests.

  5. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  6. The Isis cold moderators

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G. M.; Broome, T. A.; Burridge, R. A.; Cragg, D.; Hall, R.; Haynes, D.; Hirst, J.; Hogston, J. R.; Jones, H. H.; Sexton, J.; Wright, P.

    1997-09-01

    ISIS is a pulsed spallation neutron source where neutrons are produced by the interaction of a 160 kW proton beam of energy 800 MeV in a water-cooled Tantalum Target. The fast neutrons produced are thermalized in four moderators: two ambient water, one liquid methane operating at 100K and a liquid hydrogen moderator at 20 K. This paper gives a description of the construction of both cold moderator systems, details of the operating experience and a description of the current development program.

  7. A Novel Fisheye-Lens-Based Photoacoustic System

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hojong; Ryu, Jaemyung; Kim, Jungsuk

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel fisheye-lens-based photoacoustic (PA) system. In conventional PA systems, mechanical motors are utilized to obtain the target information due to the small fields of view of such systems. The use of such motors introduces mechanical noise, which is difficult to remove when processing the echo signals. A fisheye lens system offering a wide field of view would effectively reduce the motor effects (i.e., the noise) and enable the system to have a wide field of view. Therefore, in this work, we propose a novel fisheye lens scheme and describe a PA system based on the developed lens scheme. In addition, to confirm the feasibility of the fisheye-lens-based PA system, we present the typical pulse-echo responses obtained using a 20 MHz single element immersion transducer and the echo signals measured from bull’s eye tissue samples separated by approximately 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm diagonally and 2 cm vertically from the fisheye lens. The experimental results demonstrate that the echo signal amplitudes, their center frequencies, and the −6 dB bandwidths obtained using red, green, and blue lights and a fisheye lens are acceptable when the fisheye lens is separated from a sample both diagonally and vertically. Therefore, fisheye-lens-based PA systems could be a potential method of achieving wide fields of view while reducing the mechanical motor effects. PMID:27999376

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species and the Aging Eye: Specific Role of Metabolically Active Mitochondria in Maintaining Lens Function and in the Initiation of the Oxidation-Induced Maturity Onset Cataract--A Novel Platform of Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants With Broad Therapeutic Potential for Redox Regulation and Detoxification of Oxidants in Eye Diseases.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2016-01-01

    The aging eye appears to be at considerable risk from oxidative stress. A great deal of research indicates that dysfunctional mitochondria are the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS). More than 95% of O2 produced during normal metabolism is generated by the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are also the major target of ROS. Cataract formation, the opacification of the eye lens, is one of the leading causes of human blindness worldwide, accounting for 47.8% of all causes of blindness. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cell plasma membrane damage, which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS-induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage, and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. This article is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial ROS are altered in the aging eye along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo. As a result of the combination of weak metal chelating, OH and lipid peroxyl radicals scavenging, reducing activities to liberated fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides, carnosine and carcinine appear to be physiological antioxidants able to efficiently protect the lipid phase of biologic membranes and aqueous environments and act as the antiapoptotic natural drug compounds The authors developed and patented the new ophthalmic compositions, including N-acetylcarnosine, acting as a prodrug of naturally targeted to mitochondria L-carnosine endowed with pluripotent antioxidant activities combined with mitochondria-targeted

  9. 51. (no plate) Lens, lens pedestal, mercury float, shade holder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. (no plate) Lens, lens pedestal, mercury float, shade holder installation, drawing # 3101, sheet 2 of 2. Approved April 6, 1928. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  10. 50. (no plate) Lens, lens pedestal, mercury float, drawing # ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. (no plate) Lens, lens pedestal, mercury float, drawing # 3101, sheet 1 of 2. Approved April 6, 1928. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  11. An electrostatically and a magnetically confined electron gun lens system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernius, Mark T.; Man, Kin F.; Chutjian, Ara

    1988-01-01

    Focal properties, electron trajectory calculations, and geometries are given for two electron 'gun' lens systems that have a variety of applications in, for example, electron-neutral and electron-ion scattering experiments. One nine-lens system utilizes only electrostatic confinement and is capable of focusing electrons onto a fixed target with extremely small divergence angles, over a range of final energies 1-790 eV. The second gun lens system is a simpler three-lens system suitable for use in a uniform, solenoidal magnetic field. While the focusing properties of such a magnetically confined lens systenm are simpler to deal with, the system does illustrate features of electron extraction and Brillouin flow that have not been suitably emphasized in the literature.

  12. An electrostatically and a magnetically confined electron gun lens system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernius, Mark T.; Man, Kin F.; Chutjian, Ara

    1988-01-01

    Focal properties, electron trajectory calculations, and geometries are given for two electron 'gun' lens systems that have a variety of applications in, for example, electron-neutral and electron-ion scattering experiments. One nine-lens system utilizes only electrostatic confinement and is capable of focusing electrons onto a fixed target with extremely small divergence angles, over a range of final energies 1-790 eV. The second gun lens system is a simpler three-lens system suitable for use in a uniform, solenoidal magnetic field. While the focusing properties of such a magnetically confined lens systenm are simpler to deal with, the system does illustrate features of electron extraction and Brillouin flow that have not been suitably emphasized in the literature.

  13. Refractive lens exchange with foldable toric intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Mesa, Ramón; Carrasco-Sánchez, Daniel; Díaz-Alvarez, Sara B; Ruíz-Mateos, M Angeles; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2009-06-01

    To assess visual and refractive outcomes, and rotational stability after refractive lens exchange (RLE) with toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation to correct ametropia and preexisting astigmatism. Prospective, nonrandomized, observational case series (self-controlled). This prospective, nonrandomized, and self-controlled study included 32 eyes of 19 consecutive patients with more than 1.00 diopter (D) of preexisting corneal astigmatism having RLE with AcrySof Toric IOL implantation (Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, Texas, USA). Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive sphere, and keratometric and refractive cylinder were recorded preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Toric IOL axis shift was also measured. A patient satisfaction, visual phenomena, and spectacle dependency questionnaire was also carried out. At 6 months postoperatively, UCVA was 20/32 or better in 100% of the eyes, with 84.3% achieving 20/25 or better. One hundred percent of eyes achieved 20/25 or better BCVA. No eye lost >or=2 lines, 1 eye lost 1 line, 16 eyes did not change, 4 eyes gained 1 line, and 11 eyes gained >or=2 lines of BCVA after the surgery. Mean refractive cylinder was reduced significantly after surgery from -2.46 +/- 0.99 D to -0.53 +/- 0.30 D (P < .001). Vector analysis to compare attempted vs achieved correction showed that 100% of eyes were within +/- 1.00 D for the spherical equivalent, and 100% of eyes were within +/-0.50 D for the astigmatic components (J(0) and J(45)). Mean toric IOL axis rotation was 0.90 +/- 1.76 degrees, being moderate). RLE with toric IOL implantation showed good visual and refractive outcomes for correcting spherical and cylindrical refractive errors.

  14. Microoptical compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Gill, David D.

    2007-10-23

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  15. Lens window simplifies TDL housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Rowland, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Lens window seal in tunable-diode-laser housing replaces plan parallel window. Lens seals housing and acts as optical-output coupler, thus eliminating need for additional reimaging or collimating optics.

  16. Magnetic lens apparatus for a low-voltage high-resolution electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, Albert V.

    1996-01-01

    A lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles of low accelerating voltage is brought to a focus by a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. The lens comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. The lens apparatus comprises the sole focusing lens for high-resolution imaging in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope.

  17. Optimization of electrostatic lens systems for low-energy scanning microcolumn applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Tae-Sik; Kim, Dae-Wook; Ahn, Seungjoon; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Ho-Seob; Ahn, Seong Joon

    2008-11-15

    The optimization of a low-energy scanning microcolumn is proposed by adopting a modified Einzel lens sandwiched between an aligner and a deflector. The modified Einzel lens is composed of four electrodes, and the two center electrodes are specially designed quadrupole lenses having keyhole type rather than circular apertures. The outer electrodes of the Einzel lens having circular apertures are grounded, and the quadrupole lens is operated by applying the quadrupole voltages. The effects of the separated deflector system and the static quadrupole lens were investigated by analyzing the scanning electron beam spot at the target, and the results show that the proposed system can improve the performance of the scanning microcolumn.

  18. Evaluation of a novel design for an electrostatic quadrupole triplet ion beam lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, L. R.; Bouas, J. D.; Matteson, S.; Weathers, D. L.

    2007-08-01

    We describe the design and evaluation of an electrostatic quadrupole triplet lens constructed to focus ion beams of up to 200 keV in energy. The lens is very compact and incorporates a feature to induce octupole fields that can correct for spherical and other octupole-order aberrations. Two methods were used to evaluate the lens: observation of the focused beam spot on a specially fabricated target while systematically varying lens voltages, and the grid-shadow technique. The latter demonstrated that octupole-order aberrations were completely corrected in one direction when the lens quadrupoles were operated individually and excited to produce an appropriate octupole component of the electric field.

  19. Evaluation of a Novel Design for an Electrostatic Quadrupole Triplet Ion Beam Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, L. R.; Bouas, J. D.; Matteson, S.; Weathers, D. L.

    2006-10-01

    We describe the design and evaluation of an electrostatic quadrupole triplet lens constructed to focus ion beams of up to 200 keV in energy. The lens is very compact and incorporates a feature to induce octupole fields that can correct for spherical and other octupole-order aberrations. Two methods were used to evaluate the lens: observation of the focused beam spot on a specially fabricated target while systematically varying lens voltages, and the grid-shadow technique. The latter demonstrated that octupole-order aberrations were completely corrected in one direction when the lens quadrupoles were operated individually with appropriate octupole excitations.

  20. Contact Lens Methods for Clinical Myopia Control.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Philip Raey Kidd; Munro, Oliver James; Phillips, John Robert

    2016-09-01

    A number of optical methods for slowing myopia progression have been tested and are now available. However, data on real-world use in clinical use is scarce. Here, we present a review of the clinical outcomes for patients attending a specialist myopia control clinic at The University of Auckland Optometry School, NZ. We report a comparative case series of 110 patients (aged 4-33 years, mean: 12.13 ± 4.58 years, 62% female) who attended the clinic between 2010 and 2014. Fifty-six were prescribed orthokeratology, 32 dual focus soft contact lenses, and 22 received advice only. Initial myopia, vitreous and axial eye length, previous myopia progression, age, number of myopic parents, and gender were not significantly different between orthokeratology and dual focus soft contact lens groups. Mean follow-up time for the orthokeratology and dual focus lens groups was the same (orthokeratology: 1.30 ± 0.88 years; dual focus lens: 1.33 ± 0.80 years (p = 0.989)). There was a significant reduction in the annualized myopia progression in both groups (orthokeratology: -1.17 ± 0.55 to -0.09 ± 017 D/yr, p < 0.001; dual focus soft contact lens: -1.15 ± 0.46 to -0.10 ± 0.23 D/yr, p < 0.001). There was no difference between orthokeratology and dual focus lens treatment efficacy (p = 0.763), nor in axial or vitreous chamber length changes after treatment (p = 0.184). One adverse event was reported over the 4-year period. Both orthokeratology and dual focus soft contact lenses are effective strategies for targeting myopia progression in the clinic. We saw no significant difference in the efficacy of the two methods in this regard, and so we believe there are very few barriers for any contact lens practitioner to be actively promoting myopia control treatment to at-risk patients.

  1. Luneburg lens in silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Di Falco, Andrea; Kehr, Susanne C; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-03-14

    The Luneburg lens is an aberration-free lens that focuses light from all directions equally well. We fabricated and tested a Luneburg lens in silicon photonics. Such fully-integrated lenses may become the building blocks of compact Fourier optics on chips. Furthermore, our fabrication technique is sufficiently versatile for making perfect imaging devices on silicon platforms.

  2. A Tribute to Len Barton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This article constitutes a short personal tribute to Len Barton in honour of his work and our collegial relationship going back over 30 years. It covers how Len saw his intellectual project of providing critical sociological and political perspectives on special education, disability and inclusion, and his own radical political perspectives. Len's…

  3. Normal and diseased personal eye modeling using age-appropriate lens parameters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ling; Shi, L.; Lewis, J. W. L.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized eye modeling of normal and diseased eye conditions is attractive due to the recent availability of detailed ocular measurements in clinic environments and the promise of its medical and industrial applications. In the customized modeling, the optical properties of the crystalline lens including the gradient refractive index, the lens bio-geometry and orientation are typically assigned with average lens parameters from literature since typically they are not clinically available. Although, through the optical optimization by assigning lens parameters as variables, the clinical measured wavefront aberration can be achieved, the optimized lens biometry and orientation often end up at edges of the statistical distribution. Without an effective validation of these models today, the fidelity of the final lens (and therefore the model) remains questionable. To develop a more reliable customized model without detailed lens information, we incorporate age-appropriate lens parameters as the initial condition of optical optimization. A biconic lens optimization was first performed to provide a correct lens profile for accurate lower order aberration and then followed by the wavefront optimization. Clinical subjects were selected from all ages with both normal and diseased corneal and refractive conditions. 19 ammetropic eyes ( + 4D to −11D), and 16 keratoconus eyes (mild to moderate with cylinder 0.25 to 6D) were modeled. Age- and gender-corrected refractive index was evaluated. Final models attained the lens shapes comparable to the statistical distribution in their age. PMID:22714237

  4. The Lens of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalos, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

  5. Thin Lens Ray Tracing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatland, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a ray tracing approach to thin lens analysis based on a vector form of Snell's law for paraxial rays as an alternative to the usual approach in introductory physics courses. The ray tracing approach accommodates skew rays and thus provides a complete analysis. (Author/KHR)

  6. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration.

  7. Thermal Lens Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Kenji; Hibara, Akihide; Kimura, Hiroko; Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2000-09-01

    We developed a novel laser microscope based on the thermal lens effect induced by a coaxial beam comprised of excitation and probe beams. The signal generation mechanism was confirmed to be an authentic thermal lens effect from the measurement of signal and phase dependences on optical configurations between the sample and the probe beam focus, and therefore, the thermal lens effect theory could be applied. Two-point spatial resolution was determined by the spot size of the excitation beam, not by the thermal diffusion length. Sensitivity was quite high, and the detection ability, evaluated using a submicron microparticle containing dye molecules, was 0.8 zmol/μm2, hence a distribution image of trace chemical species could be obtained quantitatively. In addition, analytes are not restricted to fluorescent species, therefore, the thermal lens microscope is a promising analytical microscope. A two-dimensional image of a histamine molecule distribution, which was produced in mast cells at the femtomole level in a human nasal mucous polyp, was obtained.

  8. The Lens of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalos, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

  9. Thin Lens Ray Tracing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatland, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a ray tracing approach to thin lens analysis based on a vector form of Snell's law for paraxial rays as an alternative to the usual approach in introductory physics courses. The ray tracing approach accommodates skew rays and thus provides a complete analysis. (Author/KHR)

  10. Expression profiling and gene discovery in the mouse lens.

    PubMed

    Wride, Michael A; Mansergh, Fiona C; Adams, Steffan; Everitt, Rebecca; Minnema, Stephanie E; Rancourt, Derrick E; Evans, Martin J

    2003-08-22

    Defects in the development and physiology of the lens can result in cataracts (opacification of the lens), which are currently treatable only by surgical removal. The lens is also an excellent system for understanding fundamental biological processes such as cellular differentiation and ageing. Here, microarrays have been used to gain insights into global patterns of gene expression in the mouse lens. Lens gene expression compared to non-lens tissues has been investigated in order to identify genes preferentially expressed in the lens and lenses of different ages have been compared to identify differentially regulated genes. Genes expressed in the lens were identified using mouse GeneFilters microarrays (GF400; ResGen). Each array comprises 5,184 mouse cDNAs representing sequence-verified known genes and uncharacterized ESTs spotted onto a nylon membrane. Target RNA (33P labeled) from lens and non-lens samples was hybridized to the arrays. The proportion of genes involved in various biological processes was investigated using Onto-Express to search for GeneOntology terms associated with them. Differential gene expression was investigated using K-means clustering analysis. Expression of known and uncharacterized genes selected from the arrays was investigated further using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. 1,668 genes were expressed in one or more of newborn, 7 day old, and adult mouse lenses at levels significantly above background. Raw data and bioinformatics data relating to these genes have been published herein. There were 543 (33%) known genes, 124 (7%) had some similarity to known genes, 400 (24%) were functionally uncharacterized, and the remaining 601 (36%) genes were novel (matching only existing ESTs). Onto-Express identified genes involved in various biological processes including several categories containing greater numbers of genes than would be expected by chance, such as transcription regulation and G-protein coupled receptor signaling genes. Semi

  11. Understanding the accommodating intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Rana, Azhar; Miller, David; Magnante, Peter

    2003-12-01

    To review current accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) designs and introduce a new design consisting of a plus lens and a minus lens. Cornea Consultants of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Computer simulation studies of a model eye calculated the pseudoaccommodation range with different powers of 1 IOL or of 2 IOLs acting as a doublet. The doublet consisting of a convex (plus) lens and a concave (minus) lens gave a greater range of power change than a single convex lens or a doublet consisting of 2 convex lenses. The greater range of power results from the plus lens moving forward. The results show that an IOL design consisting of positive and negative lenses that move closer or farther from each other offers a greater range of pseudoaccommodation than other designs.

  12. Ultrasound field measurement using a binary lens

    PubMed Central

    Clement, G.T.; Nomura, H.; Kamakura, T.

    2014-01-01

    Field characterization methods using a scattering target in the absence of a point-like receiver have been well described in which scattering is recorded by a relatively large receiver located outside the field of measurement. Unfortunately, such methods are prone to artifacts due to averaging across the receiver surface. To avoid this problem while simultaneously increasing the gain of a received signal, the present study introduces a binary plate lens designed to focus spherically-spreading waves onto a planar region having a nearly-uniform phase proportional to that of the target location. The lens is similar to a zone plate, but modified to produce a biconvex-like behavior, such that it focuses both planar and spherically spreading waves. A measurement device suitable for characterizing narrowband ultrasound signals in air is designed around this lens by coupling it to a target and planar receiver. A prototype device is constructed and used to characterize the field of a highly-focused 400 kHz air transducer along 2 radial lines. Comparison of the measurements with numeric predictions formed from nonlinear acoustic simulation showed good relative pressure correlation, with mean differences of 10% and 12% over center 3dB FWHM drop and 12% and 17% over 6dB. PMID:25643084

  13. Foveated endoscopic lens

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We present a foveated miniature endoscopic lens implemented by amplifying the optical distortion of the lens. The resulting system provides a high-resolution region in the central field of view and low resolution in the outer fields, such that a standard imaging fiber bundle can provide both the high resolution needed to determine tissue health and the wide field of view needed to determine the location within the inspected organ. Our proof of concept device achieves 7∼8  μm resolution in the fovea and an overall field of view of 4.6 mm. Example images and videos show the foveated lens’ capabilities. PMID:22463022

  14. Gradient Index Lens Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-25

    over six to nine readings at two to three input polarizations each. The first set of index values is calculated assuming ei = 450 These values are...TECHNICAL REPORT RG-CR-84-2 Sli GRADIENT INDEX LENS RESEARCH Prepared by: Duncan T. Moore The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Miten Data Fntered) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NU14MU R GOVT ACCESSION No. 3

  15. HoloLens

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-20

    ISS046e043637 (02/20/2016) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly tweeted out this image to his followers Feb 20, 2016 with the tag: "This #Saturday morning checked out the @Microsoft #HoloLens aboard @Space_Station! Wow! #YearInSpace ". The device is part of NASA’s project Sidekick which is exploring the use of augmented reality to reduce crew training requirements and increase the efficiency at which astronauts can work in space.

  16. Light-adjustable lens.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: First, to determine whether a silicone light-adjustable intraocular lens (IOL) can be fabricated and adjusted precisely with a light delivery device (LDD). Second, to determine the biocompatibility of an adjustable IOL and whether the lens can be adjusted precisely in vivo. METHODS: After fabrication of a light-adjustable silicone formulation, IOLs were made and tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, leaching, precision of adjustment, optical quality after adjustment, and mechanical properties. Light-adjustable IOLs were then tested in vivo for biocompatibility and precision of adjustment in a rabbit model. In collaboration with Zeiss-Meditec, a digital LDD was developed and tested to correct for higher-order aberrations in light-adjustable IOLs. RESULTS: The results establish that a biocompatible silicone IOL can be fabricated and adjusted using safe levels of light. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity or leaching. Testing of mechanical properties revealed no significant differences from commercial controls. Implantation of light-adjustable lenses in rabbits demonstrated- excellent biocompatibility after 6 months, comparable to a commercially available IOL. In vivo spherical (hyperopic and myopic) adjustment in rabbits was achieved using an analog light delivery system. The digital light delivery system was tested and achieved correction of higher-order aberrations. CONCLUSION: A silicone light-adjustable IOL and LDD have been developed to enable postoperative, noninvasive adjustment of lens power. The ability to correct higher-order aberrations in these materials has broad potential applicability for optimization of vision in patients undergoing cataract and refractive surgery. PMID:14971588

  17. Boundary conditions for the influence of unfamiliar non-target primes in unconscious evaluative priming: The moderating role of attentional task sets.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Sim, Eun-Jim; Wentura, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Evaluative priming by masked emotional stimuli that are not consciously perceived has been taken as evidence that affective stimulus evaluation can also occur unconsciously. However, as masked priming effects were small and frequently observed only for familiar primes that there also presented as visible targets in an evaluative decision task, priming was thought to reflect primarily response activation based on acquired S-R associations and not evaluative semantic stimulus analysis. The present study therefore assessed across three experiments boundary conditions for the emergence of masked evaluative priming effects with unfamiliar primes in an evaluative decision task and investigated the role of the frequency of target repetition on priming with pictorial and verbal stimuli. While familiar primes elicited robust priming effects in all conditions, priming effects by unfamiliar primes were reliably obtained for low repetition (pictures) or unrepeated targets (words), but not for targets repeated at a high frequency. This suggests that unfamiliar masked stimuli only elicit evaluative priming effects when the task set associated with the visible target involves evaluative semantic analysis and is not based on S-R triggered responding as for high repetition targets. The present results therefore converge with the growing body of evidence demonstrating attentional control influences on unconscious processing.

  18. c-myc Regulates Cell Proliferation during Lens Development

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Anielle L.; Rodrigues, Paulo M. G.; Martins, Rodrigo A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Myc protooncogenes play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, growth, differentiation and survival during development. In various developing organs, c-myc has been shown to control the expression of cell cycle regulators and its misregulated expression is detected in many human tumors. Here, we show that c-myc gene (Myc) is highly expressed in developing mouse lens. Targeted deletion of c-myc gene from head surface ectoderm dramatically impaired ocular organogenesis, resulting in severe microphtalmia, defective anterior segment development, formation of a lens stalk and/or aphakia. In particular, lenses lacking c-myc presented thinner epithelial cell layer and growth impairment that was detectable soon after its inactivation. Defective development of c-myc-null lens was not caused by increased cell death of lens progenitor cells. Instead, c-myc loss reduced cell proliferation, what was associated with an ectopic expression of Prox1 and p27Kip1 proteins within epithelial cells. Interestingly, a sharp decrease in the expression of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxe3 was also observed following c-myc inactivation. These data represent the first description of the physiological roles played by a Myc family member in mouse lens development. Our findings support the conclusion that c-myc regulates the proliferation of lens epithelial cells in vivo and may, directly or indirectly, modulate the expression of classical cell cycle regulators in developing mouse lens. PMID:24503550

  19. Fibrosis in the lens. Sprouty regulation of TGFβ-signaling prevents lens EMT leading to cataract.

    PubMed

    Lovicu, F J; Shin, E H; McAvoy, J W

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is a common age-related condition that is caused by progressive clouding of the normally clear lens. Cataract can be effectively treated by surgery; however, like any surgery, there can be complications and the development of a secondary cataract, known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO), is the most common. PCO is caused by aberrant growth of lens epithelial cells that are left behind in the capsular bag after surgical removal of the fiber mass. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is central to fibrotic PCO and forms of fibrotic cataract, including anterior/posterior polar cataracts. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) has been shown to induce lens EMT and consequently research has focused on identifying ways of blocking its action. Intriguingly, recent studies in animal models have shown that EMT and cataract developed when a class of negative-feedback regulators, Sprouty (Spry)1 and Spry2, were conditionally deleted from the lens. Members of the Spry family act as general antagonists of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated MAPK signaling pathway that is involved in many physiological and developmental processes. As the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway is a well established target of Spry proteins, and overexpression of Spry can block aberrant TGFβ-Smad signaling responsible for EMT and anterior subcapsular cataract, this indicates a role for the ERK/MAPK pathway in TGFβ-induced EMT. Given this and other supporting evidence, a case is made for focusing on RTK antagonists, such as Spry, for cataract prevention. In addition, and looking to the future, this review also looks at possibilities for supplanting EMT with normal fiber differentiation and thereby promoting lens regenerative processes after cataract surgery. Whilst it is now known that the epithelial to fiber differentiation process is driven by FGF, little is known about factors that coordinate the precise assembly of fibers into a functional lens. However, recent research

  20. A systematic review of predictors and moderators of response to psychological therapies in OCD: do we have enough empirical evidence to target treatment?

    PubMed

    Knopp, Jasmin; Knowles, Sarah; Bee, Penny; Lovell, Karina; Bower, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling mental health condition. Despite effective psychological treatments for OCD, a significant percentage of patients fail to experience lasting benefit. Factors underlying variable treatment response are poorly understood. Moderators of outcome can help understand "for whom" and "under what circumstances" an intervention works best and thus improve service effectiveness. This paper synthesizes the evidence on predictors and moderators and assesses the quality of reporting of related analyses in psychological therapies for adults with OCD. Trials were identified through electronic searches (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE), key author, and reference list searches of relevant systematic reviews. Fifty five percent (38/69) of relevant trials reported baseline factors associated with outcome; these encompassed clinical, demographic, interpersonal, OCD symptom-specific, psychological/psychosocial, and treatment-specific variables. Predictors were commonly assessed via a validated pre-randomization measure, though few trials adopted best practice by stating a priori hypotheses or conducting a test of interaction. Potential associations emerged between worse OCD treatment outcome and the following factors: hoarding pathology, increased anxiety and OCD symptom severity, certain OCD symptom subtypes, unemployment, and being single/not married. However, the applied utility of these analyses is currently limited by methodological weaknesses. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOEpatents

    Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Simpson, M.L.

    1997-10-21

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations is disclosed, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components. 2 figs.

  2. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOEpatents

    Sitter, Jr., David N.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components.

  3. THE OPTIMAL GRAVITATIONAL LENS TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Surdej, J.; Hanot, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Delacroix, C.; Habraken, S.; Coleman, P.; Dominik, M.; Le Coroller, H.; Mawet, D.; Quintana, H.; Sluse, D.

    2010-05-15

    Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster, ...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.

  4. Pitx3 directly regulates Foxe3 during early lens development.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nafees; Aslam, Muhammad; Muenster, Doris; Horsch, Marion; Khan, Muhammad A; Carlsson, Peter; Beckers, Johannes; Graw, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Pitx3 is a bicoid-related homeodomain transcription factor critical for the development of the ocular lens, mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and skeletal muscle. In humans, mutations in PITX3 are responsible for cataracts and anterior segment abnormalities of varying degree; polymorphisms are associated with Parkinson’s disease. In aphakia (ak) mice, two deletions in the promoter region of Pitx3 cause abnormal lens development. Here, we investigated systematically the role of Pitx3 in lens development including its molecular targets responsible for the ak phenotype. We have shown that ak lenses exhibit reduced proliferation and aberrant fiber cell differentiation. This was associated with loss of Foxe3 expression, complete absence of Prox1 expression, reduced expression of epsilon-tubulin and earlier expression of gamma-crystallin during lens development. Using EMSA and ChIP assays, we demonstrated that Pitx3 binds to an evolutionary conserved bicoid-binding site on the 5'-upstream region of Foxe3. Finally, Pitx3 binding to 5'-upstream region of Foxe3 increased transcriptional activity significantly in a cell-based reporter assay. Identification of Foxe3 as a transcriptional target of Pitx3 explains at least in part some of the phenotypic similarities of the ak and dyl mice (dysgenic lens, a Foxe3 allele). These findings enhance our understanding of the molecular cascades which subserve lens development.

  5. The pupil can control an artificial lens intuitively.

    PubMed

    Fliedner, Jan; Heine, Christian; Bretthauer, Georg; Wilhelm, Helmut

    2014-02-04

    After cataract surgery, the ability to accommodate is lost. For this reason, a mechatronic IOL is being developed at the moment: The Artificial Accommodation System. This device requires an easily measureable indicator of the distance of the observed object to determine the demand of accommodation. As the pupil constricts with near vision, pupil size might be such an indicator. Our research focused on whether the pupil can control an artificial lens. A study with 14 healthy subjects aged between 24 and 64 years was conducted. An artificial lens with variable refractive power was mounted in front of one eye. In this eye, natural accommodation was greatly reduced or absent due to presbyopia, pseudophakia, or iatrogenic cycloplegia. The lens' refractive power was changed in a computer-controlled manner depending on changes in the pupil diameter of the second eye, which could not see the fixation stimulus. The subject's task was to get a clear focused image of the target in different distances. The lens can be controlled by the pupil intuitively (P < 1.8 × 10(-18)). Without prior knowledge, 11/14 subjects passed the first trial, and 31/41 trials were successful. Only one subject was not able to control the lens at all. Most subjects comprehended instantly how to use the unfamiliar lens control to bring a target into focus. This study emphasizes the plasticity of the visual control system. Positioning accuracy was acceptable, but the control must be optimized to facilitate maintaining a defined refractive power.

  6. Plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, B. |; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, P.

    1993-04-01

    We intend to carry out a series of plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam facility at SLAC. These experiments will be the first to study the focusing of particle beams by plasma focusing devices in the parameter regime of interest for high energy colliders, and is expected to lead to plasma lens designs capable of unprecedented spot sizes. Plasma focusing of positron beams will be attempted for the first time. We will study the effects of lens aberrations due to various lens imperfections. Several approaches will be applied to create the plasma required including laser ionization and beam ionization of a working gas. At an increased bunch population of 2.5 {times} 10{sup 10}, tunneling ionization of a gas target by an electron beam -- an effect which has never been observed before -- should be significant. The compactness of our device should prove to be of interest for applications at the SLC and the next generation linear colliders.

  7. Electrostatic lens to focus an ion beam to uniform density

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Cleland H.

    1977-01-11

    A focusing lens for an ion beam having a gaussian or similar density profile is provided. The lens is constructed to provide an inner zero electrostatic field, and an outer electrostatic field such that ions entering this outer field are deflected by an amount that is a function of their distance from the edge of the inner field. The result is a beam that focuses to a uniform density in a manner analogous to that of an optical ring lens. In one embodiment, a conically-shaped network of fine wires is enclosed within a cylindrical anode. The wire net together with the anode produces a voltage field that re-directs the outer particles of the beam while the axial particles pass undeflected through a zero field inside the wire net. The result is a focused beam having a uniform intensity over a given target area and at a given distance from the lens.

  8. Dispersion-compensated fresnel lens

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4.multidot.10.sup.-5 inch and a profile width of at least 10.sup.-3 inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight.

  9. Dispersion-compensated Fresnel lens

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-11-03

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4[times]10[sup [minus]5] inch and a profile width of at least 10[sup [minus]3] inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight. 10 figs.

  10. Observation of material, thickness, and bremsstrahlung x-ray intensity dependent effects in moderate and high Z targets in a gamma and x-ray LIDAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Laubach, Mitchell A.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-06-01

    A high energy gamma and x-ray LIDAR system consisting of a fast pulse ( 50 ps, FWHM) LINAC and a Cherenkov detection system was used to investigate response differences among materials, their thicknesses, and bremsstrahlung x-ray intensities. The energies and pulse width of electrons used to produce bremsstrahlung x-rays were set at 20 or 40 MeV and 50 ps FWHM duration, respectively. The Cherenkov detector was built with a fused silica glass optically coupled to a 51 mm fast timing photomultiplier tube, which has an intrinsic energy threshold of 340.7 keV for Compton backscattered gammas. Such a fast detection system yields a coincidence resolving time of 93 ps FWHM, which is equivalent to a depth resolving capability of about 3 cm FWHM. The thicknesses of iron and lead targets were varied from 1 in. to 7 in. with a step of 1 in., and the thicknesses of DU were varied from 1/3 in. to 1 in. with a step of 1/3 in. The experimental results show that iron targets tend to produce a factor of five less observed x-rays and gammas, with less energetic photoelectron frequency distributions, compared with DU and lead targets for the same beam intensity and target thicknesses. Additionally, the self-shielding effect causes the lead to yield more gammas than the DU considering the experimental observation point. For the setup used in this study, a charge per pulse in the range of 1-2.5 nC yields the best resolving capability between the DU and lead targets.

  11. Ibrutinib selectively and irreversibly targets EGFR (L858R, Del19) mutant but is moderately resistant to EGFR (T790M) mutant NSCLC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenchao; Hu, Chen; Ye, Zi; Zhao, Zheng; Wang, Li; Li, Xixiang; Yu, Kailin; Liu, Juan; Wu, Jiaxin; Yan, Xiao-E; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Chu; Weisberg, Ellen L.; Gray, Nathanael S.; Yun, Cai-Hong; Liu, Jing; Chen, Liang; Liu, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Through comprehensive comparison study, we found that ibrutinib, a clinically approved covalent BTK kinase inhibitor, was highly active against EGFR (L858R, del19) mutant driven NSCLC cells, but moderately active to the T790M ‘gatekeeper’ mutant cells and not active to wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells. Ibrutinib strongly affected EGFR mediated signaling pathways and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest (G0/G1) in mutant EGFR but not wt EGFR cells. However, ibrutinib only slowed down tumor progression in PC-9 and H1975 xenograft models. MEK kinase inhibitor, GSK1120212, could potentiate ibrutinib's effect against the EGFR (L858R/T790M) mutation in vitro but not in vivo. These results suggest that special drug administration might be required to achieve best clinical response in the ongoing phase I/II clinical trial with ibrutinib for NSCLC. PMID:26375053

  12. Targeting sedentary time or moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity: independent relations with adiposity in a population-based sample of 10-y-old British children.

    PubMed

    Steele, Rebekah M; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Cassidy, Aedín; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2009-11-01

    It is unclear whether subcomponents of physical activity (PA) are associated with adiposity independent of time spent while sedentary. The objective was to examine associations between objectively measured PA and its subcomponents [ie, time spent at light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA (MPA), vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-plus-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA)], independent of sedentary time, and self-reported leisure screen time (television and electronic game use) with indexes of adiposity in a population-based sample of British children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1862 UK children aged 9-10 y. PA and sedentary activity were measured by accelerometry, and indicators of adiposity were waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index calculated from bioimpedance measurements. Screen time was assessed by self-report. We examined the associations between PA subcomponents and adiposity by multilevel linear models adjusted for birth weight, maternal BMI, energy intake, and sleep duration. Objectively measured sedentary time was positively associated with waist circumference (P = 0.04) and fat mass index (P = 0.05), independent of age and sex. However, this association was attenuated after adjustment for MVPA and other covariates. VPA (all P < 0.0001), combined MVPA (all P < 0.01), and total activity (counts/min) (all P < 0.001) were all inversely associated with each of the adiposity indexes, independent of sedentary time and other important covariates. Associations were weaker for MPA: P = 0.05, 0.87, and 0.1 for waist circumference, BMI, and fat mass index, respectively. Time spent in VPA appears to be more strongly associated with adiposity than sedentary time. Interventions may therefore need to incorporate higher intensity-based activities to curb the growing obesity epidemic.

  13. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  14. Diffractive Alvarez lens

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Ian M.; Dixit, Sham N.; Summers, Leslie J.; Thompson, Charles A.; Avicola, Kenneth; Wilhelmsen, Julia

    2000-01-01

    A diffractive Alvarez lens is demonstrated that consists of two separate phase plates, each having complementary 16-level surface-relief profiles that contain cubic phase delays. Translation of these two components in the plane of the phase plates is shown to produce a variable astigmatic focus. Both spherical and cylindrical phase profiles are demonstrated with good accuracy, and the discrete surface-relief features are shown to cause less than {lambda}/10 wave-front aberration in the transmitted wave front over a 40 mmx80 mm region. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  15. Peering into the "black box" of education interventions and attitude change: Audience characteristics moderate the effectiveness…and then only toward specific targets.

    PubMed

    Mansoori-Rostam, Sara Michelle; Tate, Charlotte Chucky

    2017-01-01

    To probe the inconsistent link between education and attitude change toward minority social groups, we conducted a field study that focused on audience characteristics and education about lesbian, gay, and transgender (LGT) targets. Participants enrolled in a sexuality course were compared to those in a neurology course, both taught by the same professor. Multiple regression analyses predicted attitude change toward LGT targets from social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), ratings of professor's characteristics, SDO by course interaction, and RWA by course interaction. Only the SDO by course interaction significantly predicted attitude change. Simple slopes analyses indicated that high-SDO participants in the sexuality course showed the most positive attitude change. These findings suggest that education may reduce prejudice for certain audience characteristics.

  16. A dual-targeted purple acid phosphatase in Arabidopsis thaliana moderates carbon metabolism and its overexpression leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng; Suen, Pui Kit; Zhang, Youjun; Liang, Chao; Carrie, Chris; Whelan, James; Ward, Jane L; Hawkins, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Liwen; Lim, Boon Leong

    2012-04-01

    • Overexpression of AtPAP2, a purple acid phosphatase (PAP) with a unique C-terminal hydrophobic motif in Arabidopsis, resulted in earlier bolting and a higher seed yield. Metabolite analysis showed that the shoots of AtPAP2 overexpression lines contained higher levels of sugars and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolites. Enzyme assays showed that sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity was significantly upregulated in the overexpression lines. The higher SPS activity arose from a higher level of SPS protein, and was independent of SnRK1. • AtPAP2 was found to be targeted to both plastids and mitochondria via its C-terminal hydrophobic motif. Ectopic expression of a truncated AtPAP2 without this C-terminal motif in Arabidopsis indicated that the subcellular localization of AtPAP2 is essential for its biological actions. • Plant PAPs are generally considered to mediate phosphorus acquisition and redistribution. AtPAP2 is the first PAP shown to modulate carbon metabolism and the first shown to be dual-targeted to both plastids and mitochondria by a C-terminal targeting signal. • One PAP-like sequence carrying a hydrophobic C-terminal motif could be identified in the genome of the smallest free-living photosynthetic eukaryote, Ostreococcus tauri. This might reflect a common ancestral function of AtPAP2-like sequences in the regulation of carbon metabolism. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. [Intraocular lens implantation in developmental lens disorders in children].

    PubMed

    Kanigowska, Krystyna; Grałek, Mirosława; Kepa, Beata; Chipczyńska, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The pediatric cataract surgery in eyes with developmental disorders, stay with still considerable challenge. At children, the lasting vision development extorts necessity quick settlement of refraction defect formed after operation. The intraocular lens old boy with cataract in microspherophakia and 12 years old boy with cataract in lens with coloboma. One-piece flexible and rigid PMMA intraocular lens was placed with success at posterior chamber without scleral fixations and without using capsular tension ring in this cases. After 3 years of observation there were no decentration or dislocation of intraocular lens in both children. Authors concluded that in some cases posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation despite defective zonular or capsular support, can make up the effective method of surgical treatment without risk of early dislocation.

  18. Panoramic lens applications revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon

    2008-04-01

    During the last few years, innovative optical design strategies to generate and control image mapping have been successful in producing high-resolution digital imagers and projectors. This new generation of panoramic lenses includes catadioptric panoramic lenses, panoramic annular lenses, visible/IR fisheye lenses, anamorphic wide-angle attachments, and visible/IR panomorph lenses. Given that a wide-angle lens images a large field of view on a limited number of pixels, a systematic pixel-to-angle mapping will help the efficient use of each pixel in the field of view. In this paper, we present several modern applications of these modern types of hemispheric lenses. Recently, surveillance and security applications have been proposed and published in Security and Defence symposium. However, modern hemispheric lens can be used in many other fields. A panoramic imaging sensor contributes most to the perception of the world. Panoramic lenses are now ready to be deployed in many optical solutions. Covered applications include, but are not limited to medical imaging (endoscope, rigiscope, fiberscope...), remote sensing (pipe inspection, crime scene investigation, archeology...), multimedia (hemispheric projector, panoramic image...). Modern panoramic technologies allow simple and efficient digital image processing and the use of standard image analysis features (motion estimation, segmentation, object tracking, pattern recognition) in the complete 360° hemispheric area.

  19. A Reconfigurable Plasmofluidic Lens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chenglong; Liu, Yongmin; Zhao, Yanhui; Fang, Nicholas; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics provides an unparalleled method for manipulating light beyond the diffraction limit, making it a promising technology for the development of ultra-small, ultra-fast, power-efficient optical devices. To date, the majority of plasmonic devices are in the solid state and have limited tunability or configurability. Moreover, individual solid-state plasmonic devices lack the ability to deliver multiple functionalities. Here we utilize laser-induced surface bubbles on a metal film to demonstrate, for the first time, a plasmonic lens in a microfluidic environment. Our “plasmofluidic lens” device is dynamically tunable and reconfigurable. We record divergence, collimation, and focusing of surface plasmon polaritons using this device. The plasmofluidic lens requires no sophisticated nanofabrication and utilizes only a single low-cost diode laser. Our results show that the integration of plasmonics and microfluidics allows for new opportunities in developing complex plasmonic elements with multiple functionalities, high-sensitivity and high-throughput biomedical detection systems, as well as on-chip, all-optical information processing techniques. PMID:23929463

  20. Crystalline lens and refractive development.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    Individual refractive errors usually change along lifespan. Most children are hyperopic in early life. This hyperopia is usually lost during growth years, leading to emmetropia in adults, but myopia also develops in children during school years or during early adult life. Those subjects who remain emmetropic are prone to have hyperopic shifts in middle life. And even later, at older ages, myopic shifts are developed with nuclear cataract. The eye grows from 15 mm in premature newborns to approximately 24 mm in early adult years, but, in most cases, refractions are maintained stable in a clustered distribution. This growth in axial length would represent a refractive change of more than 40 diopters, which is compensated by changes in corneal and lens powers. The process which maintains the balance between the ocular components of refraction during growth is still under study. As the lens power cannot be measured in vivo, but can only be calculated based on the other ocular components, there have not been many studies of lens power in humans. Yet, recent studies have confirmed that the lens loses power during growth in children, and that hyperopic and myopic shifts in adulthood may be also produced by changes in the lens. These studies in children and adults give a picture of the changing power of the lens along lifespan. Other recent studies about the growth of the lens and the complexity of its internal structure give clues about how these changes in lens power are produced along life.

  1. Redesign of the Target-Moderator-Reflector-Shield Assembly for Optimization of the Neutron Flux in the 0.001 – 1 MeV at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Nowicki, Suzanne Florence; Mocko, Michal; Wender, Stephen Arthur; Ferres, Laurent

    2016-08-10

    These are the slides for a presentation at the 2016 Postdoc Summer Seminar Series at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The conclusions of the research presented are the following: we can provide a significant gain in intensity in the upper tier; lower and upper tier are coupled: translating the target in the FOV of the upper tier decreases the intensity in the lower tier; it is possible to balance the production between the upper and lower tier if we keep some of the material between the tiers.

  2. One-pot fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Nicandra physalodes: A novel route for mosquito vector control with moderate toxicity on non-target water bugs.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Khater, Hanem F; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) as vectors for important diseases and parasites causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic pesticides against Culicidae leads to resistance and environmental concerns. Therefore, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. In this research, Nicandra physalodes-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was conducted, in order to control larval populations of three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Biofabricated Ag NPs were characterized using UV-vis spectrophotometry, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and TEM analyses. Ag NPs were highly toxic against the three mosquito vectors. Maximum efficacy was detected against A. stephensi (LC50=12.39μg/mL), followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.61μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.79μg/mL). Interestingly, Ag NPs were safer for the non-target aquatic organism Diplonychus indicus sharing the same aquatic habitats of mosquito larvae. LC50 and LC90 values were 1032.81 and 19,076.59μg/mL, respectively. Overall, our results highlight that N. physalodes-fabricated Ag NPs are a promising for development of eco-friendly larvicides against mosquito vectors, with negligible toxicity against non-target aquatic water bugs.

  3. Double freeform surfaces lens design for LED uniform illumination with high distance-height ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Heng; Zhang, Xianmin; Ge, Peng

    2015-10-01

    A practical method is proposed to design a double freeform surfaces (DFS) lens for LED sources, in order to form uniform illumination in the high distance-height ratio (DHR) lighting system. The ray mapping relationship is first established between the solid angle of the source and the target plane according to the energy conservation law and the variable separation method. A DFS lens is then constructed simultaneously and point by point to the ray mapping based on the Snell's law. Optical performance of the lens is investigated by the Monte Carlo method. A simple and effective method is utilized to optimize the lens design in accordance with the simulation results. As an example, a DFS lens with DHR of 2.5 (distance 30 mm, height 12 mm) is designed by the proposed method. Compared with the traditional methods, the illuminance uniformity is significantly improved from 67.20% to 86.43% and the size of the lens is dramatically reduced.

  4. New TIR lens applications for light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkyn, William A.; Pelka, David G.

    1997-10-01

    We present two new applications for light emitting diodes of the Total Internal Reflection (TIR) lens, a non-imaging optical device presented at previous SPIE conferences on nonimaging optics. The first is a flat circularly symmetric lens that efficiently forms a highly collimated beam from the light output of Hewlett-Packard's Super Flux LEDs. The second is a linear TIR lens with die-on-board LEDs of several wavelengths positioned along its focal line. HP's Super-Flux LED package has an output half angle of 55 degree(s). Only the TIR lens can accept such a wide range for beamforming, and do it with high efficiency. We have designed and prototyped 1' models with half-power half angles of only 1.5 degree(s), utilizing a hyperbolic central section in place of the usual Fresnel lens. There are numerous applications for arrays of these lenses, since they emit more lumens per electrical watt than filtered incandescent lamps with parabolic mirrors. Moreover, they are more compact than conventional lamps, and LED lifetimes are much longer. The TIR lens in its linear form has been applied successfully to fluorescent downlighting products with much narrower transverse illumination angles than previously available with trough mirrors. More recently, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been placed on the focal line of a linear lens. In this paper, we describe the optical properties and biomedical applications of the linear TIR lens when the LEDs have several different emission wavelengths. This single device can uniformly illuminate an extended target with several wavelengths either simultaneously, sequentially, or in complex programmed combinations. It can replace the complex systems of dichroic mirrors used with conventional white-light sources.

  5. The association of contact lens solution use and Acanthamoeba keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Joslin, Charlotte E.; Tu, Elmer Y.; Shoff, Megan E.; Booton, Gregory C.; Fuerst, Paul A.; McMahon, Timothy T.; Anderson, Robert J.; Dworkin, Mark S.; Sugar, Joel; Davis, Faith G.; Stayner, Leslie T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare but serious corneal infection, has recently increased significantly at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Cornea Service. The purpose is to investigate Acanthamoeba keratitis risk factors. Design Retrospective case-control study. Methods Setting University, tertiary care hospital. Patients Fifty-five Acanthamoeba keratitis cases with contact lens use were diagnosed between May 1, 2003 and September 15, 2006. Clinic-matched controls with contact lens use were recruited. Subjects completed surveys targeting lens hygiene, contact lens solution use, and water exposure. Main Outcome Measure Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results Thirty-nine (73.6%) cases and 113 (65.3%) controls participated; 38 cases had complete contact lens data. Thirty-five of 38 cases (92.1%) and 47 of 100 controls (47.0%) used soft lenses. Analysis was performed on 30 cases and 39 controls with matched pairs with soft lens use. Exclusive use of AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution was independently associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis in multivariable analysis (55.2% vs. 10.5%; OR, 16.67; 95% CI, 2.11–162.63; p = 0.008). However, 38.8% of cases reported no use of AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution or used it in combination with other solutions. Although not statistically significant, additional hygiene-related variables (solution ‘reuse’, lack of ‘rubbing’, and showering with lenses) suggest a pattern of risk,. Conclusions AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution use is independently associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis among soft contact lens users. However, it does not explain all cases, suggesting additional factors. Further research into environmental risk factors and hygiene practices is warranted, especially considering this is the second outbreak of an atypical, contact lens-related infection. PMID:17588524

  6. The association of contact lens solution use and Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Charlotte E; Tu, Elmer Y; Shoff, Megan E; Booton, Gregory C; Fuerst, Paul A; McMahon, Timothy T; Anderson, Robert J; Dworkin, Mark S; Sugar, Joel; Davis, Faith G; Stayner, Leslie T

    2007-08-01

    To investigate Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) risk factors. Diagnosis of AK, a rare but serious corneal infection, has recently increased significantly at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Cornea Service. Retrospective case-control study. settings: University, tertiary care hospital. patients: Fifty-five AK cases with contact lens use were diagnosed between May 1, 2003 and September 15, 2006. Clinic-matched controls with contact lens use were recruited. Subjects completed surveys targeting lens hygiene, contact lens solution use, and water exposure. main outcome measure: Acanthamoeba keratitis. Thirty-nine (73.6%) cases and 113 (65.3%) controls participated; 38 cases had complete contact lens data. Thirty-five of 38 cases (92.1%) and 47 of 100 controls (47.0%) used soft lenses. Analysis was performed on 30 cases and 39 controls with matched pairs with soft lens use. Exclusive use of Advance Medical Optics (AMO) Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution was independently associated with AK in multivariable analysis (55.2% vs 10.5%; odds ratio [OR], 16.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.11 to 162.63; P = .008). However, 38.8% of cases reported no use of AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution either alone or in combination with other solutions. Although not statistically significant, additional hygiene-related variables (solution "reuse," lack of "rubbing," and showering with lenses) suggest a pattern of risk. AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution use is independently associated with AK among soft contact lens users. However, it does not explain all cases, suggesting additional factors. Further research into environmental risk factors and hygiene practices is warranted, especially considering this is the second outbreak of an atypical, contact lens-related infection.

  7. Wedged multilayer Laue Lens.

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, R.; Liu, C.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C. M.; Macrander, A. T.; Yan, H.; Kang, H. C.; Maser, J.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2008-05-01

    A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures.

  8. Inclusive fitness affects both prosocial and antisocial behavior: target gender and insult domain moderate the link between genetic relatedness and aggression.

    PubMed

    Gesselman, Amanda N; Webster, Gregory D

    2012-11-26

    Although prior research has examined the relationship between genetic relatedness and helping behavior (Burnstein, Crandall, and Kitayama, 1994), less is known about its role in aggressive responses to insults (Fitzgerald and Ketterer, 2011). Drawing on inclusive fitness theory (Hamilton, 1964) and the Kinship, Acceptance, and Rejection Model of Altruism and Aggression (KARMAA; Webster, 2008; Webster et al., 2012), we designed a 2 (participant gender) × 2 (target gender) × 2 (insult: status vs. reproductive) × 3 (relatedness: stranger vs. cousin vs. sibling) between-person experiment in which 489 participants (a) read vignettes in which a stranger, cousin, or sibling was insulted and (b) reported their emotional reaction and retaliation likelihood (six-item α = .91) in response to the insult. Consistent with theory and prior research, men were significantly more aggressive than women, and people were significantly more aggressive responding to insults against kin than non-kin. These findings support theoretically-derived, dynamic, and domain-specific links among insults, gender, relatedness, and aggression.

  9. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and cataract. Novel drug delivery therapeutic strategies targeting telomere reduction and the expression of telomerase activity in the lens epithelial cells with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops: anti-cataract which helps to prevent and treat cataracts in the eyes of dogs and other animals.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2014-01-01

    Cataracts in small animals are shown to be at least partially caused by oxidative damage to lens epithelial cells (LECs) and the internal lens; biomarkers of oxidative stress in the lens are considered as general biomarkers for life expectancy in the canine and other animals. Telomeres lengths and expressed telomerase activity in canine LECs may serve as important monitors of oxidative damage in normal LECs with documented higher levels of telomerase activity in cataractous LECs during cells' lifespan. Loss of functional telomere length below a critical threshold in LECs of canines during the effect of UV and chronic oxidative stress or metabolic failure, can activate programs leading to LEC senescence or death. Telomerase is induced in LECs of canines at critical stages of cataractogenesis initiation and exposure to oxidative stress through the involvement of catalytically active prooxidant transition metal (iron) ions. This work documents that transition metal ions (such as, ferrous ions- catalytic oxidants) might induce premature senescence in LECs of canines, telomere shortening with increased telomerase activity as adaptive response to UV light, oxidative and metabolic stresses. The therapeutic treatment with 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug delivery is beneficial for prevention and dissolution of ripe cataracts in canines. This biological activity is based on the findings of ferroxidase activity pertinent to the dipeptide carnosine released ophthalmically from NAC prodrug of L-carnosine, stabilizing properties of carnosine on biological membranes based on the ability of the imidazole-containing dipeptides to interact with lipid peroxidation products and reactive oxygen species (ROS), to prevent membrane damage and delute the associated with membrane fragements protein aggregates. The advent of therapeutic treatment of cataracts in canines with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops through targeting the prevention of loss of functional telomere length below

  10. A liquid crystal adaptive lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowel, S. T.; Cleverly, D.

    1981-01-01

    Creation of an electronically controlled liquid crystal lens for use as a focusing mechanism in a multi-element lens system or as an adaptive optical element is analyzed. Varying the index of refraction is shown to be equivalent to the shaping of a solid refracting material. Basic characteristics of liquid crystals, essential for the creation of a lens, are reviewed. The required variation of index of refraction is provided by choosing appropriate electrode voltages. The configuration required for any incoming polarization is given and its theoretical performance in terms of modulation transfer function derived.

  11. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  12. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  13. Design of optical lens for LED road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Feng; Fang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Tao-Hsing

    2012-10-01

    The optical lens model which is constructed by the method of luminous flux mapping and reshaped according to the target grids modification is demonstrated in this study. The design method was tried on designing LED road lighting devices which were further confirmed by optical simulations and verified by experiments.

  14. 21 CFR 886.1375 - Bagolini lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bagolini lens. 886.1375 Section 886.1375 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1375 Bagolini lens. (a) Identification. A Bagolini lens is a device that consists of a plane lens containing almost imperceptible striations that do not...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1375 - Bagolini lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bagolini lens. 886.1375 Section 886.1375 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1375 Bagolini lens. (a) Identification. A Bagolini lens is a device that consists of a plane lens containing almost imperceptible striations that do not...

  16. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  17. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  18. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... symptoms 6 steps to avoid contact lens infections Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Leer en Español: Infecciones ...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1375 - Bagolini lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bagolini lens. 886.1375 Section 886.1375 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1375 Bagolini lens. (a) Identification. A Bagolini lens is a device that consists of a plane lens containing almost imperceptible striations that do not...

  20. Design and evaluation of a compound acoustic lens for photoacoustic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shirui; Qin, Wei; Guo, Heng; Jin, Tian; Huang, Na; He, Ming; Xi, Lei

    2017-05-01

    In photoacoustic computed tomography, the limited directivity of the detectors may cause deformation of off-center targets and lead to an imbalanced resolution in the imaging area. To improve the directivity of the acoustic detectors, several negative acoustic lenses have been proposed. In this study, we develop a new compound acoustic lens fabricated by integrating a concave polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lens and a convex epoxy lens. Both theoretical simulations and experimental evaluations demonstrate that the compound lens provides a larger directivity compared to single lenses made of PDMS, epoxy, and liquid. The measured acceptance angles of a 6-mm piezoelectric acoustic transducer equipped with the compound, epoxy, liquid, and PDMS lenses are 55°, 36°, 25°, and 20°, respectively. No deformation is observed in the off-center targets by using compound lens. However, serious deformation appears in the cases using single lenses.

  1. Lens design based on lens form parameters using Gaussian brackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyu; Cheng, Xuemin

    2014-11-01

    The optical power distribution and the symmetry of the lens components are two important attributes that decide the ultimate lens performance and characteristics. Lens form parameters W and S are the key criteria describing the two attributes mentioned above. Lens components with smaller W and S will have a good nature of aberration balance and perform well in providing good image quality. Applying the Gaussian brackets, the two lens form parameters and the Seidel Aberration Coefficients are reconstructed. An initial lens structure can be analytically described by simultaneous equations of Seidel Aberration Coefficients and third-order aberration theory. Adding the constraints of parameters W and S in the solving process, a solution with a proper image quality and aberration distribution is achieved. The optical properties and image quality of the system based on the parameters W and S are also analyzed in this article. In the method, the aberration distribution can be controlled to some extent in the beginning of design, so that we can reduce some workload of optimization later.

  2. Advances in lens implant technology

    PubMed Central

    Kampik, Anselm; Dexl, Alois K.; Zimmermann, Nicole; Glasser, Adrian; Baumeister, Martin; Kohnen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the oldest and the most frequent outpatient clinic operations in medicine performed worldwide. The clouded human crystalline lens is replaced by an artificial intraocular lens implanted into the capsular bag. During the last six decades, cataract surgery has undergone rapid development from a traumatic, manual surgical procedure with implantation of a simple lens to a minimally invasive intervention increasingly assisted by high technology and a broad variety of implants customized for each patient’s individual requirements. This review discusses the major advances in this field and focuses on the main challenge remaining – the treatment of presbyopia. The demand for correction of presbyopia is increasing, reflecting the global growth of the ageing population. Pearls and pitfalls of currently applied methods to correct presbyopia and different approaches under investigation, both in lens implant technology and in surgical technology, are discussed. PMID:23413369

  3. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... solution) because it can be a source of microorganisms that may cause serious eye infections. (Contact lens ... means it is free from living germs or microorganisms.) Never put your lenses in your mouth or ...

  4. Investigation of the Zoom Lens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    1999-01-01

    Describes an open-ended investigation in which students have to look into a feature of lens performance that is not commonly found in textbook materials on optics. Presents explanations and sample results. (WRM)

  5. Exploring the links between contact lens comfort, osmolarity and lid wiper staining.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Ulrike; Jalbert, Isabelle

    2017-09-19

    Contact lens discomfort remains poorly understood, not least due to lack of associations between clinical signs and symptoms. This study aimed to explore the relationships between osmolarity, comfort and lid wiper epitheliopathy in contact lens wear. Twenty subjects participated in a randomized, cross-over study where comfilcon A and lotrafilcon A lenses were each worn for 10days separated by a 7days washout period. Tear and contact lens osmolarity, ocular symptoms including comfort, tear stability and production, and lid wiper epitheliopathy were measured. Comfort and tear stability decreased and upper lid wiper staining and foreign body sensation increased with lens wear. These were not affected by lens type. A reduction in tear production was seen after 10days of comfilcon A lens wear. High proportions of lid wiper epitheliopathy were observed at the upper (range 65%-85%) and lower (range 90%-100%) lid margins. Tear and contact lens osmolarity were unaffected by lens wear or type. Contact lens osmolarity was associated with comfort (r=0.45, p=0.009). Tear osmolarity moderately correlated with tear stability (r=-0.53, p=0.014) and tear production (r=-0.44, p=0.012) but not with lid wiper staining. A relationship between comfort and contact lens osmolarity and between tear osmolarity and tear stability and production were found, however, this study was unable to demonstrate an association between comfort and tear osmolarity or lid wiper epitheliopathy. Further studies using contact lenses with a wider range of comfort responses are warranted to investigate these associations further. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electronically Reconfigurable Microwave Lens Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-13

    d: diameter of holes in the holey dielectric material and the holey metal plate; f: frequency; k: propagation constant in parallel plate region in...Control ) A planar Luneburg Lens whose permittivity distribution is controlled by two types of hole density methodology in the central region and by...dielectric thickness control in the edge region is reported. The lens was designed to operate at 24 GHz in TEM mode. Experimental radiation patterns

  7. Single lens laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chuyu [Newport News, VA; Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA

    2011-10-04

    A single lens bullet-shaped laser beam shaper capable of redistributing an arbitrary beam profile into any desired output profile comprising a unitary lens comprising: a convex front input surface defining a focal point and a flat output portion at the focal point; and b) a cylindrical core portion having a flat input surface coincident with the flat output portion of the first input portion at the focal point and a convex rear output surface remote from the convex front input surface.

  8. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  9. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  10. The dual lens model: a comprehensive framework for understanding self-other agreement of personality judgments at zero acquaintance.

    PubMed

    Hirschmüller, Sarah; Egloff, Boris; Nestler, Steffen; Back, Mitja D

    2013-02-01

    An integrative framework for the examination of self-other agreement of personality judgments at zero acquaintance is outlined that integrates dualistic approaches to personality, behavior, and personality judgments within the Brunswikian (1956) lens model. The dual lens model (DLM) distinguishes between explicit and implicit self-concepts of personality, controlled and automatic cues, and deliberate and intuitive personality judgments. In a first application of the DLM, targets (N = 56) were videotaped during short self-introductions, and direct and indirect measures of extraversion as well as a number of physical, kinesic, vocal, and verbal cues were obtained. Perceivers judged targets' extraversion based on these short video sequences either in a global judgment condition (Study 1: N = 95) or in a deliberate versus an intuitive judgment condition (Study 2: N = 82). In both studies, results showed that extraversion judgments at zero acquaintance were correlated with both the explicit and the implicit self-concept of extraversion (self-other agreement). The self-other correlation for explicit extraversion was fully mediated by the utilization of valid controlled cues, and it was fully mediated by the utilization of valid automatic cues for the implicit self. Whereas judgment condition did not moderate self-other agreement, perceivers' intuitive judgment style was associated with higher levels of self-other agreement, a relation that could be explained by DLM analyses. Results underline the utility of the proposed framework for the study of interpersonal judgments.

  11. Progress in thermal neutron radiography at LENS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jack; Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    An end station for thermal neutron radiography and tomography is in operation at the Indiana University LENS facility. Neutrons from proton-induced nuclear reactions in Beryllium are moderated and collimated into a beam which is attenuated by a scanned object on a remotely-controlled rotating table. Neutron signal is then converted to a light signal with a ZnS scintillating screen and recorded in a cooled CCD. The author has performed diagnostics on the radiography hardware and software and has tested the system's capabilities by imaging a stack of high density polyethylene cubes with diverse inlet holes and grooves on an 80/20 aluminum base. The resolution of the radiographs are seen to be less than 1mm and 3D rending software is capable of reconstructing the internal structure of the aluminum. An end station for thermal neutron radiography and tomography is in operation at the Indiana University LENS facility. Neutrons from proton-induced nuclear reactions in Beryllium are moderated and collimated into a beam which is attenuated by a scanned object on a remotely-controlled rotating table. Neutron signal is then converted to a light signal with a ZnS scintillating screen and recorded in a cooled CCD. The author has performed diagnostics on the radiography hardware and software and has tested the system's capabilities by imaging a stack of high density polyethylene cubes with diverse inlet holes and grooves on an 80/20 aluminum base. The resolution of the radiographs are seen to be less than 1mm and 3D rending software is capable of reconstructing the internal structure of the aluminum. NSF.

  12. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry of integral membrane proteins from ocular lens and retinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Grey, Angus C; Chaurand, Pierre; Caprioli, Richard M; Schey, Kevin L

    2009-07-01

    A tissue preparation protocol for MALDI (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization) imaging mass spectrometry of integral membrane proteins was developed using ocular lens and retinal tissues as model samples. Frozen bovine and human lenses were cryosectioned equatorially or axially at -20 degrees C into 20 mum-thick tissue sections. Lens sections were mounted onto gold-coated MALDI targets by methanol soft-landing to maintain tissue integrity. Tissue sections underwent extensive water washing to deplete the samples of highly abundant water-soluble proteins. Automated matrix deposition was achieved using an acoustic reagent multispotter, with sinapinic acid as matrix and high percentage acetonitrile as solvent, with a center-to-center spot spacing of 200-300 mum. Molecular images of full-length Aquaporin-0 (AQP0) and its most abundant truncation products were obtained from mass spectral data acquired across whole bovine and human lens sections. In equatorial and axial sections of bovine lenses, full-length AQP0 was detected throughout the lens. A truncation product corresponding to AQP0 (1-260) was detected in the bovine lens core at low abundance. In axial lens sections, no antero-posterior variation was detected. In 11 year-old human lens sections, full-length AQP0 was most abundant in the lens periphery, but was detected throughout the lens. The major truncation product, consisting of AQP0 residues 1-246, was absent from the lens periphery and increased in abundance in the lens core. This tissue preparation protocol was then applied to image the distribution of the G-protein coupled receptor, opsin, in the rabbit retina. This protocol has expanded the variety of target analytes which can be detected by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry to include intact integral membrane proteins.

  13. Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Among Adults and Adolescents - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jennifer R; Collier, Sarah A; Nethercut, Hannah; Jones, Jefferson M; Yates, Kirsten; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2017-08-18

    Contact lens-related eye infections, which can lead to serious outcomes, including blindness, are associated with several risk factors, including sleeping in lenses, exposing lenses to water, not adhering to replacement schedules, and reusing disinfecting solution (1). In some studies, adolescent and young adult contact lens wearers have been reported to be more likely than older adult contact lens wearers to develop eye infections (2,3) and more likely to have poor contact lens hygiene practices (2). In 2015, CDC reported the number and demographics of adult contact lens wearers in the United States to define the population at risk for contact lens-related eye infections (4); however, this estimate did not include adolescents. To better understand this group of younger contact lens wearers and guide prevention efforts, a population-based survey was used to assess contact lens wear, care behaviors, risk factors, and demographics among persons aged 12-17 years (referred to as adolescents in this report), young adults aged 18-24 years, and older adults aged ≥25 years in the United States. In 2016, an estimated 3.6 million adolescents (14.5%) wore contact lenses. Of the adolescents who wore contact lenses, 85% reported at least one behavior that put them at risk for a contact lens-related eye infection, compared with 81% of young adults, and 88% of older adults. These findings can inform the creation of age-specific targeted prevention messages aimed at contact lens wearers and establish a baseline for evaluating trends in contact lens wear, care habits, and contact lens-related risk behaviors.

  14. Design of tracking and detecting lens system by diffractive optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiang; Qi, Bo; Ren, Ge; Zhou, Jianwei

    2016-10-01

    Many target-tracking applications require an optical system to acquire the target for tracking and identification. This paper describes a new detecting optical system that can provide automatic flying object detecting, tracking and measuring in visible band. The main feature of the detecting lens system is the combination of diffractive optics with traditional lens design by a technique was invented by Schupmann. Diffractive lens has great potential for developing the larger aperture and lightweight lens. First, the optical system scheme was described. Then the Schupmann achromatic principle with diffractive lens and corrective optics is introduced. According to the technical features and requirements of the optical imaging system for detecting and tracking, we designed a lens system with flat surface Fresnel lens and cancels the optical system chromatic aberration by another flat surface Fresnel lens with effective focal length of 1980mm, an F-Number of F/9.9 and a field of view of 2ωω = 14.2', spatial resolution of 46 lp/mm and a working wavelength range of 0.6 0.85um. At last, the system is compact and easy to fabricate and assembly, the diffuse spot size and MTF function and other analysis provide good performance.

  15. Implementation of an aerodynamic lens for TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grund, J.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Nagy, Sz.; van de Laar, J. J. W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the optimization of the gas-jet system employed to couple the TRIGA-SPEC experiment to the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. CdI2 aerosol particles suspended in N2 as carrier gas are used for an effective transport of fission products from neutron induced 235 U fission from the target chamber to a surface ion source. Operating conditions of the gas-jet were modified to enable the implementation of an aerodynamic lens, fitting into the limited space available in front of the ion source. The lens boosts the gas-jet efficiency by a factor of 4-10. The characterization of the gas-jet system as well as the design of the aerodynamic lens and efficiency studies are presented and discussed.

  16. Design of an acoustic metamaterial lens using genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Li, Dennis; Zigoneanu, Lucian; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2012-10-01

    The present work demonstrates a genetic algorithm approach to optimizing the effective material parameters of an acoustic metamaterial. The target device is an acoustic gradient index (GRIN) lens in air, which ideally possesses a maximized index of refraction, minimized frequency dependence of the material properties, and minimized acoustic impedance mismatch. Applying this algorithm results in complex designs with certain common features, and effective material properties that are better than those present in previous designs. After modifying the optimized unit cell designs to make them suitable for fabrication, a two-dimensional lens was built and experimentally tested. Its performance was in good agreement with simulations. Overall, the optimization approach was able to improve the refractive index but at the cost of increased frequency dependence. The optimal solutions found by the algorithm provide a numerical description of how the material parameters compete with one another and thus describes the level of performance achievable in the GRIN lens.

  17. An electrostatic deceleration lens for highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Rajput, J; Roy, A; Kanjilal, D; Ahuja, R; Safvan, C P

    2010-04-01

    The design and implementation of a purely electrostatic deceleration lens used to obtain beams of highly charged ions at very low energies is presented. The design of the lens is such that it can be used with parallel as well as diverging incoming beams and delivers a well focused low energy beam at the target. In addition, tuning of the final energy of the beam over a wide range (1 eV/q to several hundred eV/q, where q is the beam charge state) is possible without any change in hardware configuration. The deceleration lens was tested with Ar(8+), extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, having an initial energy of 30 keV/q and final energies as low as 70 eV/q have been achieved.

  18. Micro lens actuator and polymer objective lens for optical pickup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Pan, Longfa; Zappe, Hans

    Lens actuator is one of the most important components in an optical pickup system, which decides the performance of the disc readout system. A significant advance in technical capability has recently been achieved in the fabrication of integrated micro lens actuators of optical pickup by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. A comb-drive tracking and focusing integrated lens actuator fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer has been reported. Twodimensional tuning of the objective lens is generated by the integrated comb structures. Large displacements of about ±24.6μm in tracking direction and 5.7μm in focusing direction are demonstrated. The device has a high sensitivity and an ignorable coupling between the two dimensional driving movements. The small-form-factor device provides an excellent performance and size reduction. Furthermore, high quality polymer micro-lenses with high numerical aperture (NA) are fabricated on a pre-patterned hydrophobic glass substrate by liquid dispensing. The surface profiles are adjusted by the patterned diameter and the volume of the dispensed polymer, which is controlled by the dispensing time. This extremely low cost, high NA and easily fabricated lens represents an important step for further integration of the pickup system, thus expands the application area of optical storage.

  19. Somatic Variants in the Human Lens Epithelium: A Preliminary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Rosana; Tyagi, Manoj; Harocopos, George; Vollman, David; Bassnett, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesize that somatic mutations accumulate in cells of the human lens and may contribute to the development of cortical or posterior sub-capsular cataracts. Here, we used a Next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategy to screen for low-allelic frequency variants in DNA extracted from human lens epithelial samples. Methods Next-Generation sequencing of 151 cancer-related genes (WUCaMP2 panel) was performed on DNA extracted from post-mortem or surgical specimens obtained from 24 individuals. Usually, pairwise comparisons were made between two or more ocular samples from the same individual, allowing putative somatic variants detected in lens samples to be differentiated from germline variants. Results Use of a targeted hybridization approach enabled high sequence coverage (>1000-fold) of the WUCaMP2 genes. In addition to high-frequency variants (corresponding to homozygous or heterozygous SNPs and Indels), somatic variants with allelic frequencies of 1-4% were detected in the lens epithelial samples. The presence of one such variant, a T > C point substitution at position 32907082 in BRCA2, was verified subsequently using droplet digital PCR. Conclusions Low-allelic fraction variants are present in the human lens epithelium, at frequencies consistent with the presence of millimeter-sized clones. PMID:27537255

  20. Far-field pattern analysis of extended-hemispherical-lens/objective-lens antenna system at millimeter wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Wenbin; Sun, Zhong Liang; Zeng, G.

    1998-11-01

    integrated antennas have the advantages of low cost and can be readily mass produced using standard IC fabrication processes. However, integrated antennas suffer from the surface wave effect at millimeter waves. One of the ways to avoid this problem is to integrate the antennas on a dielectric lens. This structure does not support surface-waves and tend to radiate most of their power into the dielectric side making the pattern unidirectional on high dielectric constant lenses. The dielectric lens also provides mechanical rigidity and thermal stability. There are various dielectric lenses which can be used for receiver application. Among them the extended hemispherical lens is very practical, since it can synthesize other lenses such as hemispherical, hyperhemispherical, or ellipsoidal simply by varying the extension length behind the hemispherical position. In reference five, investigation on such antenna/lens system is presented. In reference 6, slot- ring antennas on dielectric lens is investigated. In many applications the extended hemispherical lens/objective lens antenna system is more attractive, because it can provide higher gain and may be used in imaging system. On the other hand, monopulse direction-finding techniques are currently the most accurate and rapid method for locating a target electronically. This antenna system can also be used as monopulse antenna. However, the treatments on such antenna system are not presented yet. In this paper, the radiation pattern of the antenna system fed by double-slot antenna are computed using ray-tracing and diffraction integration methods. Although the double-slot antenna is used as feed antenna, other antenna such as slot-ring, bow-tie antenna can be used too.

  1. A smiling lens

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-09

    In the centre of this image, taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, is the galaxy cluster SDSS J1038+4849 — and it seems to be smiling. You can make out its two orange eyes and white button nose. In the case of this “happy face”, the two eyes are very bright galaxies and the misleading smile lines are actually arcs caused by an effect known as strong gravitational lensing. Galaxy clusters are the most massive structures in the Universe and exert such a powerful gravitational pull that they warp the spacetime around them and act as cosmic lenses which can magnify, distort and bend the light behind them. This phenomenon, crucial to many of Hubble’s discoveries, can be explained by Einstein’s theory of general relativity. In this special case of gravitational lensing, a ring  — known as an Einstein Ring  — is produced from this bending of light, a consequence of the exact and symmetrical alignment of the source, lens and observer and resulting in the ring-like structure we see here. Hubble has provided astronomers with the tools to probe these massive galaxies and model their lensing effects, allowing us to peer further into the early Universe than ever before. This object was studied by Hubble’s Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) as part of a survey of strong lenses. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Judy Schmidt.

  2. Presence of beta-citryl-L-glutamic acid in the lens: its possible role in the differentiation of lens epithelial cells into fiber cells.

    PubMed

    Tsumori, M; Asakura, M; Narahara, M; Ogawa, T; Nakae, M; Nakagawa, S; Kawai, Y; Morino, H; Hama, T; Miyake, M

    1995-10-01

    The beta-CG concentration in the chicken brain was high during embryonic development and decreased rapidly to a lower level close to hatching, while the concentration in the eyeball which was also high during the embryonic life retained a fairly high level after hatching. The distribution of beta-CG in the bovine eye was determined. About 95% of total beta-CG content in the whole eye was localized in the lens. However, the distribution of beta-CG in the eye varied depending on species. beta-CG was exclusively localized in the lens in the eyes of fish and mammals, but distributed in both lens and retina in frogs. The molecule was localized in the retina rather than the lens in the chicken eye, although the concentrations was extremely low compared to those in the mammalian, amphibian and fish eyes. It was found that beta-CG is present ubiquitously in the lens or retina in various species. The distribution of beta-CG in the bovine lens was determined in the three cortex regions and nucleus. beta-CG was present at the highest concentration in the equatorial cortex, at a moderate concentration in the posterior and anterior cortex, and at the lowest concentration in the nucleus. Similar distribution patterns were also found in the rabbit and rat lens. When embryonic chick lens epithelial cells were cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum, the cells elongated, differentiated into fiber cells and formed lentoid bodies. The cells of lentoid bodies were stained strongly by the anti-beta-CG antibody, while cells around the structures were not. In addition, the beta-CG content in the lenses from the galactose cataractous rat decreased to about 20-30% of that in the normal lens. These findings suggest that beta-CG may play a role in the differentiation of epithelial cells into fiber cells.

  3. Biofilm formation of Achromobacter xylosoxidans on contact lens.

    PubMed

    Konstantinović, Neda; Ćirković, Ivana; Đukić, Slobodanka; Marić, Vesna; Božić, Dragana D

    2017-09-01

    Achromobacter spp. may contaminate lenses, lens cases, and contact lens solutions and cause ocular infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of isolated strain of Achromobacter xylosoxidans to form biofilm on the surface of soft contact lenses (CL), to quantify the production of the formed biofilm, and compare it with the reference strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae). Bacterial strain isolated from one contact lens case was identified as A. xylosoxidans using Vitek2 Automated System. Biofilm forming capacity of isolated strain of A. xylosoxidans and reference strains of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and H. influenzae on soft CL were analyzed by commonly used microtitre plate method. Our results showed that isolated strain of A. xylosoxidans was capable to form biofilm on the surface of soft contact lens. A. xylosoxidans was strong biofilm producer while all examined reference strains were moderate biofilm producers. A. xylosoxidans appears to be superior biofilm producer on soft CL compared to reference strains.

  4. Pinhole Zone Plate Lens for Ultrasound Focusing.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Constanza; Fuster, José Miguel; Castiñeira-Ibáñez, Sergio; Uris, Antonio; Belmar, Francisco; Candelas, Pilar

    2017-07-22

    The focusing capabilities of a pinhole zone plate lens are presented and compared with those of a conventional Fresnel zone plate lens. The focusing properties are examined both experimentally and numerically. The results confirm that a pinhole zone plate lens can be an alternative to a Fresnel lens. A smooth filtering effect is created in pinhole zone plate lenses, giving rise to a reduction of the side lobes around the principal focus associated with the conventional Fresnel zone plate lens. The manufacturing technique of the pinhole zone plate lens allows the designing and constructing of lenses for different focal lengths quickly and economically and without the need to drill new plates.

  5. Pinhole Zone Plate Lens for Ultrasound Focusing

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, José Miguel; Castiñeira-Ibáñez, Sergio; Uris, Antonio; Belmar, Francisco; Candelas, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The focusing capabilities of a pinhole zone plate lens are presented and compared with those of a conventional Fresnel zone plate lens. The focusing properties are examined both experimentally and numerically. The results confirm that a pinhole zone plate lens can be an alternative to a Fresnel lens. A smooth filtering effect is created in pinhole zone plate lenses, giving rise to a reduction of the side lobes around the principal focus associated with the conventional Fresnel zone plate lens. The manufacturing technique of the pinhole zone plate lens allows the designing and constructing of lenses for different focal lengths quickly and economically and without the need to drill new plates. PMID:28737674

  6. Lens Aging: Effects of Crystallins

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, K. Krishna; Santhoshkumar, Puttur

    2009-01-01

    The primary function of the eye lens is to focus light on the retina. The major proteins in the lens—a, b, and g-crystallins—are constantly subjected to age-related changes such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation, glycation, and methylation. Such age-related modifications are cumulative and affect crystallin structure and function. With time, the modified crystallins aggregate, causing the lens to increasingly scatter light on the retina instead of focusing light on it and causing the lens to lose its transparency gradually and become opaque. Age-related lens opacity, or cataract, is the major cause of blindness worldwide. We review deamidation, and glycation that occur in the lenses during aging keeping in mind the structural and functional changes that these modifications bring about in the proteins. In addition, we review proteolysis and discuss recent observations on how crystallin fragments generated in vivo, through their anti-chaperone activity may cause crystallin aggregation in aging lenses. We also review hyperbaric oxygen treatment induced guinea pig and ‘humanized’ ascorbate transporting mouse models as suitable options for studies on age-related changes in lens proteins. PMID:19463898

  7. [Contact lens care and maintenance].

    PubMed

    Bloise, L

    2017-04-01

    All contact lenses with replacement schedules longer than daily must be maintained. At each step of their use, the lenses may be contaminated. Contact lens solutions perform the essential functions of cleaning, decontaminating and preserving the lenses to prevent infectious problems and improve wearing comfort. Contact lens contamination essentially comes from hands, cleaning solutions, cases, water and the environment. The pathogenic microorganisms are mainly Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and amoebae. Contact lens deposits may or may not have an organic origin. Their presence increases the risk of infection because they serve as a nutrient matrix for microbes, and they are responsible for wearing discomfort. Contact lens solutions differ in their composition, their mechanism of action and the concentration of the various agents. To prescribe the best lens care system to each wearer and for each material, it is necessary to be very familiar with them. Maintenance is the main cause of discomfort with contact lenses, either through improper use, solution-material incompatibility, or a reaction of the wearer to the components.

  8. Xanthine oxidase and lens oxidative stress markers in diabetic and senile cataract patients.

    PubMed

    Miric, Dijana J; Kisic, Bojana B; Zoric, Lepsa D; Mitic, Radoslav V; Miric, Bratislav M; Dragojevic, Ilija M

    2013-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is a prooxidant enzyme possibly implicated in diabetic lens injury and genesis of senile cataract (SC). We evaluated the impact of diabetes on XOD activity and its relationships with lens oxidative stress markers in patients operated on for SC. Serum and lens XOD activities, lens malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in 62 non-diabetic and 29 diabetic patients operated on for SC. Lens XOD, SOD, GPx and GSH levels were gradually declining, while MDA and serum XOD were increasing with patient's age. Lens XOD activity was positively correlated with conjugated dienes concentration (rho=0.316; p=0.003) while being inversely correlated with age (rho=-0.371; p<0.001), indicating that low ocular expression of XOD could be related to lower intensity of oxidative stress and delayed occurrence of SC. When samples were adjusted for confounding factors, serum XOD (p<0.001), lens XOD (p=0.003) and conjugated dienes (p=0.002) were significantly higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic group. Lens SOD and GPx were moderately increased while MDA and GSH were unchanged in diabetic, compared with non-diabetic SC group. Blood HbA1C concentration was positively correlated with lens XOD (rho=0.346; p<0.001) as well as serum XOD activity (rho=0.485; p<0.001). These results suggest that poor glycemic control may upregulate systemic and ocular XOD activities contributing to lens oxidative stress and possibly to earlier onset of cataract.

  9. Pax-6 is essential for lens-specific expression of zeta-crystallin.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J; Cvekl, A; Wistow, G

    1995-01-01

    Pax-6 is essential for normal eye development and has been implicated as a "master gene" for lens formation in embryogenesis. Guinea pig zeta-crystallin, a taxon-specific enzyme crystallin, achieves high expression specifically in lens through use of an alternative promoter. Here we show that Pax-6 binds a site in this promoter, which is essential for lens-specific expression. Lens and lens-derived cells exhibit a tissue-specific pattern of alternative splicing of Pax-6 transcripts and Pax-6 is expressed in adult lenses and cells that support zeta-crystallin expression. These results suggest that zeta-crystallin is a natural target gene for Pax-6 and that this Pax family member has a direct role in the continuing expression of tissue-specific genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753863

  10. 1,4-Bis(5-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl)naphthalene, a small molecule, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular Lens epithelium-derived growth factor.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wan-gang; Ip, Denis Tsz-Ming; Liu, Si-jie; Chan, Joseph H; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Yong-tang; Wan, David Chi-Cheong

    2014-04-25

    Translocation of viral integrase (IN) into the nucleus is a critical precondition of integration during the life cycle of HIV, a causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS). As the first discovered cellular factor to interact with IN, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) plays an important role in the process of integration. Disruption of the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction has provided a great interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that one small molecular compound, 1,4-bis(5-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl)naphthalene(Compound 15), potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution at 1 μM. The putative binding mode of Compound 15 was constructed by a molecular docking simulation to provide structural insights into the ligand-binding mechanism. Compound 15 suppressed viral replication by measuring p24 antigen production in HIV-1IIIB acute infected C8166 cells with EC50 value of 11.19 μM. Compound 15 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. International rigid contact lens prescribing.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

    2010-06-01

    Rigid lenses have been fitted less since the introduction of soft lenses nearly 40 years ago. Data that we have gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA between 2000 and 2008 facilitate an accurate characterization of the pattern of the decline of rigid lens fitting during the first decade of this century. There is a trend for rigid lenses to be utilized primarily for refitting those patients who are already successful rigid lens wearers-most typically older females being refit with higher Dk materials. Rigid lenses are generally fitted on a full-time basis (four or more days of wear per week) without a planned replacement schedule. Orthokeratology is especially popular in the Netherlands, but is seldom prescribed in the other countries surveyed.

  12. Automated Fresnel lens tester system

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.S.

    1981-07-01

    An automated data collection system controlled by a desktop computer has been developed for testing Fresnel concentrators (lenses) intended for solar energy applications. The system maps the two-dimensional irradiance pattern (image) formed in a plane parallel to the lens, whereas the lens and detector assembly track the sun. A point detector silicon diode (0.5-mm-dia active area) measures the irradiance at each point of an operator-defined rectilinear grid of data positions. Comparison with a second detector measuring solar insolation levels results in solar concentration ratios over the image plane. Summation of image plane energies allows calculation of lens efficiencies for various solar cell sizes. Various graphical plots of concentration ratio data help to visualize energy distribution patterns.

  13. Quantifying Environmental and Line-of-sight Effects in Models of Strong Gravitational Lens Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCully, Curtis; Keeton, Charles R.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2017-02-01

    Matter near a gravitational lens galaxy or projected along the line of sight (LOS) can affect strong lensing observables by more than contemporary measurement errors. We simulate lens fields with realistic three-dimensional mass configurations (self-consistently including voids), and then fit mock lensing observables with increasingly complex lens models to quantify biases and uncertainties associated with different ways of treating the lens environment (ENV) and LOS. We identify the combination of mass, projected offset, and redshift that determines the importance of a perturbing galaxy for lensing. Foreground structures have a stronger effect on the lens potential than background structures, due to nonlinear effects in the foreground and downweighting in the background. There is dramatic variation in the net strength of ENV/LOS effects across different lens fields; modeling fields individually yields stronger priors for H 0 than ray tracing through N-body simulations. Models that ignore mass outside the lens yield poor fits and biased results. Adding external shear can account for tidal stretching from galaxies at redshifts z≥slant {z}{lens}, but it requires corrections for external convergence and cannot reproduce nonlinear effects from foreground galaxies. Using the tidal approximation is reasonable for most perturbers as long as nonlinear redshift effects are included. Even then, the scatter in H 0 is limited by the lens profile degeneracy. Asymmetric image configurations produced by highly elliptical lens galaxies are less sensitive to the lens profile degeneracy, so they offer appealing targets for precision lensing analyses in future surveys like LSST and Euclid.

  14. Ku80 Counters Oxidative Stress-Induced DNA Damage and Cataract Formation in the Human Lens.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew John Oliver; Ball, Simon Sidney Robert; Manzar, Kamal; Bowater, Richard Peter; Wormstone, Ian Michael

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress in the human lens leads to a wide range of damage including DNA strand breaks, which are likely to contribute to cataract formation. The protein Ku80 is a fundamental component of the nonhomologous end-joining pathway that repairs DNA double strand breaks. This study investigates the putative impact of Ku80 in cataract prevention in the human lens. The present study used the human lens epithelial cell line FHL124 and whole human lens organ culture. Targeted siRNA was used to deplete Ku80, with Western blot and immunocytochemistry employed to assess Ku80 expression levels. Oxidative stress was induced with hydrogen peroxide and DNA strand breaks measured by alkaline comet assay and γH2AX foci counts. Visual quality of whole human lenses was measured with image analysis software. Expression of Ku80 was predominately found in the cell nucleus of both FHL124 cells and native human lens epithelium. Treatment of FHL124 cells and whole lens cultures with siRNA targeted against Ku80 resulted in a significant knockdown at the protein level. Application of oxidative stress (30 μM H2O2) created more DNA strand breaks when added to Ku80 knockdown cells than in scrambled siRNA control cells as determined by the alkaline comet assay and the number of γH2AX foci. In whole lens cultures, exposure to 1 mM H2O2 resulted in more lens opacity in Ku80 knockdown lenses than match-paired controls. Depletion of Ku80 in the lens through acute change or a consequence of aging is likely to increase levels of DNA strand breaks, which could negatively influence physiological function and promote lens opacity. It is therefore feasible that Ku80 plays a role in retarding cataract formation.

  15. Status of the effectiveness of contact lens disinfectants in Malaysia against keratitis-causing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Abjani, Farhat; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Jung, Suk Yul; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this study was (i) to assess the antimicrobial effects of contact lens disinfecting solutions marketed in Malaysia against common bacterial eye pathogens and as well as eye parasite, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and (ii) to determine whether targeting cyst wall would improve the efficacy of contact lens disinfectants. Using ISO 14729 Stand-Alone Test for disinfecting solutions, bactericidal and amoebicidal assays of six different contact lens solutions including Oxysept(®), AO SEPT PLUS, OPTI-FREE(®) pure moist(®), Renu(®) fresh™, FreshKon(®) CLEAR and COMPLETE RevitaLens™ were performed using Manufacturers Minimum recommended disinfection time (MRDT). The efficacy of contact lens solutions was determined against keratitis-causing microbes, namely: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Acanthamoeba castellanii. In addition, using chlorhexidine as an antiamoebic compound and cellulase enzyme to disrupt cyst wall structure, we determined whether combination of both agents can enhance efficacy of marketed contact lens disinfectants against A. castellanii trophozoites and cysts, in vitro. The results revealed that all contact lens disinfectants tested showed potent bactericidal effects exhibiting 100% kill against all bacterial species tested. In contrast, none of the contact lens disinfectants had potent effects against Acanthamoeba cysts viability. When tested against trophozoites, two disinfectants, Oxysept Multipurpose and AO-sept Multipurpose showed partial amoebicidal effects. Using chlorhexidine as an antiamoebic compound and cellulase enzyme to disrupt cyst wall structure, the findings revealed that combination of both agents in contact lens disinfectants abolished viability of A. castellanii cysts and trophozoites. Given the inefficacy of contact lens disinfectants tested in this study, these findings present a significant concern to public health. These

  16. Current contact lens care systems.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Phyllis L

    2003-09-01

    Contact lens care has been revolutionized and simplified with the development of multipurpose solutions, less sensitizing preservatives and disinfectants, better protein removers, and reaction-free, one-bottle care systems for patients who have had adverse responses to existing care products. As the complexity of lens care has decreased, compliance has increased. Nevertheless, good compliance is dependent on technician training and a thorough understanding of the chemistry and mechanism of action of each care system. Care products are constantly evolving, and the practitioner should become familiar with each new solution as it is introduced to ensure that patients are also kept up-to-date.

  17. Liquid crystal Fresnel lens display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Qian; Abhishek Kumar, Srivastava; Alwin Tam, Ming-Wai; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Dong; Vladimir, Chigrinov G.; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2016-09-01

    A novel see-through display with a liquid crystal lens array was proposed. A liquid crystal Fresnel lens display (LCFLD) with a holographic screen was demonstrated. The proposed display system has high efficiency, simple fabrication, and low manufacturing cost due to the absence of a polarizer and color filter. Project supported by Partner State Key Laboratory on Advanced Displays and Optoelectronics Technologies HKUST, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61435008 and 61575063), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. WM1514036).

  18. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Willson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ˜5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ˜2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ˜14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI's resolution is comparable at ˜30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  19. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Wilson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ?5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ?2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ?14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI?s resolution is comparable at ?30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  20. Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... back to top Dos and Don'ts for Contact Lens Wearers DO: Always wash your hands before ...

  1. Improved flight-simulator viewing lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahlbaum, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Triplet lens system uses two acrylic plastic double convex lenses and one polystyrene plastic single convex lens to reduce chromatic distortion and lateral aberation, especially at large field angles within in-line systems of flight simulators.

  2. Initial resolution measurements of an improved magnetic-electrostatic detector objective lens for LVSEM

    PubMed

    Knell; Plies

    2000-04-01

    In this paper we present some initial resolution measurements of an improved magnetic-electrostatic detector objective lens for a low-voltage scanning electron microscope. The electron optical design of the lens was already proposed by the authors [G. Knell, E. Plies, Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A 427 (1999) 99]. The magnetic circuit of this lens has a radially arranged pole-piece gap. Thus, the specimen is immersed in a strong magnetic field of 106 mT (working distance: 1 mm, primary electron energy: 200 eV). The electrostatic field strength of our optimized lens variant amounts to a moderate value of 100 V/mm for a working distance of 1 mm. At a final beam energy of 1 keV a resolution of 3 nm, at 260 eV a resolution of 5 nm was obtained.

  3. Tunable-focus lens for adaptive eyeglasses.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nazmul; Banerjee, Aishwaryadev; Kim, Hanseup; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

    2017-01-23

    We demonstrate the implementation of a compact tunable-focus liquid lens suitable for adaptive eyeglass application. The lens has an aperture diameter of 32 mm, optical power range of 5.6 diopter, and electrical power consumption less than 20 mW. The lens inclusive of its piezoelectric actuation mechanism is 8.4 mm thick and weighs 14.4 gm. The measured lens RMS wavefront aberration error was between 0.73 µm and 0.956 µm.

  4. Panoramic lens designed with transformation optics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaping; Deng, Yangyang; Zheng, Bin; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The panoramic lens is a special kind of lens, which is applied to observe full view. In this letter, we theoretically present a panoramic lens (PL) using transformation optics method. The lens is designed with inhomogeneous and anisotropic constitutive parameters, which has the ability to gather light from all directions and confine light within the visual angle of observer. Simulation results validate our theoretical design. PMID:28059142

  5. Panoramic lens designed with transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaping; Deng, Yangyang; Zheng, Bin; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The panoramic lens is a special kind of lens, which is applied to observe full view. In this letter, we theoretically present a panoramic lens (PL) using transformation optics method. The lens is designed with inhomogeneous and anisotropic constitutive parameters, which has the ability to gather light from all directions and confine light within the visual angle of observer. Simulation results validate our theoretical design.

  6. Metamaterial lens applicator for microwave hyperthermia of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Gong, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Artificial left-handed metamaterial (LHM) provides a new perspective for microwave hyperthermia. Four flat LHM slab lenses can be used to form a focus-flexible applicator for breast tumour hyperthermia. By adjusting microwave sources behind the four flat LHM lenses, microwaves emitted from the sources can be focused tightly at different points in the breast tissue so that necessary heating depth in breast tissue can be achieved. Numerical simulations with a two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method indicate that hyperthermia with the proposed four-lens applicator of moderate LHM losses could be effective in achieving desired power deposition in a heterogeneous breast model. Temperature distribution obtained by solving the bio-heat transfer equation demonstrates that temperature above 43 degrees C can be maintained in the tumour volume for specific periods of time. Flat slab LHM lenses offer a feasible alternative to traditional mechanically scanned lens applicator and electronically scanned phased-array applicators.

  7. Aberration correction of double-sided telecentric zoom lenses using lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-09-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a four-component double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is presented. The Gaussian structure of the zoom system is specified previously which means the powers and movements of components are known. Each component is treated as a lens module during the design stage with specified first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. The third-order aberration targets of the first component are determined by minimizing the whole aberrations of the zoom lens system using a genetic algorithm (GA). And the aberration targets of components behind are determined by reoptimization with already fixed structures of previous components. Mean pupil spherical aberration of every component in every zoom position is adopted in the objective function to control high-order aberrations. The thin lens structure of each component can be determined from their first-order properties and aberration targets. After lens thickening and reoptimization, the zoom lens system can finally be determined.

  8. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  9. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  10. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  11. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  12. Contact Lens-related Complications: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Fateme; Khaheshi, Saeed; Soleimanzadeh, Mahya; Heidarzadeh, Somayeh; Heydarzadeh, Sepideh

    2017-01-01

    Contact lens-related problems are common and can result in severe sight-threatening complications or contact lens drop out if not addressed properly. We systematically reviewed the most important and the most common contact lens-related complications and their diagnosis, epidemiology, and management according to the literature published in the last 20 years. PMID:28540012

  13. Luneburg modified lens for surface water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichard, Helene; Maurel, Agnes; Petitjeans, Phillipe; Martin, Paul; Pagneux, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that when the waves pass across an elevated bathymetry, refraction often results in amplification of waves behind it. In this sense, focusing of liquid surface waves can be used to enhance the harvest efficiency of ocean power. An ocean wave focusing lens concentrates waves on a certain focal point by transforming straight crest lens of incident waves into circular ones just like an optical lens. These devices have attracted ocean engineers and are promising because they enable the effective utilization of wave energy, the remaining challenge being to increase the harvest efficiency of the lens. In this work, in order to improve well known focusing of surface liquid waves by lens, the propagation of liquid surface waves through a Luneburg modified lens is investigated. The traditional Luneburg lens is a rotationally symmetric lens with a spatially varying refractive-index profile that focuses an incident plane wave on the rim of the lens. The modified Luneburg lens allows to choose the position of the focal point, which can lie inside or outside the lens. This new degree of freedom leads to enhanced focusing and tunable focusing. The focusing of linear surface waves through this lens is investigated and is shown to be more efficient than classical profile lenses.

  14. In vivo human crystalline lens topography

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Sergio; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Gambra, Enrique; de Castro, Alberto; Marcos, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to characterize three-dimensionally (3-D) the human crystalline lens in vivo. The system was provided with custom algorithms for denoising and segmentation of the images, as well as for fan (scanning) and optical (refraction) distortion correction, to provide fully quantitative images of the anterior and posterior crystalline lens surfaces. The method was tested on an artificial eye with known surfaces geometry and on a human lens in vitro, and demonstrated on three human lenses in vivo. Not correcting for distortion overestimated the anterior lens radius by 25% and the posterior lens radius by more than 65%. In vivo lens surfaces were fitted by biconicoids and Zernike polynomials after distortion correction. The anterior lens radii of curvature ranged from 10.27 to 14.14 mm, and the posterior lens radii of curvature ranged from 6.12 to 7.54 mm. Surface asphericities ranged from −0.04 to −1.96. The lens surfaces were well fitted by quadrics (with variation smaller than 2%, for 5-mm pupils), with low amounts of high order terms. Surface lens astigmatism was significant, with the anterior lens typically showing horizontal astigmatism (Z22 ranging from −11 to −1 µm) and the posterior lens showing vertical astigmatism (Z22 ranging from 6 to 10 µm). PMID:23082289

  15. A broadband transformation-optics metasurface lens

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Xiang; Xiang Jiang, Wei; Feng Ma, Hui; Jun Cui, Tie

    2014-04-14

    We present a transformational metasurface Luneburg lens based on the quasi-conformal mapping method, which has weakly anisotropic constitutive parameters. We design the metasurface lens using inhomogeneous artificial structures to realize the required surface refractive indexes. The transformational metasurface Luneburg lens is fabricated and the measurement results demonstrate very good performance in controlling the radiated surface waves.

  16. 21 CFR 886.1400 - Maddox lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maddox lens. 886.1400 Section 886.1400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1400 Maddox lens. (a) Identification. A Maddox lens is a...

  17. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  18. Freeform lens design for LED illumination with high uniformity and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Chung; Lin, Hoang Yan

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we design a freeform lens according to the LED light distribution curve so that the light rays emitted from a LED through the lens can achieve high uniformity and efficiency on the prescribed target plane. Because the model is of rotational symmetry, we consider just a 2-D lens shape and then sweep to get the 3-D result. Here a procedure based on the Snell's law and edge-ray principle for designing the freeform lens is proposed. First of all, we analyze the LED intensity distribution and subdivide it into parts. Then we calculate the zones on the target plane where the subdivided light rays should be distributed to. Finally we use an approximate analytic method to construct the freeform lens. After constructing the freeform lens, we simulate for the optical model by using the ray-tracing software LightTools®. The simulation results show that the Cree XLamp XR-E LED light source through the freeform lens can achieve up to 94.8% uniformity and 89.1% efficiency including Fresnel losses for a 1 m distance away and 1 m radius of circular illumination plane.

  19. The Fyodorov Sputnik intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Kwitko, M L

    1979-04-01

    The author has implanted 197 Fyodorov intraocular lenses. With careful selection of patients, good surgical judgment, and meticulous surgery, a degree of success can be obtained with this lens, which will equal that of conventional cataract surgery. The surgical technique of implantation will be described.

  20. Tevatron electron lens magnetic system

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Shiltsev et al.

    2001-07-12

    In the framework of collaboration between IHEP and FNAL, a magnetic system of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) has been designed and built. The TEL is currently installed in the superconducting ring of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider and used for experimental studies of beam-beam compensation [1].

  1. A Lens to the Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This essay is based on a series of roundtables convened through the Knight Collaborative National Medical Education Roundtable. It reports that the challenges and transformations experienced in recent years by community-based medical schools and clinical campuses offer a lens to the whole higher education enterprise, and asks the fundamental…

  2. Multifocal contact lens myopia control.

    PubMed

    Walline, Jeffrey J; Greiner, Katie L; McVey, M Elizabeth; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies on soft multifocal contact lens myopia control published in the peer-reviewed literature reported findings of noncommercial contact lenses worn for 1 year or less. This study sought to determine the progression of myopia and axial elongation of children fitted with commercially available distance center soft multifocal contact lenses for 2 years. Eight- to eleven-year-old children with -1.00 D to -6.00 D spherical component and less than 1.00 D astigmatism were fitted with soft multifocal contact lenses with a +2.00 D add (Proclear Multifocal "D"; CooperVision, Fairport, NY). They were age- and gender-matched to participants from a previous study who were fitted with single-vision contact lenses (1 Day Acuvue; Vistakon, Jacksonville, FL). A-scan ultrasound and cycloplegic autorefraction were performed at baseline, after 1 year, and after 2 years. Multilevel modeling was used to compare the rate of change of myopia and axial length between single-vision and soft multifocal contact lens wearers. Forty participants were fitted with soft multifocal contact lenses, and 13 did not contribute complete data (5 contributed 1 year of data). The adjusted mean ± standard error spherical equivalent progression of myopia at 2 years was -1.03 ± 0.06 D for the single-vision contact lens wearers and -0.51 ± 0.06 for the soft multifocal contact lens wearers (p < 0.0001). The adjusted mean axial elongation was 0.41 ± 0.03 and 0.29 ± 0.03 for the single-vision and soft multifocal contact lens wearers, respectively (p < 0.0016). Soft multifocal contact lens wear resulted in a 50% reduction in the progression of myopia and a 29% reduction in axial elongation during the 2-year treatment period compared to a historical control group. Results from this and other investigations indicate a need for a long-term randomized clinical trial to investigate the potential for soft multifocal contact lens myopia control.

  3. Lens stem cells may reside outside the lens capsule: an hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Remington, Susann G; Meyer, Rita A

    2007-06-08

    In this paper, we consider the ocular lens in the context of contemporary developments in biological ideas. We attempt to reconcile lens biology with stem cell concepts and a dearth of lens tumors.Historically, the lens has been viewed as a closed system, in which cells at the periphery of the lens epithelium differentiate into fiber cells. Theoretical considerations led us to question whether the intracapsular lens is indeed self-contained. Since stem cells generate tumors and the lens does not naturally develop tumors, we reasoned that lens stem cells may not be present within the capsule. We hypothesize that lens stem cells reside outside the lens capsule, in the nearby ciliary body. Our ideas challenge the existing lens biology paradigm. We begin our discussion with lens background information, in order to describe our lens stem cell hypothesis in the context of published data. Then we present the ciliary body as a possible source for lens stem cells, and conclude by comparing the ocular lens with the corneal epithelium.

  4. [Advantage of higher oxygen transmissibility material Piggyback lens for keratoconus correction].

    PubMed

    Xie, Pei-Ying; Chi, Hui; Yang, Li-Na

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the oxygen transmissibility of new material Piggyback lens combined with silicone hydrogel lens and higher Dk RGPCL. To investigate the improving of visual acuity, ocular shape and comfortable, also orthokeratology results and safety of this new system for keratoconus correction. Calculating the oxygen transmission (Dk/t) of the new Piggyback system involves Ohm's Law. Compare the changes of ocular surface curves and astigmatism with or without Si-SCL fitting, RGPCL vision and Piggyback lens vision. Investigate the comfortable improving and ocular complications, and changes of corneal shape after fitted with Piggyback lens by using corneal topography. Selected silicone hydrogel lens was pure vision (B&L PV, 36% water, Dk/t 110) lens, RGPCL material was Menicon Z, Dk/t 95.9 and Boston XO, Dk/t 58.8. It was calculated to 44.4 Dk/t and 34.4 Dk/t with these two combinations. Twenty two moderate and severe keratoconus patients (28 eyes) fitted with the Piggyback lens successfully. Corneal K reading and astigmatism decreased significantly after wore the Si-SCL. Compared with RGPCL vision(4.82 ± 0.11), Piggyback lens vision (4.93 ± 0.08) was significant increased (t = -10.395, P < 0.01) 90% cases improved comfort vs prior RGPCL wear alone. Only few cases appeared slight conjunctival hyperemia and corneal staining. Corneal topography showed corneal flatter, spherical and regular reshaping results after 6 months wore the Piggyback lens. By fitting Piggyback systems using new Si-SCL and higher Dk RGPCL materials may help problematic keratoconic patients improve visual acuity, comfort and safety, increase wearing time and orthokeratology results further.

  5. The Relationship Between the Density of Lens and Liquefaction Time Using Liquefaction Device

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seungbum

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of lens density on liquefaction time by using liquefaction device (AquaLase®, Alcon Laboratories, TX, U.S.A.). Methods Cataract surgery using AquaLase® was performed on 47 eyes. With a Scheimpflug camera, the density and thickness of lens were measured in eye of each patient preoperatively. During surgery, liquefaction time and total number of pulses were recorded. The correlation of both density and thickness of lens with liquefaction time and total number of pulses was analyzed. Results The mean density of anterior cortex, nucleus, and posterior cortex was 112.45±42.1 computer compatible tapes (CCT), 76.5±22.7 CCT, and 70.9±52.2 CCT, respectively. The mean thickness was 0.97±0.30 mm, 2.76±0.54 mm, and 0.81±0.24 mm, respectively. The mean liquefaction time was 174.8±108.2 seconds. The mean total number of pulses was 4799±3007. There was no significant difference between the density of each area of lens (anterior cortex, nucleus, posterior cortex, and total lens) and liquefaction time (p>0.05), and between the thickness of each area of lens and liquefaction time (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between the density of each area of lens and total number of pulses (p>0.05), and between the thickness of each area of lens and total number of pulses (p>0.05). Conclusions When extraction of soft to moderate density cataract was performed with AquaLase®, liquefaction time and total number of pulse did not correlate to the density and thickness of lens. PMID:18784441

  6. Multiple roles of Equarin during lens development.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaohong; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ohta, Kunimasa

    2014-04-01

    Since the days of Hans Spemann, the ocular lens has served as one of the most important developmental systems for elucidating the fundamental processes of induction and differentiation. Lens is an important source of signals that influence the eye development and a variety of genes expressed by the lens have been identified. The identification of additional molecule(s), especially secreted ones that might mediate signals, will extend our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of eye and lens development. Here, we will introduce a soluble molecule, Equarin, and discuss its vital role in multiple aspects of lens development. © 2014 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  7. Micro-optic lens for data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Trusty, R. M.; Wang, M. S.; Froehlich, F. F.; Erwin, J. Kevin

    1991-01-01

    A new type of microlens for data storage applications that has improved off-axis performance is described. The lens consists of a micro Fresnel pattern on a curved substrate. The radius of the substrate is equal to the focal length of the lens. If the pattern and substrate are thin, the combination satisfies the Abbe sine condition. Therefore, the lens is free of coma. We analyze a 0.5 numerical aperture, 0.50 mm focal length lens in detail. A 0.16 numerical aperture lens was fabricated holographically, and results are presented.

  8. A stochastic model of eye lens growth.

    PubMed

    Šikić, Hrvoje; Shi, Yanrong; Lubura, Snježana; Bassnett, Steven

    2015-07-07

    The size and shape of the ocular lens must be controlled with precision if light is to be focused sharply on the retina. The lifelong growth of the lens depends on the production of cells in the anterior epithelium. At the lens equator, epithelial cells differentiate into fiber cells, which are added to the surface of the existing fiber cell mass, increasing its volume and area. We developed a stochastic model relating the rates of cell proliferation and death in various regions of the lens epithelium to deposition of fiber cells and radial lens growth. Epithelial population dynamics were modeled as a branching process with emigration and immigration between proliferative zones. Numerical simulations were in agreement with empirical measurements and demonstrated that, operating within the strict confines of lens geometry, a stochastic growth engine can produce the smooth and precise growth necessary for lens function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Stochastic Model of Eye Lens Growth

    PubMed Central

    Šikić, Hrvoje; Shi, Yanrong; Lubura, Snježana; Bassnett, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The size and shape of the ocular lens must be controlled with precision if light is to be focused sharply on the retina. The lifelong growth of the lens depends on the production of cells in the anterior epithelium. At the lens equator, epithelial cells differentiate into fiber cells, which are added to the surface of the existing fiber cell mass, increasing its volume and area. We developed a stochastic model relating the rates of cell proliferation and death in various regions of the lens epithelium to deposition of fiber cells and lens growth. Epithelial population dynamics were modeled as a branching process with emigration and immigration between various proliferative zones. Numerical simulations were in agreement with empirical measurements and demonstrated that, operating within the strict confines of lens geometry, a stochastic growth engine can produce the smooth and precise growth necessary for lens function. PMID:25816743

  10. Electro-optically actuated liquid-lens zoom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütsch, O.; Loosen, P.

    2012-06-01

    Progressive miniaturization and mass market orientation denote a challenge to the design of dynamic optical systems such as zoom-lenses. Two working principles can be identified: mechanical actuation and application of active optical components. Mechanical actuation changes the focal length of a zoom-lens system by varying the axial positions of optical elements. These systems are limited in speed and often require complex coupled movements. However, well established optical design approaches can be applied. In contrast, active optical components change their optical properties by varying their physical structure by means of applying external electric signals. An example are liquidlenses which vary their curvatures to change the refractive power. Zoom-lenses benefit from active optical components in two ways: first, no moveable structures are required and second, fast response characteristics can be realized. The precommercial development of zoom-lenses demands simplified and cost-effective system designs. However the number of efficient optical designs for electro-optically actuated zoom-lenses is limited. In this paper, the systematic development of an electro-optically actuated zoom-lens will be discussed. The application of aberration polynomials enables a better comprehension of the primary monochromatic aberrations at the lens elements during a change in magnification. This enables an enhanced synthesis of the system behavior and leads to a simplified zoom-lens design with no moving elements. The change of focal length is achieved only by varying curvatures of targeted integrated electro-optically actuated lenses.

  11. Stretched Lens Array Squarerigger (SLASR) Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A.J.; Howell, Joe; Lollar, Louis; Carrington, Connie; Hoppe, David; Piszczor, Michael; Suszuki, Nantel; Eskenazi, Michael; Aiken, Dan; hide

    2007-01-01

    Since April 2005, our team has been underway on a competitively awarded program sponsored by NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop, refine, and mature the unique solar array technology known as Stretched Lens Array SquareRigger (SLASR). SLASR offers an unprecedented portfolio of performance metrics, SLASR offers an unprecedented portfolio of performance metrics, including the following: Areal Power Density = 300 W/m2 (2005) - 400 W/m2 (2008 Target) Specific Power = 300 W/kg (2005) - 500 W/kg (2008 Target) for a Full 100 kW Solar Array Stowed Power = 80 kW/cu m (2005) - 120 kW/m3 (2008 Target) for a Full 100 kW Solar Array Scalable Array Capacity = 100 s of W s to 100 s of kW s Super-Insulated Small Cell Circuit = High-Voltage (300-600 V) Operation at Low Mass Penalty Super-Shielded Small Cell Circuit = Excellent Radiation Hardness at Low Mass Penalty 85% Cell Area Savings = 75% Lower Array Cost per Watt than One-Sun Array Modular, Scalable, & Mass-Producible at MW s per Year Using Existing Processes and Capacities

  12. The role of preoperative biometry in selecting initial contact lens power in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Rupal H; Lambert, Scott R; Lynn, Michael J; Wilson, M Edward

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the role of preoperative biometry for selecting initial contact lens power. Patients randomized to receive contact lenses in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) were retrospectively analyzed. Inclusion criteria were availability of both a preoperative immersion axial length measurement and a 1-month postoperative refractive value. The target contact lens power for distance was determined using 1-month postoperative spherical equivalent refraction (after adjusting for a vertex distance) over the known contact lens power. We compared targeted contact lens power for distance with three other treatment techniques: (1) 30 D contact lens (32 D minus 2 D overcorrection for near vision based on IATS protocol); (2) regression-estimated contact lens power of 84.4 - 3.2 × axial length; and (3) IOL power calculated using the Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff (SRK/T) regression formula with a modified A-constant (112.176). Prediction error (targeted minus estimated contact lens power) and its absolute values were calculated. A total of 34 eyes of 34 patients met inclusion criteria. Age at the time of cataract surgery was 2.4 ± 1.7 months. Follow-up refraction was performed at 31 ± 3 days after surgery. Target contact lens power for distance was 26.0 ± 4.5 D for the IATS cohort (which excluded infants with corneal diameter <9 mm). The mean prediction error was -4.0, -1.0, and -2.0 D and mean absolute prediction error was 4.4, 2.2, and 2.9 D, respectively, for 30 D contact lens, regression, and SRK/T-estimated power. Preoperative biometry can be used to estimate contact lens power for distance if an accurate refraction cannot be obtained initially. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  14. Contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Eye-care practitioners typically associate ocular inflammation during contact lens wear with serious complications such as microbial keratitis; however, more subtle mechanisms may be at play. This paper tests the notion that contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory by exploring whether uncomplicated contact lens wear meets the classical, clinical definition of inflammation - rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function) - as well as the contemporary, sub-clinical definition of inflammation (cellular and biochemical reactions). It is demonstrated that all of these clinical and sub-clinical criteria are met with hydrogel lens wear and most are met with silicone hydrogel lens wear, indicating that uncomplicated contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory. Consideration of both traditional and contemporary thinking about the role of inflammation in the human body leads to the perhaps surprising conclusion that the chronic, low grade, sub-clinical inflammatory status of the anterior eye during contact lens wear, which may be termed 'para-inflammation', is a positive, protective phenomenon, whereby up-regulation of the immune system, in a non-damaging way, maintains the eye in a state of 'heightened alert', ready to ward off any extrinsic noxious challenge. Characterisation of this inflammatory status may lead to the development of lens engineering or pharmacological strategies to modulate contact lens-induced inflammation, so as to render lens wear more safe and comfortable. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  15. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/ reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated.

  16. Defocus in cathode lens instruments.

    PubMed

    Tromp, R M; Altman, M S

    2017-02-24

    Accurately measuring defocus in cathode lens instruments (Low Energy Electron Microscopy - LEEM, and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy - PEEM) is a pre-requisite for quantitative image analysis using Fourier Optics (FO) or Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) image simulations. In particular, one must establish a quantitative relation between lens excitation and image defocus. One way to accomplish this is the Real-Space Microspot LEED method, making use of the accurately known angles of diffracted electron beams, and the defocus-dependent shifts of their corresponding real-space images. However, this only works if a sufficiently large number of diffracted beams is available for the sample under investigation. An alternative is to shift the sample along the optical axis by a known distance, and measure the change in objective lens excitation required to re-focus the image. We analytically derive the relation between sample shift and defocus, and apply our results to the measurement and analysis of achromats in an aberration-corrected LEEM instrument.

  17. Corneal Cell Adhesion to Contact Lens Hydrogel Materials Enhanced via Tear Film Protein Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Claire M.; Qi, Qin M.; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2014-01-01

    Tear film protein deposition on contact lens hydrogels has been well characterized from the perspective of bacterial adhesion and viability. However, the effect of protein deposition on lens interactions with the corneal epithelium remains largely unexplored. The current study employs a live cell rheometer to quantify human corneal epithelial cell adhesion to soft contact lenses fouled with the tear film protein lysozyme. PureVision balafilcon A and AirOptix lotrafilcon B lenses were soaked for five days in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS), borate buffered saline (BBS), or Sensitive Eyes Plus Saline Solution (Sensitive Eyes), either pure or in the presence of lysozyme. Treated contact lenses were then contacted to a live monolayer of corneal epithelial cells for two hours, after which the contact lens was sheared laterally. The apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus was then used to quantify the extent of cell adhesion to the contact lens surface. For both lens types, lysozyme increased corneal cell adhesion to the contact lens, with the apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus increasing up to an order of magnitude in the presence of protein. The magnitude of this increase depended on the identity of the soaking solution: lenses soaked in borate-buffered solutions (BBS, Sensitive Eyes) exhibited a much greater increase in cell attachment upon protein addition than those soaked in PBS. Significantly, all measurements were conducted while subjecting the cells to moderate surface pressures and shear rates, similar to those experienced by corneal cells in vivo. PMID:25144576

  18. Corneal cell adhesion to contact lens hydrogel materials enhanced via tear film protein deposition.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Claire M; Qi, Qin M; Fuller, Gerald G

    2014-01-01

    Tear film protein deposition on contact lens hydrogels has been well characterized from the perspective of bacterial adhesion and viability. However, the effect of protein deposition on lens interactions with the corneal epithelium remains largely unexplored. The current study employs a live cell rheometer to quantify human corneal epithelial cell adhesion to soft contact lenses fouled with the tear film protein lysozyme. PureVision balafilcon A and AirOptix lotrafilcon B lenses were soaked for five days in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS), borate buffered saline (BBS), or Sensitive Eyes Plus Saline Solution (Sensitive Eyes), either pure or in the presence of lysozyme. Treated contact lenses were then contacted to a live monolayer of corneal epithelial cells for two hours, after which the contact lens was sheared laterally. The apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus was then used to quantify the extent of cell adhesion to the contact lens surface. For both lens types, lysozyme increased corneal cell adhesion to the contact lens, with the apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus increasing up to an order of magnitude in the presence of protein. The magnitude of this increase depended on the identity of the soaking solution: lenses soaked in borate-buffered solutions (BBS, Sensitive Eyes) exhibited a much greater increase in cell attachment upon protein addition than those soaked in PBS. Significantly, all measurements were conducted while subjecting the cells to moderate surface pressures and shear rates, similar to those experienced by corneal cells in vivo.

  19. Detecting High Hyperopia: The Plus Lens Test and the Spot Vision Screener.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Samuel; Peterseim, Mae Millicent W; Trivedi, Rupal H; Edward Wilson, M; Cheeseman, Edward W; Papa, Carrie E

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the Plus Lens (Goodlite Company, Elgin, IL) test and the Spot Vision Screener (Welch Allyn, Skaneateles Falls, NY) in detecting high hyperopia in a pediatric population. Between June and August 2015, patients were screened with the Spot Vision Screener and the Plus Lens test prior to a scheduled pediatric ophthalmology visit. The following data were analyzed: demographic data, Plus Lens result, Spot Vision Screener result, cycloplegic refraction, and examination findings. Sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values were calculated for the Plus Lens test and Spot Vision Screener in detecting hyperopia as determined by the "gold-standard" cycloplegic refraction. A total of 109 children (average age: 82 months) were included. Compared to the ophthalmologist's cycloplegic refraction, the Spot Vision Screener sensitivity for +3.50 diopters (D) hyperopia was 31.25% and the specificity was 100%. The Plus Lens sensitivity for +3.50 D hyperopia was 43.75% and the specificity was 89.25%. Spot Vision Screener sensitivity increased with higher degrees of hyperopia. In this preliminary study, the Plus Lens test and the Spot Vision Screener demonstrated moderate sensitivity with good specificity in detecting high hyperopia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(3):163-167.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Magnetic lens apparatus for use in high-resolution scanning electron microscopes and lithographic processes

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, Albert V.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particlesis brought to a focus by means of a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. In illustrative embodiments, a lens apparatus is employed in a scanning electron microscopeas the sole lens for high-resolution focusing of an electron beam, and in particular, an electron beam having an accelerating voltage of from about 10 to about 30,000 V. In one embodiment, the lens apparatus comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. In other embodiments, the lens apparatus comprises a magnetic dipole or virtual magnetic monopole fabricated from a variety of materials, including permanent magnets, superconducting coils, and magnetizable spheres and needles contained within an energy-conducting coil. Multiple-array lens apparatus are also disclosed for simultaneous and/or consecutive imaging of multiple images on single or multiple specimens. The invention further provides apparatus, methods, and devices useful in focusing charged particle beams for lithographic processes.

  1. Rap1 GTPase is required for mouse lens epithelial maintenance and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Nagendran, Tharkika; Lang, Richard A; Morozov, Alexei; Rao, Ponugoti V

    2015-10-01

    Rap1, a Ras-like small GTPase, plays a crucial role in cell-matrix adhesive interactions, cell-cell junction formation, cell polarity and migration. The role of Rap1 in vertebrate organ development and tissue architecture, however, remains elusive. We addressed this question in a mouse lens model system using a conditional gene targeting approach. While individual germline deficiency of either Rap1a or Rap1b did not cause overt defects in mouse lens, conditional double deficiency (Rap1 cKO) prior to lens placode formation led to an ocular phenotype including microphthalmia and lens opacification in embryonic mice. The embryonic Rap1 cKO mouse lens exhibited striking defects including loss of E-cadherin- and ZO-1-based cell-cell junctions, disruption of paxillin and β1-integrin-based cell adhesive interactions along with abnormalities in cell shape and apical-basal polarity of epithelium. These epithelial changes were accompanied by increased levels of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and N-cadherin, and expression of transcriptional suppressors of E-cadherin (Snai1, Slug and Zeb2), and a mesenchymal metabolic protein (Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase). Additionally, while lens differentiation was not overtly affected, increased apoptosis and dysregulated cell cycle progression were noted in epithelium and fibers in Rap1 cKO mice. Collectively these observations uncover a requirement for Rap1 in maintenance of lens epithelial phenotype and morphogenesis.

  2. Improving the lens design and performance of a contemporary electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter

    PubMed Central

    Neisius, Andreas; Smith, Nathan B.; Sankin, Georgy; Kuntz, Nicholas John; Madden, John Francis; Fovargue, Daniel E.; Mitran, Sorin; Lipkin, Michael Eric; Simmons, Walter Neal; Preminger, Glenn M.; Zhong, Pei

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), a noninvasive first-line therapy for millions of nephrolithiasis patients, has not improved substantially in the past two decades, especially in regard to stone clearance. Here, we report a new acoustic lens design for a contemporary electromagnetic (EM) shock wave lithotripter, based on recently acquired knowledge of the key lithotripter field characteristics that correlate with efficient and safe SWL. The new lens design addresses concomitantly three fundamental drawbacks in EM lithotripters, namely, narrow focal width, nonidealized pulse profile, and significant misalignment in acoustic focus and cavitation activities with the target stone at high output settings. Key design features and performance of the new lens were evaluated using model calculations and experimental measurements against the original lens under comparable acoustic pulse energy (E+) of 40 mJ. The −6-dB focal width of the new lens was enhanced from 7.4 to 11 mm at this energy level, and peak pressure (41 MPa) and maximum cavitation activity were both realigned to be within 5 mm of the lithotripter focus. Stone comminution produced by the new lens was either statistically improved or similar to that of the original lens under various in vitro test conditions and was significantly improved in vivo in a swine model (89% vs. 54%, P = 0.01), and tissue injury was minimal using a clinical treatment protocol. The general principle and associated techniques described in this work can be applied to design improvement of all EM lithotripters. PMID:24639497

  3. Improving the lens design and performance of a contemporary electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter.

    PubMed

    Neisius, Andreas; Smith, Nathan B; Sankin, Georgy; Kuntz, Nicholas John; Madden, John Francis; Fovargue, Daniel E; Mitran, Sorin; Lipkin, Michael Eric; Simmons, Walter Neal; Preminger, Glenn M; Zhong, Pei

    2014-04-01

    The efficiency of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), a noninvasive first-line therapy for millions of nephrolithiasis patients, has not improved substantially in the past two decades, especially in regard to stone clearance. Here, we report a new acoustic lens design for a contemporary electromagnetic (EM) shock wave lithotripter, based on recently acquired knowledge of the key lithotripter field characteristics that correlate with efficient and safe SWL. The new lens design addresses concomitantly three fundamental drawbacks in EM lithotripters, namely, narrow focal width, nonidealized pulse profile, and significant misalignment in acoustic focus and cavitation activities with the target stone at high output settings. Key design features and performance of the new lens were evaluated using model calculations and experimental measurements against the original lens under comparable acoustic pulse energy (E+) of 40 mJ. The -6-dB focal width of the new lens was enhanced from 7.4 to 11 mm at this energy level, and peak pressure (41 MPa) and maximum cavitation activity were both realigned to be within 5 mm of the lithotripter focus. Stone comminution produced by the new lens was either statistically improved or similar to that of the original lens under various in vitro test conditions and was significantly improved in vivo in a swine model (89% vs. 54%, P = 0.01), and tissue injury was minimal using a clinical treatment protocol. The general principle and associated techniques described in this work can be applied to design improvement of all EM lithotripters.

  4. Magnetic lens apparatus for use in high-resolution scanning electron microscopes and lithographic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Crewe, A.V.

    2000-04-18

    Disclosed are lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles is brought to a focus by means of a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. In illustrative embodiments, a lens apparatus is employed in a scanning electron microscope as the sole lens for high-resolution focusing of an electron beam, and in particular, an electron beam having an accelerating voltage of from about 10 to about 30,000 V. In one embodiment, the lens apparatus comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. In other embodiments, the lens apparatus comprises a magnetic dipole or virtual magnetic monopole fabricated from a variety of materials, including permanent magnets, superconducting coils, and magnetizable spheres and needles contained within an energy-conducting coil. Multiple-array lens apparatus are also disclosed for simultaneous and/or consecutive imaging of multiple images on single or multiple specimens. The invention further provides apparatus, methods, and devices useful in focusing charged particle beams for lithographic processes.

  5. Rap1 GTPase is required for mouse lens epithelial maintenance and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Nagendran, Tharkika; Lang, Richard A.; Morozov, Alexei; Rao, Ponugoti V.

    2015-01-01

    Rap1, a Ras-like small GTPase, plays a crucial role in cell-matrix adhesive interactions, cell-cell junction formation, cell polarity and migration. The role of Rap1 in vertebrate organ development and tissue architecture, however, remains elusive. We addressed this question in a mouse lens model system using a conditional gene targeting approach. While individual germline deficiency of either Rap1a or Rap1b did not cause overt defects in mouse lens, conditional double deficiency (Rap1 cKO) prior to lens placode formation led to an ocular phenotype including microphthalmia and lens opacification in embryonic mice. The embryonic Rap1 cKO mouse lens exhibited striking defects including loss of E-cadherin- and ZO-1-based cell-cell junctions, disruption of paxillin and β1-integrin-based cell adhesive interactions along with abnormalities in cell shape and apical-basal polarity of epithelium. These epithelial changes were accompanied by increased levels of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and N-cadherin, and expression of transcriptional suppressors of E-cadherin (Snai1, Slug and Zeb2), and a mesenchymal metabolic protein (Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase). Additionally, while lens differentiation was not overtly affected, increased apoptosis and dysregulated cell cycle progression were noted in epithelium and fibers in Rap1 cKO mice. Collectively these observations uncover a requirement for Rap1 in maintenance of lens epithelial phenotype and morphogenesis. PMID:26212757

  6. Protective Effects of Acetylation on the Pathological Reactions of the Lens Crystallins with Homocysteine Thiolactone

    PubMed Central

    Moafian, Zeinab; Khoshaman, Kazem; Oryan, Ahmad; Kurganov, Boris I.; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Various post-translational lens crystallins modifications result in structural and functional insults, contributing to the development of lens opacity and cataract disorders. Lens crystallins are potential targets of homocysteinylation, particularly under hyperhomocysteinemia which has been indicated in various eye diseases. Since both homocysteinylation and acetylation primarily occur on protein free amino groups, we applied different spectroscopic methods and gel mobility shift analysis to examine the possible preventive role of acetylation against homocysteinylation. Lens crystallins were extensively acetylated in the presence of acetic anhydride and then subjected to homocysteinylation in the presence of homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL). Extensive acetylation of the lens crystallins results in partial structural alteration and enhancement of their stability, as well as improvement of α-crystallin chaperone-like activity. In addition, acetylation partially prevents HCTL-induced structural alteration and aggregation of lens crystallins. Also, acetylation protects against HCTL-induced loss of α-crystallin chaperone activity. Additionally, subsequent acetylation and homocysteinylation cause significant proteolytic degradation of crystallins. Therefore, further experimentation is required in order to judge effectively the preventative role of acetylation on the structural and functional insults induced by homocysteinylation of lens crystallins. PMID:27706231

  7. Hydrogel lens dehydration and subjective comfort and dryness ratings in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Fonn, D; Situ, P; Simpson, T

    1999-10-01

    To determine whether lens dehydration correlates with discomfort, dryness, and noninvasive tear break-up time in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers and whether dehydration of the two lens types varies. Twenty hydrogel contact lens wearers with dryness-related symptoms and 20 asymptomatic wearers wore an Etafilcon A lens (Acuvue; Vistakon, Inc., Jacksonville, Florida) in one eye and an Omafilcon A lens (Proclear; Biocompatibles, Norfolk, Virginia) in the contralateral eye for 7 h in a randomized, double-masked study. Lens water content was measured before and after 7 h of lens wear and prelens noninvasive tear film break-up time (NIBUT) was measured immediately after insertion and after 5 h of lens wear. Subjective comfort and dryness were rated at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 h of lens wear. The symptomatic group had significantly reduced prelens NIBUT, decreased comfort, and increased dryness, but there was no difference between lenses for these variables. The Omafilcon A lenses dehydrated significantly less than the Etafilcon A lenses, but there was no significant difference in lens dehydration between two subject groups. No correlation was found between lens dehydration and subjective dryness and comfort. Symptomatic hydrogel contact lens wearers with decreased wearing time had measurably decreased comfort, increased dryness ratings, and reduced NIBUT.

  8. Trends of contact lens prescribing in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mera F; Bakkar, May; Gammoh, Yazan; Morgan, Philip

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate contact lens prescribing trends among optometrists in Jordan. Optometrists from 173 practices in Jordan were surveyed about prescribing contact lenses in their practice. Practitioners were required to record information for the last 10 patients that visited their practice. Demographic data such as age and gender was obtained for each patient. In addition, data relating to lens type, lens design, replacement methods and the care regime advised to each patient were recorded. Practitioners were required to provide information relating to their education and years of experience. The influence of education and experience with respect to lens prescribing trends was explored using linear regression models for the proportions of lens types fitted for patients. A total of 1730 contact lens fits were analyzed. The mean (±SD) age of lens wearers was 26.6 (±7.9) years, of whom 65% were female. Conventional hydrogel lenses were the most prescribed lenses, accounting for 60.3% of the fits, followed by silicone hydrogel lenses (31.3%), and rigid lenses (8.4%). In terms of lens design, spherical lenses appeared to be most commonly prescribed on monthly basis. Daily disposable lenses were second most prescribed lens modality, accounting for 20.4% of the study sample. Multi-purpose solution (MPS) was the preferred care regimen, with a prevalence of 88.1% reported in the study sample, compared to hydrogen peroxide (1-step and 2-step), which represented only 2.8% of the patients in this study. A relationship was established between the two educational groups for rigid lens prescribing (F=17.4, p<0.0001), while the experience of the optometrist was not a significant factor (F=0.4, p=0.54). This work has provides an up-to-date analysis of contact lens prescribing trends among optometrists in Jordan. Contact lens prescribing in terms of lens type, lens design, modality of wear and care regimen agree with global market trends with small variations. This report will help

  9. MAHLI Calibration Target in Ultraviolet Light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-07

    During pre-flight testing in March 2011, the Mars Hand Lens Imager MAHLI camera on NASA Mars rover Curiosity took this image of the MAHLI calibration target under illumination from MAHLI two ultraviolet LEDs light emitting diodes.

  10. Graphene plasmonic lens for manipulating energy flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoxi; Liu, Xueming; Lu, Hua; Zeng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Manipulating the energy flow of light is at the heart of modern information and communication technologies. Because photons are uncharged, it is still difficult to effectively control them by electrical means. Here, we propose a graphene plasmonic (GP) lens to efficiently manipulate energy flow by elaborately designing the thickness of the dielectric spacer beneath the graphene sheet. Different from traditional metal-based lenses, the proposed graphene plasmonic lens possesses the advantages of tunability and excellent confinement of surface plasmons. It is found that the proposed lens can be utilized to focus and collimate the GP waves propagating along the graphene sheet. Particularly, the lens is dispersionless over a wide frequency range and the performance of lens can be flexibly tuned by adjusting the bias voltage. As an application of such a lens, the image transfer of two point sources with a separation of λ0/30 is demonstrated. PMID:24517981

  11. Evolution of a pre and post lens tear film with a contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhart, Matthew; Anderson, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The work is the development, implementation, and analysis of a two-dimensional tear film model including a porous contact lens. The geometry of the problem is: a pre-lens layer that is a thin tear film between the outside air and contact lens, a contact lens that is a rigid but movable porous substrate, and a post-lens layer that is a thin film layer between the contact lens and the cornea. We are looking at short and long term behavior of the evolution of the thin film in the pre-lens layer coupled with the porous layer and the thin squeeze film in the post-lens layer. We model the different behaviors that arise as the Darcy number, evaporation effects, and boundary flux conditions change.

  12. Autophagy and mitophagy participate in ocular lens organelle degradation.

    PubMed

    Costello, M Joseph; Brennan, Lisa A; Basu, Subharsee; Chauss, Daniel; Mohamed, Ashik; Gilliland, Kurt O; Johnsen, Sönke; Menko, Sue; Kantorow, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The eye lens consists of a layer of epithelial cells that overlay a series of differentiating fiber cells that upon maturation lose their mitochondria, nuclei and other organelles. Lens transparency relies on the metabolic function of mitochondria contained in the lens epithelial cells and in the immature fiber cells and the programmed degradation of mitochondria and other organelles occurring upon lens fiber cell maturation. Loss of lens mitochondrial function in the epithelium or failure to degrade mitochondria and other organelles in lens fiber cells results in lens cataract formation. To date, the mechanisms that govern the maintenance of mitochondria in the lens and the degradation of mitochondria during programmed lens fiber cell maturation have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate using electron microscopy and dual-label confocal imaging the presence of autophagic vesicles containing mitochondria in lens epithelial cells, immature lens fiber cells and during early stages of lens fiber cell differentiation. We also show that mitophagy is induced in primary lens epithelial cells upon serum starvation. These data provide evidence that autophagy occurs throughout the lens and that mitophagy functions in the lens to remove damaged mitochondria from the lens epithelium and to degrade mitochondria in the differentiating lens fiber cells for lens development. The results provide a novel mechanism for how mitochondria are maintained to preserve lens metabolic function and how mitochondria are degraded upon lens fiber cell maturation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of the ciliary muscle and crystalline lens interaction during accommodation with synchronous OCT imaging.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Marco; de Freitas, Carolina; Williams, Siobhan; Hernandez, Victor M; Cabot, Florence; Yesilirmak, Nilufer; Alawa, Karam; Chang, Yu-Cherng; Yoo, Sonia H; Gregori, Giovanni; Parel, Jean-Marie; Manns, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Two SD-OCT systems and a dual channel accommodation target were combined and precisely synchronized to simultaneously image the anterior segment and the ciliary muscle during dynamic accommodation. The imaging system simultaneously generates two synchronized OCT image sequences of the anterior segment and ciliary muscle with an imaging speed of 13 frames per second. The system was used to acquire OCT image sequences of a non-presbyopic and a pre-presbyopic subject accommodating in response to step changes in vergence. The image sequences were processed to extract dynamic morphological data from the crystalline lens and the ciliary muscle. The synchronization between the OCT systems allowed the precise correlation of anatomical changes occurring in the crystalline lens and ciliary muscle at identical time points during accommodation. To describe the dynamic interaction between the crystalline lens and ciliary muscle, we introduce accommodation state diagrams that display the relation between anatomical changes occurring in the accommodating crystalline lens and ciliary muscle.

  14. Fresnel lens analysis for solar energy applications.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, E; Luque, A

    1981-09-01

    In this paper we analyze an arbitrarily shaped lineal Fresnel lens acting either as sole concentration stage or as the first stage of a two-stage concentration system in which the second stage considers the first as a Lambertian source. We determine the gain and position of the lens for all possible configurations, and we demonstrate that a curved lens with a refractive-index approaching infinity and with a given profile turns out to be an ideal concentrator.

  15. Fresnel lens analysis for solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzo, E.; Luque, A.

    1981-09-01

    In this paper we analyze an arbitrarily shaped lineal Fresnel lens acting either as sole concentration stage or as the first stage of a two-stage concentration system in which the second stage considers the first as a Lambertian source. We determine the gain and position of the lens for all possible configurations, and we demonstrate that a curved lens with a refractive-index approaching infinity and with a given profile turns out to be an ideal concentrator.

  16. A Prophylactic Strategy for Global Synthesis in Lens Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, L. N.; Chatterjee, S.

    Prefaced with a brief description of the state of the art in computer aided lens design optimization, this paper reports a prophylactic strategy to obtain global or quasiglobal optimum solutions for this nondeterrninistic polynomial (NP) time hard problem. For the synthesis of multicomponent lens systems, a top down approach is employed first to obtain paraxial and central aberration targets for the constituent thin components. Central aberrations of a component are the aberrations when stop is on the component. Suitable structural designs for the individual components are determined by evolutionary programming. Overall systems synthesized with these quasiglobally optimum components are reoptimied by local optimization algorithms. Illustrative numerical results on the second step of the design procedure are presented.

  17. IDENTIFYING ANOMALIES IN GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, Charles R.; Nordgren, C. Erik E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2010-02-01

    We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. In a previous paper, we predicted how the time delay between the bright pair of images in a 'fold' lens scales with the image separation, for smooth lens potentials. Here we show that the proportionality constant increases with the quadrupole moment of the lens potential, and depends only weakly on the position of the source along the caustic. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as 'time delay anomalies'. We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131 - 1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131 - 1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in the fold lenses, B1608+656 and WFI 2033 - 4723, and the cusp lens RX J0911+0551. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Finally, to assist future monitoring campaigns we use our smooth models with shear to predict the time delays for all known four-image lenses.

  18. Contact lens fitting after photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Astin, C. L.; Gartry, D. S.; McG Steele, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: This study evaluated contact lens fitting and the longer term response of the photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) cornea to lens wear. In PRK for myopia problems such as regression, anterior stromal haze, irregular astigmatism, halo aberration, and anisometropia have been reported. Certain patients therefore require contact lens correction to obtain best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). METHOD: From an original cohort of 80 patients, 15 were dissatisfied with their visual outcome 6 months after PRK. Ten of these were fitted with lenses and monitored regularly. RESULTS: The best fit rigid gas permeable lens of diameter 9.20-10.00 mm was generally 0.10 mm steeper than mean keratometry readings. Because of lid discomfort five patients were refitted with daily wear soft lenses. All 10 achieved satisfactory lens wear of 10 hours per day. Central corneal steepening of 0.75 D (0.15 mm) occurred in one patient. Two patients had slight central corneal flattening. Three patients discontinued lens wear as they found lens care a nuisance. Four finally opted for retreatment by PRK. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, contact lenses gave good visual acuity and, in cases of mild irregular astigmatism, a significant improvement over spectacle BCVA. No significant adverse reaction to contact lens wear was found. Although ocular tolerance of lenses was satisfactory, several patients discontinued lens wear or sought improved unaided vision. Images PMID:8795370

  19. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueming; Wei, Lei; Poelma, René H.; Vollebregt, Sten; Wei, Jia; Urbach, Hendrik Paul; Sarro, Pasqualina M.; Zhang, Guo Qi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material combines the excellent optical absorption properties of the CNT with the transparency and stretchability of the PDMS. By stretching the elastomeric composite in radial direction, the lens focal length is tuned. Good focusing response is demonstrated and a large focus change (≥24%) was achieved by stretching lenses up to 11.4%. PMID:27139747

  20. An electron-lens for opaque photocathodes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Hallam, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    It is possible to employ opaque photocathodes in image tubes having a special electromagnetic lens without the use of special internal image-forming optical lenses or mirrors. The special electron lens, having flat object and image planes, is found to provide excellent quality electron-optical image transfer. Stray light reflection inside the tube is expected to be less serious in this electron lens than in a conventional magnetically focused image tube lens due to the offset image plane, and due to the increased absorption of photons in opaque photocathode applications.

  1. Foxe view of lens development and disease.

    PubMed

    Medina-Martinez, Olga; Jamrich, Milan

    2007-04-01

    The recent identification of a mutation in Foxe3 that causes congenital primary aphakia in humans marks an important milestone. Congenital primary aphakia is a rare developmental disease in which the lens does not form. Previously, Foxe3 had been shown to play a crucial role in vertebrate lens formation and this gene is one of the earliest integrators of several signaling pathways that cooperate to form a lens. In this review, we highlight recent advances that have led to a better understanding of the developmental processes and gene regulatory networks involved in lens development and disease.

  2. A Magnification Lens for Interactive Volume Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    LaMar, E; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-07-19

    Volume visualization of large data sets suffers from the same problem that many other visualization modalities suffer from: either one can visualize the entire data set and lose small details or visualize a small region and lose the context. In this paper, they present a magnification lens technique for volume visualization. While the notion of a magnification-lens is not new, and other techniques attempt to simulate the physical properties of a magnifying lens, their contribution is in developing a magnification lens that is fast, can be implemented using a fairly small software overhead, and has a natural, intuitive appearance. The issue with magnification lens is the border, or transition, region. The lens center and exterior have a constant zoom factor, and are simple to render. It is the border region that blends between the external and interior magnification, and has a non-constant magnification. They use the perspective-correct textures capability, available in most current graphics systems, to produce a lens with a tessellated border region that approximates linear compression with respect to the radius of the magnification lens. They discuss how a cubic border can mitigate the discontinuities resulting from the use of a linear function, without significant performance loss. They discuss various issues concerning development of a three-dimensional magnification lens.

  3. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueming; Wei, Lei; Poelma, René H.; Vollebregt, Sten; Wei, Jia; Urbach, Hendrik Paul; Sarro, Pasqualina M.; Zhang, Guo Qi

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material combines the excellent optical absorption properties of the CNT with the transparency and stretchability of the PDMS. By stretching the elastomeric composite in radial direction, the lens focal length is tuned. Good focusing response is demonstrated and a large focus change (≥24%) was achieved by stretching lenses up to 11.4%.

  4. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueming; Wei, Lei; Poelma, René H; Vollebregt, Sten; Wei, Jia; Urbach, Hendrik Paul; Sarro, Pasqualina M; Zhang, Guo Qi

    2016-05-03

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material combines the excellent optical absorption properties of the CNT with the transparency and stretchability of the PDMS. By stretching the elastomeric composite in radial direction, the lens focal length is tuned. Good focusing response is demonstrated and a large focus change (≥24%) was achieved by stretching lenses up to 11.4%.

  5. Wireless Control of an LC Adaptive Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, G.; Loktev, M.; Zhang, X.

    We consider using liquid crystal adaptive lenses to correct the accommodation loss and higher-order aberrations of the human eye. In this configuration, the adaptive lens is embedded into the eye lens implant and can be controlled through a wireless inductive link. In this work we experimentally demonstrate a wireless control of a liquid crystal adaptive lens in a wide range of its focusing power by using two coupled coils with the primary coil driven from a low-voltage source through a switching control circuit and the secondary coil used to drive the lens.

  6. Scattering of waves by the invisible lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzaňáková, Kateřina; Tyc, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the scattering properties of the invisible lens in two ways. First, we describe the scattering of electromagnetic waves by the invisible lens realised by a purely dielectric, purely magnetic, and impedance-matched medium, respectively, using Debye potentials. Second, we employ the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method to analyse the scattering of scalar waves by the lens. We show that in all cases the scattering is negligible for a discrete set of frequencies, while for other frequencies there is a phase slip at the boundary of the lens ‘shadow’.

  7. Endoscopic inspection using a panoramic annular lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Matthys, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this one year study was to design, build, and demonstrate a prototype system for cavity inspection. A cylindrical view of the cavity interior was captured in real time through a compound lens system consisting of a unique panoramic annular lens and a collector lens. Images, acquired with a digitizing camera and stored in a desktop computer, were manipulated using image processing software to aid in visual inspection and qualitative analysis. A detailed description of the lens and its applications is given.

  8. Optical density of the crystalline lens

    SciTech Connect

    Hemenger, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The optical density for the noncataractous crystalline lens is written as a sum of two terms, each with a specific dependence on wavelength. The first term, proportional to 1/lambda 2, represents all light-scattering processes in the lens. The second term, assumed significant only for lambda less than or equal to 500 nm, accounts for absorption by lens pigments. By analyzing transmittance data on lenses of subjects aged 21 to 63 years, a spectrum for light absorption by lens pigment is derived and it is shown to be essentially the same for all of the lenses.

  9. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  10. The moderators of patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jessie L

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which Department of Defense (DOD) active duty patient sociodemographic, health status, geographic location, and utilization factors, predict overall patient satisfaction with health care in military facilities. A theoretical framework developed from patient satisfaction and social identity theories and from previous empirical findings was used to develop a model to predict patient satisfaction and delineate moderating variables. The major finding indicated in this study was the significance of patients' characteristics in moderating their satisfaction. Principal components factor analysis and hierarchical linear regression revealed that patient specific factors predicted patients' satisfaction after controlling for factors depicting patients' evaluations of health system characteristics. Patient specific factors provided added, although very minimal, explanatory value to the determination of patients' satisfaction. The study findings can aid in the development of targeted, objectively prioritized programs of improvement and marketing by ranking variables using patients' passively derived importance schema.

  11. Intraocular lens optics and aberrations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Daniel H; Rocha, Karolinne M

    2016-07-01

    This review outlines concepts in intraocular lens (IOL) optics and aberrations important both for current IOLs and for new IOLs in development. Optical aberrations make a significant impact on the laboratory and clinical performance of IOLs, especially under mesopic and low-contrast conditions. Minimizing or correcting these aberrations can potentially improve visual function. Strategic management of aberrations can have clinical utility for extended depth of focus and presbyopia correction. All IOLs affect ocular aberrations in some manner. It is important for clinicians and researchers to understand the implications how any residual aberrations could affect visual quality, visual side-effects, and depth of focus.

  12. Fresnel Lens Scatter Plate for Data Reduction Holography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In the patent the holographic apparatus and method uses a Fresnel lens as a scatter plate in data reduction holography. A second embodiment uses a Fresnel lens in series with a fly’s eye lens array.

  13. Presbyopia correction with an anterior chamber phakic multifocal intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Alió, Jorge L; Mulet, M Emilia

    2005-08-01

    To investigate in a pilot study the potential of an anterior chamber phakic refractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) prototype for the correction of near and far vision in those with myopic and hyperopic presbyopia. A multicenter, open-label, prospective, noncomparative pilot evaluation. There were 17 patients (34 eyes), 16 women and 1 man, with a mean age of 52+/-3.94 years (range, 46-62 years). Six eyes were myopic (mean spherical equivalent [SE], -9.3+/-3.83 diopters (D)) and 28 were hyperopic (mean SE, +2.3+/-0.77 D), with astigmatism less than 1.5 D. The prototype multifocal phakic IOL was implanted through a 6.5-mm temporal incision. The dominant eye was targeted for emmetropia and the nondominant eye for -1.0 D. The efficacy of the implant was assessed after surgery by measuring monocular and binocular uncorrected and distance-corrected visual acuity (VA) at distance, intermediate, and near, and distance-corrected near VA with near add. Distance-corrected distance and near VA also were determined in low contrast (25%). The safety index and efficacy index were calculated, and patient satisfaction questionnaires also were administered. Follow-up was at 1-3 days, 5-9 days, 21 days, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Spherical equivalent refraction ranged from -11.75 to +4.25 D before surgery, and from -2.0 to +1.85 D 1 year after surgery. The binocular efficacy index was 0.68 (near) and 1.0 (distance), and the binocular safety index was 1.0 for both near and distance. Mean binocular uncorrected distance VA improved from 20/59 (+/-4 lines) before surgery to 20/18 (+/-1 line) 1 year after surgery. Mean binocular uncorrected intermediate VA improved from 20/125 (+/-10 lines) to 20/21 (+/-1 line), and mean binocular uncorrected near VA improved from 20/78 (+/-5 lines) to 20/32 (+/-1 line). Binocular uncorrected visual acuity was at least 20/40 (distance and intermediate) and Jaeger 3 in 88.2% of patients, and it was at least 20/40 and Jaeger 5 in 100

  14. Protein kinase C epsilon activates lens mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Michael; Lin, Dingbo; Akoyev, Vladimir; Willard, Lloyd; Takemoto, Dolores

    2008-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have been identified as major cellular signaling proteins that act directly in response to oxidation conditions. In retina and lens two isoforms of PKC respond to changes in oxidative stress, PKCgamma and PKCepsilon, while only PKCepsilon is found in heart. In heart the PKCepsilon acts on connexin 43 to protect from hypoxia. The presence of both isoforms in the lens led to this study to determine if lens PKCepsilon had unique targets. Both lens epithelial cells in culture and whole mouse lens were examined using PKC isoform-specific enzyme activity assays, co-immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy, immunoblots, and light and electron microscopy. PKCepsilon was found in lens epithelium and cortex but not in the nucleus of mouse lens. The PKCepsilon isoform was activated in both epithelium and whole lens by 5% oxygen when compared to activity at 21% oxygen. In hypoxic conditions (5% oxygen) the PKCepsilon co-immunoprecipitated with the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase IV subunit (CytCOx). Concomitant with this the CytCOx enzyme activity was elevated and increased co-localization of CytCOx with PCKvarepsilon was observed using immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. In contrast, no hypoxia-induced activation of CytCOx was observed in lenses from the PKCepsilon knockout mice. Lens from 6-week-old PKCepsilon knockout mice had a disorganized bow region which was filled with vacuoles indicating a possible loss of mitochondria but the size of the lens was not altered. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the nuclei of the PCKepsilon knockout mice were abnormal in shape. Thus, PKCepsilon is found to be activated by hypoxia and this results in the activation of the mitochondrial protein CytCOx. This could protect the lens from mitochondrial damage under the naturally hypoxic conditions observed in this tissue. Lens oxygen levels must remain low. Elevation of oxygen which occurs during vitreal detachment or liquification is associated with

  15. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen; Jacobsen, Christina; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-30

    Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule) completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14)C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14)C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14)C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon dating is made possible by comparing the (14)C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric (14)C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close relationship may be further expressed as a mathematical model, which takes into account the timing of the crystalline formation. Such a life-long permanence of human tissue has hitherto only been described for dental enamel. In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the (14)C content of various tissues may be used to assess turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA). Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre-senile degradation, as well as other highly specialised structures of the eyes. The precision with

  16. Contact lens intolerance: refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy

    PubMed Central

    López-López, María; Pelegrín-Sánchez, José Miguel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; García-Ayuso, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Corneal refractive therapy is a non-surgical procedure whose main purpose is to improve uncorrected visual acuity during the day, without spectacles or contact lenses. We report an adult woman who shows contact lens intolerance and does not want to wear eyeglasses. We used dual axis contact lens to improve lens centration. We demonstrate a maintained unaided visual acuity during one year of treatment. In conclusion, we can consider refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy as a non-surgical option for patients who show contact lens intolerance.

  17. Dual FOV infrared lens design with the laser common aperture optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-jun; Zhang, Xuan-zhi; Luan, Ya-dong; Zhang, Bo

    2015-02-01

    With the demand of autonomous precision guidance of air defense missile, the system scheme of the IR imaging/Ladar dual-mode seeker with a common aperture was proposed, and the optical system used in was designed. The system had a common receiving aperture, and its structure was very compact, so it could meet the requirement for the miniaturization of the seeker. Besides, it also could meet the demands of a wide field of view for searching target, and the demands for accurately recognizing and tracking the target at the same time. In order to increase the narrow FOV tracking performance, the dual FOV infrared optical used the zooming mode which some components flip in or out the optical system to firm the target signal. The dual FOV optics are divided into the zooming part, with dual variable focal length, and the reimaging part which was chosen in such a way to minimize the objective lens while maintaining 100% cold shield efficiency. The final infrared optics including 4°×3°(NFOV) and 16°×12°(WFOV) was designed. The NFOV lens composed of two common IR/Ladar lens, three relay lens, a beam splitter and two reflective fold mirrors, while WFOV lens increased two lens such as Germanium and Silicon. The common IR/Ladar lens ZnS and ZnSe could refractive the IR optics and Laser optics. The beam splitter which refractived IR optics and reflected Laser optics was located in the middle of Germanium and Silicon. The designed optical system had good image quality, and fulfilled the performance requirement of seeker system.

  18. Colour vision through intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Mäntyjärvi, M; Syrjäkoski, J; Tuppurainen, K; Honkonen, V

    1997-04-01

    Fifty patients aged from 30 to 69 years (mean 54.7 +/- 11.3 years, SD) with a UV-protected monofocal polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens (IOL) were examined with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM 100) test and the Color Vision Meter 712 anomaloscope. The spectral transmission of the same kind of IOLs as was used surgically was measured with Lambda 2 UV/VIS Spectrometer. In the FM 100 test, there was no significant difference between the results of the IOL eyes and normal eyes. However, the IOL eyes showed better error scores than the normal eyes in the blue-purple box IV in the FM 100 test. In the anomaloscope testing, the Rayleigh (red-green) equation showed no differences between the IOL patients and controls. In the Moreland (blue) equation, however, the mid matching point was significantly shifted towards more green (meaning better blue colour sensitivity) in the IOL eyes than in the control eyes. This is due to the spectral transmission of the IOLs which showed 80-90% transmission already starting at the wavelength of about 420 nm. In comparison, the transmission of the normal human lens reaches those percentages near 500 nm or even further at advanced age.

  19. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  20. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-01-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies. PMID:27748361

  1. Mechanically tunable photonic crystal lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Tamma, V. A.; Lee, J.-B.; Park, W.

    2010-08-01

    We designed, fabricated and characterized MEMS-enabled mechanically-tunable photonic crystal lens comprised of 2D photonic crystal and symmetrical electro-thermal actuators. The 2D photonic crystal was made of a honeycomb-lattice of 340 nm thick, 260 nm diameter high-index silicon rods embedded in low-index 10 μm thick SU-8 cladding. Silicon input waveguide and deflection block were also fabricated for light in-coupling and monitoring of focused spot size, respectively. When actuated, the electro-thermal actuators induced mechanical strain which changed the lattice constant of the photonic crystal and consequently modified the photonic band structure. This in turn modified the focal-length of the photonic crystal lens. The fabricated device was characterized using a tunable laser (1400~1602 nm) and an infrared camera during actuation. At the wavelength of 1450 nm, the lateral light spot size observed at the deflection block gradually decreased 40%, as applied current increased from 0 to 0.7 A, indicating changes in focal length in response to the mechanical stretching.

  2. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens.

    PubMed

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F

    2016-10-17

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young's modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  3. Metasurface lens: Shrinking the camera size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    A miniaturized camera has been developed by integrating a planar metasurface lens doublet with a CMOS image sensor. The metasurface lens doublet corrects the monochromatic aberration and thus delivers nearly diffraction-limited image quality over a wide field of view.

  4. Liquid lens using acoustic radiation force.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Daisuke; Isago, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2011-03-01

    A liquid lens is proposed that uses acoustic radiation force with no mechanical moving parts. It consists of a cylindrical acrylic cell filled with two immiscible liquids (degassed water and silicone oil) and a concave ultrasound transducer. The focal point of the transducer is located on the oil-water interface, which functions as a lens. The acoustic radiation force is generated when there is a difference in the acoustic energy densities of different media. An acoustic standing wave was generated in the axial direction of the lens and the variation of the shape of the oil-water interface was observed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The lens profile can be rapidly changed by varying the acoustic radiation force from the transducer. The kinematic viscosity of silicone oil was optimized to minimize the response times of the lens. Response times of 40 and 80 ms when switching ultrasonic radiation on and off were obtained with a kinematic viscosity of 200 cSt. The path of a laser beam transmitted through the lens was calculated by ray-tracing simulations based on the experimental results obtained by OCT. The transmitted laser beam could be focused by applying an input voltage. The liquid lens could be operated as a variable-focus lens by varying the input voltage.

  5. Analysis of a Thin Optical Lens Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivchenko, Vladimir V.

    2011-01-01

    In this article a thin optical lens model is considered. It is shown that the limits of its applicability are determined not only by the ratio between the thickness of the lens and the modules of the radii of curvature, but above all its geometric type. We have derived the analytical criteria for the applicability of the model for different types…

  6. Mathematical Lens: How Much Can You Bench?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolognese, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    "How Much Can You Bench?" appears in the "Mathematical Lens" section of "Mathematics Teacher." "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." This month the mathematics behind the photograph includes finding areas…

  7. 21 CFR 886.1375 - Bagolini lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1375 Bagolini lens. (a) Identification. A Bagolini lens is a... visualization of objects. The device is placed in a trial frame and intended to determine harmonious/anomalous... values). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1375 - Bagolini lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1375 Bagolini lens. (a) Identification. A Bagolini lens is a... visualization of objects. The device is placed in a trial frame and intended to determine harmonious/anomalous... values). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  9. A Fisheye Lens for Many Point PDV

    SciTech Connect

    Frogget, B.

    2011-11-01

    The features of the fisheye lens are illustrated, including a design with reflector prisms. The fisheye fiber map and the beam footprint are shown. Fisheye rough-angle metrology was done and results presented. Next steps are given, including a smaller top fisheye lens element, longer reflector prisms with better mounting, and different fiber arrangements.

  10. Slim Luneburg lens for antenna applications.

    PubMed

    Demetriadou, Angela; Hao, Yang

    2011-10-10

    Luneburg lens is a marvellous optical lens but is extremely difficult to be applied in any practical antenna system due to its large spherical shape. In this paper, we propose a transformation that reduces the profile of the original Luneburg lens without affecting its unique properties. The new transformed slim lens is then discretized and simplified for a practical antenna application, where its properties were examined numerically. It is found that the transformed lens can be used to replace conventional antenna systems (i.e. Fabry-Perot resonant antennas) producing a high-directivity beam with low side-lobes. In addition, it provides excellent steering capabilities for wide angles, maintaining the directivity and side-lobes at high and low values respectively.

  11. Wave aberrations of the isolated crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Roorda, Austin; Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    A method to measure wave aberrations in the isolated crystalline lens is demonstrated. The method employs a laser scanning technique in which the trajectories of narrow refracted laser beams are measured for an array of sample positions incident on the lens. The local slope of the emerging wavefront is calculated for each sample position, and a least squares procedure is used to fit a Zernike polynomial function to define the wave aberration. Measurements of the aberrations of an isolated porcine lens and macaque lens undergoing changes in accommodative state with mechanical stretching are shown. Many aberrations were present, but negative spherical aberration dominated. In the macaque lens, many aberrations underwent systematic changes with accommodation, most notably the 4th order spherical aberration, which became more negative, and the 6th order spherical aberration, which progressed from negative to positive. PMID:15134472

  12. Zoom lens design using liquid lens for laparoscope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Minseog; Lee, Eunsung; Jung, Kyu-Dong; Chang, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Woonbae

    2013-01-28

    Traditional laparoscopic optical systems consisting of about 30 lenses have low optical magnification. To magnify tissue during surgical operations, one must change from one laparoscope to another or use a magnifying adapter between the laparoscope and the sensor. Our work focuses on how to change the sag of a liquid lens while zooming from 1 × zoom, to 2 × , and 4 × in an optical design for a laparoscope. The design includes several lenses and two liquid lenses with variable focal lengths. A pair of laparoscopes for 3-D stereoscopy is placed within a tube 11 mm in diameter. The predicted depth resolution of tissue is 0.5 mm without interpolation at 4 × zoom.

  13. Simplified recording of soft contact lens fit.

    PubMed

    Wolffsohn, James S; Hunt, Olivia A; Basra, Amritpreet K

    2009-02-01

    To determine the critical fitting characteristics of modern soft contact lens fits and from this to devise a simplified recording scheme. Ten subjects (aged 28.1+/-7.4 years) wore eight different modern soft contact lenses. Video was captured and analysed of blink (central and up-gaze), excursion lag (up, down, right and left gaze) and push-up movement, centration and coverage. Lens centration was on average close to the corneal centre. Movement on blink was significantly smaller in up-gaze than in primary-gaze (p<0.001). Lag was greatest in down-gaze and least in up-gaze (p<0.001). Push-up test recovery speed was 1.32+/-0.73 mm/s. Overall lens movement was determined best by assessing horizontal lag, movement on blink in up-gaze and push-up recovery speed. Steeper lens base-curves did not have a significant effect on lens fit characteristics. Contact lens material did influence lens fit characteristics, particularly silicone-hydrogels which generally had lower centration and a faster push-up speed of recovery than HEMA lenses (p<0.05). Lag on vertical gaze, and movement on blink in primary gaze generally provide little extra information on overall lens movement compared to horizontal lag, movement on blink in up-gaze and push-up recovery speed. They can therefore be excluded from a simplified recording scheme. A simplified and comprehensive soft contact lens fit recording system could consist of a cross-hairs indicating the centre of the cornea; a circle to indicate the lens centration; a mark on the relevant position of the circle to indicate any limbal incursion; a grade (B) below for movement with blink in up-gaze, a grade (L) to the side for horizontal lag and a grade above (P) for the assessed push-up recovery speed.

  14. Bacterial assay of contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Hart, D E; Hosmer, M; Georgescu, M; Farris, R L

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the project was to determine the quantity of bacteria on the contact lens and adjacent areas of the eye. This paper is a quantitative study of the contact lens and ocular aerobic microbiota in a mixed group of daily and extended wear disposable contact lens users. The contact lens, the lower fornix, tears collecting at the lower fornix, and edge of the lower lid at the Meibomian gland margin were assayed for the quantity of bacterial colony forming units (CFU). Eighteen patients wearing 49 disposable high water content hydrogel contact lenses were assayed and the mean lens age was 8.8 +/- 4.6 days. Three patients wore their lenses on a daily wear basis and 15 on an extended wear schedule. Tear samples were obtained with sterile microbial loops and the lens was macerated into small particles with a tissue grinder. The samples were poured onto the surface of chocolate agar plates and incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h in 5% Co2. The lid margin revealed the greatest bacterial presence (mean = 9.7 CFU; median = 2 CFU; mode = 0 CFU). The lens showed the next greatest presence of CFU (mean = 4.5 CFU; median = 1 CFU; mode = 0). The fornix and tears revealed the least bacterial presence (fornix: mean = 2.6 CFU; median = 0 CFU; mode = 0 CFU). The bacteria were coagulase-negative staphylococci. The bacterial assay of disposable lens wearing contact lens subjects indicates that the lid margins are the greatest source of bacteria with the tears being the lowest. These studies support the concept that in the eye, the lens typically does not possess a large number of bacteria under normal conditions.

  15. Synergistic interaction between the fibroblast growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways in lens cells.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Bruce A; Musil, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play a central role in two processes essential for lens transparency--fiber cell differentiation and gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC). Using serum-free primary cultures of chick lens epithelial cells (DCDMLs), we investigated how the FGF and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways positively cooperate to regulate lens development and function. We found that culturing DCDMLs for 6 d with the BMP blocker noggin inhibits the canonical FGF-to-ERK pathway upstream of FRS2 activation and also prevents FGF from stimulating FRS2- and ERK-independent gene expression, indicating that BMP signaling is required at the level of FGF receptors. Other experiments revealed a second type of BMP/FGF interaction by which FGF promotes expression of BMP target genes as well as of BMP4. Together these studies reveal a novel mode of cooperation between the FGF and BMP pathways in which BMP keeps lens cells in an optimally FGF-responsive state and, reciprocally, FGF enhances BMP-mediated gene expression. This interaction provides a mechanistic explanation for why disruption of either FGF or BMP signaling in the lens leads to defects in lens development and function.

  16. Evaluation of a Novel Design for an Electrostatic Quadrupole Triplet Ion Beam Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, L. R.; Bouas, J. D.; Matteson, S.; Weathers, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    We describe the design and evaluation of an electrostatic quadrupole triplet lens constructed to focus ion beams of up to 200 keV in energy. The lens was built to be used in an apparatus for fundamental sputtering studies. These studies are motivated in part by a desire to understand the influence of low-energy physiochemical processes on surfaces and atmospheres exposed to the solar wind in the inner Solar System. The lens is very compact and incorporates a feature to induce octupole fields that can correct for spherical and other octupole-order aberrations. Two methods were used to evaluate the lens: observation of the focused beam spot on a specially fabricated target while systematically varying lens voltages, and the grid-shadow technique. The latter demonstrated that octupole-order aberrations were completely corrected in one direction when the lens quadrupoles were operated individually with appropriate octupole excitations. This research was made possible by a grant from the National Science Foundation through the Physics Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program at the University of North Texas. Additionally, funding was provided by the Ronald E. McNair Post-baccalaureate Achievement Program at the University of North Texas.

  17. Comparison of olopatadine and fluorometholone in contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Saurbhi; Sharma, Namrata; Agarwal, Tushar; Chawla, Bhavna; Velpandian, T; Tandon, Radhika; Titiyal, Jeewan S

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of olopatadine with fluorometholone in contact lens-induced mild to moderate papillary conjunctivitis. A randomized, double-masked study was conducted. Eighty-five (n = 170 eyes) soft contact lens users with mild to moderate papillary conjunctivitis were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups to receive olopatadine 0.1%, fluorometholone 0.1%, or both. All drugs were instilled twice daily for 8 weeks. Contact lens use was discontinued during initial 4 weeks of therapy and subsequently patients were prescribed monthly disposable lenses. Patients were followed up every 2 weeks, and variables assessed were symptoms and signs, tear film status, and intraocular pressures. Decrease in ocular redness, itching, and tearing along with improvement in contact lens tolerance was comparable in all the three groups. Olopatadine was more effective in reducing redness than fluorometholone at 8 weeks (P=0.01). Improvement in congestion and papillary reaction was comparable in all groups. There was a significant increase in tear break up time of more than 2 sec for fluorometholone and no significant increase for olopatadine. The olopatadine and fluorometholone groups had significant increase of more than 2 mm in Schirmer test and more than 3 sec in tear break up time. In patients with subnormal and borderline tear functions, significant improvement was observed with both drugs. After 8 weeks of use of fluorometholone, there was a significant increase in intraocular pressure (P=0.003). Olopatadine and fluorometholone were the most effective for papillary conjunctivitis followed by olopatadine monotherapy and then fluorometholone monotherapy. Olopatadine is effective in alleviating signs and symptoms of contact lens-induced mild to moderate papillary conjunctivitis and is comparable with fluorometholone in efficacy.

  18. Opto-mechanical designs for two special-purpose objective lens assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Paul R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Key features of the optomechanical designs for two high-performance objective-lens assemblies of similar focal lengths and relative apertures, but significantly different configurations and applications are discussed. The first lens is a 25.4-cm EFL, f/1.5 catadioptric lens designed for a + or - 2.8-degree field and intended for use with a detector array in a spaceborne star mapper. The second example is a 22.8-cm EFL, f/1.5 refractor covering a + or - 10-degree field, intended for distant target observation in an airborne low-light-level visual periscope and featuring an integral laser channel for target designation and ranging. The logic behind critical materials choices and the techniques applied in mounting the optics in their mechanical surrounds are described.

  19. Newborn Mouse Lens Proteome and Its Alteration by Lysine 6 Mutant Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin is a tag that often initiates degradation of proteins by the proteasome in the ubiquitin proteasome system. Targeted expression of K6W mutant ubiquitin (K6W-Ub) in the lens results in defects in lens development and cataract formation, suggesting critical functions for ubiquitin in lens. To study the developmental processes that require intact ubiquitin, we executed the most extensive characterization of the lens proteome to date. We quantified lens protein expression changes in multiple replicate pools of P1 wild-type and K6W-Ub-expressing mouse lenses. Lens proteins were digested with trypsin, peptides were separated using strong cation exchange and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra were collected with a linear ion trap. Transgenic mice that expressed low levels of K6W-Ub (low expressers) had normal, clear lenses at birth, whereas the lenses that expressed high levels of K6W-Ub (higher expressers) had abnormal lenses and cataracts at birth. A total of 2052 proteins were identified, of which 996 were reliably quantified and compared between wild-type and K6W-Ub transgenic mice. Consistent with a delayed developmental program, fiber-cell-specific proteins, such as γ-crystallins (γA, γB, γC, and γE), were down-regulated in K6W-Ub higher expressers. Up-regulated proteins were involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and proteolysis. The K6W-Ub low expressers exhibited delayed onset and milder cataract consistent with smaller changes in protein expression. Because lens protein expression changes occurred prior to lens morphological abnormalities and cataract formation in K6W-Ub low expressers, it appears that expression of K6W-Ub sets in motion a process of altered protein expression that results in developmental defects and cataract. PMID:24450463

  20. Design and Assembly of a Telecentric Zoom Lens for the Cygnus X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R M; Brown, K K; Curtis, A H; Esquibel, D L; Frayer, D K; Frogget, B C; Furlanetto, M R; Garten, J R; Haines, T J; Howe, R A; Huerta, J A; Kaufman, M I; King, N.S. P; Lutz, S S; McGillivray, K D; Smith, A S

    2012-10-01

    Cygnus is a high-energy radiographic x-ray source. The rod-pinch x-ray diode produces a point source measuring 1 mm diameter. The target object is placed 1.5 m from the x-ray source, with a large LYSO scintillator at 2.4 m. Different-sized objects are imploded within a containment vessel. A large pellicle deflects the scintillator light out of the x-ray path into an 11-element zoom lens coupled to a CCD camera. The zoom lens and CCD must be as close as possible to the scintillator to maximize light collection. A telecentric lens design minimizes image blur from a volume source. To maximize the resolution of test objects of different sizes, the scintillator and zoom lens can be translated along the x-ray axis. Zoom lens magnifications are changed when different-sized scintillators and recording cameras are used (50 or 62 mm square format). The LYSO scintillator measures 200 × 200 mm and is 5 mm thick. The scintillator produces blue light peaking at 435 nm, so special lens materials are required. By swapping out one lens element and allowing all lenses to move, the zoom lens can also use a CsI(Tl) scintillator that produces green light centered at 550 nm. All lenses are coated with anti-reflective coating for both wavelength bands. Two sets of doublets, the stop, and the CCD camera move during zoom operations. One doublet has XY compensation. The first three lenses use fused silica for radiation damage control. The 60 lb of glass inside the 340 lb mechanical structure is oriented vertically.

  1. Design for an Aspherical Acoustic Fresnel Lens with Phase Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuji; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Nakamura, Toshiaki

    2008-05-01

    A convex acoustic lens using room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber, whose acoustic impedance is similar to that of water, is a typical acoustic lens. A phase-continuous Fresnel lens was proposed to thin the shape of the lens because a convex acoustic lens has large attenuation due to its thickness. However, a Fresnel lens based on a convex spherical acoustic lens could not concentrate sound pressure completely on the focal point because of a spherical aberration. We designed an aspherical Fresnel lens by ray theory to remove the spherical aberration. A two dimensional finite difference time domain (2-D FDTD) method was used to survey the sound pressure field focused by the acoustic lens under condition in which the angle of incidence and the aperture were varied. Results showed that the aspherical Fresnel lens can concentrate greater sound pressure than the spherical Fresnel lens at normal and small angles of incidence.

  2. Laser and acoustic lens for lithotripsy

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R.; Makarewicz, Anthony J.; London, Richard A.; Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2002-01-01

    An acoustic focusing device whose acoustic waves are generated by laser radiation through an optical fiber. The acoustic energy is capable of efficient destruction of renal and biliary calculi and deliverable to the site of the calculi via an endoscopic procedure. The device includes a transducer tip attached to the distal end of an optical fiber through which laser energy is directed. The transducer tip encapsulates an exogenous absorbing dye. Under proper irradiation conditions (high absorbed energy density, short pulse duration) a stress wave is produced via thermoelastic expansion of the absorber for the destruction of the calculi. The transducer tip can be configured into an acoustic lens such that the transmitted acoustic wave is shaped or focused. Also, compressive stress waves can be reflected off a high density/low density interface to invert the compressive wave into a tensile stress wave, and tensile stresses may be more effective in some instances in disrupting material as most materials are weaker in tension than compression. Estimations indicate that stress amplitudes provided by this device can be magnified more than 100 times, greatly improving the efficiency of optical energy for targeted material destruction.

  3. A collimated focused ultrasound beam of high acoustic transmission and minimum diffraction achieved by using a lens with subwavelength structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhou; Tu, Juan; Cheng, Jianchun; Guo, Xiasheng E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn; Wu, Junru; Huang, Pingtong; Zhang, Dong E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn

    2015-09-14

    An acoustic focusing lens incorporated with periodically aligned subwavelength grooves corrugated on its spherical surface has been developed. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that acoustic focusing achieved by using the lens can suppress the relative side-lobe amplitudes, enhance the focal gain, and minimize the shifting of the focus. Use of the lens coupled with a planar ultrasound transducer can generate an ultrasound beam with enhanced acoustic transmission and collimation effect, which offers the capability of improving the safety, efficiency, and accuracy of targeted surgery implemented by high intensity focused ultrasound.

  4. A Simple Design Approach of a Fresnel Lens for Creating Uniform Light-Emitting Diode Light Distribution Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Tang; Keiser, Gerd; Huang, Yen-Ru; Lee, San-Liang

    2014-09-01

    Devising an efficient method for distributing high-radiance light-emitting diode emissions onto target surfaces is a continuing challenge. Most current design methods are mathematically complex and require intricate optimizations. In this article, a simple and highly accurate geometric optics analysis is described for creating a free-form total internal reflection collimator lens and a Fresnel exit lens, which can be fabricated easily for producing a specific intensity distribution. A powerful application is the ability to create various high-efficiency and uniform illumination patterns from a standard widely used MR16 light bulb by simply attaching a Fresnel exit lens onto the face of the bulb.

  5. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  6. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  7. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. An Ophthalmic Formulation of Disulfiram Nanoparticles Prolongs Drug Residence Time in Lens.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Mano, Yu; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2016-01-01

    Disulfiram (DSF) is a dimer of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) that we previously added to a solution of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (DSF solution). We found that the instillation of this DSF solution delayed lens opacification in a hereditary cataractous ICR/f rat. In this study, we attempted to design an ophthalmic formulation containing DSF nanoparticles for use as a lens targeted drug delivery system (nano-DSF suspension), and investigated the changes in drug content in the lens after the instillation of DSF solution or nano-DSF suspension. The nano-DSF suspension was prepared by a bead mill method to yield a mean particle size of nano-DSF of 181 nm. Following the instillation of 1.4% DSF solution or the nano-DSF suspension, DDC was detected only in the aqueous humor and lens; in both, the area under the curve (AUC) and mean residence time (MRT) for the nano-DSF suspension were higher than for the DSF solution. In addition, we found that the DDC residence time in the cortex and nucleus of the lens was higher than in the capsule-epithelium. Although DDC was not detected in the cortex and nucleus of lenses following the instillation of the 1.4% DSF solution, the instillation of a 1.4% nano-DSF suspension led to the accumulation of DDC in both areas. In conclusion, it is possible that the instillation of a nano-DSF suspension can supply more DDC into the aqueous humor and lens than a conventional formulation, and these findings provide information significant for the prevention of cataracts and the design of a lens targeted drug delivery system.

  9. Contact lens interactions with the tear film.

    PubMed

    Mann, Aisling; Tighe, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Biochemical changes brought about by the influence of the contact lens on the tear film are conveniently split into two categories. Firstly, the lens can remove or reduce the levels of specific components in the tear film, and secondly, the lens can augment the tear film, by stimulating the influx of new components or increasing the level of existing components. The most obvious tear film components for study in this context are lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. The interactions are affected by the properties of the lens, the characteristics of the individual wearer and the wear schedule. An additional complicating factor is the fact that the lens is many times thicker than the tear film and any immobilised tear components will be more extensively exposed to oxygen and UV radiation than is the case in the absence of a lens. It is arguably the lipoidal components that are most markedly affected by lens wear, since their immobilisation on the lens surface markedly increases their susceptibility to autoxidative degradation. The limited information that is available highlights the importance of subject specificity and suggests that lipid oxidation phenomena are potentially important in contributing to the 'end of day' discomfort of symptomatic contact lens patients. It is clear that tear lipids, although regarded as relatively inert for many years, are now seen as a reactive and potentially important family of compounds in the search for understanding of contact lens-induced discomfort. The influence of the lens on tear proteins shows the greatest range of complexity. Deposition and denaturation can stimulate immune response, lower molecular weight proteins can be extensively absorbed into the lens matrix and the lens can stimulate cascade or upregulation processes leading either to the generation of additional proteins and peptides or an increase in concentration of existing components. Added to this is the stimulating influence of the lens on vascular

  10. Singlet mega-pixel resolution lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen-Hung; Lin, Hoang Yan; Chang, Horng

    2008-03-01

    There always exist some new challenges for lens designers to keep their old-line technology update. To minimize lens volume is one of the most notified examples. In this paper we designed a single thick lens, constructed by using one oblique (reflective) surface, apart from two conventional refractive surfaces, to bend the optical path of the optical system to achieve this goal. Detail design procedure, including system layout and lens performance diagrams, will be presented. Following the first order layout, we applied aspherical form to the two refractive surfaces in order to correct the spherical aberration up to an acceptable condition. Then, the reduced aberrations such as coma, astigmatism, field curvature and distortion can easily be corrected with some calculations related to spherical aberration as shown in the publication of H. H. Hopkins (1950). Plastic material is used in the design, because the aspherical surfaces can then be manufactured in a more cost effective way. The final specification of the design is: EFL is 4.6 mm, the F number is 2.8, the over all thickness of lens is 3.6 mm, its MTF is 0.3 at 227 lp/mm in center field and chief ray angle is less than 15 degrees. Lens data as well as optical performance curves are also presented in the paper. In conclusion we have successfully finished a mega-pixel resolution lens design and its overall thickness is compatible with the state of the art.

  11. Compensation of Presbyopia With the Light Sword Lens.

    PubMed

    Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro; Torres-Sepúlveda, Walter; Barrera, John F; Henao, Rodrigo; Blocki, Narcyz; Petelczyc, Krzysztof; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    We present the first physiological evaluation of the use of the light sword lens (LSL) for presbyopia compensation. The LSL is an axially asymmetric optical element designed for imaging with extended depth of focus. A monocular visual simulator setup is implemented to measure visual acuity (VA). Physiological presbyopia is "mimicked" in human subjects by paralysis of the ciliary muscle, using topical application of a muscarinic antagonist. The effect of a contact lens-configured LSL on the mimicked presbyopia visual system is evaluated by measuring VA as a function of target vergence. The ability of the LSL to compensate presbyopia for 2 photopic luminance values was also analyzed. The average VA values for 11 subjects suggest that the LSL can compensate for presbyopia across a wide range of target vergences for which the LSL was designed (-3 to 0 D). However, the proposed corrector element causes a loss of distance VA. The mean logMAR VA in that target vergence range was 0.07. The VA curves also show that luminance does not affect the expected behavior of the LSL-corrected presbyopic eye. These results indicate that the LSL has significant potential as a visual aid for presbyopia.

  12. Tear analysis in contact lens wearers.

    PubMed Central

    Farris, R L

    1985-01-01

    Tear analysis in contact lens wearers was compared with tear analysis in aphakics without contact lens wear and normal phakic patients. Subjects were divided into five groups: group 1, aphakic without contact lens; group 2, phakic with daily-wear hard contact lens; group 3, phakic with daily-wear soft contact lens; group 4, phakic with extended-wear soft contact lens; and group 5, aphakic with extended-wear soft contact lens. The experimental groups were compared with age- and sex-matched control groups for statistical analysis of tear variables by means of the Student's t-test. The variables measured were tear osmolarity, tear albumin, and lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in basal and reflex tears. Highly significant elevations of tear osmolarity were found in aphakic subjects without contact lenses. Less significant differences in tear osmolarity were found in phakic subjects with hard daily-wear lenses or with extended-wear soft lenses. Tear albumin, lysozyme, and lactoferrin in basal and reflex tears were not significantly different in the different groups of contact lens wearers or in the group of aphakic subjects without contact lenses compared with their control groups. Individual variations in tear albumin, lysozyme, and lactoferrin appeared to be responsible for the inability to demonstrate significant differences in tear composition in association with the wearing of different types of contact lenses. Older and aphakic patients demonstrated a tendency to have increased concentrations of proteins in the tears compared with younger, phakic contact lens wearers and normal controls without contact lenses. PMID:3914131

  13. Thin metamaterial Luneburg lens for surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockrey, J. A.; Lockyear, M. J.; Berry, S. J.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Sambles, J. R.; Hibbins, A. P.

    2013-03-01

    By suitably patterning a metasurface, the phase velocity of surface waves may be manipulated. Here, a low-loss, thin (1/14th of the free-space wavelength), omnidirectional Luneburg lens, based upon a Sievenpiper “mushroom” array [Sievenpiper , IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.IETMAB0018-948010.1109/22.798001 47, 2059 (1999)], is fabricated and characterized at microwave frequencies. Surface waves excited using a near-field point source on the perimeter of the lens, exit the opposite side of the lens as planar wave fronts. The electric field of the surface wave is mapped out experimentally and compared to numerical simulations.

  14. Development of a tantalum pentoxide Luneberg lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, D. A.; Chubb, C. R.; Powers, J. K.; Reed, W. R.; Dalke, E. A.; Tomaschke, H. E.

    1982-01-01

    A process has been developed for the fabrication of a tantalum pentoxide waveguide Luneburg lens as the input collimator for an optical signal processing circuit on a silicon substrate, such as an integrated wavelength demultiplexer. The development of such a lens involved improvement of the deposition mask profile, reduction of surface scattering by underlaying the lens, reduction of edge scattering by using shims under the mask, and prediction and measurement of the TE-TM polarization aberration. It is shown that polarization aberration significantly affects the design of a demultiplexer system.

  15. PMMA lens with high efficiency and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Ichiro; Abe, Koji; Fujita, Katsuhiro

    2013-09-01

    Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) Fresnel lenses are increasingly being used in concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems installed outdoors and, accordingly, emphasis is being placed on the durability of such lenses with regard to light transmittance when subject to ultraviolet (UV) light and dust exposure. Accelerated testing methods for evaluating durability under UV exposure were established, allowing development of a lens material with improved UV resistance. Simultaneously, through a proprietary molding method, a Fresnel lens that boasts favorable light concentration efficiency with little deformation even after prolonged outdoor use was developed. Moreover, the lens incorporates a new hard-coat finish that possesses sand durability and UV resistance comparable to that of tempered glass.

  16. Pneumatically switchable graded index metamaterial lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodasevych, I. E.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Powell, D. A.; Rowe, W. S. T.; Mitchell, A.

    2013-01-01

    A low-profile pneumatically switchable graded index metamaterial lens operating at 9 GHz is proposed and practically demonstrated. An effective graded refractive index is engineered using an array of electric resonators of differing resonant frequency. Normal orientation of the resonators allows ultrathin single metamaterial layer lens design. Switching between focusing and non-focusing states is practically demonstrated by shorting the gaps in split ring resonators and eliminating the resonant response and the phase difference between the elements across the lens with pneumatically actuated metal patches that are pressed against the gaps of the resonators as the pressure in the chamber is reduced.

  17. Chromatin remodeling enzyme Brg1 is required for mouse lens fiber cell terminal differentiation and its denucleation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1, also known as Smarca4 and Snf2β) encodes an adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent catalytical subunit of the (switch/sucrose nonfermentable) (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes. SWI/SNF complexes are recruited to chromatin through multiple mechanisms, including specific DNA-binding factors (for example, heat shock transcription factor 4 (Hsf4) and paired box gene 6 (Pax6)), chromatin structural proteins (for example, high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1)) and/or acetylated core histones. Previous studies have shown that a single amino acid substitution (K798R) in the Brg1 ATPase domain acts via a dominant-negative (dn) mechanism. Genetic studies have demonstrated that Brg1 is an essential gene for early (that is, prior implantation) mouse embryonic development. Brg1 also controls neural stem cell maintenance, terminal differentiation of multiple cell lineages and organs including the T-cells, glial cells and limbs. Results To examine the roles of Brg1 in mouse lens development, a dnBrg1 transgenic construct was expressed using the lens-specific αA-crystallin promoter in postmitotic lens fiber cells. Morphological studies revealed abnormal lens fiber cell differentiation in transgenic lenses resulting in cataract. Electron microscopic studies showed abnormal lens suture formation and incomplete karyolysis (that is, denucleation) of lens fiber cells. To identify genes regulated by Brg1, RNA expression profiling was performed in embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5) wild-type and dnBrg1 transgenic lenses. In addition, comparisons between differentially expressed genes in dnBrg1 transgenic, Pax6 heterozygous and Hsf4 homozygous lenses identified multiple genes coregulated by Brg1, Hsf4 and Pax6. DNase IIβ, a key enzyme required for lens fiber cell denucleation, was found to be downregulated in each of the Pax6, Brg1 and Hsf4 model systems. Lens-specific deletion of Brg1 using conditional gene targeting demonstrated that Brg1 was

  18. Moderate views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable.

  19. Mars Hand Lens Imager Sends Ultra High-Res Photo from Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-17

    This image of a U.S. penny on a calibration target was taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager MAHLI aboard NASA Curiosity rover in Gale Crater on Mars. At 14 micrometers per pixel, this is the highest-resolution image that MAHLI can acquire.

  20. 21 CFR 886.1390 - Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens. 886.1390 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1390 Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens. (a) Identification. A flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens is a device that is a very thin lens which...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1395 - Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens. 886.1395 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1395 Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens. (a) Identification. A diagnostic Hruby fundus lens is a device that is a 55 diopter lens intended for use in...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1390 - Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens. 886.1390 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1390 Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens. (a) Identification. A flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens is a device that is a very thin lens which...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1395 - Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens. 886.1395 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1395 Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens. (a) Identification. A diagnostic Hruby fundus lens is a device that is a 55 diopter lens intended for use in...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1395 - Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens. 886.1395 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1395 Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens. (a) Identification. A diagnostic Hruby fundus lens is a device that is a 55 diopter lens intended for use in...

  5. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Tudor, J.J.

    1963-08-01

    An improved moderator structure for nuclear reactors consists of moderator blocks arranged in horizontal layers to form a multiplicity of vertically stacked columns of blocks. The blocks in each vertical column are keyed together, and a ceramic grid is disposed between each horizontal layer of blocks. Pressure plates cover- the lateral surface of the moderator structure in abutting relationship with the peripheral terminal lengths of the ceramic grids. Tubular springs are disposed between the pressure plates and a rigid external support. The tubular springs have their axes vertically disposed to facilitate passage of coolant gas through the springs and are spaced apart a selected distance such that at sonae preselected point of spring deflection, the sides of the springs will contact adjacent springs thereby causing a large increase in resistance to further spring deflection. (AEC)

  6. Coculture with intraocular lens material-activated macrophages induces an inflammatory phenotype in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pintwala, Robert; Postnikoff, Cameron; Molladavoodi, Sara; Gorbet, Maud

    2015-03-01

    Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, requiring surgical implantation of an intraocular lens. Despite evidence of leukocyte ingress into the postoperative lens, few studies have investigated the leukocyte response to intraocular lens materials. A novel coculture model was developed to examine macrophage activation by hydrophilic acrylic (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) and hydrophobic acrylic (polymethylmethacrylate) commercial intraocular lens. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was differentiated into macrophages and cocultured with human lens epithelial cell line (HLE-B3) with or without an intraocular lens for one, two, four, or six days. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, expression of the macrophage activation marker CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and production of reactive oxygen species via the fluorogenic probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate were examined in macrophages. α-Smooth muscle actin, a transdifferentiation marker, was characterized in lens epithelial cells. The poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) intraocular lens prevented adhesion but induced significant macrophage activation (p < 0.03) versus control (no intraocular lens), while the polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens enabled adhesion and multinucleated fusion, but induced no significant activation. Coculture with either intraocular lens increased reactive oxygen species production in macrophages after one day (p < 0.03) and increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin in HLE B-3 after six days, although only poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) induced a significant difference versus control (p < 0.01). Our results imply that-contrary to prior uveal biocompatibility understanding-macrophage adherence is not necessary for a strong inflammatory response to an intraocular lens, with hydrophilic surfaces inducing higher activation than hydrophobic surfaces. These findings provide a new method of inquiry into uveal

  7. ZnS micro-Fresnel lens and its uses.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, H; Yamashita, T

    1990-12-01

    A micro-Fresnel lens replication method by inorganic material deposition has been developed. A ZnS micro-Fresnel lens and a completely flat micro-Fresnel lens have been made by this method. The ZnS microFresnel lens stability characteristics are improved for temperature, humidity, and focusing. Furthermore, higher resolution in electron-beam lithography is made possible by lens thickness reduction. The completely flat micro-Fresnel lens is a new device and improves integration performance. This lens can be applied to stacked planar optics devices for use in the construction of 3-D optical circuits.

  8. Long-term results of early contact lens use in pediatric unilateral aphakia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chun Ellin; Hu, Annie C; Rosenbaum, Arthur; Spooner, Sharon; Weissman, Barry A

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate which factor(s) might predict excellent Snellen visual acuity results in unilateral nontraumatic pediatric aphakes. Retrospective review of all unilateral pediatric aphakic patients seen in a specialty contact lens clinic between 1982 and 2009. Inclusion criteria as follows: (1) cataract extraction before age 6 weeks, (2) no other health complications, (3) contact lens fitting within 3 weeks postsurgery, and (4) measurable subjective visual performance on a clinical Snellen acuity chart. Fifteen patients were identified: 10 patients with persistent fetal vasculature syndrome (PFV) and 5 patients with the diagnosis of idiopathic congenital cataract (ICC). Final Snellen acuity results showed seven patients (46.67%) developed excellent Snellen visual acuities (defined as 20/50 or better), four patients (26.67%) developed moderate Snellen visual acuities (20/125 to 20/60), and four total patients (26.67%) developed poor Snellen visual acuities (worse than 20/200). Analysis used descriptive statistics. Approximately 50% of our unilateral nontraumatic pediatric aphakic patients aged older than 5 years achieved excellent Snellen visual acuity in the aphakic eye. The amount of surgical or ocular complications seems to have an inverse relationship with Snellen visual acuity in PFV. Patching compliance, without implying cause-effect direction, also had a direct relationship with final Snellen visual acuity for patients. Early cataract extraction, good to moderate patching compliance, and aggressive early contact lens management can lead to moderate to excellent Snellen visual results in several unilateral pediatric aphakic patients.

  9. Cold moderators at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, up–grading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  10. Bionic intraocular lens with variable focus and integrated structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Xiang, Ke

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a bionic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) for ophthalmic surgery. The designed lens has a solid-liquid mixed integrated structure, which mainly consists of a support ring, elastic membrane, rigid lens, and optical liquid. The lens focus can be adjusted through the deformation of the lens front surface when compressed. The integrated structure of the IOL is presented, as well as a detailed description of the lens materials and fabrication process. Images under different radial pressures are captured, and the lens deformation process, accommodating range, density, and optical property are analyzed. The designed lens achieves a 14.6 D accommodating range under a radial pressure of 51.4 mN and a 0.24 mm alteration of the lens outer radius. The deformation property of the lens matches well with the characteristic of the eye and shows the potential to help patients fully recover their vision accommodation ability after the cataract surgery.

  11. Placement of a crystalline lens and intraocular lens: Retinal image quality.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Damian; Nowak, Jerzy; Zajac, Marek

    2006-01-01

    The influence of changes of both crystalline lens and intraocular lens (IOL) misalignment on the retinal image quality was investigated. The optical model of the eye used in investigations was the Liou-Brennan model, which is commonly considered as one of the most anatomically accurate. The original crystalline lens from this model was replaced with an IOL, made of rigid polymethylmethacrylate, in a way that recommend obligatory procedures. The modifications that were made both for crystalline lens and IOL were the longitudinal, the transversal, and the angular displacement.

  12. Measurement of Crystalline Lens Volume During Accommodation in a Lens Stretcher

    PubMed Central

    Marussich, Lauren; Manns, Fabrice; Nankivil, Derek; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Yao, Yue; Arrieta-Quintero, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if the lens volume changes during accommodation. Methods The study used data acquired on 36 cynomolgus monkey lenses that were stretched in a stepwise fashion to simulate disaccommodation. At each step, stretching force and dioptric power were measured and a cross-sectional image of the lens was acquired using an optical coherence tomography system. Images were corrected for refractive distortions and lens volume was calculated assuming rotational symmetry. The average change in lens volume was calculated and the relation between volume change and power change, and between volume change and stretching force, were quantified. Linear regressions of volume-power and volume-force plots were calculated. Results The mean (±SD) volume in the unstretched (accommodated) state was 97 ± 8 mm3. On average, there was a small but statistically significant (P = 0.002) increase in measured lens volume with stretching. The mean change in lens volume was +0.8 ± 1.3 mm3. The mean volume-power and volume-load slopes were −0.018 ± 0.058 mm3/D and +0.16 ± 0.40 mm3/g. Conclusions Lens volume remains effectively constant during accommodation, with changes that are less than 1% on average. This result supports a hypothesis that the change in lens shape with accommodation is accompanied by a redistribution of tissue within the capsular bag without significant compression of the lens contents or fluid exchange through the capsule. PMID:26161985

  13. Conjunctival Microbiome Changes Associated With Soft Contact Lens and Orthokeratology Lens Wearing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haikun; Zhao, Fuxin; Hutchinson, Diane S; Sun, Wenfeng; Ajami, Nadim J; Lai, Shujuan; Wong, Matthew C; Petrosino, Joseph F; Fang, Jianhuo; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Wei; Reinach, Peter S; Qu, Jia; Zeng, Changqing; Zhang, Dake; Zhou, Xiangtian

    2017-01-01

    Usage of different types of contact lenses is associated with increased risk of sight-threatening complications. Changes in the ocular microbiome caused by contact lens wear are suggested to affect infection development in those individuals. To address this question, this study compares conjunctival microbial communities in contact lens wearers with those in noncontact lens wearers. Paired-end sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial communities on the conjunctival surfaces of contact lens wearers and nonwearers. No differences in microbial diversity were detected between contact lens wearers and nonwearers. Nevertheless, some slight microbe variability was evident between these two different groups. Bacillus, Tatumella and Lactobacillus abundance was less in orthokeratology lens (OKL) wearers than in nonwearers. In soft contact lenses (SCL) wearers, Delftia abundance decreased whereas Elizabethkingia levels increased. The difference in the SCL and nonwearer group was smaller than that in the OKL group. Variations in the conjunctival taxonomic composition between SCL wearers were larger than those in other groups. Sex differences in the conjunctival microbiota makeup were only evident among nonwearers. Even though there were slight percentage changes between contact lens wearers and nonwearers in some microbes, there were no differences in their diversity. On the other hand, contact lens usage might cause relative abundance of some taxa to change. Our results will help assess whether or not conjunctival microbiome changes caused by contact lens wear affect infection risk.

  14. Bilateral lens luxation and intracapsular lens extractions in a Matshchie's tree kangaroo.

    PubMed

    McLean, Nancy Johnstone; Zimmerman, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    An adult, female, captive, Matshchie's tree kangaroo was diagnosed with an anterior lens luxation in the right eye and a lens subluxation in the left eye. Both eyes were treated surgically with intracapsular lens extractions. A 360° rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was diagnosed 6 months postoperatively in the left eye. Aphakic vision was maintained in the right eye 9 months postoperatively. Based on family history and the lack of antecedent ocular disease, the lens luxations were presumed to be inherited and veterinarians should be aware of this condition within the captive tree kangaroo population. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Telomere Attrition in Human Lens Epithelial Cells Associated with Oxidative Stress Provide a New Therapeutic Target for the Treatment, Dissolving and Prevention of Cataract with N-Acetylcarnosine Lubricant Eye Drops. Kinetic, Pharmacological and Activity-Dependent Separation of Therapeutic Targeting: Transcorneal Penetration and Delivery of L-Carnosine in the Aqueous Humor and Hormone-Like Hypothalamic Antiaging Effects of the Instilled Ophthalmic Drug Through a Safe Eye Medication Technique.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2016-01-01

    Visual impairment broadly impacts the ability of affected people to maintain their function and to remain independent during their daily occupations as they grow older. Visual impairment affects survival of older patients, quality of life, can affect a person's self-ranking of health, may be associated with social and functional decline, use of community support services, depression, falls, nursing home placement, and increased mortality. It has been hypothesized that senile cataract may serve as a marker for generalised tissue aging, since structural changes occurring in the proteins of the lens during cataract formation are similar to those which occur elsewhere as part of the aging process. The published analysis revealed a strong age-dependent relationship between undergoing cataract surgery and subsequent mortality. Nuclear opacity, particularly severe nuclear opacity, and mixed opacities with nuclear were significant predictors of mortality independent of body mass index, comorbid conditions, smoking, age, race, and sex. The lens opacity status is considered as an independent predictor of 2-year mortality, an association that could not be explained by potential confounders. Telomeres have become important biomarkers for aging as well as for oxidative stress-related disease. The lens epithelium is especially vulnerable to oxidative stress. Oxidative damage to the cuboidal epithelial cells on the anterior surface of the lens mediated by reactive oxygen species and phospholipid hydroperoxides can precede and contribute to human lens cataract formation. The erosion and shortening of telomeres in human lens epithelial cells in the lack of telomerase activity has been recognized as a primary cause of premature lens senescence phenotype that trigger human cataractogenesis. In this study we aimed to be focused on research defining the mechanisms that underlie linkages among telomere attrition in human lens epithelial cells associated with oxidative stress, biology of

  16. Transformation optics: Gravitational lens on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    Massive objects in space act as gravitational lenses, bending and focusing light. Scientists have now created a photonic analogue of a gravitational lens on a chip, and have shown that it is strong enough to force light into orbits.

  17. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha; Shiels, Alan; FitzGerald, Paul G.; Menon, Anil G.; Mathias, Richard T.; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5{sup −/−}), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0{sup +/−}; homozygous KO: AQP0{sup −/−}; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0{sup +/−} lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and

  18. Luneburg lens and optical matrix algebra research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, V. E.; Busch, J. R.; Verber, C. M.; Caulfield, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    Planar, as opposed to channelized, integrated optical circuits (IOCs) were stressed as the basis for computational devices. Both fully-parallel and systolic architectures are considered and the tradeoffs between the two device types are discussed. The Kalman filter approach is a most important computational method for many NASA problems. This approach to deriving a best-fit estimate for the state vector describing a large system leads to matrix sizes which are beyond the predicted capacities of planar IOCs. This problem is overcome by matrix partitioning, and several architectures for accomplishing this are described. The Luneburg lens work has involved development of lens design techniques, design of mask arrangements for producing lenses of desired shape, investigation of optical and chemical properties of arsenic trisulfide films, deposition of lenses both by thermal evaporation and by RF sputtering, optical testing of these lenses, modification of lens properties through ultraviolet irradiation, and comparison of measured lens properties with those expected from ray trace analyses.

  19. Methane Detector With Plastic Fresnel Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Laser detector for natural gas leaks modified by substitution of molded plastic lens for spherical mirror. By measuring relative attenuation at two wavelengths, detector used to check for methane escaping from pipelines above or below ground and from landfill.

  20. Gravitational Lens B0218+357

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This movie illustrates the components of a gravitational lens system (a kind of natural telescope formed when a rare cosmic alignment allows the gravity of a massive object to bend and amplify ligh...

  1. Symptomatology of HEMA contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Brennan, N A; Efron, N

    1989-12-01

    Identification of the determinants of patient symptoms is a requisite for successful patient management in contact lens practice. Symptoms reported by 104 patients wearing hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) contact lenses, who presented consecutively to a large contact lens clinic, were analyzed. Dryness was reported more frequently than the symptoms scratchy and watery (p less than 0.001). Females using oral contraceptives were more likely to experience the symptoms of scratchiness (p less than 0.01) and dryness (p less than 0.05) than females who were not using oral contraceptives. The symptoms dryness was reported more frequently by patients whose lenses were older than 6 months (p less than 0.05), and those wearing toric lenses (p less than 0.01). These findings will assist practitioners to anticipate those patients who are likely to develop contact lens-related symptoms and lay the foundations for a model of symptomatology during contact lens wear.

  2. Lens extraction with ultrasound. Experiments in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, D M; Phillips, C I

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of the rabbit lens is described using a 25 G irrigating needle and a 22 G aspirating needle; at the latter's bevelled tip lens fragmentation occurs due to the longitudinal ultrasonic vibrations generated there--an 'acoustic horn' causes the tip to vibrate with large amplitudes. The use of small needles allows considerable manoeuvrability in the anterior chamber and usually eliminates the need for corneal suturing. Push-pull coupled syringes equate the volume of irrigation with that of aspiration. This procedure makes possible lens extraction through an aperture in the anterior capsule of the rabbit's lens and a similar machine is being constructed for trial on human cataract. Images PMID:1009054

  3. Variable-focus cylindrical liquid lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wu-xiang; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chao; Zang, Shang-fei; Wang, Qiong-hua

    2013-06-01

    A variable-focus cylindrical liquid lens array based on two transparent liquids of different refractive index is demonstrated. An elastic membrane divides a transparent reservoir into two chambers. The two chambers are filled with liquid 1 and liquid 2, respectively, which are of different refractive index. The micro-clapboards help liquid 1, liquid 2 and the elastic membrane form a cylindrical lens array. Driving these two liquids to flow can change the shape of the elastic membrane as well as the focal length. In this design, the gravity effect of liquid can be overcome. A demo lens array of positive optical power is developed and tested. Moreover, a potential application of the proposed lens array for autostereoscopic 3D displays is emphasized.

  4. Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Chao; Peng, Hua-Rong; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an optical switch based on an electrowetting liquid lens. The device consists of an electrowetting liquid lens and a non-transparent cap with a pin hole. When the lens is actuated to be positive, the incident light can be converged on the pin hole and pass through the hole with less attenuation. When the lens is deformed to be negative, the incident light is diverged and most of light is blocked by the cap. Our results show that the system can provide high contrast ratio (˜800:1) and reasonable response time (˜88 ms). The proposed optical switch has potential application in light shutters, variable optical attenuators, and adaptive irises.

  5. Methane Detector With Plastic Fresnel Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Laser detector for natural gas leaks modified by substitution of molded plastic lens for spherical mirror. By measuring relative attenuation at two wavelengths, detector used to check for methane escaping from pipelines above or below ground and from landfill.

  6. A Plasma Lens for Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Brown, Jeff

    2010-11-30

    A plasma lens, consisting of a solenoid and potential-defining ring electrodes, has been placed between a magnetron and substrates to be coated. Photography reveals qualitative information on excitation, ionization, and the transport of plasma to the substrate.

  7. Ontogeny of human lens crystallins.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J A; Augusteyn, R C

    1985-03-01

    The soluble proteins from prenatal and neonatal human lenses were fractionated by gel filtration into four distinct size classes viz. high molecular weight alpha-crystallin (HM-alpha), alpha-crystallin, intermediate molecular weight (IMW) proteins and low molecular weight (LMW) proteins. Extinction coefficients of the isolated proteins were determined and used to calculate the proportions of each fraction on a weight basis. The distributions of polypeptides within each of these fractions were analyzed by SDS gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focussing, followed by densitometric scanning of the gels. HM-alpha is detectable as early as the 14th week of gestation and its proportions increase rapidly, to about 9% of the total protein in the 1 year postnatal lens. The alpha-crystallin, IMW and LMW fractions show concomitant decreases and by 1 year they represent about 34, 35 and 18%, respectively. However, the proportions of IMW and LMW proteins do not accurately reflect those of the beta- and gamma-crystallins, as is often assumed. Substantial levels of non-crystallin polypeptides were found in the IMW protein fractions, including a group of very basic polypeptides (VBP) which comprised up to one-third of this material in the youngest lenses. Moreover, in postnatal lenses beta s-crystallin accounted for almost half of the LMW proteins. These points considered, alpha-crystallin is the major protein in the neonatal lens (approximately 42%, including HM-alpha), followed by the beta-crystallin (approximately 36% at most and probably less), the gamma-crystallins (approximately 11%) and beta s-crystallin (approximately 9%). Substantial changes in the proportions of specific polypeptides were observed throughout early development. These appear to result from changes at the level of protein synthesis and from postsynthetic modification. The A:B subunit ratio of alpha-crystallin drops from about 12 to below 3 during early development. This coincides with increasing levels of

  8. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sindhu Kumari, S; Gupta, Neha; Shiels, Alan; FitzGerald, Paul G; Menon, Anil G; Mathias, Richard T; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5(-/-)), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0(+/-); homozygous KO: AQP0(-/-); all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0(+/-) lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to confer

  9. Growth of the human eye lens

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To analyze human lens growth from the accumulation of wet weight as a function of age. Methods Wet weights were assembled for over 1,100 human lenses, ranging in age from 6 months prenatal to 99 years postnatal, and were examined using various growth models. Initially, prenatal and postnatal data were examined separately, to determine the growth modes and then all data were fitted to a single equation. Results Variations in weights due to tissue handling procedures and the unavailability of statistical data for averaged sets precluded the use of >500 values in the present analysis. Regression of age on log lens weight for the remaining 614 lenses indicated that, unlike other species, human lens growth appears to take place in two distinct phases. It was found that asymptotic growth during prenatal life and early childhood generates about 149 mg of tissue in a process, which can be modelled with a Gompertz function. Soon after birth, growth becomes linear, dropping to 1.38 mg/year, and this rate is maintained throughout the rest of life. The relationship of lens wet weight with age over the whole of the lifespan could best be described with the expression, W=1.38Ab + 149exp^[exp^(1.6-3Ac)], where W is lens weight in mg, Ab is postnatal age in years and Ac is the time since conception in years. Comparison of 138 male and 64 female lenses indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between male and female lens weights in the linear (adult) growth mode. Conclusions Human lens growth differs from growth in other species in that it occurs in two distinct modes. The first follows a sigmoidal relationship and provides an initial burst of rapid growth during prenatal development with an apparent termination at or shortly after birth. The second growth mode is linear, adding 1.38 mg/year to lens wet weight, throughout life. Because of the variability in available lens wet weight data, further studies, preferably using lens dry weights or protein

  10. Introduction to the development of intraocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan; Peng, Runling; Hu, Shuilan; Wei, Maowei; Chen, Jiabi

    2013-08-01

    In order to cure the cataract disease or injuries in eyes, intraocular lens(IOL) has been studied all the time to replace the crystalline lens in human eyes. Researches on IOL are started early from 19th century, and it develops greatly in the hundreds years after. This article introduces several main kinds of IOLs that appear in the development history of IOL, and raises the double-liquid zoom IOL based on electrowetting, which will be the trend of IOL study.

  11. Lens Design Using Group Indices of Refraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    An approach to lens design is described in which the ratio of the group velocity to the speed of light (the group index) in glass is used, in conjunction with the more familiar phase index of refraction, to control certain chromatic properties of a system of thin lenses in contact. The first-order design of thin-lens systems is illustrated by examples incorporating the methods described.

  12. Veselago lens by photonic hyper-crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zun Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2014-07-21

    Based on the recent concept of the photonic hyper-crystal—an artificial optical medium that combines the properties of hyperbolic materials and photonic crystals, we present the imaging system functioning as a Veselago lens. This planar lens shows a nearly constant negative refractive index with substantially reduced image aberrations, and can find potential applications in photolithography and hot-spots detection of silicon-based integrated circuits.

  13. Broadband converging plano-concave lens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Lei, Zhenya; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Zhaoxu; Xie, Yongjun

    2013-07-01

    A plano-concave lens with source-tailored geometric profile and transformational gradient index is proposed for broadband illumination. Such a design, capable of focusing and collimating the electromagnetic fields, fulfils the functionality of a converging lens and can also achieve a steerable beam and multiple beams efficiently. Nonresonant synthesis with a perforated dielectric plate and dielectric rod arrays is demonstrated for the lensing realization, promising a wide operating frequency band in the practical implementation.

  14. Lens Design Using Group Indices of Refraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    An approach to lens design is described in which the ratio of the group velocity to the speed of light (the group index) in glass is used, in conjunction with the more familiar phase index of refraction, to control certain chromatic properties of a system of thin lenses in contact. The first-order design of thin-lens systems is illustrated by examples incorporating the methods described.

  15. Rigid gas-permeable lens problem solving.

    PubMed

    Bennett, E S; Egan, D J

    1986-07-01

    The introduction of high oxygen-permeable rigid lenses for daily wear has provided practitioners with an excellent alternative to other available lens materials. However, compromise in material properties may, in fact, result in lens-induced complications. This paper describes eight such "typical" problems including a treatment plan and possible alternative methods of treatment. A comprehensive summary table is provided for reference use by practitioners.

  16. Military aviation: a contact lens review.

    PubMed

    Lattimore, M R

    1990-10-01

    The military aviation communities have benefitted from the development of advanced electro-optical avionics systems. One drawback that has emerged is an increasing system incompatibility with traditional spectacle visual corrections. An alternative solution to the refractive error correction problem that some services have been investigating is that of contact lens wear. Since this much-debated topic is currently of command interest, a general overview of contact lens issues is presented as a framework for future discussions.

  17. Enhanced backscattering for infrared detection using photonic crystal based flat lens.

    PubMed

    Oden, Jonathan; Hofman, Maxence; Mélique, Xavier; Lippens, Didier; Vanbésien, Olivier

    2012-08-10

    An n=-1 flat lens based on photonic crystal semiconductor technology is evaluated for infrared detection purposes. The idea consists in exploiting the backscattered waves of an incident plane wave impinging on a target placed in the focal region of a flat lens. It is shown that subwavelength detection of micronic dielectric targets can be obtained at 1.55 μm using the double focus of reflected waves induced by negative refraction. Complex relations among the intrinsic nature, the shape and size of the target, and detection efficiency are interpreted in terms of target eigenmode excitation. Reflectivity is modulated by the intrinsic mode nature, transverse, circular, or longitudinal, with an enhancement of the detection sensitivity in the case of whispering-gallery modes. It is believed that such a study paves the way to the definition of original noninvasive infrared sensors.

  18. A correlation of thin lens approximation to thick lens design by using context based method in optics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsakoglu, O. F.; Inal Atik, Ipek; Kocabas, Hikmet

    2014-07-01

    The effect of Coddington factors on aberration functions has been analysed using thin lens approximation with optical glass parameters. The dependence of spherical aberration on Coddington shape factor for the various optical glasses in real lens design was discussed using exact ray tracing for the optics education and training purposes. Thin lens approximation and thick lens design are generally taught with only lecturing method. But, thick lens design is closely related to the real life. Hence, it is more appropriate to teach thin lens approximation and thick lens design with real-life context based approach. Context based teaching can be effective in solving problems in which the subject is very difficult and irrelevant. It also provides extensive evidence for optics education that students are generally unable to correctly apply the concepts of lens design to optical instruments currently used. Therefore, the outline of real-life context based thick lens design lessons were proposed and explained in detail considering thin lens approximation.

  19. Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Fei; Qin, Zong; Liu, Zongyuan; Luo, Xiaobing

    2009-10-01

    Freeform lenses are playing a more and more important role in LED secondary optics design. In this study, based on the new light energy mapping relationship, edge ray principle, Snell's law and error control of surface construction, a modified discontinuous freeform lens design method was presented for rectangularly prescribed illumination, with the advantages of a flexible energy mapping relationship, accurate light irradiation control and easier to manufacture. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) discontinuous freeform lens was designed as an example for LED tunnel illumination according to this method. The numerical simulation results demonstrated that the light pattern of the lens was in good agreement with the expected illumination performance when using a point source. Tolerance analyses were also conducted. An extended light source had little effect on the light output efficiency (LOE) of the lens but significantly decreased the effective illumination area. Installation errors had more effect on the uniformity and shape of the light pattern than the LOE of the lens. The tolerances of vertical, horizontal and rotational deviation of this lens were 0.4 mm, 0.4 mm and 2°, respectively.

  20. In-the-Spectacle-Lens Telescopic Device

    PubMed Central

    Peli, Eli; Vargas-Martín, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Spectacle-mounted telescopic systems are prescribed for individuals with visual impairments. Bioptic telescopes are typically mounted toward the top of the spectacle lens (or above the frame) with the telescope eyepiece positioned above the wearer’s pupil. This allows the wearer to use up and down head tilt movements to quickly alternate between the unmagnified wide view (through the carrier lens) and the magnified narrow field-of-view (available through the eyepiece). Rejection of this visual aid has been attributed mainly to its appearance and to the limited field-of-view through the smaller Galilean designs. We designed a wide-field Keplerian telescope that is built completely within the spectacle lens. The design uses embedded mirrors inside the carrier lens for optical pathway folding and conventional lenses or curved mirrors for magnification power. The short height of the ocular, its position, and a small tilt of the ocular mirror enable the wearer to simultaneously view the magnified field above the unmagnified view of the uninterrupted horizontal field. These features improve the cosmetics and utility of the device. The in-the-lens design will allow the telescope to be mass-produced as a commodity ophthalmic lens blank that can be surfaced to include the wearer’s spectacle prescription. PMID:18601572

  1. Photon nanojet lens: design, fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Sichao; Shao, Jinhai; Lu, Bing-Rui; Mehfuz, Reyad; Drakeley, Stacey; Huang, Fumin; Chen, Yifang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel nanolens with super resolution, based on the photon nanojet effect through dielectric nanostructures in visible wavelengths, is proposed. The nanolens is made from plastic SU-8, consisting of parallel semi-cylinders in an array. This paper focuses on the lens designed by numerical simulation with the finite-difference time domain method and nanofabrication of the lens by grayscale electron beam lithography combined with a casting/bonding/lift-off transfer process. Monte Carlo simulation for injected charge distribution and development modeling was applied to define the resultant 3D profile in PMMA as the template for the lens shape. After the casting/bonding/lift-off process, the fabricated nanolens in SU-8 has the desired lens shape, very close to that of PMMA, indicating that the pattern transfer process developed in this work can be reliably applied not only for the fabrication of the lens but also for other 3D nanopatterns in general. The light distribution through the lens near its surface was initially characterized by a scanning near-field optical microscope, showing a well defined focusing image of designed grating lines. Such focusing function supports the great prospects of developing a novel nanolithography based on the photon nanojet effect.

  2. Adjustable hybrid diffractive/refractive achromatic lens

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Pouria; Savidis, Nickolaos; Schwiegerling, Jim; Dodge, Mohammad Reza; Peyman, Gholam; Peyghambarian, N.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a variable focal length achromatic lens that consists of a flat liquid crystal diffractive lens and a pressure-controlled fluidic refractive lens. The diffractive lens is composed of a flat binary Fresnel zone structure and a thin liquid crystal layer, producing high efficiency and millisecond switching times while applying a low ac voltage input. The focusing power of the diffractive lens is adjusted by electrically modifying the sub-zones and re-establishing phase wrapping points. The refractive lens includes a fluid chamber with a flat glass surface and an opposing elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane surface. Inserting fluid volume through a pump system into the clear aperture region alters the membrane curvature and adjusts the refractive lens’ focal position. Primary chromatic aberration is remarkably reduced through the coupling of the fluidic and diffractive lenses at selected focal lengths. Potential applications include miniature color imaging systems, medical and ophthalmic devices, or any design that utilizes variable focal length achromats. PMID:21503055

  3. LENS: Science Scope and Development Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2013-04-01

    The Low-Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (LENS) experiment will resolve the solar metallicity question via measurement of the CNO neutrino flux, as well as test the predicted equivalence of solar luminosity as measured by photon versus neutrinos. The LENS detector uses charged-current interaction of neutrinos on Indium-115 (loaded in a scintillator, InLS) to reveal the complete solar neutrino spectrum. LENS's optically segmented 3D lattice geometry achieves precise time and spatial resolution and unprecedented background rejection and sensitivity for low-energy neutrino events. This first-of-a-kind lattice design is also suited for a range of other applications where high segmentation and large light collection are required (eg: sterile neutrinos with sources, double beta decay, and surface detection of reactor neutrinos). The physics scope, detector design, and logic driving the microLENS and miniLENS prototyping stages will be presented. The collaboration is actively running programs; building, operating, developing, and simulating these prototypes using the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF). New members are welcome to the LENS Collaboration, and interested parties should contact R. Bruce Vogelaar.

  4. Fresnel Lens Sidewall Design for Imaging Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Goulet, A.; Hattori, K.; Konno, K.; Tanaka, A.; Bosmans, R.; Sawada, M.; Yazawa, H.

    2015-03-01

    We developed a ray tracing simulation tool for imaging systems including a Fresnel lens with a quasi-arbitrary sidewall structure. One issue with Fresnel lens is that noise in the image plane can appear from rays passing through or reflected at its sidewalls. One way to reduce it is to modify the orientation of the sidewalls so that rays will not reach the image plane. To find the best sidewall orientations, we developed a method where locally, a sidewall can freely be oriented. We could then derive the best modulation scheme for each Fresnel lens sidewall. In the case of a single imaging Fresnel lens, relative parasite noise intensity could mostly be prevented. To experimentally check our method, snapshot images were taken with single Fresnel lenses and a single spherical lens. No noticeable differences in image quality could be observed using a standard C-MOS camera. However, parasite noise could experimentally be detected with a Fresnel lens prototype when using a very! high-dynamic range C-MOS camera.

  5. Acoustic lens for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chienliu; Firouzi, Kamyar; Park, Kwan Kyu; Sarioglu, Ali Fatih; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Yoon, Hyo-Seon; Vaithilingam, Srikant; Carver, Thomas; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    2014-08-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have great potential to compete with traditional piezoelectric transducers in therapeutic ultrasound applications. In this paper we have designed, fabricated and developed an acoustic lens formed on the CMUT to mechanically focus ultrasound. The acoustic lens was designed based on the paraxial theory and made of silicone rubber for acoustic impedance matching and encapsulation. The CMUT was fabricated based on the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) and fusion-bonding. The fabricated CMUT was verified to behave like an electromechanical resonator in air and exhibited wideband response with a center frequency of 2.2 MHz in immersion. The fabrication for the acoustic lens contained two consecutive mold castings and directly formed on the surface of the CMUT. Applied with ac burst input voltages at the center frequency, the CMUT with the acoustic lens generated an output pressure of 1.89 MPa (peak-to-peak) at the focal point with an effective focal gain of 3.43 in immersion. Compared to the same CMUT without a lens, the CMUT with the acoustic lens demonstrated the ability to successfully focus ultrasound and provided a viable solution to the miniaturization of the multi-modality forward-looking endoscopes without electrical focusing.

  6. Lens Biology is a Dimension of Neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Frederikse, Peter; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy

    2017-02-04

    There is a second cell type in your body that expresses scores of the most intensively studied genes in neuroscience and exclusively shares critical interdependent modes of molecular regulation that include a network first described as responsible for the basic bifurcation of neuronal from non-neuronal gene expression in vertebrates. Neurons and lens cells are among the most ancient animal cell types, yet neurons have an exclusive status also attributed to roles underlying sensation, movement, and cognition. However, this status is challenged by cells in the lens of the eye. The extent and detail of internally consistent parallels with neuron biology now catalogued in their second native cell type in the lens provide a detailed model of interdependent neuron gene expression in lens development and non-neuronal role in vision. These comprehensive parallels identify the lens as a dimension of neurobiology and a fundamental new perspective on neurodevelopment and its disorders. Finally, this understanding identifies that hallmark neuronal gene expression and key modes of associated molecular regulation evolved in tandem in the lens.

  7. Control of lens epithelial cell survival

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the survival requirements of developing lens epithelial cells to test the hypothesis that most cells are programmed to kill themselves unless they are continuously signaled by other cells not to do so. The lens cells survived for weeks in both explant cultures and high-density dissociated cell cultures in the absence of other cells or added serum or protein, suggesting that they do not require signals from other cell types to survive. When cultured at low density, however, they died by apoptosis, suggesting that they depend on other lens epithelial cells for their survival. Lens epithelial cells cultured at high density in agarose gels also survived for weeks, even though they were not in direct contact with one another, suggesting that they can promote one another's survival in the absence of cell- cell contact. Conditioned medium from high density cultures promoted the survival of cells cultured at low density, suggesting that lens epithelial cells support one another's survival by secreting survival factors. We show for the first time that normal cell death occurs within the anterior epithelium in the mature lens, but this death is strictly confined to the region of the anterior suture. PMID:8491781

  8. Zoom Lens Calibration for Wind Tunnel Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of zoom lens calibration, with emphasis on the effects of lens-image-plane misalignment. Measurements have been made of the photogrammetric principal point and radial (symmetrical) and decentering (asymmetrical) distortion components as a function of the principal distance (zoom setting) of several zoom lenses. Data were also taken with the axis of symmetry (optical axis) of a zoom lens aligned and misaligned to the same solid-state video camera. An explanation is offered regarding the variation of the principal point as a function of zoom setting based on these measurements. In addition the relationship of the decentering distortion to radial distortion, principal distance, and lens-image-plane misalignment angle is discussed. A technique for determining the proper point of symmetry to be used for distortion computations (as opposed to the principal point) is also suggested. A simple technique for measuring the misalignment angle of zoom lenses when attached to video cameras is presented, along with measurements for seven solid-state cameras. A method to reduce the additional error introduced by zoom lens misalignment is presented. The implications of this study are that special measures to properly align a zoom lens to the sensor image plane are probably not necessary, but that as the accuracy obtainable in digital photogrammetry approaches the 0.01 or less pixel level, additional calibration including the point of symmetry for distortion computation should be considered.

  9. Zoom lens calibration for wind tunnel measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of zoom lens calibration, with emphasis on the effects of lens-image-plane misalignment. Measurements have been made of the photogrammetric principal point and radial (symmetrical) and decentering (asymmetrical) distortion components as a function of the principal distance (zoom setting) of several zoom lenses. Data were also taken with the axis of symmetry (optical axis) of a zoom lens aligned and misaligned to the same solid-state video camera. An explanation is offered regarding the variation of the principal point as a function of zoom setting based on these measurements. In addition the relationship of the decentering distortion to radial distortion, principal distance, and lens- image-plane misalignment angle is discussed. A technique for determining the proper point of symmetry to be used for distortion computations (as opposed to the principal point) is also suggested. A simple technique for measuring the misalignment angle of zoom lenses when attached to video cameras is presented, along with measurements for seven solid-state cameras. A method to reduce the additional error introduced by zoom lens misalignment is presented. The implications of this study are that special measures to properly align a zoom lens to the sensor image plane are probably not necessary, but that as the accuracy obtainable in digital photogrammetry approaches the 0.01 or less pixel level, additional calibration including the point of symmetry for distortion computation should be considered.

  10. Moderators and Subgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, William A.

    1978-01-01

    The author suggests that it is more efficient to cluster subjects on the basis of their profiles across several dimensions of significance and to seek "between" subgroup correlates, than to search for a moderator variable "within" levels of which criterion relationships may vary in nonrandom fashion. (Author/RK)

  11. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  12. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  13. INTERCOMPARISON OF EYE LENS DOSEMETERS.

    PubMed

    Behrens, R; Hupe, O; Busch, F; Denk, J; Engelhardt, J; Günther, K; Hödlmoser, H; Jordan, M; Strohmaier, J

    2016-03-23

    An intercomparison of eye lens dosemeters has been conducted in terms of the quantityHp(3). For the first time, besides photon radiation also beta radiation qualities were included. Three dosemeter types designed for the quantityHp(3) and ten forHp(0.07) took part in the intercomparison. As shown in a previous intercomparison for photon radiation only, the dosemeters designed forHp(0.07) and calibrated in terms ofHp(3) performed well in photon radiation fields. But for beta radiation, it turned out thatHp(0.07) dosemeters over-responded up to a factor of 5 000 (with respect to the trueHp(3) dose) in the medium beta energy range ((85)Kr with a beta endpoint energy of 0.69 MeV), while someHp(3) dosemeters performed quite well. For medium (57 keV) and high (662 keV) energy photon radiation, all dosemeter types showed response values well within the trumpet curve according to the current draft of ISO 14146.

  14. Conservation through the economics lens.

    PubMed

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  15. Dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fumin; Yao, Yannan; Qu, Xinghua; Zhang, Tong; Pei, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A dual-beam laser autofocusing system is designed in this paper. The autofocusing system is based on a liquid lens with less moving parts and fast response time, which makes the system simple, reliable, compact and fast. A novel scheme "Time-sharing focus, fast conversion" is innovatively proposed. The scheme effectively solves the problem that the guiding laser and the working laser cannot focus at the same target point because of the existence of chromatic aberration. This scheme not only makes both guiding laser and working laser achieve optimal focusing in guiding stage and working stage respectively, but also greatly reduces the system complexity and simplifies the focusing process as well as makes autofocusing time of the working laser reduce to about 10 ms. In the distance range of 1 m to 30 m, the autofocusing spot size is kept under 4.3 mm at 30 m and just 0.18 mm at 1 m. The spot size is much less influenced by the target distance compared with the collimated laser with a micro divergence angle for its self-adaptivity. The dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens is fully automatic, compact and efficient. It is fully meet the need of dynamicity and adaptivity and it will play an important role in a number of long-range control applications.

  16. The lens equator: a platform for molecular machinery that regulates the switch from cell proliferation to differentiation in the vertebrate lens.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Toshiaki; Masai, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    The vertebrate lens is a transparent, spheroidal tissue, located in the anterior region of the eye that focuses visual images on the retina. During development, surface ectoderm associated with the neural retina invaginates to form the lens vesicle. Cells in the posterior half of the lens vesicle differentiate into primary lens fiber cells, which form the lens fiber core, while cells in the anterior half maintain a proliferative state as a monolayer lens epithelium. After formation of the primary fiber core, lens epithelial cells start to differentiate into lens fiber cells at the interface between the lens epithelium and the primary lens fiber core, which is called the equator. Differentiating lens fiber cells elongate and cover the old lens fiber core, resulting in growth of the lens during development. Thus, lens fiber differentiation is spatially regulated and the equator functions as a platform that regulates the switch from cell proliferation to cell differentiation. Since the 1970s, the mechanism underlying lens fiber cell differentiation has been intensively studied, and several regulatory factors that regulate lens fiber cell differentiation have been identified. In this review, we focus on the lens equator, where these regulatory factors crosstalk and cooperate to regulate lens fiber differentiation. Normally, lens epithelial cells must pass through the equator to start lens fiber differentiation. However, there are reports that when the lens epithelium structure is collapsed, lens fiber cell differentiation occurs without passing the equator. We also discuss a possible mechanism that represses lens fiber cell differentiation in lens epithelium.

  17. Freeform lens for off-axis illumination in optical lithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rengmao; Zheng, Zhenrong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2011-06-01

    A method of designing a freeform lens for off-axis illumination (OAI) in an optical lithography system is proposed in this paper. Based on the Snell's law and conservation law of energy, a series of first-order partial differential equations are deduced. Coordinate relations are established with the energy mapping relations by the characteristics of the incident beam and the predetermined irradiance distribution on the target plane. The contours of the freeform lens are calculated by solving partial differential equations numerically. Moreover, the optical performance for OAI is simulated and analyzed. Simulation results show that the irradiance distributions can be well controlled with a maximum uniformity of 95.71% and a maximum efficiency of 99.04%. Tolerance analysis shows that the angular errors of the freeform lens are more sensitive than the coordinate errors.

  18. Minus Piggyback Lens Overlaying ReSTOR(®) Multifocal Lens in High Myopia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Isha; Oakey, Zack; Stagg, Brian C; Ambati, Balamurali K

    2013-05-01

    We report the case of a 40-year-old female patient treated with implantation of the Acrysof® IQ ReSTOR® lens (Alcon, Fort Worth, Tex., USA) with overlaying Acrysof EXpand® minus piggyback lens (Alcon). The patient had high myopia and was diagnosed with presbyopia and bilateral posterior subcapsular cataract. She desired to be spectacle-free and opted to undergo bilateral placement of the ReSTOR multifocal lens. The necessary intraocular lens (IOL) power was +3.5 in the right eye and +4.0 in the left eye, though the range of commercially available ReSTOR lenses is +6.0 to +34.0 D. In order to achieve emmetropia in this case of high myopia, it was determined that an EXpand minus piggyback lens would be necessary. Implantation of the ReSTOR lens with overlaying EXpand minus piggyback lens was performed successfully and without complication. At 5 months postoperatively, the patient had 20/20 uncorrected visual acuity in both eyes. She reported a high level of satisfaction and was able to return to her daily activities including reading and driving without spectacles. We report successful primary implantation of AcrySof EXpand minus piggyback lenses overlying the AcrySof IQ ReSTOR lens in a patient with high myopia. Long-term follow-up and further evaluation is necessary to establish piggyback IOL implantation with multifocal IOL as an accepted treatment for high myopia with presbyopia.

  19. Disassembly of the lens fiber cell nucleus to create a clear lens: the p27 descent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The eye lens is unique among tissues: it is transparent, does not form tumors, and the majority of its cells degrade their organelles, including their cell nuclei. A mystery for over a century, there has been considerable recent progress in elucidating mechanisms of lens fiber cell denucleation (LFC...

  20. FPscope: a field-portable high-resolution microscope using a cellphone lens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Siyuan; Guo, Kaikai; Nanda, Pariksheet; Shiradkar, Radhika; Zheng, Guoan

    2014-10-01

    The large consumer market has made cellphone lens modules available at low-cost and in high-quality. In a conventional cellphone camera, the lens module is used to demagnify the scene onto the image plane of the camera, where image sensor is located. In this work, we report a 3D-printed high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscope, termed FPscope, which uses a cellphone lens in a reverse manner. In our platform, we replace the image sensor with sample specimens, and use the cellphone lens to project the magnified image to the detector. To supersede the diffraction limit of the lens module, we use an LED array to illuminate the sample from different incident angles and synthesize the acquired images using the Fourier ptychographic algorithm. As a demonstration, we use the reported platform to acquire high-resolution images of resolution target and biological specimens, with a maximum synthetic numerical aperture (NA) of 0.5. We also show that, the depth-of-focus of the reported platform is about 0.1 mm, orders of magnitude longer than that of a conventional microscope objective with a similar NA. The reported platform may enable healthcare accesses in low-resource settings. It can also be used to demonstrate the concept of computational optics for educational purposes.

  1. FPscope: a field-portable high-resolution microscope using a cellphone lens

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Siyuan; Guo, Kaikai; Nanda, Pariksheet; Shiradkar, Radhika; Zheng, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    The large consumer market has made cellphone lens modules available at low-cost and in high-quality. In a conventional cellphone camera, the lens module is used to demagnify the scene onto the image plane of the camera, where image sensor is located. In this work, we report a 3D-printed high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscope, termed FPscope, which uses a cellphone lens in a reverse manner. In our platform, we replace the image sensor with sample specimens, and use the cellphone lens to project the magnified image to the detector. To supersede the diffraction limit of the lens module, we use an LED array to illuminate the sample from different incident angles and synthesize the acquired images using the Fourier ptychographic algorithm. As a demonstration, we use the reported platform to acquire high-resolution images of resolution target and biological specimens, with a maximum synthetic numerical aperture (NA) of 0.5. We also show that, the depth-of-focus of the reported platform is about 0.1 mm, orders of magnitude longer than that of a conventional microscope objective with a similar NA. The reported platform may enable healthcare accesses in low-resource settings. It can also be used to demonstrate the concept of computational optics for educational purposes. PMID:25360351

  2. Volumetric rendering and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index lens imaged by angular scan optical coherence tomography system.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianing; Thompson, Kevin P; Ma, Bin; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-08-22

    In this paper, we develop the methodology, including the refraction correction, geometrical thickness correction, coordinate transformation, and layer segmentation algorithms, for 3D rendering and metrology of a layered spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) lens based on the imaging data collected by an angular scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The 3D mapping and rendering enables direct 3D visualization and internal defect inspection of the lens. The metrology provides assessment of the surface geometry, the lens thickness, the radii of curvature of the internal layer interfaces, and the misalignment of the internal S-GRIN distribution with respect to the lens surface. The OCT metrology results identify the manufacturing defects, and enable targeted process development for optimizing the manufacturing parameters. The newly fabricated S-GRIN lenses show up to a 7x spherical aberration reduction that allows a significantly increased utilizable effective aperture.

  3. An analytical and experimental investigation of a 1.8 by 3.7 meter Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Allums, S. L.; Jensen, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Line-focusing acrylic Fresnel lenses with application potential in the 200 to 370 C range are being analytically and experimentally evaluated. Investigations previously conducted with a 56 cm wide lens have been extended by the present study to experimentation/analyses with a 1.8 by 3.7 m lens. A measured peak concentration ratio of 64 with 90 percent of the transmitted energy focused into a 5.0 cm width was achieved. A peak concentration of 61 and a 90 percent target width of 4.5 cm were analytically computed. The experimental and analytical lens transmittance was 81 percent and 86 percent, respectively. The lens also was interfaced with a receiver assembly and operated in the collection mode. The collection efficiency ranged from 42 percent at 100 C to 26 percent at 300 C.

  4. An improved spinning lens test to determine the stiffness of the human lens

    PubMed Central

    Burd, H.J.; Wilde, G.S.; Judge, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that age-related changes in lens stiffness are significant for the development of presbyopia. However, precise details on the relative importance of age-related changes in the stiffness of the lens, in comparison with other potential mechanisms for the development of presbyopia, have not yet been established. One contributing factor to this uncertainty is the paucity and variability of experimental data on lens stiffness. The available published data generally indicate that stiffness varies spatially within the lens and that stiffness parameters tend to increase with age. However, considerable differences exist between these published data sets, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The current paper describes new and improved methods, based on the spinning lens approach pioneered by Fisher, R.F. (1971) ‘The elastic constants of the human lens’, Journal of Physiology, 212, 147–180, to make measurements on the stiffness of the human lens. These new procedures have been developed in an attempt to eliminate, or at least substantially reduce, various systematic errors in Fisher’s original experiment. An improved test rig has been constructed and a new modelling procedure for determining lens stiffness parameters from observations made during the test has been devised. The experiment involves mounting a human lens on a vertical rotor so that the lens spins on its optical axis (typically at 1000 rpm). An automatic imaging system is used to capture the outline of the lens, while it is rotating, at pre-determined angular orientations. These images are used to quantify the deformations developed in the lens as a consequence of the centripetal forces induced by the rotation. Lens stiffness is inferred using axisymmetric finite element inverse analysis in which a nearly-incompressible neo-Hookean constitutive model is used to represent the mechanics of the lens. A numerical optimisation procedure is used to determine the stiffness parameters

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ({sup 31}P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the {sup 31}P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. {sup 1}H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2}, consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T{sub 1} relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine {gamma}-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T{sub 1} with increasing magnetic field.

  6. Corneal topography and soft contact lens fit.

    PubMed

    Young, Graeme; Schnider, Cristina; Hunt, Chris; Efron, Suzanne

    2010-05-01

    To determine which ocular topography variables affect soft contact lens fit. Fifty subjects each wore three pairs of soft lenses in random succession (Vistakon Acuvue 2, Vistakon Acuvue Advance, Ciba Vision Night & Day), and various aspects of lens fit were evaluated. The steeper base curves of each type were worn in one eye and the flatter base curves in the other eye. Corneal topography data were collected using a Medmont E300 corneal topographer (Camberwell, Australia). Corneal curvature, shape factor (SF), and corneal height were measured over a 10 mm chord and also over the maximum measurable diameter. These were measured in the horizontal, vertical, steepest, and flattest meridians. With each lens type, the steeper base curve provided the best fit on the greatest proportion of eyes and the significant differences in various aspects of fit were noted between base curves. For each lens type, there was no significant difference in mean K-reading between those eyes best fit with the steeper base curve and those eyes best fit with the flatter base curve. Two of the lenses showed a positive correlation between centration and horizontal corneal height (maximum), whereas one lens showed a negative correlation between centration and horizontal SF (SF = e). Several lenses showed a positive correlation between post-blink movement and horizontal or vertical corneal SF. The measurement of corneal topography using current Placido disc instrumentation allows a better prediction of soft lens fit than by keratometry, but it is not reliable enough to enable accurate selection of the best fitting base curve. Some correlations are evident between corneal measurements; however, trial fitting remains the method of choice for selection of soft lens base curve.

  7. High-Resolution UV Relay Lens for Particle Size Distribution Measurements Using Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Robert M.; Capelle, Gene A.; Frogget, Brent C.; Grover, Mike; Kaufman, Morris I.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Sorenson, Danny S.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Tibbits, Aric; Turley, William D.

    2008-08-29

    Shock waves passing through a metal sample can produce ejecta particulates at a metal-vacuum interface. Holography records particle size distributions by using a high-power, short-pulse laser to freeze particle motion. The sizes of the ejecta particles are recorded using an in-line Fraunhofer holography technique. Because the holographic plate would be destroyed in an energetic environment, a high-resolution lens has been designed to relay the interference fringes to a safe environment. Particle sizes within a 12-mm-diameter, 5-mm-thick volume are recorded onto holographic film. To achieve resolution down to 0.5 μm, ultraviolet laser (UV) light is needed. The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 lp/mm resolution and operates at f/0.89 will be described. To set up this lens system, a doublet lens is temporarily attached that enables operation with 532-nm laser light and 1100 lp/mm resolution. Thus, the setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording is done with UV light. During setup, the 532-nm beam provides enough focus shift to accommodate the placement of a resolution target outside the ejecta volume; this resolution target does not interfere with the calibrated wires and pegs surrounding the ejecta volume. A television microscope archives images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires, interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens will be presented, and resolution variation through the 5-mm depth of field will be discussed.

  8. Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hon Shing; Evans, Jennifer R; Allan, Bruce D S

    2014-05-01

    ), conducted in Germany, Italy and the UK. The age range of participants was 21 to 87 years. All studies included people who had bilateral cataracts with no pre-existing ocular pathologies. We judged all studies to be at high risk of performance bias. We graded two studies with high risk of detection bias and one study with high risk of selection bias.Participants who received the accommodative IOLs achieved better distance-corrected near visual acuity (DCNVA) at six months (mean difference (MD) -3.10 Jaeger units; 95% confidence intervals (CI) -3.36 to -2.83, 2 studies, 106 people, 136 eyes, moderate quality evidence). Better DCNVA was seen in the accommodative lens group at 12 to 18 months in the three trials that reported this time point but considerable heterogeneity of effect was seen, ranging from 1.3 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.68; 20 people, 40 eyes) to 6 (95% CI 4.15 to 7.85; 51 people, 51 eyes) Jaeger units and 0.12 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.19; 40 people, binocular) logMAR improvement (low quality evidence). The relative effect of the lenses on corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA) was less certain. At six months there was a standardised mean difference of -0.04 standard deviations (95% CI -0.37 to 0.30, 2 studies, 106 people, 136 eyes, low quality evidence). At long-term follow-up there was heterogeneity of effect with 18-month data in two studies showing that CDVA was better in the monofocal group (MD 0.12 logMAR; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.16, 2 studies, 70 people,100 eyes) and one study which reported data at 12 months finding similar CDVA in the two groups (-0.02 logMAR units, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.02, 51 people) (low quality evidence).The relative effect of the lenses on reading speed and spectacle independence was uncertain, The average reading speed was 11.6 words per minute more in the accommodative lens group but the 95% confidence intervals ranged from 12.2 words less to 35.4 words more (1 study, 40 people, low quality evidence). People with accommodative lenses were more likely to be

  9. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-03-07

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  10. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-03-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  11. Lens-based fluorescence nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, Christian; Willig, Katrin I; Sahl, Steffen J; Hell, Stefan W

    2015-05-01

    The majority of studies of the living cell rely on capturing images using fluorescence microscopy. Unfortunately, for centuries, diffraction of light was limiting the spatial resolution in the optical microscope: structural and molecular details much finer than about half the wavelength of visible light (~200 nm) could not be visualized, imposing significant limitations on this otherwise so promising method. The surpassing of this resolution limit in far-field microscopy is currently one of the most momentous developments for studying the living cell, as the move from microscopy to super-resolution microscopy or 'nanoscopy' offers opportunities to study problems in biophysical and biomedical research at a new level of detail. This review describes the principles and modalities of present fluorescence nanoscopes, as well as their potential for biophysical and cellular experiments. All the existing nanoscopy variants separate neighboring features by transiently preparing their fluorescent molecules in states of different emission characteristics in order to make the features discernible. Usually these are fluorescent 'on' and 'off' states causing the adjacent molecules to emit sequentially in time. Each of the variants can in principle reach molecular spatial resolution and has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some require specific transitions and states that can be found only in certain fluorophore subfamilies, such as photoswitchable fluorophores, while other variants can be realized with standard fluorescent labels. Similar to conventional far-field microscopy, nanoscopy can be utilized for dynamical, multi-color and three-dimensional imaging of fixed and live cells, tissues or organisms. Lens-based fluorescence nanoscopy is poised for a high impact on future developments in the life sciences, with the potential to help solve long-standing quests in different areas of scientific research.

  12. Lentil (Lens culinaris) lipid transfer protein Len c 3: a novel legume allergen.

    PubMed

    Akkerdaas, J; Finkina, E I; Balandin, S V; Santos Magadán, S; Knulst, A; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Asero, R; van Ree, R; Ovchinnikova, T V

    2012-01-01

    Lentils are increasingly consumed in many parts of the world.Two allergens, Len c 1 and 2, have been reported previously. Recently, peanut and green bean lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been identified as the first two members of an important group of allergens that might be associated with severe food allergies. To investigate lentil LTP as a potential new allergen. Efficacy of LTP extraction was monitored at different acidic pH values, using immunoblotting with cross-reactive anti-peach LTP antiserum. Natural LTP was purified from lentil extract and expressed as recombinant allergen in Escherichia coli. Sera from 10 lentil-allergic and/or -sensitized patients (Spain: 6, Italy: 1 and the Netherlands: 3) were used to further characterize lentil LTP. Natural lentil LTP, purified from the homogenized germinated seeds and optimally extracted at pH 3, was identified and designated as allergen Len c 3. By CAP, 9/10 sera showed specific IgE to Len c 3. Recombinant (r) Len c 3 was successfully purified. The natural (n) Len c 3 CAP was completely inhibited by rLen c 3/rPru p 3. IgE binding to lentil pH 3 extract blot was completely inhibited by rLen c 3. The availability of immunochemically active nLen/rLen c 3 as a novel legume allergen facilitates further development and implementation of a third (next to peanut and green bean) legume LTP in component-resolved diagnosis strategies and contributes to evaluate the clinical importance of legume LTPs. Preferential extraction of Len c 3 (pH 3) will affect the production of sensitive extract-based diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Development and use of the lens epithelial explant system to study lens differentiation and cataractogenesis.

    PubMed

    West-Mays, Judith A; Pino, Guiseppe; Lovicu, Frank J

    2010-03-01

    Over the last two decades much progress has been made in identifying and characterizing many of the molecules involved in understanding normal lens biology and its pathology. Much of this has been made possible through the establishment and use of the lens epithelial explant system. This simplistic tissue culture model, comprised of a sheet of lens epithelium on its native substratum, has been used effectively to study many cellular processes, including lens epithelial cell proliferation, fiber cell differentiation, cell apoptosis as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation of cells. In doing so, a number of key growth factors and cytokines, including members of the FGF, Wnt and TGFbeta family have been shown to play essential roles in many of these cellular events. This has led to further studies exploring the signaling pathways downstream of these molecules in the lens, paving the way for the development of a number of in situ models (primarily transgenic mouse lines) to further explore in more detail the nature of these molecular and cellular interactions. To reciprocate, the lens epithelial explant system is increasingly being used to further characterize the nature of many complex phenotypes and pathologies observed in these in situ models, allowing us to selectively isolate and examine the direct impact of an individual molecule on a specific cellular response in lens cells. There is no question that the lens epithelial explant system has served as a powerful tool to further our understanding of lens biology and pathology, and there is no doubt that it will continue to serve in such a capacity, as new developments are realized and putative treatments for aberrant lens cell behavior are to be trialed.

  14. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision.

    PubMed

    Espandar, Ladan; Sikder, Shameema; Moshirfar, Majid

    2011-01-10

    Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD(™) lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL). The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed.

  15. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    PubMed Central

    Espandar, Ladan; Sikder, Shameema; Moshirfar, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL). The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed. PMID:21311658

  16. Switchable reflective lens based on cholesteric liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Beak, Ji-Ho; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Yu, Chang-Jae

    2014-04-21

    We demonstrated a switchable reflective lens based on choleteric liquid crystal (CLC) with a plano-convex shape. The plano-convex CLC lens was fabricated by assembling a planar substrate and a concave substrate. The reflective CLC lens exhibits wavelength selectivity and handedness sensitivity like the conventional CLC cell. The plano-convex CLC lens acts as a biconvex lens with the same curvature due to the Bragg reflection of the CLC layer. In addition, the reflective CLC lens was defocused by applying external voltage.

  17. Feed Lens Portion of 3-D Dome Antenna Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-10

    the system, 1. Stangel, J.J. and Valention, P.A. " Phased Array Fed Lens" U.S. Patent No, 3755815, 2. D.H. Archer, "Lens Fed Multibeam Arrays ...Tw? 1~ Vt𔃺 C 2 si m m a 2.2 LENS-FED MULTIBEAM ARRAYS (ROTMAN LENS) rOne type of phased array which is capable of gen rating multiple simultane...Demonstration ................................... 11 2.2 Lens-Fed Multibeam Arrays (Rotman Lens)............... ........... 17 2.3 Two-Dimensional

  18. Non-compliance in contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Claydon, B E; Efron, N

    1994-10-01

    Non-compliance is emerging as a critical issue in the contact lens field. This problem has been studied at depth in general health care situations and is seen as the responsibility of both practitioner and patient (client) working in a health care partnership. The contact lens practitioner and patient present a specific case for the study of non-compliance in areas such as hygiene, solution use, appointment attendance and wearing times. From 40 to 91% of contact lens patients have been reported as non-complaint in the use of recommended care and maintenance regimens and many of these are confused or ignorant about their behaviour. In order to arrive at a general set of conclusions from the studies published to date, it is important to understand the methodology of each study, it purpose, the definition of non-compliance used and the way the results were analysed and described. This review summarizes the research into non-compliance in the contact lens field to data. A set of general conclusions is drawn and a model for compliance in the context of contact lens practice is proposed.

  19. TESS Lens-Bezel Assembly Modal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dilworth, Brandon J.; Karlicek, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) program, led by the Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) will be the first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey. MIT Lincoln Laboratory is responsible for the cameras, including the lens assemblies, detector assemblies, lens hoods, and camera mounts. TESS is scheduled to be launched in August of 2017 with the primary goal to detect small planets with bright host starts in the solar neighborhood, so that detailed characterizations of the planets and their atmospheres can be performed. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras and a data handling unit. Each camera consists of a lens assembly with seven optical elements and a detector assembly with four charge-coupled devices (CCDs) including their associated electronics. The optical prescription requires that several of the lenses are in close proximity to a neighboring element. A finite element model (FEM) was developed to estimate the relative deflections between each lens-bezel assembly under launch loads to predict that there are adequate clearances preventing the lenses from making contact. Modal tests using non-contact response measurements were conducted to experimentally estimate the modal parameters of the lens-bezel assembly, and used to validate the initial FEM assumptions. Key Words Non-contact measurements, modal analysis, model validation

  20. Accurate measurement of LED lens surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah; Liu, Yi-wei

    2013-09-01

    Radiant power emitted by high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been steadily increasing over the past decade. High radiation, especially short wavelength, can increase the temperature and negatively affect the primary lens performance of high-power LEDs. In this regards, assessment of lens temperature during operation is important. Past studies have shown large errors when thermocouples are used for measuring temperature in high radiant flux environments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the problem in using thermocouples to measure LED lens surface temperature and to find a solution to improving the measurement accuracy. A laboratory study was conducted to better understand the issue. Results showed that most of the error is due to absorption of visible radiant energy by the thermocouple. In this study, the measurements made using an infrared (IR) thermal imaging system were used as the reference temperature because the IR imaging system is unaffected by radiant flux in the visible range. After studying the thermocouple wire metallurgy and its radiation absorption properties, a suitable material was identified to shield the thermocouple from visible radiation. Additionally, a silicone elastomer was used to maintain the thermal interface between the lens surface and the thermocouple junction bead. With these precautions, the lens temperature measurements made using the J-type thermocouple and the IR imaging system matched very well.

  1. Imaging characteristics of a volume holographic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhu-qing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Shao-jie; Sun, Ya-jun; Tao, Shi-quan

    2009-07-01

    A volume holographic grating lens can reconstruct the three-dimensional information by conducting multiple optical slicing of an object based on Bragg selectivity of the volume holographic grating. In this paper, we employ the point-spread function of volume holographic imaging system to theoretically analyze its imaging resolution. In the experiments, the volume holographic gratings are made with a spherical reference (SR) and a planar reference (PR), respectively, and used as volume holographic imaging lens in our imaging system. The longitudinal and lateral defocusing characteristics of volume holographic lens with SR and with PR are investigated experimentally by displacing the interested objects from original reference location, respectively. The effects of the parameters of the volume holographic lens on the longitudinal and lateral resolution are also discussed. The experimental results show that increasing the size of the volume holographic lens can improve the depth resolution, and in particular, it has greater influence on SR VHI. The lateral selectivity of SR VHI is more sensitive than that of PR VHI, and the Bragg degenerate diffraction of PR VHI on the y axis is obviously observed.

  2. Clinical evaluation of toric soft lens reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Young, Graeme; Coleman, Sarah; Hickson-Curran, Sheila

    2002-05-01

    The manufacturing variability of frequent replacement toric soft lenses is such that some resulting variation in clinical performance can be expected. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of manufacturing variability on the clinical performance of three frequent replacement toric soft contact lenses. This was a three-part study in which 12 to 14 subjects were enrolled for each part. In each part, subjects were preadapted to the lens type 1 month prior to the assessment visits. Subjects wore a total of 12 test lenses in one eye and, in each case, the clinical performance was compared with a control lens of the same type worn in the other eye that was removed between assessments but not replaced. The study lenses were Acuvue Toric (Vistakon), Focus Toric (Ciba Vision) and FreshLook Toric (Wesley lessen). Two lens types (Focus Toric and FreshLook Toric) showed significantly greater variability with the test lenses compared with the nonreplaced control lenses with several variables: lens fit, visual acuity, and subjective vision quality. One lens (Focus Toric) also showed greater variability of orientation position, and another (Acuvue Toric) showed greater variability in subjective vision quality. The study demonstrated variability in aspects of clinical performance, which appear to be linked to variability of manufacturing output. With toric soft lenses used on a frequent replacement basis, better reproducibility is needed if consistent clinical performance is to be maintained.

  3. Parametric modeling of zoom lens barrels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Charles W.

    2001-12-01

    Today's customer requires zoom lens designs that are compact, inexpensive, and at six-sigma quality levels. While incorporating these customer requirements, a design team must often work within compressed design cycles and minimal product development budgets. These customer and project constraints, coupled with the inherent complexity of a zoom lens module, force the design team to try new and innovative techniques to deliver their products. This paper presents the methods used to develop lens barrels for several zoom lens module projects at Eastman Kodak Company. The lens barrel, a critical interface between the mechanical and optical systems, presented a technical barrier from both an engineering analysis and manufacturing perspective. The method used to overcome these barriers consisted of identifying several key functional parameters, creating a parameter-driven 3-D solid model in a commercially available CAD system, and then using the model to make iterative, data-driven design decisions while leveraging the model to create engineering drawings and the necessary prototypes and production tooling. As a result, the designs were able to meet their size, cost, and design cycle time requirements while realizing a better than anticipated first pass yield and quality level.

  4. Design and fabrication of soft zoom lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Chao-Chang A.; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2008-08-01

    With minimization of optical-electronics devices, conventional optical zoom lens component has been explored with liquid lens and soft polymer membranes. This paper introduces a novel zoom lens system with a soft polymer material, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), its shape and curvature can be controlled by pneumatic pressure. Therefore, effective focal length (EFL) of soft zoom lens (SZL) system can be controlled and altered. According to desired opto-mechanical design, this ZL has been accessed to determine the optical specifications. After the pressure activated from 0 to 0.02MPa, the change of EFL of the SZL system can reach up to 18.77% (33.44mm to 39.717mm). Experimental results show that zoom effects of the developed SZL system are significantly affected by the shape, thickness and curing parameter of PDMS soft lens. The SZL system has been verified with the function of zoom ability. Further research works on the integration of the SZL system with imaging system for mobile devices or robot vision applications.

  5. Psychopathic Traits Moderate Peer Influence on Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Margaret; Van Zalk, Maarten; Stattin, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents' (targets) and their peers' psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic…

  6. Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens storage cases.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, T B; Cursons, R T; Sherwan, J F; Rose, P R

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Microbial corneal infection is the most serious complication of contact lens wear. Contact lens cases are a recognised potential source of pathogens associated with corneal ulcers. METHODS--This survey established the incidence of protozoal, bacterial, and fungal contact lens case contamination in 101 asymptomatic daily wear cosmetic contact lens wearers from a domiciliary contact lens practice. RESULTS--Eighty two (81%) contact lens cases were found to be contaminated, with 19 (19%) sterile. Of all contact lens cases, 78 (77%) grew bacteria, 24 (24%) fungi, and 20 (20%) protozoa. Acanthamoeba spp were isolated from eight (8%) contact lens cases. Fifty six (55%) contact lens cases yielded mixed bacterial contamination. This is the first contact lens case survey in which hydrogen peroxide disinfection was the major method of contact lens disinfection (75% of subjects) and no home made saline was used. All the contaminating organisms were shown to possess the enzyme catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. The polymicrobial nature of the biofilms found in many contact lens cases is illustrated electron micrographically. CONCLUSION--Based on data from this and previous studies, the authors conclude with recommendations for contact lens wearers: (1) regular scrubbing of contact lens case interior to disrupt biofilms; (2) exposure of contact lens case to very hot water (> or = 70 degrees C) will kill Acanthamoeba contaminants; (3) allow contact lens case to air dry between uses; (4) if hydrogen peroxide disinfection is preferred, use a two step system; (5) replace contact lens case regularly. Images PMID:7626578

  7. Study of 232Th(n, γ) and 232Th(n,f) reaction rates in a graphite moderated spallation neutron field produced by 1.6 GeV deuterons on lead target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asquith, N. L.; Hashemi-Nezhad, S. R.; Westmeier, W.; Zhuk, I.; Tyutyunnikov, S.; Adam, J.

    2015-02-01

    The Gamma-3 assembly of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russia is designed to emulate the neutron spectrum of a thermal Accelerator Driven System (ADS). It consists of a lead spallation target surrounded by reactor grade graphite. The target was irradiated with 1.6 GeV deuterons from the Nuclotron accelerator and the neutron capture and fission rate of 232Th in several locations within the assembly were experimentally measured. 232Th is a proposed fuel for envisaged Accelerator Driven Systems and these two reactions are fundamental to the performance and feasibility of 232Th in an ADS. The irradiation of the Gamma-3 assembly was also simulated using MCNPX 2.7 with the INCL4 intra-nuclear cascade and ABLA fission/evaporation models. Good agreement between the experimentally measured and calculated reaction rates was found. This serves as a good validation for the computational models and cross section data used to simulate neutron production and transport of spallation neutrons within a thermal ADS.

  8. Image watermarking against lens flare effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotikawanid, Piyanart; Amornraksa, Thumrongrat

    2017-02-01

    Lens flare effects in various photo and camera software nowadays can partially or fully damage the watermark information within the watermarked image. We propose in this paper a spatial domain based image watermarking against lens flare effects. The watermark embedding is based on the modification of the saturation color component in HSV color space of a host image. For watermark extraction, a homomorphic filter is used to predict the original embedding component from the watermarked component, and the watermark is blindly recovered by differentiating both components. The watermarked image's quality is evaluated by wPSNR, while the extracted watermark's accuracy is evaluated by NC. The experimental results against various types of lens flare effects from both computer software and mobile application showed that our proposed method outperformed the previous methods.

  9. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements.

  10. Rotating black lens solution in five dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yu; Teo, Edward

    2008-09-15

    It has recently been shown that a stationary, asymptotically flat vacuum black hole in five space-time dimensions with two commuting axial symmetries must have an event horizon with either a spherical, ring or lens-space topology. In this paper, we study the third possibility, a so-called black lens with L(n,1) horizon topology. Using the inverse scattering method, we construct a black-lens solution with the simplest possible rod structure, and possessing a single asymptotic angular momentum. Its properties are then analyzed; in particular, it is shown that there must either be a conical singularity or a naked curvature singularity present in the space-time.

  11. Invited Review Article: The electrostatic plasma lens

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, Alexey

    2013-02-15

    The fundamental principles, experimental results, and potential applications of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating high-current, energetic, heavy ion beams are reviewed. First described almost 50 years ago, this optical beam device provides space charge neutralization of the ion beam within the lens volume, and thus provides an effective and unique tool for focusing high current beams where a high degree of neutralization is essential to prevent beam blow-up. Short and long lenses have been explored, and a lens in which the magnetic field is provided by rare-earth permanent magnets has been demonstrated. Applications include the use of this kind of optical tool for laboratory ion beam manipulation, high dose ion implantation, heavy ion accelerator injection, in heavy ion fusion, and other high technology.

  12. Underwater imaging with a moving acoustic lens.

    PubMed

    Kamgar-Parsi, B; Rosenblum, L J; Belcher, E O

    1998-01-01

    The acoustic lens is a high-resolution, forward-looking sonar for three dimensional (3-D) underwater imaging. We discuss processing the lens data for recreating and visualizing the scene. Acoustical imaging, compared to optical imaging, is sparse and low resolution. To achieve higher resolution, we obtain a denser sample by mounting the lens on a moving platform and passing over the scene. This introduces the problem of data fusion from multiple overlapping views for scene formation, which we discuss. We also discuss the improvements in object reconstruction by combining data from several passes over an object. We present algorithms for pass registration and show that this process can be done with enough accuracy to improve the image and provide greater detail about the object. The results of in-water experiments show the degree to which size and shape can be obtained under (nearly) ideal conditions.

  13. Freeform micromachining of an infrared Alvarez lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilie, Paul J.; Dutterer, Brian S.; Lineberger, Jennifer L.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2011-02-01

    In 1967, Luis Alvarez introduced a novel concept for a focusing lens whereby two transmitting elements with cubic polynomial surfaces yield a composite lens of variable focal length with small lateral shifts. Computer simulations have demonstrated the behavior of these devices, but fabricating the refractive cubic surfaces of the types needed with adequate precision and depth modulation has proven to be challenging using standard methods, and, to the authors' knowledge, Alvarez lens elements have not been previously machined in infrared materials. Recent developments in freeform diamond machining capability have enabled the fabrication of such devices. In this paper, we discuss the fabrication of freeform refractive Alvarez elements in germanium using diamond micro-milling on a five-axis Moore Nanotech® 350FG Freeform Generator. Machining approaches are discussed, and measurements of surface figure and finish are presented. Initial experimental tests of optical performance are also discussed.

  14. Bio-inspired accommodating fluidic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Johnson, Daniel; Tsai, Frank S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-10-15

    The invention of intraocular lens (IOL), a substitute for crystalline lens, represents a major advancement in cataract surgery. After about sixty years of IOL development, one key remaining problem is its limited accommodation range compared with natural eyes. To overcome this performance limit, we explore bio-inspired fluidic IOL. By mimicking the working principle of natural eyes, a fluidic intraocular lens can achieve an exceedingly large accommodation range. An experiment on fluidic IOL demonstrated a very high tuning range of 12 D. This accommodation range was achieved with a modest amount of force (0.06 N) and equatorial radius change (0.286 mm), in conditions matching well with the characteristics of aged eyes.

  15. Lens design: optimization with Global Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isshiki, Masaki

    2013-02-01

    The optimization method damped least squares method (DLS) was almost completed late in the 1960s. DLS has been overwhelming in the local optimization technology. After that, various efforts were made to seek the global optimization. They came into the world after 1990 and the Global Explorer (GE) was one of them invented by the author to find plural solutions, each of which has the local minimum of the merit function. The robustness of the designed lens is also an important factor as well as the performance of the lens; both of these requirements are balanced in the process of optimization with GE2 (the second version of GE). An idea is also proposed to modify GE2 for aspherical lens systems. A design example is shown.

  16. The effect of rigid gas permeable lens cleaners on lens parameter stability.

    PubMed

    Carrell, B A; Bennett, E S; Henry, V A; Grohe, R M

    1992-03-01

    The introduction of fluoro-silicone/acrylate rigid lens materials has provided wearers with benefits that include, among others, enhanced surface wettability. However, several reports have associated these lens materials with lens power, base curve radius and center thickness changes over time, especially with long-term use of an abrasive cleaner. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of abrasive and non-abrasive cleaners on these specific lens parameters. Twenty-four fluoro-silicone/acrylate lenses, 12 low minus and 12 high minus in power, were cleaned a total of 200 times each. Each lens was cleaned with one of-three different cleaners (1 non-abrasive and 2 abrasive) using one of two cleaning methods; palm of the hand or between the fingers (digital). Lens power was changed on 14/24 lenses (58.3 percent); the primary changes occurred with use of one of the abrasive cleaners. In addition, a slight reduction in center thickness was observed after abrasive cleaner use. Warpage occurred at a much higher rate with the digital cleaning method and with the use of an abrasive cleaner. It was concluded that practitioners should routinely reverify rigid lens power, center thickness and base curve radius; patients should be educated to carefully handle their lenses, notably cleaning them in the palm of the hand.

  17. The lens in focus: a comparison of lens development in Drosophila and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Charlton-Perkins, Mark; Brown, Nadean L.; Cook, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the eye has been a major subject of study dating back centuries. The advent of molecular genetics offered the surprising finding that morphologically distinct eyes rely on conserved regulatory gene networks for their formation. While many of these advances often stemmed from studies of the compound eye of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and later translated to discoveries in vertebrate systems, studies on vertebrate lens development far outnumber those in Drosophila. This may be largely historical, since Spemann and Mangold’s paradigm of tissue induction was discovered in the amphibian lens. Recent studies on lens development in Drosophila have begun to define molecular commonalities with the vertebrate lens. Here, we provide an overview of Drosophila lens development, discussing intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling lens cell specification and differentiation. We then summarize key morphological and molecular events in vertebrate lens development, emphasizing regulatory factors and networks strongly associated with both systems. Finally, we provide a comparative analysis that highlights areas of research that would help further clarify the degree of conservation between the formation of dioptric systems in invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:21877135

  18. The lens in focus: a comparison of lens development in Drosophila and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Charlton-Perkins, Mark; Brown, Nadean L; Cook, Tiffany A

    2011-10-01

    The evolution of the eye has been a major subject of study dating back centuries. The advent of molecular genetics offered the surprising finding that morphologically distinct eyes rely on conserved regulatory gene networks for their formation. While many of these advances often stemmed from studies of the compound eye of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and later translated to discoveries in vertebrate systems, studies on vertebrate lens development far outnumber those in Drosophila. This may be largely historical, since Spemann and Mangold's paradigm of tissue induction was discovered in the amphibian lens. Recent studies on lens development in Drosophila have begun to define molecular commonalities with the vertebrate lens. Here, we provide an overview of Drosophila lens development, discussing intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling lens cell specification and differentiation. We then summarize key morphological and molecular events in vertebrate lens development, emphasizing regulatory factors and networks strongly associated with both systems. Finally, we provide a comparative analysis that highlights areas of research that would help further clarify the degree of conservation between the formation of dioptric systems in invertebrates and vertebrates.

  19. Spatial filter lens design for the main laser of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Korniski, R. J., Optics 1 Inc, Westlake Village, CA

    1998-06-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), being designed and constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), comprises 192 laser beams The lasing medium is neodymium in phosphate glass with a fundamental frequency (1{omega}) of 1 053{micro}m Sum frequency generation in a pair of conversion crystals (KDP/KD*P) will produce 1 8 megajoules of the third harmonic light (3{omega} or {lambda}=351{micro}m) at the target The purpose of this paper is to provide the lens design community with the current lens design details of the large optics in the Main Laser This paper describes the lens design configuration and design considerations of the Main Laser The Main Laser is 123 meters long and includes two spatial filters one 13 5 meters and one 60 meters These spatial filters perform crucial beam filtering and relaying functions We shall describe the significant lens design aspects of these spatial filter lenses which allow them to successfully deliver the appropriate beam characteristic onto the target For an overview of NIF please see ``Optical system design of the National Ignition Facility,`` by R Edward English. et al also found in this volume.

  20. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF SINGULAR ISOTHERMAL QUADRUPOLE LENS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Zhe; Lin, W. P.; Yang Xiaofeng E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn

    2013-06-20

    Using an analytical method, we study the singular isothermal quadrupole (SIQ) lens system, which is the simplest lens model that can produce four images. In this case, the radial mass distribution is in accord with the profile of the singular isothermal sphere lens, and the tangential distribution is given by adding a quadrupole on the monopole component. The basic properties of the SIQ lens have been studied in this Letter, including the deflection potential, deflection angle, magnification, critical curve, caustic, pseudo-caustic, and transition locus. Analytical solutions of the image positions and magnifications for the source on axes are derived. We find that naked cusps will appear when the relative intensity k of quadrupole to monopole is larger than 0.6. According to the magnification invariant theory of the SIQ lens, the sum of the signed magnifications of the four images should be equal to unity, as found by Dalal. However, if a source lies in the naked cusp, the summed magnification of the left three images is smaller than the invariant 1. With this simple lens system, we study the situations where a point source infinitely approaches a cusp or a fold. The sum of the magnifications of the cusp image triplet is usually not equal to 0, and it is usually positive for major cusps while negative for minor cusps. Similarly, the sum of magnifications of the fold image pair is usually not equal to 0 either. Nevertheless, the cusp and fold relations are still equal to 0 in that the sum values are divided by infinite absolute magnifications by definition.

  1. Analytic Models of Plausible Gravitational Lens Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2007-05-04

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modeled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasizing that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential.We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modeled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  2. Eye lens dose in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Principi, S; Delgado Soler, C; Ginjaume, M; Beltran Vilagrasa, M; Rovira Escutia, J J; Duch, M A

    2015-07-01

    The ICRP has recently recommended reducing the occupational exposure dose limit for the lens of the eye to 20 mSv y(-1), averaged over a period of 5 y, with no year exceeding 50 mSv, instead of the current 150 mSv y(-1). This reduction will have important implications for interventional cardiology and radiology (IC/IR) personnel. In this work, lens dose received by a staff working in IC is studied in order to determine whether eye lens dose monitoring or/and additional radiological protection measures are required. Eye lens dose exposure was monitored in 10 physicians and 6 nurses. The major IC procedures performed were coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The personnel were provided with two thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs): one calibrated in terms of Hp(3) located close to the left ear of the operator and a whole-body dosemeter calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) positioned on the lead apron. The estimated annual eye lens dose for physicians ranged between 8 and 60 mSv, for a workload of 200 procedures y(-1). Lower doses were collected for nurses, with estimated annual Hp(3) between 2 and 4 mSv y(-1). It was observed that for nurses the Hp(0.07) measurement on the lead apron is a good estimate of eye lens dose. This is not the case for physicians, where the influence of both the position and use of protective devices such as the ceiling shield is very important and produces large differences among doses both at the eyes and on the thorax. For physicians, a good correlation between Hp(3) and dose area product is shown. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a/λ  =  0.280 and a/λ  =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25λ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  4. Investigation of Parallax Issues for Multi-Lens Multispectral Camera Band Co-Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhan, J. P.; Rau, J. Y.; Haala, N.; Cramer, M.

    2017-08-01

    The multi-lens multispectral cameras (MSCs), such as Micasense Rededge and Parrot Sequoia, can record multispectral information by each separated lenses. With their lightweight and small size, which making they are more suitable for mounting on an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) to collect high spatial images for vegetation investigation. However, due to the multi-sensor geometry of multi-lens structure induces significant band misregistration effects in original image, performing band co-registration is necessary in order to obtain accurate spectral information. A robust and adaptive band-to-band image transform (RABBIT) is proposed to perform band co-registration of multi-lens MSCs. First is to obtain the camera rig information from camera system calibration, and utilizes the calibrated results for performing image transformation and lens distortion correction. Since the calibration uncertainty leads to different amount of systematic errors, the last step is to optimize the results in order to acquire a better co-registration accuracy. Due to the potential issues of parallax that will cause significant band misregistration effects when images are closer to the targets, four datasets thus acquired from Rededge and Sequoia were applied to evaluate the performance of RABBIT, including aerial and close-range imagery. From the results of aerial images, it shows that RABBIT can achieve sub-pixel accuracy level that is suitable for the band co-registration purpose of any multi-lens MSC. In addition, the results of close-range images also has same performance, if we focus on the band co-registration on specific target for 3D modelling, or when the target has equal distance to the camera.

  5. Relationship of the actual thick intraocular lens optic to the thin lens equivalent.

    PubMed

    Holladay, J T; Maverick, K J

    1998-09-01

    To theoretically derive and empirically validate the relationship between the actual thick intraocular lens and the thin lens equivalent. Included in the study were 12 consecutive adult patients ranging in age from 54 to 84 years (mean +/- SD, 73.5 +/- 9.4 years) with best-corrected visual acuity better than 20/40 in each eye. Each patient had bilateral intraocular lens implants of the same style, placed in the same location (bag or sulcus) by the same surgeon. Preoperatively, axial length, keratometry, refraction, and vertex distance were measured. Postoperatively, keratometry, refraction, vertex distance, and the distance from the vertex of the cornea to the anterior vertex of the intraocular lens (AV(PC1)) were measured. Alternatively, the distance (AV(PC1)) was then back-calculated from the vergence formula used for intraocular lens power calculations. The average (+/-SD) of the absolute difference in the two methods was 0.23 +/- 0.18 mm, which would translate to approximately 0.46 diopters. There was no statistical difference between the measured and calculated values; the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient from linear regression was 0.85 (r2 = .72, F = 56). The average intereye difference was -0.030 mm (SD, 0.141 mm; SEM, 0.043 mm) using the measurement method and +0.124 mm (SD, 0.412 mm; SEM, 0.124 mm) using the calculation method. The relationship between the actual thick intraocular lens and the thin lens equivalent has been determined theoretically and demonstrated empirically. This validation provides the manufacturer and surgeon additional confidence and utility for lens constants used in intraocular lens power calculations.

  6. Broadband aperiodic air coupled ultrasonic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welter, John T.; Sathish, Shamachary; Dierken, Josiah M.; Brodrick, Philip G.; Cherry, Matthew R.; Heebl, Jason D.

    2012-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the possibility of subwavelength, defined as less than the incident wavelength, broadband focusing in an aperiodic air coupled ultrasonic lens. A near field probe is used to detect well defined resonances from 75 to 125 kHz. The spatial resolution at each of the resonant frequencies is determined and demonstrated to be smaller than the wavelength of the ultrasonic waves. The strongest resonance is observed at 82.9 kHz with a focal spot size of 3.12 mm. The subwavelength spatial resolution of the lens structures at the resonances is attributed to the near field scattering of the acoustic waves.

  7. FOLD LENS FLUX ANOMALIES: A GEOMETRIC APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, David M.; Chessey, Mary K.; Harris, Wendy B.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2010-06-01

    We develop a new approach for studying flux anomalies in quadruply imaged fold lens systems. We show that in the absence of substructure, microlensing, or differential absorption, the expected flux ratios of a fold pair can be tightly constrained using only geometric arguments. We apply this technique to 11 known quadruple lens systems in the radio and infrared and compare our estimates to the Monte Carlo based results of Keeton et al. We show that a robust estimate for a flux ratio from a smoothly varying potential can be found, and at long wavelengths those lenses deviating from this ratio almost certainly contain significant substructure.

  8. Fold Lens Flux Anomalies: A Geometric Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, David M.; Chessey, Mary K.; Harris, Wendy B.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2010-06-01

    We develop a new approach for studying flux anomalies in quadruply imaged fold lens systems. We show that in the absence of substructure, microlensing, or differential absorption, the expected flux ratios of a fold pair can be tightly constrained using only geometric arguments. We apply this technique to 11 known quadruple lens systems in the radio and infrared and compare our estimates to the Monte Carlo based results of Keeton et al. We show that a robust estimate for a flux ratio from a smoothly varying potential can be found, and at long wavelengths those lenses deviating from this ratio almost certainly contain significant substructure.

  9. Tunable dielectric liquid lens on flexible substrate

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yen-Sheng; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Jiang, Hongrui

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a tunable-focus dielectric liquid lens (DLL) on a flexible substrate made of polydimethylsiloxane, which was wrapped onto a goggle surface to show its functionality. As a positive meniscus converging lens, the DLL has the focal length variable from 14.2 to 6.3 mm in 1.3 s when the driving voltage increases to 125 Vrms. The resolving power of the DLL is 17.95 line pairs per mm. The DLL on a flexible, curvilinear surface is promising for expanded field of view covered as well as in reconfigurable optical systems. PMID:24493877

  10. Teaching Image Formation by a Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluck, Paul

    2006-04-01

    Geometrical optics followed by wave optics is the traditional sequence in an introductory course. Apart from discussing the conditions for the validity of each regime, little attention is normally paid to the insights that physical optics can provide in geometrical optics, except for the diffraction-limited resolving power of instruments by means of the Rayleigh criterion. Yet, everything one can prove with rays can (and should?) be shown using the wave picture together with the Huygens construction, be it the laws of refraction and refraction, the thin lens, or the lens maker's formulae.

  11. Linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator program

    SciTech Connect

    Kull, J.; Maraschin, R.; Rafinejad, D.; Spencer, R.; Sutton, G.

    1983-08-01

    This report describes Acurex Corporation's design of a linear Fresnel lens Photovoltaic Concentrator Panel. The panel consists of four concentrator modules in an integrated structure. Each module is 10 ft long and has a 39.85 in aperture. The solar cell's active width is 0.90 in. and the cell-lens edge spacing is 23.39 in. There are 58 cells per module. A prototype panel was built and tested. Test results showed a peak electrical efficiency of 10.5% at the operating conditions of 800 W/m/sup 2/ insolation and 90/sup 0/F coolant temperature. The prototype exhibits the manufacturing and assembly concepts developed.

  12. Liquid lens: advances in adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Shawn Patrick

    2010-12-01

    'Liquid lens' technologies promise significant advancements in machine vision and optical communications systems. Adaptations for machine vision, human vision correction, and optical communications are used to exemplify the versatile nature of this technology. Utilization of liquid lens elements allows the cost effective implementation of optical velocity measurement. The project consists of a custom image processor, camera, and interface. The images are passed into customized pattern recognition and optical character recognition algorithms. A single camera would be used for both speed detection and object recognition.

  13. Near field imaging with resonant cavity lens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guixin; Li, Jensen; Tam, H L; Chan, C T; Cheah, K W

    2010-02-01

    We showed that a Ag-SiO(2)-Ag Fabry-Pérot cavity can be used in near-field imaging based on omnidirectional resonance tunneling. The omnidirectional resonance was experimentally demonstrated in the Ag-SiO(2)-Ag resonant cavity working at a wavelength of 365 nm. The resonant cavity lens with high transmittance and high image fidelity was fabricated using standard photolithography method. Grating source with 190 nm line resolution was imaged through the resonant cavity lens with a total thickness of 128 nm.

  14. Time resolved thermal lens in edible oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, T. A. S.; Pedreira, P. R. B.; Medina, A. N.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    In this work time resolved thermal lens spectrometry is applied to investigate the optical properties of the following edible oils: soya, sunflower, canola, and corn oils. The experiments were performed at room temperature using the mode mismatched thermal lens configuration. The results showed that when the time resolved procedure is adopted the technique can be applied to investigate the photosensitivity of edible oils. Soya oil presented a stronger photochemical reaction as compared to the other investigated samples. This observation may be relevant for future studies evaluating edible oils storage conditions and also may contribute to a better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of this important foodstuff.

  15. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bonafonte Marquez, Elena; Bonafonte Royo, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL) implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for it could be the only sign of secondary glaucoma. PMID:25713742

  16. Fundamentals of concentric lens systems synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhova, Kseniia; Zverev, Victor; Tochilina, Tatiana; Tymoshchuk, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Introduction of coefficients defining the relationship of the radii of curvature of the surfaces of concentric optical systems, allowed the transformation of the obtained analytical relations in a system of two equations with two unknowns. It is shown that the existence of the solution of the system of equations determined by the optical constants of the selected lens material. The results of the analysis of the conditions of the chromatic aberration correction position and the sequence of obtaining of the system equations define the theoretical basis of the engineering method of parametric synthesis of concentric lens systems. Application of the developed method is illustrated by examples of calculation particular systems design build.

  17. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; London, Richard A.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1993-01-01

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described.

  18. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; London, R.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1993-10-26

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described. 21 figures.

  19. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; London, Richard A.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1991-01-01

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed.

  20. A physiological correlate of the "Zoom Lens" of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Müller, Notger G; Bartelt, Oliver A; Donner, Tobias H; Villringer, Arno; Brandt, Stephan A

    2003-05-01

    Attending a certain region in space enhances activity in visual areas retinotopically mapped to this region; stimuli presented in this region are preferentially processed. The zoom lens model of visual attention proposes that the attended region can be adjusted in size and predicts a tradeoff between its size and processing efficiency because of limited processing capacities. By means of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed neural activity in multiple visual areas as a function of the size of an attended visual field region, which was defined by a spatial cue stimulus. After cueing, a target object, defined by a specific feature conjunction, had to be identified among objects within the cued region. Neural activity preceding the objects in multiple retinotopic visual areas correlated with the size of the attended region, as did subjects' performance. While the extent of activated retinotopic visual cortex increased with the size of the attended region, the level of neural activity in a given subregion decreased. These findings are consistent with the physiological predictions of the zoom lens model. Size-related modulations of neural activity were pronounced in early visual areas. We relate this finding to the small receptive field of these areas, whereby only neuronal units with receptive fields covering the attended region received a top-down bias. This preactivation of neuronal units may then have gated selective processing of the features of the object that appeared at the attended location, thus enabling feature integration and object identification.

  1. Factors affecting near vision after monofocal intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Hui; Han, Jong Chul; Kim, Myung Hun; Chung, Eui-Sang; Chung, Tae-Young

    2013-03-01

    To identify factors that influence near vision after monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for distance vision. A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent cataract surgery with monofocal IOL implantation from October 2009 to April 2010 at Samsung Medical Center. Eyes were classified as having good (⩾ J4) or poor (< J4) near vision. Factors analyzed included age, sex, intraocular lens (IOL) movement, axial length, pupil size, degree and type of astigmatism, IOL type, total aberration, and higher-order aberrations. Binary logistic regression and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were determined. This retrospective study involved 84 eyes of 84 patients. Thirty-four eyes were classified as having good near vision and 50 eyes as having poor near vision. All groups had a postoperative uncorrected visual acuity greater than 0.2 logMAR (Snellen 20/32) and a refractive error within ± 0.5 diopter of spherical equivalent. Pupil size and axial length were inversely associated with good near vision (P = .034 and .039, respectively). A pupil size smaller than 2.6 mm and an axial length less than 23.0 mm resulted in better near vision than larger measurements after monofocal IOL implantation for distant target. Among the factors analyzed, small pupil size and short axial length predicted good near vision after phacoemulsification and monofocal IOL implantation. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Human cataractous lens nucleus implanted in a sheep eye lens as a model for phacoemulsification training.

    PubMed

    Kayikçioğlu, Ozcan; Eğrilmez, Sait; Emre, Sinan; Erakgün, Tansu

    2004-03-01

    We describe a realistic and inexpensive experimental cataract model for phacoemulsification training. After a capsulorhexis is performed, a deep cavity in the lens of an enucleated sheep eye is formed by phacoemulsification through a lateral incision. An undamaged human cataractous lens nucleus obtained by extracapsular cataract extraction is inserted in the preformed cavity, resting in the center of a cortex cushion. Phacoemulsification training is performed through a corneal tunnel incision. The experimental model is prepared with a human cataractous lens nucleus of the preferred hardness, simulating nuclear phacoemulsification in humans.

  3. Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hongwen; Fox, David; Anderson, P. Andrew; Wu, Benjamin; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2006-09-01

    We demonstrated a liquid lens whose focal length can be controlled by an actuator. The lens cell is composed of elastic membrane, planar glass plate, a periphery sealing ring, and a liquid with a fixed volume in the lens chamber. Part of the periphery sealing ring is excavated to form a hollow chamber which functions as a reservoir. This hollowed periphery is surrounded by an exterior rubber membrane. The shaft of an actuator is used to deform the elastic rubber. Squeezing the liquid contained in the reservoir into the lens chamber. Excess liquid in the lens chamber will push the lens membrane to outward, resulting in a lens shape change. Due to the compact structure and easy operation, this liquid lens has potential applications in zoom lenses, auto beam steering, and eyeglasses.

  4. Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top Plan, Base Plan; Fresnel Lens: Isometric, Elevation, Plan - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  5. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An experimental contact lens design releases a glaucoma medicine at a ...

  6. Dislocation of the lens: a complication after cyclocryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sony, Parul; Sharma, Namrata; Pangtey, Mayank S

    2002-12-01

    An unusual complication is reported of a case of complete dislocation of the lens after cyclocryotherapy in a patient with neovascular glaucoma. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no case of lens dislocation following cyclocryotherapy has previously been reported.

  7. Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongwen; Fox, David; Anderson, P Andrew; Wu, Benjamin; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2006-09-04

    We demonstrated a liquid lens whose focal length can be controlled by an actuator. The lens cell is composed of elastic membrane, planar glass plate, a periphery sealing ring, and a liquid with a fixed volume in the lens chamber. Part of the periphery sealing ring is excavated to form a hollow chamber which functions as a reservoir. This hollowed periphery is surrounded by an exterior rubber membrane. The shaft of an actuator is used to deform the elastic rubber. Squeezing the liquid contained in the reservoir into the lens chamber. Excess liquid in the lens chamber will push the lens membrane to outward, resulting in a lens shape change. Due to the compact structure and easy operation, this liquid lens has potential applications in zoom lenses, auto beam steering, and eyeglasses.

  8. How do people define moderation?

    PubMed

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Profile and frequency of microbial contamination of contact lens cases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yvonne T; Zhu, Hua; Harmis, Najat Y; Iskandar, Shamil Y; Willcox, Mark; Stapleton, Fiona

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the frequency level and profile of contact lens storage case contamination in asymptomatic contact lens wearers and to examine whether different areas of the same lens case may show a different rate and profile of contamination. The relationship between lens storage case contamination and the age of the lens storage case was also examined. Sixty-four lens cases and case age information were collected from asymptomatic contact lens wearers. Lens cases were sampled at two locations, the upper rim and the lower base. The samples underwent microbiological investigation for recovery of bacteria and fungi. Contamination rate between the two sampling locations and the relationship between the contamination levels and the age of the lens case were analyzed. Contamination occurred in 58% (37 of 64) of lens cases. The most frequently recovered microorganisms were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (51%, 19 of 37), Bacillus spp. (43%,16 of 37), and fungi (27%,10 of 37). For flat-well lens cases, higher numbers of microorganisms were recovered from the upper rim than that from the lower base (p = 0.02), and a greater variety of Gram-negative bacteria were recovered from the upper rim. A higher recovery rate of Micrococcus spp. (p = 0.02; in flat cases) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (p = 0.01; for both flat and basket type cases) was found from the base of the case well compared with the upper rim. For stand-up cases, higher numbers of microorganisms were recovered from the lens basket compared to the upper hinge (p = 0.047). Lens cases that were <9 months of age had lower levels of contamination (p = 0.013) than older cases. Frequent replacement of lens cases may reduce microbial contamination. Future studies should specify the areas swabbed in the lens case. Better lens storage case design and additional hygiene attention need to be introduced to reduce contamination in these "risky" areas.

  10. Polarizer-free imaging of liquid crystal lens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Rui; Cui, Chunhui; Yu, Shuda; Mai, Huafu; Gong, Xiaoda; Ye, Mao

    2014-08-11

    An image processing method is proposed to realize polarizer-free imaging of liquid crystal lens. Images I(l) and I(nl) are captured sequentially in the lens and non-lens states of the LC lens, respectively, and are used to generate a final high contrast image. The proposal is tested by experiments. Clear and well focused images are obtained, even though no polarizer is employed in the imaging system.

  11. A broadband zone plate lens from transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Tang, Wenxuan; Hao, Yang

    2011-06-20

    A zone plate lens utilizing a refractive instead of diffractive approach is presented for broadband operation. By utilizing transformation optics, we compress the conventional hyperbolic lens into a flat one with a few zone plates made of all-dielectric materials. Such a transformed lens maintains the broadband performance of the original lens, thus providing a superior alternative to the diffractive Fresnel element which is inherently narrow band.

  12. Modified matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Kh; Hooshmand Ziafi, H.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work by comparing a single lens with a doublet, we can clearly demonstrate the superior quality of the doublet over the single lens, and estimate their conic constants.

  13. Design of a double-sided telecentric zoom lens.

    PubMed

    Mikš, Antonín; Novák, Jiří

    2012-08-20

    A method is presented for the calculation of paraxial design parameters of a double-sided telecentric zoom lens with easy variation of the magnification range. The telecentric lens consists of a zoom lens with a fixed distance between focal points and a lens with a fixed focal length. The third-order aberration analysis is also performed, and spot diagrams are calculated for two f-number values.

  14. Chapter 03: Correct use of a hand lens

    Treesearch

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    A hand lens is a powerful tool for the identification of wood, but like all tools it must be used correctly to take full advantage of its powers. The hand lens has two main parts, a lens that magnifies the object of interest (generally we use 10X or 14X lenses in wood identification; a 14X lens is recommended for use with this manual) and a housing to hold and protect...

  15. Nd:YAG laser photodisruption of the lens nucleus before phacoemulsification

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, E.H. Jr.; Logani, S.

    1987-10-15

    We studied the use of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses to soften sclerotic lens nuclei before phacoemulsification. We obtained 105 lens nuclei from extracapsular cataract extractions, graded them for degree of sclerosis, and randomized them into laser treatment (53 lenses) or control groups (52 lenses). The treated lenses received laser pulses until confluent pits and clefts were visible. All lenses were phacoemulsified and the times recorded. Nd:YAG laser pretreatment decreased phacoemulsification time in all grades. In moderately sclerotic nuclei, average phacoemulsification time was reduced from 40.1 to 23.9 seconds (40.4%). The nuclei of ten lenses obtained from intracapsular cataract extractions were treated intracapsularly, and the posterior capsule was inadvertently ruptured in five.

  16. Suppression of thermal lens effect in high-pulse-energy Ti:sapphire amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fenxiang; Yu, Linpeng; Lu, Jun; Li, Wenkai; Xu, Yi; Leng, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    In high-pulse-energy Ti:sapphire amplifiers with moderate repetition rate, the thermal lens effect can significantly decrease the energy extraction efficiency and increase the risk of optical damage. A new method, without introducing any additional components, is proposed to suppress the thermal lens effect in such amplifiers. By utilizing a particularly designed beam expander before the amplifier, specific expanding ratio and beam divergence can be introduced to the injected seed pulses, which can improve the spatial matching between the seed pulses and the pump pulses, and thus enhance the energy extraction efficiency. The enhancement of the energy extraction efficiency has reached approximately 10% in our experimental four-pass Ti:sapphire amplifier, and the good agreement between theoretical and experimental results also demonstrates the validity and feasibility of this method.

  17. Corrective lens use and refractive error among United States Air Force aircrew.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steve T; Ivan, Douglas J; Clark, Patrick J; Gooch, John M; Thompson, William

    2010-03-01

    Corrective lens use by military aviators is an important consideration in the design of head-mounted equipment. The United States Air Force (USAF) has periodically monitored lens use by aviators; however, it has been over a decade since the last study. We provide an update on the prevalence of corrective lenses and refractive error among USAF aircrew based on eyeglass orders processed through the Spectacle Request Transmission System (SRTS). Currently, 41% of active duty USAF pilots and 54% of other aircrew require corrective lenses to perform flight duties. Refractive errors are characterized by low to moderate levels of myopia with a mean spherical equivalent power of -1.01 diopters (D) for pilots and -1.68 D for others. Contact lenses, and more recently refractive surgery, reduce the number of aircrew that must rely on spectacles when flying; however, spectacle compatibility remains an important consideration in the cockpit.

  18. Involvement of SOX proteins in lens-specific activation of crystallin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Kamachi, Y; Sockanathan, S; Liu, Q; Breitman, M; Lovell-Badge, R; Kondoh, H

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism of delta 1-crystallin gene activation, which occurs early in lens cell differentiation, and have previously shown that an essential element of the delta 1-crystallin enhancer is bound by a group of nuclear factors, delta EF2, among which delta EF2a is highly enriched in lens cells. In this report we show that the cDNA of delta EF2a codes for the chicken SOX-2 protein (cSOX-2), which is structurally related to the sex-determining factor SRY. Sox-2 is expressed at high levels in the early developing lens in both chicken and mouse embryos. Overexpression of delta EF2a/cSOX-2 increased delta 1-crystallin enhancer activity to a plateau in lens cells, but not in fibroblasts, consistent with the previously drawn conclusion that delta EF2a activates transcription only in concert with another factor present in the lens. This result supports the model that SOX proteins act as architectural components in the activating complex formed on an enhancer, as indicated for another HMG domain protein, lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF-1). We also show that SOX protein binding is essential for lens-specific promoter activity of the mouse gamma F-crystallin gene. This work is the first to show delta- and gamma-crystallin genes as examples of direct regulatory targets of SOX proteins and provides evidence that diversified crystallin genes are regulated, at least partly, by a common mechanism. Images PMID:7628452

  19. PARP-1 inhibition influences the oxidative stress response of the human lens

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew J.O.; Ball, Simon S.R.; Bowater, Richard P.; Wormstone, I. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is best characterised for its involvement in DNA repair. PARP-1 activity is also linked to cell fate, confounding its roles in maintaining genome integrity. The current study assessed the functional roles of PARP-1 within human lens cells in response to oxidative stress. The human lens epithelial cell line FHL124 and whole human lens cultures were used as experimental systems. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to induce oxidative stress and cell death was assessed by LDH release. The functional influence of PARP-1 was assessed using targeted siRNA and chemical inhibition (by AG14361). Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to assess PARP-1 expression and the alkaline comet assay determined the levels of DNA strand breaks. PARP-1 was generally observed in the cell nucleus in both the FHL124 cell line and whole human lenses. PARP-1 inhibition rendered FHL124 cells more susceptible to H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks. Interestingly, reduction of PARP-1 activity significantly inhibited H2O2-induced cell death relative to control cells. Inhibition of PARP-1 in whole human lenses resulted in a reduced level of lens opacity and cell death following exposure to H2O2 relative to matched pair controls. Thus, we show that PARP-1 could play a role in the fate of human lens cells, and these first observations in human lenses suggest that it could impact on lens opacity. Further studies are required to elucidate the regulatory processes that give rise to these effects. PMID:26990173

  20. Geometries and focal properties of two electron-lens systems useful in low-energy electron or ion scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.

    1979-01-01

    Geometries and focal properties are given for two types of electron-lens system commonly needed in electron scattering. One is an electron gun that focuses electrons from a thermionic emitter onto a fixed point (target) over a wide range of final energies. The other is an electron analyzer system that focuses scattered electrons of variable energy onto a fixed position (e.g., the entrance plane of an analyzer) at fixed energy with a zero final beam angle. Analyzer-system focusing properties are given for superelastically, elastically, and inelastically scattered electrons. Computer calculations incorporating recent accurate tube-lens focal properties are used to compute lens voltages, locations and diameters of all pupils and windows, filling factors, and asymptotic rays throughout each lens system. Focus voltages as a function of electron energy and energy change are given, and limits of operation of each system discussed. Both lens systems have been in routine use for several years, and good agreement has been consistently found between calculated and operating lens voltages.