Science.gov

Sample records for lensing magnification distribution

  1. Probability of lensing magnification by cosmologically distributed galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, Yichuan C.

    1993-01-01

    We present the analytical formulae for computing the magnification probability caused by cosmologically distributed galaxies. The galaxies are assumed to be singular, truncated-isothermal spheres without both evolution and clustering in redshift. We find that, for a fixed total mass, extended galaxies produce a broader shape in the magnification probability distribution and hence are less efficient as gravitational lenses than compact galaxies. The high-magnification tail caused by large galaxies is well approximated by an A exp -3 form, while the tail by small galaxies is slightly shallower. The mean magnification as a function of redshift is, however, found to be independent of the size of the lensing galaxies. In terms of the flux conservation, our formulae for the isothermal galaxy model predict a mean magnification to within a few percent with the Dyer-Roeder model of a clumpy universe.

  2. Effect of lensing magnification on the apparent distribution of black hole mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liang; Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Sigurdson, Kris

    2017-02-01

    The recent detection of gravitational waves indicates that stellar-mass black hole binaries are likely to be a key population of sources for forthcoming observations. With future upgrades, ground-based detectors could detect merging black hole binaries out to cosmological distances. Gravitational-wave bursts from high redshifts (z ≳1 ) can be strongly magnified by gravitational lensing due to intervening galaxies along the line of sight. In the absence of electromagnetic counterparts, the mergers' intrinsic mass scale and redshift are degenerate with the unknown magnification factor μ . Hence, strongly magnified low-mass mergers from high redshifts appear as higher-mass mergers from lower redshifts. We assess the impact of this degeneracy on the mass-redshift distribution of observable events for generic models of binary black hole formation from normal stellar evolution, Pop III star remnants, or a primordial black hole population. We find that strong magnification (μ ≳3 ) generally creates a heavy tail of apparently massive mergers in the event distribution from a given detector. For LIGO and its future upgrades, this tail may dominate the population of intrinsically massive, but unlensed mergers in binary black hole formation models involving normal stellar evolution or primordial black holes. Modeling the statistics of lensing magnification can help account for this magnification bias when testing astrophysical scenarios of black hole binary formation and evolution.

  3. Cosmology with standard sirens: the importance of the shape of the lensing magnification distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Cien; Haiman, Zoltán

    2011-02-01

    The gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by inspiralling binary black holes, expected to be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), could be used to determine the luminosity distance to these sources with the unprecedented precision of ≲1 per cent. We study cosmological parameter constraints from such standard sirens, in the presence of gravitational lensing by large-scale structure. Lensing introduces magnification with a probability distribution function (PDF) whose shape has significant skewness and kurtosis, and depends on cosmological parameters. We use Monte Carlo simulations to generate mock samples of standard sirens, including a small intrinsic scatter, as well as the additional, larger scatter from lensing, in their inferred distances. We derive constraints on cosmological parameters, by simultaneously fitting the mean and the distribution of the residuals on the distance versus redshift (dL-z) Hubble diagram. We find that for standard sirens at redshift z≈ 1, the sensitivity to a single cosmological parameter, such as the matter density Ωm, or the dark energy equation of state w, is ˜50-80 per cent tighter when the lensing PDF is used, compared to the sensitivity derived from a Gaussian PDF with the same variance. When these two parameters are constrained simultaneously, the non-Gaussian shape yields a further enhanced improvement (by ˜120 per cent), owing to the correlation between the parameters. The sensitivity to the amplitude of the matter power spectrum, σ8 from the cosmological dependence of the PDF alone, however, is ˜20 per cent worse than that from the Gaussian PDF. The improvements for Ωm and w arise purely from the non-Gaussian shape of the lensing PDF and can be attributed specifically to the sharpness of the peak of this PDF (i.e. to a finite kurtosis); the dependence of the PDF on these parameters does not improve constraints relative to those available from the mean dL-z relation. At higher redshifts, the PDF

  4. Flat liquid crystal diffractive lenses with variable focus and magnification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, Pouria

    Non-mechanical variable lenses are important for creating compact imaging devices. Various methods employing dielectrically actuated lenses, membrane lenses, and liquid crystal lenses were previously proposed [1-4]. In This dissertation the design, fabrication, and characterization of innovative flat tunable-focus liquid crystal diffractive lenses (LCDL) are presented. LCDL employ binary Fresnel zone electrodes fabricated on Indium-Tin-Oxide using conventional micro-photolithography. The light phase can be adjusted by varying the effective refractive index of a nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between the electrodes and a reference substrate. Using a proper voltage distribution across various electrodes the focal length can be changed between several discrete values. Electrodes are shunted such that the correct phase retardation step sequence is achieved. If the number of 2pi zone boundaries is increased by a factor of m the focal length is changed from f to f/m based on the digitized Fresnel zone equation: f = rm2/2mlambda, where r m is mth zone radius, and lambda is the wavelength. The chromatic aberration of the diffractive lens is addressed and corrected by adding a variable fluidic lens. These LCDL operate at very low voltage levels (+/-2.5V ac input), exhibit fast switching times (20-150 ms), can have large apertures (>10 mm), and small form factor, and are robust and insensitive to vibrations, gravity, and capillary effects that limit membrane and dielectrically actuated lenses. Several tests were performed on the LCDL including diffraction efficiency measurement, switching dynamics, and hybrid imaging with a refractive lens. Negative focal lengths are achieved by adjusting the voltages across electrodes. Using these lenses in combination, magnification can be changed and zoom lenses can be formed. These characteristics make LCDL a good candidate for a variety of applications including auto-focus and zoom lenses in compact imaging devices such as camera

  5. MAGNIFICENT MAGNIFICATION: EXPLOITING THE OTHER HALF OF THE LENSING SIGNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Eric M.; Graves, Genevieve J.

    2014-01-10

    We describe a new method for measuring galaxy magnification due to weak gravitational lensing. Our method makes use of a tight scaling relation between galaxy properties that are modified by gravitational lensing, such as apparent size, and other properties that are not, such as surface brightness. In particular, we use a version of the well-known fundamental plane relation for early-type galaxies. This modified ''photometric fundamental plane'' uses only photometric galaxy properties, eliminating the need for spectroscopic data. We present the first detection of magnification using this method by applying it to photometric catalogs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This analysis shows that the derived magnification signal is within a factor of three of that available from conventional methods using gravitational shear. We suppress the dominant sources of systematic error and discuss modest improvements that may further enhance the lensing signal-to-noise available with this method. Moreover, some of the dominant sources of systematic error are substantially different from those of shear-based techniques. With this new technique, magnification becomes a useful measurement tool for the coming era of large ground-based surveys intending to measure gravitational lensing.

  6. Probing dark energy with lensing magnification in photometric surveys.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Michael D

    2014-02-14

    I present an estimator for the angular cross correlation of two tracers of the cosmological large-scale structure that utilizes redshift information to isolate separate physical contributions. The estimator is derived by solving the Limber equation for a reweighting of the foreground tracer that nulls either clustering or lensing contributions to the cross correlation function. Applied to future photometric surveys, the estimator can enhance the measurement of gravitational lensing magnification effects to provide a competitive independent constraint on the dark energy equation of state.

  7. Magnification relations for Kerr lensing and testing cosmic censorship

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M. C.; Petters, A. O.

    2007-09-15

    A Kerr black hole with mass parameter m and angular momentum parameter a acting as a gravitational lens gives rise to two images in the weak field limit. We study the corresponding magnification relations, namely, the signed and absolute magnification sums and the centroid up to post-Newtonian order. We show that there are post-Newtonian corrections to the total absolute magnification and centroid proportional to a/m, which is in contrast to the spherically symmetric case where such corrections vanish. Hence we also propose a new set of lensing observables for the two images involving these corrections, which should allow measuring a/m with gravitational lensing. In fact, the resolution capabilities needed to observe this for the Galactic black hole should in principle be accessible to current and near-future instrumentation. Since a/m>1 indicates a naked singularity, a most interesting application would be a test of the cosmic censorship conjecture. The technique used to derive the image properties is based on the degeneracy of the Kerr lens and a suitably displaced Schwarzschild lens at post-Newtonian order. A simple physical explanation for this degeneracy is also given.

  8. Time delay and magnification centroid due to gravitational lensing by black holes and naked singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Virbhadra, K. S.; Keeton, C. R.

    2008-06-15

    We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due to Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image on the same side as the source) due to strongly naked singularity lensing always has a negative time delay. We also found that the scalar field decreases the time delay and increases the total magnification of images; this result could have important implications for cosmology. As the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric also describes the exterior gravitational field of a scalar star, naked singularities as well as scalar star lenses, if these exist in nature, will serve as more efficient cosmic telescopes than regular gravitational lenses.

  9. A PLANETARY LENSING FEATURE IN CAUSTIC-CROSSING HIGH-MAGNIFICATION MICROLENSING EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Hwang, Kyu-Ha; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Uk E-mail: kyuha@kasi.re.kr E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2012-05-20

    Current microlensing follow-up observations focus on high-magnification events because of the high efficiency of planet detection. However, central perturbations of high-magnification events caused by a planet can also be produced by a very close or a very wide binary companion, and the two kinds of central perturbations are not generally distinguished without time consuming detailed modeling (a planet-binary degeneracy). Hence, it is important to resolve the planet-binary degeneracy that occurs in high-magnification events. In this paper, we investigate caustic-crossing high-magnification events caused by a planet and a wide binary companion. From this investigation, we find that because of the different magnification excess patterns inside the central caustics induced by the planet and the binary companion, the light curves of the caustic-crossing planetary-lensing events exhibit a feature that is discriminated from those of the caustic-crossing binary-lensing events, and the feature can be used to immediately distinguish between the planetary and binary companions. The planetary-lensing feature appears in the interpeak region between the two peaks of the caustic-crossings. The structure of the interpeak region for the planetary-lensing events is smooth and convex or boxy, whereas the structure for the binary-lensing events is smooth and concave. We also investigate the effect of a finite background source star on the planetary-lensing feature in the caustic-crossing high-magnification events. From this, we find that the convex-shaped interpeak structure appears in a certain range that changes with the mass ratio of the planet to the planet-hosting star.

  10. Analytic relations for magnifications and time delays in gravitational lenses with fold and cusp configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, Charles R.; Nordgren, C. Erik

    2008-09-01

    Gravitational lensing provides a unique and powerful probe of the mass distributions of distant galaxies. Four-image lens systems with fold and cusp configurations have two or three bright images near a critical point. Within the framework of singularity theory, we derive analytic relations that are satisfied for a light source that lies a small but finite distance from the astroid caustic of a four-image lens. Using a perturbative expansion of the image positions, we show that the time delay between the close pair of images in a fold lens scales with the cube of the image separation, with a constant of proportionality that depends on a particular third derivative of the lens potential. We also apply our formalism to cusp lenses, where we develop perturbative expressions for the image positions, magnifications and time delays of the images in a cusp triplet. Some of these results were derived previously for a source asymptotically close to a cusp point, but using a simplified form of the lens equation whose validity may be in doubt for sources that lie at astrophysically relevant distances from the caustic. Along with the work of Keeton, Gaudi & Petters, this paper demonstrates that perturbation theory plays an important role in theoretical lensing studies.

  11. Galactic Distribution of Planets From High-Magnification Microlensing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew; Yee, Jennifer; Carey, Sean

    2015-10-01

    We will use Spitzer to measure microlens parallaxes for ~14 microlensing events that are high-magnification (as seen from Earth), in order to determine the Galactic distribution of planets. Simultaneous observations from Spitzer and Earth yield parallaxes because they are separated by ~1 AU, which is of order the size of the Einstein radius projected on the observer plane. Hence, Earth and Spitzer see substantially different lightcurves for the same event. These Spitzer parallaxes enable measurements of the distances to the lenses (and their masses), which is a crucial element for measuring the Galactic distribution of planets. High-mag events are exceptionally sensitive to planets: Gould+ (2010) detected 6 planets from 13 high-mag events. However, previously it was believed impossible to measure their parallaxes using Spitzer: scheduling constraints imply a 3-10 day delay from event recognition to first observation, while high-mag events are typically recognized only 1-2 days before peak. By combining aggressive observing protocols, a completely new photometry pipeline, and new mathematical techniques, we successfully measured parallaxes for 7 events with peak magnification A>100 and another ~7 with 50magnification). These ~4 planets represent significant progress toward the ~12 necessary to measure the Galactic distribution. All lightcurves will be reduced using our customized software and then made public (unrestricted use), within 2 months of the completion of observations (as we did for our 2015 observations).

  12. Magnification of light from many distant quasars by gravitational lenses.

    PubMed

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2002-06-27

    Exceptionally bright quasars with redshifts up to z = 6.28 have recently been discovered. Quasars are thought to be powered by the accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Their maximum (Eddington) luminosity depends on the mass of the black hole, and the brighter quasars are inferred to have black holes with masses of more than a few billion solar masses. The existence of such massive black holes poses a challenge to models for the formation of structures in the early Universe, as it requires their formation within one billion years of the Big Bang. Here we show that up to one-third of known quasars with z approximately equal to 6 will have had their observed flux magnified by a factor of ten or more, as a consequence of gravitational lensing by galaxies along the line of sight. The inferred abundance of quasar host galaxies, as well as the luminosity density provided by the quasars, has therefore been substantially overestimated.

  13. Magnifications of Single and Dual Element Accommodative Intraocular Lenses: Paraxial Optics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ale, Jit B; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using an analytical approach of paraxial optics, we evaluated the magnification of a model eye implanted with single-element (1E) and dual-element (2E) translating-optics accommodative intraocular lenses (AIOL) with an objective of understanding key control parameters relevant to their design. Potential clinical implications of the results arising from pseudophakic accommodation were also considered. Methods Lateral and angular magnifications in a pseudophakic model eye were analyzed using the matrix method of paraxial optics. The effects of key control parameters such as direction (forward or backward) and distance (0 to 2 mm) of translation, power combinations of the 2E-AIOL elements (front element power range +20.0 D to +40.0 D), and amplitudes of accommodation (0 to 4 D) were tested. Relative magnification, defined as the ratio of the retinal image size of the accommodated eye to that of unaccommodated phakic (rLM1) or pseudophakic (rLM2) model eyes, was computed to determine how retinal image size changes with pseudophakic accommodation. Results Both lateral and angular magnifications increased with increased power of the front element in 2E-AIOL and amplitude of accommodation. For a 2E-AIOL with front element power of +35 D, rLM1 and rLM2 increased by 17.0% and 16.3%, respectively, per millimetre of forward translation of the element, compared to the magnification at distance focus (unaccommodated). These changes correspond to a change of 9.4% and 6.5% per dioptre of accommodation, respectively. Angular magnification also increased with pseudophakic accommodation. 1E-AIOLs produced consistently less magnification than 2E-AIOLs. Relative retinal image size decreased at a rate of 0.25% with each dioptre of accommodation in the phakic model eye. The position of the image space nodal point shifted away from the retina (towards the cornea) with both phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Conclusion Power of the mobile element, and amount and direction of

  14. CLASH: Weak-lensing shear-and-magnification analysis of 20 galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Czakon, Nicole; Medezinski, Elinor; Lemze, Doron; Ford, Holland; Nonino, Mario; Balestra, Italo; Biviano, Andrea; Merten, Julian; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Meneghetti, Massimo; Donahue, Megan; Molino, Alberto; Benítez, Narciso; Seitz, Stella; Gruen, Daniel; Broadhurst, Tom; Grillo, Claudio; Melchior, Peter; and others

    2014-11-10

    We present a joint shear-and-magnification weak-lensing analysis of a sample of 16 X-ray-regular and 4 high-magnification galaxy clusters at 0.19 ≲ z ≲ 0.69 selected from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Our analysis uses wide-field multi-color imaging, taken primarily with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. From a stacked-shear-only analysis of the X-ray-selected subsample, we detect the ensemble-averaged lensing signal with a total signal-to-noise ratio of ≅ 25 in the radial range of 200-3500 kpc h {sup –1}, providing integrated constraints on the halo profile shape and concentration-mass relation. The stacked tangential-shear signal is well described by a family of standard density profiles predicted for dark-matter-dominated halos in gravitational equilibrium, namely, the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), truncated variants of NFW, and Einasto models. For the NFW model, we measure a mean concentration of c{sub 200c}=4.01{sub −0.32}{sup +0.35} at an effective halo mass of M{sub 200c}=1.34{sub −0.09}{sup +0.10}×10{sup 15} M{sub ⊙}. We show that this is in excellent agreement with Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) predictions when the CLASH X-ray selection function and projection effects are taken into account. The best-fit Einasto shape parameter is α{sub E}=0.191{sub −0.068}{sup +0.071}, which is consistent with the NFW-equivalent Einasto parameter of ∼0.18. We reconstruct projected mass density profiles of all CLASH clusters from a joint likelihood analysis of shear-and-magnification data and measure cluster masses at several characteristic radii assuming an NFW density profile. We also derive an ensemble-averaged total projected mass profile of the X-ray-selected subsample by stacking their individual mass profiles. The stacked total mass profile, constrained by the shear+magnification data, is shown to be consistent with our shear-based halo-model predictions, including the effects of surrounding large-scale structure as

  15. New Developments on Inverse Polygon Mapping to Calculate Gravitational Lensing Magnification Maps: Optimized Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, E.; Mediavilla, T.; Muñoz, J. A.; Ariza, O.; Lopez, P.; Gonzalez-Morcillo, C.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.

    2011-11-01

    We derive an exact solution (in the form of a series expansion) to compute gravitational lensing magnification maps. It is based on the backward gravitational lens mapping of a partition of the image plane in polygonal cells (inverse polygon mapping, IPM), not including critical points (except perhaps at the cell boundaries). The zeroth-order term of the series expansion leads to the method described by Mediavilla et al. The first-order term is used to study the error induced by the truncation of the series at zeroth order, explaining the high accuracy of the IPM even at this low order of approximation. Interpreting the Inverse Ray Shooting (IRS) method in terms of IPM, we explain the previously reported N -3/4 dependence of the IRS error with the number of collected rays per pixel. Cells intersected by critical curves (critical cells) transform to non-simply connected regions with topological pathologies like auto-overlapping or non-preservation of the boundary under the transformation. To define a non-critical partition, we use a linear approximation of the critical curve to divide each critical cell into two non-critical subcells. The optimal choice of the cell size depends basically on the curvature of the critical curves. For typical applications in which the pixel of the magnification map is a small fraction of the Einstein radius, a one-to-one relationship between the cell and pixel sizes in the absence of lensing guarantees both the consistence of the method and a very high accuracy. This prescription is simple but very conservative. We show that substantially larger cells can be used to obtain magnification maps with huge savings in computation time.

  16. NEW DEVELOPMENTS ON INVERSE POLYGON MAPPING TO CALCULATE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS: OPTIMIZED COMPUTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mediavilla, E.; Lopez, P.; Gonzalez-Morcillo, C.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.

    2011-11-01

    We derive an exact solution (in the form of a series expansion) to compute gravitational lensing magnification maps. It is based on the backward gravitational lens mapping of a partition of the image plane in polygonal cells (inverse polygon mapping, IPM), not including critical points (except perhaps at the cell boundaries). The zeroth-order term of the series expansion leads to the method described by Mediavilla et al. The first-order term is used to study the error induced by the truncation of the series at zeroth order, explaining the high accuracy of the IPM even at this low order of approximation. Interpreting the Inverse Ray Shooting (IRS) method in terms of IPM, we explain the previously reported N {sup -3/4} dependence of the IRS error with the number of collected rays per pixel. Cells intersected by critical curves (critical cells) transform to non-simply connected regions with topological pathologies like auto-overlapping or non-preservation of the boundary under the transformation. To define a non-critical partition, we use a linear approximation of the critical curve to divide each critical cell into two non-critical subcells. The optimal choice of the cell size depends basically on the curvature of the critical curves. For typical applications in which the pixel of the magnification map is a small fraction of the Einstein radius, a one-to-one relationship between the cell and pixel sizes in the absence of lensing guarantees both the consistence of the method and a very high accuracy. This prescription is simple but very conservative. We show that substantially larger cells can be used to obtain magnification maps with huge savings in computation time.

  17. CLASH: Joint Analysis of Strong-lensing, Weak-lensing Shear, and Magnification Data for 20 Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Gruen, Daniel; Merten, Julian; Donahue, Megan; Postman, Marc

    2016-04-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of strong-lensing, weak-lensing shear and magnification data for a sample of 16 X-ray-regular and 4 high-magnification galaxy clusters at 0.19≲ z≲ 0.69 selected from Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Our analysis combines constraints from 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations and wide-field multi-color imaging taken primarily with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope, spanning a wide range of cluster radii (10″-16‧). We reconstruct surface mass density profiles of individual clusters from a joint analysis of the full lensing constraints, and determine masses and concentrations for all of the clusters. We find the internal consistency of the ensemble mass calibration to be ≤5% ± 6% in the one-halo regime (200-2000 kpc h-1) compared to the CLASH weak-lensing-only measurements of Umetsu et al. For the X-ray-selected subsample of 16 clusters, we examine the concentration-mass (c-M) relation and its intrinsic scatter using a Bayesian regression approach. Our model yields a mean concentration of c{| }z=0.34=3.95+/- 0.35 at M200c ≃ 14 × 1014 M⊙ and an intrinsic scatter of σ ({ln}{c}200{{c}})=0.13+/- 0.06, which is in excellent agreement with Λ cold dark matter predictions when the CLASH selection function based on X-ray morphological regularity and the projection effects are taken into account. We also derive an ensemble-averaged surface mass density profile for the X-ray-selected subsample by stacking their individual profiles. The stacked lensing signal is detected at 33σ significance over the entire radial range ≤4000 kpc h-1, accounting for the effects of intrinsic profile variations and uncorrelated large-scale structure along the line of sight. The stacked mass profile is well described by a family of density profiles predicted for cuspy dark-matter-dominated halos in gravitational equilibrium, namely, the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), Einasto, and DARKexp models, whereas the single

  18. CLASH: Joint analysis of strong-lensing, weak-lensing shear, and magnification data for 20 galaxy clusters*

    SciTech Connect

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Gruen, Daniel; Merten, Julian; Donahue, Megan; Postman, Marc

    2016-04-20

    Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of strong-lensing, weak-lensing shear and magnification data for a sample of 16 X-ray-regular and 4 high-magnification galaxy clusters at $0.19\\lesssim z\\lesssim 0.69$ selected from Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Our analysis combines constraints from 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations and wide-field multi-color imaging taken primarily with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope, spanning a wide range of cluster radii (10''–16'). We reconstruct surface mass density profiles of individual clusters from a joint analysis of the full lensing constraints, and determine masses and concentrations for all of the clusters. We find the internal consistency of the ensemble mass calibration to be ≤5% ± 6% in the one-halo regime (200–2000 kpc h–1) compared to the CLASH weak-lensing-only measurements of Umetsu et al. For the X-ray-selected subsample of 16 clusters, we examine the concentration–mass (c–M) relation and its intrinsic scatter using a Bayesian regression approach. Our model yields a mean concentration of $c{| }_{z=0.34}=3.95\\pm 0.35$ at M200c sime 14 × 1014 M⊙ and an intrinsic scatter of $\\sigma (\\mathrm{ln}{c}_{200{\\rm{c}}})=0.13\\pm 0.06$, which is in excellent agreement with Λ cold dark matter predictions when the CLASH selection function based on X-ray morphological regularity and the projection effects are taken into account. We also derive an ensemble-averaged surface mass density profile for the X-ray-selected subsample by stacking their individual profiles. The stacked lensing signal is detected at 33σ significance over the entire radial range ≤4000 kpc h–1, accounting for the effects of intrinsic profile variations and uncorrelated large-scale structure along the line of sight. The stacked mass profile is well described by a family of density profiles predicted for cuspy dark-matter-dominated halos in gravitational equilibrium, namely

  19. CLASH: Joint analysis of strong-lensing, weak-lensing shear, and magnification data for 20 galaxy clusters*

    DOE PAGES

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Gruen, Daniel; ...

    2016-04-20

    Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of strong-lensing, weak-lensing shear and magnification data for a sample of 16 X-ray-regular and 4 high-magnification galaxy clusters atmore » $$0.19\\lesssim z\\lesssim 0.69$$ selected from Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Our analysis combines constraints from 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations and wide-field multi-color imaging taken primarily with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope, spanning a wide range of cluster radii (10''–16'). We reconstruct surface mass density profiles of individual clusters from a joint analysis of the full lensing constraints, and determine masses and concentrations for all of the clusters. We find the internal consistency of the ensemble mass calibration to be ≤5% ± 6% in the one-halo regime (200–2000 kpc h–1) compared to the CLASH weak-lensing-only measurements of Umetsu et al. For the X-ray-selected subsample of 16 clusters, we examine the concentration–mass (c–M) relation and its intrinsic scatter using a Bayesian regression approach. Our model yields a mean concentration of $$c{| }_{z=0.34}=3.95\\pm 0.35$$ at M200c sime 14 × 1014 M⊙ and an intrinsic scatter of $$\\sigma (\\mathrm{ln}{c}_{200{\\rm{c}}})=0.13\\pm 0.06$$, which is in excellent agreement with Λ cold dark matter predictions when the CLASH selection function based on X-ray morphological regularity and the projection effects are taken into account. We also derive an ensemble-averaged surface mass density profile for the X-ray-selected subsample by stacking their individual profiles. The stacked lensing signal is detected at 33σ significance over the entire radial range ≤4000 kpc h–1, accounting for the effects of intrinsic profile variations and uncorrelated large-scale structure along the line of sight. The stacked mass profile is well described by a family of density profiles predicted for cuspy dark-matter-dominated halos in gravitational equilibrium, namely, the

  20. Characterizing Lenses and Lensed Stars of High-magnification Single-lens Gravitational Microlensing Events with Lenses Passing over Source Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Shin, I.-G.; Park, S.-Y.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Street, R.; Dominik, M.; Allen, W.; Almeida, L. A.; Bos, M.; Christie, G. W.; Depoy, D. L.; Dong, S.; Drummond, J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Hung, L.-W.; Jablonski, F.; Janczak, J.; Lee, C.-U.; Mallia, F.; Maury, A.; McCormick, J.; McGregor, D.; Monard, L. A. G.; Moorhouse, D.; Muñoz, J. A.; Natusch, T.; Nelson, C.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; "TG" Tan, T.-G.; Thornley, G.; Yee, J. C.; μFUN Collaboration; Abe, F.; Barnard, E.; Baudry, J.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Furusawa, K.; Hayashi, F.; Hearnshaw, J. B.; Hosaka, S.; Itow, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Kobara, S.; Korpela, A.; Lin, W.; Ling, C. H.; Makita, S.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyake, N.; Muraki, Y.; Nagaya, M.; Nishimoto, K.; Ohnishi, K.; Okumura, T.; Omori, K.; Perrott, Y. C.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Skuljan, L.; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Suzuki, K.; Sweatman, W. L.; Takino, S.; Tristram, P. J.; Wada, K.; Yock, P. C. M.; MOA Collaboration; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; OGLE Collaboration; Albrow, M. D.; Bachelet, E.; Batista, V.; Bennett, C. S.; Bowens-Rubin, R.; Brillant, S.; Cassan, A.; Cole, A.; Corrales, E.; Coutures, Ch.; Dieters, S.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Greenhill, J.; Kane, S. R.; Menzies, J.; Sahu, K. C.; Wambsganss, J.; Williams, A.; Zub, M.; PLANET Collaboration; Allan, A.; Bramich, D. M.; Browne, P.; Clay, N.; Fraser, S.; Horne, K.; Kains, N.; Mottram, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I.; Tsapras, Y.; RoboNet Collaboration; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Calchi Novati, S.; Dodds, P.; Dreizler, S.; Finet, F.; Gerner, T.; Glitrup, M.; Grundahl, F.; Hardis, S.; Harpsøe, K.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kerins, E.; Liebig, C.; Maier, G.; Mancini, L.; Mathiasen, M.; Penny, M. T.; Proft, S.; Rahvar, S.; Ricci, D.; Scarpetta, G.; Schäfer, S.; Schönebeck, F.; Skottfelt, J.; Surdej, J.; Southworth, J.; Zimmer, F.; MiNDSTEp Consortium

    2012-05-01

    We present the analysis of the light curves of nine high-magnification single-lens gravitational microlensing events with lenses passing over source stars, including OGLE-2004-BLG-254, MOA-2007-BLG-176, MOA-2007-BLG-233/OGLE-2007-BLG-302, MOA-2009-BLG-174, MOA-2010-BLG-436, MOA-2011-BLG-093, MOA-2011-BLG-274, OGLE-2011-BLG-0990/MOA-2011-BLG-300, and OGLE-2011-BLG-1101/MOA-2011-BLG-325. For all of the events, we measure the linear limb-darkening coefficients of the surface brightness profile of source stars by measuring the deviation of the light curves near the peak affected by the finite-source effect. For seven events, we measure the Einstein radii and the lens-source relative proper motions. Among them, five events are found to have Einstein radii of less than 0.2 mas, making the lenses very low mass star or brown dwarf candidates. For MOA-2011-BLG-274, especially, the small Einstein radius of θE ~ 0.08 mas combined with the short timescale of t E ~ 2.7 days suggests the possibility that the lens is a free-floating planet. For MOA-2009-BLG-174, we measure the lens parallax and thus uniquely determine the physical parameters of the lens. We also find that the measured lens mass of ~0.84 M ⊙ is consistent with that of a star blended with the source, suggesting that the blend is likely to be the lens. Although we did not find planetary signals for any of the events, we provide exclusion diagrams showing the confidence levels excluding the existence of a planet as a function of the separation and mass ratio.

  1. CHARACTERIZING LENSES AND LENSED STARS OF HIGH-MAGNIFICATION SINGLE-LENS GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENSING EVENTS WITH LENSES PASSING OVER SOURCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.-Y.; Shin, I.-G.; Park, S.-Y.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Street, R.; Dominik, M.; Allen, W.; Almeida, L. A.; Christie, G. W.; Depoy, D. L.; Dong, S.; Drummond, J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; and others

    2012-05-20

    We present the analysis of the light curves of nine high-magnification single-lens gravitational microlensing events with lenses passing over source stars, including OGLE-2004-BLG-254, MOA-2007-BLG-176, MOA-2007-BLG-233/OGLE-2007-BLG-302, MOA-2009-BLG-174, MOA-2010-BLG-436, MOA-2011-BLG-093, MOA-2011-BLG-274, OGLE-2011-BLG-0990/MOA-2011-BLG-300, and OGLE-2011-BLG-1101/MOA-2011-BLG-325. For all of the events, we measure the linear limb-darkening coefficients of the surface brightness profile of source stars by measuring the deviation of the light curves near the peak affected by the finite-source effect. For seven events, we measure the Einstein radii and the lens-source relative proper motions. Among them, five events are found to have Einstein radii of less than 0.2 mas, making the lenses very low mass star or brown dwarf candidates. For MOA-2011-BLG-274, especially, the small Einstein radius of {theta}{sub E} {approx} 0.08 mas combined with the short timescale of t{sub E} {approx} 2.7 days suggests the possibility that the lens is a free-floating planet. For MOA-2009-BLG-174, we measure the lens parallax and thus uniquely determine the physical parameters of the lens. We also find that the measured lens mass of {approx}0.84 M{sub Sun} is consistent with that of a star blended with the source, suggesting that the blend is likely to be the lens. Although we did not find planetary signals for any of the events, we provide exclusion diagrams showing the confidence levels excluding the existence of a planet as a function of the separation and mass ratio.

  2. CONSTRAINING SOURCE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, D.; Dawson, W. A.

    2012-09-10

    We introduce a new method for constraining the redshift distribution of a set of galaxies, using weak gravitational lensing shear. Instead of using observed shears and redshifts to constrain cosmological parameters, we ask how well the shears around clusters can constrain the redshifts, assuming fixed cosmological parameters. This provides a check on photometric redshifts, independent of source spectral energy distribution properties and therefore free of confounding factors such as misidentification of spectral breaks. We find that {approx}40 massive ({sigma}{sub v} = 1200 km s{sup -1}) cluster lenses are sufficient to determine the fraction of sources in each of six coarse redshift bins to {approx}11%, given weak (20%) priors on the masses of the highest-redshift lenses, tight (5%) priors on the masses of the lowest-redshift lenses, and only modest (20%-50%) priors on calibration and evolution effects. Additional massive lenses drive down uncertainties as N{sub lens}{sup -1/2}, but the improvement slows as one is forced to use lenses further down the mass function. Future large surveys contain enough clusters to reach 1% precision in the bin fractions if the tight lens-mass priors can be maintained for large samples of lenses. In practice this will be difficult to achieve, but the method may be valuable as a complement to other more precise methods because it is based on different physics and therefore has different systematic errors.

  3. Magnification Bias in Gravitational Arc Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Caminha, G. B.; Estrada, J.; Makler, M.

    2013-08-29

    The statistics of gravitational arcs in galaxy clusters is a powerful probe of cluster structure and may provide complementary cosmological constraints. Despite recent progresses, discrepancies still remain among modelling and observations of arc abundance, specially regarding the redshift distribution of strong lensing clusters. Besides, fast "semi-analytic" methods still have to incorporate the success obtained with simulations. In this paper we discuss the contribution of the magnification in gravitational arc statistics. Although lensing conserves surface brightness, the magnification increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the arcs, enhancing their detectability. We present an approach to include this and other observational effects in semi-analytic calculations for arc statistics. The cross section for arc formation ({\\sigma}) is computed through a semi-analytic method based on the ratio of the eigenvalues of the magnification tensor. Using this approach we obtained the scaling of {\\sigma} with respect to the magnification, and other parameters, allowing for a fast computation of the cross section. We apply this method to evaluate the expected number of arcs per cluster using an elliptical Navarro--Frenk--White matter distribution. Our results show that the magnification has a strong effect on the arc abundance, enhancing the fraction of arcs, moving the peak of the arc fraction to higher redshifts, and softening its decrease at high redshifts. We argue that the effect of magnification should be included in arc statistics modelling and that it could help to reconcile arcs statistics predictions with the observational data.

  4. Luminosity distance in ``Swiss cheese'' cosmology with randomized voids. II. Magnification probability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, Éanna É.; Kumar, Naresh; Wasserman, Ira; Vanderveld, R. Ali

    2012-01-01

    We study the fluctuations in luminosity distances due to gravitational lensing by large scale (≳35Mpc) structures, specifically voids and sheets. We use a simplified “Swiss cheese” model consisting of a ΛCDM Friedman-Robertson-Walker background in which a number of randomly distributed nonoverlapping spherical regions are replaced by mass-compensating comoving voids, each with a uniform density interior and a thin shell of matter on the surface. We compute the distribution of magnitude shifts using a variant of the method of Holz and Wald , which includes the effect of lensing shear. The standard deviation of this distribution is ˜0.027 magnitudes and the mean is ˜0.003 magnitudes for voids of radius 35 Mpc, sources at redshift zs=1.0, with the voids chosen so that 90% of the mass is on the shell today. The standard deviation varies from 0.005 to 0.06 magnitudes as we vary the void size, source redshift, and fraction of mass on the shells today. If the shell walls are given a finite thickness of ˜1Mpc, the standard deviation is reduced to ˜0.013 magnitudes. This standard deviation due to voids is a factor ˜3 smaller than that due to galaxy scale structures. We summarize our results in terms of a fitting formula that is accurate to ˜20%, and also build a simplified analytic model that reproduces our results to within ˜30%. Our model also allows us to explore the domain of validity of weak-lensing theory for voids. We find that for 35 Mpc voids, corrections to the dispersion due to lens-lens coupling are of order ˜4%, and corrections due to shear are ˜3%. Finally, we estimate the bias due to source-lens clustering in our model to be negligible.

  5. A direct probe of cosmological power spectra of the peculiar velocity field and the gravitational lensing magnification from photometric redshift surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Nusser, Adi; Feix, Martin; Branchini, Enzo E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it

    2013-01-01

    The cosmological peculiar velocity field (deviations from the pure Hubble flow) of matter carries significant information on dark energy, dark matter and the underlying theory of gravity on large scales. Peculiar motions of galaxies introduce systematic deviations between the observed galaxy redshifts z and the corresponding cosmological redshifts z{sub c{sub o{sub s}}}. A novel method for estimating the angular power spectrum of the peculiar velocity field based on observations of galaxy redshifts and apparent magnitudes m (or equivalently fluxes) is presented. This method exploits the fact that a mean relation between z{sub c{sub o{sub s}}} and m of galaxies can be derived from all galaxies in a redshift-magnitude survey. Given a galaxy magnitude, it is shown that the z{sub c{sub o{sub s}}}(m) relation yields its cosmological redshift with a 1σ error of σ{sub z} ∼ 0.3 for a survey like Euclid ( ∼ 10{sup 9} galaxies at z∼<2), and can be used to constrain the angular power spectrum of z−z{sub c{sub o{sub s}}}(m) with a high signal-to-noise ratio. At large angular separations corresponding to l∼<15, we obtain significant constraints on the power spectrum of the peculiar velocity field. At 15∼lensing magnification dominate, allowing us to probe the line-of-sight integral of the gravitational potential. Effects related to the environmental dependence in the luminosity function can easily be computed and their contamination removed from the estimated power spectra. The amplitude of the combined velocity and lensing power spectra at z ∼ 1 can be measured with ∼<5% accuracy.

  6. Magnification of photometric LRGs by foreground LRGs and clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Anne H.; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Martí, Pol; Miquel, Ramon

    2014-06-01

    The magnification effect of gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the distribution of matter in the universe, yet it is frequently overlooked due to the fact that its signal-to-noise ratio is smaller than that of lensing shear. Because its systematic errors are quite different from those of shear, magnification is nevertheless an important approach with which to study the distribution of large-scale structure. We present lensing mass profiles of spectroscopic luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and galaxy clusters determined through measurements of the weak lensing magnification of photometric LRGs in their background. We measure the change in detected galaxy counts as well as the increased average galaxy flux behind the lenses. In addition, we examine the average change in source colour due to extinction by dust in the lenses. By simultaneously fitting these three probes we constrain the mass profiles and dust-to-mass ratios of the lenses in six bins of lens richness. For each richness bin we fit a Navarro-Frenk-White halo mass, brightest cluster galaxy mass, second halo term, and dust-to-mass ratio. The resulting mass-richness relation is consistent with previous analyses of the catalogues, and limits on the dust-to-mass ratio in the lenses are in agreement with expectations. We explore the effects of including the (low signal-to-noise ratio) flux magnification and reddening measurements in the analysis compared to using only the counts magnification data; the additional probes significantly improve the agreement between our measured mass-richness relation and previous results.

  7. Magnification bias as a novel probe for primordial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Camera, S.; Fedeli, C.; Moscardini, L. E-mail: cosimo.fedeli@oabo.inaf.it

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we investigate magnetic fields generated in the early Universe. These fields are important candidates at explaining the origin of astrophysical magnetism observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters, whose genesis is still by and large unclear. Compared to the standard inflationary power spectrum, intermediate to small scales would experience further substantial matter clustering, were a cosmological magnetic field present prior to recombination. As a consequence, the bias and redshift distribution of galaxies would also be modified. Hitherto, primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) have been tested and constrained with a number of cosmological observables, e.g. the cosmic microwave background radiation, galaxy clustering and, more recently, weak gravitational lensing. Here, we explore the constraining potential of the density fluctuation bias induced by gravitational lensing magnification onto the galaxy-galaxy angular power spectrum. Such an effect is known as magnification bias. Compared to the usual galaxy clustering approach, magnification bias helps in lifting the pathological degeneracy present amongst power spectrum normalisation and galaxy bias. This is because magnification bias cross-correlates galaxy number density fluctuations of nearby objects with weak lensing distortions of high-redshift sources. Thus, it takes advantage of the gravitational deflection of light, which is insensitive to galaxy bias but powerful in constraining the density fluctuation amplitude. To scrutinise the potentiality of this method, we adopt a deep and wide-field spectroscopic galaxy survey. We show that magnification bias does contain important information on primordial magnetism, which will be useful in combination with galaxy clustering and shear. We find we shall be able to rule out at 95.4% CL amplitudes of PMFs larger than 5 × 10{sup −4} nG for values of the PMF power spectral index n{sub B} ∼ 0.

  8. Lens models and magnification maps of the six Hubble Frontier Fields clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Traci L.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Coe, Dan; Ebeling, Harald

    2014-12-10

    We present strong-lensing models as well as mass and magnification maps for the cores of the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields galaxy clusters. Our parametric lens models are constrained by the locations and redshifts of multiple image systems of lensed background galaxies. We use a combination of photometric redshifts and spectroscopic redshifts of the lensed background sources obtained by us (for A2744 and AS1063), collected from the literature, or kindly provided by the lensing community. Using our results, we (1) compare the derived mass distribution of each cluster to its light distribution, (2) quantify the cumulative magnification power of the HST Frontier Fields clusters, (3) describe how our models can be used to estimate the magnification and image multiplicity of lensed background sources at all redshifts and at any position within the cluster cores, and (4) discuss systematic effects and caveats resulting from our modeling methods. We specifically investigate the effect of the use of spectroscopic and photometric redshift constraints on the uncertainties of the resulting models. We find that the photometric redshift estimates of lensed galaxies are generally in excellent agreement with spectroscopic redshifts, where available. However, the flexibility associated with relaxed redshift priors may cause the complexity of large-scale structure that is needed to account for the lensing signal to be underestimated. Our findings thus underline the importance of spectroscopic arc redshifts, or tight photometric redshift constraints, for high precision lens models. All products from our best-fit lens models (magnification, convergence, shear, deflection field) and model simulations for estimating errors are made available via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

  9. Lensing measurements of the mass distribution in SDSS voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2015-12-01

    We measure weak lensing mass profiles of voids from a volume-limited sample of SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). We find voids using an algorithm designed to maximize the lensing signal by dividing the survey volume into 2D slices, and then finding holes in this 2D distribution of LRGs. We perform a stacked shear measurement on about 20 000 voids with radii between 15 and 55 Mpc h-1, and redshifts between 0.16 and 0.37. We measure the characteristic radial shear signal of voids with a signal to noise of 7. The mass profile corresponds to a fractional underdensity of about -0.4 inside the void radius and a slow approach to the mean density indicating a partially compensated void structure. We compare our measured shape and amplitude with the predictions of Krause et al. Voids in the galaxy distribution have been extensively modelled using simulations and measured in the SDSS. We discuss how the addition of void mass profiles can enable studies of galaxy formation and cosmology.

  10. CLASH: MASS DISTRIBUTION IN AND AROUND MACS J1206.2-0847 FROM A FULL CLUSTER LENSING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Koch, Patrick M.; Lin, Kai-Yang; Medezinski, Elinor; Nonino, Mario; Zitrin, Adi; Molino, Alberto; Grillo, Claudio; Carrasco, Mauricio; Donahue, Megan; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Czakon, Nicole; Sayers, Jack; Golwala, Sunil; Molnar, Sandor M.; and others

    2012-08-10

    We derive an accurate mass distribution of the galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 (z = 0.439) from a combined weak-lensing distortion, magnification, and strong-lensing analysis of wide-field Subaru BVR{sub c} I{sub c} z' imaging and our recent 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble program. We find good agreement in the regions of overlap between several weak- and strong-lensing mass reconstructions using a wide variety of modeling methods, ensuring consistency. The Subaru data reveal the presence of a surrounding large-scale structure with the major axis running approximately northwest-southeast (NW-SE), aligned with the cluster and its brightest galaxy shapes, showing elongation with a {approx}2: 1 axis ratio in the plane of the sky. Our full-lensing mass profile exhibits a shallow profile slope dln {Sigma}/dln R {approx} -1 at cluster outskirts (R {approx}> 1 Mpc h{sup -1}), whereas the mass distribution excluding the NW-SE excess regions steepens farther out, well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White form. Assuming a spherical halo, we obtain a virial mass M{sub vir} = (1.1 {+-} 0.2 {+-} 0.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun} h{sup -1} and a halo concentration c{sub vir} = 6.9 {+-} 1.0 {+-} 1.2 (c{sub vir} {approx} 5.7 when the central 50 kpc h{sup -1} is excluded), which falls in the range 4 {approx}< (c) {approx}< 7 of average c(M, z) predictions for relaxed clusters from recent {Lambda} cold dark matter simulations. Our full-lensing results are found to be in agreement with X-ray mass measurements where the data overlap, and when combined with Chandra gas mass measurements, they yield a cumulative gas mass fraction of 13.7{sup +4.5}{sub -3.0}% at 0.7 Mpc h{sup -1}( Almost-Equal-To 1.7 r{sub 2500}), a typical value observed for high-mass clusters.

  11. Low magnification EBSD mapping of texture distribution in a fine-grained matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Joseph; Mariani, Elisabetta; Wheeler, John

    2016-04-01

    The study of texture (CPO) in rocks is often restricted to individual phases within a given sample or specific area of said sample. Large scale EBSD mapping of the matrix of a greenschist facies albite mylonite has shown that an overall significant CPO within albite grains is strongly domainal, and each domain has a unique CPO that is independent of both common slip systems in plagioclase and the specimen geometry (i.e. foliation and lineation). Observational evidence suggests the metamorphic breakdown of plagioclase to albite (Ab) plus a Ca-bearing phase (clinozoisite, Cz) has produced a two phase mixture in which each phase has a contrasting solubility. New grains of albite are thought to nucleate epitaxially from original plagioclase as a reaction front passes through parent grains. A pseudomorphic region of Ab plus Cz after an original plagioclase crystal, protected from intense deformation by enclosure in a cm-scale augite clast, gives insight into pre-deformation daughter grain distributions. The albite in the region inherits a strong CPO and 180° misorientation peak from a relict twin pattern due to epitaxial growth while clinozoisite is randomly distributed and oriented (despite some grains nucleating from the plagioclase parent twin boundary). In the deformed matrix, daughter Ab is seen to be the more mobile phase, having undergone obvious dissolution, transport and reprecipitation into fractures and pressure shadows, whereas Cz grains are relatively insoluble and rotate into parallelism with the foliation, forming bands that anastamose around Cpx porphyroclasts. Despite this modification, albite in the matrix retains significant CPOs that comprise distinct domains with sharp boundaries. A 180° misorientation peak thought to be a signature of twinning inherited from parent plagioclase is also observed in each domain. Why a CPO should be preserved under these conditions (contrary to our traditional understanding that CPOs are a signature of dislocation

  12. Gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies - Constraining the mass distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of placing constraints on the mass distribution of a cluster of galaxies by analyzing the cluster's gravitational lensing effect on the images of more distant galaxies is investigated theoretically in the limit of weak distortion. The steps in the proposed analysis are examined in detail, and it is concluded that detectable distortion can be produced by clusters with line-of-sight velocity dispersions of over 500 km/sec. Hence it should be possible to determine (1) the cluster center position (with accuracy equal to the mean separation of the background galaxies), (2) the cluster-potential quadrupole moment (to within about 20 percent of the total potential if velocity dispersion is 1000 km/sec), and (3) the power law for the outer-cluster density profile (if enough background galaxies in the surrounding region are observed).

  13. Lens models under the microscope: comparison of Hubble Frontier Field cluster magnification maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priewe, Jett; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Liesenborgs, Jori; Coe, Dan; Rodney, Steven A.

    2017-02-01

    Using the power of gravitational lensing magnification by massive galaxy clusters, the Hubble Frontier Fields provide deep views of six patches of the high-redshift Universe. The combination of deep Hubble imaging and exceptional lensing strength has revealed the greatest numbers of multiply-imaged galaxies available to constrain models of cluster mass distributions. However, even with O(100) images per cluster, the uncertainties associated with the reconstructions are not negligible. The goal of this paper is to show the diversity of model magnification predictions. We examine seven and nine mass models of Abell 2744 and MACS J0416, respectively, submitted to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes for public distribution in 2015 September. The dispersion between model predictions increases from 30 per cent at common low magnifications (μ ˜ 2) to 70 per cent at rare high magnifications (μ ˜ 40). MACS J0416 exhibits smaller dispersions than Abell 2744 for 2 < μ < 10. We show that magnification maps based on different lens inversion techniques typically differ from each other by more than their quoted statistical errors. This suggests that some models underestimate the true uncertainties, which are primarily due to various lensing degeneracies. Though the exact mass sheet degeneracy is broken, its generalized counterpart is not broken at least in Abell 2744. Other local degeneracies are also present in both clusters. Our comparison of models is complementary to the comparison of reconstructions of known synthetic mass distributions. By focusing on observed clusters, we can identify those that are best constrained, and therefore provide the clearest view of the distant Universe.

  14. Objective assessment of the effect of pupil size upon the power distribution of multifocal contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Papadatou, Eleni; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J.; Esteve-Taboada, José J.; Madrid-Costa, David; Cerviño-Expósito, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analytically assess the effect of pupil size upon the refractive power distributions of different designs of multifocal contact lenses. METHODS Two multifocal contact lenses of center-near design and one multifocal contact lens of center-distance design were used in this study. Their power profiles were measured using the NIMO TR1504 device (LAMBDA-X, Belgium). Based on their power profiles, the power distribution was assessed as a function of pupil size. For the high addition lenses, the resulting refractive power as a function of viewing distance (far, intermediate, and near) and pupil size was also analyzed. RESULTS The power distribution of the lenses was affected by pupil size differently. One of the lenses showed a significant spread in refractive power distribution, from about −3 D to 0 D. Generally, the power distribution of the lenses expanded as the pupil diameter became greater. The surface of the lens dedicated for each distance varied substantially with the design of the lens. CONCLUSION In an experimental basis, our results show how the lenses power distribution is affected by the pupil size and underlined the necessity of careful evaluation of the patient's visual needs and the optical properties of a multifocal contact lens for achieving the optimal visual outcome. PMID:28149785

  15. Spatial distribution and magnification processes of mercury in snow from high-elevation glaciers over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Kang, S.; Guo, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, G.; Wang, K.; Tripathee, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is one of the most extreme cold regions in the world and a source of fresh water to 1.4 billion people. In this study, between 2008 and 2010, surface snow samples were retrieved in replicate from four high-elevation glaciers with an average elevation of 5200 m above sea level from the Tibetan Plateau and were analyzed for total Hg (HgT). The spatial distribution of Hg for glaciers and magnification processes of Hg in snow with increasing altitude over the Tibetan Plateau are investigated. The total Hg concentrations in snow samples ranged from <1 to 15 ng/L, with the highest concentrations at Mt. Muztagata, and the lowest concentrations at Mt. Nyainqêntanglha. This may be explained by the high concentration and annual flux of particulate matter deposition at Mt. Muztagata, the maximum from which particulate matter loads decrease from northwest to southeast over the Tibetan Plateau. Because Hg deposited on the plateau is primarily associated with particulate matter, only 31% of Hg was lost (e.g., reemitted back to the atmosphere) during the transition of fresh snow to coarse-grained snow. This demonstrates that Hg in snow over the Tibetan Plateau may be less influenced by the effect of post-depositional processes such as reemission and photoreduction than that in the Arctic. Moreover, the increases of HgT with increasing altitude ("altitude effect") found on four high-elevation glaciers (e.g., 3-fold in Mt. Muztagata) suggests that atmospheric Hg is cold-trapped and magnified toward low temperature and/or high-elevation regions, implying that the glaciers over the Tibetan Plateau play an important sink role for global Hg cycling. In the context of a warming climate, the Tibetan Plateau may shift from a current sink to a source in the future, and the accumulated Hg released by accelerated glacier thinning and retreat may endanger ecosystems and human health in the glacier-fed downstream regions.

  16. Using cross correlations to calibrate lensing source redshift distributions: Improving cosmological constraints from upcoming weak lensing surveys

    SciTech Connect

    De Putter, Roland; Doré, Olivier; Das, Sudeep

    2014-01-10

    Cross correlations between the galaxy number density in a lensing source sample and that in an overlapping spectroscopic sample can in principle be used to calibrate the lensing source redshift distribution. In this paper, we study in detail to what extent this cross-correlation method can mitigate the loss of cosmological information in upcoming weak lensing surveys (combined with a cosmic microwave background prior) due to lack of knowledge of the source distribution. We consider a scenario where photometric redshifts are available and find that, unless the photometric redshift distribution p(z {sub ph}|z) is calibrated very accurately a priori (bias and scatter known to ∼0.002 for, e.g., EUCLID), the additional constraint on p(z {sub ph}|z) from the cross-correlation technique to a large extent restores the cosmological information originally lost due to the uncertainty in dn/dz(z). Considering only the gain in photo-z accuracy and not the additional cosmological information, enhancements of the dark energy figure of merit of up to a factor of four (40) can be achieved for a SuMIRe-like (EUCLID-like) combination of lensing and redshift surveys, where SuMIRe stands for Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts). However, the success of the method is strongly sensitive to our knowledge of the galaxy bias evolution in the source sample and we find that a percent level bias prior is needed to optimize the gains from the cross-correlation method (i.e., to approach the cosmology constraints attainable if the bias was known exactly).

  17. Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Pekka; Simovski, Constantin; Tretyakov, Sergei; Belov, Pavel; Hao, Yang

    2007-09-01

    Authors demonstrate numerically the magnification of subwavelength field pattern using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime. The magnifying slab is implemented by radially enlarging the distance between adjacent wires, and the operational frequency is tuned to coincide with the Fabry-Pérot resonance condition. The near-field pattern of a complex-shaped source is canalized over an electrical distance corresponding roughly to three wavelengths (3λ), and the pattern details are magnified by a factor of 3. The performance is also studied at several frequencies deviating from the one of the Fabry-Pérot resonance.

  18. Is Magnification Consistent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graney, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Is the phenomenon of magnification by a converging lens inconsistent and therefore unreliable? Can a lens magnify one part of an object but not another? Physics teachers and even students familiar with basic optics would answer "no," yet many answer "yes." Numerous telescope users believe that magnification is not a reliable phenomenon in that it…

  19. Simulating HST observations of strong lensing clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghetti, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    The Frontier Fields {FF} are using galaxy cluster gravitational lensing to boost the powers of Hubble and Spitzer to reveal the faintest galaxies yet observed. Accurate gravitational lensing models with uncertainty estimates are required to study some of the physical parameters of the lensed galaxies. Simulated HST observations of lensing clusters with known mass distributions are ideal to determine the accuracies of these modeling methods. Our team has begun performing these tests, demonstrating that integrated quantities such as lensed number counts are accurately recovered, enabling luminosity functions to be constrained. We have also begun to quantify magnification uncertainties for individual galaxies, but additional tests are needed. Here we propose to create a set of simulated osbervations of clusters selected to be analogs of the CLASH and FF clusters. They will include lensing effects and they will be delivered to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes as a legacy product for others to analyze. They will be usable to extend our tests for robustly determine the accuracies in model magnification and mass measurements. Mass uncertainties will be a key ingredient in efforts to use galaxy clusters to constrain cosmology and theories of structure formation. Results from this program will also be useful to improve lens modeling methods toward more optimal use of the large numbers of lensing constraints available in deep FF imaging. This program will help astronomers realize the full potential of the large investments of Hubble, Spitzer, Chandra, and ground-based observing time in the FF, CLASH, and other past and future cluster lensing observations.

  20. A refined mass distribution of the cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 from a new large set of spectroscopic multiply lensed sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminha, G. B.; Grillo, C.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Mercurio, A.; Vanzella, E.; Biviano, A.; Caputi, K. I.; Delgado-Correal, C.; Karman, W.; Lombardi, M.; Meneghetti, M.; Sartoris, B.; Tozzi, P.

    2017-04-01

    We report the spectroscopic confirmation of 22 new multiply lensed sources behind the Hubble Frontier Field (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 (MACS 0416), using archival data from the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the VLT. Combining with previous spectroscopic measurements of 15 other multiply imaged sources, we have obtained a sample of 102 secure multiple images with measured redshifts, the largest to date in a single strong lensing system. The newly confirmed sources are largely low-luminosity Lyman-α emitters with redshift in the range [ 3.08-6.15 ]. With such a large number of secure constraints, and a significantly improved sample of galaxy members in the cluster core, we have improved our previous strong lensing model and obtained a robust determination of the projected total mass distribution of MACS 0416. We find evidence of three cored dark-matter halos, adding to the known complexity of this merging system. The total mass density profile, as well as the sub-halo population, are found to be in good agreement with previous works. We update and make public the redshift catalog of MACS 0416 from our previous spectroscopic campaign with the new MUSE redshifts. We also release lensing maps (convergence, shear, magnification) in the standard HFF format. Source catalog (full Table A.2) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A90

  1. Weak Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre

    2012-03-01

    This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy

  2. A Simple and Practical Algorithm for Accurate Gravitational Magnification Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, S. J.; Forbes, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    In this brief communication, a new method is outlined for modelling magnification patterns on an observer's plane using a first-order approximation to the null geodesic path equations for a point mass lens. For each ray emitted from a source, an explicit calculation is made for the change in position on the observer's plane due to each lens mass. By counting the number of points in each small area of the observer's plane, the magnification at that point can be determined. This allows for a very simple and transparent algorithm. A short Matlab code sample for creating simple magnification maps due to multiple point lenses is included in an appendix.

  3. Precision measurement of cosmic magnification from 21 cm emitting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue-Li; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.

    2005-04-01

    We show how precision lensing measurements can be obtained through the lensing magnification effect in high redshift 21cm emission from galaxies. Normally, cosmic magnification measurements have been seriously complicated by galaxy clustering. With precise redshifts obtained from 21cm emission line wavelength, one can correlate galaxies at different source planes, or exclude close pairs to eliminate such contaminations. We provide forecasts for future surveys, specifically the SKA and CLAR. SKA can achieve percent precision on the dark matter power spectrum and the galaxy dark matter cross correlation power spectrum, while CLAR can measure an accurate cross correlation power spectrum. The neutral hydrogen fraction was most likely significantly higher at high redshifts, which improves the number of observed galaxies significantly, such that also CLAR can measure the dark matter lensing power spectrum. SKA can also allow precise measurement of lensing bispectrum.

  4. Exciting discoveries of strong gravitational lenses from the HSC Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Anupreeta; Team 1: Masayuki Tanaka, Kenneth Wong, et al.; Team 2: Chien-Hsiu Lee, Masamune Oguri, et al.

    2017-01-01

    Strong gravitational lenses have numerous applications in astrophysics and cosmology. We expect to discover thousands of strong gravitational lenses from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Survey, thanks to its unique combination of deep and wide imaging. I will give highlights on a few interesting gravitational lenses that were discovered recently from early HSC data, for example, the first spectroscopically confirmed double source plane (DSP) lens system dubbed ''Eye of Horus'' and the highest-redshift quadruply-lensed low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus (LLAGN).DSP lenses such as ''Eye of Horus'' are even more rare than ordinary lenses but provide tighter constraints on the lens mass distribution and can also be useful to measure cosmological parameters such as Dark Energy and Matter density parameter. The lensed LLAGN discovered recently from HSC is only the second such lens system in our knowledge. LLAGNs are thought to have differentmechanisms driving their nuclear activity compared to their brighter counterparts i.e. quasars. Our knowledge about this abundant but faint population of AGNs is limited to the local universe so far. But lensing magnification will allow studies of distant LLAGNs which should be discovered in large numbers from a deep survey like HSC for the first time. Also, owing to the variable nature of LLAGNs, they could potentially be used as a cosmological probe similar to the lensed quasars.

  5. MICROLENSING BINARIES DISCOVERED THROUGH HIGH-MAGNIFICATION CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Dominik, M.; Allen, W.; Bos, M.; Christie, G. W.; Depoy, D. L.; Dong, S.; Drummond, J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hung, L.-W.; Janczak, J.; Kaspi, S.; Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; and others

    2012-02-20

    Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturbations, which are confined near the peak of the light curves, can be easily distinguished from the central perturbations caused by planets. However, the degeneracy between close and wide binary solutions cannot be resolved with a 3{sigma} confidence level for three events, implying that the degeneracy would be an important obstacle in studying binary distributions. The dependence of the degeneracy on the lensing parameters is consistent with a theoretical prediction that the degeneracy becomes severe as the binary separation and the mass ratio deviate from the values of resonant caustics. The measured mass ratio of the event OGLE-2008-BLG-510/MOA-2008-BLG-369 is q {approx} 0.1, making the companion of the lens a strong brown dwarf candidate.

  6. DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY GROUPS FROM COMBINED STRONG LENSING AND DYNAMICS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Thanjavur, Karun; Crampton, David; Willis, Jon

    2010-05-10

    Using a combined analysis of strong lensing and galaxy dynamics, we characterize the mass distributions and the mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of galaxy groups, virialized structures in the mass range of few x 10{sup 14} M{sub sun}, which form an important transition regime in the hierarchical assembly of mass in {Lambda}CDM cosmology. Our goals are to not only map the mass distributions, but to also test whether the underlying density distribution at this mass scale is dark matter dominated, Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) like as hypothesized by the standard cosmogony, or isothermal as observed in baryon-rich massive field galaxies. We present details of our lensing + galaxy dynamics formalism built around three representative density profiles, the dark matter dominant NFW and Hernquist distributions, compared with the softened isothermal sphere which matches baryon-rich galaxy scale objects. By testing the effects on the characteristics of these distributions due to variations in their parameters, we show that mass measurements in the core of the group (r/r{sub vir} {approx} 0.2), determined jointly from a lens model and from differential velocity dispersion estimates, may effectively distinguish between these density distributions. We apply our method to multi-object spectroscopy observations of two groups, SL2SJ143000+554648 and SL2SJ143139+553323, drawn from our catalog of galaxy group scale lenses discovered in CFHTLS-Wide imaging. With the lensing and dynamical mass estimates from our observations along with a maximum likelihood estimator built around our model, we estimate the concentration index characterizing each density distribution and the corresponding virial mass of each group. Our likelihood estimation indicates that both groups are dark matter dominant and rejects the isothermal distribution at >>3{sigma} level. For both groups, the estimated i-band M/L ratios of {approx}260 M{sub sun} L{sub sun} {sup -1} are similar to other published values for groups

  7. Quantifying the line-of-sight mass distributions for time-delay lenses with stellar masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Cristian; Fassnacht, Chris; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry; Auger, Matt; Koopmans, Leon; Marshall, Phil; Wong, Kenneth; Collett, Thomas; Agnello, Adriano; Blandford, Roger; Courbin, Frederic; Hilbert, Stefan; Meylan, Georges; Sluse, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with a realistic account of systematic uncertainties is currently one of the principal challenges of physical cosmology. Building on our recent successes with two gravitationally lensed systems, we have started a program to achieve accurate cosmographic measurements from five gravitationally lensed quasars. We aim at measuring H_0 with an accuracy better than 4%, comparable to but independent from measurements by current BAO, SN or Cepheid programs. The largest current contributor to the error budget in our sample is uncertainty about the line-of-sight mass distribution and environment of the lens systems. In this proposal, we request wide-field u-band imaging of the only lens in our sample without already available Spitzer/IRCA observations, B1608+656. The proposed observations are critical for reducing these uncertainties by providing accurate redshifts and in particular stellar masses for galaxies in the light cones of the target lens system. This will establish lensing as a powerful and independent tool for determining cosmography, in preparation for the hundreds of time-delay lenses that will be discovered by future surveys.

  8. The mass distribution of the strong lensing cluster SDSS J1531+3414

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Traci L.; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Wuyts, Eva; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Florian, Michael K.; Dahle, Håkon

    2014-11-01

    We present the mass distribution at the core of SDSS J1531+3414, a strong-lensing cluster at z = 0.335. We find that the mass distribution is well described by two cluster-scale halos with a contribution from cluster-member galaxies. New Hubble Space Telescope observations of SDSS J1531+3414 reveal a signature of ongoing star formation associated with the two central galaxies at the core of the cluster, in the form of a chain of star forming regions at the center of the cluster. Using the lens model presented here, we place upper limits on the contribution of a possible lensed image to the flux at the central region, and rule out that this emission is coming from a background source.

  9. Electronic magnification for astronomical camera tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vine, J.; Hansen, J. R.; Pietrzyk, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    Definitions, test schemes, and analyses used to provide variable magnification in the image section of the television sensor for large space telescopes are outlined. Experimental results show a definite form of magnetic field distribution is necessary to achieve magnification in the range 3X to 4X. Coil systems to establish the required field shapes were built, and both image intensifiers and camera tubes were operated at high magnification. The experiments confirm that such operation is practical and can provide satisfactory image quality. The main problem with such a system was identified as heating of the photocathode due to concentration of coil power dissipation in that vicinity. Suggestions for overcoming this disadvantage are included.

  10. Three Gravitationally Lensed Supernovae Behind Clash Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Brandon; McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurbh W.; Rodney, Steven A.; Jones, David O.; Graur, Or; Merten, Julian; Zitrin, Adi; Riess, Adam G.; Matheson, Thomas; Sako, Masao; Holoien, Thomas W. -S.; Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Bartelmann, Matthias; Balestra, Italo; Benitez, Narciso; Bouwens, Rychard; Bradley, Larry; Broadhurst, Tom; Cenko, Stephen Bradley; Donahue, Megan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ford, Holland; Garnavich, Peter; Grillo, Claudio; Infante, Leopoldo; Jouvel, Stephanie; Kelson, Daniel; Koekemoer, Anton; Lahav, Ofer; Lemze, Doron; Maoz, Dan; Medezinski, Elinor; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Molino, Alberto; Moustakas, John; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Nonino, Mario; Rosati, Piero; Seitz, Stella; Strolger, Louis G.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report observations of three gravitationally lensed supernovae (SNe) in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) Multi-Cycle Treasury program. These objects, SN CLO12Car (z = 1.28), SN CLN12Did (z = 0.85), and SN CLA11Tib (z = 1.14), are located behind three different clusters, MACSJ1720.2+3536 (z = 0.391), RXJ1532.9+3021 (z = 0.345), and A383 (z = 0.187), respectively. Each SN was detected in Hubble Space Telescope optical and infrared images. Based on photometric classification, we find that SNe CLO12Car and CLN12Did are likely to be Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), while the classification of SN CLA11Tib is inconclusive. Using multi-color light-curve fits to determine a standardized SN Ia luminosity distance, we infer that SN CLO12Car was approx. 1.0 +/- 0.2 mag brighter than field SNe Ia at a similar redshift and ascribe this to gravitational lens magnification. Similarly, SN CLN12Did is approx. 0.2 +/- 0.2 mag brighter than field SNe Ia. We derive independent estimates of the predicted magnification from CLASH strong+weak-lensing maps of the clusters (in magnitude units, 2.5 log10 µ): 0.83 +/- 0.16 mag for SN CLO12Car, 0.28 +/- 0.08 mag for SN CLN12Did, and 0.43 +/- 0.11 mag for SN CLA11Tib. The two SNe Ia provide a new test of the cluster lens model predictions: we find that the magnifications based on the SN Ia brightness and those predicted by the lens maps are consistent. Our results herald the promise of future observations of samples of cluster-lensed SNe Ia (from the ground or space) to help illuminate the dark-matter distribution in clusters of galaxies, through the direct determination of absolute magnifications.

  11. The mass distribution of the unusual merging cluster Abell 2146 from strong lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Joseph E.; King, Lindsay J.; Oguri, Masamune; Russell, Helen R.; Canning, Rebecca E. A.; Leonard, Adrienne; Santana, Rebecca; White, Jacob A.; Baum, Stefi A.; Clowe, Douglas I.; Edge, Alastair; Fabian, Andrew C.; McNamara, Brian R.; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    Abell 2146 consists of two galaxy clusters that have recently collided close to the plane of the sky, and it is unique in showing two large shocks on Chandra X-ray Observatory images. With an early stage merger, shortly after first core passage, one would expect the cluster galaxies and the dark matter to be leading the X-ray emitting plasma. In this regard, the cluster Abell 2146-A is very unusual in that the X-ray cool core appears to lead, rather than lag, the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in their trajectories. Here we present a strong-lensing analysis of multiple-image systems identified on Hubble Space Telescope images. In particular, we focus on the distribution of mass in Abell 2146-A in order to determine the centroid of the dark matter halo. We use object colours and morphologies to identify multiple-image systems; very conservatively, four of these systems are used as constraints on a lens mass model. We find that the centroid of the dark matter halo, constrained using the strongly lensed features, is coincident with the BCG, with an offset of ≈2 kpc between the centres of the dark matter halo and the BCG. Thus from the strong-lensing model, the X-ray cool core also leads the centroid of the dark matter in Abell 2146-A, with an offset of ≈30 kpc.

  12. Gravitational lensing by a smoothly variable three-dimensional mass distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Man Hoi; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1990-01-01

    A smooth three-dimensional mass distribution is approximated by a model with multiple thin screens, with surface mass density varying smoothly on each screen. It is found that 16 screens are sufficient for a good approximation of the three-dimensional distribution of matter. It is also found that in this multiscreen model the distribution of amplifications of single images is dominated by the convergence due to matter within the beam. The shear caused by matter outside the beam has no significant effect. This finding considerably simplifies the modeling of lensing by a smooth three-dimensional mass distribution by effectively reducing the problem to one dimension, as it is sufficient to know the mass distribution along a straight light ray.

  13. Elemental distribution in frozen-hydrated rat lenses with galactose cataract

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama-Ito, H. )

    1990-01-01

    The elemental distributions in frozen-hydrated rat lenses with galactose cataract were compared before and after the onset of the nuclear cataract to investigate the possible role of ion levels in the lens opacification due to the phase separation of the lens cytoplasm. The maps of the weight concentrations of the minor elements, S, Cl, K and Ca, on the basis of wet weight in the central plane of lens were obtained by X-ray analysis with the high energy ion microprobe at a resolution of 50 microns. Before the onset of the nuclear cataract, the distributions of Cl and K, were almost normal, except in the lens posterior periphery with high Cl and low K. In the lens with the nuclear opacity, sudden changes were observed. The Cl increased throughout the lens, and K decreased throughout the lens except at lens anterior thin layer. However, the totalized monovalent ion level changed only slightly. The Ca level increased throughout the lens after the onset of the nuclear cataract, suggesting a possible role of Ca in the nuclear opacification of galactose cataract of rats. The distributions of S were similar to the protein density distributions previously known both in the normal and in the cataractous lenses.

  14. Lensing effects in an inhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Goliath, M.; Goobar, A.; Mörtsell, E.

    2000-06-01

    Recently, Holz & Wald have presented a new method for determining gravitational lensing effects on, e.g., supernova luminosity versus redshift measurements in inhomogeneous universes. In this paper, their method is generalized in several ways: First, the matter content is allowed to consist of several different types of fluids, possibly with non-vanishing pressure. Second, besides lensing by simple point masses and singular isothermal spheres, the more realistic halo dark matter distribution proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW), based on N-body simulation results, is treated. We discuss various aspects of the accuracy of the method, such as luminosity corrections, and statistics, for multiple images. We find in agreement with other recent work that a large sample of supernovae at large redshift could be used to extract gross features of the mass distribution of the lensing dark matter halos, such as the existence of a large number of point-like objects. The results for the isothermal sphere and the NFW model are, however, very similar if normalized to the observed luminosity distribution of galaxies. We give convenient analytical fitting formulas for our computed lensing probabilites as a function of magnification, for several redshifts.

  15. Detailed modeling of cluster galaxies in free-form lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The main goal of the Frontier Fields is to characterize the population of high redshift galaxies that are gravitationally lensed and magnified by foreground massive galaxy clusters. The magnification received by lensed images has to be accurately quantified in order to derive the correct science results. The magnification is in turn computed from lens models, which are constructed from various constraints, most commonly the positions and redshifts of multiply-lensed galaxies.The locations and magnification of multiple images that appear near cluster galaxies are very sensitive to the mass distribution of those individual galaxies. In current free-form lens models, they are at best crudely approximated by arbitrary mass halos and are usually being completely neglected. Given sufficient free parameters and iterations, such models may be highly consistent but their predictive power would be rather limited. This shortcoming is particularly pronounced in light of the recent discovery of the first multiply-lensed supernova in the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ1149. The proximity of its images to cluster galaxies mandates detailed modeling on galaxy-scales, where free-form methods solely based on grid solutions simply fail.We present a hybrid free-form lens model of Abell 2744, which for the first time incorporates a detailed mass component modeled by GALFIT that accurately captures the stellar light distribution of the hundred brightest cluster galaxies. The model better reproduces the image positions than a previous version, which modeled cluster galaxies with simplistic NFW halos. Curiously, this improvement is found in all but system 2, which has two radial images appearing around the BCG. Despite its complex light profile is being captured by GALFIT, the persistent discrepancies suggest considering mass distributions that may be largely offset from the stellar light distribution.

  16. Matter in the Beam: Weak Lensing, Substructures, and the Temperature of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Hareth S.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Power, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) models offer an attractive alternative to the current cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model. We present a novel method to differentiate between WDM and CDM cosmologies, namely, using weak lensing; this provides a unique probe as it is sensitive to all of the “matter in the beam,” not just dark matter haloes and the galaxies that reside in them, but also the diffuse material between haloes. We compare the weak lensing maps of CDM clusters to those in a WDM model corresponding to a thermally produced 0.5 keV dark matter particle. Our analysis clearly shows that the weak lensing magnification, convergence, and shear distributions can be used to distinguish between CDM and WDM models. WDM models increase the probability of weak magnifications, with the differences being significant to ≳5σ, while leaving no significant imprint on the shear distribution. WDM clusters analyzed in this work are more homogeneous than CDM ones, and the fractional decrease in the amount of material in haloes is proportional to the average increase in the magnification. This difference arises from matter that would be bound in compact haloes in CDM being smoothly distributed over much larger volumes at lower densities in WDM. Moreover, the signature does not solely lie in the probability distribution function but in the full spatial distribution of the convergence field.

  17. Intraoperative magnification: Who uses it?

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Paul Max

    2004-01-01

    Surgeons over recent decades have made increasing use of intraoperative magnification to enhance the outcome of surgical procedures, yet no published information exists regarding the extent of magnification use within surgical specialties. A sample of surgeons consisting of 148 specialists and senior surgical trainees in the west of Scotland was surveyed by postal questionnaire regarding their frequency and types of magnification use. Patterns of use were similar within each specialty, but varied markedly between specialties. Otolaryngologists and plastic, maxillofacial, and ophthalmic surgeons use both loupes and microscopes frequently. Cardiothoracic and pediatric surgeons tend only to utilize loupes, whereas neurosurgeons tend only to use microscopes. General surgeons, urologists, orthopedic surgeons, and gynecologists are infrequent users or nonusers of magnification, and when required will utilize loupes rather than microscopes. As a clear pattern of magnification use exists, it should be possible to anticipate the equipment needs of surgeons when providing theater services.

  18. Lensing corrections to features in the angular two-point correlation function and power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    LoVerde, Marilena; Hui, Lam; Gaztanaga, Enrique

    2008-01-15

    It is well known that magnification bias, the modulation of galaxy or quasar source counts by gravitational lensing, can change the observed angular correlation function. We investigate magnification-induced changes to the shape of the observed correlation function w({theta}), and the angular power spectrum C{sub l}, paying special attention to the matter-radiation equality peak and the baryon wiggles. Lensing effectively mixes the correlation function of the source galaxies with that of the matter correlation at the lower redshifts of the lenses distorting the observed correlation function. We quantify how the lensing corrections depend on the width of the selection function, the galaxy bias b, and the number count slope s. The lensing correction increases with redshift and larger corrections are present for sources with steep number count slopes and/or broad redshift distributions. The most drastic changes to C{sub l} occur for measurements at high redshifts (z > or approx. 1.5) and low multipole moment (l < or approx. 100). For the source distributions we consider, magnification bias can shift the location of the matter-radiation equality scale by 1%-6% at z{approx}1.5 and by z{approx}3.5 the shift can be as large as 30%. The baryon bump in {theta}{sup 2}w({theta}) is shifted by < or approx. 1% and the width is typically increased by {approx}10%. Shifts of > or approx. 0.5% and broadening > or approx. 20% occur only for very broad selection functions and/or galaxies with (5s-2)/b > or approx. 2. However, near the baryon bump the magnification correction is not constant but is a gently varying function which depends on the source population. Depending on how the w({theta}) data is fitted, this correction may need to be accounted for when using the baryon acoustic scale for precision cosmology.

  19. Accelerating defocus blur magnification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriener, Florian; Binder, Thomas; Wille, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    A shallow depth-of-field is often used as a creative element in photographs. This, however, comes at the cost of expensive and heavy camera equipment, such as large sensor DSLR bodies and fast lenses. In contrast, cheap small-sensor cameras with fixed lenses usually exhibit a larger depth-of-field than desirable. In this case a computational solution is suggesting, since a shallow depth-of-field cannot be achieved by optical means. One possibility is to algorithmically increase the defocus blur already present in the image. Yet, existing algorithmic solutions tackling this problem suffer from poor performance due to the ill-posedness of the problem: The amount of defocus blur can be estimated at edges only; homogeneous areas do not contain such information. However, to magnify the defocus blur we need to know the amount of blur at every pixel position. Estimating it requires solving an optimization problem with many unknowns. We propose a faster way to propagate the amount of blur from the edges to the entire image by solving the optimization problem on a small scale, followed by edge-aware upsampling using the original image as guide. The resulting approximate defocus map can be used to synthesize images with shallow depth-of-field with quality comparable to the original approach. This is demonstrated by experimental results.

  20. Testing the lognormality of the galaxy and weak lensing convergence distributions from Dark Energy Survey maps

    SciTech Connect

    Clerkin, L.; Kirk, D.; Manera, M.; Lahav, O.; Abdalla, F.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Chang, C.; Gaztañaga, E.; Hawken, A.; Jain, B.; Joachimi, B.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carrasco Kind, M.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-08-30

    It is well known that the probability distribution function (PDF) of galaxy density contrast is approximately lognormal; whether the PDF of mass fluctuations derived from weak lensing convergence (kappa_WL) is lognormal is less well established. We derive PDFs of the galaxy and projected matter density distributions via the Counts in Cells (CiC) method. We use maps of galaxies and weak lensing convergence produced from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data over 139 deg^2. We test whether the underlying density contrast is well described by a lognormal distribution for the galaxies, the convergence and their joint PDF. We confirm that the galaxy density contrast distribution is well modeled by a lognormal PDF convolved with Poisson noise at angular scales from 10-40 arcmin (corresponding to physical scales of 3-10 Mpc). We note that as kappa_WL is a weighted sum of the mass fluctuations along the line of sight, its PDF is expected to be only approximately lognormal. We find that the kappa_WL distribution is well modeled by a lognormal PDF convolved with Gaussian shape noise at scales between 10 and 20 arcmin, with a best-fit chi^2/DOF of 1.11 compared to 1.84 for a Gaussian model, corresponding to p-values 0.35 and 0.07 respectively, at a scale of 10 arcmin. Above 20 arcmin a simple Gaussian model is sufficient. The joint PDF is also reasonably fitted by a bivariate lognormal. As a consistency check we compare the variances derived from the lognormal modelling with those directly measured via CiC. Our methods are validated against maps from the MICE Grand Challenge N-body simulation.

  1. Testing the lognormality of the galaxy and weak lensing convergence distributions from Dark Energy Survey maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerkin, L.; Kirk, D.; Manera, M.; Lahav, O.; Abdalla, F.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Chang, C.; Gaztañaga, E.; Hawken, A.; Jain, B.; Joachimi, B.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carrasco Kind, M.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that the probability distribution function (PDF) of galaxy density contrast is approximately lognormal; whether the PDF of mass fluctuations derived from weak lensing convergence (κWL) is lognormal is less well established. We derive PDFs of the galaxy and projected matter density distributions via the counts-in-cells (CiC) method. We use maps of galaxies and weak lensing convergence produced from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data over 139 deg2. We test whether the underlying density contrast is well described by a lognormal distribution for the galaxies, the convergence and their joint PDF. We confirm that the galaxy density contrast distribution is well modelled by a lognormal PDF convolved with Poisson noise at angular scales from 10 to 40 arcmin (corresponding to physical scales of 3-10 Mpc). We note that as κWL is a weighted sum of the mass fluctuations along the line of sight, its PDF is expected to be only approximately lognormal. We find that the κWL distribution is well modelled by a lognormal PDF convolved with Gaussian shape noise at scales between 10 and 20 arcmin, with a best-fitting χ2/dof of 1.11 compared to 1.84 for a Gaussian model, corresponding to p-values 0.35 and 0.07, respectively, at a scale of 10 arcmin. Above 20 arcmin a simple Gaussian model is sufficient. The joint PDF is also reasonably fitted by a bivariate lognormal. As a consistency check, we compare the variances derived from the lognormal modelling with those directly measured via CiC. Our methods are validated against maps from the MICE Grand Challenge N-body simulation.

  2. Multi-wavelength applications of gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadely, Ross

    2010-12-01

    Using an array of multi-wavelength data, we examine a variety of astrophysical problems with gravitational lensing. First, we seek to understand the mass distribution of an early-type galaxy with an analysis of the lens Q0957+561. We dissect the lens galaxy into luminous and dark components, and model the environment using results from weak lensing. Combining constraints from newly-discovered lensed images and stellar population models, we find the lens has a density profile which is shallower than isothermal, unlike those of typical early-type galaxies. Finally, using the measured time delay between the quasar images we find the Hubble constant to be H 0 = 79.3+6.7-8.5 km s-1 Mpc-1 . One intriguing application of lensing is to exploit the lens magnification boost to study high-redshift objects in greater detail than otherwise possible. Here, we analyze the mid-infrared properties of two lensed z ˜ 2 star-forming galaxies, SDSS J120602.09+514229.5 and SDSS J090122.37+181432.3, using Spitzer /IRS spectra to study their rest-frame ˜ 5-12 μm emission. Both systems exhibit strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in the spectra, indicating strong star formation and the absence of significant AGN activity. For SDSS J090122.37+181432.3, this detection belies that inferred from optical measurements, indicating mid-IR spectroscopy provides key information needed to understand the properties of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. While lensing provides measurements of the macroscopic properties of lens systems, it can also shed light on small-scale structure of galaxies. To identify and understand lens substructure, we examine the multi-wavelength properties of flux ratios for six lenses. Variations of the flux ratios with wavelength can be used to study the lensed quasars and the small-scale mass distribution of lens galaxies. We detect strong multi-wavelength variations in the lenses HE 0435-1223 and SDSS 0806+2006. For HE 0435-1223, we study its

  3. Contact Lenses on Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    NAVAL SUBMARINE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY SUBMARINE BASE, GROTON, CONN. REPORT NUMBER 1048 CONTACT LENSES ON SUBMARINES... CONTACT LENSES ON SUBMARINES by James F. Socks, CDR, MSC, USN NAVAL SUBMARINE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY REPORT NUMBER 1048 NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH...DRSCHLAB Approved for public release; distribution unlimited SUMMARY PAGE PROBLEM To determine the feasibility of wearing contact lenses aboard

  4. Effects of supermassive binary black holes on gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Mao, Shude; Gao, Liang; Loeb, Abraham; di Stefano, R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that many, if not all, galaxies host massive central black holes (BHs). In this paper, we explore the influence of supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) on their actions as gravitational lenses. When lenses are modelled as singular isothermal ellipsoids, binary BHs change the critical curves and caustics differently as a function of distance. Each BH can in principle create at least one additional image, which, if observed, provides evidence of BHs. By studying how SMBBHs affect the cumulative distribution of magnification for images created by BHs, we find that the cross-section for at least one such additional image to have a magnification larger than 10-5 is comparable to the cross-section for producing multiple images in singular isothermal lenses. Such additional images may be detectable with high-resolution and large dynamic range maps of multiply imaged systems from future facilities, such as the Square Kilometre Array. The probability of detecting at least one image (two images) with magnification above 10-3 is ˜0.2fBH (˜0.05fBH) in a multiply imaged lens system, where fBH is the fraction of galaxies housing binary BHs. We also study the effects of SMBBHs on the core images when galaxies have shallower central density profiles (modelled as non-singular isothermal ellipsoids). We find that the cross-section of the usually faint core images is further suppressed by SMBBHs. Thus, their presence should also be taken into account when one constrains the core radius from the lack of central images in gravitational lenses.

  5. The velocity dispersion of the caustic network due to random motion of individual stars in the lensing galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundik, Tomislav; Witt, Hans J.; Chang, Kyongae

    1993-01-01

    We present a method of computing the velocity distribution of the caustic network due to the random motion of stars in the lensing galaxy. This method is illustrated on the example of the two-point mass lens and then applied to a large sample of stars. We conclude that the proper motion of the stars increases significantly the frequency of the high magnification events in comparison with a static lens configuration with constant stream or constant bulk velocity. The stream velocity is the velocity of the star field relative to the global bulk velocity of the galaxy. We show that the global bulk and the stream velocity of the star field have to be considered separately for any microlensing situation. The higher the surface mass density of the stars in the lensing galaxy, the higher the influence of proper motion of stars on the statistics of high magnification events. The influence of a Gaussian velocity distribution of the stars in the lensing galaxy compared with a constant stream velocity of the stars increases the number of high magnification events by a factor 1.30 +/- 0.06 for a normalized surface density of the stars cr = 0.1 and by a factor 1.7 +/- 0.1 for sigma = 0.5. This means that for some microlensing situations the proper motion of the stars in a lensing galaxy has to be considered for exact microlensing predictions.

  6. CMB lensing beyond the power spectrum: Cosmological constraints from the one-point probability distribution function and peak counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Hill, J. Colin; Sherwin, Blake D.; Petri, Andrea; Böhm, Vanessa; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-11-01

    Unprecedentedly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) data are expected from ongoing and near-future CMB stage III and IV surveys, which will yield reconstructed CMB lensing maps with effective resolution approaching several arcminutes. The small-scale CMB lensing fluctuations receive non-negligible contributions from nonlinear structure in the late-time density field. These fluctuations are not fully characterized by traditional two-point statistics, such as the power spectrum. Here, we use N -body ray-tracing simulations of CMB lensing maps to examine two higher-order statistics: the lensing convergence one-point probability distribution function (PDF) and peak counts. We show that these statistics contain significant information not captured by the two-point function and provide specific forecasts for the ongoing stage III Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope (AdvACT) experiment. Considering only the temperature-based reconstruction estimator, we forecast 9 σ (PDF) and 6 σ (peaks) detections of these statistics with AdvACT. Our simulation pipeline fully accounts for the non-Gaussianity of the lensing reconstruction noise, which is significant and cannot be neglected. Combining the power spectrum, PDF, and peak counts for AdvACT will tighten cosmological constraints in the Ωm-σ8 plane by ≈30 %, compared to using the power spectrum alone.

  7. Strong Lens Models for Massive Galaxy Clusters in the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerny, Catherine; Sharon, Keren; Coe, Dan A.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Jones, Christine; Czakon, Nicole G.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Stark, Daniel; Bradley, Larry D.; Trenti, Michele; Johnson, Traci; Bradac, Marusa; Dawson, William; Rodney, Steven A.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; RELICS Team

    2017-01-01

    We present strong lensing models for five galaxy clusters from the Planck SZ cluster catalog as a part of the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS), a program that seeks to constrain the galaxy luminosity function past z~9 by conducting a wide field survey of massive galaxy clusters with HST (GO-14096, PI: Coe). The strong gravitational lensing effects of these clusters significantly magnify background galaxies, which enhances our ability to discover the large numbers of high redshift galaxies at z~9-12 needed to create a representative sample. We use strong lensing models for these clusters to study their mass distribution and magnification, which allows us to quantify the lensing effect on the background galaxies. These models can then be utilized in the RELICS survey in order to identify high redshift galaxy candidates that may be lensed by the clusters. The intrinsic properties of these galaxy candidates can be derived by removing the lensing effect as predicted by our models, which will meet the science goals of the RELICS survey. We use HST WFC3 and ACS imaging to create lensing models for the clusters RXC J0142.9+4438, ACO-2537, ACO-2163, RXCJ2211.7-0349, and ACT-CLJ0102-49151.

  8. Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Sarah J; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-04-01

    Flat panel detectors exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and display capabilities compared to film. This improvement necessitates a new evaluation of optimal geometry for conventional projection imaging applications such as digital projection mammography as well as for advanced x-ray imaging applications including cone-beam computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis, and mammotomography. Such an evaluation was undertaken in this study to examine the effects of x-ray source distribution, inherent detector resolution, magnification, scatter rejection, and noise characteristics including noise aliasing. A model for x-ray image acquisition was used to develop generic results applicable to flat panel detectors with similar x-ray absorption characteristics. The model assumed a Gaussian distribution for the focal spot and a rectangular distribution for a pixel. A generic model for the modulated transfer function (MTF) of indirect flat panel detectors was derived by a nonlinear fit of empirical receptor data to the Burgess model for phosphor MTFs. Noise characteristics were investigated using a generic noise power spectrum (NPS) model for indirect phosphor-based detectors. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was then calculated from the MTF and NPS models. The results were examined as a function of focal spot size (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mm) and pixel size (50, 100, 150, and 200 microm) for magnification ranges 1 to 3. Mammography, general radiography (also applicable to mammotomography), and chest radiography applications were explored using x-ray energies of 28, 74, and 120 kVp, respectively. Nodule detection was examined using the effective point source scatter model, effective DQE, and the Hotelling SNR2 efficiency. Results indicate that magnification can potentially improve the signal and noise performance of digital images. Results also show that a cross over point occurs in the spatial frequency above and below which the effects of magnification differ

  9. Redshift Distributions of Galaxies in the DES Science Verification Shear Catalogue and Implications for Weak Lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, C.

    2015-07-21

    We present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods { annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-U fig simulations, skynet, and tpz { are analysed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we also construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evalu-ated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-zs. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift 0.72 ±0.01 over the range 0:3 < z < 1:3, we construct three tomographic bins with means of z = {0.45; 0.67,1.00g}. These bins each have systematic uncertainties δz ≲ 0.05 in the mean of the fiducial skynet photo-z n(z). We propagate the errors in the redshift distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of σ8 of approx. 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalog. We also found that further study of the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit, contained levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. We recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n(z) of width 0:05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

  10. Analysis of luminosity distributions and the shape parameters of strong gravitational lensing elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernaux, J.; Magain, P.; Sluse, D.; Chantry, V.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The luminosity profiles of galaxies acting as strong gravitational lenses can be tricky to study. Indeed, strong gravitational lensing images display several lensed components, both point-like and diffuse, around the lensing galaxy. Those objects limit the study of the galaxy luminosity to its inner parts. Therefore, the usual fitting methods perform rather badly on such images. Previous studies of strong lenses luminosity profiles using software such as GALFIT or IMFITFITS and various PSF-determining methods have resulted in somewhat discrepant results. Aims: The present work aims at investigating the causes of those discrepancies, as well as at designing more robust techniques for studying the morphology of early-type lensing galaxies with the ability to subtract a lensed signal from their luminosity profiles. Methods: We design a new method to independently measure each shape parameter, namely, the position angle, ellipticity, and half-light radius of the galaxy. Our half-light radius measurement method is based on an innovative scheme for computing isophotes that is well suited to measuring the morphological properties of gravititational lensing galaxies. Its robustness regarding various specific aspects of gravitational lensing image processing is analysed and tested against GALFIT. It is then applied to a sample of systems from the CASTLES database. Results: Simulations show that, when restricted to small, inner parts of the lensing galaxy, the technique presented here is more trustworthy than GALFIT. It gives more robust results than GALFIT, which shows instabilities regarding the fitting region, the value of the Sérsic index, and the signal-to-noise ratio. It is therefore better suited than GALFIT for gravitational lensing galaxies. It is also able to study lensing galaxies that are not much larger than the PSF. New values for the half-light radius of the objects in our sample are presented and compared to previous works. Table 6 is only available

  11. Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

  12. Multi-wavelength probes of distant lensed galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjeant, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    I summarise recent results on multi-wavelength properties of distant lensed galaxies, with a particular focus on Herschel. Submm surveys have already resulted in a breakthrough discovery of an extremely efficient selection technique for strong gravitational lenses. Benefitting from the gravitational magnification boost, blind mm-wave redshifts have been demonstrated on IRAM, SMA and GBT, and follow-up emission line detections have been made of water, [Oiii], [Cii] and other species, revealing the PDR/XDR/CRDR conditions. I also discuss HST imaging of submm lenses, lensed galaxy reconstruction, the prospects for ALMA and e-Merlin and the effects of differential magnification. Many emission line diagnostics are relatively unaffected by differential magnification, but SED-based estimates of bolometric fractions in lensed infrared galaxies are so unreliable as to be useless, unless a lens mass model is available to correct for differential amplification.

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    relation of cluster light and mass. An interesting twist in cluster lensing was provided by the post-merger Bullet Cluster (identified as 1E0657-558). In this and other merging clusters, the lensing mass is displaced from the baryonic center of mass, presenting a challenge to theories that attempt to explain away dark matter by positing a modification to the law of gravity. Detailed modeling and multi-wavelength data on these systems will provide interesting limits on dark matter as well as the possibility of a major surprise. Other advances may come from the gravitational telescope effect of galaxy clusters: regions with very high magnification can be used to image proto-galaxies at z ~ 10. Statistical studies of galaxy and cluster lenses and of invisible, diffuse large-scale structures via weak lensing have come into their own in recent years. A census of the mass distribution at low redshift has been made using the technique of galaxy galaxy lensing: the mean mass profiles of galaxies and clusters have been measured using the weak tangential shear imprinted on background galaxies. These can be correlated with a variety of luminous tracers to study galaxy/cluster properties at a level of detail not possible until recently. Equally impressive is the measurement of excess mass correlations out to ~30 Mpc from these halos, requiring measurements of shear signals below 0.01%. These measurements account for the total matter density inferred from the CMB plus other observations, thus providing a direct measure of dark matter in the present day universe. Cosmic shear refers to the more challenging measurement of shear shear correlations without the use of foreground objects to orient the shear. The first detections of such correlations were published in 2001; since then measurements from arcminute to degree scales have been made with much improved accuracy. Theoretical techniques of lensing tomography and advances in analysis methods to eliminate systematic errors have

  14. Possible high magnification microlensing event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalski, Andrzej; Szymanski, Michal

    1998-05-01

    The OGLE team informs about a microlensing event in progress - OGLE-1998-BUL-15 (18:07:20.83, -27:34:10.8, J2000) which is presently about 4 days before maximum and is rising rapidly (already more than 2 mag above the normal level). Preliminary fit to the light curve predicts possible maximum magnification as large as 10 mag and maximum on JD=2450945.2. Follow up observations, both photometric and spectroscopic, are strongly encouraged.

  15. Probing the mass distribution at the outskirts of galaxy clusters using weak lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Matthew; King, Lindsay J.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are often described by NFW (Navarro, Frenk & White) profiles which are a good description of cluster scale halos formed in cosmological dark matter simulations. Here we discuss the lensing signals of high-resolution clusters extracted from cosmological dark matter and hydrodynamic simulations, and determine on what scales the clusters’ average weak lensing shear is best described by the shear of the Diemer-Kravtsov (DK) or NFW profile. In particular, we assess the number of clusters and the type of observations (e.g. number of galaxies available for the weak lensing analysis) that must be stacked in order to distinguish between these and other profiles, focusing on the larger scales where the best-fit shear profiles differ.

  16. The magnification of SN 1997ff, the farthest known supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Narciso; Riess, Adam; Nugent, Peter; Dickinson, Mark; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2002-09-03

    With a redshift of z {approx} 1.7, SN 1997ff is the most distant type Ia supernova discovered so far. This SN is close to several bright, z = 0.6-0.9 galaxies, and we consider the effects of lensing by those objects on the magnitude of SN 1997ff. We estimate their velocity dispersions using the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations corrected for evolution effects, and calculate, applying the multiple-plane lensing formalism, that SN 1997ff is magnified by 0.34{+-}0.12 mag. Due to the spatial configuration of the foreground galaxies, the shear from individual lenses partially cancels out,and the total distortion induced on the host galaxy is considerably smaller than that produced by a single lens having the same magnification. After correction for lensing, the revised distance to SN 1997ff is m-M = 45.49 {+-} 0.34 mag, which improves the agreement with the {Omega}{sub M} = 0.35, {Omega}{Lambda} = 0.65 cosmology expected from lower-redshift SNe Ia, and is inconsistent at the {approx} 3 sigma confidence level with a uniform gray dust model or a simple evolution model.

  17. Statistics of magnification perturbations by substructure in the cold dark matter cosmological model

    SciTech Connect

    Rozo, Eduardo; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bertone, Gianfranco; Chen, Jacqueline; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2005-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of magnification perturbations by substructures in strong lensed systems using linear perturbation theory and an analytical substructure model including tidal truncation and a continuous substructure mass spectrum. We demonstrate that magnification perturbations are dominated by perturbers found within a tidal radius of an image, and that sizable magnification perturbations may arise from small, coherent contributions from several substructures within the lens halo. We find that the root-mean-square (rms) fluctuation of the magnification perturbation is {approx}10% to {approx}20% and both the average and rms perturbations are sensitive to the mass spectrum and density profile of the perturbers. Interestingly,we find that relative to a smooth model of the same mass, the average magnification in clumpy models is lower (higher) than that in smooth models for positive (negative) parity images. This is opposite from what is observed if one assumes that the image magnification predicted by the best-fit smooth model of a lens is a good proxy for what the observed magnification would have been if substructures were absent. While it is possible for this discrepancy to be resolved via nonlinear perturbers, we argue that a more likely explanation is that the assumption that the best-fit lens model is a good proxy for the magnification in the absence of substructure is not correct. We conclude that a better theoretical understanding of the predicted statistical properties of magnification perturbations by CDM substructure is needed in order to affirm that CDM substructures have been unambiguously detected.

  18. Detection of enhancement in number densities of background galaxies due to magnification by massive galaxy clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Chiu, I.; Dietrich, J. P.; Mohr, J.; ...

    2016-02-18

    We present a detection of the enhancement in the number densities of background galaxies induced from lensing magnification and use it to test the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) inferred masses in a sample of 19 galaxy clusters with median redshift z≃0.42 selected from the South Pole Telescope SPT-SZ survey. Two background galaxy populations are selected for this study through their photometric colours; they have median redshifts zmedian≃0.9 (low-z background) and zmedian≃1.8 (high-z background). Stacking these populations, we detect the magnification bias effect at 3.3σ and 1.3σ for the low- and high-z backgrounds, respectively. We fit NFW models simultaneously to all observedmore » magnification bias profiles to estimate the multiplicative factor η that describes the ratio of the weak lensing mass to the mass inferred from the SZE observable-mass relation. We further quantify systematic uncertainties in η resulting from the photometric noise and bias, the cluster galaxy contamination and the estimations of the background properties. The resulting η for the combined background populations with 1σ uncertainties is 0.83 ± 0.24(stat) ± 0.074(sys), indicating good consistency between the lensing and the SZE-inferred masses. We also use our best-fit η to predict the weak lensing shear profiles and compare these predictions with observations, showing agreement between the magnification and shear mass constraints. Our work demonstrates the promise of using the magnification as a complementary method to estimate cluster masses in large surveys.« less

  19. Detection of enhancement in number densities of background galaxies due to magnification by massive galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, I.; Dietrich, J. P.; Mohr, J.; Applegate, D. E.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bayliss, M. B.; Bocquet, S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Capasso, R.; Desai, S.; Gangkofner, C.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gupta, N.; Hennig, C.; Hoekstra, H.; von der Linden, A.; Liu, J.; McDonald, M.; Reichardt, C. L.; Saro, A.; Schrabback, T.; Strazzullo, V.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-02-18

    We present a detection of the enhancement in the number densities of background galaxies induced from lensing magnification and use it to test the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) inferred masses in a sample of 19 galaxy clusters with median redshift z≃0.42 selected from the South Pole Telescope SPT-SZ survey. Two background galaxy populations are selected for this study through their photometric colours; they have median redshifts zmedian≃0.9 (low-z background) and zmedian≃1.8 (high-z background). Stacking these populations, we detect the magnification bias effect at 3.3σ and 1.3σ for the low- and high-z backgrounds, respectively. We fit NFW models simultaneously to all observed magnification bias profiles to estimate the multiplicative factor η that describes the ratio of the weak lensing mass to the mass inferred from the SZE observable-mass relation. We further quantify systematic uncertainties in η resulting from the photometric noise and bias, the cluster galaxy contamination and the estimations of the background properties. The resulting η for the combined background populations with 1σ uncertainties is 0.83 ± 0.24(stat) ± 0.074(sys), indicating good consistency between the lensing and the SZE-inferred masses. We also use our best-fit η to predict the weak lensing shear profiles and compare these predictions with observations, showing agreement between the magnification and shear mass constraints. Our work demonstrates the promise of using the magnification as a complementary method to estimate cluster masses in large surveys.

  20. Catastrophic photometric redshift errors: Weak-lensing survey requirements

    DOE PAGES

    Bernstein, Gary; Huterer, Dragan

    2010-01-11

    We study the sensitivity of weak lensing surveys to the effects of catastrophic redshift errors - cases where the true redshift is misestimated by a significant amount. To compute the biases in cosmological parameters, we adopt an efficient linearized analysis where the redshift errors are directly related to shifts in the weak lensing convergence power spectra. We estimate the number Nspec of unbiased spectroscopic redshifts needed to determine the catastrophic error rate well enough that biases in cosmological parameters are below statistical errors of weak lensing tomography. While the straightforward estimate of Nspec is ~106 we find that using onlymore » the photometric redshifts with z ≤ 2.5 leads to a drastic reduction in Nspec to ~ 30,000 while negligibly increasing statistical errors in dark energy parameters. Therefore, the size of spectroscopic survey needed to control catastrophic errors is similar to that previously deemed necessary to constrain the core of the zs – zp distribution. We also study the efficacy of the recent proposal to measure redshift errors by cross-correlation between the photo-z and spectroscopic samples. We find that this method requires ~ 10% a priori knowledge of the bias and stochasticity of the outlier population, and is also easily confounded by lensing magnification bias. In conclusion, the cross-correlation method is therefore unlikely to supplant the need for a complete spectroscopic redshift survey of the source population.« less

  1. Nonmechanical zoom system through pressure-controlled tunable fluidic lenses.

    PubMed

    Savidis, Nickolaos; Peyman, Gholam; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2013-04-20

    We have developed a variable-power zoom system that incorporates fluidic lenses and has no moving parts. The designed system applies two single-chamber plano-convex fluid singlets, each with their own distinct design, as well as a conventional refractive lens. In this paper, we combine the two fluid elements to form a variable-power telescope, while the fixed lens enables image formation. In this configuration, the image plane location is fixed. By synchronizing the powers of the two fluidic lenses, we produce a varying magnification zoom system. The design of each lens and the coupled system is analyzed. The coupled device experimentally produced a magnification range of 0.1× to 10× zoom or a 20× zoom magnification range with no moving parts. Furthermore, we expand on optical performance and capabilities of our system with fluidic lenses relative to traditional zoom lenses.

  2. Spatial distributions of phosphorylated membrane proteins aquaporin 0 and MP20 across young and aged human lenses.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Danielle B; Garland, Donita L; Schwacke, John H; Hachey, David L; Schey, Kevin L

    2016-08-01

    In the human ocular lens it is now realized that post-translational modifications can alter protein function and/or localization in fiber cells that no longer synthesize proteins. The specific sites of post-translational modification to the abundant ocular lens membrane proteins AQP0 and MP20 have been previously identified and their functional effects are emerging. To further understand how changes in protein function and/or localization induced by these modifications alter lens homeostasis, it is necessary to determine the spatial distributions of these modifications across the lens. In this study, a quantitative LC-MS approach was used to determine the spatial distributions of phosphorylated AQP0 and MP20 peptides from manually dissected, concentric layers of fiber cells from young and aged human lenses. The absolute amounts of phosphorylation were determined for AQP0 Ser235 and Ser229 and for MP20 Ser170 in fiber cells from the lens periphery to the lens center. Phosphorylation of AQP0 Ser229 represented a minor portion of the total phosphorylated AQP0. Changes in spatial distributions of phosphorylated APQ0 Ser235 and MP20 Ser170 correlated with regions of physiological interest in aged lenses, specifically, where barriers to water transport and extracellular diffusion form.

  3. OPTIMAL MASS CONFIGURATIONS FOR LENSING HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.

    2012-06-20

    We investigate the gravitational lensing properties of lines of sight containing multiple cluster-scale halos, motivated by their ability to lens very high redshift (z {approx} 10) sources into detectability. We control for the total mass along the line of sight, isolating the effects of distributing the mass among multiple halos and of varying the physical properties of the halos. Our results show that multiple-halo lines of sight can increase the magnified source-plane region compared to the single cluster lenses typically targeted for lensing studies and thus are generally better fields for detecting very high redshift sources. The configurations that result in optimal lensing cross sections benefit from interactions between the lens potentials of the halos when they overlap somewhat on the sky, creating regions of high magnification in the source plane not present when the halos are considered individually. The effect of these interactions on the lensing cross section can even be comparable to changing the total mass of the lens from 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. The gain in lensing cross section increases as the mass is split into more halos, provided that the lens potentials are projected close enough to interact with each other. A nonzero projected halo angular separation, equal halo mass ratio, and high projected halo concentration are the best mass configurations, whereas projected halo ellipticity, halo triaxiality, and the relative orientations of the halos are less important. Such high-mass, multiple-halo lines of sight exist in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  4. Precise Strong Lensing Mass Modeling of Four Hubble Frontier Field Clusters and a Sample of Magnified High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamata, Ryota; Oguri, Masamune; Ishigaki, Masafumi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami

    2016-03-01

    We conduct precise strong lensing mass modeling of four Hubble Frontier Field (HFF) clusters, Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1149.6+2223, for which HFF imaging observations are completed. We construct a refined sample of more than 100 multiple images for each cluster by taking advantage of the full-depth HFF images, and conduct mass modeling using the glafic software, which assumes simply parametrized mass distributions. Our mass modeling also exploits a magnification constraint from the lensed SN Ia HFF14Tom for Abell 2744 and positional constraints from the multiple images S1-S4 of the lensed supernova SN Refsdal for MACS J1149.6+2223. We find that our best-fitting mass models reproduce the observed image positions with rms errors of ˜0.″4, which are smaller than rms errors in previous mass modeling that adopted similar numbers of multiple images. Our model predicts a new image of SN Refsdal with a relative time delay and magnification that are fully consistent with a recent detection of reappearance. We then construct catalogs of z ˜ 6-9 dropout galaxies behind the four clusters and estimate magnification factors for these dropout galaxies with our best-fitting mass models. The dropout sample from the four cluster fields contains ˜120 galaxies at z ≳ 6, about 20 of which are predicted to be magnified by a factor of more than 10. Some of the high-redshift galaxies detected in the HFF have lensing-corrected magnitudes of MUV ˜ -15 to -14. Our analysis demonstrates that the HFF data indeed offer an ideal opportunity to study faint high-redshift galaxies. All lensing maps produced from our mass modeling will be made available on the Space Telescope Science Institute website (https://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/frontier/lensmodels/).

  5. Geometric Corroboration of the Earliest Lensed Galaxy at z ≃ 10.8 from Robust Free-form Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Brian M. Y.; Broadhurst, Tom; Lim, Jeremy; Diego, Jose M.; Zitrin, Adi; Coe, Dan; Ford, Holland C.

    2017-01-01

    A multiply lensed galaxy, MACS0647-JD, with a probable photometric redshift of z≃ {10.7}-0.4+0.6 is claimed to constitute one of the very earliest known galaxies, formed well before reionization was completed. However, spectral evidence that MACS0647-JD lies at high redshift has proven infeasible and so here we seek an independent-lensing-based “geometric redshift” derived from the angles between the three lensed images of MACS0647-JD, using our free-form mass model (WSLAP+) for the lensing cluster MACSJ0647.7+7015 (at z = 0.591). Our lens model uses the nine sets of multiple images, including those of MACS0647-JD, identified by the CLASH survey toward this cluster. We convincingly exclude the low-redshift regime of z < 3, for which convoluted critical curves are generated by our method, as the solution bends to accommodate the wide angles of MACS0647-JD for this low redshift. Instead, a best fit to all sets of lensed galaxy positions and redshifts provides a geometric redshift of z≃ {10.8}-0.4+0.3 for MACS0647-JD, strongly supporting the higher photometric redshift solution. Importantly, we find a tight linear relation between the relative brightnesses of all nine sets of multiply lensed images and their relative magnifications as predicted by our model. This agreement provides a benchmark for the quality of the lens model, and establishes the robustness of our free-form lensing method for measuring model-independent geometric source distances and for deriving objective central cluster mass distributions. After correcting for its magnification the luminosity of MACS0647-JD remains relatively high at MUV = ‑19.4, which is within a factor of a few in flux of some surprisingly luminous z ≃ 10–11 candidates discovered recently in Hubble blank field surveys.

  6. Constant magnification optical tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A constant magnification optical tracking system for continuously tracking of a moving object is described. In the tracking system, a traveling objective lens maintains a fixed relationship with an object to be optically tracked. The objective lens was chosen to provide a collimated light beam oriented in the direction of travel of the moving object. A reflective surface is attached to the traveling objective lens for reflecting an image of the moving object. The object to be tracked is a free-falling object which is located at the focal point of the objective lens for at least a portion of its free-fall path. A motor and control means is provided for mantaining the traveling objective lens in a fixed relationship relative to the free-falling object, thereby keeping the free-falling object at the focal point and centered on the axis of the traveling objective lens throughout its entire free-fall path.

  7. Motion magnification for endoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Baxter, John S. H.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic and laparoscopic surgeries are used for many minimally invasive procedures but limit the visual and haptic feedback available to the surgeon. This can make vessel sparing procedures particularly challenging to perform. Previous approaches have focused on hardware intensive intraoperative imaging or augmented reality systems that are difficult to integrate into the operating room. This paper presents a simple approach in which motion is visually enhanced in the endoscopic video to reveal pulsating arteries. This is accomplished by amplifying subtle, periodic changes in intensity coinciding with the patient's pulse. This method is then applied to two procedures to illustrate its potential. The first, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, is a neurosurgical procedure where the floor of the third ventricle must be fenestrated without injury to the basilar artery. The second, nerve-sparing robotic prostatectomy, involves removing the prostate while limiting damage to the neurovascular bundles. In both procedures, motion magnification can enhance subtle pulsation in these structures to aid in identifying and avoiding them.

  8. Tuning Gravitationally Lensed Standard Sirens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, J.; Goobar, A.; Mörtsell, E.

    2007-03-01

    Gravitational waves emitted by chirping supermassive black hole binaries could in principle be used to obtain very accurate distance determinations. Provided they have an electromagnetic counterpart from which the redshift can be determined, these standard sirens could be used to build a high-redshift Hubble diagram. Errors in the distance measurements will most likely be dominated by gravitational lensing. We show that the (de)magnification due to inhomogeneous foreground matter will increase the scatter in the measured distances by a factor of ~10. We propose to use optical and IR data of the foreground galaxies to minimize the degradation from weak lensing. We find that the net effect of correcting the estimated distances for lensing is comparable to increasing the sample size by a factor of 3 when using the data to constrain cosmological parameters.

  9. Weak lensing corrections to tSZ-lensing cross correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Tröster, Tilman; Waerbeke, Ludovic Van E-mail: waerbeke@phas.ubc.ca

    2014-11-01

    The cross correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect and gravitational lensing in wide field has recently been measured. It can be used to probe the distribution of the diffuse gas in large scale structure, as well as inform us about the missing baryons. As for any lensing-based quantity, higher order lensing effects can potentially affect the signal. Here, we extend previous higher order lensing calculations to the case of tSZ-lensing cross correlations. We derive terms analogous to corrections due to the Born approximation, lens-lens coupling, and reduced shear up to order ℓ ∼> 3000.

  10. Magnification with wide-field photometric surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Fernandez, M.; Sánchez, E.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.

    2017-03-01

    A methodology to detect and measure magnification using the galaxy number count technique designed to be used at present and future photometric galaxy surveys is described. The method is tested with the N-body simulation MICE-GC showing that it allows to clearly detect magnification and showing agreement with the theory for sky areas of at least 110°^2.

  11. A Magnification Lens for Interactive Volume Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    LaMar, E; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-07-19

    Volume visualization of large data sets suffers from the same problem that many other visualization modalities suffer from: either one can visualize the entire data set and lose small details or visualize a small region and lose the context. In this paper, they present a magnification lens technique for volume visualization. While the notion of a magnification-lens is not new, and other techniques attempt to simulate the physical properties of a magnifying lens, their contribution is in developing a magnification lens that is fast, can be implemented using a fairly small software overhead, and has a natural, intuitive appearance. The issue with magnification lens is the border, or transition, region. The lens center and exterior have a constant zoom factor, and are simple to render. It is the border region that blends between the external and interior magnification, and has a non-constant magnification. They use the perspective-correct textures capability, available in most current graphics systems, to produce a lens with a tessellated border region that approximates linear compression with respect to the radius of the magnification lens. They discuss how a cubic border can mitigate the discontinuities resulting from the use of a linear function, without significant performance loss. They discuss various issues concerning development of a three-dimensional magnification lens.

  12. Probing the diffuse baryon distribution with the lensing-tSZ cross-correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zuntz, Joe; Waerbeke, Ludovic Van; Hinshaw, Gary; Hojjati, Alireza; Scott, Douglas E-mail: waerbeke@phas.ubc.ca E-mail: ahojjati@phas.ubc.ca E-mail: joezuntz@googlemail.com

    2015-09-01

    Approximately half of the Universe's baryons are in a form that has been hard to detect directly. However, the missing component can be traced through the cross-correlation of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect with weak gravitational lensing. We build a model for this correlation and use it to constrain the extended baryon component, employing data from the Canada France Hawaii Lensing Survey and the Planck satellite. The measured correlation function is consistent with an isothermal β-model for the halo gas pressure profile, and the 1- and 2-halo terms are both detected at the 4σ level. In addition, we measure the hydrostatic mass bias (1−b)=0.79{sup +0.07}{sub −0.10}, which is consistent with numerical simulation results and the constraints from X-ray observations. The effective temperature of the gas is found to be in the range (7×10{sup 5}–3 ×10{sup 8}) K, with approximately 50% of the baryons appearing to lie beyond the virial radius of the halos, consistent with current expectations for the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

  13. Strong and Weak Lensing United III: Measuring the Mass Distribution of the Merging Galaxy Cluster 1E0657-56

    SciTech Connect

    Bradac, Marusa; Clowe, Douglas; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Marshall, Phil; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Markevitch, Maxim; Randall, Scott; Schrabback, Tim; Zaritsky, Dennis; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bonn, Inst. Astrophys. /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Florida U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2006-09-27

    The galaxy cluster 1E0657-56 (z = 0.296) is remarkably well-suited for addressing outstanding issues in both galaxy evolution and fundamental physics. We present a reconstruction of the mass distribution from both strong and weak gravitational lensing data. Multi-color, high-resolution HST ACS images allow detection of many more arc candidates than were previously known, especially around the subcluster. Using the known redshift of one of the multiply imaged systems, we determine the remaining source redshifts using the predictive power of the strong lens model. Combining this information with shape measurements of ''weakly'' lensed sources, we derive a high-resolution, absolutely-calibrated mass map, using no assumptions regarding the physical properties of the underlying cluster potential. This map provides the best available quantification of the total mass of the central part of the cluster. We also confirm the result from Clowe et al. (2004, 2006a) that the total mass does not trace the baryonic mass.

  14. All-optical OFDM demultiplexing by spectral magnification and band-pass filtering.

    PubMed

    Palushani, E; Mulvad, H C Hansen; Kong, D; Guan, P; Galili, M; Oxenløwe, L K

    2014-01-13

    We propose a simple OFDM receiver allowing for the use of standard WDM receivers to receive spectrally advanced OFDM signals. We propose to spectrally magnify the optical-OFDM super-channels using a spectral telescope consisting of two time-lenses, which enables reduced inter-carrier-interference in subcarrier detection by simple band-pass filtering. A demonstration on an emulated 100 Gbit/s DPSK optical-OFDM channel shows improved sensitivities after 4-times spectral magnification.

  15. Measuring the Mass Distribution in Z is Approximately 0.2 Cluster Lenses with XMM, HST and CFHT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Being the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe, clusters of galaxies are prime targets for studies of structure formation and evolution. Specifically the comoving space density of virialized clusters of a given mass (or X-ray temperature), but also the frequency and degree of substructure, as well as the shape of the cluster mass profile are quantities whose current values and evolution as a function of lookback time can provide important constraints on the cosmological and physical parameters of structure formation theories. The project funded by NASA grant NAG 5-10041 intended to take such studies to a new level by combining observations of a well-selected cluster sample by three state-of-the-art telescopes: HST, to accurately measure the mass distribution in the cluster core (approx. 0.5 h(sup -1)(sub 50) Mpc) via strong gravitational lensing; CFHT, to measure the large scale mass distribution out to approx. 3 Mpc via weak lensing; and XMM, to measure the gas density and temperature distribution accurately on intermediate scales < 1.5 Mpc. XMM plays a pivotal role in this context as the calibration of X-ray mass measurements through accurate, spatially resolved X-ray temperature measurements (particularly in the cosmologically most sensitive range of kT> 5 keV) is central to the questions outlined above. This set of observations promised to yield the best cluster mass measurements obtained so far for a representative sample, thus allowing us to: 1) Measure the high-mass end of the local cluster mass function; 2) Test predictions of a universal cluster mass profile; 3) calibrate the mass-temperature and temperature-luminosity relations for clusters and the scatter around these relations, which is vital for studies of cluster evolution using the X-ray temperature and X-ray luminosity functions.

  16. Cluster-lensing: A Python Package for Galaxy Clusters and Miscentering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Jes; VanderPlas, Jake

    2016-12-01

    We describe a new open source package for calculating properties of galaxy clusters, including Navarro, Frenk, and White halo profiles with and without the effects of cluster miscentering. This pure-Python package, cluster-lensing, provides well-documented and easy-to-use classes and functions for calculating cluster scaling relations, including mass-richness and mass-concentration relations from the literature, as well as the surface mass density {{Σ }}(R) and differential surface mass density {{Δ }}{{Σ }}(R) profiles, probed by weak lensing magnification and shear. Galaxy cluster miscentering is especially a concern for stacked weak lensing shear studies of galaxy clusters, where offsets between the assumed and the true underlying matter distribution can lead to a significant bias in the mass estimates if not accounted for. This software has been developed and released in a public GitHub repository, and is licensed under the permissive MIT license. The cluster-lensing package is archived on Zenodo. Full documentation, source code, and installation instructions are available at http://jesford.github.io/cluster-lensing/.

  17. Motion Magnification in Coronal Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfinogentov, Sergey; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new method for the investigation of low-amplitude transverse oscillations of solar plasma non-uniformities, such as coronal loops, individual strands in coronal arcades, jets, prominence fibrils, polar plumes, and other contrast features that have been observed with imaging instruments. The method is based on the two-dimensional dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTℂWT). It allows us to magnify transverse, in the plane-of-the-sky, quasi-periodic motions of contrast features in image sequences. The tests performed on the artificial data cubes that imitated exponentially decaying, multi-periodic and frequency-modulated kink oscillations of coronal loops showed the effectiveness, reliability, and robustness of this technique. The algorithm was found to give linear scaling of the magnified amplitudes with the original amplitudes, provided these are sufficiently small. In addition, the magnification is independent of the oscillation period in a broad range of the periods. The application of this technique to SDO/AIA EUV data cubes of a non-flaring active region allowed for the improved detection of low-amplitude decay-less oscillations in the majority of loops.

  18. THE WEIGHT OF EMPTINESS: THE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING SIGNAL OF STACKED VOIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Elisabeth; Dore, Olivier; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2013-01-10

    The upcoming new generation of spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys will provide large samples of cosmic voids, large distinct, underdense structures in the universe. Combining these with future galaxy imaging surveys, we study the prospects of probing the underlying matter distribution in and around cosmic voids via the weak gravitational lensing effects of stacked voids, utilizing both shear and magnification information. The statistical precision is greatly improved by stacking a large number of voids along different lines of sight, even when taking into account the impact of inherent miscentering and projection effects. We show that Dark Energy Task Force Stage IV surveys, such as the Euclid satellite and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, should be able to detect the void lensing signal with sufficient precision from stacking abundant medium-sized voids, thus providing direct constraints on the matter density profile of voids independent of assumptions on galaxy bias.

  19. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick

    2005-12-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening mass. Since the lensing effects arise from deflections of the light rays due to fluctuations of the gravitational potential, they can be directly related to the underlying density field of the large-scale structures. Weak gravitational surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background observations as they probe unbiased nonlinear matter power spectra at medium redshift. Ongoing CMBR experiments such as WMAP and a future Planck satellite mission will measure the standard cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. The focus of attention will then shift to understanding the nature of dark matter and vacuum energy: several recent studies suggest that lensing is the best method for constraining the dark energy equation of state. During the next 5 year period, ongoing and future weak lensing surveys such as the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM; e.g. SNAP) or the Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope will play a major role in advancing our understanding of the universe in this direction. In this review article, we describe various aspects of probing the matter power spectrum and the bi-spectrum and other related statistics with weak lensing surveys. This can be used to probe the background dynamics of the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy.

  20. Redshift distributions of galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification shear catalogue and implications for weak lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnett, C.; Troxel, M. A.; Hartley, W.; Amara, A.; Leistedt, B.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bridle, S. L.; Bruderer, C.; Busha, M. T.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Childress, M. J.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, T. M.; Eifler, T. F.; Frieman, J.; Gangkofner, C.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Kacprzak, T.; King, A.; Kwan, J.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Miquel, R.; O'Neill, C. R.; Palmese, A.; Peiris, H. V.; Refregier, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sadeh, I.; Sánchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Uddin, S.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods—annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-Ufig simulations, skynet, and tpz—are analyzed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evaluated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-z 's. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift 0.72 ±0.01 over the range 0.3 distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of σ8 of approximately 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalogue. We further study the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit , finding levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. We recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n (z ) of width 0.05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

  1. Redshift distributions of galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification shear catalogue and implications for weak lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, C.; Troxel, M. A.; Hartley, W.; Amara, A.; Leistedt, B.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bridle, S. L.; Bruderer, C.; Busha, M. T.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Childress, M. J.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, T. M.; Eifler, T. F.; Frieman, J.; Gangkofner, C.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Kacprzak, T.; King, A.; Kwan, J.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Miquel, R.; O’Neill, C. R.; Palmese, A.; Peiris, H. V.; Refregier, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sadeh, I.; Sánchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Uddin, S.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-08-30

    Here we present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods—annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-Ufig simulations, skynet, and tpz—are analyzed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evaluated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-z’s. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift 0.72±0.01 over the range 0.3distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of σ8 of approximately 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalogue. We further study the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit, finding levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. In conclusion, we recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n(z) of width 0.05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

  2. WITNESSING THE DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION OF DISK GALAXIES IN LUMINOSITY AND SIZE VIA GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Bandara, Kaushala; Crampton, David; Peng, Chien; Simard, Luc

    2013-11-01

    We take advantage of the magnification in size and flux of a galaxy provided by gravitational lensing to analyze the properties of 62 strongly lensed galaxies from the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. The sample of lensed galaxies spans a redshift range of 0.20 ≤ z ≤ 1.20 with a median redshift of z = 0.61. We use the lens modeling code LENSFIT to derive the luminosities, sizes, and Sérsic indices of the lensed galaxies. The measured properties of the lensed galaxies show a primarily compact, {sup d}isk{sup -}like population with the peaks of the size and Sérsic index distributions corresponding to ∼1.50 kpc and n ∼ 1, respectively. Comparison of the SLACS galaxies to a non-lensing, broadband imaging survey shows that a lensing survey allows us to probe a galaxy population that reaches ∼2 mag fainter. Our analysis allows us to compare the (z) = 0.61 disk galaxy sample (n ≤ 2.5) to an unprecedented local galaxy sample of ∼670, 000 SDSS galaxies at z ∼ 0.1; this analysis indicates that the evolution of the luminosity-size relation since z ∼ 1 may not be fully explained by a pure-size or pure-luminosity evolution but may instead require a combination of both. Our observations are also in agreement with recent numerical simulations of disk galaxies that show evidence of a mass-dependent evolution since z ∼ 1, where high-mass disk galaxies (M{sub *} > 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}) evolve more in size and low-mass disk galaxies (M{sub *} ≤ 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}) evolve more in luminosity.

  3. Mesh-free free-form lensing - I. Methodology and application to mass reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, Julian

    2016-09-01

    Many applications and algorithms in the field of gravitational lensing make use of meshes with a finite number of nodes to analyse and manipulate data. Specific examples in lensing are astronomical CCD images in general, the reconstruction of density distributions from lensing data, lens-source plane mapping or the characterization and interpolation of a point spread function. We present a numerical framework to interpolate and differentiate in the mesh-free domain, defined by nodes with coordinates that follow no regular pattern. The framework is based on radial basis functions (RBFs) to smoothly represent data around the nodes. We demonstrate the performance of Gaussian RBF-based, mesh-free interpolation and differentiation, which reaches the sub-percent level in both cases. We use our newly developed framework to translate ideas of free-form mass reconstruction from lensing on to the mesh-free domain. By reconstructing a simulated mock lens we find that strong-lensing only reconstructions achieve <10 per cent accuracy in the areas where these constraints are available but provide poorer results when departing from these regions. Weak-lensing only reconstructions give <10 per cent accuracy outside the strong-lensing regime, but cannot resolve the inner core structure of the lens. Once both regimes are combined, accurate reconstructions can be achieved over the full field of view. The reconstruction of a simulated lens, using constraints that mimics real observations, yields accurate results in terms of surface-mass density, Navarro-Frenk-White profile (NFW) parameters, Einstein radius and magnification map recovery, encouraging the application of this method to real data.

  4. Modelling the impact of intrinsic size and luminosity correlations on magnification estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarlariello, Sandro; Crittenden, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Spatial correlations of the observed sizes and luminosities of galaxies can be used to estimate the magnification that arises through weak gravitational lensing. However, the intrinsic properties of galaxies can be similarly correlated through local physical effects, and these present a possible contamination to the weak lensing estimation. In an earlier paper we modelled the intrinsic size correlations using the halo model, assuming the galaxy sizes reflect the mass in the associated halo. Here we extend this work to consider galaxy magnitudes and show that these may be even more affected by intrinsic correlations than galaxy sizes, making this a bigger systematic for measurements of the weak lensing signal. We also quantify how these intrinsic correlations are affected by sample selection criteria based on sizes and magnitudes.

  5. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  6. Zero-Order Antibiotic Release from Multilayer Contact Lenses: Nonuniform Drug and Diffusivity Distributions Produce Constant-Rate Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Gustavo; Es-Haghi, Siamak Shams; Nugay, Turgut; Cakmak, Mukerrem

    2017-02-01

    A novel approach to zero-order constant-rate drug delivery from contact lenses is presented. Quasi-Case II non-Fickian transport is achieved by nonuniform drug and diffusivity distributions within three-layer bimodal amphiphilic conetworks (β-APCNs). The center layer is a highly oxygen permeable β-APCN matrix, which contains the drug and exhibits a high drug diffusivity. The outer β-APCN layers contain no-drug and are loaded with vitamin E, which slows diffusion. In contrast to single-layer neat-polymer and vitamin E-loaded films that display first-order "burst" kinetics, it is demonstrated experimentally and by modeling that the combined effect of nonuniform distribution of drug loading and diffusion constants within the three-layer lens maintains low local drug concentration at the lens-fluid interface and yields zero-order drug delivery. The release rates of topical antibiotics provide constant-rate therapeutic-level delivery with appropriate oxygen permeability for at least 30 h, at which time ≈25% of the drug was released.

  7. Weak lensing and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Marco; Bertin, Giuseppe

    1999-02-01

    Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to reconstruct the projected mass distribution of a cluster from weak lensing provided that both the geometry of the universe and the probability distribution of galaxy redshifts are known; actually, when additional photometric data are taken to be available, the galaxy redshift distribution could be determined jointly with the cluster mass from the weak lensing analysis. In this paper we develop, in the spirit of a ``thought experiment,'' a method to constrain the geometry of the universe from weak lensing, provided that the redshifts of the source galaxies are measured. The quantitative limits and merits of the method are discussed analytically and with a set of simulations, in relation to point estimation, interval estimation, and test of hypotheses for homogeneous Friedmann-Lema\\^\\i tre models. The constraints turn out to be significant when a few thousand source galaxies are used.

  8. Catastrophic photometric redshift errors: Weak-lensing survey requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Gary; Huterer, Dragan

    2010-01-11

    We study the sensitivity of weak lensing surveys to the effects of catastrophic redshift errors - cases where the true redshift is misestimated by a significant amount. To compute the biases in cosmological parameters, we adopt an efficient linearized analysis where the redshift errors are directly related to shifts in the weak lensing convergence power spectra. We estimate the number Nspec of unbiased spectroscopic redshifts needed to determine the catastrophic error rate well enough that biases in cosmological parameters are below statistical errors of weak lensing tomography. While the straightforward estimate of Nspec is ~106 we find that using only the photometric redshifts with z ≤ 2.5 leads to a drastic reduction in Nspec to ~ 30,000 while negligibly increasing statistical errors in dark energy parameters. Therefore, the size of spectroscopic survey needed to control catastrophic errors is similar to that previously deemed necessary to constrain the core of the zs – zp distribution. We also study the efficacy of the recent proposal to measure redshift errors by cross-correlation between the photo-z and spectroscopic samples. We find that this method requires ~ 10% a priori knowledge of the bias and stochasticity of the outlier population, and is also easily confounded by lensing magnification bias. In conclusion, the cross-correlation method is therefore unlikely to supplant the need for a complete spectroscopic redshift survey of the source population.

  9. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2-2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR (6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  10. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2 to 2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR(6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  11. An accurate and practical method for inference of weak gravitational lensing from galaxy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Gary M.; Armstrong, Robert; Krawiec, Christina; March, Marisa C.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate highly accurate recovery of weak gravitational lensing shear using an implementation of the Bayesian Fourier Domain (BFD) method proposed by Bernstein & Armstrong, extended to correct for selection biases. The BFD formalism is rigorously correct for Nyquist-sampled, background-limited, uncrowded images of background galaxies. BFD does not assign shapes to galaxies, instead compressing the pixel data D into a vector of moments M, such that we have an analytic expression for the probability P(M|g) of obtaining the observations with gravitational lensing distortion g along the line of sight. We implement an algorithm for conducting BFD's integrations over the population of unlensed source galaxies which measures ≈10 galaxies s-1 core-1 with good scaling properties. Initial tests of this code on ≈109 simulated lensed galaxy images recover the simulated shear to a fractional accuracy of m = (2.1 ± 0.4) × 10-3, substantially more accurate than has been demonstrated previously for any generally applicable method. Deep sky exposures generate a sufficiently accurate approximation to the noiseless, unlensed galaxy population distribution assumed as input to BFD. Potential extensions of the method include simultaneous measurement of magnification and shear; multiple-exposure, multiband observations; and joint inference of photometric redshifts and lensing tomography.

  12. Towards noiseless gravitational lensing simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Chen, Ruizhu; Hilbert, Stefan; Abel, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The microphysical properties of the dark matter (DM) particle can, in principle, be constrained by the properties and abundance of substructures in galaxy clusters, as measured through strong gravitational lensing. Unfortunately, there is a lack of accurate theoretical predictions for the lensing signal of these substructures, mainly because of the discreteness noise inherent to N-body simulations. Here, we present a method, dubbed as Recursive-TCM, that is able to provide lensing predictions with an arbitrarily low discreteness noise. This solution is based on a novel way of interpreting the results of N-body simulations, where particles simply trace the evolution and distortion of Lagrangian phase-space volume elements. We discuss the advantages and limitations of this method compared to the widely used density estimators based on cloud-in-cells and adaptive-kernel smoothing. Applying the new method to a cluster-sized DM halo simulated in warm and cold DM scenarios, we show how the expected differences in their substructure population translate into differences in convergence and magnification maps. We anticipate that our method will provide the high-precision theoretical predictions required to interpret and fully exploit strong gravitational lensing observations.

  13. Confocal unstable optical resonator with asymmetrical magnification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, P.

    1981-12-01

    The appropriate combination of spherical and cylindrical mirrors allows one to arrange an unstable laser cavity with asymmetrical magnification and to generate collimated output as well. By introducing two additional cylindrical mirrors into the cavity the aberration problems of tilted mirror systems are avoided. On the other hand, this modification is a low-cost alternative to cavities with diamond-turned mirrors with ellipsoidal surface curvature. In the geometrical-optics limit there exists a unique combination of mirror radii of curvature for a given ratio of magnification at fixed distances between the mirrors.

  14. Confocal unstable optical resonator with asymmetrical magnification.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, P

    1981-12-01

    The appropriate combination of spherical and cylindrical mirrors allows one to arrange an unstable laser cavity with asymmetrical magnification and to generate collimated output as well. By introducing two additional cylindrical mirrors into the cavity the aberration problems of tilted mirror systems are avoided. On the other hand, this modification is a low-cost alternative to cavities with diamond-turned mirrors with ellipsoidal surface curvature. In the geometrical-optics limit there exists a unique combination of mirror radii of curvature for a given ratio of magnification at fixed distances between the mirrors.

  15. Funduscopic systems: magnification in ametropia and aphakia.

    PubMed

    Raasch, T

    1985-01-01

    The magnification of the fundus image with various forms of funduscopy in ametropia and aphakia is poorly understood. This paper investigates these relationships. Direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and biomicroscopic funduscopy is included. The Gullstrand Simplified Schematic Eye is modified by changing either the axial length, the power of the cornea, or the index of refraction of the lens to produce ametropia. Aphakia is produced by considering these same eyes with the crystalline lens removed. The magnification of these various eye/funduscope systems is presented, along with general principles illustrated by the figures.

  16. Effects of lens motion and uneven magnification on image spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Indranil; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2015-07-01

    Counter to intuition, the images of an extended galaxy lensed by a moving galaxy cluster should have slightly different spectra in any metric gravity theory. This is mainly for two reasons. One relies on the gravitational potential of a moving lens being time dependent (the moving cluster effect, MCE). The other is due to uneven magnification across the extended, rotating source (the differential magnification effect, DME). The time delay between the images can also cause their redshifts to differ because of cosmological expansion. This differential expansion effect is likely to be small. Using a simple model, we derive these effects from first principles. One application would be to the Bullet Cluster, whose large tangential velocity may be inconsistent with the Λ cold dark matter paradigm. This velocity can be estimated with complicated hydrodynamic models. Uncertainties with such models can be avoided using the MCE. We argue that the MCE should be observable with Atacama Large Millimetre Array. However, such measurements can be corrupted by the DME if typical spiral galaxies are used as sources. Fortunately, we find that if detailed spectral line profiles were available, then the DME and MCE could be distinguished. It might also be feasible to calculate how much the DME should affect the mean redshift of each image. Resolved observations of the source would be required to do this accurately. The DME is of order the source angular size divided by the Einstein radius times the redshift variation across the source. Thus, it mostly affects nearly edge-on spiral galaxies in certain orientations. This suggests that observers should reduce the DME by careful choice of target, a possibility we discuss in some detail.

  17. Two Lensed Lyman-α Emitting Galaxies at z~ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Wuyts, Eva; Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Dahle, Håkon

    2010-09-01

    We present observations of two strongly lensed z ~ 5 Lyman-α emitting galaxies that were discovered in the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey (SGAS). We identify the two sources as SGAS J091541+382655 at z = 5.200 and SGAS J134331+415455 at z = 4.994. We measure their AB magnitudes at (i, z) = (23.34 ± 0.09, 23.29 ± 0.13) mag and (i, z) = (23.78 ± 0.18, 24.24+0.18 -0.16) mag and the rest-frame equivalent widths of the Lyman-α emission at 25.3 ± 4.1 Å and 135.6 ± 20.3 Å for SGAS J091541+382655 and SGAS J134331+415455, respectively. Each source is strongly lensed by a massive galaxy cluster in the foreground, and the magnifications due to gravitational lensing are recovered from strong lens modeling of the foreground lensing potentials. We use the magnification to calculate the intrinsic, unlensed Lyman-α and UV continuum luminosities for both sources, as well as the implied star formation rates. We find SGAS J091541+382655 and SGAS J134341+415455 to be galaxies with (L Ly-α, L UV) <= (0.6 L* Ly-α, 2 L*UV) and (L Ly-α, L UV) = (0.5 L* Ly-α, 0.9 L*UV), respectively. Comparison of the spectral energy distributions of both sources against stellar population models produces estimates of the mass in young stars in each galaxy; we report an upper limit of M stars <= 7.9+3.7 -2.5 × 107 M sun h -1 0.7 for SGAS J091531+382655 and a range of viable masses for SGAS J134331+415455 of 2 × 108 M sun h -1 0.7< M stars < 6 × 109 M sun h -1 0.7. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovaci

  18. MULTIPOLE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AND HIGH-ORDER PERTURBATIONS ON THE QUADRUPOLE LENS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Z.; Lin, W. P.; Li, G. L.; Kang, X. E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn

    2013-03-10

    An arbitrary surface mass density of the gravitational lens can be decomposed into multipole components. We simulate the ray tracing for the multipolar mass distribution of the generalized Singular Isothermal Sphere model based on deflection angles, which are analytically calculated. The magnification patterns in the source plane are then derived from an inverse shooting technique. As has been found, the caustics of odd mode lenses are composed of two overlapping layers for some lens models. When a point source traverses this kind of overlapping caustics, the image numbers change by {+-}4, rather than {+-}2. There are two kinds of caustic images. One is the critical curve and the other is the transition locus. It is found that the image number of the fold is exactly the average value of image numbers on two sides of the fold, while the image number of the cusp is equal to the smaller one. We also focus on the magnification patterns of the quadrupole (m = 2) lenses under the perturbations of m = 3, 4, and 5 mode components and found that one, two, and three butterfly or swallowtail singularities can be produced, respectively. With the increasing intensity of the high-order perturbations, the singularities grow up to bring sixfold image regions. If these perturbations are large enough to let two or three of the butterflies or swallowtails make contact, then eightfold or tenfold image regions can be produced as well. The possible astronomical applications are discussed.

  19. Electronic magnification and perceived contrast of video.

    PubMed

    Haun, Andrew; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli

    2012-11-01

    Electronic magnification of an image results in a decrease in its perceived contrast. The decrease in perceived contrast could be due to a perceived blur or to limited sampling of the range of contrasts in the original image. We measured the effect on perceived contrast of magnification in two contexts: either a small video was enlarged to fill a larger area, or a portion of a larger video was enlarged to fill the same area as the original. Subjects attenuated the source video contrast to match the perceived contrast of the magnified videos, with the effect increasing with magnification and decreasing with viewing distance. These effects are consistent with expectations based on both the contrast statistics of natural images and the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system. We demonstrate that local regions within videos usually have lower physical contrast than the whole, and that this difference accounts for a minor part of the perceived differences. Instead, visibility of 'missing content' (blur) in a video is misinterpreted as a decrease in contrast. We detail how the effects of magnification on perceived contrast can be measured while avoiding confounding factors.

  20. LENSED: a code for the forward reconstruction of lenses and sources from strong lensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessore, Nicolas; Bellagamba, Fabio; Metcalf, R. Benton

    2016-12-01

    Robust modelling of strong lensing systems is fundamental to exploit the information they contain about the distribution of matter in galaxies and clusters. In this work, we present LENSED, a new code which performs forward parametric modelling of strong lenses. LENSED takes advantage of a massively parallel ray-tracing kernel to perform the necessary calculations on a modern graphics processing unit (GPU). This makes the precise rendering of the background lensed sources much faster, and allows the simultaneous optimization of tens of parameters for the selected model. With a single run, the code is able to obtain the full posterior probability distribution for the lens light, the mass distribution and the background source at the same time. LENSED is first tested on mock images which reproduce realistic space-based observations of lensing systems. In this way, we show that it is able to recover unbiased estimates of the lens parameters, even when the sources do not follow exactly the assumed model. Then, we apply it to a subsample of the Sloan Lens ACS Survey lenses, in order to demonstrate its use on real data. The results generally agree with the literature, and highlight the flexibility and robustness of the algorithm.

  1. Magnified Views of Relativistic Outflows in Gravitationally Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartas, G.; Cappi, M.; Hamann, F.; Eracleous, M.; Strickland, S.; Vignali, C.; Dadina, M.; Giustini, M.; Saez, C.; Misawa, T.

    2016-06-01

    We presents results from X-ray observations of relativistic outflows in lensed quasars. The lensing magnification of the observed objects provides high signal-to-noise X-ray spectra of quasars showing the absorption signatures of relativistic outflows at redshifts near a crucial phase of black hole growth and the peak of cosmic AGN activity. We summarise the properties of the wide-angle relativistic outflow of the z = 1.51 NAL quasar HS 0810 detected in recent deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of this object. We also present preliminary results from a mini-survey of gravitationally lensed mini-BAL quasars performed with XMM-Newton.

  2. Improving lensing cluster mass estimate with flexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, V. F.; Vicinanza, M.; Er, X.; Maoli, R.; Scaramella, R.

    2016-11-01

    Gravitational lensing has long been considered as a valuable tool to determine the total mass of galaxy clusters. The shear profile, as inferred from the statistics of ellipticity of background galaxies, allows us to probe the cluster intermediate and outer regions, thus determining the virial mass estimate. However, the mass sheet degeneracy and the need for a large number of background galaxies motivate the search for alternative tracers which can break the degeneracy among model parameters and hence improve the accuracy of the mass estimate. Lensing flexion, i.e. the third derivative of the lensing potential, has been suggested as a good answer to the above quest since it probes the details of the mass profile. We investigate here whether this is indeed the case considering jointly using weak lensing, magnification and flexion. We use a Fisher matrix analysis to forecast the relative improvement in the mass accuracy for different assumptions on the shear and flexion signal-to- noise (S/N) ratio also varying the cluster mass, redshift, and ellipticity. It turns out that the error on the cluster mass may be reduced up to a factor of ˜2 for reasonable values of the flexion S/N ratio. As a general result, we get that the improvement in mass accuracy is larger for more flattened haloes, but it extracting general trends is difficult because of the many parameters at play. We nevertheless find that flexion is as efficient as magnification to increase the accuracy in both mass and concentration determination.

  3. Zoom microscope objective using electrowetting lenses.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-02-08

    We report a zoom microscope objective which can achieve continuous zoom change and correct the aberrations dynamically. The objective consists of three electrowetting liquid lenses and two glass lenses. The magnification is changed by applying voltages on the three electrowetting lenses. Besides, the three electrowetting liquid lenses can play a role to correct the aberrations. A digital microscope based on the proposed objective is demonstrated. We analyzed the properties of the proposed objective. In contrast to the conventional objectives, the proposed objective can be tuned from ~7.8 × to ~13.2 × continuously. For our objective, the working distance is fixed, which means no movement parts are needed to refocus or change its magnification. Moreover, the zoom objective can be dynamically optimized for a wide range of wavelength. Using such an objective, the fabrication tolerance of the optical system is larger than that of a conventional system, which can decrease the fabrication cost. The proposed zoom microscope objective cannot only take place of the conventional objective, but also has potential application in the 3D microscopy.

  4. INCLINATION-DEPENDENT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FLUX PROFILES FROM STRONG LENSING OF THE KERR SPACETIME

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bin; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, E.

    2013-01-10

    Recent quasar microlensing observations have constrained the X-ray emission sizes of quasars to be about 10 gravitational radii, one order of magnitude smaller than the optical emission sizes. Using a new ray-tracing code for the Kerr spacetime, we find that the observed X-ray flux is strongly influenced by the gravity field of the central black hole, even for observers at moderate inclination angles. We calculate inclination-dependent flux profiles of active galactic nuclei in the optical and X-ray bands by combining the Kerr lensing and projection effects for future reference. We further study the dependence of the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio on the inclination angle caused by differential lensing distortion of the X-ray and optical emission, assuming several corona geometries. The strong lensing X-ray-to-optical magnification ratio can change by a factor of {approx}10 for normal quasars in some cases, and a further factor of {approx}10 for broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and obscured quasars. Comparing our results with the observed distributions in normal and BAL quasars, we find that the inclination angle dependence of the magnification ratios can significantly change the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio distributions. In particular, the mean value of the spectrum slope parameter {alpha}{sub ox}, 0.3838log F {sub 2keV}/F {sub 2500A}, can differ by {approx}0.1-0.2 between normal and BAL quasars, depending on corona geometries, suggesting larger intrinsic absorptions in BAL quasars.

  5. Numerical parametric lens for shifting, magnification, and complete aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Colomb, Tristan; Montfort, Frédéric; Kühn, Jonas; Aspert, Nicolas; Cuche, Etienne; Marian, Anca; Charrière, Florian; Bourquin, Sébastien; Marquet, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian

    2006-12-01

    The concept of numerical parametric lenses (NPL) is introduced to achieve wavefront reconstruction in digital holography. It is shown that operations usually performed by optical components and described in ray geometrical optics, such as image shifting, magnification, and especially complete aberration compensation (phase aberrations and image distortion), can be mimicked by numerical computation of a NPL. Furthermore, we demonstrate that automatic one-dimensional or two-dimensional fitting procedures allow adjustment of the NPL parameters as expressed in terms of standard or Zernike polynomial coefficients. These coefficients can provide a quantitative evaluation of the aberrations generated by the specimen. Demonstration is given of the reconstruction of the topology of a microlens.

  6. Beyond concordance cosmology with magnification of gravitational-wave standard sirens.

    PubMed

    Camera, Stefano; Nishizawa, Atsushi

    2013-04-12

    We show how future gravitational-wave detectors would be able to discriminate between the concordance Λ cold dark matter cosmological model and up-to-date competing alternatives, e.g., dynamical dark energy (DE) models or modified gravity (MG) theories. Our method consists of using the weak-lensing magnification effect that affects a standard-siren signal because of its traveling through the Universe's large scale structure. As a demonstration, we present constraints on DE and MG from proposed gravitational-wave detectors, namely Einstein Telescope and DECI-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Big-Bang Observer.

  7. Beyond Concordance Cosmology with Magnification of Gravitational-Wave Standard Sirens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, Stefano; Nishizawa, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    We show how future gravitational-wave detectors would be able to discriminate between the concordance Λ cold dark matter cosmological model and up-to-date competing alternatives, e.g., dynamical dark energy (DE) models or modified gravity (MG) theories. Our method consists of using the weak-lensing magnification effect that affects a standard-siren signal because of its traveling through the Universe’s large scale structure. As a demonstration, we present constraints on DE and MG from proposed gravitational-wave detectors, namely Einstein Telescope and DECI-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Big-Bang Observer.

  8. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. , Benett

    1994-01-01

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic.

  9. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, R.J.; Benett, W.J.

    1994-04-26

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding is described. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic. 3 figures.

  10. Computational hair quality categorization in lower magnifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heshmat, Barmak; Ikoma, Hayato; Lee, Ik Hyun; Rastogi, Krishna; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    We take advantage of human hair specific geometry to visualize sparse submicron cuticle peelings with highly oblique tip-side illumination. We show that the statistics of these features can directly estimate hair quality in much lower magnifications (down to 20x) with less powerful objectives when the features themselves are below the system resolution. Our technique has strong potential for lower cost, portable, and autonomous hair diagnostic apparatuses.

  11. Subselective magnification angiography of experimental pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Bookstein, J.J.; Alazraki, N.P.; Jassy, L.N.

    1983-04-01

    An experiment was designed to determine whether or not acute pneumococcal pneumonia in dogs is associated with intravascular thrombosis, or with angiographic features distinguishable from pulmonary embolism. In dogs with normal baseline chest radiographs and perfusion scans, pneumonia was produced by transbronchial instillation of type III pneumococcus. After 2 days, perfusion scans demonstrated discrete appropriate defects. In vivo magnification pulmonary arteriography, postmortem pulmonary arteriography, and histologic examination disclosed no evidence of thrombi.

  12. Gravitational lensing by ring-like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Ethan; Zheng, Zheng

    2017-02-01

    We study a class of gravitational lensing systems consisting of an inclined ring/belt, with and without an added point mass at the centre. We show that a common feature of such systems are so-called pseudo-caustics, across which the magnification of a point source changes discontinuously and yet remains finite. Such a magnification change can be associated with either a change in image multiplicity or a sudden change in the size of a lensed image. The existence of pseudo-caustics and the complex interplay between them and the formal caustics (which correspond to points of infinite magnification) can lead to interesting consequences, such as truncated or open caustics and a non-conservation of total image parity. The origin of the pseudo-caustics is found to be the non-differentiability of the solutions to the lens equation across the ring/belt boundaries, with the pseudo-caustics corresponding to ring/belt boundaries mapped into the source plane. We provide a few illustrative examples to understand the pseudo-caustic features, and in a separate paper consider a specific astronomical application of our results to study microlensing by extrasolar asteroid belts.

  13. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie

    2015-05-15

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  14. Algorithms and Programs for Strong Gravitational Lensing In Kerr Space-time Including Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie; Maddumage, Prasad

    2015-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  15. A proposed design and fabrication of lenses and mirrors from a set of spherical rings that produce desired energy distributions for solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Jorge; Vazquez-Montiel, Sergio; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cordero-Davila, Alberto; Castro-Gonzalez, Graciela

    2009-12-15

    The amount of energy contained in the solar aureole affects the performance of solar systems. Solar optical systems are, therefore, dependent on the characteristics of the shape of the sun in a specific geographical location. For this reason, the present study proposes the design of solid lenses and mirrors modelled from a set of concentric spherical rings that give a desired distribution of energy in the focal plane. One hundred spherical rings, whose optimum curvature radius values were calculated by Genetic Algorithms, were employed in the modelling process. The study also proposes a design of a petal tool to polish lens and mirror surfaces. (author)

  16. Stellar Populations of Highly Magnified Lensed Galaxies Young Starburst at Z to Approximately 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuyts, Eva; Rigby, Jane R.; Gladders, Michael D.; Gilbank, David G.; Sharon, Keren; Gralla, Megan B.; Bayliss, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the rest-frame UV to near-IR spectral energy distributions and rest-frame optical spectra of four of the brightest gravitationally lensed galaxies in the literature: RCSGA 032727-132609 at z = 170, MS1512-cB58 at z = 2.73, SGAS J152745.1+065219 at z = 2.76 and SGAS J12265L3+215220 at z = 2.92. This includes new Spitzer imaging for RCSGA0327 as well as new spectra, near-IR imaging and Spitzer imaging for SGAS1527 and SGAS1226. Lensing magnifications of 3-4 magnitudes allow a detailed study of the stellar populations and physical conditions. We compare star formation rates as measured from the SED fit, the Ha and [O II] .(lambda)3727 emission lines, and the UV+IR bolometric luminosity where 24micron photometry is available. The SFR estimate from the SED fit is consistently higher than the other indicators, which suggests that the Calzetti dust extinction law used in the SED fitting is too flat for young star-forming galaxies at z approx. 2. Our analysis finds similar stellar population parameters for all four lensed galaxies: stellar masses 3 - 7 x 10(exp 9) Stellar mass, young ages approx. 100 Myr, little dust content E(B - V)=0.10-0.25, and star formation rates around 20- 100 Stellar mass/y. Compared to typical values for the galaxy population at z approx. 2, this suggests we are looking at newly formed, starbursting systems that have only recently started the build-up of stellar mass. These results constitute the first detailed, uniform analysis of a sample of the growing number of strongly lensed galaxies known at z approx. 2. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift, strong gravitational lensing, infrared: galaxies

  17. Roulettes: a weak lensing formalism for strong lensing: I. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, Chris

    2016-08-01

    We present a new perspective on gravitational lensing. We describe a new extension of the weak lensing formalism capable of describing strongly lensed images. By integrating the nonlinear geodesic deviation equation, the amplification matrix of weak lensing is generalised to a sum over independent amplification tensors of increasing rank. We show how an image distorted by a generic lens may be constructed as a sum over ‘roulettes’, which are the natural curves associated with the independent spin modes of the amplification tensors. Highly distorted images can be constructed even for large sources observed near or within the Einstein radius of a lens where the shear and convergence are large. The amplitude of each roulette is formed from a sum over appropriate derivatives of the lensing potential. Consequently, measuring these individual roulettes for images around a lens gives a new way to reconstruct a strong lens mass distribution without requiring a lens model. This formalism generalises the convergence, shear and flexion of weak lensing to arbitrary order, and provides a unified bridge between the strong and weak lensing regimes. This overview paper is accompanied by a much more detailed paper II, arXiv:1603.04652.

  18. Gravitational Lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-06-24

    In a long line of intellectual triumphs, Einstein’s theory of general relativity was his greatest and most imaginative. It tells us that what we experience as gravity can be most accurately described as the bending of space itself. This idea leads to consequences, including gravitational lensing, which is caused by light traveling in this curved space. This is works in a way analogous to a lens (and hence the name). In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains a little general relativity, a little gravitational lensing, and tells us how this phenomenon allows us to map out the matter of the entire universe, including the otherwise-invisible dark matter.

  19. Gravitational Lensing

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    In a long line of intellectual triumphs, Einstein’s theory of general relativity was his greatest and most imaginative. It tells us that what we experience as gravity can be most accurately described as the bending of space itself. This idea leads to consequences, including gravitational lensing, which is caused by light traveling in this curved space. This is works in a way analogous to a lens (and hence the name). In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains a little general relativity, a little gravitational lensing, and tells us how this phenomenon allows us to map out the matter of the entire universe, including the otherwise-invisible dark matter.

  20. Herschel *-ATLAS: deep HST/WFC3 imaging of strongly lensed submillimetre galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrello, M.; Hopwood, R.; Dye, S.; Cunha, E. da; Serjeant, S.; Fritz, J.; Rowlands, K.; Fleuren, S.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Lapi, A.; Omont, A.; Amber, S.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Danese, L.; Dariush, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Kim, S.; Leeuw, L.; Maddox, S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Massardi, M.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Smith, D. J. B.; Sutherland, W.; Temi, P.; Wardlow, J.

    2014-05-01

    We report on deep near-infrared observations obtained with the Wide Field Camera-3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the first five confirmed gravitational lensing events discovered by the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). We succeed in disentangling the background galaxy from the lens to gain separate photometry of the two components. The HST data allow us to significantly improve on previous constraints of the mass in stars of the lensed galaxy and to perform accurate lens modelling of these systems, as described in the accompanying paper by Dye et al. We fit the spectral energy distributions of the background sources from near-IR to millimetre wavelengths and use the magnification factors estimated by Dye et al. to derive the intrinsic properties of the lensed galaxies. We find these galaxies to have star-formations rates (SFR) ˜ 400-2000 M⊙ yr-1, with ˜(6-25) × 1010 M⊙ of their baryonic mass already turned into stars. At these rates of star formation, all remaining molecular gas will be exhausted in less than ˜100 Myr, reaching a final mass in stars of a few 1011 M⊙. These galaxies are thus proto-ellipticals caught during their major episode of star formation, and observed at the peak epoch (z ˜ 1.5-3) of the cosmic star formation history of the Universe.

  1. Probing small-scale structure in galaxies with strong gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Arthur Benjamin

    We use gravitational lensing to study the small-scale distribution of matter in galaxies. First, we examine galaxies and their dark matter halos. Roughly half of all observed four-image quasar lenses have image flux ratios that differ from the values predicted by simple lens potentials. We show that smooth departures from elliptical symmetry fail to explain anomalous radio fluxes, strengthening the case for dark matter substructure. Our results have important implications for the "missing satellites'' problem. We then consider how time delays between lensed images can be used to identify lens galaxies containing small-scale structure. We derive an analytic relation for the time delay between the close pair of images in a "fold'' lens, and perform Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the utility of time delays for probing small- scale structure in realistic lens populations. We compare our numerical predictions with systems that have measured time delays and discover two anomalous lenses. Next, we consider microlensing, where stars in the lens galaxy perturb image magnifications. This is relevant at optical wavelengths, where the size of the lensed source is comparable to the Einstein radius of a typical star. Our simulations of negative-parity images show that raising the fraction of dark matter relative to stars increases image flux variability for small sources, and decreases it for large sources. This suggests that quasar accretion disks and broad-emission-line regions may respond differently to microlensing. We also consider extended sources with a range of ellipticities, which has relevance to a population of inclined accretion disks. Depending on their orientation, more elongated sources lead to more rapid variability, which may complicate the interpretation of microlensing light curves. Finally, we consider prospects for observing strong lensing by the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*. Assuming a black hole on the million

  2. The effects of velocities and lensing on moments of the Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaulay, E.; Davis, T. M.; Scovacricchi, D.; Bacon, D.; Collett, T.; Nichol, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the dispersion on the supernova distance-redshift relation due to peculiar velocities and gravitational lensing, and the sensitivity of these effects to the amplitude of the matter power spectrum. We use the MeMo lensing likelihood developed by Marra & Amendola (2014), which accounts for the characteristic non-Gaussian distribution caused by lensing magnification with measurements of the first four central moments of the distribution of magnitudes. We build on the MeMo likelihood by including the effects of peculiar velocities directly into the model for the moments. In order to measure the moments from sparse numbers of supernovae, we take a new approach using Kernel Density Estimation to estimate the underlying probability density function of the magnitude residuals. We also describe a bootstrap re-sampling approach to estimate the data covariance matrix. We then apply the method to the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA) supernova catalogue. When we impose only that the intrinsic dispersion in magnitudes is independent of redshift, we find σ _8=0.44^{+0.63}_{-0.44} at the one standard deviation level, although we note that in tests on simulations, this model tends to overestimate the magnitude of the intrinsic dispersion, and underestimate σ8. We note that the degeneracy between intrinsic dispersion and the effects of σ8 is more pronounced when lensing and velocity effects are considered simultaneously, due to a cancellation of redshift dependence when both effects are included. Keeping the model of the intrinsic dispersion fixed as a Gaussian distribution of width 0.14 mag, we find σ _8 = 1.07^{+0.50}_{-0.76}.

  3. Paraxial analysis of double-sided telecentric zoom lenses with three components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-08-01

    A general method for the calculation of paraxial design parameters of a double-sided telecentric zoom lens system with three components is given. Formulas that define the interval distances between components while zooming, the extremum of magnification, and the magnification of each component are derived. The kinetic property of the zoom system is also discussed. As a result of the study, a classification of three-component double-sided telecentric zoom lenses is given, which is based on the magnification, signs of component optical power, and the position of stop while zooming. Some numerical examples are given in the third section of the paper.

  4. Stress intensity magnification factors for fully circumferential cracks in valve bodies (thick cylinders)

    SciTech Connect

    Toor, P.M.

    1998-11-01

    The stress intensity solutions presented herein were obtained using an energy method in conjunction with a two-dimensional finite element program in order to explicitly account for curvature effect for fully circumferential cracks. The magnification factors for a specific crack depth were calculated by successively loading the crack surface by a uniform, linear, quadratic, and a cubic loading distribution. The magnification factors can be used to calculate the stress intensity factors by superposition method. The functions for each load condition in terms of radius to thickness ratio (R/t) and a fractional distance in terms of crack depth to thickness ratio (a/t) were developed. The validity of these functions is R/t = 1.5 to 10.0 and for 0.0125 {le} a/t {le} 0.8125. The functions agree to within 1% of the finite elements solutions for most magnification factors.

  5. Phakic Intraocular Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Implants and Prosthetics Phakic Intraocular Lenses Phakic Intraocular Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Phakic intraocular lenses are new devices used to correct nearsightedness. These ...

  6. Variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence x ray telescope is disclosed, which capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more ellipsoidal mirrors are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis, each mirror having a concave surface coated with a multilayer synthetic microstructure coating to reflect a desired wavelength. The ellipsoidal mirrors are segments of respective ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second focus of each of the ellipsoids so that each of the ellipsoidal mirrors may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector. In one embodiment the mirrors are inclined at different angles and has its respective second focus at a different location, separate detectors being located at the respective second focus. The mirrors are arranged so that the magnification and field of view differ, and a solenoid activated arm may withdraw at least one mirror from the beam to select the mirror upon which the beam is to impinge so that selected magnifications and fields of view may be detected.

  7. GPU-based video motion magnification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DomŻał, Mariusz; Jedrasiak, Karol; Sobel, Dawid; Ryt, Artur; Nawrat, Aleksander

    2016-06-01

    Video motion magnification (VMM) allows people see otherwise not visible subtle changes in surrounding world. VMM is also capable of hiding them with a modified version of the algorithm. It is possible to magnify motion related to breathing of patients in hospital to observe it or extinguish it and extract other information from stabilized image sequence for example blood flow. In both cases we would like to perform calculations in real time. Unfortunately, the VMM algorithm requires a great amount of computing power. In the article we suggest that VMM algorithm can be parallelized (each thread processes one pixel) and in order to prove that we implemented the algorithm on GPU using CUDA technology. CPU is used only to grab, write, display frame and schedule work for GPU. Each GPU kernel performs spatial decomposition, reconstruction and motion amplification. In this work we presented approach that achieves a significant speedup over existing methods and allow to VMM process video in real-time. This solution can be used as preprocessing for other algorithms in more complex systems or can find application wherever real time motion magnification would be useful. It is worth to mention that the implementation runs on most modern desktops and laptops compatible with CUDA technology.

  8. Spitzer/IRAC Imaging of Exceptionally Bright Cluster-Lensed Submillimeter Galaxies Discovered by the Herschel Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald; Rawle, Timothy; Clement, Benjamin; Walth, Gregory; Pereira, Maria; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years, discoveries of exceptionally bright (e.g., observed S_peak > 100 mJy in the Herschel/SPIRE bands) gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have generated great excitement. This is because these gravitationally lensed SMGs are so bright that they enable us to perform a variety of follow-up observations using a suite of observing facilities in the submillimeter, millimeter, and radio now available on the ground. Using Herschel, our team has been conducting a survey of such bright lensed galaxies in the fields of massive galaxy clusters: ``The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS)'' (PI: Egami; 419 hours). This large Herschel program targets a total of 581 X-ray/SZ-selected massive clusters, and is currently 80% complete. Cluster lenses are often more powerful than galaxy lenses, producing larger magnifications. For example, typical magnification factors for galaxy-lensed Herschel sources are x10 or less while cluster-lensed systems can often produce magnification factors of x20-30 and even above x100. Cluster lenses will therefore allow us to detect and study intrinsically less-luminous and/or more distant sources with the ability to provide a view of finer-scale (i.e., sub-kpc) structures. Here, we propose to conduct Spitzer/IRAC imaging of 56 bright lensed SMG candidates we have identified in the ~470 HLS cluster fields observed so far. The main scientific goal is twofold: (1) to locate the underlying stellar component, and (2) to study its properties (e.g., stellar mass, specific star-formation rate) by constraining the rest-frame near-infrared SED and comparing with the Herschel and other submillimeter/millimeter data (e.g., SMA, PdB, ALMA, etc.). These rare bright lensed SMGs will allow us to probe the population of heavily dust-obscured vigorously star-forming galaxies at high redshift (z>1), which is thought to play an important role in the cosmic star-formation history of the Universe and yet has been difficult to study due to the

  9. Redshift distributions of galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification shear catalogue and implications for weak lensing

    DOE PAGES

    Bonnett, C.; Troxel, M. A.; Hartley, W.; ...

    2016-08-30

    Here we present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods—annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-Ufig simulations, skynet, and tpz—are analyzed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evaluated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-z’s. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have meanmore » redshift 0.72±0.01 over the range 0.38 of approximately 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalogue. We further study the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit, finding levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. In conclusion, we recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n(z) of width 0.05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.« less

  10. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Contact Lenses Sections Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Proper ... to Know About Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  11. Cortical Magnification Plus Cortical Plasticity Equals Vision?

    PubMed Central

    Born, Richard T.; Trott, Alexander; Hartmann, Till

    2014-01-01

    Most approaches to visual prostheses have focused on the retina, and for good reasons. The earlier that one introduces signals into the visual system, the more one can take advantage of its prodigious computational abilities. For methods that make use of microelectrodes to introduce electrical signals, however, the limited density and volume occupying nature of the electrodes place severe limits on the image resolution that can be provided to the brain. In this regard, non-retinal areas in general, and the primary visual cortex in particular, possess one large advantage: “magnification factor” (MF)—a value that represents the distance across a sheet of neurons that represents a given angle of the visual field. In the foveal representation of primate primary visual cortex, the MF is enormous—on the order of 15–20 mm/deg in monkeys and humans, whereas on the retina, the MF is limited by the optical design of the eye to around 0.3 mm/deg. This means that, for an electrode array of a given density, a much higher- resolution image can be introduced into V1 than onto the retina (or any other visual structure). In addition to this tremendous advantage in resolution, visual cortex is plastic at many different levels ranging from a very local ability to learn to better detect electrical stimulation to higher levels of learning that permit human observers to adapt to radical changes to their visual inputs. We argue that the combination of the large magnification factor and the impressive ability of the cerebral cortex to learn to recognize arbitrary patterns, might outweigh the disadvantages of bypassing earlier processing stages and makes V1 a viable option for the restoration of vision. PMID:25449335

  12. Effects of magnification and visual accommodation on aimpoint estimation in simulated landings with real and virtual image displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J.; Roscoe, S. N.; Petitt, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty professional pilots observed a computer-generated airport scene during simulated autopilot-coupled night landing approaches and at two points (20 sec and 10 sec before touchdown) judged whether the airplane would undershoot or overshoot the aimpoint. Visual accommodation was continuously measured using an automatic infrared optometer. Experimental variables included approach slope angle, display magnification, visual focus demand (using ophthalmic lenses), and presentation of the display as either a real (direct view) or a virtual (collimated) image. Aimpoint judgments shifted predictably with actual approach slope and display magnification. Both pilot judgments and measured accommodation interacted with focus demand with real-image displays but not with virtual-image displays. With either type of display, measured accommodation lagged far behind focus demand and was reliably less responsive to the virtual images. Pilot judgments shifted dramatically from an overwhelming perceived-overshoot bias 20 sec before touchdown to a reliable undershoot bias 10 sec later.

  13. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Glasses and Contact Lenses KidsHealth > For Kids > Glasses and Contact Lenses Print A A A What's in this ... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ...

  14. Gravitational lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, E.L.

    1988-07-01

    For several years astronomers have devoted considerable effort to finding and studying a class of celestial phenomena whose very existence depends on rare cosmic accidents. These are gravitational-lens events, which occur when two or more objects at different distances from the earth happen to lie along the same line of sight and so coincide in the sky. The radiation from the more distant object, typically a quasar, is bent by the gravitational field of the foreground object. The bending creates a cosmic mirage: distorted or multiple images of the background object. Such phenomena may reveal many otherwise undetectable features of the image source, of the foreground object and of the space lying between them. Such observations could help to resolve several fundamental questions in cosmology. In the past decade theoretical and observational research on gravitational lenses has grown rapidly and steadily. At this writing at least 17 candidate lens systems have been discussed in the literature. Of the 17 lens candidates reported so far in professional literature, only five are considered to have been reliably established by subsequent observations. Another three are generally regarded as weak or speculative cases with less than 50 percent chance of actually being lens systems. In the remaining nine cases the evidence is mixed or is sparse enough so that the final judgment could swing either way. As might be concluded, little of the scientific promise of gravitational lenses has yet been realized. The work has not yielded a clear value for the proportionality constant or any of the other fundamental cosmological parameter. 7 figs.

  15. Measuring magnification of virtual images using digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Mickey D.; Snelling, Samantha

    2016-11-01

    The concept of virtual images and why they lead to angular rather than linear magnification of optical images can be vague for students. A particularly straightforward method of obtaining quantitative magnification for simple magnifiers, microscopes, and telescopes uses the technology that students carry in their backpacks—their camera phones.

  16. Variable magnification considerations for airborne, moving map displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Charles P.

    Color moving-map displays are increasingly being recommended for inclusion in the crewstations of modern aircraft. Research evaluates display magnification requirements for color moving-map display systems for two map scale uses, three map scales and two lighting conditions. Results show significant differences in magnification requirements for different map uses, map scales and lighting conditions. Results suggest the need for new guidelines.

  17. Stellar Populations of Highly Magnified Lensed Galaxies: Young Starbursts at Z approximately 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuyts, Eva; Rigby, Jane R.; Gladders, Michael D.; Gilbank, David G.; Sharon, Keren; Gralla, Megan B.; Bayliss, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the rest-frame UV to near-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and rest-frame optical spectra of four of the brightest gravitationally lensed galaxies in the literature: RCSGA 032727-132609 at z = 1.70, MS1512-cB58 at z = 2.73, SGAS J152745.1+065219 at z = 2.76, and SGAS J122651.3+215220 at z = 2.92. This includes new Spitzer imaging for RCSGA0327 as well as new spectra, near-IR imaging and Spitzer imaging for SGAS1527 and SGAS1226. Lensing magnifications of 3-4 mag allow a detailed study of the stellar populations and physical conditions. We compare star formation rates (SFRs) as measured from the SED fit, the Ha and [O II] ?3727 emission lines, and the UV+IR bolometric luminosity where 24 micron photometry is available. The SFR estimate from the SED fit is consistently higher than the other indicators, which suggests that the Calzetti dust extinction law used in the SED fitting is too flat for young star-forming galaxies at z 2. Our analysis finds similar stellar population parameters for all four lensed galaxies: stellar masses (3-7) ? 10(exp 9)Solar M young ages approx 100 Myr, little dust content E(B - V) = 0.10-0.25, and SFRs around 20-100 solar M/ yr. Compared to typical values for the galaxy population at z approx. 2, this suggests we are looking at newly formed, starbursting systems that have only recently started the buildup of stellar mass. These results constitute the first detailed, uniform analysis of a sample of the growing number of strongly lensed galaxies known at z approx 2.

  18. Stellar Populations of Highly Magnified Lensed Galaxies: Young Starbursts at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuyts, Eva; Rigby, Jane R.; Gladders, Michael D.; Gilbank, David G.; Sharon, Keren; Gralla, Megan B.; Bayliss, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the rest-frame UV to near-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and rest-frame optical spectra of four of the brightest gravitationally lensed galaxies in the literature: RCSGA 032727-132609 at z = 1.70, MS1512-cB58 at z = 2.73, SGAS J152745.1+065219 at z = 2.76, and SGAS J122651.3+215220 at z = 2.92. This includes new Spitzer imaging for RCSGA0327 as well as new spectra, near-IR imaging and Spitzer imaging for SGAS1527 and SGAS1226. Lensing magnifications of 3-4 mag allow a detailed study of the stellar populations and physical conditions. We compare star formation rates (SFRs) as measured from the SED fit, the Hα and [O II] λ3727 emission lines, and the UV+IR bolometric luminosity where 24 μm photometry is available. The SFR estimate from the SED fit is consistently higher than the other indicators, which suggests that the Calzetti dust extinction law used in the SED fitting is too flat for young star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2. Our analysis finds similar stellar population parameters for all four lensed galaxies: stellar masses (3-7) × 109 M ⊙, young ages ~100 Myr, little dust content E(B - V) = 0.10-0.25, and SFRs around 20-100 M ⊙ yr-1. Compared to typical values for the galaxy population at z ~ 2, this suggests we are looking at newly formed, starbursting systems that have only recently started the buildup of stellar mass. These results constitute the first detailed, uniform analysis of a sample of the growing number of strongly lensed galaxies known at z ~ 2. Based in part on observations collected at the 3.5 m Apache Point Observatory telescope in New Mexico, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  19. Discovery of A Very Bright, Strongly-Lensed z=2 Galaxy in the SDSS DR5

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Huan; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Diehl, H.Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Annis, James; Frieman, Joshua A.; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; /Wako, RIKEN

    2008-09-30

    We report on the discovery of a very bright z = 2.00 star-forming galaxy that is strongly lensed by a foreground z = 0.422 luminous red galaxy (LRG). This system was found in a systematic search for bright arcs lensed by LRGs and brightest cluster galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 sample. Follow-up observations on the Subaru 8.2m telescope on Mauna Kea and the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system. A simple lens model for the system, assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass distribution, yields an Einstein radius of {theta}{sub Ein} = 3.82 {+-} 0.03{double_prime} or 14.8 {+-} 0.1h{sup -1} kpc at the lens redshift. The total projected mass enclosed within the Einstein radius is 2.10 {+-} 0.03 x 10{sup 12}h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}, and the magnification factor for the source galaxy is 27 {+-} 1. Combining the lens model with our gVriz photometry, we find an (unlensed) star formation rate for the source galaxy of 32 h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} hr{sup -1}, adopting a fiducial constant star formation rate model with an age of 100 Myr and E(B-V) = 0.25. With an apparent magnitude of r = 19.9, this system is among the very brightest lensed z {ge} 2 galaxies, and provides an excellent opportunity to pursue detailed studies of the physical properties of an individual high-redshift star-forming galaxy.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A VERY BRIGHT, STRONGLY LENSED z = 2 GALAXY IN THE SDSS DR5

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Huan; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Diehl, H. Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Annis, James; Frieman, Joshua A.; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa

    2009-07-10

    We report on the discovery of a very bright z = 2.00 star-forming galaxy that is strongly lensed by a foreground z = 0.422 luminous red galaxy (LRG), SDSS J120602.09+514229.5. This system, nicknamed the 'Clone', was found in a systematic search for bright arcs lensed by LRGs and brightest cluster galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 sample. Follow-up observations on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope on Mauna Kea and the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system. A simple lens model for the system, assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass distribution, yields an Einstein radius of {theta}{sub Ein} = 3.82 {+-} 0.''03 or 14.8 {+-} 0.1 h{sup -1} kpc at the lens redshift. The total projected mass enclosed within the Einstein radius is 2.10 {+-} 0.03 x 10{sup 12} h {sup -1} M{sub sun}, and the magnification factor for the source galaxy is 27 {+-} 1. Combining the lens model with our gVriz photometry, we find a (unlensed) star formation rate (SFR) for the source galaxy of 32 h{sup -1} M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}, adopting a fiducial constant SFR model with an age of 100 Myr and E(B - V) = 0.25. With an apparent magnitude of r = 19.8, this system is among the very brightest lensed z {>=} 2 galaxies, and provides an excellent opportunity to pursue detailed studies of the physical properties of an individual high-redshift star-forming galaxy.

  1. An analytical approach to gravitational lensing by an ensemble of axisymmetric lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Man Hoi; Spergel, David N.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of gravitational lensing by an ensemble of identical axisymmetric lenses randomly distributed on a single lens plane is considered and a formal expression is derived for the joint probability density of finding shear and convergence at a random point on the plane. The amplification probability for a source can be accurately estimated from the distribution in shear and convergence. This method is applied to two cases: lensing by an ensemble of point masses and by an ensemble of objects with Gaussian surface mass density. There is no convergence for point masses whereas shear is negligible for wide Gaussian lenses.

  2. SEARCHING FOR COOLING SIGNATURES IN STRONG LENSING GALAXY CLUSTERS: EVIDENCE AGAINST BARYONS SHAPING THE MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Peter K.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; McDonald, Michael; Dahle, Hakon; Gladders, Michael D.; Sharon, Keren; Mushotzky, Richard

    2013-07-20

    The process by which the mass density profile of certain galaxy clusters becomes centrally concentrated enough to produce high strong lensing (SL) cross-sections is not well understood. It has been suggested that the baryonic condensation of the intracluster medium (ICM) due to cooling may drag dark matter to the cores and thus steepen the profile. In this work, we search for evidence of ongoing ICM cooling in the first large, well-defined sample of SL selected galaxy clusters in the range 0.1 < z < 0.6. Based on known correlations between the ICM cooling rate and both optical emission line luminosity and star formation, we measure, for a sample of 89 SL clusters, the fraction of clusters that have [O II]{lambda}{lambda}3727 emission in their brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We find that the fraction of line-emitting BCGs is constant as a function of redshift for z > 0.2 and shows no statistically significant deviation from the total cluster population. Specific star formation rates, as traced by the strength of the 4000 A break, D{sub 4000}, are also consistent with the general cluster population. Finally, we use optical imaging of the SL clusters to measure the angular separation, R{sub arc}, between the arc and the center of mass of each lensing cluster in our sample and test for evidence of changing [O II] emission and D{sub 4000} as a function of R{sub arc}, a proxy observable for SL cross-sections. D{sub 4000} is constant with all values of R{sub arc}, and the [O II] emission fractions show no dependence on R{sub arc} for R{sub arc} > 10'' and only very marginal evidence of increased weak [O II] emission for systems with R{sub arc} < 10''. These results argue against the ability of baryonic cooling associated with cool core activity in the cores of galaxy clusters to strongly modify the underlying dark matter potential, leading to an increase in SL cross-sections.

  3. Gravitational lensing by rotating naked singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulchev, Galin N.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    2008-10-15

    We model massive compact objects in galactic nuclei as stationary, axially symmetric naked singularities in the Einstein-massless scalar field theory and study the resulting gravitational lensing. In the weak deflection limit we study analytically the position of the two weak field images, the corresponding signed and absolute magnifications as well as the centroid up to post-Newtonian order. We show that there are static post-Newtonian corrections to the signed magnification and their sum as well as to the critical curves, which are functions of the scalar charge. The shift of the critical curves as a function of the lens angular momentum is found, and it is shown that they decrease slightly for the weakly naked and vastly for the strongly naked singularities with the increase of the scalar charge. The pointlike caustics drift away from the optical axis and do not depend on the scalar charge. In the strong deflection limit approximation, we compute numerically the position of the relativistic images and their separability for weakly naked singularities. All of the lensing quantities are compared to particular cases as Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities.

  4. Detections of Planets in Binaries Through the Channel of Chang–Refsdal Gravitational Lensing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Cheongho; Shin, In-Gu; Jung, Youn Kil

    2017-02-01

    Chang–Refsdal (C–R) lensing, which refers to the gravitational lensing of a point mass perturbed by a constant external shear, provides a good approximation in describing lensing behaviors of either a very wide or a very close binary lens. C–R lensing events, which are identified by short-term anomalies near the peak of high-magnification lensing light curves, are routinely detected from lensing surveys, but not much attention is paid to them. In this paper, we point out that C–R lensing events provide an important channel to detect planets in binaries, both in close and wide binary systems. Detecting planets through the C–R lensing event channel is possible because the planet-induced perturbation occurs in the same region of the C–R lensing-induced anomaly and thus the existence of the planet can be identified by the additional deviation in the central perturbation. By presenting the analysis of the actually observed C–R lensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, we demonstrate that dense and high-precision coverage of a C–R lensing-induced perturbation can provide a strong constraint on the existence of a planet in a wide range of planet parameters. The sample of an increased number of microlensing planets in binary systems will provide important observational constraints in giving shape to the details of planet formation, which have been restricted to the case of single stars to date.

  5. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Bruno, D.; Binello, S.; Costanzo, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D. M.; Hock, J.; Hock, K.; Harvey, M.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Mi, C.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; Pikin, A. I.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Samms, T.; Shrey, T. C.; Schoefer, V.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Thieberger, P.; White, S. M.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  6. Spectral slicing X-ray telescope with variable magnification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.; Hildner, E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A telescope for viewing high frequency radiation (soft X-ray, extreme ultraviolet) is described. This telescope has a long focal length with a selection of magnifications despite a short housing. Light enters the telescope and is reflected by the telescope's primary optical system to one of several secondary mirrors at different locations on a movable frame. The secondary mirrors have varying degrees of magnification and select narrow spectral slices of the incident radiation. Thus, both the magnification and effective focal length field of view and wavelength can be altered by repositioning the moving frame. Configurations for spaceborne applications are discussed.

  7. Spectral slicing x-ray telescope with variable magnification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, R.H.; Hildner, E.

    1985-12-31

    A telescope for viewing high frequency radiation. This telescope has a long focal length with a selection of magnifications despite a short housing. Light enters the telescope and is reflected by the telescope's primary optical system and to one of several secondary mirrors at different locations on a movable frame. The secondary mirrors have varying degrees of magnification and select narrow spectral slices of the incident radiation. Thus, both the magnification and effective focal length field of view and wavelength can be altered by repositioning moving frame.

  8. BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF CMB GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Anderes, Ethan; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Lavaux, Guilhem

    2015-08-01

    The Planck satellite, along with several ground-based telescopes, has mapped the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at sufficient resolution and signal-to-noise so as to allow a detection of the subtle distortions due to the gravitational influence of the intervening matter distribution. A natural modeling approach is to write a Bayesian hierarchical model for the lensed CMB in terms of the unlensed CMB and the lensing potential. So far there has been no feasible algorithm for inferring the posterior distribution of the lensing potential from the lensed CMB map. We propose a solution that allows efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling from the joint posterior of the lensing potential and the unlensed CMB map using the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. The main conceptual step in the solution is a re-parameterization of CMB lensing in terms of the lensed CMB and the “inverse lensing” potential. We demonstrate a fast implementation on simulated data, including noise and a sky cut, that uses a further acceleration based on a very mild approximation of the inverse lensing potential. We find that the resulting Markov Chain has short correlation lengths and excellent convergence properties, making it promising for applications to high-resolution CMB data sets in the future.

  9. The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS): A Bright Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy in the Field of Abell 773

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, Tim; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Combes, F.; Boone, F.; Smail, I.; Lensing Survey, Herschel

    2012-05-01

    The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS; PI: Egami) is observing more than 50 massive galaxy clusters with deep PACS and SPIRE (100-500um) imaging, and a further 500 clusters in a SPIRE snapshot program ( 20 deg^2 of far-infrared cluster observations in total). Here, we present a discussion of an exceptionally bright ( 200mJy at 500um) source behind the cluster Abell 773, which is a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z=5.2. The source has an intrinsic infrared luminosity L_FIR 1e13 L_sun, with a total magnification factor of 11. We combine Herschel-SMA-IRAM observations of the dust continuum and gas excitation line emission, including multiple CO transitions, [CII] and [NII] (detected for the first time at high-z), to explore the morphology, star formation and ISM in this SMG.

  10. Discovery of an Exceptionally Bright Gravitationally Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy at z=4.69

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi; Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS) Team

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery of an exceptionally bright gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxy at z=4.69. Through our on-going Herschel survey of gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies in the fields of massive galaxy clusters ("The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS)" - PI: Egami), we identified in the field of a z=0.3 cluster a bright Herschel/SPIRE source ( 100 mJy at 500 um) whose far-infrared/submillimeter spectral energy distribution is peaking toward 500 um, indicating that its redshift is likely above 4. The APEX/LABOCA 870 um image showed that this source is not only bright (60 mJy at 870 um) but also spatially extended even with the LABOCA resolution of 20'', although it is invisible in the HST/ACS F606W image. The spectroscopic redshift came from the IRAM30m/EMIR observations, which detected the CO(4-3) and CO(5-4) lines with the corresponding redshift of 4.69. The high-resolution (beam=0.8"x0.7") SMA 345 GHz map has subsequently resolved this source into four components, which are likely four lensed images of the same background galaxy. This lensing interpretation has been confirmed by the HST WFC3/IR observations, which not only revealed the same morphology for the multiple sources but also detected the 5th image at the predicted location. We therefore conclude that this lensed system exhibits a rare hyperbolic umbilic image configuration, which produces a large magnification factor of x100-200 when the four components are combined. What is even more remarkable is that the four HST sources are not spatially coincident with the four SMA sources. In other words, this z=4.69 galaxy appears to consist of two spatially distinct components, one of which (the one responsible for the bright IR/submm emission) is completely invisible in the HST near-infrared images. This suggests that there may exist a population of dust-obscured galaxies at z>4 that are hidden from our deep optical/near-infrared view.

  11. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis of daily disposable limbal ring contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Kathrine Osborn; Kakkassery, Joseph; Boree, Danielle; Pinto, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Limbal ring (also known as ‘circle’) contact lenses are becoming increasingly popular, especially in Asian markets because of their eye-enhancing effects. The pigment particles that give the eye-enhancing effects of these lenses can be found on the front or back surface of the contact lens or ‘enclosed’ within the lens matrix. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the pigment location and surface roughness of seven types of ‘circle’ contact lenses. Methods Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis was performed using a variable pressure Hitachi S3400N instrument to discern the placement of lens pigments. Atomic force microscopy (Dimension Icon AFM from Bruker Nano) was used to determine the surface roughness of the pigmented regions of the contact lenses. Atomic force microscopic analysis was performed in fluid phase under contact mode using a Sharp Nitride Lever probe (SNL-10) with a spring constant of 0.06 N/m. Root mean square (RMS) roughness values were analysed using a generalised linear mixed model with a log-normal distribution. Least square means and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated for each brand, location and pigment combination. Results SEM cross-sectional images at 500× and 2,000× magnification showed pigment on the surface of six of the seven lens types tested. The mean depth of pigment for 1-DAY ACUVUE DEFINE (1DAD) lenses was 8.1 μm below the surface of the lens, while the remaining lens types tested had pigment particles on the front or back surface. Results of the atomic force microscopic analysis indicated that 1DAD lenses had significantly lower root mean square roughness values in the pigmented area of the lens than the other lens types tested. Conclusions SEM and AFM analysis revealed pigment on the surface of the lens for all types tested with the exception of 1DAD. Further research is required to determine if the difference in pigment location influences on-eye performance. PMID

  12. MODEL-FREE MULTI-PROBE LENSING RECONSTRUCTION OF CLUSTER MASS PROFILES

    SciTech Connect

    Umetsu, Keiichi

    2013-05-20

    Lens magnification by galaxy clusters induces characteristic spatial variations in the number counts of background sources, amplifying their observed fluxes and expanding the area of sky, the net effect of which, known as magnification bias, depends on the intrinsic faint-end slope of the source luminosity function. The bias is strongly negative for red galaxies, dominated by the geometric area distortion, whereas it is mildly positive for blue galaxies, enhancing the blue counts toward the cluster center. We generalize the Bayesian approach of Umetsu et al. for reconstructing projected cluster mass profiles, by incorporating multiple populations of background sources for magnification-bias measurements and combining them with complementary lens-distortion measurements, effectively breaking the mass-sheet degeneracy and improving the statistical precision of cluster mass measurements. The approach can be further extended to include strong-lensing projected mass estimates, thus allowing for non-parametric absolute mass determinations in both the weak and strong regimes. We apply this method to our recent CLASH lensing measurements of MACS J1206.2-0847, and demonstrate how combining multi-probe lensing constraints can improve the reconstruction of cluster mass profiles. This method will also be useful for a stacked lensing analysis, combining all lensing-related effects in the cluster regime, for a definitive determination of the averaged mass profile.

  13. Strongly lensed gravitational waves from intrinsically faint double compact binaries—prediction for the Einstein Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong E-mail: marek.biesiada@us.edu.pl

    2015-12-01

    With a fantastic sensitivity improving significantly over the advanced GW detectors, Einstein Telescope (ET) will be able to observe hundreds of thousand inspiralling double compact objects per year. By virtue of gravitational lensing effect, intrinsically unobservable faint sources can be observed by ET due to the magnification by intervening galaxies. We explore the possibility of observing such faint sources amplified by strong gravitational lensing. Following our previous work, we use the merger rates of DCO (NS-NS,BH-NS,BH-BH systems) as calculated by Dominik et al.(2013). It turns out that tens to hundreds of such (lensed) extra events will be registered by ET. This will strongly broaden the ET's distance reach for signals from such coalescences to the redshift range z = 2 − 8. However, with respect to the full inspiral event catalog this magnification bias is at the level of 0.001 and should not affect much cosmological inferences.

  14. An electrically tunable imaging system with separable focus and zoom functions using composite liquid crystal lenses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Syuan; Chen, Po-Ju; Chen, Michael; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrated an electrically tunable optical image system with separable focus function and zoom function based on three tunable focusing composite liquid crystal (LC) lenses. One LC lens in charge of the focus function helps to maintain the formed image at the same position and the other two LC lenses in charge of zoom function assist to continuously form an image at image sensor with tunable magnification of image size. The detail optical mechanism is investigated and the concept is demonstrated experimentally. The magnifications of the images can be switched continuously for the target in a range between 10 cm and 100 cm. The optical zoom ratio of this system maintains a constant~6.5:1 independent of the object distance. This study provides not only a guideline to design the image system with an electrically optical zoom, but also provide an experimental process to show how to operate the tunable focusing lenses in such an image system.

  15. Resolving high energy emission of jets using strong gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnacka, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Chandra observations of M87 in 2004 uncovered an outburst originating in distant knot along the jet hundreds of parsecs from the core. This discovery challenges our understanding of the origin of high energy flares. Current technology is inadequate to resolve jets at distances greater than M87, or observed at higher energies. We propose to use gravitationally lensed jets to investigate the structure of more distant sources. Photons emitted at different sites cross the lens plane at different distances, thus magnification ratios and time delays differ between the mirage images. Monitoring of flares from lensed jets reveals the origin of the emission. With detectors like Chandra, lensed systems are a tool for resolving the structure of the jets and for investigating their cosmic evolution.

  16. Measuring the lensing potential with tomographic galaxy number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Montanari, Francesco; Durrer, Ruth E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch

    2015-10-01

    We investigate how the lensing potential can be measured tomographically with future galaxy surveys using their number counts. Such a measurement is an independent test of the standard ΛCDM framework and can be used to discern modified theories of gravity. We perform a Fisher matrix forecast based on galaxy angular-redshift power spectra, assuming specifications consistent with future photometric Euclid-like surveys and spectroscopic SKA-like surveys. For the Euclid-like survey we derive a fitting formula for the magnification bias. Our analysis suggests that the cross correlation between different redshift bins is very sensitive to the lensing potential such that the survey can measure the amplitude of the lensing potential at the same level of precision as other standard ΛCDM cosmological parameters.

  17. Mediated-reality magnification for macular degeneration rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Gonzalez, Anabel; Kotliar, Konstantin; Rios-Martinez, Jorge; Lanzl, Ines; Navab, Nassir

    2014-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a gradually progressive eye condition, which is one of the leading causes of blindness and low vision in the Western world. Prevailing optical visual aids compensate part of the lost visual function, but omitting helpful complementary information. This paper proposes an efficient magnification technique, which can be implemented on a head-mounted display, for improving vision of patients with AMD, by preserving global information of the scene. Performance of the magnification approach is evaluated by simulating central vision loss in normally sighted subjects. Visual perception was measured as a function of text reading speed and map route following speed. Statistical analysis of experimental results suggests that our magnification method improves reading speed 1.2 times and spatial orientation to find routes on a map 1.5 times compared to a conventional magnification approach, being capable to enhance peripheral vision of AMD subjects along with their life quality.

  18. MC2: Mapping the Dark Matter Distribution of the "Toothbrush" Cluster RX J0603.3+4214 with Hubble Space Telescope and Subaru Weak Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, M. James; Dawson, William A.; Stroe, Andra; Wittman, David; van Weeren, Reinout J.; Brüggen, Marcus; Bradač, Maruša; Röttgering, Huub

    2016-02-01

    The galaxy cluster RX J0603.3+4214 at z = 0.225 is one of the rarest clusters boasting an extremely large (˜2 Mpc) radio relic. Because of the remarkable morphology of the relic, the cluster is nicknamed the “Toothbrush Cluster.” Although the cluster's underlying mass distribution is one of the critical pieces of information needed to reconstruct the merger scenario responsible for the puzzling radio relic morphology, its proximity to the Galactic plane b ˜ 10° has imposed significant observational challenges. We present a high-resolution weak-lensing study of the cluster with Subaru/Suprime Cam and Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. Our mass reconstruction reveals that the cluster is composed of complicated dark matter substructures closely tracing the galaxy distribution, in contrast, however, with the relatively simple binary X-ray morphology. Nevertheless, we find that the cluster mass is still dominated by the two most massive clumps aligned north-south with a ˜3:1 mass ratio ({M}200={6.29}-1.62+2.24× {10}14 {M}⊙ and {1.98}-0.74+1.24× {10}14 {M}⊙ for the northern and southern clumps, respectively). The southern mass peak is ˜2‧ offset toward the south with respect to the corresponding X-ray peak, which has a “bullet”-like morphology pointing south. Comparison of the current weak-lensing result with the X-ray, galaxy, and radio relic suggests that perhaps the dominant mechanism responsible for the observed relic may be a high-speed collision of the two most massive subclusters, although the peculiarity of the morphology necessitates involvement of additional subclusters. Careful numerical simulations should follow in order to obtain more complete understanding of the merger scenario utilizing all existing observations. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc.

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW Gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelmann, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    Gravitational lensing has developed into one of the most powerful tools for the analysis of the dark universe. This review summarizes the theory of gravitational lensing, its main current applications and representative results achieved so far. It has two parts. In the first, starting from the equation of geodesic deviation, the equations of thin and extended gravitational lensing are derived. In the second, gravitational lensing by stars and planets, galaxies, galaxy clusters and large-scale structures is discussed and summarized.

  20. Development of variable-magnification X-ray Bragg optics.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Keiichi; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    A novel X-ray Bragg optics is proposed for variable-magnification of an X-ray beam. This X-ray Bragg optics is composed of two magnifiers in a crossed arrangement, and the magnification factor, M, is controlled through the azimuth angle of each magnifier. The basic properties of the X-ray optics such as the magnification factor, image transformation matrix and intrinsic acceptance angle are described based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction. The feasibility of the variable-magnification X-ray Bragg optics was verified at the vertical-wiggler beamline BL-14B of the Photon Factory. For X-ray Bragg magnifiers, Si(220) crystals with an asymmetric angle of 14° were used. The magnification factor was calculated to be tunable between 0.1 and 10.0 at a wavelength of 0.112 nm. At various magnification factors (M ≥ 1.0), X-ray images of a nylon mesh were observed with an air-cooled X-ray CCD camera. Image deformation caused by the optics could be corrected by using a 2 × 2 transformation matrix and bilinear interpolation method. Not only absorption-contrast but also edge-contrast due to Fresnel diffraction was observed in the magnified images.

  1. SDSS J094604.90+183541.8: A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED QUASAR AT z = 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Farnsworth, Kara; Hall, Patrick B.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-08-15

    We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed quasar identified serendipitously in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The object, SDSS J094604.90+183541.8, was initially targeted for spectroscopy as a luminous red galaxy, but the SDSS spectrum has the features of both a z = 0.388 galaxy and a z = 4.8 quasar. We have obtained additional imaging that resolves the system into two quasar images separated by 3.''06 and a bright galaxy that is strongly blended with one of the quasar images. We confirm spectroscopically that the two quasar images represent a single-lensed source at z = 4.8 with a total magnification of 3.2, and we derive a model for the lensing galaxy. This is the highest redshift lensed quasar currently known. We examine the issues surrounding the selection of such an unusual object from existing data and briefly discuss implications for lensed quasar surveys.

  2. Probabilities for gravitational lensing by point masses in a locally inhomogeneous universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, Jeffrey A.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1989-01-01

    Probability functions for gravitational lensing by point masses that incorporate Poisson statistics and flux conservation are formulated in the Dyer-Roeder construction. Optical depths to lensing for distant sources are calculated using both the method of Press and Gunn (1973) which counts lenses in an otherwise empty cone, and the method of Ehlers and Schneider (1986) which projects lensing cross sections onto the source sphere. These are then used as parameters of the probability density for lensing in the case of a critical (q0 = 1/2) Friedmann universe. A comparison of the probability functions indicates that the effects of angle-averaging can be well approximated by adjusting the average magnification along a random line of sight so as to conserve flux.

  3. Direct measurement of lensing amplification in Abell S1063 using a strongly lensed high redshift HII galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terlevich, Roberto; Melnick, Jorge; Terlevich, Elena; Chávez, Ricardo; Telles, Eduardo; Bresolin, Fabio; Plionis, Manolis; Basilakos, Spyros; Fernández Arenas, David; González Morán, Ana Luisa; Díaz, Ángeles I.; Aretxaga, Itziar

    2016-08-01

    ID11 is an actively star-forming, extremely compact galaxy and Lyα emitter at z = 3.117 that is gravitationally magnified by a factor of ~17 by the cluster of galaxies Hubble Frontier Fields AS1063. The observed properties of this galaxy resemble those of low luminosity HII galaxies or giant HII regions such as 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Using the tight correlation correlation between the Balmer-line luminosities and the width of the emission lines (typically L(Hβ) - σ(Hβ)), which are valid for HII galaxies and giant HII regions to estimate their total luminosity, we are able to measure the lensing amplification of ID11. We obtain an amplification of 23 ± 11 that is similar within errors to the value of ~17 estimated or predicted by the best lensing models of the massive cluster Abell S1063. We also compiled, from the literature, luminosities and velocity dispersions for a set of lensed compact star-forming regions. There is more scatter in the L-σ correlation for these lensed systems, but on the whole the results tend to support the lensing model estimates of the magnification. Our result indicates that the amplification can be independently measured using the L - σ relation in lensed giant HII regions or HII galaxies. It also supports the suggestion, even if lensing is model dependent, that the L - σ relation is valid for low luminosity high-z objects. Ad hoc observations of lensed star-forming systems are required to determine the lensing amplification accurately.

  4. Reducing distance errors for standard candles and standard sirens with weak-lensing shear and flexion maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Gair, Jonathan R.; King, Lindsay J.

    2011-04-01

    Gravitational lensing induces significant errors in the measured distances to high-redshift standard candles and standard sirens such as Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and merging supermassive black hole binaries. There will therefore be a significant benefit from correcting for the lensing error by using independent and accurate estimates of the lensing magnification. Here, we investigate how accurately the magnification can be inferred from convergence maps reconstructed from galaxy shear and flexion data. We employ ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation (MS) to simulate lensing observations in large fields, and perform a weak-lensing reconstruction on the simulated fields. We identify optimal ways to filter the reconstructed convergence maps and to convert them to magnification maps, and analyse the resulting relation between the estimated and true magnification for sources at redshifts zS= 1 to 5. We find that a deep shear survey with 100 galaxies arcmin-2 can help to reduce the lensing-induced distance errors for standard candles/sirens at redshifts zS≈ 1.5 (zS≈ 5) on average by 20 per cent (10 per cent), whereas a futuristic survey with shear and flexion estimates from 500 galaxies arcmin-2 yields much larger reductions of 50 per cent (35 per cent). For redshifts zS≥ 3, a further improvement by ˜5 per cent can be achieved, if the individual redshifts of the galaxies are used in the reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstruction allows one to identify regions for which the convergence is low, and in which an error reduction by up to 75 per cent can be achieved. Such strongly reduced magnification uncertainties will greatly improve the value of high-redshift standard candles/sirens as cosmological probes.

  5. Tomography and weak lensing statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Munshi, Dipak; Coles, Peter; Kilbinger, Martin E-mail: peter.coles@astro.cf.ac.uk

    2014-04-01

    We provide generic predictions for the lower order cumulants of weak lensing maps, and their correlators for tomographic bins as well as in three dimensions (3D). Using small-angle approximation, we derive the corresponding one- and two-point probability distribution function for the tomographic maps from different bins and for 3D convergence maps. The modelling of weak lensing statistics is obtained by adopting a detailed prescription for the underlying density contrast that involves hierarchal ansatz and lognormal distribution. We study the dependence of our results on cosmological parameters and source distributions corresponding to the realistic surveys such as LSST and DES. We briefly outline how photometric redshift information can be incorporated in our results. We also show how topological properties of convergence maps can be quantified using our results.

  6. RINGFINDER: Automated detection of galaxy-scale gravitational lenses in ground-based multi-filter imaging data

    SciTech Connect

    Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, Tommaso; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro

    2014-04-20

    We present RINGFINDER, a tool for finding galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses in multi-band imaging data. By construction, the method is sensitive to configurations involving a massive foreground ETG and a faint, background, blue source. RINGFINDER detects the presence of blue residuals embedded in an otherwise smooth red light distribution by difference imaging in two bands. The method is automated for efficient application to current and future surveys, having originally been designed for the 150 deg{sup 2} Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). We describe each of the steps of RINGFINDER. We then carry out extensive simulations to assess completeness and purity. For sources with magnification μ > 4, RINGFINDER reaches 42% (25%) completeness and 29% (86%) purity before (after) visual inspection. The completeness of RINGFINDER is substantially improved in the particular range of Einstein radii 0.''8 ≤ R {sub Ein} ≤ 2.''0 and lensed images brighter than g = 22.5, where it can be as high as ∼70%. RINGFINDER does not introduce any significant bias in the source or deflector population. We conclude by presenting the final catalog of RINGFINDER CFHTLS galaxy-scale strong lens candidates. Additional information obtained with Hubble Space Telescope and Keck adaptive optics high-resolution imaging, and with Keck and Very Large Telescope spectroscopy, is used to assess the validity of our classification and measure the redshift of the foreground and the background objects. From an initial sample of 640,000 ETGs, RINGFINDER returns 2500 candidates, which we further reduce by visual inspection to 330 candidates. We confirm 33 new gravitational lenses from the main sample of candidates, plus an additional 16 systems taken from earlier versions of RINGFINDER. First applications are presented in the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey galaxy-scale lens sample paper series.

  7. RINGFINDER: Automated Detection of Galaxy-scale Gravitational Lenses in Ground-based Multi-filter Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, Tommaso; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    We present RINGFINDER, a tool for finding galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses in multi-band imaging data. By construction, the method is sensitive to configurations involving a massive foreground ETG and a faint, background, blue source. RINGFINDER detects the presence of blue residuals embedded in an otherwise smooth red light distribution by difference imaging in two bands. The method is automated for efficient application to current and future surveys, having originally been designed for the 150 deg2 Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). We describe each of the steps of RINGFINDER. We then carry out extensive simulations to assess completeness and purity. For sources with magnification μ > 4, RINGFINDER reaches 42% (25%) completeness and 29% (86%) purity before (after) visual inspection. The completeness of RINGFINDER is substantially improved in the particular range of Einstein radii 0.''8 <= R Ein <= 2.''0 and lensed images brighter than g = 22.5, where it can be as high as ~70%. RINGFINDER does not introduce any significant bias in the source or deflector population. We conclude by presenting the final catalog of RINGFINDER CFHTLS galaxy-scale strong lens candidates. Additional information obtained with Hubble Space Telescope and Keck adaptive optics high-resolution imaging, and with Keck and Very Large Telescope spectroscopy, is used to assess the validity of our classification and measure the redshift of the foreground and the background objects. From an initial sample of 640,000 ETGs, RINGFINDER returns 2500 candidates, which we further reduce by visual inspection to 330 candidates. We confirm 33 new gravitational lenses from the main sample of candidates, plus an additional 16 systems taken from earlier versions of RINGFINDER. First applications are presented in the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey galaxy-scale lens sample paper series.

  8. Weak gravitational lensing theory and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Christopher Michael

    2005-12-01

    This thesis describes methodology for analysis of weak gravitational lensing data. Weak lensing, i.e. the perturbative distortion of the images of distant objects by the gravitational deflection of light, is an important tool for understanding the distribution of matter in the universe. This is interesting because a number of extentions to the standard cosmological model, including dynamical dark energy and neutrino masses, affect the growth of structure and hence may be detectable using weak lensing. Studies of weak lensing are also motivated by lensing's ability to affect the modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization that are sensitive to primordial gravitational waves. Both lensing of galaxies and lensing of the CMB are considered here. The section devoted to galaxies is principally concerned with measuring the lensing-induced shape distortions from galaxy images in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), although the methodology will be applicable to future projects. We investigate in detail the problem of separating lensing from other shape distortions such as those induced by the atmosphere, the telescope, and photon Poisson noise. Since the intrinsic shapes of observed galaxies are not known, weak lensing observations always attempt some sort of statistical averaging over galaxies that presumably have independent orientations. We investigate the extent to which this process "averages down" the intrinsic shapes and identify a new type of bias that can affect the weak lensing power spectrum. Selection biases are considered and their importance in SDSS estimated. We present some recent cosmological results using the SDSS analysis, including new upper limits on the neutrino mass. Lensing of the CMB has not yet been detected, nevertheless several experiments are being built that should have the sensitivity to see it. The statistical problem of extracting lensing information from the distortion of the CMB anisotropy is considered, and in the case of

  9. Fabricating low cost and high performance elastomer lenses using hanging droplets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W. M.; Upadhya, A.; Reece, P. J.; Phan, Tri Giang

    2014-01-01

    Existing methods for low cost lenses using parallel mold stamping and high temperature reflow requires complex engineering controls to produce high quality lenses. These manufacturing techniques rely on expensive equipment. In this paper, we propose a low cost (< $ 0.01 per pc) flexible moldless lens fabrication method based on curing a hanging transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer droplet on a curved substrate. Additional deposition of hanging droplets in the same manner led to a substantial increase in the lens curvature and concomitant decrease in the focal length of the PDMS lenses down to ~2 mm. The shortest focal length lenses were shown to collimate light from a bare light emitting diode (LED) and image microscopic structures down to around 4 µm with 160x magnification. Our hanging droplet lens fabrication technique heralds a new paradigm in the manufacture of low cost, high performance optical lenses for the masses. Using these lenses, we were able to transform an ordinary commercial smartphone camera into a low-cost digital dermascope (60x magnification) that can readily visualize microscopic structures on skin such as sweat pores. PMID:24877020

  10. UP TO 100,000 RELIABLE STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSES IN FUTURE DARK ENERGY EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Serjeant, S.

    2014-09-20

    The Euclid space telescope will observe ∼10{sup 5} strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lens events in its wide field imaging survey over around half the sky, but identifying the gravitational lenses from their observed morphologies requires solving the difficult problem of reliably separating the lensed sources from contaminant populations, such as tidal tails, as well as presenting challenges for spectroscopic follow-up redshift campaigns. Here I present alternative selection techniques for strong gravitational lenses in both Euclid and the Square Kilometre Array, exploiting the strong magnification bias present in the steep end of the Hα luminosity function and the H I mass function. Around 10{sup 3} strong lensing events are detectable with this method in the Euclid wide survey. While only ∼1% of the total haul of Euclid lenses, this sample has ∼100% reliability, known source redshifts, high signal-to-noise, and a magnification-based selection independent of assumptions of lens morphology. With the proposed Square Kilometre Array dark energy survey, the numbers of reliable strong gravitational lenses with source redshifts can reach 10{sup 5}.

  11. Three-component double conjugate zoom lens system from tunable focus lenses.

    PubMed

    Mikš, Antonín; Novák, Jiří

    2013-02-01

    A method for calculation of paraxial parameters of the double conjugate zoom lens is described. Such an optical system satisfies the requirement that the object, image, and pupil planes are fixed during the change of magnification. Formulas are derived for the calculation of parameters of a three-component double conjugate zoom lens system with tunable focus lenses, which enable us to calculate the optical power of individual optical components with respect to the transverse magnification. The main advantage of such an optical system is the possibility to achieve required zooming properties without any mechanical movement of individual components of the zoom lens.

  12. Microlensing results toward the galactic bulge, theory of fitting blended light curves, and discussion of weak lensing corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christian L.

    2006-06-01

    Analysis and results (Chapters 2-5) of the full 7 year Macho Project dataset toward the Galactic bulge are presented. A total of 450 high quality, relatively large signal-to-noise ratio, events are found, including several events exhibiting exotic effects, and lensing events on possible Sagittarius dwarf galaxy stars. We examine the problem of blending in our sample and conclude that the subset of red clump giants are minimally blended. Using 42 red clump giant events near the Galactic center we calculate the optical depth toward the Galactic bulge to be t = [Special characters omitted.] × 10 -6 at ( l, b ) = ([Special characters omitted.] ) with a gradient of (1.06 ± 0.71) × 10 -6 deg -1 in latitude, and (0.29±0.43) × 10 -6 deg -1 in longitude, bringing measurements into consistency with the models for the first time. In Chapter 6 we reexamine the usefulness of fitting blended light-curve models to microlensing photometric data. We find agreement with previous workers (e.g. Wozniak & Paczynski) that this is a difficult proposition because of the degeneracy of blend fraction with other fit parameters. We show that follow-up observations at specific points along the light curve (peak region and wings) of high magnification events are the most helpful in removing degeneracies. We also show that very small errors in the baseline magnitude can result in problems in measuring the blend fraction, and study the importance of non- Gaussian errors in the fit results. The biases and skewness in the distribution of the recovered blend fraction is discussed. We also find a new approximation formula relating the blend fraction and the unblended fit parameters to the underlying event duration needed to estimate microlensing optical depth. In Chapter 7 we present work-in-progress on the possibility of correcting standard candle luminosities for the magnification due to weak lensing. We consider the importance of lenses in different mass ranges and look at the contribution

  13. Measuring neutrino masses with weak lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2006-11-17

    Weak gravitational lensing of distant galaxies by large scale structure (LSS) provides an unbiased way to map the matter distribution in the low redshift universe. This technique, based on the measurement of small distortions in the images of the source galaxies induced by the intervening LSS, is expected to become a key cosmological probe in the future. We discuss how future lensing surveys can probe the sum of the neutrino masses at the 0 05 eV level.

  14. The general theory of secondary weak gravitational lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is normally assumed to have only two principle effects: a magnification of a source and a distortion of the sources shape in the form of a shear. However, further distortions are actually present owing to changes in the gravitational field across the scale of the ray bundle of light propagating to us, resulting in the familiar arcs in lensed images. This is normally called the flexion, and is approximated by Taylor expanding the shear and magnification across the image plane. However, the physical origin of this effect arises from higher-order corrections in the geodesic deviation equation governing the gravitational force between neighbouring geodesics— so involves derivatives of the Riemann tensor. We show that integrating the second-order geodesic deviation equation results in a 'Hessian map' for gravitational lensing, which is a higher-order addition to the Jacobi map. We derive the general form of the Hessian map in an arbitrary spacetime paying particular attention to the separate effects of local Ricci versus non-local Weyl curvature. We then specialise to the case of a perturbed FLRW model, and give the general form of the Hessian for the first time. This has a host of new contributions which could in principle be used as tests for modified gravity.

  15. Strong gravitational lensing by Kiselev black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younas, Azka; Jamil, Mubasher; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Hussain, Saqib

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the gravitational lensing scenario due to Schwarzschild-like black hole surrounded by quintessence (Kiselev black hole). We work for the special case of Kiselev black hole where we take the state parameter wq=-2/3 . For the detailed derivation and analysis of the bending angle involved in the deflection of light, we discuss three special cases of Kiselev black hole: nonextreme, extreme, and naked singularity. We also calculate the approximate bending angle and compare it with the exact bending angle. We found the relation of bending angles in the decreasing order as: naked singularity, extreme Kiselev black hole, nonextreme Kiselev black hole, and Schwarzschild black hole. In the weak field approximation, we compute the position and total magnification of relativistic images as well.

  16. Investigations of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Matthew P.

    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  17. Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesner, Matthew P.

    2014-08-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  18. Visualization of high-dimensional clusters using nonlinear magnification

    SciTech Connect

    Keahey, T.A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes a cluster visualization system used for data-mining fraud detection. The system can simultaneously show 6 dimensions of data, and a unique technique of 3D nonlinear magnification allows individual clusters of data points to be magnified while still maintaining a view of the global context. The author first describes the fraud detection problem, along with the data which is to be visualized. Then he describes general characteristics of the visualization system, and shows how nonlinear magnification can be used in this system. Finally he concludes and describes options for further work.

  19. Thermal lensing of laser materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Mark J.; Hayden, Joseph S.

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on the three main effects that can induce wave-front distortion due to thermal lensing in laser gain media: 1) thermo-optic (dn/dT); 2) stress-optic; and 3) surface deformation (e.g., "end-bulging" of a laser rod). Considering the simple case of a side-pumped cylindrical rod which is air- or water-cooled along its length, the internal temperature distribution has long been known to assume a simple parabolic profile. Resulting from this are two induced refractive index variations due to thermo-optic and stress-optic effects that also assume a parabolic profile, but generally not of the same magnitude, nor even of the same sign. Finally, a small deformation on the rod ends can induce a small additional lensing contribution. We had two goals in this study: a) use finite-element simulations to verify the existing analytical expressions due to Koechner1 and Foster and Osterink; and b) apply them to glasses from the SCHOTT laser glass portfolio. The first goal was a reaction to more recent work by Chenais et al. who claimed Koechner made an error in his analysis with regard to thermal stress, throwing into doubt conclusions within studies since 1970 which made use of his equations. However, our re-analysis of their derivations, coupled with our FE modeling, confirmed that the Koechner and Foster and Osterink treatments are correct, and that Chenais et al. made mistakes in their derivation of the thermally-induced strain. Finally, for a nominal laser rod geometry, we compared the thermally-induced optical distortions in LG-680, LG-750, LG-760, LG-770, APG-1, and APG-2. While LG-750, -760, and -770 undergo considerable thermo-optic lensing, their stress-optic lensing is nearly of the same magnitude but of opposite sign, leading to a small total thermal lensing signature.

  20. Terahertz Brewster lenses.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Matthias; Scherger, Benedikt; Schumann, Steffen; Lippert, Sina; Scheller, Maik; Busch, Stefan F; Jansen, Christian; Koch, Martin

    2011-12-05

    Typical lenses suffer from Fresnel reflections at their surfaces, reducing the transmitted power and leading to interference phenomena. While antireflection coatings can efficiently suppress these reflections for a small frequency window, broadband antireflection coatings remain challenging. In this paper, we report on the simulation and experimental investigation of Brewster lenses in the THz-range. These lenses can be operated under the Brewster angle, ensuring reflection-free transmission of p-polarized light in an extremely broad spectral range. Experimental proof of the excellent focusing capabilities of the Brewster lenses is given by frequency and spatially resolved focus plane measurements using a fiber-coupled THz-TDS system.

  1. Gravitational lensing in the supernova legacy survey (SNLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronborg, T.; Hardin, D.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Jönsson, J.; Pain, R.; Pedersen, K.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: The observed brightness of type Ia supernovae is affected by gravitational lensing caused by the mass distribution along the line of sight, which introduces an additional dispersion into the Hubble diagram. We look for evidence of lensing in the SuperNova Legacy Survey 3-year data set. Methods: We investigate the correlation between the residuals from the Hubble diagram and the gravitational magnification based on a modeling of the mass distribution of foreground galaxies. A deep photometric catalog, photometric redshifts, and well established mass luminosity relations are used. Results: We find evidence of a lensing signal with a 2.3σ significance. The current result is limited by the number of SNe, their redshift distribution, and the other sources of scatter in the Hubble diagram. Separating the galaxy population into a red and a blue sample has a positive impact on the significance of the signal detection. On the other hand, increasing the depth of the galaxy catalog, the precision of photometric redshifts or reducing the scatter in the mass luminosity relations have little effect. We show that for the full SuperNova Legacy Survey sample (~400 spectroscopically confirmed type Ia SNe and ~200 photometrically identified type Ia SNe), there is an 80% probability of detecting the lensing signal with a 3σ significance. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on

  2. Strong-lensing Analysis of the Powerful Lensing Cluster MACS J2135.2-0102 (z = 0.33)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2016-12-01

    We present a light-traces-mass (LTM) strong-lensing model of the massive lensing cluster MACS J2135.2-0102 (z = 0.33 hereafter MACS2135), known in part for hosting the cosmic eye galaxy lens. MACS2135 is also known to multiply lens a z = 2.3 sub-millimeter galaxy near the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), as well as a prominent, triply imaged system at a large radius of ˜37″ south of the BCG. We use the latest available Hubble imaging to construct an accurate lensing model for this cluster, identifying six new multiply imaged systems with the guidance of our LTM method, so that we have roughly quadrupled the number of lensing constraints. We determine that MACS2135 is among the top lensing clusters known, comparable in size to the Hubble Frontier Fields. For a source at {z}s=2.32, we find an effective Einstein radius of {θ }e=27+/- 3\\prime\\prime , enclosing 1.12+/- 0.16× {10}14 {M}⊙ . We make our lens model, including mass and magnification maps, publicly available, in anticipation of searches for high-z galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope, for which this cluster is a compelling target.

  3. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Schrabback, T.; et al.

    2016-11-11

    We present an HST/ACS weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z_median=0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V-I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on CANDELS data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the mass-concentration relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalisation of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln(E(z) M_500c/10^14 M_sun)=A+1.5 ln(kT/7.2keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) +/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  4. Model-free analysis of quadruply imaged gravitationally lensed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldesenbet, Addishiwot Girma

    Gravitational lensing has proven to be a very valuable tool as a probe to better understand our universe. Parametric modeling of one multiple image gravitational lens system at a time is a common practice in the field of lensing. Instead of individual lens modeling, an alternative approach is to use symmetries in different spaces to make conclusions about families of lenses. The latter method is the focus of this thesis. Three types of lenses are defined based on whether they do or do not obey two-fold and double mirror symmetries. The analysis concentrates on quadruply imaged systems, or quads, and uses only the relative polar angles of quads around the center of the lens. The analysis is statistical in nature, and model-free because its conclusions relate to whole classes of models, instead of specific models. The work done here is twofold. Firstly, exploratory analysis is done to check for possible existence of degeneracies. Type I lenses which obey both symmetries mentioned above are found to form a nearly invariant surface in the 3D space of relative image angles. In the same space, lenses that break the double mirror symmetry, grouped as Type II, form two distinct surfaces. In addition, degeneracy in this class of lenses is discovered. A preliminary study of the last group of lenses, Type III, that break both symmetries, is done. Secondly, quad distributions in the 3D space from each of the three families were compared to observed galaxy-lens quads. Three quarters of observed quads were inconsistent with the distribution of quads of Type I lenses. Type II lenses reproduce most individual lens systems but fail to reproduce the population properties of observed quads. Preliminary exploration of Type III lenses shows a very promising agreement with observations. Examples of Type IIIs are lenses with substructure (with clump masses larger than those responsible for flux ratio anomalies in quads), and lenses with luminous or dark nearby perturber galaxies, or line

  5. Design and simulation of GRIN objective lenses for an imaging fiber based speckle metrology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhathan, P.; Guru Prasad, A. S.; Haridas, Aswin; Chan, Kelvin H. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Gradient-Index (GRIN) lenses are characterized by its small diameter and length, enabling them to be an effective lens for an integrated probe based imaging system. For a speckle-based surface metrology system, the imaging lens plays an important role in deciding the statistical dimensions of the speckles. In such cases, the design and simulation of the lens system would be a key process to better the performance of the lensed imaging fiber probe. In this context, this paper focuses on the design of lensed fiber probes for a speckle-based surface metrological imaging system that can find intra cavity interrogation applications. Different optical properties of GRIN lenses and imaging fibers are considered while designing the final probe distal end to meet the targeted specifications. Singlet GRIN lens configuration is analyzed for a front view configuration and a parameter optimization has been carried out to obtain the specifications including the field-of-view, resolution, working distance and magnification.

  6. Constraining the neutrino emission of gravitationally lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars with ANTARES data

    SciTech Connect

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; and others

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes to exploit gravitational lensing effects to improve the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to the intrinsic neutrino emission of distant blazar populations. This strategy is illustrated with a search for cosmic neutrinos in the direction of four distant and gravitationally lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars. The magnification factor is estimated for each system assuming a singular isothermal profile for the lens. Based on data collected from 2007 to 2012 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope, the strongest constraint is obtained from the lensed quasar B0218+357, providing a limit on the total neutrino luminosity of this source of 1.08× 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}. This limit is about one order of magnitude lower than those previously obtained in the ANTARES standard point source searches with non-lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars.

  7. Learning through Different Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeweler, Sue; Barnes-Robinson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    When parents and teachers help gifted kids use the metaphor "learning through different lenses," amazing things happen: Horizons open up. Ideas are focused. Thoughts are magnified and clarified. They see the big picture. Metaphoric thinking offers new and exciting ways to see the world. Viewing the world through different lenses provides…

  8. One Episode, Two Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drijvers, Paul; Godino, Juan D.; Font, Vicenc; Trouche, Luc

    2013-01-01

    A deep understanding of students' learning processes is one of the core challenges of research in mathematics education. To achieve this, different theoretical lenses are available. The question is how these different lenses compare and contrast, and how they can be coordinated and combined to provide a more comprehensive view on the topic of…

  9. Aspherics in spectacle lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürsteler, Juan Carlos

    2016-12-01

    A review of the use of aspherics in the last decades, understood in a broad sense as encompassing single-vision lenses with conicoid surfaces and free-form and progressive addition lenses (PALs) as well, is provided. The appearance of conicoid surfaces to correct aphakia and later to provide thinner and more aesthetically appealing plus lenses and the introduction of PALs and free-form surfaces have shaped the advances in spectacle lenses in the last three decades. This document basically considers the main target optical aberrations, the idiosyncrasy of single lenses for correction of refractive errors and the restrictions and particularities of PAL design and their links to science vision and perception.

  10. Strong gravitational lensing in a noncommutative black-hole spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Chikun; Kang Shuai; Chen Changyong; Chen Songbai; Jing Jiliang

    2011-04-15

    Noncommutative geometry may be a starting point to a quantum gravity. We study the influence of the spacetime noncommutative parameter on the strong field gravitational lensing in the noncommutative Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime and obtain the angular position and magnification of the relativistic images. Supposing that the gravitational field of the supermassive central object of the galaxy can be described by this metric, we estimate the numerical values of the coefficients and observables for strong gravitational lensing. In comparison to the Reissner-Norstroem black hole, we find that the influences of the spacetime noncommutative parameter is similar to those of the charge, but these influences are much smaller. This may offer a way to distinguish a noncommutative black hole from a Reissner-Norstroem black hole, and may permit us to probe the spacetime noncommutative constant {theta} by the astronomical instruments in the future.

  11. Temporal lenses for attosecond and femtosecond electron pulses.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Shawn A; Uiterwaal, Cornelis; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2009-06-30

    Here, we describe the "temporal lens" concept that can be used for the focus and magnification of ultrashort electron packets in the time domain. The temporal lenses are created by appropriately synthesizing optical pulses that interact with electrons through the ponderomotive force. With such an arrangement, a temporal lens equation with a form identical to that of conventional light optics is derived. The analog of ray diagrams, but for electrons, are constructed to help the visualization of the process of compressing electron packets. It is shown that such temporal lenses not only compensate for electron pulse broadening due to velocity dispersion but also allow compression of the packets to durations much shorter than their initial widths. With these capabilities, ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy can be extended to new domains,and, just as importantly, electron pulses can be delivered directly on an ultrafast techniques target specimen.

  12. Breeding gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenborgs, J.; de Rijcke, S.; Dejonghe, H.; Bekaert, P.

    2011-03-01

    Gravitational lenses are a spectacular astrophysical phenomenon, a cosmic mirage caused by the gravitational deflection of light in which multiple images of a same background object can be seen. Their beauty is only exceeded by their usefulness, as the gravitational lens effect is a direct probe of the total mass of the deflecting object. Furthermore, since the image configuration arising from the gravitational lens effect depends on the exact gravitational potential of the deflector, it even holds the promise of learning about the distribution of the mass. In this presentation, a method for extracting the information encoded in the images and reconstructing the mass distribution is presented. Being a non-parametric method, it avoids making a priori assumptions about the shape of the mass distribution. At the core of the procedure lies a genetic algorithm, an optimization strategy inspired by Darwin's principle of ``survival of the fittest''. One only needs to specify a criterion to decide if one particular trial solution is deemed better than another, and the genetic algorithm will ``breed'' appropriate solutions to the problem. In a similar way, one can create a multi-objective genetic algorithm, capable of optimizing several fitness criteria at the same time. This provides a very flexible way to incorporate all the available information in the gravitational lens system: not only the positions and shapes of the multiple images are used, but also the so-called ``null space'', i.e. the area in which no such images can be seen. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated using simulated data, which allows one to compare the reconstruction to the true mass distribution.

  13. High-magnification super-resolution FINCH microscopy using birefringent crystal lens interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Nisan; Lupashin, Vladimir; Storrie, Brian; Brooker, Gary

    2016-12-01

    Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) microscopy is a promising approach for high-resolution biological imaging but has so far been limited to use with low-magnification, low-numerical-aperture configurations. We report the use of in-line incoherent interferometers made from uniaxial birefringent α-barium borate (α-BBO) or calcite crystals that overcome the aberrations and distortions present with previous implementations that employed spatial light modulators or gradient refractive index lenses. FINCH microscopy incorporating these birefringent elements and high-numerical-aperture oil immersion objectives could outperform standard wide-field fluorescence microscopy, with, for example, a 149 nm lateral point spread function at a wavelength of 590 nm. Enhanced resolution was confirmed with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. Taking the Golgi apparatus as a biological example, three different proteins labelled with GFP and two other fluorescent dyes in HeLa cells were resolved with an image quality that is comparable to similar samples captured by structured illumination microscopy.

  14. Influence of first lens on magnification optimization method in two-lens FIB optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Kiyoshi; Sekine, Tetsu; Shimada, Hiroshi

    1999-11-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) tools are widely used for scanning ion microscope (SIM) image observation and for ion milling in semiconductor and other industries. The demands for a higher resolution in SIM and for a more intensive beam in ion milling are increasing. Limiting in 2 lenses FIB optical system, we studied the influence of the first lens's properties, particularly magnification M1 and extraction voltage Vext, on the attainable beam diameter through an optimizing calculation. From this point of view, we investigated the attainable smallest beam size in the low current region by varying the parameters of the first lens, and found out that the lower extraction voltage has an advantage for getting a smaller beam. It is of big concern, as far as emission is possible, how much the extraction voltage can be minimized. It is related to M1, and the change of Vext between 5 and 12 kV produces the beam size variation of about 1 to approximately 1.5 nm. It is not negligible compared with the beam size of approximately 5 nm, which is attainable today. Therefore, we have a possibility to reduce the beam size by reviewing the first lens properties including Vext. Finally, a guide line is shown for the FIB column design from this point of view.

  15. Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S. Tsupko, O. Yu.

    2015-07-15

    The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

  16. Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Tsupko, O. Yu.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

  17. Stress-Detection Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    An Ames Research Center scientist invented an infrared lens used in sunglasses to filter out ultraviolet rays. This product finds its origins in research for military enemy detection. Through a Space Act Agreement, Optical Sales Corporation introduced the Hawkeye Lenses not only as sunglasses but as plant stress detection lenses. The lenses enhance the stressed part of the leaf, which has less chlorophyll than healthy leaves, through dyes that filter out certain wavelengths of light. Plant stress is visible earlier, at a stage when something can be done to save the plants.

  18. Compatibility of Fresnel lenses and photovoltaic cells in concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Stillwell, C.B.; Shafer, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Test data are used to compare, for point focus photovoltaic concentrator modules, the relationship between Fresnel lens and module efficiency. The data shows that lenses designed for maximum optical efficiency may not produce the maximum module efficiency. Lenses designed with consideration for the photon flux distribution on the solar cell may improve module efficiency possibly at some loss in lens optical performance.

  19. Conceptualizing Magnification and Scale: The Roles of Spatial Visualization and Logical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant; Taylor, Amy R.; Wiebe, Eric; Forrester, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study explored factors that contribute to students' concepts of magnification and scale. Spatial visualization, logical thinking, and concepts of magnification and scale were measured for 46 middle school students. Scores on the "Zoom Assessment" (an assessment of knowledge of magnification and scale) were correlated with the "Test of Logical…

  20. Direct fabrication of silicone lenses with 3D printed parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Lee, W. M.

    2016-11-01

    The traditional process of making glass lenses requires grinding and polishing of the material which is a tedious and sensitive process. Existing polymer lens making techniques, such as high temperature reflow techniques, have been significantly simple lens making processes which cater well to customer industry. Recently, the use of UV-curing liquid lens has ushered in customized lens making (Printed Optics), but contains undesirable yellowing effects. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a transparent polymer curable at low temperature (<100°C) provides an alternative to lens making. In this work, we showed that PDMS lenses are fabricated using single silicone droplets which are formed in a guided and controlled passive manner using 3D printed tools. These silicone lenses have attributes such as smoothness of curvature, resilience to temperature change, low optical aberrations, high transparency (>95%) and minimal aging (yellowing). Moreover, these lenses have a range of focal lengths (3.5 mm to 14.5 mm as well as magnifications (up to 160X). In addition, we created smartphone attachment to turn smart device (tablet or smartphone) into a low-powered microscope. In future we plan to extend this method to produce microlens array.

  1. Precision cosmology with weak gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearin, Andrew P.

    In recent years, cosmological science has developed a highly predictive model for the universe on large scales that is in quantitative agreement with a wide range of astronomical observations. While the number and diversity of successes of this model provide great confidence that our general picture of cosmology is correct, numerous puzzles remain. In this dissertation, I analyze the potential of planned and near future galaxy surveys to provide new understanding of several unanswered questions in cosmology, and address some of the leading challenges to this observational program. In particular, I study an emerging technique called cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing produced by large scale structure. I focus on developing strategies to optimally use the cosmic shear signal observed in galaxy imaging surveys to uncover the physics of dark energy and the early universe. In chapter 1 I give an overview of a few unsolved mysteries in cosmology and I motivate weak lensing as a cosmological probe. I discuss the use of weak lensing as a test of general relativity in chapter 2 and assess the threat to such tests presented by our uncertainty in the physics of galaxy formation. Interpreting the cosmic shear signal requires knowledge of the redshift distribution of the lensed galaxies. This redshift distribution will be significantly uncertain since it must be determined photometrically. In chapter 3 I investigate the influence of photometric redshift errors on our ability to constrain dark energy models with weak lensing. The ability to study dark energy with cosmic shear is also limited by the imprecision in our understanding of the physics of gravitational collapse. In chapter 4 I present the stringent calibration requirements on this source of uncertainty. I study the potential of weak lensing to resolve a debate over a long-standing anomaly in CMB measurements in chapter 5. Finally, in chapter 6 I summarize my findings and conclude with a brief discussion of my

  2. Lens magnification by CL0024+1654 in the U and R band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, S.; Taylor, A. N.; Greve, T. R.; Rögnvaldsson, Ö. E.; van Kampen, E.; Jakobsson, P.; Sigmundsson, V. S.; Gudmundsson, E. H.; Hjorth, J.

    2002-04-01

    We estimate the total mass distribution of the galaxy cluster CL0024+1654 from the measured source depletion due to lens magnification in the R band. Within a radius of 0.54 h-1 Mpc, a total projected mass of (8.1 +/- 3.2)x 1014 h-1 Msun (EdS) is measured. The 1sigma error here includes shot noise, source clustering, uncertainty in background count normalisation and contamination from cluster and foreground galaxies. This corresponds to a mass-to-light ratio of M/LB=470+/-180. We compute the luminosity function of CL0024+1654 in order to estimate contamination of the background source counts from cluster galaxies. Three different magnification-based reconstruction methods are employed: 1) an estimator method using a local calculation of lens shear; 2) a non-local, self-consistent method applicable to axi-symmetric mass distributions; 3) a non-local, self-consistent method for derivation of 2D mass maps. We have modified the standard single power-law slope number count theory to incorporate a break and applied this to our observations. Fitting analytical magnification profiles of different cluster models to the observed number counts, we find that CL0024+1654 is best described either by a NFW model with scale radius rs= 334+/-191 h-1 kpc and normalisation kappas = 0.23+/-0.08 or a power-law profile with slope xi=0.61+/-0.11, central surface mass density kappa0 =1.52+/-0.20 and assuming a core radius of rcore=35 h-1 kpc. The NFW model predicts that the cumulative projected mass contained within a radius R scales as M(magnification effectively enables us to probe deeper than the physical limiting magnitude of our observations in searching for a change of slope in the U band number counts. We rule out both a total flattening of the counts with a break up to UAB<= 26.6 and a change of slope, reported by some studies, from d log N / d m=0.4 -> 0.15 up to UAB<=26.4 with 95

  3. HerMES: The rest-frame UV emission and a lensing model for the z = 6.34 luminous dusty starburst galaxy HFLS3

    SciTech Connect

    Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, Jae; Casey, C. M.; Ma, Brian; Osage, W. A.; Wardlow, Julie L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Burgarella, D.; Bussmann, R. S.; Clements, D.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Ivison, R. J.; La Porte, N.; Lo Faro, B.; Magdis, G.; Oliver, S. J.; and others

    2014-07-20

    We discuss the rest-frame ultraviolet emission from the starbursting galaxy HFLS3 at a redshift of 6.34. The galaxy was discovered in Herschel/SPIRE data due to its red color in the submillimeter wavelengths from 250 to 500 μm. Keck/NIRC2 K{sub s}-band adaptive optics imaging data showed two potential near-IR counterparts near HFLS3. Previously, the northern galaxy was taken to be in the foreground at z = 2.1, while the southern galaxy was assumed to be HFLS3's near-IR counterpart. The recently acquired Hubble/WFC3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data show conclusively that both optically bright galaxies are in the foreground at z < 6. A new lensing model based on the Hubble imaging data and the millimeter-wave continuum emission yields a magnification factor of 2.2 ± 0.3, with a 95% confidence upper limit on the magnification of 3.5. When corrected for lensing, the instantaneous star formation rate is 1320 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the 95% confidence lower limit around 830 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The dust and stellar masses of HFLS3 from the same spectral energy distribution (SED) models are at the level of 3 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉} and ∼5 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, respectively, with large systematic uncertainties on assumptions related to the SED model. With Hubble/WFC3 images, we also find diffuse near-IR emission about 0.5 arcsec (∼3 kpc) to the southwest of HFLS3 that remains undetected in the ACS imaging data. The emission has a photometric redshift consistent with either z ∼ 6 or a dusty galaxy template at z ∼ 2.

  4. The Herschel-ATLAS: a sample of 500 μm-selected lensed galaxies over 600 deg2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrello, M.; Amber, S.; Amvrosiadis, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Lapi, A.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; De Zotti, G.; Furlanetto, C.; Maddox, S. J.; Allen, M.; Bakx, T.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Covone, G.; Danese, L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Fu, H.; Greenslade, J.; Gurwell, M.; Hopwood, R.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Napolitano, N.; Nayyeri, H.; Omont, A.; Petrillo, C. E.; Riechers, D. A.; Serjeant, S.; Tortora, C.; Valiante, E.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Vernardos, G.; Wardlow, J. L.; Baes, M.; Baker, A. J.; Bourne, N.; Clements, D.; Crawford, S. M.; Dye, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Ivison, R. J.; Marchetti, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vaccari, M.; van der Werf, P.

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample of 80 candidate strongly lensed galaxies with flux density above 100 mJy at 500 μm extracted from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey, over an area of 600 deg2. Available imaging and spectroscopic data allow us to confirm the strong lensing in 20 cases and to reject it in one case. For other eight objects, the lensing scenario is strongly supported by the presence of two sources along the same line of sight with distinct photometric redshifts. The remaining objects await more follow-up observations to confirm their nature. The lenses and the background sources have median redshifts zL = 0.6 and zS = 2.5, respectively, and are observed out to zL = 1.2 and zS = 4.2. We measure the number counts of candidate lensed galaxies at 500 μm and compare them with theoretical predictions, finding a good agreement for a maximum magnification of the background sources in the range 10-20. These values are consistent with the magnification factors derived from the lens modelling of individual systems. The catalogue presented here provides sub-mm bright targets for follow-up observations aimed at exploiting gravitational lensing, to study with unprecedented details the morphological and dynamical properties of dusty star-forming regions in z ≳ 1.5 galaxies.

  5. Soft contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, R. L.; VanLeeuwen, Wm. N.

    1972-01-01

    A series of 55 patients were fitted with a new type of hydrophilic soft contact lens. These were found more comfortable than hard contact lenses and they had a protective and pain-relieving action in cases of chronic corneal disease. Vision was not as good as with hard contact lenses and a greater potential danger of infection was found. They are preferred by many patients despite the noticeable thick edge and the difficulty of obtaining an identical replacement. PMID:5042887

  6. In-line polariscopic checking of plastic molded-injected lenses: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasa, J.; Mayershofer, D.; Romero, J.

    2015-05-01

    Plastic injection molded lenses have improved its performance and, nowadays, are as usual as glass lenses in image forming devices. However, the manufacturing process induces the surface generation and the material transformation in the same stage. Moreover, the process also includes an annealing stage to remove the internal stress with temperature cycles but only works up to a certain level and not beyond, leaving relevant traces for high values. During the manufacturing process of a plastic lens, a liquid-solid phase transformation occurs, and in this transition not all the volume of the lens achieves the same density. This change of density is translated into a local change of refractive index that can be expressed as a retardation phase plane using the Jones Matrix notation. The detection and measurement of the value of the retardation of the phase plane is thus the clue to manufacture good and controlled quality plastic lenses. We have tested an in-line polariscopic arrangement to obtain a 2D map of the tension distribution in the bulk of the lens. This test is performed in the first 30 seconds after the injection molding process for two main reasons: first the stress values are still high because the lenses do not have enough time to relax the internal tensions and obtain the final shape, and second, we can remove the wrong lenses in the first moments and introduce only the good lenses in the annealing stage. The proposed instrument is based in a transmission polariscopic arrangement. A collimated light beam is used to illuminate the sample, once the light crosses the sample, it is collected with an afocal system and the image is recorded in a CMOS sensor. Selecting an afocal system to capture the image is a useful decision because the lateral magnification can be maintained when small changes in the sample position are introduced. However the produced lenses can vary their focal lengths from on series to another. To avoid problems with the change of the

  7. Uncertainties in pixel-based source reconstruction for gravitationally lensed objects and applications to lensed galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagore, Amitpal Singh

    Gravitational lens modeling of spatially resolved sources is a challenging inverse problem that can involve many observational constraints and model parameters. I present a new software package, pixsrc, that works in conjunction with the lensmodel software and builds on established pixel-based source reconstruction (PBSR) algorithms for de-lensing a source and constraining lens model parameters. Using test data, I explore statistical and systematic uncertainties associated with gridding, source regularization, interpolation errors, noise, and telescope pointing. I compare two gridding schemes in the source plane: a fully adaptive grid and an adaptive Cartesian grid. I also consider regularization schemes that minimize derivatives of the source and introduce a scheme that minimizes deviations from an analytic source profile. Careful choice of gridding and regularization can reduce "discreteness noise" in the chi2 surface that is inherent in the pixel-based methodology. With a gridded source, errors due to interpolation need to be taken into account (especially for high S/N data). Different realizations of noise and telescope pointing lead to slightly different values for lens model parameters, and the scatter between different "observations" can be comparable to or larger than the model uncertainties themselves. The same effects create scatter in the lensing magnification at the level of a few percent for a peak S/N of 10. I then apply pixsrc to observations of lensed, high-redshift galaxies. SDSS J0901+1814, is an ultraluminous infrared galaxy at z=2.26 that is also UV-bright, and it is lensed by a foreground group of galaxies at z=0.35. I constrain the lens model using maps of CO(3-2) rotational line emission and optical imaging and apply the lens model to observations of CO(1-0), H-alpha, and [NII] line emission as well. Using the de-lensed images, I calculate properties of the source, such as the gas mass fraction and dynamical mass. Finally, I examine a

  8. MUSE observations of the lensing cluster Abell 1689

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, D.; Pelló, R.; Richard, J.; Lewis, J.; Patrício, V.; Cantalupo, S.; Herenz, E. C.; Soto, K.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Bacon, R.; Vernet, J. D. R.; Wisotzki, L.; Clément, B.; Cuby, J. G.; Lagattuta, D. J.; Soucail, G.; Verhamme, A.

    2016-05-01

    Context. This paper presents the results obtained with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) for the core of the lensing cluster Abell 1689, as part of MUSE's commissioning at the ESO Very Large Telescope. Aims: Integral-field observations with MUSE provide a unique view of the central 1 × 1 arcmin2 region at intermediate spectral resolution in the visible domain, allowing us to conduct a complete census of both cluster galaxies and lensed background sources. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of all sources found in the MUSE data cube. Two hundred and eighty-two objects were systematically extracted from the cube based on a guided-and-manual approach. We also tested three different tools for the automated detection and extraction of line emitters. Cluster galaxies and lensed sources were identified based on their spectral features. We investigated the multiple-image configuration for all known sources in the field. Results: Previous to our survey, 28 different lensed galaxies displaying 46 multiple images were known in the MUSE field of view, most of them were detected through photometric redshifts and lensing considerations. Of these, we spectroscopically confirm 12 images based on their emission lines, corresponding to 7 different lensed galaxies between z = 0.95 and 5.0. In addition, 14 new galaxies have been spectroscopically identified in this area thanks to MUSE data, with redshifts ranging between 0.8 and 6.2. All background sources detected within the MUSE field of view correspond to multiple-imaged systems lensed by A1689. Seventeen sources in total are found at z ≥ 3 based on their Lyman-α emission, with Lyman-α luminosities ranging between 40.5 ≲ log (Lyα) ≲ 42.5 after correction for magnification. This sample is particularly sensitive to the slope of the luminosity function toward the faintest end. The density of sources obtained in this survey is consistent with a steep value of α ≤ -1.5, although this result still

  9. Restoration of distorted colour microscopic images from transverse chromatic aberration of imperfect lenses.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-S; Murray, J; Morgello, S; Fiel, M I; Schiano, T; Kalir, T; Deligdisch, L; Gil, J

    2011-02-01

    An algorithm is presented for restoration of colour microscopic images with distortions from imperfect microscope lenses having transverse chromatic aberrations, resulting in a magnification that slightly varies with wavelengths or colours. The differential of each colour component image is computed as the difference between the component image and its slightly magnified version. The absolute values in the differential component images are generally higher at the edges where greater discontinuities occur. The two cross-correlation functions of the absolute differentials between red and green colours and between red and blue colours are then computed. The maximum in the two cross-correlation functions were sought, respectively, and the cross-correlation delays were then calculated. The two cross-correlation delays were used to determine dispersions and to realign the three colour components. Results of real microscopic images are provided. The restored image and the original are compared both visually and quantitatively in terms of the estimated entropies measured for the degree of concentrations using vector distributions.

  10. Thermal lensing in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang

    2016-08-22

    Average powers from fiber lasers have reached the point that a quantitative understanding of thermal lensing and its impact on transverse mode instability is becoming critical. Although thermal lensing is well known qualitatively, there is a general lack of a simple method for quantitative analysis. In this work, we first conduct a study of thermal lensing in optical fibers based on a perturbation technique. The perturbation technique becomes increasingly inaccurate as thermal lensing gets stronger. It, however, provides a basis for determining a normalization factor to use in a more accurate numerical study. A simple thermal lensing threshold condition is developed. The impact of thermal lensing on transverse mode instability is also studied.

  11. Wave-front aberration measurements on GRIN-rod lenses.

    PubMed

    Cline, T W; Jander, R B

    1982-03-15

    A survey of the optical quality of commercial and experimental Selfoc GRIN-rod lenses was made using a digital Twyman-Green wave-front interferometer. The technique provides an accurate and reproducible method for predicting lens performance in microoptic devices. Wave-front aberrations are reported for (1/4) pitch lenses measured in a double-pass configuration. It was found that spherical aberration is dominant in commercial lenses. SLW (1/4) pitch lenses have lower aberrations than SLS lenses and are quite suitable for microoptic devices based on fiber-to-fiber coupling. Measured multimode coupling efficiency under steady-state modal propagation is compared to measured spherical aberration for a number of lenses. The slope of the coupling dependence on spherical aberration was found to be -0.1 dB/wave. Effects due to mechanical alignment and the modal distribution in the fibers had a greater influence on the measured coupling efficiency than the contribution due the intrinsic lens aberrations, especially for the SLW lenses. Comparison of this empirical dependence with theoretical predictions for a uniform distribution, which suggests a stronger dependence, is discussed. This work suggests that commercially available GRIN-rod lenses are suitable for use in microoptic components.

  12. The Theory of Multiscale Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeton, Charles

    2005-07-01

    Strong gravitational lensing probes the mass distributions of distant galaxies on scales from tens of kiloparsecs {dark matter halos and "macrolensing"} through parsecs {dark matter substructure and "millilensing"} all the way down to individual stars {"microlensing"}. Wonderful data are now available, thanks in large part to HST. However, the theoretical understanding of lensing on different scales is much less mature, which has complicated efforts to interpret the data. We have begun a comprehensive theoretical study of multiscale lensing, to develop a formalism that will enable us both to interpret existing data and to inspire and guide new observations. In this proposal, we specifically seek to develop the first code that simultaneously includes macro-, milli-, and microlensing. We will then use it to: {1} Find clear observational signatures that reveal the scale{s} being probed in data, and then resolve the debate about whether millilensing truly reveals Cold Dark Matter substructure. {2} Show how observations at different scales can constrain the mass function of stars in lens galaxies, and apply the method to existing HST data for seven distant galaxies. {3} Examine non-linearities that link micro-, milli-, and macrolensing, and use the combined analysis to open a new window on dark matter studies with strong lensing. We will also make the code available to the community as part of PI Keeton's public lensing software.

  13. Probing satellite haloes with weak gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Bryan R.; Hudson, Michael J.; Hilbert, Stefan; Hartlap, Jan

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of detecting tidal stripping of dark matter subhaloes within galaxy groups using weak gravitational lensing. We have run ray-tracing simulations on galaxy catalogues from the Millennium Simulation to generate mock shape catalogues. The ray-tracing catalogues assume a halo model for galaxies and groups using various models with different distributions of mass between galaxy and group haloes to simulate different stages of group evolution. Using these mock catalogues, we forecast the lensing signals that will be detected around galaxy groups and satellite galaxies, as well as test two different methods for isolating the satellites' lensing signals. A key challenge is to determine the accuracy to which group centres can be identified. We show that with current and ongoing surveys, it will possible to detect stripping in groups of mass 1012-1015 M⊙.

  14. Gravitational lensing statistics of amplified supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, Eric V.; Wagoner, Robert V.; Schneider, P.

    1988-01-01

    Amplification statistics of gravitationally lensed supernovae can provide a valuable probe of the lensing matter in the universe. A general probability distribution for amplification by compact objects is derived which allows calculation of the lensed fraction of supernovae at or greater than an amplification A and at or less than an apparent magnitude. Comparison of the computed fractions with future results from ongoing supernova searches can lead to determination of the mass density of compact dark matter components with masses greater than about 0.001 solar mass, while the time-dependent amplification (and polarization) of the expanding supernovae constrain the individual masses. Type II supernovae are found to give the largest fraction for deep surveys, and the optimum flux-limited search is found to be at approximately 23d magnitude, if evolution of the supernova rate is neglected.

  15. Correcting the magnification error of fan beam densitometers.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M R; Noakes, K A; Pocock, N A

    1997-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), using a narrow pencil-shaped X-ray beam coupled to a single detector, has been used extensively. More recently, DXA using a fan- shaped X-ray beam coupled to an array of detectors has been introduced. This new generation of scanners causes an inherent magnification of scanned structures as the distance from the X-ray source decreases. This magnification, which occurs in the medial-lateral direction but not in the craniocaudal direction, does not affect bone mineral density (BMD). There are, however, significant changes of bone mineral content (BMC), bone area, and parameters of hip geometry, with varying distance of the bone scanned from the X-ray source. Variability of soft tissue thickness in vivo, by altering the distance of the skeleton from the scanning table and X-ray source, may cause clinically significant errors of BMC, bone area, and proximal femur geometry when measured using fan-beam densitometers. We analyzed the geometry of Lunar and Hologic fan beam scanners to derive equations expressing the true width of scanned structures in terms of the apparent width and machine dimensions. We also showed mathematic ally that performing an additional scan, at a different distance from the X-ray source than the first scan, provides simultaneous equations that can be solved to derive the real width of a scanned bone. This hypothesis was tested on the Lunar Expert using aluminium phantoms scanned at different table heights. There was an excellent correlation, r = 0.99 (p < 0.001), between the predicted phantom width and the measured phantom width. In conclusion, this study shows that the magnification error of fan beam DXA can be corrected using a dual scanning technique. This has important implications in the clinical usefulness of BMC and geometrical measurements obtained from these scanners.

  16. Bone mineral imaging using a digital magnification mammography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyofuku, Fukai; Tokumori, Kenji; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Arimura, Hidetaka; Morishita, Junji; Ohki, Masafumi

    2008-03-01

    The measurement of bone mineral content is important for diagnosis of demineralization diseases such as osteoporosis. A reliable method of obtaining bone mineral images using a digital magnification mammography system has been developed. The full-field digital phase contrast mammography (PCM) system, which has a molybdenum target of 0.1mm focal spot size, was used with 1.75 x magnification. We have performed several phantom experiments using aluminum step wedges (0.2 mm - 6.0 mm in thickness) and a bone mineral standard phantom composed of calcium carbonate and polyurethane (CaCO 3 concentration: 26.7 - 939.0 mg/cm 3) within a water or Lucite phantom. X-ray spectra on the exposure field are measured using a CdTe detector for evaluation of heel effect. From the equations of x-ray attenuation and the thickness of the subjects, quantitative images of both components were obtained. The quantitative images of the two components were obtained for different tube voltages of 24 kV to 39 kV. The relative accuracy was less than 2.5% for the entire aluminum thickness of 0.5 to 6.0 mm at 5 cm water thickness. Accuracy of bone mineral thickness was within 3.5% for 5cm water phantom. The magnified quantitative images of a hand phantom significantly increased the visibility of fine structures of bones. The digital magnification mammography system is useful not only for measurement of bone mineral content, but also high-resolution quantitative imaging of trabecular structure.

  17. Vital sign monitoring utilizing Eulerian video magnification and thermography.

    PubMed

    Aubakir, Bauyrzhan; Nurimbetov, Birzhan; Tursynbek, Iliyas; Varol, Huseyin Atakan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present a proof of concept for non-contact extraction of vital signs using RGB and thermal images obtained from a smart phone. Using our method, heart rate, respiratory rate and forehead temperature can be measured concurrently. Face detection and tracking is leveraged in order to allow natural motion of patients. Heart rate is estimated via processing of visible band RGB video using Eulerian Video Magnification technique. Respiratory rate and the temperature is measured using thermal video. Experiments conducted with 11 healthy subjects indicate that heart rate and respiration rate can be measured with 92 and 94 percent accuracy, respectively.

  18. Problems with small area surveys: lensing covariance of supernova distance measurements.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Asantha; Huterer, Dragan; Holz, Daniel E

    2006-01-20

    While luminosity distances from type Ia supernovae (SNe) are a powerful probe of cosmology, the accuracy with which these distances can be measured is limited by cosmic magnification due to gravitational lensing by the intervening large-scale structure. Spatial clustering of foreground mass leads to correlated errors in SNe distances. By including the full covariance matrix of SNe, we show that future wide-field surveys will remain largely unaffected by lensing correlations. However, "pencil beam" surveys, and those with narrow (but possibly long) fields of view, can be strongly affected. For a survey with 30 arcmin mean separation between SNe, lensing covariance leads to a approximately 45% increase in the expected errors in dark energy parameters.

  19. Contact Lenses in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes results of a three-item questionnaire returned by 43 Michigan institutions expressing views on wearing contact lenses in chemical laboratories. Questions focused on eye protection, type of protection, and use of contact lenses. (SK)

  20. Gravitational lensing of gravitational wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kei Wong, Wang; Ng, Kwan Yeung

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational lensing phenomena are widespread in electromagnetic astrophysics, and in principle may also be uncovered with gravitational waves. We examine gravitational wave events lensed by elliptical galaxies in the limit of geometric optics, where we expect to see multiple signals from the same event with different arrival times and amplitudes. By using mass functions for compact binaries from population-synthesis simulations and a lensing probability calculated from Planck data, we estimate the rate of lensed signals for future gravitational wave missions.

  1. Radiation Blocking Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical Optical Company of America's (BOCA) suntiger lenses, similar in principle to natural filters in the eyes of hawks and eagles, bar 99 percent of potentially harmful wavelengths, while allowing visually useful colors of light (red, orange, green) to pass through. They also improve visual acuity, night vision and haze or fog visibility. The lenses evolved from work done by James B. Stephens and Dr. Charles G. Miller of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. They developed a formula and produced a commercial welding curtain that absorbs, filters, and scatters light. This research led to protective glasses now used by dentists, workers in hazardous environments, CRT operators and skiers.

  2. Multispectral variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A multispectral, variable magnification, glancing incidence, x-ray telescope capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources is discussed. The telescope includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more rotatable mirror carriers, each providing a different magnification, are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis. Each carrier has a series of ellipsoidal mirrors, and each mirror has a concave surface covered with a multilayer (layered synthetic microstructure) coating to reflect a different desired wavelength. The mirrors of both carriers are segments of ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x-ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second respective focus of each mirror so that each mirror may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector at the second focus. The carriers are selectively rotated to position a selected mirror for receiving radiation from the primary optical system, and at least the first carrier may be withdrawn from the path of the radiation to permit a selected mirror on the second carrier to receive the radiation.

  3. Gravitational lensing by a smoothly variable surface mass density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan; Wambsganss, Joachim

    1989-01-01

    The statistical properties of gravitational lensing due to smooth but nonuniform distributions of matter are considered. It is found that a majority of triple images had a parity characteristic for 'shear-induced' lensing. Almost all cases of triple or multiple imaging were associated with large surface density enhancements, and lensing objects were present between the images. Thus, the observed gravitational lens candidates for which no lensing object has been detected between the images are unlikely to be a result of asymmetric distribution of mass external to the image circle. In a model with smoothly variable surface mass density, moderately and highly amplified images tended to be single rather than multiple. An opposite trend was found in models which had singularities in the surface mass distribution.

  4. Gravitational lensing, time delay, and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Shude

    1992-01-01

    The probability distributions of time delay in gravitational lensing by point masses and isolated galaxies (modeled as singular isothermal spheres) are studied. For point lenses (all with the same mass) the probability distribution is broad, and with a peak at delta(t) of about 50 S; for singular isothermal spheres, the probability distribution is a rapidly decreasing function with increasing time delay, with a median delta(t) equals about 1/h month, and its behavior depends sensitively on the luminosity function of galaxies. The present simplified calculation is particularly relevant to the gamma-ray bursts if they are of cosmological origin. The frequency of 'recurrent' bursts due to gravitational lensing by galaxies is probably between 0.05 and 0.4 percent. Gravitational lensing can be used as a test of the cosmological origin of gamma-ray bursts.

  5. Fresnel's Lighthouse Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    One of the rewards of walking up the scores of steps winding around the inside of the shaft of a lighthouse is turning inward and examining the glass optical system. This arrangement of prisms, lenses, and reflectors is used to project the light from a relatively small source in a beam that can be seen far at sea.

  6. Fresnel's Lighthouse Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2007-12-01

    One of the rewards of walking up the scores of steps winding around the inside of the shaft of a lighthouse is turning inward and examining the glass optical system. This arrangement of prisms, lenses, and reflectors is used to project the light from a relatively small source in a beam that can be seen far at sea.

  7. Rigid lenses: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bayshore, C A

    1979-03-01

    New gas permeable rigid contact lens materials, by allowing direct transmission of oxygen, provide significant advantages over PMMA. Edema resulting from oxygen deprivation with PMMA lenses is eliminated and comfort is increased. Three types of gas permeable materials are described: CAB, silicone, and a combination of CAB and silicone.

  8. Obituary--rigid contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan

    2010-10-01

    Scleral and corneal rigid lenses represented 100 per cent of the contact lens market immediately prior to the invention of soft lenses in the mid-1960s. In the United Kingdom today, rigid lenses comprise 2 per cent of all new lens fits. Low rates of rigid lens fitting are also apparent in 27 other countries which have recently been surveyed. Thus, the 1998 prediction of the author that rigid lenses--also referred to as 'rigid gas permeable' (RGP) lenses or 'gas permeable' (GP) lenses--would be obsolete by the year 2010 has essentially turned out to be correct. In this obituary, the author offers 10 reasons for the demise of rigid lens fitting: initial rigid lens discomfort; intractable rigid lens-induced corneal and lid pathology; extensive soft lens advertising; superior soft lens fitting logistics; lack of rigid lens training opportunities; redundancy of the rigid lens 'problem solver' function; improved soft toric and bifocal/varifocal lenses; limited uptake of orthokeratology; lack of investment in rigid lenses; and the emergence of aberration control soft lenses. Rigid lenses are now being fitted by a minority of practitioners with specialist skills/training. Certainly, rigid lenses can no longer be considered as a mainstream form of contact lens correction. May their dear souls (bulk properties) rest in peace.

  9. Interpreting the Strongly Lensed Supernova iPTF16geu: Time Delay Predictions, Microlensing, and Lensing Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Anupreeta; Suyu, Sherry H.; Oguri, Masamune; More, Surhud; Lee, Chien-Hsiu

    2017-02-01

    We present predictions for time delays between multiple images of the gravitationally lensed supernova, iPTF16geu, which was recently discovered from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). As the supernova is of Type Ia where the intrinsic luminosity is usually well known, accurately measured time delays of the multiple images could provide tight constraints on the Hubble constant. According to our lens mass models constrained by the Hubble Space Telescope F814W image, we expect the maximum relative time delay to be less than a day, which is consistent with the maximum of 100 hr reported by Goobar et al. but places a stringent upper limit. Furthermore, the fluxes of most of the supernova images depart from expected values suggesting that they are affected by microlensing. The microlensing timescales are small enough that they may pose significant problems to measure the time delays reliably. Our lensing rate calculation indicates that the occurrence of a lensed SN in iPTF is likely. However, the observed total magnification of iPTF16geu is larger than expected, given its redshift. This may be a further indication of ongoing microlensing in this system.

  10. Line-of-sight structure toward strong lensing galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Johnson, Traci; Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Oguri, Masamune

    2014-03-01

    We present an analysis of the line-of-sight structure toward a sample of 10 strong lensing cluster cores. Structure is traced by groups that are identified spectroscopically in the redshift range, 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.9, and we measure the projected angular and comoving separations between each group and the primary strong lensing clusters in each corresponding line of sight. From these data we measure the distribution of projected angular separations between the primary strong lensing clusters and uncorrelated large-scale structure as traced by groups. We then compare the observed distribution of angular separations for our strong lensing selected lines of sight against the distribution of groups that is predicted for clusters lying along random lines of sight. There is clear evidence for an excess of structure along the line of sight at small angular separations (θ ≤ 6') along the strong lensing selected lines of sight, indicating that uncorrelated structure is a significant systematic that contributes to producing galaxy clusters with large cross sections for strong lensing. The prevalence of line-of-sight structure is one of several biases in strong lensing clusters that can potentially be folded into cosmological measurements using galaxy cluster samples. These results also have implications for current and future studies—such as the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields—that make use of massive galaxy cluster lenses as precision cosmological telescopes; it is essential that the contribution of line-of-sight structure be carefully accounted for in the strong lens modeling of the cluster lenses.

  11. Gravitational Lenses and the Structure and Evolution of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochanek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    The grant has supported the completion of 16 papers and 4 conference proceedings to date. During the first year of the project we completed five papers, each of which represents a new direction in the theory and interpretation of gravitational lenses. In the first paper, "The Importance of Einstein Rings", we developed the first theory for the formation and structure of the Einstein rings formed by lensing extended sources like the host galaxies of quasar and radio sources. We applied the theory to three lenses with lensed host galaxies. For the time delay lens PG 1115+080 we found that the structure of the Einstein ring ruled out models of the gravitational potential which permitted a large Hubble constant (70 km/s Mpc). In the second paper, :Cusped Mass Models Of Gravitational Lenses", we introduced a new class of lens models where the central density is characterized by a cusp ( rho proportional to tau(sup -gamma), 1 less than gamma less than 2) as in most modern models and theories of galaxies rather than a finite core radius. In the third paper, "Global Probes of the Impact of Baryons on Dark Matter Halos", we made the first globally consistent models for the separation distribution of gravitational lenses including both galaxy and cluster lenses. We show that the key physics for the origin of the sharp separation cutoff in the separation distribution near 3 arc sec is the effect of the cooling baryons in galaxies on the density structure of the system.

  12. Weak lensing by voids in modified lensing potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, Alexandre; Cautun, Marius; Li, Baojiu; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: m.c.cautun@durham.ac.uk E-mail: c.m.baugh@durham.ac.uk

    2015-08-01

    We study lensing by voids in Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity cosmologies, which are examples of theories of gravity that modify the lensing potential. We find voids in the dark matter and halo density fields of N-body simulations and compute their lensing signal analytically from the void density profiles, which we show are well fit by a simple analytical formula. In the Cubic Galileon model, the modifications to gravity inside voids are not screened and they approximately double the size of the lensing effects compared to GR. The difference is largely determined by the direct effects of the fifth force on lensing and less so by the modified density profiles. For this model, we also discuss the subtle impact on the force and lensing calculations caused by the screening effects of haloes that exist in and around voids. In the Nonlocal model, the impact of the modified density profiles and the direct modifications to lensing are comparable, but they boost the lensing signal by only ≈ 10%, compared with that of GR. Overall, our results suggest that lensing by voids is a promising tool to test models of gravity that modify lensing.

  13. Detection and magnification of bridge displacements using video images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terán, Leticia; Ordóñez, Celestino; García-Cortés, Silverio; Menéndez, Agustín.

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring displacements on some structures such as large bridges is essential to study their structural performance in order to avoid severe damage or even their collapse. In this work, we use images obtained with digital video cameras to estimate the displacements of a metallic bridge by means of cross-correlation. Thus, it was possible to detect millimetric displacements for distances between the camera and the bridge upper ten meters. In order to obtain a better representation of the structural displacements along the bridge and its modal shapes, a technique of video magnification was also applied. The results obtained show that the combination of both techniques can provide relevant information for a structural analysis of the bridge.

  14. Noninvasive Free Flap Monitoring Using Eulerian Video Magnification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan Fang; Vuong, Christopher; Walker, Paul Charles; Peterson, Nathaniel Ray; Inman, Jared Christian; Filho, Pedro Alcantara Andrade; Lee, Steve Choon-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM) can enhance subtle changes in videos to reveal what was once invisible to the naked eye. In this proof of concept study, we investigated using EVM as a novel form of free flap monitoring. Free flaps with skin paddles were filmed in the operating room with manipulation of their pedicles. In a representative 77-year-old female who received a latissimus dorsi-serratus-rib composite free flap, EVM was able to detect blockage of arterial or venous supply instantaneously, providing a visible representation through degree of color change in videos. EVM has the potential to serve as a powerful free flap monitoring tool with the benefit of being noninvasive, sensitive, easy-to-use, and nearly cost-free. PMID:27092284

  15. Effect of magnification loupes on dental hygiene student posture.

    PubMed

    Maillet, J Peggy; Millar, A Michele; Burke, Jillian M; Maillet, Michelle A; Maillet, Wayne A; Neish, Nancy R

    2008-01-01

    The chair-side work posture of dental hygienists has long been a concern because of health-related problems potentially caused or exacerbated by poor posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate if using magnification loupes improved dental hygiene students' posture during provision of treatment. The treatment chosen was hand-scaling, and the effect of the timing of introduction of the loupes to students was also examined. Thirty-five novice dental hygiene students took part in the study. Each student was assessed providing dental hygiene care with and without loupes, thus controlling for innate differences in natural posture. Students were randomized into two groups. Group one used loupes in the first session and did not use them for the second session. Group two reversed this sequence. At the end of each session, all students were videotaped while performing scaling procedures. Their posture was assessed using an adapted version of Branson et al.'s Posture Assessment Instrument (PAI). Four raters assessed students at three time periods for nine posture components on the PAI. A paired t-test compared scores with and without loupes for each student. Scores showed a significant improvement in posture when using loupes (p<0.0001), and these improvements were significantly more pronounced for students starting loupes immediately on entering the program compared with students who delayed until the second session (p<0.1). These results suggest a significant postural benefit is realized by requiring students to master the use of magnification loupes as early as possible within the curriculum.

  16. Influence of magnification and superimposition of structures on cephalometric diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Solon-de-Mello, Priscilla de Almeida; Mattos, Claudia Trindade; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of magnification and superimposition of structures on CBCT-generated lateral cephalometric radiographs (LCR) using different segments of the cranium. METHODS: CBCT scans of 10 patients were selected. Four LCR were generated using Dolphin Imaging(r) software: full-face, right side, left side and center of the head. A total of 40 images were imported into Radiocef Studio 2(r), and the angles of the most common cephalometric analyses were traced by the same observer twice and within a 10-day interval. Statistical analyses included intraexaminer agreement and comparison between methods by means of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman agreement tests. RESULTS: Intraexaminer agreement of the angles assessed by ICC was excellent (> 0.90) for 83% of measurements, good (between 0.75 and 0.90) for 15%, and moderate (between 0.50 and 0.75) for 2% of measurements. The comparison between methods by ICC was excellent for 68% of measurements, good for 26%, and moderate for 6%. Variables presenting wider confidence intervals (> 6o) in the Bland-Altman tests, in intraexaminer assessment, were: mandibular incisor angle, maxillary incisor angle, and occlusal plane angle. And in comparison methods the variables with wider confidence interval were: mandibular incisor, maxillary incisor, GoGn, occlusal plane angle, Frankfort horizontal plane (FHP), and CoA. CONCLUSION: Superimposition of structures seemed to influence the results more than magnification, and neither one of them significantly influenced the measurements. Considerable individual variability may occur, especially for mandibular and maxillary incisors, FHP and occlusal plane. PMID:25992984

  17. The Effective Cross-section and Imaging Property of a Lensing-galaxy: Singular Isothermal Sphere with External Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Kim, S. J.; Lee, D.

    2013-07-01

    We present extensive numerical studies on the imaging and caustic properties of the singular isothermal sphere (SIS) with including a wide range of external shear being even more than 1.0 (ranging from 0.0 to 2.0). Using a direct inverse mapping formula of lens system (Lee 2003), various imaging properties are investigated as a function of the shear: image separation, total or individual magnifications depending on image multiplicity (i.e., 2-, 3-, & 4-images), flux ratios of double-image, and lensing cross sections. These properties are numerically investigated for the both realms of shear in a low (i.e., γ < 1.0), and a high (i.e., γ >1.0) magnitude. To investigate the frequency of 2 (double)- and 4 (quad)-image lensing systems, we systematically analyze the effective-lensing cross-sections (see Section 3) of double-lensing and quad-lensing systems based on the power-law luminosity function of flat-spectrum radio sources obtained by Jodrell-VLA Astrometric Survey (JAVAS) and Cosmic Lens ALL-Sky Survey (CLASS). Taking into account the external shear and the magnification bias effect with survey selection bias, our analysis on the effective-lensing cross-sections shows a strong dependency of both the shear and the survey selection bias, especially for the double-lensing. It thus turns out that the variation of effective-lensing cross-section of 2-image lensing systems is very sensitive compared with the 4-image lensing systems. Therefore, we find that the observed high quads-to-doubles ratios (i.e., JAVAS & CLASS: 50% ~ 70%) should be understandable in terms of the effective shear of 0.16 ~ 0.18, which is approximately a half of the previous estimates on the corresponding shear around 0.3. Thus, our numerical analysis may provide a solution for the long standing problem of high quads-to-doubles ratio observed n gravitational lens surveys. Estimated ratios of the quads-to-doubles and the triples-to-doubles are also presented. The inverse mapping formula of the SIS

  18. Learning unit: Thin lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, L.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Learning unit: Thin lenses "Why objects seen through lenses are sometimes upright and sometimes reversed" Nita Laura Simona National College of Arts and Crafts "Constantin Brancusi", Craiova, Romania 1. GEOMETRIC OPTICS. 13 hours Introduction (models, axioms, principles, conventions) 1. Thin lenses (Types of lenses. Defining elements. Path of light rays through lenses. Image formation. Required physical quantities. Lens formulas). 2. Lens systems (Non-collated lenses. Focalless systems). 3. Human eye (Functioning as an optical system. Sight defects and their corrections). 4. Optical instruments (Characteristics exemplified by a magnifying glass. Paths of light rays through a simplified photo camera. Path of light rays through a classical microscope) (Physics curriculum for the IXth grade/ 2011). This scenario exposes a learning unit based on experimental sequences (defining specific competencies), as a succession of lessons started by noticing a problem whose solution assumes the setup of an experiment under laboratory conditions. Progressive learning of theme objectives are realised with sequential experimental steps. The central cognitive process is the induction or the generalization (development of new knowledge based on observation of examples or counterexamples of the concept to be learnt). Pupil interest in theme objectives is triggered by problem-situations, for example: "In order to better see small objects I need a magnifying glass. But when using a magnifier, small object images are sometimes seen upright and sometimes seen reversed!" Along the way, pupils' reasoning will converge to the idea: "The image of an object through a lens depends on the relative distances among object, lens, and observer". Associated learning model: EXPERIMENT Specific competencies: derived from the experiment model, in agreement with the following learning unit steps I. Evoking - Anticipation: Size of the problem, formulation of hypotheses and planning of experiment. II

  19. Cosmology with Strong-lensing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuo; Biesiada, Marek; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Piórkowska, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we assemble a catalog of 118 strong gravitational lensing systems from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey, BOSS emission-line lens survey, Lens Structure and Dynamics, and Strong Lensing Legacy Survey and use them to constrain the cosmic equation of state. In particular, we consider two cases of dark energy phenomenology: the XCDM model, where dark energy is modeled by a fluid with constant w equation-of-state parameter, and in the Chevalier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) parameterization, where w is allowed to evolve with redshift, w(z)={{w}0}+{{w}1}\\frac{z}{1 + z} . We assume spherically symmetric mass distribution in lensing galaxies, but we relax the rigid assumption of the SIS model in favor of a more general power-law index γ, also allowing it to evolve with redshifts γ (z). Our results for the XCDM cosmology show agreement with values (concerning both w and γ parameters) obtained by other authors. We go further and constrain the CPL parameters jointly with γ (z). The resulting confidence regions for the parameters are much better than those obtained with a similar method in the past. They are also showing a trend of being complementary to the Type Ia supernova data. Our analysis demonstrates that strong gravitational lensing systems can be used to probe cosmological parameters like the cosmic equation of state for dark energy. Moreover, they have a potential to judge whether the cosmic equation of state evolved with time or not.

  20. Gravitational lensing of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goliath, M.; Mörtsell, E.

    2000-08-01

    Recently, Holz and Wald [Phys. Rev. D 58 (1998) 063501] have presented a method for determining gravitational lensing effects in inhomogeneous universes. Their use of realistic galaxy models has been limited to the singular, truncated isothermal sphere with a fixed mass. In this paper, their method is generalized to allow for matter distributions more accurately describing the actual properties of galaxies, as derived from observations and /N-body simulations. This includes the density profile proposed by Navarro, Frenk and White, as well as a distribution of galaxy masses. As an example of the possible applications of the method, we consider lensing effects on supernova luminosity distributions. We find that results for different mass distributions of smooth dark matter halos are very similar, making lensing effects predictable for a broad range of halo profiles. We also note, in agreement with other investigations, that one should be able to discriminate smooth halos from a dominant component of dark matter in compact objects. For instance, a sample of 100 supernovae at redshift /z=1 can, with 99% certainty, discriminate the case where all matter is in compact objects from the case where matter is in smooth halos.

  1. Tolerancing panoramic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, Jocelyn; Thibault, Simon

    2009-08-01

    Tolerancing a lens is a basic procedure in lens design. It consists in first defining an appropriate set of tolerances for the lens, then in adding compensators with their allowable ranges and finally in selecting an appropriate quality criterion (MTF, RMS spot size, wavefront error, boresight error...) for the given application. The procedure is straightforward for standard optical systems. However, it becomes more complex when tolerancing very wide angle lenses (larger than 150 degrees). With a large field of view, issues such as severe off-axis pupil shift, considerable distortion and low relative illumination must be addressed. The pupil shift affects the raytrace as some rays can no longer be traced properly. For high resolution imagers, particularly for robotic and security applications, the image footprint is most critical in order to limit or avoid complex calibration procedures. We studied various wide angle lenses and concluded that most of the distortion comes from the front surface of the lens. Consequently, any variation of the front surface will greatly affect the image footprint. In this paper, we study the effects on the image footprint of slightly modifying the front surface of four different lenses: a simple double-gauss for comparison, a fisheye lens, a catadioptric system (omnidirectional lens) and a Panomorph lens. We also present a method to analyze variations of the image footprint. Our analysis shows that for wide angle lenses, on which the entrance pupil is much smaller than the front surface, irregularities (amplitude, slope and location) are critical on both aspherical and spherical front surfaces to predict the image footprint variation for high resolution cameras. Finally, we present how the entrance pupil varies (location, size) with the field of view for these optical systems.

  2. Improving the Quality and Scientific Understanding of Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This short 1000 word report presents a series of research needs for improving the measurement and understanding of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). TMFs are useful measures of trophic magnification and represent the diet-weighted average biomagnification factor (BMF) of che...

  3. Trophic magnification and isomer fractionation of perfluoroalkyl substances in the food web of Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shuhong; Chen, Xinwei; Zhao, Shuyan; Zhang, Yifeng; Jiang, Weiwei; Yang, Liping; Zhu, Lingyan

    2014-02-18

    Biomagnification of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are well studied in marine food webs, but related information in fresh water ecosystem and knowledge on fractionation of their isomers along the food web are limited. The distribution, bioaccumulation, magnification, and isomer fractionation of PFASs were investigated in a food web of Taihu Lake, China. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) with longer carbon chain lengths, such as perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), were predominant in organisms, while perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluorooctanoate (∑PFOA) contributed more in the water phase. The consistent profile signature of PFOA isomers in water phase with 3M electrochemical fluorination (ECF) products suggests that ECF production of PFOA still exists in China. Linear proportions of PFOA, PFOS and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) in the biota were in the range of 91.9-100%, 78.6-95.5%, and 72.2-95.5%, respectively, indicating preferential bioaccumulation of linear isomers in biota. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were estimated for PFDA (2.43), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) (2.68) and PFOS (3.46) when all biota were included, suggesting that PFOS and long-chained PFCAs are biomagnified in the fresh water food web. The TMF of PFOS isomers descended in the order: n-PFOS (3.86) > 3+5m-PFOS (3.35) > 4m-PFOS (3.32) > 1m-PFOS (2.92) > m2-PFOS (2.67) > iso-PFOS (2.59), which is roughly identical to their elution order on a FluoroSep-RP Octyl column, suggesting that hydrophobicity may be an important contributor for isomer discrimination in biota.

  4. Masses of Galaxy Clusters from Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Henk; Bartelmann, Matthias; Dahle, Håkon; Israel, Holger; Limousin, Marceau; Meneghetti, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Despite consistent progress in numerical simulations, the observable properties of galaxy clusters are difficult to predict ab initio. It is therefore important to compare both theoretical and observational results to a direct measure of the cluster mass. This can be done by measuring the gravitational lensing effects caused by the bending of light by the cluster mass distribution. In this review we discuss how this phenomenon can be used to determine cluster masses and study the mass distribution itself. As sample sizes increase, the accuracy of the weak lensing mass estimates needs to improve accordingly. We discuss the main practical aspects of these measurements. We review a number of applications and highlight some recent results.

  5. The Search for Lensed Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have a plan. In a recent publication, Daniel Goldstein and Peter Nugent propose the following clever procedure to apply to data from transient surveys:From the data, select only the supernova candidates that appear to be hosted by quiescent elliptical galaxies.Use the host galaxies photometric redshifts to calculate absolute magnitudes for the supernovae in this sample.Select from this only the supernovae above the maximum absolute magnitude expected for Type Ia supernovae.Supernovae selected in this way are likely tricking us: their apparent hosts are probably not their hosts at all! Instead, the supernova is likely behind the galaxy, and the galaxy is just lensing its light. Using this strategy therefore allows us to select supernova candidates that are most likely to be distant, gravitationally lensed Type Ia supernovae.Redshift distribution of the multiply-imaged Type Ia supernovae the authors estimate will be detectable by ZTF and LSST in their respective 3- and 10-year survey durations. [Goldstein Nugent 2017]A convenient aspect of Goldstein and Nugents technique is that we dont need to be able to resolve the lensed multiple images for discovery. This is useful, because ground-based optical surveys dont have the resolution to see the separate images yet theyll still be useful for discovering multiply-imaged supernovae.Future ProspectsHow useful? Goldstein and Nugent use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate how many multiply-imaged Type Ia supernovae will be discoverable with future survey projects. They find that theZwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), which will begin operating this year, should be able to find up to 10 using this technique in a 3-year search. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which should start operating in 2022, will be able to find around 500 multiply-imaged Type Ia supernovae in a 10-year survey.CitationDaniel A. Goldstein and Peter E. Nugent 2017 ApJL 834 L5. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/834/1/L5

  6. KOI-3278: a self-lensing binary star system.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Ethan; Agol, Eric

    2014-04-18

    Over 40% of Sun-like stars are bound in binary or multistar systems. Stellar remnants in edge-on binary systems can gravitationally magnify their companions, as predicted 40 years ago. By using data from the Kepler spacecraft, we report the detection of such a "self-lensing" system, in which a 5-hour pulse of 0.1% amplitude occurs every orbital period. The white dwarf stellar remnant and its Sun-like companion orbit one another every 88.18 days, a long period for a white dwarf-eclipsing binary. By modeling the pulse as gravitational magnification (microlensing) along with Kepler's laws and stellar models, we constrain the mass of the white dwarf to be ~63% of the mass of our Sun. Further study of this system, and any others discovered like it, will help to constrain the physics of white dwarfs and binary star evolution.

  7. Gravitational Lenses and the Structure and Evolution of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Kochanek, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    During the first year of the project we completed five papers, each of which represents a new direction in the theory and interpretation of gravitational lenses. In the first paper, The Importance of Einstein Rings, we developed the first theory for the formation and structure of the Einstein rings formed by lensing extended sources like the host galaxies of quasar and radio sources. In the second paper, Cusped Mass Models Of Gravitational Lenses, we introduced a new class of lens models. In the third paper, Global Probes of the Impact of Baryons on Dark Matter Halos, we made the first globally consistent models for the separation distribution of gravitational lenses including both galaxy and cluster lenses. The last two papers explore the properties of two lenses in detail. During the second year we have focused more closely on the relationship of baryons and dark matter. In the third year we have been further examining the relationship between baryons and dark matter. In the present year we extended our statistical analysis of lens mass distributions using a self-similar model for the halo mass distribution as compared to the luminous galaxy.

  8. A rationale for the use of high-powered magnification or microscopes in general dentistry.

    PubMed

    Mamoun, John S

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that high-powered magnification (4x-6x or more) provides substantially more visual information for diagnosing and treating dental pathology compared to the use of unaided vision or entry-level 2.5x magnification. In all phases of general dentistry, the increased visual detail provided by high magnification reduces ambiguity in diagnosis and treatment decision-making, increases control in treatment implementation, allows a dentist to produce more ergonomic restorations that are less prone to recurrent decay, and arguably improves clinical outcomes compared to work performed with unaided vision. High magnification enhances a dentist's ability to diagnose caries and cracks in teeth, distinguish between different colors intraorally, detect the interfaces between different surfaces and materials, detect microscopic interferences in fixed and removable metal frameworks, adjust occlusal prematurities, and polish restorations. This article explains specific general dental applications for high-powered magnification in restorative dentistry, fixed and removable prosthodontics, endodontics, pediatric dentistry, periodontics, and oral surgery.

  9. [Magnification endoscopy diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus with methylene blue and acetic acid].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Atsuo; Sekine, Atsuo

    2005-08-01

    Intestinal metaplasia of Barrett's esophagus is pre-cancerous lesion and it is important to diagnose intestinal metaplasia by endoscopic examination. Predefined 4 quadrant sampling technique is popular in western countries. However, chromoendoscopy or magnification endoscopy have been tried to diagnose intestinal metaplasia. We have carried out magnification endoscopy with methylene blue and magnification endoscopy with acetic acid. In magnification endoscopy with methylene blue, intestinal metaplasia showed blue-staining area with tubulaous or cavernous pattern. In magnification endoscopy with acetic acid, all of epithelium of Barrett's esophagus changed to whitening surface and it was easy to observe the structure of each epithelium. Intestinal metaplasia showed tubulaous or villous, although fundic type showed pits of small round and cardiac type showed oval pattern with central-slit pits.

  10. Discovery and Characterization of Gravitationally Lensed X-ray Sources in the CLASH Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasha, Imad; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Santos, Felipe A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the discovery of ~20 gravitationally lensed X-ray sources in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) survey, a sample of massive clusters of galaxies between z ~ 0.2-0.9 observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By combining CLASH imaging with Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the same clusters, we select those sources in the HST images which are gravitationally lensed X-ray sources behind the clusters. Of those discovered sources, we determine various properties including source redshifts and magnifications, as well as performing X-ray spectral fits to determine source fluxes and luminosities. Prior to this study, only four lensed X-ray sources behind clusters have been found, thus to the best of our knowledge, our program is the first to systematically categorize lensed X-ray sources behind galaxy clusters.This work was supported by the SAO REU program, which is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  11. Extragalactic Extinction Laws and Quasar Structure from Color differences Between Images of Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio

    2011-11-01

    The action of the mean gravitational field of an intervening galaxy sufficiently aligned with a distant quasar can form several images of this object (multiple imaged quasar). Random fluctuations of the gravitational field induced by the highly inhomogeneous granulation of stars or in dark matter clumps of the lens galaxy mass distribution can subdivide the images in scales of microarcsecs (microlensing by stars) or miliarcsecs (mililensing by dark matter clumps). Anomalies induced by microlensing in the flux brightness of the images can be very strong for small sources or be averaged out by sufficiently large sources. Thus, microlensing magnification of the flux of a radially stratified source can be wavelength dependent (chromaticity). On the other hand, in their path through the lens galaxy the photons of the quasar images are also affected by the patchily distributed interstellar medium (dust extinction). Thus, the wavelength dependence of extinction can be obtained from the flux ratios between two images. In this work we review the use of quasar spectra to disentangle microlensing and dust extinction (based in the comparison between the continuum and emission line flux ratios for different images of the quasar) discussing the impact of the intrinsic source variability in this procedure. We will also review some results derived using this technique like the low fraction of mass in MACHOS in the dark halos of lens galaxies, the unexpected large sizes of the accretion disks present in the central region of lensed quasars or the derivation of extinction curves in the extragalactic domain that reveals a variability in dust properties similar to the one found in the Local Group of galaxies.

  12. Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Biesiada, Marek; Godlowski, Wlodzimierz E-mail: panyu@cqupt.edu.cn E-mail: godlowski@uni.opole.pl

    2012-03-01

    Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D{sub ds}/D{sub s} from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future.

  13. SPT Lensing Likelihood: South Pole Telescope CMB lensing likelihood code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia

    2014-11-01

    The SPT lensing likelihood code, written in Fortran90, performs a Gaussian likelihood based upon the lensing potential power spectrum using a file from CAMB (ascl:1102.026) which contains the normalization required to get the power spectrum that the likelihood call is expecting.

  14. Trophic magnification of organic chemicals: A global synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, David; Jardine, T.D.; Cade, Brian S.; Kidd, K.A.; Muir, D.C.G.; Leipzig-Scott, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Production of organic chemicals (OCs) is increasing exponentially, and some OCs biomagnify through food webs to potentially toxic levels. Biomagnification under field conditions is best described by trophic magnification factors (TMFs; per trophic level change in log-concentration of a chemical) which have been measured for more than two decades. Syntheses of TMF behavior relative to chemical traits and ecosystem properties are lacking. We analyzed >1500 TMFs to identify OCs predisposed to biomagnify and to assess ecosystem vulnerability. The highest TMFs were for OCs that are slowly metabolized by animals (metabolic rate kM < 0.01 day–1) and are moderately hydrophobic (log KOW 6–8). TMFs were more variable in marine than freshwaters, unrelated to latitude, and highest in food webs containing endotherms. We modeled the probability that any OC would biomagnify as a combined function of KOW and kM. Probability is greatest (∼100%) for slowly metabolized compounds, regardless of KOW, and lowest for chemicals with rapid transformation rates (kM > 0.2 day–1). This probabilistic model provides a new global tool for screening existing and new OCs for their biomagnification potential.

  15. Estimating trophic levels and trophic magnification factors using Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Starrfelt, Jostein; Borgå, Katrine; Ruus, Anders; Fjeld, Eirik

    2013-10-15

    Food web biomagnification is increasingly assessed by estimating trophic magnification factors (TMF) where solvent (often lipid) normalized contaminant concentration is regressed onto the trophic level, and TMFs are represented by the slope of the relationship. In TMF regressions, the uncertainty in the contaminant concentrations is appreciated, whereas the trophic levels are assumed independent and not associated with variability or uncertainty pertaining to e.g. quantification. In reality, the trophic levels may vary due to measurement error in stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ(15)N) of each sample, in δ(15)N in selected reference baseline trophic level, and in the enrichment factor of δ(15)N between two trophic levels (ΔN), which are all needed to calculate trophic levels. The present study used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, with knowledge about the food web structure, which resulted in a dramatic increase in the precision in the TMF estimates. This also lead to a better understanding of the uncertainties in bioaccumulation measures; instead of using point estimates of TMF, the uncertainty can be quantified (i.e., TMF >1, namely positive biomagnification, with an estimated X % probability).

  16. Gravitational lensing frequencies - Galaxy cross-sections and selection effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukugita, Masataka; Turner, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Four issues - (1) the best currently available data on the galaxy velocity-dispersion distribution, (2) the effects of finite core radii potential ellipticity on lensing cross sections, (3) the predicted distribution of lens image separations compared to observational angular resolutions, and (4) the preferential inclusion of lens systems in flux limited samples - are considered in order to facilitate more realistic predictions of multiple image galaxy-quasar lensing frequencies. It is found that (1) the SIS lensing parameter F equals 0.047 +/-0.019 with almost 90 percent contributed by E and S0 galaxies, (2) observed E and S0 core radii are remarkably small, yielding a factor of less than about 2 reduction in total lensing cross sections, (3) 50 percent of galaxy-quasar lenses have image separations greater than about 1.3 arcsec, and (4) amplification bias factors are large and must be carefully taken into account. It is concluded that flat universe models excessively dominated by the cosmological constant are not favored by the small observed galaxy-quasar lensing rate.

  17. Optic disc photogrammetry: magnification factors for eye position, centration, and ametropias, refractive and axial; and their application in the diagnosis of optic nerve hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Pach, J; Pennell, D O; Romano, P E

    1989-12-01

    To determine if image magnification from ametropia or other factors required correction in the photogrammetric diagnosis of optic nerve hypoplasia, the following variables were studied using two standard 30 degrees field fundus cameras (Zeiss FF-3 and Kowa RC-2): (1) distance between the camera and the subject--variations in this distance do not change the image size; (2) decentration of the camera (i.e., decentration of the optic disc image within the field)--no effect was found using the Kowa camera, but in the Zeiss, a 2% (0.07 mm) increase in disc image size was found for each mm of optic disc decentration in the field; (3) ametropia, refractive experimental (induced in one subject with soft contact lenses, from +8.00 diopters (D) to -8.00D)--no significant change in image size was found (In addition, in 50 healthy adult eyes with various refractive errors, including ten with uncorrected aphakia, there was no significant difference found for the size of the optic nerve in different refractive ametropias. No correction factor was necessary for aphakia or for other refractive ametropias); and (4) ametropia, axial--axial myopia showed minor but significant magnification: a linear increase in the horizontal diameter of the optic disc image of 2% (0.07 mm) was found for each diopter of axial ametropia exceeding 3D. There was insufficient data for axial hyperopia. These magnification factors should be applied when measuring the optic disc on 35-mm transparencies to make a diagnosis of optic nerve hypoplasia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Hollow lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Mitchell, Scott; Lang, John; Maderas, Dennis; Speth, Joel; Payne, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    A hollow lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of focusing using a spherical or cylindrical lens followed by reflective waveguiding. The hollow duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side consisting of a lens that may be coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The inside surfaces of the hollow lens duct are appropriately coated to be reflective, preventing light from escaping by reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The hollow duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials.

  19. Automatic magnification determination of electron cryomicroscopy images using apoferritin as a standard.

    PubMed

    Wasilewski, Sebastian; Karelina, Darya; Berriman, John A; Rosenthal, Peter B

    2012-10-01

    Interpretation of the structural information in cryomicroscopy images recorded on film or CCD camera requires a precise knowledge of the electron microscope parameters that affect image features such as magnification and defocus. Magnification must be determined in order to combine data from different images in a three-dimensional reconstruction and to accurately scale reconstructions for fitting with atomic resolution models. A method is described for estimating the absolute magnification of an electron micrograph of a frozen-hydrated specimen using horse spleen apoferritin as a standard. Apoferritin is a widely available protein complex of known structure that may be included with the specimen of interest and imaged under conditions identical to those used for imaging other biological specimens by cryomicroscopy. The sum of the structure factor intensities of images of randomly-oriented apoferritin particles shows three low resolution peaks to 25Å that arise from the hollow ball structure of apoferritin. Comparison of peak positions of the experimental intensities with structure factor intensities of an atomic model of apoferritin determined by X-ray crystallography provides a scale factor for estimating the absolute magnification of the micrograph. We compare the magnification estimate using apoferritin to that obtained with tobacco mosaic virus, another common magnification standard for cryomicroscopy. We verify the precision of the method by acquiring images with a systematic variation of magnification.

  20. Weak Gravitatational Lensing by Illustris-1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainerd, Tereasa G.; Koh, Patrick H.

    2016-06-01

    We compute the weak gravitational lensing signal of isolated, central galaxies obtained from the z=0.5 timestep of the ΛCDM Illustris-1 simulation. The galaxies have stellar masses ranging from 9.5 ≤ log10(M*/Msun) ≤ 11.0 and are located outside cluster and rich group environments. Although there is local substructure present in the form of small, luminous satellite galaxies, the central galaxies are the dominant objects within the virial radii (r200), and each central galaxy is at least 5 times brighter than any other luminous galaxy within the friends-of-friends halo. We compute the weak lensing signal within projected radii 0.05 < rp/r200 < 1.5 and investigate the degree to which the weak lensing signal is anisotropic. Since CDM halos are non-spherical, the weak lensing signal is expected to be anisotropic; however, the degree of anisotropy that is observed depends upon the symmetry axes that are used to define the geometry. The anisotropy is expected to be maximized when the major axis of the projected dark matter mass distribution is used to define the geomety. In practice in the observed universe, one must necessarily use the projected distribution of the luminous mass to define the geometry. If mass and light are not well-aligned, this results in a suppression of the weak lensing anistropy. Our initial analysis shows that the ellipticity of the projected dark matter halo is uncorrelated with the ellipticity of the projected stellar mass. That is ɛhalo ≠ f × ɛlight, where f is a constant multiplicative factor. In addition, in projection on the sky, the major axis of the dark matter mass is offset from that of the stellar mass by ˜40o on average. On scales rp ≤ 0.15 r200, the weak lensing anisotropy obtained when using the stellar mass to define the geometry is of order 7% and agrees well with the anisotropy obtained when using the dark matter mass to define the geometry. On scales rp ˜ r200, the anisotropy obtained when using the stellar mass to

  1. THE MASS STRUCTURE OF THE GALAXY CLUSTER Cl0024+1654 FROM A FULL LENSING ANALYSIS OF JOINT SUBARU AND ACS/NIC3 OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Molnar, Sandor M.; Medezinski, Elinor; Broadhurst, Tom; Zitrin, Adi

    2010-05-10

    We derive an accurate mass distribution of the rich galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 (z = 0.395) based on deep Subaru BR{sub c} z' imaging and our recent comprehensive strong-lensing analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys/NIC3 observations. We obtain the weak-lensing distortion and magnification of undiluted samples of red and blue background galaxies by carefully combining all color and positional information. Unlike previous work, the weak and strong lensing are in excellent agreement where the data overlap. The joint mass profile continuously steepens out to the virial radius with only a minor contribution {approx}10% in the mass from known subcluster at a projected distance of {approx_equal}700 kpc h {sup -1}. The cluster light profile closely resembles the mass profile, and our model-independent M/L{sub R} profile shows an overall flat behavior with a mean of (M/L{sub R} ) {approx_equal} 230h(M/L{sub R} ){sub sun}, but exhibits a mild declining trend with increasing radius at cluster outskirts, r {approx_gt} 0.6r{sub vir}. The projected mass distribution for the entire cluster is well fitted with a single Navarro-Frenk-White model with a virial mass, M{sub vir} = (1.2 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup 15} M{sub sun} h {sup -1}, and a concentration, c{sub vir} = 9.2{sup +1.4}{sub -1.2}. This model fit is fully consistent with the depletion of the red background counts, providing independent confirmation. Careful examination and interpretation of X-ray and dynamical data, based on recent high-resolution cluster collision simulations, strongly suggest that this cluster system is in a post collision state, which we show is consistent with our well-defined mass profile for a major merger occurring along the line of sight, viewed approximately 2-3 Gyr after impact when the gravitational potential has had time to relax in the center, before the gas has recovered and before the outskirts are fully virialized. Finally, our full lensing analysis provides a model

  2. The Mass Structure of the Galaxy Cluster Cl0024+1654 from a Full Lensing Analysis of Joint Subaru and ACS/NIC3 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Medezinski, Elinor; Broadhurst, Tom; Zitrin, Adi; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Molnar, Sandor M.

    2010-05-01

    We derive an accurate mass distribution of the rich galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 (z = 0.395) based on deep Subaru BR c z' imaging and our recent comprehensive strong-lensing analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys/NIC3 observations. We obtain the weak-lensing distortion and magnification of undiluted samples of red and blue background galaxies by carefully combining all color and positional information. Unlike previous work, the weak and strong lensing are in excellent agreement where the data overlap. The joint mass profile continuously steepens out to the virial radius with only a minor contribution ~10% in the mass from known subcluster at a projected distance of sime700 kpc h -1. The cluster light profile closely resembles the mass profile, and our model-independent M/LR profile shows an overall flat behavior with a mean of langM/LR rang ~= 230h(M/LR )sun, but exhibits a mild declining trend with increasing radius at cluster outskirts, r >~ 0.6r vir. The projected mass distribution for the entire cluster is well fitted with a single Navarro-Frenk-White model with a virial mass, M vir = (1.2 ± 0.2) × 1015 M sun h -1, and a concentration, c vir = 9.2+1.4 -1.2. This model fit is fully consistent with the depletion of the red background counts, providing independent confirmation. Careful examination and interpretation of X-ray and dynamical data, based on recent high-resolution cluster collision simulations, strongly suggest that this cluster system is in a post collision state, which we show is consistent with our well-defined mass profile for a major merger occurring along the line of sight, viewed approximately 2-3 Gyr after impact when the gravitational potential has had time to relax in the center, before the gas has recovered and before the outskirts are fully virialized. Finally, our full lensing analysis provides a model-independent constraint of M 2D(

  3. Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope

    PubMed Central

    Masters, IB; Eastburn, MM; Francis, PW; Wootton, R; Zimmerman, PV; Ware, RS; Chang, AB

    2005-01-01

    Background Flexible video bronchoscopes, in particular the Olympus BF Type 3C160, are commonly used in pediatric respiratory medicine. There is no data on the magnification and distortion effects of these bronchoscopes yet important clinical decisions are made from the images. The aim of this study was to systematically describe the magnification and distortion of flexible bronchoscope images taken at various distances from the object. Methods Using images of known objects and processing these by digital video and computer programs both magnification and distortion scales were derived. Results Magnification changes as a linear function between 100 mm (×1) and 10 mm (×9.55) and then as an exponential function between 10 mm and 3 mm (×40) from the object. Magnification depends on the axis of orientation of the object to the optic axis or geometrical axis of the bronchoscope. Magnification also varies across the field of view with the central magnification being 39% greater than at the periphery of the field of view at 15 mm from the object. However, in the paediatric situation the diameter of the orifices is usually less than 10 mm and thus this limits the exposure to these peripheral limits of magnification reduction. Intraclass correlations for measurements and repeatability studies between instruments are very high, r = 0.96. Distortion occurs as both barrel and geometric types but both types are heterogeneous across the field of view. Distortion of geometric type ranges up to 30% at 3 mm from the object but may be as low as 5% depending on the position of the object in relation to the optic axis. Conclusion We conclude that the optimal working distance range is between 40 and 10 mm from the object. However the clinician should be cognisant of both variations in magnification and distortion in clinical judgements. PMID:15705204

  4. Digital magnification mammography with matched incident exposure: physical imaging properties and detectability of simulated microcalcifications.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobukazu; Naka, Kentaro; Fukushima, Hiroko; Morishita, Junji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2011-07-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the usefulness of digital magnification mammography with matched incident exposure by investigating the physical imaging properties and doing an observer performance test. A computed radiography system and a mammographic unit were used in this study. Contact and magnification radiographies of 1.2-1.8 in combination with focal spot sizes of 0.1 mm without grid and 0.3 mm with grid were performed. Physical imaging properties, namely, scatter fraction, total modulation transfer function (MTF) including the presampled MTF and the MTF of focal spot size, and Wiener spectrum (WS), were measured. Detail visibility was evaluated by use of free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis of the detectability of simulated microcalcifications. Scatter fractions decreased considerably as the magnification factor increased without grid technique. In the grid technique, scatter fractions for all magnification techniques were comparable. The total MTFs of magnification techniques with a focal spot size of 0.1 mm improved significantly compared with the conventional contact technique. However, the improvement of the total MTFs of magnification techniques with the combination of 0.3 mm focal spot size was small. The WSs degraded with an increase of the magnification factor compared with the contact technique due to the maintained exposure incident on the object. The observer performance test indicated that the 1.8 magnification technique with the 0.1 mm focal spot size provided higher detectability than did the contact technique. Digital magnification mammography under the same incident exposure conditions improved the detectability of microcalcifications.

  5. Halo-lensing or Self-lensing? Locating the MACHO Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C. A.; Cook, K. H.; Popowski, P.; Drake, A. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Griest, K.; Vandehei, T.; Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Axelrod, T. S.; Freeman, K. C.; Peterson, B. A.; Alves, D. R.; Becker, A. C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tomaney, A. B.; Bennett, D. P.; Geha, M.; Lehner, M. J.; Minniti, D.; Pratt, M. R.; Quinn, P. J.; Sutherland, W.; Welch, D.; MACHO Collaboration

    2000-12-01

    There are two principle geometrical arrangements which may explain Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing: a) halo-lensing, in which the lensed object is part of the Milky Way galactic halo and b) self-lensing, in which the lensed object is part of the LMC. Self-lensing in turn may be broken into two categories: LMC-LMC self-lensing, in which both the source and the lens reside in the LMC and background self-lensing, in which the lens is a star in the LMC and the source star is drawn from some population behind the LMC. Models suggest the contribution of LMC-LMC self-lensing is small, so the nature of LMC microlensing may be estimated from the location of the microlensing source stars. If the source stars are in the LMC then microlensing is dominated by halo-lensing; conversely if the source stars are located behind the LMC then microlensing is dominated by self-lensing. Since background populations reside behind the LMC, we expect them to be both redder and fainter then the average population of the LMC. We attempt to determine if the MACHO source stars come from such a background population by comparing the HST color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of source stars to the CMD of the average population of the LMC and looking for the effects of extra reddening and extinction. The microlensing source stars are identified by deriving accurate centroids in the ground-based MACHO images using difference image analysis (DIA) and then transforming the DIA coordinates to the HST frame. Preliminary results suggest that halo-lensing accounts for ≳ 40% of the observed microlensing results. Support provided by NASA, DOE, NSF and NPSC.

  6. Aplanatic Three-Mirror Objective for High-Magnification Soft X-Ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoda, M.; Jinno, T.; Yanagihara, M.

    2011-09-09

    An innovative solution for high-magnification microscopy, based on attaching afocal optics for focal length reduction, is proposed. The solution, consisting of three spherical mirrors, allows one to enhance a magnification of a laboratory based soft x-ray microscope over 1000x, where movies with diffraction-limited resolution can be observed with an x-ray CCD. The design example, having a numerical aperture of 0.25, was successfully demonstrated both a high magnification and a large field of view.

  7. Magnification of starting torques of dc motors by maximum power point trackers in photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Singer, S.

    1989-01-01

    A calculation of the starting torque ratio of permanent magnet, series, and shunt-excited dc motors powered by solar cell arrays is presented for two cases, i.e., with and without a maximum-power-point tracker (MPPT). Defining motor torque magnification by the ratio of the motor torque with an MPPT to the motor torque without an MPPT, a magnification of 3 for the permanent magnet motor and a magnification of 7 for both the series and shunt motors are obtained. The study also shows that all motor types are less sensitive to solar insolation variation in systems including MPPTs as compared to systems without MPPTs.

  8. Acceptable distortion and magnification of images on reflective surfaces in an augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shoji; Hosokawa, Natsumi; Yokoya, Mayu; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigated the consistency of visual perception for the change of reflection images in an augmented reality setting. Reflection images with distortion and magnification were generated by changing the capture position of the environment map. Observers evaluated the distortion and magnification in reflection images where the reflected objects were arranged symmetrically or asymmetrically. Our results confirmed that the observers' visual perception was more sensitive to changes in distortion than in magnification in the reflection images. Moreover, the asymmetrical arrangement of reflected objects effectively expands the acceptable range of distortion compared with the symmetrical arrangement.

  9. Magnification of starting torques of dc motors by maximum power point trackers in photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Singer, S.

    A calculation of the starting torque ratio of permanent magnet, series, and shunt-excited dc motors powered by solar cell arrays is presented for two cases, i.e., with and without a maximum-power-point tracker (MPPT). Defining motor torque magnification by the ratio of the motor torque with an MPPT to the motor torque without an MPPT, a magnification of 3 for the permanent magnet motor and a magnification of 7 for both the series and shunt motors are obtained. The study also shows that all motor types are less sensitive to solar insolation variation in systems including MPPTs as compared to systems without MPPTs.

  10. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  11. Laminated Fresnel lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Jebens, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    A fabrication method for making plastic-on-glass laminated Fresnel lenses is discussed. These Fresnel lenses are for application in an RCA solar photovoltaic concentrator array now in the prototype stage of development. This laminated Fresnel lens fabrication method consists of making a Dow Corning J RTV silastic rubber mold of a master lens array. This mold is used to vacuum cast only the lens facets onto a low-iron tempered-glass substrate with an epoxy resin such as Hysol 0S 1000, a bisphenol-A resin with a flexibilizer that is anhydride cured. Cast acrylic Fresnel lens arrays commercialy available have potential cleaning and abrasion problems, have very large thermal expansion, and have dimensional uncertainties in their manufacture. The laminated lens is dimensionally stable with low thermal expansion, has good cleaning characteristics, and is very inexpensive in materials cost. The measured transmission of such a lens on low-iron glass is 80.4% compared with 85.1% for a cast acrylic lens, and the optical quality is good enough for application in the 100X to 200X concentration range. An approach to making large lens arrays (3 by 6 ft) on a commercial scale is explored.

  12. Determination of Frequency of the Second Mesiobuccal Canal in the Permanent Maxillary First Molar Teeth with Magnification Loupes (× 3.5)

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad; Raza Khan, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar has generated more research and clinical investigation than any root. An inability to detect and treat a second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal is a reason for endodontic failure in maxillary first molars. Modifications in the endodontic access and detection techniques, along with advancements in illumination and magnification technology, have aided in the location and treatment with the second mesiobuccal canal of maxillary first molars. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of the second mesiobuccal canal in the permanent maxillary first molars with magnification loupes (× 3.5). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 53 teeth were assessed using a moderate magnification for second mesiobuccal canal in mesiobuccal root of first permanent maxillary molars in vivo. Detection of this canal in maxillary first molars was done through a clinical access cavity preparation under magnification loupes (× 3.5). Data was analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Frequency distribution of variables was determined and the level of significance was kept at 0.05. RESULTS: We were able to detect second mesiobuccal canal in 27 out of 53 (50.9%) of the permanent maxillary first molars that were studied. It was found that the males tend to have a higher proportion of second mesiobuccal canals (up to 31%) as compared to the females in whom the second mesiobuccal canals could be identified only 19% of the time. Whilst, there was no association found between age, gender and chamber obliteration with the presence of second mesiobuccal canal. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, within its limitations, this study suggested that the use of magnification loupes enhanced both the detection (50.9%) and negotiation (86.8%) of the second mesiobuccal canals in the permanent maxillary first molars beyond what could be achieved with naked eye. PMID:25324702

  13. Electron beam generation in Tevatron electron lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2006-08-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices.

  14. Retardation magnification and the appearance of relativistic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, Sebastian

    2008-10-01

    Thanks to the availability of high-resolution high-sensitivity telescopes such as the Very Large Array, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, there is now a wealth of observational data on relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN) as well as galactic sources such as black hole X-ray binaries. Since the jet speeds cannot be constrained well from observations, but are generally believed to be relativistic, physical quantities inferred from observables are commonly expressed in terms of the unknown beaming parameters: the bulk Lorentz factor and the line-of-sight angle, usually in their combination as relativistic Doppler factor. This paper aims to resolve the discrepancies existing in the literature about such `debeaming' of derived quantities, in particular regarding the minimum-energy magnetic field estimate. The discrepancies arise because the distinction is not normally made between the case of a fixed source observed with different beaming parameters and the case where the source projection on the sky is held fixed. The former is usually considered, but it is the latter that corresponds to interpreting actual jet observations. Furthermore, attention is drawn to the fact that apparent superluminal motion has a spatial corollary, here called `retardation magnification', which implies that most parts of a relativistic jet that are actually present in the observer's frame (a `world map' in relativity terminology) are in fact hidden on the observer's image (the `world picture' in general, or `supersnapshot' in the special case of astronomy). Portions of this work were carried at the Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermilab MS 127, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA; and while the author was an Otto Hahn fellow of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ. E-mail: jester@mpia.de

  15. Subaru Weak Lensing Measurements of Four Strong Lensing Clusters: Are Lensing Clusters Over-Concentrated?

    SciTech Connect

    Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dahle, Haakon; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew

    2009-01-29

    We derive radial mass profiles of four strong lensing selected clusters which show prominent giant arcs (Abell 1703, SDSS J1446+3032, SDSS J1531+3414, and SDSS J2111-0115), by combining detailed strong lens modeling with weak lensing shear measured from deep Subaru Suprime-cam images. Weak lensing signals are detected at high significance for all four clusters, whose redshifts range from z = 0.28 to 0.64. We demonstrate that adding strong lensing information with known arc redshifts significantly improves constraints on the mass density profile, compared to those obtained from weak lensing alone. While the mass profiles are well fitted by the universal form predicted in N-body simulations of the {Lambda}-dominated cold dark matter model, all four clusters appear to be slightly more centrally concentrated (the concentration parameters c{sub vir} {approx} 8) than theoretical predictions, even after accounting for the bias toward higher concentrations inherent in lensing selected samples. Our results are consistent with previous studies which similarly detected a concentration excess, and increases the total number of clusters studied with the combined strong and weak lensing technique to ten. Combining our sample with previous work, we find that clusters with larger Einstein radii are more anomalously concentrated. We also present a detailed model of the lensing cluster Abell 1703 with constraints from multiple image families, and find the dark matter inner density profile to be cuspy with the slope consistent with -1, in agreement with expectations.

  16. Cosmology from cross correlation of CMB lensing and galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, R.; Zahn, O.

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, cross correlation of lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with other large-scale structure (LSS) tracers has been used as a method to detect CMB lensing. Current experiments are also becoming sensitive enough to measure CMB lensing without the help of auxiliary tracers. As data quality improves rapidly, it has been suggested that the CMB lensing-LSS cross correlation may provide new insights into parameters describing cosmological structure growth. In this work, we perform forecasts that combine the lensing potential auto power spectrum from various future CMB experiments with the galaxy power spectrum from galaxy surveys, as well as the cross power spectrum between the two, marginalizing over a number of galactic and nongalactic cosmological parameters. We find that the CMB lensing-LSS cross correlation contains significant information on parameters such as the redshift distribution and bias of LSS tracers. We also find that the cross-correlation information will lead to independent probes of cosmological parameters such as neutrino mass and the reionization optical depth.

  17. LENSING NOISE IN MILLIMETER-WAVE GALAXY CLUSTER SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Hezaveh, Yashar; Vanderlinde, Keith; Holder, Gilbert; De Haan, Tijmen

    2013-08-01

    We study the effects of gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters of the background of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and examine the implications for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-based (SZ) galaxy cluster surveys. At the locations of galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing modifies the probability distribution of the background flux of the DSFGs as well as the CMB. We find that, in the case of a single-frequency 150 GHz survey, lensing of DSFGs leads both to a slight increase ({approx}10%) in detected cluster number counts (due to a {approx}50% increase in the variance of the DSFG background, and hence an increased Eddington bias) and a rare (occurring in {approx}2% of clusters) 'filling-in' of SZ cluster signals by bright strongly lensed background sources. Lensing of the CMB leads to a {approx}55% reduction in CMB power at the location of massive galaxy clusters in a spatially matched single-frequency filter, leading to a net decrease in detected cluster number counts. We find that the increase in DSFG power and decrease in CMB power due to lensing at cluster locations largely cancel, such that the net effect on cluster number counts for current SZ surveys is subdominant to Poisson errors.

  18. Evidence of lensing of the cosmic microwave background by dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Madhavacheril, Mathew; Sehgal, Neelima; Allison, Rupert; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Caligiuri, Jerod; Coughlin, Kevin; Crichton, Devin; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Fogarty, Kevin; Grace, Emily; Hajian, Amir; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hill, J Colin; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Lungu, Marius; McMahon, Jeff; Moodley, Kavilan; Munson, Charles; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Thornton, Robert; Van Engelen, Alexander; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J

    2015-04-17

    We present evidence of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by 10(13) solar mass dark matter halos. Lensing convergence maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) are stacked at the positions of around 12 000 optically selected CMASS galaxies from the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The mean lensing signal is consistent with simulated dark matter halo profiles and is favored over a null signal at 3.2σ significance. This result demonstrates the potential of microwave background lensing to probe the dark matter distribution in galaxy group and galaxy cluster halos.

  19. Automatic estimation and correction of anisotropic magnification distortion in electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Grant, Timothy; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a significant anisotropic magnification distortion, found on an FEI Titan Krios microscope and affecting magnifications commonly used for data acquisition on a Gatan K2 Summit detector. We describe a program (mag_distortion_estimate) to automatically estimate anisotropic magnification distortion from a set of images of a standard gold shadowed diffraction grating. We also describe a program (mag_distortion_correct) to correct for the estimated distortion in collected images. We demonstrate that the distortion present on the Titan Krios microscope limits the resolution of a set of rotavirus VP6 images to ∼7 Å, which increases to ∼3 Å following estimation and correction of the distortion. We also use a 70S ribosome sample to demonstrate that in addition to affecting resolution, magnification distortion can also interfere with the classification of heterogeneous data.

  20. HST and Keck Snapshot Surveys for Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, M. D.; Becker, R. H.; Schechter, P. L.; White, R. L.; Wisotzki, L.

    2000-12-01

    Most theories of quasar lensing predict more close separation lenses than are presently known. Deciding whether this deficit is real or an observational selection effect is important for using lenses to constrain the intervening galaxy mass distribution or cosmological models. We are conducting two imaging surveys of bright quasars to search for new examples of gravitational lensing, particularly those with small image separations. After about 200 snapshots during Cycles 8 and 9, the program using the imaging capability of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has found three certain lensed quasars, with separations of 0.64" (Gregg et al. 2000), 1.2", and a surprisingly large 3.4". There are several additional promising candidates. The other survey is being conducted with the Near InfraRed Camera (NIRC) at Keck Observatory. While the NIRC effort has not yet turned up any confirmed lensed quasars, the K-band imaging has detected the lensing galaxy in two of the new STIS systems. We will present our results and analysis to date, including additional ground based follow-up imaging and spectroscopy of the lensed and candidate systems. Support for this work is provided by NASA grants GO-8202 and GO-8631 from STScI, operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. Gregg, M.D., Wisotzki, L., Becker, R.H., Maza, J., Schechter, P. White, R.L., Brotherton, M.S., & Winn, J.N. 2000, AJ, 119, 2535.

  1. The Third Image of the Large-Separation Lensed Quasar SDSS J1029+2623

    SciTech Connect

    Oguri, Masamune; Ofek, Eran O.; Inada, Naohisa; Morokuma, Tomoki; Falco, Emilio E.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Kayo, Issha; Broadhurst, Tom; Richards, Gordon T.

    2008-02-22

    We identify a third image in the unique quasar lens SDSS J1029+2623, the second known quasar lens produced by a massive cluster of galaxies. The spectrum of the third image shows similar emission and absorption features, but has a redder continuum than the other two images which can be explained by differential extinction or microlensing. We also identify several lensed arcs. Our observations suggest a complicated structure of the lens cluster at z {approx} 0.6. We argue that the three lensed images are produced by a naked cusp on the basis of successful mass models, the distribution of cluster member galaxies, and the shapes and locations of the lensed arcs. Lensing by a naked cusp is quite rare among galaxy-scale lenses but is predicted to be common among large-separation lensed quasars. Thus the discovery can be viewed as support for an important theoretical prediction of the standard cold dark matter model.

  2. DISCOVERY OF A STRONG LENSING GALAXY EMBEDDED IN A CLUSTER AT z = 1.62

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Kenneth C.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Papovich, Casey J.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brodwin, Mark; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Rudnick, Gregory H.; Halkola, Aleksi

    2014-07-10

    We identify a strong lensing galaxy in the cluster IRC 0218 (also known as XMM-LSS J02182–05102) that is spectroscopically confirmed to be at z = 1.62, making it the highest-redshift strong lens galaxy known. The lens is one of the two brightest cluster galaxies and lenses a background source galaxy into an arc and a counterimage. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) grism and Keck/LRIS spectroscopy, we measure the source redshift to be z {sub S} = 2.26. Using HST imaging in ACS/F475W, ACS/F814W, WFC3/F125W, and WFC3/F160W, we model the lens mass distribution with an elliptical power-law profile and account for the effects of the cluster halo and nearby galaxies. The Einstein radius is θ{sub E}=0.38{sub −0.01}{sup +0.02} arcsec (3.2{sub −0.1}{sup +0.2} kpc) and the total enclosed mass is M {sub tot}(<θ{sub E})=1.8{sub −0.1}{sup +0.2}×10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙}. We estimate that the cluster environment contributes ∼10% of this total mass. Assuming a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF), the dark matter fraction within θ{sub E} is f{sub DM}{sup Chab}=0.3{sub −0.3}{sup +0.1}, while a Salpeter IMF is marginally inconsistent with the enclosed mass (f{sub DM}{sup Salp}=−0.3{sub −0.5}{sup +0.2}). The total magnification of the source is μ{sub tot}=2.1{sub −0.3}{sup +0.4}. The source has at least one bright compact region offset from the source center. Emission from Lyα and [O III] are likely to probe different regions in the source.

  3. Achieving magnification smaller than 1 in lensless microscopy by illumination with a convergent wavefront.

    PubMed

    Perraut, François; Doménès, Mickaël; Grateau, Henri; Josso, Quentin

    2016-11-15

    Lensless or lensfree microscopy is now available commercially. With these new microscopes, it is possible to record images in contact mode with a magnification of 1 or in holographic mode with a magnification larger than 1. In this Letter, we present an original setup that allows us to record the image of an object whose surface is larger than that of the image sensor without placing an optical component between the object and the image sensor.

  4. The evolution of lenses.

    PubMed

    Land, Michael F

    2012-11-01

    Structures which bend light and so form images are present in all the major phyla. Lenses with a graded refractive index, and hence reduced spherical aberration, evolved in the vertebrates, arthropods, annelid worms, and several times in the molluscs. Even cubozoan jellyfish have lens eyes. In some vertebrate eyes, multiple focal lengths allow some correction for chromatic aberration. In land vertebrates the cornea took over the main ray-bending task, leaving accommodation as the main function of the lens. The spiders are the only other group to make use of a single cornea as the optical system in their main eyes, and some of these - the salticids - have evolved a remarkable system based on image scanning. Similar scanning arrangements are found in some crustaceans, sea-snails and insect larvae.

  5. Lenses for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Repp, Andrew; Atek, Hakim; Egami, Eiichi; Windhorst, Rogier; Edge, Alastair

    2016-08-01

    JWST will dramatically advance our knowledge and understanding of the first generations of galaxies at z>10, their role in the re-ionization of the Universe, and the evolutionary processes that gave rise to the complexity and diversity of galaxies at the current epoch. As demonstrated by HST legacy projects like CLASH and the Hubble Frontier Fields, gravitational amplification by massive galaxy clusters can significantly extend the depth of the required observations. However, for JWST, reducing any diffuse background light will be just as crucial. We here propose Spitzer/IRAC observations of six massive cluster lenses, specifically selected as candidates for observation with JWST. By (a) quantifying the amount of intra-cluster light and (b) enabling us to improve our current lens models, the data resulting from the requested observations will be instrumental for the final selection of cluster targets that maximize the scientific returns of deep JWST observations.

  6. The CASTLES Imaging Survey of Gravitational Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C. Y.; Falco, E. E.; Lehar, J.; Impey, C. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; McLeod, B. A.; Rix, H.-W.

    1997-12-01

    The CASTLES survey (Cfa-Arizona-(H)ST-Lens-Survey) is imaging most known small-separation gravitational lenses (or lens candidates), using the NICMOS camera (mostly H-band) and the WFPC2 (V and I band) on HST. To date nearly half of the IR imaging survey has been completed. The main goals are: (1) to search for lens galaxies where none have been directly detected so far; (2) obtain photometric redshift estimates (VIH) for the lenses where no spectroscopic redshifts exist; (3) study and model the lens galaxies in detail, in part to study the mass distribution within them, in part to identify ``simple" systems that may permit accurate time delay estimates for H_0; (3) measure the M/L evolution of the sample of lens galaxies with look-back time (to z ~ 1); (4) determine directly which fraction of sources are lensed by ellipticals vs. spirals. We will present the survey specifications and the images obtained so far.

  7. Automation Enhancement of Multilayer Laue Lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer K. R.; Conley R.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray optics fabrication at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been facilitated by a new, state of the art magnetron sputtering physical deposition system. With its nine magnetron sputtering cathodes and substrate carrier that moves on a linear rail via a UHV brushless linear servo motor, the system is capable of accurately depositing the many thousands of layers necessary for multilayer Laue lenses. I have engineered a versatile and automated control program from scratch for the base system and many subsystems. Its main features include a custom scripting language, a fully customizable graphical user interface, wireless and remote control, and a terminal-based interface. This control system has already been successfully used in the creation of many types of x-ray optics, including several thousand layer multilayer Laue lenses.Before reaching the point at which a deposition can be run, stencil-like masks for the sputtering cathodes must be created to ensure the proper distribution of sputtered atoms. Quality of multilayer Laue lenses can also be difficult to measure, given the size of the thin film layers. I employ my knowledge of software and algorithms to further ease these previously painstaking processes with custom programs. Additionally, I will give an overview of an x-ray optic simulator package I helped develop during the summer of 2010. In the interest of keeping my software free and open, I have worked mostly with the multiplatform Python and the PyQt application framework, utilizing C and C++ where necessary.

  8. Pulsar lensing geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqi; Pen, Ue-Li; Macquart, J.-P.; Brisken, Walter; Deller, Adam

    2016-05-01

    We test the inclined sheet pulsar scintillation model (Pen & Levin) against archival very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data on PSR 0834+06 and show that its scintillation properties can be precisely reproduced by a model in which refraction occurs on two distinct lens planes. These data strongly favour a model in which grazing-incidence refraction instead of diffraction off turbulent structures is the primary source of pulsar scattering. This model can reproduce the parameters of the observed diffractive scintillation with an accuracy at the percent level. Comparison with new VLBI proper motion results in a direct measure of the ionized interstellar medium (ISM) screen transverse velocity. The results are consistent with ISM velocities local to the PSR 0834+06 sight-line (through the Galaxy). The simple 1-D structure of the lenses opens up the possibility of using interstellar lenses as precision probes for pulsar lens mapping, precision transverse motions in the ISM, and new opportunities for removing scattering to improve pulsar timing. We describe the parameters and observables of this double screen system. While relative screen distances can in principle be accurately determined, a global conformal distance degeneracy exists that allows a rescaling of the absolute distance scale. For PSR B0834+06, we present VLBI astrometry results that provide (for the first time) a direct measurement of the distance of the pulsar. For most of the recycled millisecond pulsars that are the targets of precision timing observations, the targets where independent distance measurements are not available. The degeneracy presented in the lens modelling could be broken if the pulsar resides in a binary system.

  9. Estimation of cortical magnification from positional error in normally sighted and amblyopic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zahra; Svensson, Carl-Magnus; Besle, Julien; Webb, Ben S.; Barrett, Brendan T.; McGraw, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method for deriving the linear cortical magnification factor from positional error across the visual field. We compared magnification obtained from this method between normally sighted individuals and amblyopic individuals, who receive atypical visual input during development. The cortical magnification factor was derived for each subject from positional error at 32 locations in the visual field, using an established model of conformal mapping between retinal and cortical coordinates. Magnification of the normally sighted group matched estimates from previous physiological and neuroimaging studies in humans, confirming the validity of the approach. The estimate of magnification for the amblyopic group was significantly lower than the normal group: by 4.4 mm deg−1 at 1° eccentricity, assuming a constant scaling factor for both groups. These estimates, if correct, suggest a role for early visual experience in establishing retinotopic mapping in cortex. We discuss the implications of altered cortical magnification for cortical size, and consider other neural changes that may account for the amblyopic results. PMID:25761341

  10. Cross-correlating Planck CMB lensing with SDSS: lensing-lensing and galaxy-lensing cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Brownstein, Joel R.

    2017-01-01

    We present results from cross-correlating Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing maps with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxy lensing shape catalogue and BOSS (Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey) galaxy catalogues. For galaxy position versus CMB lensing cross-correlations, we measure the convergence signal around the galaxies in configuration space, using the BOSS LOWZ (z ˜ 0.30) and CMASS (z ˜ 0.57) samples. With fixed Planck 2015 cosmology, doing a joint fit with the galaxy clustering measurement, for the LOWZ (CMASS) sample we find a galaxy bias bg = 1.75 ± 0.04 (1.95 ± 0.02) and galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient rcc = 1.0 ± 0.2 (0.8 ± 0.1) using 20 < rp < 70 h-1 Mpc, consistent with results from galaxy-galaxy lensing. Using the same scales and including the galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements, we constrain Ωm = 0.284 ± 0.024 and relative calibration bias between the CMB lensing and galaxy lensing to be b_γ =0.82^{+0.15}_{-0.14}. The combination of galaxy lensing and CMB lensing also allows us to measure the cosmological distance ratios (with zl ˜ 0.3, zs ˜ 0.5) R=D_s D_{l,*}/D_{* D_{l,s}}=2.68± 0.29, consistent with predictions from the Planck 2015 cosmology (R=2.35). We detect the galaxy position-CMB convergence cross-correlation at small scales, rp < 1 h-1 Mpc, and find consistency with lensing by NFW haloes of mass Mh ˜ 1013 h-1 M⊙. Finally, we measure the CMB lensing-galaxy shear cross-correlation, finding an amplitude of A = 0.76 ± 0.23 (zeff = 0.35, θ < 2°) with respect to Planck 2015 Λ cold dark matter predictions (1σ level consistency). We do not find evidence for relative systematics between the CMB and SDSS galaxy lensing.

  11. Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Jennings, Elise; Merten, Julian; King, Lindsay; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia

    2015-10-28

    In this study, we determine the concentration–mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as Navarro–Frenk–White haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of non-parametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentration and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the error bars, the same as in Λ cold dark matter. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances ~ [2–20] Mpc/h from the cluster centre, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by ~ 20–40% in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.

  12. Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Jennings, Elise; ...

    2015-10-28

    In this study, we determine the concentration–mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as Navarro–Frenk–White haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of non-parametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentrationmore » and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the error bars, the same as in Λ cold dark matter. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances ~ [2–20] Mpc/h from the cluster centre, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by ~ 20–40% in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.« less

  13. Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Jennings, Elise; Merten, Julian; King, Lindsay; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    We determine the concentration-mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as Navarro-Frenk-White haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of non-parametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentration and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the error bars, the same as in Λ cold dark matter. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances ˜(2-20) Mpc h-1 from the cluster centre, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by ˜20-40 per cent in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.

  14. Weak lensing measurement of the mass–richness relation of SDSS redMaPPer clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Simet, Melanie; McClintock, Tom; Mandelbaum, Rachel; ...

    2016-12-15

    Here, we perform a measurement of the mass–richness relation of the redMaPPer galaxy cluster catalogue using weak lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We carefully characterized a broad range of systematic uncertainties, including shear calibration errors, photo-zz biases, dilution by member galaxies, source obscuration, magnification bias, incorrect assumptions about cluster mass profiles, cluster centering, halo triaxiality, and projection effects. We then compare measurements of the lensing signal from two independently-produced shear and photometric redshift catalogues to characterize systematic errors in the lensing signal itself. Using a sample of 5,570 clusters from 0.1 ≤ zz ≤ 0.33, the normalization of our power-law mass vs. λ relation is log10[M200m/h-1 M⊙] = 14.344 ± 0.021 (statistical) ±0.023 (systematic) at a richness λ = 40, a 7 per cent calibration uncertainty, with a power-law index of 1.33+0.09-0.101.33more » $$+0.09\\atop{-0.10}$$ (1σ). Finally, the detailed systematics characterization in this work renders it the definitive weak lensing mass calibration for SDSS redMaPPer clusters at this time.« less

  15. Weak lensing measurement of the mass–richness relation of SDSS redMaPPer clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Simet, Melanie; McClintock, Tom; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Sheldon, Erin; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-12-15

    Here, we perform a measurement of the mass–richness relation of the redMaPPer galaxy cluster catalogue using weak lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We carefully characterized a broad range of systematic uncertainties, including shear calibration errors, photo-zz biases, dilution by member galaxies, source obscuration, magnification bias, incorrect assumptions about cluster mass profiles, cluster centering, halo triaxiality, and projection effects. We then compare measurements of the lensing signal from two independently-produced shear and photometric redshift catalogues to characterize systematic errors in the lensing signal itself. Using a sample of 5,570 clusters from 0.1 ≤ zz ≤ 0.33, the normalization of our power-law mass vs. λ relation is log10[M200m/h-1 M] = 14.344 ± 0.021 (statistical) ±0.023 (systematic) at a richness λ = 40, a 7 per cent calibration uncertainty, with a power-law index of 1.33+0.09-0.101.33$+0.09\\atop{-0.10}$ (1σ). Finally, the detailed systematics characterization in this work renders it the definitive weak lensing mass calibration for SDSS redMaPPer clusters at this time.

  16. Weak lensing measurement of the mass-richness relation of SDSS redMaPPer clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simet, Melanie; McClintock, Tom; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Sheldon, Erin; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-04-01

    We perform a measurement of the mass-richness relation of the redMaPPer galaxy cluster catalogue using weak lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have carefully characterized a broad range of systematic uncertainties, including shear calibration errors, photo-z biases, dilution by member galaxies, source obscuration, magnification bias, incorrect assumptions about cluster mass profiles, cluster centring, halo triaxiality and projection effects. We also compare measurements of the lensing signal from two independently produced shear and photometric redshift catalogues to characterize systematic errors in the lensing signal itself. Using a sample of 5570 clusters from 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.33, the normalization of our power-law mass versus λ relation is log10[M200m/h-1 M⊙] = 14.344 ± 0.021 (statistical) ±0.023 (systematic) at a richness λ = 40, a 7 per cent calibration uncertainty, with a power-law index of 1.33^{+0.09}_{-0.10} (1σ). The detailed systematics characterization in this work renders it the definitive weak lensing mass calibration for SDSS redMaPPer clusters at this time.

  17. Low-magnification image analysis of Giemsa stained, electroporation and bleomycin treated endothelial monolayers provides reliable monolayer integrity data.

    PubMed

    Meulenberg, Cécil J W; Cemazar, Maja

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro cell model for studying the in vivo observed vascular effect, induced by exposing blood vessels to changing electric field strengths. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were cultured as monolayers on 8 chamber glass slides as a model of capillary wall. Exposed to electric pulses alone, or in the presence of bleomycin (electrochemotherapy), monolayers were incubated with culture medium, fixed with methanol, stained with Giemsa, and photographed. Images of high-contrast low-magnification monolayers made under identical optimal light exposure were converted to greyscale, and the use of a threshold tool yielded a binary distribution, from which we determined two parameters of monolayer integrity: the covered surface area and the number of cells. We show that this low-magnification image analysis method for attached endothelial cells provides reliable control parameters of monolayer integrity, representing capillary wall. Besides, already within 2h post-treatment the data show distinct effects in the monolayer integrity parameters for electric pulses alone, or in the presence of bleomycin. The present method can be readily introduced to short and long-term toxicity assays with a variety of treatment conditions.

  18. Ophthalmic halo reduced lenses design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limon, Ofer; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-05-01

    The halo effect is a very problematic visual artifact occurring in extended depth of focus or multi-focal ophthalmic lenses such as e.g. intra-ocular (after cataract surgery) or contact lenses when used in dark illumination conditions. This artifact is generated due to surface structures added on top of those lenses in order to increase their depth of focus or to realize multiple focal lengths. In this paper we present novel solution that can resolve this major problem of ophthalmic lenses. The proposed solution involves modification to the surface structure that realizes the extended depth of focus. Our solution is fabricated and numerically and experimentally validated also in preliminary in-vivo trials.

  19. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    SciTech Connect

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  20. CMB lensing and giant rings

    SciTech Connect

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  1. HUBBLE'S TOP TEN GRAVITATIONAL LENSES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Hubble Space Telescope serendipitous survey of the sky has uncovered exotic patterns, rings, arcs and crosses that are all optical mirages produced by a gravitational lens, nature's equivalent of having giant magnifying glass in space. Shown are the top 10 lens candidates uncovered in the deepest 100 Hubble fields. Hubble's sensitivity and high resolution allow it to see faint and distant lenses that cannot be detected with ground-based telescopes whose images are blurred by Earth's atmosphere. [Top Left] - HST 01248+0351 is a lensed pair on either side of the edge-on disk lensing galaxy. [Top Center] - HST 01247+0352 is another pair of bluer lensed source images around the red spherical elliptical lensing galaxy. Two much fainter images can be seen near the detection limit which might make this a quadruple system. [Top Right] - HST 15433+5352 is a very good lens candidate with a bluer lensed source in the form of an extended arc about the redder elliptical lensing galaxy. [Middle Far Left] - HST 16302+8230 could be an 'Einstein ring' and the most intriguing lens candidate. It has been nicknamed the 'the London Underground' since it resembles that logo. [Middle Near Left] - HST 14176+5226 is the first, and brightest lens system discovered in 1995 with the Hubble telescope. This lens candidate has now been confirmed spectroscopically using large ground-based telescopes. The elliptical lensing galaxy is located 7 billion light-years away, and the lensed quasar is about 11 billion light-years distant. [Middle Near Right] - HST 12531-2914 is the second quadruple lens candidate discovered with Hubble. It is similar to the first, but appears smaller and fainter. [Middle Far Right] - HST 14164+5215 is a pair of bluish lensed images symmetrically placed around a brighter, redder galaxy. [Bottom Left] - HST 16309+8230 is an edge-on disk-like galaxy (blue arc) which has been significantly distorted by the redder lensing elliptical galaxy. [Bottom Center] - HST 12368

  2. Multi-wavelength Monitoring of Lensed Quasars: Deciphering Quasar Structure at Micro-arcseconds Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, Ana; Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Dai, Xinyu; Chen, Bin; MacLeod, Chelsea Louise; Chartas, George

    2016-01-01

    Microlensing in multiply imaged gravitationally lensed quasars provides us with a unique tool to zoom in on the structure of AGN and explore their physics in more detail. Microlensing magnification, caused primarily by stars and white dwarfs close to the line of sight towards the lensed quasar images, is seen as uncorrelated flux variations due to the relative motions of the quasar, the lens, its stars, and the observer, and it depends on the structural and dynamical properties of the source and the lens. Since the magnification depends upon the size of the source, we can use microlensing to measure the size of quasar emission regions. In essence, the amplitude of the microlensing variability encodes the source size, with smaller sources showing larger variability amplitudes. Using state of the art microlensing techniques, our team has performed pioneering research in the field based on multi-wavelength space and ground-based observations. Among the most remarkable results, using Chandra observations we have set the first quantitative constraints on the sizes of the X-ray emission regions of quasars. In this work l briefly describe the methodology, the results from our previous multi-wavelength monitoring programs, and the next frontier of exploring the dependence of the structure of the X-ray emission regions on black hole mass and X-ray energy.

  3. Strong Gravitational Lensing as a Tool to Investigate the Structure of Jets at High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnacka, Anna; Geller, Margaret J.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Benbow, Wystan

    2014-06-01

    The components of blazar jets that emit radiation span a factor of 1010 in scale. The spatial structure of these emitting regions depends on the observed energy. Photons emitted at different sites cross the lens plane at different distances from the mass-weighted center of the lens. Thus there are differences in magnification ratios and time delays between the images of lensed blazars observed at different energies. When the lens structure and redshift are known from optical observations, these constraints can elucidate the structure of the source at high energies. At these energies, current technology is inadequate to resolve these sources, and the observed light curve is thus the sum of the images. Durations of γ-ray flares are short compared with typical time delays; thus both the magnification ratio and the time delay can be measured for the delayed counterparts. These measurements are a basis for localizing the emitting region along the jet. To demonstrate the power of strong gravitational lensing, we build a toy model based on the best studied and the nearest relativistic jet M87.

  4. Interactive Learning Media for Lenses and Their Applications Using Macro Visual Basic in Microsoft PowerPoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sami Novita, Sari; Nurul Khotimah, Siti; Hidayat, Wahyu

    2016-08-01

    There are two types of lenses are used, namely a convex lens and a concave lens. Microscope is a tool that uses two convex lenses as the eyepiece and objective lens because it can form a magnified image. Instead concave lens is usually used as a spectacle lens for nearsightedness patients because the distance of image formed is closer than the distance of the object. Just like a mirror, the image formation by lenses also can be conveniently determined with ray diagrams. Therefore, this research aims to create a simulation of ray diagrams in the process of image formation by lenses and their applications using Macro Visual Basic in Microsoft PowerPoint. Lenses applications made are the microscope simulation and the combined lenses which consist of a concave-convex lens combined and a convex-concave lens combined. This research begins with the preparation of material on the image formation by lenses and their application. Second, made an appearance on the program which consists of a PowerPoint slide, CommandButton, Textbox, OptionButton, Shape and others then wrote programs in Macro Visual Basic procedure to active the command to do. Input of this simulation can be given in the form of object distance, focal point distance of lens and height of objects. The data will be processed according to commands contained in macros procedure to result image distance, image height, image magnification and the properties of image. In addition to result the data, media can also provide output in the form of ray diagrams simulation on the image formation that can be used to assist students understanding the image formation by lenses.

  5. Fresnel lenses for ultrasonic inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrasonic Fresnel lenses are effective focusing elements with potential applications in ultrasonic "contact" testing for defects in materials. Ultrasonic beams focused on concave lenses are used successfully with immersion transducers, for which test object is immersed in water bath. However, for large objects, objects that are already installed, objects on production lines, and objects that can be damaged by water, contact testing is more practical than immersion.

  6. Astrophysical Applications of Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Muñoz, Jose A.; Garzón, Francisco; Mahoney, Terence J.

    2016-10-01

    Contributors; Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Lensing basics Sherry H. Suyu; 2. Exoplanet microlensing Andrew Gould; 3. Case studies of microlensing Veronica Motta and Emilio Falco; 4. Microlensing of quasars and AGN Joachim Wambsganss; 5. DM in clusters and large-scale structure Peter Schneider; 6. The future of strong lensing Chris Fassnacht; 7. Methods for strong lens modelling Charles Keeton; 8. Tutorial on inverse ray shooting Jorge Jimenez-Vicente.

  7. The Thirring-Lense Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embacher, Franz

    The Thirring-Lense effect is the phenomenon that an observer near a rotating mass, being in a state which is non-rotating with respect to the rest of the universe, experiences extra inertial forces, i.e. becomes dizzy. The first anticipation of the effect goes back to Ernst Mach; its first quantitative prediction on the basis of general relativity was given by Hans Thirring and Joseph Lense. Almost ninety years later, the effect seems to be experimentally verified.

  8. Strong lensing in the MARENOSTRUM UNIVERSE. I. Biases in the cluster lens population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghetti, M.; Fedeli, C.; Pace, F.; Gottlöber, S.; Yepes, G.

    2010-09-01

    Context. Strong lensing is one of the most direct probes of mass distribution in the inner regions of galaxy clusters. It can be used to constrain the density profiles and to measure the mass of the lenses. Moreover, the abundance of strong lensing events can be used to constrain structure formation and cosmological parameters through the so-called “arc-statistics” approach. However, several issues related to the use of strong lensing clusters in cosmological applications are still controversial, leading to the suspicion that several biases may affect this very peculiar class of objects. Aims: With this study we aim a better understanding of the properties of galaxy clusters that can potentially act as strong lenses. Methods: We do so by investigating the properties of a large sample of galaxy clusters extracted from the N-body/hydrodynamical simulation MareNostrum Universe. We perform ray-tracing simulations with each of them and identify those objects capable of producing strong lensing effects. We explore the correlation between the cross section for lensing and many properties of clusters, such as mass, three-dimensional and projected shapes, their concentrations, the X-ray luminosity, and the dynamical activity. Results: We quantify the minimal cluster mass required for producing both multiple images and large distortions. While we do not measure a significant excess of triaxiality in strong lensing clusters, we find that the probability of strong alignments between the major axes of the lenses and the line of sight is a growing function of the lensing cross section. In projection, the strong lenses appear rounder within R200, but we find that their cores tend to be more elliptical as the lensing cross section increases. As a result of the orientation bias, we also find that the cluster concentrations estimated from the projected density profiles tend to be biased high. The X-ray luminosity of strong lensing clusters tend to be higher than for normal

  9. Nonuniform discharge currents in active plasma lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tilborg, J.; Barber, S. K.; Tsai, H.-E.; Swanson, K. K.; Steinke, S.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Bulanov, S. S.; Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-03-01

    Active plasma lenses have attracted interest in novel accelerator applications due to their ability to provide large-field-gradient (short focal length), tunable, and radially symmetric focusing for charged particle beams. However, if the discharge current is not flowing uniformly as a function of radius, one can expect a radially varying field gradient as well as potential emittance degradation. We have investigated this experimentally for a 1-mm-diameter active plasma lens. The measured near-axis field gradient is approximately 35% larger than expected for a uniform current distribution, and at overfocusing currents ring-shaped electron beams are observed. These observations are explained by simulations.

  10. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). IV. MASS RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LENSING CLUSTER ABELL 2744 FROM FRONTIER FIELD IMAGING AND GLASS SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Schmidt, K. B.; Jones, T. A.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Bradac, M.; Treu, T.; Brammer, G. B.; Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Vulcani, B.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Trenti, M.

    2015-09-20

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  11. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IV. Mass Reconstruction of the Lensing Cluster Abell 2744 from Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Jones, T. A.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Trenti, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  12. On the bias of the distance-redshift relation from gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Nick; Peacock, John A.

    2016-02-01

    A long-standing question in cosmology is whether gravitational lensing changes the distance-redshift relation D (z) or the mean flux density of sources. Interest in this has been rekindled by recent studies in non-linear relativistic perturbation theory that find biases in both the area of a surface of constant redshift and in the mean distance to this surface, with a fractional bias in both cases of the order of the mean squared convergence <κ2>. Any such area bias could alter cosmic microwave background (CMB) cosmology, and the corresponding bias in mean flux density could affect supernova cosmology. We show that the perturbation to the area of a surface of constant redshift is in reality much smaller, being of the order of the cumulative bending angle squared, or roughly a part-in-a-million effect. This validates the arguments of Weinberg that the mean magnification of sources is unity and of Kibble & Lieu that the mean direction-averaged inverse magnification is unity. It also validates the conventional treatment of CMB lensing. But the existence of a scatter in magnification will cause any non-linear function of these conserved quantities to be statistically biased. The fractional bias in such quantities is generally of order <κ2>, which is orders of magnitude larger than the area perturbation. Claims for large bias in area or flux density of sources appear to have resulted from misinterpretation of such effects: they do not represent a new non-Newtonian effect, nor do they invalidate standard cosmological analyses.

  13. Strong gravitational lensing statistics as a test of cosmogonic scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, Renyue; Gott, J. Richard, III; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Turner, Edwin L.

    1994-01-01

    Gravitational lensing statistics can provide a direct and powerful test of cosmic structure formation theories. Since lensing tests, directly, the magnitude of the nonlinear mass density fluctuations on lines of sight to distant objects, no issues of 'bias' (of mass fluctuations with respect to galaxy density fluctuations) exist here, although lensing observations provide their own ambiguities of interpretation. We develop numerical techniques for generating model density distributions with the very large spatial dynamic range required by lensing considerations and for identifying regions of the simulations capable of multiple image lensing in a conservative and computationally efficient way that should be accurate for splittings significantly larger than 3 seconds. Applying these techniques to existing standard Cold dark matter (CDM) (Omega = 1) and Primeval Baryon Isocurvature (PBI) (Omega = 0.2) simulations (normalized to the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) amplitude), we find that the CDM model predicts large splitting (greater than 8 seconds) lensing events roughly an order-of-magnitude more frequently than the PBI model. Under the reasonable but idealized assumption that lensing structrues can be modeled as singular isothermal spheres (SIS), the predictions can be directly compared to observations of lensing events in quasar samples. Several large splitting (Delta Theta is greater than 8 seconds) cases are predicted in the standard CDM model (the exact number being dependent on the treatment of amplification bias), whereas none is observed. In a formal sense, the comparison excludes the CDM model at high confidence (essentially for the same reason that CDM predicts excessive small-scale cosmic velocity dispersions.) A very rough assessment of low-density but flat CDM model (Omega = 0.3, Lambda/3H(sup 2 sub 0) = 0.7) indicates a far lower and probably acceptable level of lensing. The PBI model is consistent with, but not strongly tested by, the

  14. Constraining the minimum luminosity of high redshift galaxies through gravitational lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-12-01

    We simulate the effects of gravitational lensing on the source count of high redshift galaxies as projected to be observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields program and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the near future. Taking the mass density profile of the lensing object to be the singular isothermal sphere (SIS) or the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, we model a lens residing at a redshift of z{sub L} = 0.5 and explore the radial dependence of the resulting magnification bias and its variability with the velocity dispersion of the lens, the photometric sensitivity of the instrument, the redshift of the background source population, and the intrinsic maximum absolute magnitude (M{sub max}) of the sources. We find that gravitational lensing enhances the number of galaxies with redshifts z∼> 13 detected in the angular region θ{sub E}/2 ≤ θ ≤ 2θ{sub E} (where θ{sub E} is the Einstein angle) by a factor of ∼ 3 and 1.5 in the HUDF (df/dν{sub 0} ∼ 9 nJy) and medium-deep JWST surveys (df/dν{sub 0} ∼ 6 nJy). Furthermore, we find that even in cases where a negative magnification bias reduces the observed number count of background sources, the lensing effect improves the sensitivity of the count to the intrinsic faint-magnitude cut-off of the Schechter luminosity function. In a field centered on a strong lensing cluster, observations of z∼> 6 and z∼> 13 galaxies with JWST can be used to infer this cut-off magnitude for values as faint as M{sub max} ∼ -14.4 and -16.1 mag (L{sub min} ≈ 2.5 × 10{sup 26} and 1.2 × 10{sup 27} erg s{sup −1} Hz{sup −1}) respectively, within the range bracketed by existing theoretical models. Gravitational lensing may therefore offer an effective way of constraining the low-luminosity cut-off of high-redshift galaxies.

  15. Micro-optofluidic Lenses: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a systematic perspective on the development of micro-optofluidic lenses. The progress on the development of micro-optofluidic lenses are illustrated by example from recent literature. The advantage of micro-optofluidic lenses over solid lens systems is their tunability without the use of large actuators such as servo motors. Depending on the relative orientation of light path and the substrate surface, micro-optofluidic lenses can be categorized as in-plane or out-of-plane lenses. However, this review will focus on the tunability of the lenses and categorizes them according to the concept of tunability. Micro-optofluidic lenses can be either tuned by the liquid in use or by the shape of the lens. Micro-optofluidic lenses with tunable shape are categorized according to the actuation schemes. Typical parameters of micro-optofluidic lenses reported recently are compared and discussed. Finally, perspectives are given for future works in this field. PMID:20714369

  16. RCSLenS: The Red Cluster Sequence Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Choi, A.; Heymans, C.; Blake, C.; Erben, T.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; van Waerbeke, L.; Viola, M.; Buddendiek, A.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Hojjati, A.; Joachimi, B.; Joudaki, S.; Kitching, T. D.; Wolf, C.; Gwyn, S.; Johnson, N.; Kuijken, K.; Sheikhbahaee, Z.; Tudorica, A.; Yee, H. K. C.

    2016-11-01

    We present the Red Cluster Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), an application of the methods developed for the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) to the ˜785 deg2, multi-band imaging data of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey 2. This project represents the largest public, sub-arcsecond seeing, multi-band survey to date that is suited for weak gravitational lensing measurements. With a careful assessment of systematic errors in shape measurements and photometric redshifts, we extend the use of this data set to allow cross-correlation analyses between weak lensing observables and other data sets. We describe the imaging data, the data reduction, masking, multi-colour photometry, photometric redshifts, shape measurements, tests for systematic errors, and a blinding scheme to allow for more objective measurements. In total, we analyse 761 pointings with r-band coverage, which constitutes our lensing sample. Residual large-scale B-mode systematics prevent the use of this shear catalogue for cosmic shear science. The effective number density of lensing sources over an unmasked area of 571.7 deg2 and down to a magnitude limit of r ˜ 24.5 is 8.1 galaxies per arcmin2 (weighted: 5.5 arcmin-2) distributed over 14 patches on the sky. Photometric redshifts based on four-band griz data are available for 513 pointings covering an unmasked area of 383.5 deg2. We present weak lensing mass reconstructions of some example clusters as well as the full survey representing the largest areas that have been mapped in this way. All our data products are publicly available through Canadian Astronomy Data Centre at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/community/rcslens/query.html in a format very similar to the CFHTLenS data release.

  17. EFFECT OF MASKED REGIONS ON WEAK-LENSING STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki; Hamana, Takashi

    2013-09-10

    Sky masking is unavoidable in wide-field weak-lensing observations. We study how masks affect the measurement of statistics of matter distribution probed by weak gravitational lensing. We first use 1000 cosmological ray-tracing simulations to examine in detail the impact of masked regions on the weak-lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). We consider actual sky masks used for a Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging survey. The masks increase the variance of the convergence field and the expected values of the MFs are biased. The bias then compromises the non-Gaussian signals induced by the gravitational growth of structure. We then explore how masks affect cosmological parameter estimation. We calculate the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for masked maps to study the information content of lensing MFs. We show that the degradation of S/N for masked maps is mainly determined by the effective survey area. We also perform simple {chi}{sup 2} analysis to show the impact of lensing MF bias due to masked regions. Finally, we compare ray-tracing simulations with data from a Subaru 2 deg{sup 2} survey in order to address if the observed lensing MFs are consistent with those of the standard cosmology. The resulting {chi}{sup 2}/n{sub dof} = 29.6/30 for three combined MFs, obtained with the mask effects taken into account, suggests that the observational data are indeed consistent with the standard {Lambda}CDM model. We conclude that the lensing MFs are a powerful probe of cosmology only if mask effects are correctly taken into account.

  18. A Calibration of the Stellar Mass Fundamental Plane at z ~ 0.5 Using the Micro-lensing-induced Flux Ratio Anomalies of Macro-lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechter, Paul L.; Pooley, David; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    We measure the stellar mass surface densities of early-type galaxies by observing the micro-lensing of macro-lensed quasars caused by individual stars, including stellar remnants, brown dwarfs, and red dwarfs too faint to produce photometric or spectroscopic signatures. Instead of observing multiple micro-lensing events in a single system, we combine single-epoch X-ray snapshots of 10 quadruple systems, and compare the measured relative magnifications for the images with those computed from macro-models. We use these to normalize a stellar mass fundamental plane constructed using a Salpeter initial mass function with a low-mass cutoff of 0.1 M ⊙ and treat the zeropoint of the surface mass density as a free parameter. Our method measures the graininess of the gravitational potential produced by individual stars, in contrast to methods that decompose a smooth total gravitational potential into two smooth components, one stellar and one dark. We find the median likelihood value for the normalization factor F by which the Salpeter stellar masses must be multiplied is 1.23, with a one sigma confidence range, dominated by small number statistics, of 0.77 . Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-9854.

  19. Beam propagation method analysis of optical waveguide lenses.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, A; Izutsu, M; Sueta, T

    1990-12-01

    Focusing characteristics of optical waveguide lenses are analyzed by the beam propagation method (BPM) instead of the ray tracing method. By use of the BPM, we can observe field distributions of a converging or diverging light beam after it passes through a waveguide lens. Variations of the spot width and magnitude of diffraction can immediately be evaluated with this calculation. The BPM calculations are used for a mode-index, Luneburg, and geodesic lenses. For the application of the method to the geodesic lens, the surface deformation is converted into an equivalent index.

  20. Final State Interactions, T-odd PDFs & the Lensing Function

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Gamberg, Marc Schlegel

    2009-12-01

    It has been suggested that under certain approximations the Sivers effect can be described in terms of factorization of final state interactions and a spatial distortion of impact parameter space parton distribution; that is a convolution of the so-called lensing function and the impact parameter GPD E. In this approach the lensing function is calculated in a non-perturbative eikonal model. This enables a comparison between the a priori distinct Sivers function and the GPD E which goes beyond the discussion of overall signs.

  1. The MICE Grand Challenge light-cone simulation - III. Galaxy lensing mocks from all-sky lensing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosalba, P.; Gaztañaga, E.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.

    2015-02-01

    In Paper I of this series, we presented a new N-body light-cone simulation from the MICE Collaboration, the MICE Grand Challenge (MICE-GC), containing about 70 billion dark-matter particles in a (3 h-1 Gpc)3 comoving volume, from which we built halo and galaxy catalogues using a Halo Occupation Distribution and Halo Abundance Matching technique, as presented in the companion Paper II. Given its large volume and fine mass resolution, the MICE-GC simulation also allows an accurate modelling of the lensing observables from upcoming wide and deep galaxy surveys. In the last paper of this series (Paper III), we describe the construction of all-sky lensing maps, following the `Onion Universe' approach, and discuss their properties in the light-cone up to z = 1.4 with sub-arcminute spatial resolution. By comparing the convergence power spectrum in the MICE-GC to lower mass-resolution (i.e. particle mass ˜1011 h-1 M⊙) simulations, we find that resolution effects are at the 5 per cent level for multipoles ℓ ˜ 103 and 20 per cent for ℓ ˜ 104. Resolution effects have a much lower impact on our simulation, as shown by comparing the MICE-GC to recent numerical fits by Takahashi. We use the all-sky lensing maps to model galaxy lensing properties, such as the convergence, shear, and lensed magnitudes and positions, and validate them thoroughly using galaxy shear auto and cross-correlations in harmonic and configuration space. Our results show that the galaxy lensing mocks here presented can be used to accurately model lensing observables down to arcminute scales. Accompanying this series of papers, we make a first public data release of the MICE-GC galaxy mock, the MICECAT v1.0, through a dedicated web-portal for the MICE simulations, http://cosmohub.pic.es, to help developing and exploiting the new generation of astronomical surveys.

  2. Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing in the DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Clampitt, J.; et al.

    2016-03-18

    We present galaxy-galaxy lensing results from 139 square degrees of Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data. Our lens sample consists of red galaxies, known as redMaGiC, which are specifically selected to have a low photometric redshift error and outlier rate. The lensing measurement has a total signal-to-noise of 29, including all lenses over a wide redshift range $0.2 < z < 0.8$. Dividing the lenses into three redshift bins, we find no evidence for evolution in the halo mass with redshift. We obtain consistent results for the lensing measurement with two independent shear pipelines, ngmix and im3shape. We perform a number of null tests on the shear and photometric redshift catalogs and quantify resulting systematic errors. Covariances from jackknife subsamples of the data are validated with a suite of 50 mock surveys. The results and systematics checks in this work provide a critical input for future cosmological and galaxy evolution studies with the DES data and redMaGiC galaxy samples. We fit a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model, and demonstrate that our data constrains the mean halo mass of the lens galaxies, despite strong degeneracies between individual HOD parameters.

  3. Thermal lensing in ocular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincelette, Rebecca Lee

    2009-12-01

    This research was a collaborative effort between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the University of Texas to examine the laser-tissue interaction of thermal lensing induced by continuous-wave, CW, near-infrared, NIR, laser radiation in the eye and its influence on the formation of a retinal lesion from said radiation. CW NIR laser radiation can lead to a thermal lesion induced on the retina given sufficient power and exposure duration as related to three basic parameters; the percent of transmitted energy to, the optical absorption of, and the size of the laser-beam created at the retina. Thermal lensing is a well-known phenomenon arising from the optical absorption, and subsequent temperature rise, along the path of the propagating beam through a medium. Thermal lensing causes the laser-beam profile delivered to the retina to be time dependent. Analysis of a dual-beam, multidimensional, high-frame rate, confocal imaging system in an artificial eye determined the rate of thermal lensing in aqueous media exposed to 1110, 1130, 1150 and 1318-nm wavelengths was related to the power density created along the optical axis and linear absorption coefficient of the medium. An adaptive optics imaging system was used to record the aberrations induced by the thermal lens at the retina in an artificial eye during steady-state. Though the laser-beam profiles changed over the exposure time, the CW NIR retinal damage thresholds between 1110--1319-nm were determined to follow conventional fitting algorithms which neglected thermal lensing. A first-order mathematical model of thermal lensing was developed by conjoining an ABCD beam propagation method, Beer's law of attenuation, and a solution to the heat-equation with respect to radial diffusion. The model predicted that thermal lensing would be strongest for small (< 4-mm) 1/e2 laser-beam diameters input at the corneal plane and weakly transmitted wavelengths where less than 5% of the energy is delivered to the retina

  4. On the design of spherical gradient index lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñano, J. C.; Grabovičkić, D.; Benítez, P.; González, J. C.; Santamaría, A.

    2012-06-01

    Classical spherical gradient index (GRIN) lenses (such as Maxwell Fish Eye lens, Eaton lens, Luneburg lens, etc.) design procedure using the Abel integral equation is reviewed and reorganized. Each lens is fully defined by a function called the angle of flight which describes the ray deflection through the lens. The radial refractive index distribution is obtained by applying a linear integral transformation to the angle of flight. The interest of this formulation is in the linearity of the integral transformation which allows us to derive new solutions from linear combinations of known lenses. Beside the review of the classical GRIN designs, we present a numerical method for GRIN lenses defined by the Abel integral equation with fixed limits, which is an ill-posed problem.

  5. Gravitational lensing in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Ramesh; White, Simon D. M.

    1988-01-01

    Gravitational lensing due to mass condensations in a biased cold dark matter (CDM) universe is investigated using the Press-Schechter (1974) theory with density fluctuation amplitudes taken from previous N-body work. Under the critical assumption that CDM haloes have small core radii, a distribution of image angular separations for high-z lensed quasars with a peak at about 1 arcsec and a half-width of a factor of about 10. Allowing for selection effects at small angular separations, this is in good agreement with the observed separations. The estimated frequency of lensing is somewhat lower than that observed, but the discrepancy can be removed by invoking amplification bias and by making a small upward adjustment to the density fluctuation amplitudes assumed in the CDM model.

  6. Surface gravity-wave lensing.

    PubMed

    Elandt, Ryan B; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-02-01

    Here we show that a nonlinear resonance between oceanic surface waves caused by small seabed features (the so-called Bragg resonance) can be utilized to create the equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface gravity waves. Such gravity wave lenses, which are merely small changes to the seafloor topography and therefore are surface noninvasive, can focus or defocus the energy of incident waves toward or away from any desired focal point. We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e., a wave group composed of a multitude of different-frequency waves), a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g., for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g., harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves in certain bodies of water.

  7. The M31 pixel lensing plan campaign: MACHO lensing and self-lensing signals

    SciTech Connect

    Calchi Novati, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Bozza, V.; Bruni, I.; Gualandi, R.; Dall'Ora, M.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.; Nucita, A.; Strafella, F.; Dominik, M.; Jetzer, Ph.; Mancini, L.; Safonova, M.; Subramaniam, A.; Sereno, M.; Gould, A.; Collaboration: PLAN Collaboration

    2014-03-10

    We present the final analysis of the observational campaign carried out by the PLAN (Pixel Lensing Andromeda) collaboration to detect a dark matter signal in form of MACHOs through the microlensing effect. The campaign consists of about 1 month/year observations carried out over 4 years (2007-2010) at the 1.5 m Cassini telescope in Loiano (Astronomical Observatory of BOLOGNA, OAB) plus 10 days of data taken in 2010 at the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope monitoring the central part of M31 (two fields of about 13' × 12.'6). We establish a fully automated pipeline for the search and the characterization of microlensing flux variations. As a result, we detect three microlensing candidates. We evaluate the expected signal through a full Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment completed by an analysis of the detection efficiency of our pipeline. We consider both 'self lensing' and 'MACHO lensing' lens populations, given by M31 stars and dark matter halo MACHOs, in M31 and the Milky Way, respectively. The total number of events is consistent with the expected self-lensing rate. Specifically, we evaluate an expected signal of about two self-lensing events. As for MACHO lensing, for full 0.5(10{sup –2}) M {sub ☉} MACHO halos, our prediction is for about four (seven) events. The comparatively small number of expected MACHO versus self-lensing events, together with the small number statistics at our disposal, do not enable us to put strong constraints on that population. Rather, the hypothesis, suggested by a previous analysis, on the MACHO nature of OAB-07-N2, one of the microlensing candidates, translates into a sizeable lower limit for the halo mass fraction in form of the would-be MACHO population, f, of about 15% for 0.5 M {sub ☉} MACHOs.

  8. Numerical simulation of gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Yakov

    Gravitational lens is a massive body or system of bodies with gravitational field that bends directions of light rays propagating nearby. This may cause an observer to see multiple images of a light source, e.g. a star, if there is a gravitational lens between the star and the observer. Light rays that form each individual image may have different distances to travel, which creates time delays between them. In complex gravitational fields generated by the system of stars, analytical calculation of trajectories and light intensities is virtually impossible. Gravitational lens of two massive bodies, one behind another, are able to create four images of a light source. Furthermore, the interaction between the four light beams can form a complicated interference pattern. This article provides a brief theory of light behavior in a gravitational field and describes the algorithm for constructing the trajectories of light rays in a gravitational field, calculating wave fronts and interference pattern of light. If you set gravitational field by any number of transparent and non- transparent objects (stars) and set emitters of radio wave beams, it is possible to calculate the interference pattern in any region of space. The proposed method of calculation can be applied even in the case of the lack of continuity between the position of the emitting stars and position of the resulting image. In this paper we propose methods of optimization, as well as solutions for some problems arising in modeling of gravitational lenses. The simulation of light rays in the sun's gravitational field is taken as an example. Also caustic is constructed for objects with uniform mass distribution.

  9. Weighing the NIR-Brightest Lensed Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Andrew; Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We are requesting DDT time to characterize the brightest gravitationally-lensed distant galaxy yet detected at near-infrared wavelengths. Whereas most high-redshift lensed galaxies are star-forming systems, our target at z=1.95 is a rare example of a massive compact quiescent galaxy. Such compact red galaxies present many puzzles if, as is thought, they grow into present day massive ellipticals. Importantly, it is unclear how and when these systems were quenched and what were their progenitors. As our target is gravitationally magnified into a spectacular 20'' arc, it offers a remarkable opportunity to secure spatially-resolved data on the stellar mass distribution to complement resolved kinematics and stellar ages available from recent Keck spectroscopy. 16 min will be sufficient to obtain suitable IRAC images for this remarkable source, which will be used to (i) robustly establish the stellar mass distribution which, in conjunction with our spectroscopic age, will connect the galaxy to a possible progenitor, (ii) compare the total stellar mass with the dynamical equivalent based on our resolved stellar kinematics, and (iii) examine stellar population gradients to discriminate amongst proposed formation histories.

  10. GLAMER - II. Multiple-plane gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Margarita; Metcalf, R. Benton; Giocoli, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    We present an extension to multiple planes of the gravitational lensing code GLAMER. The method entails projecting the mass in the observed light-cone on to a discrete number of lens planes and inverse ray-shooting from the image to the source plane. The mass on each plane can be represented as haloes, simulation particles, a projected mass map extracted form a numerical simulation or any combination of these. The image finding is done in a source-oriented fashion, where only regions of interest are iteratively refined on an initially coarse image plane grid. The calculations are performed in parallel on shared memory machines. The code is able to handle different types of analytic haloes (NFW, NSIE, power law, etc.), haloes extracted from numerical simulations and clusters constructed from semi-analytic models (MOKA). Likewise, there are several different options for modelling the source(s) which can be distributed throughout the light-cone. The distribution of matter in the light-cone can be either taken from a pre-existing N-body numerical simulations, from halo catalogues, or are generated from an analytic mass function. We present several tests of the code and demonstrate some of its applications such as generating mock images of galaxy and galaxy cluster lenses.

  11. Paraxial properties of three-element zoom system for laser beam expanders based on tunable-focus lenses.

    PubMed

    Mikš, Antonín; Novák, Pavel

    2015-06-15

    The paper is focused on the problem of a theoretical analysis of paraxial imaging properties and initial optical design of the three-element zoom optical system for laser beam expanders using lenses with a tunable focal length. Equations which allow calculation of required optical powers of individual elements of the three-element zoom optical system for laser beam expander depending on the value of the axial position of the beam waist of the input Gaussian beam and the required magnification of the system are derived.

  12. Lensing smoothing of BAO wiggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dio, Enea

    2017-03-01

    We study non-perturbatively the effect of the deflection angle on the BAO wiggles of the matter power spectrum in real space. We show that from redshift z~2 this introduces a dispersion of roughly 1 Mpc at BAO scale, which corresponds approximately to a 1% effect. The lensing effect induced by the deflection angle, which is completely geometrical and survey independent, smears out the BAO wiggles. The effect on the power spectrum amplitude at BAO scale is about 0.1 % for z~2 and 0.2 % for z~4. We compare the smoothing effects induced by the lensing potential and non-linear structure formation, showing that the two effects become comparable at z ~ 4, while the lensing effect dominates for sources at higher redshifts. We note that this effect is not accounted through BAO reconstruction techniques.

  13. Beam bending via plasmonic lenses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhui; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Kiraly, Brian; Hao, Qingzhen; Liu, Yanjun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-10-25

    We have designed and characterized three different types of plasmonic lenses that cannot only focus, but can also bend electromagnetic (EM) waves. The bending effect is achieved by constructing an asymmetric phase front caused by varying phase retardations in EM waves as they pass through a plasmonic lens. With an incident wave normal to the lens surface, light bends up to 8° off the axial direction. The optical wave propagation was numerically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Simulation results show that the proposed plasmonic lenses allow effective beam bending under both normal and tilted incidence. With their relatively large bending range and capability to perform in the far field, the plamsonic lenses described in this article could be valuable in applications such as photonic communication and plasmonic circuits.

  14. Contact lenses for infant aphakia.

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, L G; Speedwell, L; Taylor, D

    1990-01-01

    We prospectively studied for three years the optical correction by contact lenses of 83 aphakic infants (141 eyes) who generally also had systemic and other ocular anomalies: 85% of the patients tolerated the lens wear for the whole study period. Complications occurred in 46 eyes and led to cessation of lens wear in two cases. Ten patients abandoned the lenses for other reasons. Thirty-four eyes needed subsequent intraocular surgery, mostly minor, and nine patients had strabismus surgery. Contact lenses are a versatile, safe, successful, and cost effective treatment for aphakia in infancy against which, before their widespread introduction for primary optical correction of infant aphakia, other methods of aphakic treatment need to be compared. PMID:2322512

  15. High-quality image magnification applying Gerchberg-Papoulis iterative algorithm with discrete cosine transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, Eiji; Takagi, Mikio

    1992-11-01

    A new image magnification method, called 'IM-GPDCT' (image magnification applying the Gerchberg-Papoulis (GP) iterative algorithm with discrete cosine transform (DCT)), is described and its performance evaluated. This method markedly improves image quality of a magnified image using a concept which restores the spatial high frequencies which are conventionally lost due to use of a low pass filter. These frequencies are restored using two known constraints applied during iterative DCT: (1) correct information in a passband is known and (2) the spatial extent of an image is finite. Simulation results show that the IM- GPDCT outperforms three conventional interpolation methods from both a restoration error and image quality standpoint.

  16. Extending reference scan drift correction to high-magnification high-cone-angle tomography.

    PubMed

    Myers, Glenn R; Kingston, Andrew M; Varslot, Trond K; Sheppard, Adrian P

    2011-12-15

    The reference scan method is a simple yet powerful method for measuring spatial drift of the x-ray spot during a low-cone-angle μ-CT experiment. As long as the drift is smooth, and occurring on a time scale that is long compared to the acquisition time of each projection, this method provides a way to compensate for the drift by applying 2D in-plane translations to the radiographs. Here we show that this compensation may be extended to the regime of high-magnification, high-cone-angle CT experiments where source drift perpendicular to the detector plane can cause significant magnification changes throughout the acquisition.

  17. Note: Magnification of a polarization angle with a Littrow layout brazed grating

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, H. Kubo, H.; Kawano, Y.; Itami, K.; Arakawa, H.

    2014-08-15

    A new method to magnify a small polarization angle with brazed gratings has been developed. In the method, difference in diffraction efficiency for S and P polarization components is used. The magnification dependence on the incident angle can be small by arranging the grating in Littrow layout. A magnification with a factor ∼2.7 has been demonstrated for a 10.6 μm CO{sub 2} laser beam as expected from a calculation. The method is applicable in many polarimetry fields.

  18. Constraining dark energy from the abundance of weak gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2003-05-01

    We examine the prospect of using the observed abundance of weak gravitational lenses to constrain the equation-of-state parameter w=p/ρ of dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation, the amplitude of the matter power spectrum, and the rate of structure growth. As a result, it affects the efficiency with which dark-matter concentrations produce detectable weak-lensing signals. Here we solve the spherical-collapse model with dark energy, clarifying some ambiguities found in the literature. We also provide fitting formulae for the non-linear overdensity at virialization and the linear-theory overdensity at collapse. We then compute the variation in the predicted weak-lens abundance with w. We find that the predicted redshift distribution and number count of weak lenses are highly degenerate in w and the present matter density Ω0. If we fix Ω0 the number count of weak lenses for w=-2/3 is a factor of ~2 smaller than for the Λ cold dark matter (CDM) model w=-1. However, if we allow Ω0 to vary with w such that the amplitude of the matter power spectrum as measured by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) matches that obtained from the X-ray cluster abundance, the decrease in the predicted lens abundance is less than 25 per cent for -1 <=w< -0.4. We show that a more promising method for constraining dark energy - one that is largely unaffected by the Ω0-w degeneracy as well as uncertainties in observational noise - is to compare the relative abundance of virialized X-ray lensing clusters with the abundance of non-virialized, X-ray underluminous, lensing haloes. For aperture sizes of ~15 arcmin, the predicted ratio of the non-virialized to virialized lenses is greater than 40 per cent and varies by ~20 per cent between w=-1 and -0.6. Overall, we find that, if all other weak-lensing parameters are fixed, a survey must cover at least ~40 deg2 in order for the weak-lens number count to differentiate a ΛCDM cosmology from a dark-energy model with w

  19. Weak gravitational lensing analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel

    Weak gravitational lensing, the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to gravitational deflection of light by more nearby masses, is a powerful tool that can address a wide variety of problems in astrophysics and cosmology. Observation of weak lensing requires large amounts of data since it can only be measured as an average over millions of galaxy shapes. This thesis focuses on lensing-related science that can be addressed using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), an excellent source of high-quality data. First, we discuss technical issues related to observing lensing in the data, with a description of our Reglens pipeline and constraints on systematic errors in current data. This is followed by a comparison of an analytical model known as the halo model (which can be used to relate the observed lensing signal to properties of the lens galaxies) against the lensing signal in N-body simulations. After these preliminaries, we address several very different science questions using our reductions of the SDSS data. The first is the question of intrinsic alignments of galaxies (alignments of galaxies on the sky due to local structure), which may be a contaminant for future lensing surveys that seek to determine the cosmological model to high precision. Second, we use a halo model analysis of the lensing signal to determine the relationship between galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, and halo mass, and to measure satellite fractions, all of which can help distinguish between models of galaxy formation. The third application we consider is methodology for the detection of dark matter halo ellipticity, including a first attempt at detecting it with SDSS lensing data, these results may be used to distinguish between cosmological models and learn more about galaxy intrinsic alignments. Finally, we measure the matter distributions around Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs), which not only teaches us about the properties of these galaxies, but also gives us information

  20. Bioaccumulation and trophic magnification of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in a Mediterranean river food web.

    PubMed

    Ruhí, Albert; Acuña, Vicenç; Barceló, Damià; Huerta, Belinda; Mor, Jordi-Rene; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Sabater, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence exists that emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can be bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms. However, the relative role of trophic transfers in the acquisition of emerging pollutants by aquatic organisms remains largely unexplored. In freshwater ecosystems, wastewater treatment plants are a major source of PhACs and EDCs. Here we studied the entrance of emerging pollutants and their flow through riverine food webs in an effluent-influenced river. To this end we assembled a data set on the composition and concentrations of a broad spectrum of PhACs (25 compounds) and EDCs (12 compounds) in water, biofilm, and three aquatic macroinvertebrate taxa with different trophic positions and feeding strategies (Ancylus fluviatilis, Hydropsyche sp., Phagocata vitta). We tested for similarities in pollutant levels among these compartments, and we compared observed bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) to those predicted by a previously-developed empirical model based on octanol-water distribution coefficients (Dow). Despite a high variation in composition and levels of emerging pollutants across food web compartments, observed BAFs in Hydropsyche and Phagocata matched, on average, those already predicted. Three compounds (the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, the lipid regulator gemfibrozil, and the flame retardant TBEP) were detected in water, biofilm and (at least) one macroinvertebrate taxa. TBEP was the only compound present in all taxa and showed magnification across trophic levels. This suggests that prey consumption may be, in some cases, a significant exposure route. This study advances the notion that both waterborne exposure and trophic interactions need to be taken into account when assessing the potential ecological risks of emerging pollutants in aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Mercury Speciation and Trophic Magnification Slopes in Giant Salamander Larvae from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, M. S.; Crocker, J.; Wachtl, J.; Kleeman, P.; Fellers, G.; Currens, C.; Hothem, R.; Madej, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of stream salamanders in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States has received little attention. Here we report total Hg (HgT) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in larval giant salamanders (Dicamptodon spp.) and surface water from forested and chaparral lotic ecosystems distributed along a latitudinal gradient throughout Northern California and Washington. To test hypotheses related to potential effects from mining land-use activities, salamander larvae were also sampled from a reference site at Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, California, and at a nearby, upstream site (Shasta county) on Bureau of Land Management land where Hg contamination from gold mining activities has been documented. HgT concentrations in whole body larvae ranged from 4.6 to 74.5 ng/g wet wt. and percent MeHg ranged from 67% to 86%. Both HgT and MeHg larval tissue concentrations were significantly higher at the mining site in comparison to measured background levels (P < 0.001). We conclude that salamander larvae in remote stream ecosystems, where Hg sources were dominated by atmospheric deposition, were generally low in HgT and MeHg and, in comparison, watersheds with a legacy of land-use practices (i.e., mining operations) had approximately 4.5 - 5.5 times the level of HgT bioaccumulation. Moreover, trophic magnification slopes were highest in the Shasta county region where mining was present. These findings suggest that mining activities increase HgT and MeHg exposure to salamander larvae in the region and may present a threat to other higher trophically positioned organisms, and their associated food webs.

  2. Complete treatment of galaxy two-point statistics: Gravitational lensing effects and redshift-space distortions

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jaiyul

    2009-01-15

    We present a coherent theoretical framework for computing gravitational lensing effects and redshift-space distortions in an inhomogeneous universe and investigate their impacts on galaxy two-point statistics. Adopting the linearized Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric, we derive the gravitational lensing and the generalized Sachs-Wolfe effects that include the weak lensing distortion, magnification, and time delay effects, and the redshift-space distortion, Sachs-Wolfe, and integrated Sachs-Wolfe effects, respectively. Based on this framework, we first compute their effects on observed source fluctuations, separating them as two physically distinct origins: the volume effect that involves the change of volume and is always present in galaxy two-point statistics, and the source effect that depends on the intrinsic properties of source populations. Then we identify several terms that are ignored in the standard method, and we compute the observed galaxy two-point statistics, an ensemble average of all the combinations of the intrinsic source fluctuations and the additional contributions from the gravitational lensing and the generalized Sachs-Wolfe effects. This unified treatment of galaxy two-point statistics clarifies the relation of the gravitational lensing and the generalized Sachs-Wolfe effects to the metric perturbations and the underlying matter fluctuations. For near-future dark energy surveys, we compute additional contributions to the observed galaxy two-point statistics and analyze their impact on the anisotropic structure. Thorough theoretical modeling of galaxy two-point statistics would be not only necessary to analyze precision measurements from upcoming dark energy surveys, but also provide further discriminatory power in understanding the underlying physical mechanisms.

  3. Lens Model and Time Delay Predictions for the Sextuply Lensed Quasar SDSS J2222+2745

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Dahle, Håkon; Florian, Michael K.; Gladders, Michael D.; Johnson, Traci L.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Rigby, Jane R.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Wuyts, Eva

    2017-01-01

    SDSS J2222+2745 is a galaxy cluster at z = 0.49, strongly lensing a quasar at z = 2.805 into six widely separated images. In recent Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the field, we identify additional multiply lensed galaxies and confirm the sixth quasar image that was identified by Dahle et al. We used the Gemini-North telescope to measure a spectroscopic redshift of z = 4.56 of one of the lensed galaxies. These data are used to refine the lens model of SDSS J2222+2745, compute the time delay and magnifications of the lensed quasar images, and reconstruct the source image of the quasar host and a lensed galaxy at z = 2.3. This galaxy also appears in absorption in our Gemini spectra of the lensed quasar, at a projected distance of 34 kpc. Our model is in agreement with the recent time delay measurements of Dahle et al., who found τAB = 47.7 ± 6.0 days and τAC = ‑722 ± 24 days. We use the observed time delays to further constrain the model, and find that the model-predicted time delays of the three faint images of the quasar are τAD = 502 ± 68 days, τAE = 611 ± 75 days, and τAF = 415 ± 72 days. We have initiated a follow-up campaign to measure these time delays with Gemini North. Finally, we present initial results from an X-ray monitoring program with Swift, indicating the presence of hard X-ray emission from the lensed quasar, as well as extended X-ray emission from the cluster itself, which is consistent with the lensing mass measurement and the cluster velocity dispersion. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-13337.

  4. Fabrication of nanoscale electrostatic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinno, I.; Sanz-Velasco, A.; Kang, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsson, E.; Enoksson, P.; Svensson, K.

    2010-09-01

    The fabrication of cylindrical multi-element electrostatic lenses at the nanoscale presents a challenge; they are high-aspect-ratio structures that should be rotationally symmetric, well aligned and freestanding, with smooth edges and flat, clean surfaces. In this paper, we present the fabrication results of a non-conventional process, which uses a combination of focused gallium ion-beam milling and hydrofluoric acid vapor etching. This process makes it possible to fabricate nanoscale electrostatic lenses down to 140 nm in aperture diameter and 4.2 µm in column length, with a superior control of the geometry as compared to conventional lithography-based techniques.

  5. Weak gravitational lensing in fourth order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, A.; Stabile, An.

    2012-02-01

    For a general class of analytic functions f(R,RαβRαβ,RαβγδRαβγδ) we discuss the gravitational lensing in the Newtonian limit of theory. From the properties of the Gauss-Bonnet invariant it is enough to consider only one curvature invariant between the Ricci tensor and the Riemann tensor. Then, we analyze the dynamics of a photon embedded in a gravitational field of a generic f(R,RαβRαβ) gravity. The metric is time independent and spherically symmetric. The metric potentials are Schwarzschild-like, but there are two additional Yukawa terms linked to derivatives of f with respect to two curvature invariants. Considering first the case of a pointlike lens, and after the one of a generic matter distribution of the lens, we study the deflection angle and the angular position of images. Though the additional Yukawa terms in the gravitational potential modifies dynamics with respect to general relativity, the geodesic trajectory of the photon is unaffected by the modification if we consider only f(R) gravity. We find different results (deflection angle smaller than the angle of general relativity) only due to the introduction of a generic function of the Ricci tensor square. Finally, we can affirm that the lensing phenomena for all f(R) gravities are equal to the ones known for general relativity. We conclude the paper by showing and comparing the deflection angle and position of images for f(R,RαβRαβ) gravity with respect to the gravitational lensing of general relativity.

  6. Lensing signals from spin-2 perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Adamek, Julian; Durrer, Ruth; Tansella, Vittorio E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch

    2016-01-01

    We compute the angular power spectra of the E-type and B-type lensing potentials for gravitational waves from inflation and for tensor perturbations induced by scalar perturbations. We derive the tensor-lensed CMB power spectra for both cases. We also apply our formalism to determine the linear lensing potential for a Bianchi I spacetime with small anisotropy.

  7. CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: testing photometric redshift distributions using angular cross-correlations with spectroscopic galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, A.; Heymans, C.; Blake, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Duncan, C. A. J.; Erben, T.; Nakajima, R.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Viola, M.

    2016-12-01

    We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions p(z). Our method utilizes measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin j into a spectroscopic redshift bin i using the sum of the p(z) for the galaxies residing in bin j. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when i ≠ j as a function of the measured angular cross-correlation when i = j. We also account for enhanced clustering arising from lensing magnification using a halo model. The comparison of this prediction with the measured signal provides a consistency check on the validity of using the summed p(z) to determine galaxy redshift distributions in cosmological analyses, as advocated by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We present an analysis of the photometric redshifts measured by CFHTLenS, which overlaps the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We also analyse the Red-sequence Cluster Lensing Survey, which overlaps both BOSS and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We find that the summed p(z) from both surveys are generally biased with respect to the true underlying distributions. If unaccounted for, this bias would lead to errors in cosmological parameter estimation from CFHTLenS by less than ˜4 per cent. For photometric redshift bins which spatially overlap in 3D with our spectroscopic sample, we determine redshift bias corrections which can be used in future cosmological analyses that rely on accurate galaxy redshift distributions.

  8. A gravitationally lensed quasar with quadruple images separated by 14.62 arcseconds.

    PubMed

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Pindor, Bartosz; Hennawi, Joseph F; Chiu, Kuenley; Zheng, Wei; Ichikawa, Shin-Ichi; Gregg, Michael D; Becker, Robert H; Suto, Yasushi; Strauss, Michael A; Turner, Edwin L; Keeton, Charles R; Annis, James; Castander, Francisco J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Frieman, Joshua A; Fukugita, Masataka; Gunn, James E; Johnston, David E; Kent, Stephen M; Nichol, Robert C; Richards, Gordon T; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Bahcall, Neta A; Brinkmann, J; Ivezić, Zeljko; Lamb, Don Q; McKay, Timothy A; Schneider, Donald P; York, Donald G

    2003-12-18

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful tool for the study of the distribution of dark matter in the Universe. The cold-dark-matter model of the formation of large-scale structures (that is, clusters of galaxies and even larger assemblies) predicts the existence of quasars gravitationally lensed by concentrations of dark matter so massive that the quasar images would be split by over 7 arcsec. Numerous searches for large-separation lensed quasars have, however, been unsuccessful. All of the roughly 70 lensed quasars known, including the first lensed quasar discovered, have smaller separations that can be explained in terms of galaxy-scale concentrations of baryonic matter. Although gravitationally lensed galaxies with large separations are known, quasars are more useful cosmological probes because of the simplicity of the resulting lens systems. Here we report the discovery of a lensed quasar, SDSS J1004 + 4112, which has a maximum separation between the components of 14.62 arcsec. Such a large separation means that the lensing object must be dominated by dark matter. Our results are fully consistent with theoretical expectations based on the cold-dark-matter model.

  9. WEAK LENSING MASS RECONSTRUCTION: FLEXION VERSUS SHEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, S.

    2010-11-10

    Weak gravitational lensing has proven to be a powerful tool to map directly the distribution of dark matter in the universe. The technique, currently used, relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational shear that corresponds to the first-order distortion of the background galaxy images. More recently, a new technique has been introduced that relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational flexion that corresponds to the second-order distortion of the background galaxy images. This technique should probe structures on smaller scales than that of shear analysis. The goal of this paper is to compare the ability of shear and flexion to reconstruct the dark matter distribution by taking into account the dispersion in shear and flexion measurements. Our results show that the flexion is less sensitive than shear for constructing the convergence maps on scales that are physically feasible for mapping, meaning that flexion alone should not be used to do convergence map reconstruction, even on small scales.

  10. Strong gravitational lensing by an electrically charged black hole in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Hajime; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2015-08-01

    We systematically examine the properties of null geodesics around an electrically charged, asymptotically flat black hole in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity, varying the electric charge of the black hole and the coupling constant in the theory. We find that the radius of the unstable circular orbit for a massless particle decreases with the coupling constant, if the value of the electrical charge is fixed. Additionally, we consider the strong gravitational lensing around such a black hole. We show that the deflection angle, the position angle of the relativistic images, and the magnification due to the light bending in strong gravitational field are quite sensitive to the parameters determining the black hole solution. Thus, through the accurate observations associated with the strong gravitational lensing, it might be possible to reveal the gravitational theory in a strong field regime.

  11. Gravitationally Lensed CO and Dust at High Redshift: New LMT/GTM Images and Spectra of Sub-Millimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, J. D.; Harrington, K.; Berman, D.; Yun, M.; Cybulski, R.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Chavez, M.; de La Luz, V.; Erickson, N.; Ferrusca, D.; Gallup, A.; Hughes, D.; Montaña, A.; Narayanan, G.; Sánchez-Argüelles, D.; Schloerb, F. P.; Souccar, K.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Zeballos, M.; Zavala, J. A.

    2017-03-01

    We have assembled a new sample of some of the most FIR-luminous galaxies in the Universe and have imaged them in 1.1 mm dust emission and measured their redshifts 1 < z < 4 via CO emission lines using the 32-m Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM). Our sample of 31 submm galaxies (SMGs), culled from the Planck and Herschel all-sky surveys, includes 14 of the 21 most luminous galaxies known, with LFIR > 1014 L ⊙ and SFR > 104M⊙/yr. These extreme inferred luminosities - and multiple / extended 1.1 mm images - imply that most or all are strongly gravitationally lensed, with typical magnification μ ~ 10 × . The gravitational lensing provides two significant benefits: (1) it boosts the S/N, and (2) it allows investigation of star formation and gas processes on sub-kpc scales.

  12. N-body lensed CMB maps: lensing extraction and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, Claudia; Fantaye, Yabebal; Martinelli, Matteo; Carbone, Carmelita; Baccigalupi, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    We reconstruct shear maps and angular power spectra from simulated weakly lensed total intensity (TT) and polarised (EB) maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, obtained using Born approximated ray-tracing through the N-body simulated Cold Dark Matter (CDM) structures in the Millennium Simulations (MS). We compare the recovered signal with the ΛCDM prediction, on the whole interval of angular scales which is allowed by the finite box size, extending from the degree scale to the arcminute, by applying a quadratic estimator in the flat sky limit; we consider PRISM-like instrumental specification for future generation CMB satellites, corresponding to arcminute angular resolution of 3.2' and sensitivity of 2.43 μK-arcmin. The noise contribution in the simulations closely follows the estimator prediction, becoming dominated by limits in the angular resolution for the EB signal, at l simeq 1500. The recovered signal shows no visible departure from predictions of the weak lensing power within uncertainties, when considering TT and EB data singularly. In particular, the reconstruction precision reaches the level of a few percent in bins with Δl simeq 100 in the angular multiple interval 1000lesssimllesssim2000 for T, and about 10% for EB. Within the adopted specifications, polarisation data do represent a significant contribution to the lensing shear, which appear to faithfully trace the underlying N-body structure down to the smallest angular scales achievable with the present setup, validating at the same time the latter with respect to semi-analytical predictions from ΛCDM cosmology at the level of CMB lensing statistics. This work demonstrates the feasibility of CMB lensing studies based on large scale simulations of cosmological structure formation in the context of the current and future high resolution and sensitivity CMB experiment.

  13. N-body lensed CMB maps: lensing extraction and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Antolini, Claudia; Martinelli, Matteo; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Fantaye, Yabebal; Carbone, Carmelita E-mail: y.t.fantaye@astro.uio.no E-mail: carmelita.carbone@brera.inaf.it

    2014-02-01

    We reconstruct shear maps and angular power spectra from simulated weakly lensed total intensity (TT) and polarised (EB) maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, obtained using Born approximated ray-tracing through the N-body simulated Cold Dark Matter (CDM) structures in the Millennium Simulations (MS). We compare the recovered signal with the ΛCDM prediction, on the whole interval of angular scales which is allowed by the finite box size, extending from the degree scale to the arcminute, by applying a quadratic estimator in the flat sky limit; we consider PRISM-like instrumental specification for future generation CMB satellites, corresponding to arcminute angular resolution of 3.2' and sensitivity of 2.43 μK-arcmin. The noise contribution in the simulations closely follows the estimator prediction, becoming dominated by limits in the angular resolution for the EB signal, at ℓ ≅ 1500. The recovered signal shows no visible departure from predictions of the weak lensing power within uncertainties, when considering TT and EB data singularly. In particular, the reconstruction precision reaches the level of a few percent in bins with Δℓ ≅ 100 in the angular multiple interval 1000∼<ℓ∼<2000 for T, and about 10% for EB. Within the adopted specifications, polarisation data do represent a significant contribution to the lensing shear, which appear to faithfully trace the underlying N-body structure down to the smallest angular scales achievable with the present setup, validating at the same time the latter with respect to semi-analytical predictions from ΛCDM cosmology at the level of CMB lensing statistics. This work demonstrates the feasibility of CMB lensing studies based on large scale simulations of cosmological structure formation in the context of the current and future high resolution and sensitivity CMB experiment.

  14. Measurements of CO Redshifts with Z-Spec for Lensed Submillimeter Galaxies Discovered in the H-ATLAS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, R. E.; Scott, K. S.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aretxaga, I.; Auld, R.; Barton, E.; Beelen, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Bock, J. J.; Bonfield, D.; Bradford, C. M.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooke, J.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dariush, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Frayer, D.; Fritz, J.; Glenn, J.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kamenetzky, J.; Kim, S.; Lagache, G.; Leeuw, L.; Maddox, S.; Maloney, P. R.; Matsuhara, H.; Murphy, E. J.; Naylor, B. J.; Negrello, M.; Nguyen, H.; Omont, A.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Serjeant, S.; Smith, D.; Temi, P.; Thompson, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Verma, A.; Vieira, J. D.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2012-10-01

    We present new observations from Z-Spec, a broadband 185-305 GHz spectrometer, of five submillimeter bright lensed sources selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey science demonstration phase catalog. We construct a redshift-finding algorithm using combinations of the signal to noise of all the lines falling in the Z-Spec bandpass to determine redshifts with high confidence, even in cases where the signal to noise in individual lines is low. We measure the dust continuum in all sources and secure CO redshifts for four out of five (z ~ 1.5-3). In one source, SDP.17, we tentatively identify two independent redshifts and a water line, confirmed at z = 2.308. Our sources have properties characteristic of dusty starburst galaxies, with magnification-corrected star formation rates of 102 - 3 M ⊙ yr-1. Lower limits for the dust masses (~ a few 108 M ⊙) and spatial extents (~1 kpc equivalent radius) are derived from the continuum spectral energy distributions, corresponding to dust temperatures between 54 and 69 K. In the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation, we derive relatively low CO excitation temperatures (lsim 100 K) and optical depths (τ <~ 1). Performing a non-LTE excitation analysis using RADEX, we find that the CO lines measured by Z-Spec (from J = 4 → 3 to 10 → 9, depending on the galaxy) localize the best solutions to either a high-temperature/low-density region or a low/temperature/high-density region near the LTE solution, with the optical depth varying accordingly. Observations of additional CO lines, CO(1-0) in particular, are needed to constrain the non-LTE models.

  15. Extended X-Ray Monitoring of Gravitational Lenses with Chandra and Joint Constraints on X-Ray Emission Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerras, Eduardo; Dai, Xinyu; Steele, Shaun; Liu, Ang; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Chartas, George; Morgan, Christopher W.; Chen, Bin

    2017-02-01

    We present an X-ray photometric analysis of six gravitationally lensed quasars, with observation campaigns spanning from 5 to 14 years, measuring the total (0.83–21.8 keV restframe), soft- (0.83–3.6 keV), and hard- (3.6–21.8 keV) band image flux ratios for each epoch. Using the ratios of the model-predicted macro-magnifications as baselines, we build differential microlensing light curves and obtain joint likelihood functions for the average X-ray emission region sizes. Our analysis yields a probability distribution function for the average half-light radius of the X-ray emission region in the sample that peaks slightly above 1 gravitational radius and with nearly indistinguishable 68 % confidence (one-sided) upper limits of 17.8 and 18.9 gravitational radii for the soft and hard X-ray emitting regions, assuming a mean stellar mass of 0.3 M ⊙. We see hints of energy dependent microlensing between the soft and hard bands in two of the objects. In a separate analysis on the root-mean-square (rms) of the microlensing variability, we find significant differences between the soft and hard bands, but the sign of the difference is not consistent across the sample. This suggests the existence of some kind of spatial structure to the X-ray emission in an otherwise extremely compact source. We also discover a correlation between the rms microlensing variability and the average microlensing amplitude.

  16. MEASUREMENTS OF CO REDSHIFTS WITH Z-SPEC FOR LENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES DISCOVERED IN THE H-ATLAS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Lupu, R. E.; Scott, K. S.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aretxaga, I.; Auld, R.; Dariush, A.; Barton, E.; Cooke, J.; Cooray, A.; Beelen, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Bonfield, D.; Buttiglione, S.; De Zotti, G.; Cava, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; and others

    2012-10-01

    We present new observations from Z-Spec, a broadband 185-305 GHz spectrometer, of five submillimeter bright lensed sources selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey science demonstration phase catalog. We construct a redshift-finding algorithm using combinations of the signal to noise of all the lines falling in the Z-Spec bandpass to determine redshifts with high confidence, even in cases where the signal to noise in individual lines is low. We measure the dust continuum in all sources and secure CO redshifts for four out of five (z {approx} 1.5-3). In one source, SDP.17, we tentatively identify two independent redshifts and a water line, confirmed at z = 2.308. Our sources have properties characteristic of dusty starburst galaxies, with magnification-corrected star formation rates of 10{sup 2-3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Lower limits for the dust masses ({approx} a few 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }) and spatial extents ({approx}1 kpc equivalent radius) are derived from the continuum spectral energy distributions, corresponding to dust temperatures between 54 and 69 K. In the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation, we derive relatively low CO excitation temperatures ({approx}< 100 K) and optical depths ({tau} {approx}< 1). Performing a non-LTE excitation analysis using RADEX, we find that the CO lines measured by Z-Spec (from J = 4 {yields} 3 to 10 {yields} 9, depending on the galaxy) localize the best solutions to either a high-temperature/low-density region or a low/temperature/high-density region near the LTE solution, with the optical depth varying accordingly. Observations of additional CO lines, CO(1-0) in particular, are needed to constrain the non-LTE models.

  17. Gravitational light-bending prevents γγ absorption in gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Markus; Thiersen, Hannes

    2016-10-01

    The magnification effect that is due to gravitational lensing enhances the chances of detecting moderate-redshift (z ~ 1) sources in very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-rays by ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope facilities. It has been shown in previous work that this prospect is not hampered by potential γ-γ absorption effects by the intervening (lensing) galaxy, nor by any individual star within the intervening galaxy. In this paper, we expand this study to simulate the light-bending effect of a realistic ensemble of stars. We first demonstrate that for realistic parameters of the galaxy's star field, it is extremely unlikely (probability ≲10-6) that the direct line of sight between the γ-ray source and the observer passes by any star in the field close enough to be subject to significant γγ absorption. Our simulations then focus on the rare cases where γγ absorption by (at least) one individual star might be non-negligible. We show that gravitational light-bending will have the effect of avoiding the γ-γ absorption spheres around massive stars in the intervening galaxy. This confirms previous results and re-inforces arguments in favour of VHE γ-ray observations of lensed moderate-redshift blazars to extend the redshift range of objects detected in VHE γ-rays, and to probe the location of the γ-ray emission region in these blazars.

  18. Gravitational microlensing - The effect of random motion of individual stars in the lensing galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundic, Tomislav; Wambsganss, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the influence of random motion of individual stars in the lensing galaxy on the light curve of a gravitationally lensed background quasar. We compare this with the effects of the transverse motion of the galaxy. We find that three-dimensional random motion of stars with a velocity dispersion sigma in each dimension is more effective in producing 'peaks' in a microlensed light curve by a factor a about 1.3 than motion of the galaxy with a transverse velocity v(t) = sigma. This effectiveness parameter a seems to depend only weakly on the surface mass density. With an assumed transverse velocity of v(t) = 600 km/s of the galaxy lensing the QSO 2237+0305 and a measured velocity dispersion of sigma = 215 km/s, the expected rate of maxima in the light curves calculated for bulk motion alone has to be increased by about 10 percent due to the random motion of stars. As a consequence, the average time interval Delta t between two high-magnification events is smaller than the time interval Delta(t) bulk, calculated for bulk motion alone, Delta t about 0.9 Delta(t) bulk.

  19. NEARBY PLANETARY SYSTEMS AS LENSES DURING PREDICTED CLOSE PASSAGES TO BACKGROUND STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Matthews, James; Lepine, Sebastien

    2013-07-10

    The Einstein rings and proper motions of nearby stars tend to be large. Thus, every year some foreground stars within a few hundred parsecs of Earth induce gravitational lensing events in background stars. In some of these cases, the events may exhibit evidence of planets orbiting the nearby star. In fact, planets can even be discovered during relatively distant passages. Here, we study the lensing signatures associated with planets orbiting nearby high-proper-motion stars. We find the following. (1) Wide-orbit planets can be detected for all distances of closest approach between the foreground and background stars, potentially producing independent events long before and/or after the closest approach. (2) Close-orbit planets can be detected for intermediate distances of closest approach, producing quasiperiodic signatures that may occur days or weeks before and after the stellar-lens event. (3) Planets in the so-called zone for resonant lensing can significantly increase the magnification when the distance of closest approach is small, making the stellar-lens event easier to detect, while simultaneously providing evidence for planets. Because approaches close enough to allow planets to be detected can be predicted, we can plan observing strategies to take advantage of the theoretical framework built in this paper, which describes the sequence of expected effects in terms of a sequence of detection regimes.

  20. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-15

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such "hybrid microscopy" methods--combining physical and optical magnifications--can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes ("mini-microscopes"), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics--a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)--is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  1. Spatial resolution of a spherical x-ray crystal spectrometer at various magnifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lan; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Baronova, E. O.; Pereira, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    A high spatial resolution of a few μm is often required for probing small-scale high-energy-density plasmas using high resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy. This resolution can be achieved by adjusting system magnification to overcome the inherent limitation of the detector pixel size. Laboratory experiments on investigating the relation between spatial resolution and system magnification for a spherical crystal spectrometer are presented. Tungsten Lβ2 rays from a tungsten-target micro-focus x-ray tube were diffracted by a Ge 440 crystal, which was spherically bent to a radius of 223 mm, and imaged onto an x-ray CCD with 13-μm pixel size. The source-to-crystal (p) and crystal-to-detector (q) distances were varied to produce spatial magnifications (M = q/p) ranging from 2 to 10. The inferred instrumental spatial width reduces with increasing system magnification M. However, the experimental measurement at each M is larger than the theoretical value of pixel size divided by M. Future work will focus on investigating possible broadening mechanisms that limit the spatial resolution.

  2. Neonatal magnification radiography using standard-focus x-ray tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Nikesch, W.; Kuntzler, C.M.; Cushing, F.R.

    1983-10-01

    Radiographic examination of the chests of premature newborn infants is complicated by the small size and poor object contrast of the structures to be evaluated. Magnification radiography can improve image quality significantly in this situation. Unfortunately, high-quality magnification radiography requires dedicated microfocus equipment that is not available in most neonatal intensive care units. The use of standard-focus x-ray tubes (up to 1 mm focal spot size) for moderate magnification radiography (1.5 times) by using the anode side of the x-ray field of the standard mobile x-ray unit is proposed. In addition to the cost advantage of using existing standard mobile x-ray equipment, the high tube current allows for short exposure times and long target-film distances. This reduces most motion unsharpness and allows for a large air gap that results in improved image contrast. Although focal spot size at the anode side of the field is smaller in only one dimension, the magnification radiographs are superior to those obtained using the central part of the x-ray beam and superior to standard contact radiographs using the same equipment. Improvement in image quality is due primarily to decreased noise and improved contrast in the magnified image.

  3. Exploring the Use of Multimedia Fate and Bioaccumulation Models to Calculate Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The trophic magnification factor (TMF) is considered to be a key metric for assessing the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in food webs. Fugacity is an equilibrium criterion and thus reflects the relative thermodynamic status of a chemical in the environment and in ...

  4. CMB ISW-lensing bispectrum from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Takahashi, Keitaro E-mail: sendouda@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp

    2014-02-01

    We study the effect of weak lensing by cosmic (super-)strings on the higher-order statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A cosmic string segment is expected to cause weak lensing as well as an integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, the so-called Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins (GKS) effect, to the CMB temperature fluctuation, which are thus naturally cross-correlated. We point out that, in the presence of such a correlation, yet another kind of the post-recombination CMB temperature bispectra, the ISW-lensing bispectra, will arise in the form of products of the auto- and cross-power spectra. We first present an analytic method to calculate the autocorrelation of the temperature fluctuations induced by the strings, and the cross-correlation between the temperature fluctuation and the lensing potential both due to the string network. In our formulation, the evolution of the string network is assumed to be characterized by the simple analytic model, the velocity-dependent one scale model, and the intercommutation probability is properly incorporated in order to characterize the possible superstringy nature. Furthermore, the obtained power spectra are dominated by the Poisson-distributed string segments, whose correlations are assumed to satisfy the simple relations. We then estimate the signal-to-noise ratios of the string-induced ISW-lensing bispectra and discuss the detectability of such CMB signals from the cosmic string network. It is found that in the case of the smaller string tension, Gμ << 10{sup -7}, the ISW-lensing bispectrum induced by a cosmic string network can constrain the string-model parameters even more tightly than the purely GKS-induced bispectrum in the ongoing and future CMB observations on small scales.

  5. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  6. Gravitational Lenses in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2008-01-01

    It is not common to introduce current astronomy in school lessons. This article presents a set of experiments about gravitational lenses. It is normal to simulate them by means of computers, but it is very simple to simulate similar effects using a drinking glass full of liquid or using only the glass base. These are, of course, cheap and easy…

  7. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M.; Kaluzny, J.; Kubiak, M.; Mateo, Mario

    1992-01-01

    The technical features are described of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, which aims to detect a statistically significant number of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge. Clusters of galaxies observed during the 1992 season are listed and discussed and the reduction methods are described. Future plans are addressed.

  8. Gravitational Lensing of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; Mocioiu, Irina; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The black hole at the center of the galaxy is a powerful lens for supernova neutrinos. In the very special circumstance of a supernova near the extended line of sight from Earth to the galactic center, lensing could dramatically enhance the neutrino flux at Earth and stretch the neutrino pulse.

  9. Gas dynamical imaging and dust properties of the strongly-lensed quasar host galaxy RXJ1131-1231 at z~0.65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Tsz Kuk Daisy; Riechers, Dominik; Pavesi, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Studies over the last two decades have revealed that the comoving star formation rate (SFR) and the black hole accretion rate densities have been steeply declining since z~2. Tracing the evolution of the cold molecular gas which fuels star formation and black hole accretion in galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5lensed quasar RXJ1131-1231 at z~0.65 obtained using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), making this the first resolved CO study at intermediate redshift. We perform dynamical lens modeling of the CO emission in the visibility-plane using our code UVMCMCFIT (github.com/astro313/uvmcmcfit), finding that the asymmetry in its double-horned line profile is a result of differential lensing, with a magnification factor varying from ˜3 to ˜9 across different kinematic components. We recover an intrinsically symmetric line profile and a source-plane velocity gradient that suggest the presence of an extended, ~6kpc radius gas disk with a dynamical mass of ˜8×1010M⊙, a gas mass of ~1.5×1010M⊙, and a gas mass fraction of ˜19% in RXJ1131-1231. The modest gas fraction is consistent with the observed trend of decreasing molecular gas content in star-forming galaxies since z˜2. Based on our spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling, we find a lensing-corrected stellar mass of ˜3×1010M⊙ and a SFR of ~120 M⊙ yr-1, a rate comparable to those of local mergers and high-z disk galaxies. The CO source size, gas depletion timescale and star formation efficiency of RXJ1131-1231 suggest that its star formation is driven by global gravitational instabilities rather than merger interactions. We also find a black hole-to-bulge mass ratio of >0.27%, which is higher than those of local galaxies, suggesting

  10. CLASH: DISCOVERY OF A BRIGHT z {approx_equal} 6.2 DWARF GALAXY QUADRUPLY LENSED BY MACS J0329.6-0211

    SciTech Connect

    Zitrin, A.; Moustakas, J.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Postman, M.; Koekemoer, A.; Moustakas, L. A.; Shu, X.; Zheng, W.; Ford, H.; Benitez, N.; Bouwens, R.; Broadhurst, T.; Host, O.; Jouvel, S.; Meneghetti, M.; Rosati, P.; Donahue, M.; Grillo, C.; Kelson, D.; and others

    2012-03-15

    We report the discovery of a z{sub phot} = 6.18{sup +0.05}{sub -0.07} (95% confidence level) dwarf galaxy, lensed into four images by the galaxy cluster MACS J0329.6-0211 (z{sub l} = 0.45). The galaxy is observed as a high-redshift dropout in HST/ACS/WFC3 CLASH and Spitzer/IRAC imaging. Its redshift is securely determined due to a clear detection of the Lyman break in the 18-band photometry, making this galaxy one of the highest-redshift multiply lensed objects known to date with an observed magnitude of F125W =24.00 {+-} 0.04 AB mag for its most magnified image. We also present the first strong-lensing analysis of this cluster uncovering 15 additional multiply imaged candidates of five lower-redshift sources spanning the range z{sub s} {approx_equal} 2-4. The mass model independently supports the high photometric redshift and reveals magnifications of 11.6{sup +8.9}{sub -4.1}, 17.6{sup +6.2}{sub -3.9}, 3.9{sup +3.0}{sub -1.7}, and 3.7{sup +1.3}{sub -0.2}, respectively, for the four images of the high-redshift galaxy. By delensing the most magnified image we construct an image of the source with a physical resolution of {approx}200 pc when the universe was {approx}0.9 Gyr old, where the z {approx_equal} 6.2 galaxy occupies a source-plane area of approximately 2.2 kpc{sup 2}. Modeling the observed spectral energy distribution using population synthesis models, we find a demagnified stellar mass of {approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, subsolar metallicity (Z/Z{sub Sun} {approx} 0.5), low dust content (A{sub V} {approx} 0.1 mag), a demagnified star formation rate (SFR) of {approx}3.2 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and a specific SFR of {approx}3.4 Gyr{sup -1}, all consistent with the properties of local dwarf galaxies.

  11. Formalism for testing theories of gravity using lensing by compact objects. II. Probing post-post-Newtonian metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, Charles R.; Petters, A.O.

    2006-02-15

    We study gravitational lensing by compact objects in gravity theories that can be written in a post-post-Newtonian (PPN) framework: i.e., the metric is static and spherically symmetric, and can be written as a Taylor series in m /r, where m is the gravitational radius of the compact object. Working invariantly, we compute corrections to standard weak-deflection lensing observables at first and second order in the perturbation parameter {epsilon}={theta}/{theta}{sub E}, where {theta} is the angular gravitational radius and {theta}{sub E} is the angular Einstein ring radius of the lens. We show that the first-order corrections to the total magnification and centroid position vanish universally for gravity theories that can be written in the PPN framework. This arises from some surprising, fundamental relations among the lensing observables in PPN gravity models. We derive these relations for the image positions, magnifications, and time delays. A deep consequence is that any violation of the universal relations would signal the need for a gravity model outside the PPN framework (provided that some basic assumptions hold). In practical terms, the relations will guide observational programs to test general relativity, modified gravity theories, and possibly the cosmic censorship conjecture. We use the new relations to identify lensing observables that are accessible to current or near-future technology, and to find combinations of observables that are most useful for probing the spacetime metric. We give explicit applications to the galactic black hole, microlensing, and the binary pulsar J0737-3039.

  12. Bi-convex aspheric optical lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Abhijit Chandra; Yadav, Mridul; Khanna, Anubhav; Ghatak, Animangsu

    2017-03-01

    Aspheric optical lenses are important for a variety of optical applications but are difficult to fabricate in conventional top-down processes. Here, we have presented a bottom-up approach involving controlled spreading of a thermally crosslinkable polymeric liquid dispensed on specially prepared substrates for making aspheric bi-convex lenses. In particular, the substrate is a solid film with a tiny hole drilled on it through which the liquid can flow in and out from the top to the bottom side of the substrate. In addition, the two surfaces of the substrate are made to have similar or different wettabilities so that the combined effect of gravity and surface wettability determines the distribution of the liquid between its two sides. The substrate is maintained at an elevated temperature, so that the liquid spreads on its surfaces but only to a limited extent because of rapid crosslinking at the vicinity of the moving front. This process leads to bi-convex, hyperboloids and prolate spheroids, which yield aberration free images with optical resolution that far exceeds that generated by conventional microscope objectives.

  13. Weak shear study of galaxy clusters by simulated gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coss, David

    Gravitational lensing has been simulated for numerical galaxy clusters in order to characterize the effects of substructure and shape variations of dark matter halos on the weak lensing properties of clusters. In order to analyze realistic galaxy clusters, 6 high-resolution Adaptive Refinement Tree N-body simulations of clusters with hydrodynamics are used, in addition to a simulation of one group undergoing a merger. For each cluster, the three-dimensional particle distribution is projected perpendicular to three orthogonal lines of sight, providing 21 projected mass density maps. The clusters have representative concentration and mass values for clusters in the concordance cosmology. Two gravitational lensing simulation methods are presented. In the first method, direct integration is used to calculate deflection angles. To overcome computational constraints inherent in this method, a distributed computing project was created for parallel computation. In addition to its use in gravitational lensing simulation, a description of the setup and function of this distributed computing project is presented as an alternative to in-house computing clusters, which has the added benefit of public enrollment in science and low cost. In the second method, shear maps are created using a fast Fourier transform method. From these shear maps, the effects of substructure and shape variation are related to observational gravitational lensing studies. Average shear in regions less than and greater than half of the virial radius demonstrates distinct dispersion, varying by 24% from the mean among the 21 maps. We estimate the numerical error in shear calculations to be of the order of 5%. Therefore, this shear dispersion is a reliable consequence of shape dispersion, correlating most strongly with the ratio of smallest-to-largest principal axis lengths of a cluster isodensity shell. On the other hand, image ellipticities, which are of great importance in mass reconstruction, are shown

  14. Analysis of optical properties in injection-molded and compression-molded optical lenses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung Yen; Wang, Pei Jen

    2014-04-10

    Numerical mold-flow simulations and experimental measurements for injection-molded lenses have been investigated in form accuracy on a two-cavity mold with various process conditions. First, form profiles of the molded lenses have been measured together with the corresponding simulated mold-temperature distribution and displacement distribution of the lens in the z direction. A flow-through type layout of cooling channels has been devised for balance of mold-temperature distribution in mold cavities with various parametric distances for assessments in uniformity of temperature distribution. Finally, a compression-molding process is proposed for the post-process of birefringence relaxation as well as adequate form accuracy of lenses. In conclusion, optimization of process parameters to achieve good form accuracy in a multicavity mold with symmetric geometry but nonuniform cooling conditions is difficult. A good design of cooling channels plus optimized process conditions could provide uniform mold-temperature distribution so that molded lenses of good quality would be possible. Then, the profile deviation of lenses could be further compensated by profile geometry corrections. In conclusion, the post-compression-molding process could make birefringence-free plastic lenses with good form accuracy.

  15. Intrinsic Clearance of Xenobiotic Chemicals by Liver Microsomes: Assessment of Trophic Magnification Potentials.

    PubMed

    Guomao, Zheng; Yi, Wan; Jianying, Hu

    2016-06-21

    The use of trophic magnification factors (TMFs) to characterize the bioaccumulation potentials of chemicals was encouraged; however, the method for the assessment of trophic magnification potentials is still lacking. We optimized the in vitro assays used for the measurement of intrinsic clearance in liver microsomes by incorporating benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) as a benchmark compound. The intrinsic clearance of 40 compounds was then measured in microsomes from fish (weevers) and birds (quail); the characteristics of the trophic transfer of these 40 compounds were previously investigated in an aquatic food web in Bohai in northern China. Chemicals that are biotransformed at a rate similar to or higher than that of B[a]P in the microsomes of both weevers and quail (in vitro intrinsic clearance values, CL; CL/CLB[a]P: 0.1 to 2.4) generally exhibited no significant trophic magnification or dilution in the food web (TMF ≈ 1 or < 1), whereas chemicals that are biotransformed at extremely slow rates compared with B[a]P (CL/CLB[a]P: 0 to 0.2) showed significant trophic magnification in the food web (TMF > 1). The in vitro intrinsic clearance values of the target chemicals were found to be consistent with their respective trophic transfer behavior in the aquatic food web. Significant negative correlations were also found between the TMFs and the intrinsic clearance values of all target chemicals obtained in microsomes from both weevers and quail. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that biotransformation rates (CL/CLB[a]P) are a more important factor compared with the lipophilicity of the chemicals (log Kow) in the assessment of the trophic magnification of chemicals in the aquatic food web.

  16. Atomic Inference from Weak Gravitational Lensing Data

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Phil; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-12-14

    We present a novel approach to reconstructing the projected mass distribution from the sparse and noisy weak gravitational lensing shear data. The reconstructions are regularized via the knowledge gained from numerical simulations of clusters, with trial mass distributions constructed from n NFW profile ellipsoidal components. The parameters of these ''atoms'' are distributed a priori as in the simulated clusters. Sampling the mass distributions from the atom parameter probability density function allows estimates of the properties of the mass distribution to be generated, with error bars. The appropriate number of atoms is inferred from the data itself via the Bayesian evidence, and is typically found to be small, reecting the quality of the data. Ensemble average mass maps are found to be robust to the details of the noise realization, and succeed in recovering the demonstration input mass distribution (from a realistic simulated cluster) over a wide range of scales. As an application of such a reliable mapping algorithm, we comment on the residuals of the reconstruction and the implications for predicting convergence and shear at specific points on the sky.

  17. Observing Gravitational Lensing Effects by Sgr A* with GRAVITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, V.; Mancini, L.

    2012-07-01

    The massive black hole Sgr A* at the Galactic center is surrounded by a cluster of stars orbiting around it. Light from these stars is bent by the gravitational field of the black hole, giving rise to several phenomena: astrometric displacement of the primary image, the creation of a secondary image that may shift the centroid of Sgr A*, and magnification effects on both images. The soon-to-be second-generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY will perform observations in the near-infrared of the Galactic center at unprecedented resolution, opening the possibility of observing such effects. Here we investigate the observability limits for GRAVITY of gravitational lensing effects on the S-stars in the parameter space 1[D LS, γ, K], where D LS is the distance between the lens and the source, γ is the alignment angle of the source, and K is the source's apparent magnitude in the K band. The easiest effect to observe in future years is the astrometric displacement of primary images. In particular, the shift of the star S17 from its Keplerian orbit will be detected as soon as GRAVITY becomes operative. For exceptional configurations, it will be possible to detect effects related to the spin of the black hole or post-Newtonian orders in the deflection.

  18. Experimental characterization of the imaging properties of multifocal intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, Pier Giorgio; Fasce, Francesco; Bozza, Stefano; Brancato, Rosario

    2003-07-01

    Many different types of intraocular lenses (IOL) are currently available for implantation, both as crystalline lens replacements and as phakic refractive elements. Their optical design is increasingly sophisticated, including aspherical surface profiles and multi-zone multifocal structures, however a quantitative and comparative characterization of their imaging properties is lacking. Also a qualitative visualization of their properties would be very useful for patients in the lens choice process. To this end an experimental eye model has been developed to allow for simulated in-vivo testing of IOLs. The model cornea is made of PMMA with a dioptric power of 43 D, and it has an aspherical profile designed to minimize spherical aberration across the visible spectrum. The eye model has a variable iris and a mechanical support to accomodate IOLs, immersed in physiological solution. The eye length is variable and the retina is replaced by a glass plate. The image formed on this "retina" is optically conjugated to a CCD camera, with a suitable magnification in order to mimic the human fovea resolution, and displayed onto a monitor. With such an opto-mechanical eye model, two types of images have been used to characterize IOLs: letter charts and variable contrast gratings, in order to directly simulate human visual acuity and contrast sensitivity.

  19. OBSERVING GRAVITATIONAL LENSING EFFECTS BY Sgr A* WITH GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bozza, V.; Mancini, L. E-mail: mancini@mpia-hd.mpg.de

    2012-07-01

    The massive black hole Sgr A* at the Galactic center is surrounded by a cluster of stars orbiting around it. Light from these stars is bent by the gravitational field of the black hole, giving rise to several phenomena: astrometric displacement of the primary image, the creation of a secondary image that may shift the centroid of Sgr A*, and magnification effects on both images. The soon-to-be second-generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY will perform observations in the near-infrared of the Galactic center at unprecedented resolution, opening the possibility of observing such effects. Here we investigate the observability limits for GRAVITY of gravitational lensing effects on the S-stars in the parameter space 1[D{sub LS}, {gamma}, K], where D{sub LS} is the distance between the lens and the source, {gamma} is the alignment angle of the source, and K is the source's apparent magnitude in the K band. The easiest effect to observe in future years is the astrometric displacement of primary images. In particular, the shift of the star S17 from its Keplerian orbit will be detected as soon as GRAVITY becomes operative. For exceptional configurations, it will be possible to detect effects related to the spin of the black hole or post-Newtonian orders in the deflection.

  20. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the Z = 2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, T. K. Daisy; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the detection of CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line emission in the strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z = 2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z = 0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of Scont = 7.4 ± 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line intensity of ICO(3-2) = (12.6 ± 2.0) Jy km s-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of {L}{{CO(1-0)}}\\prime = (3.4 ± 0.7) × 1010 (10.1/μL) K km s-1 pc2 for the SMG, where μL is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of Mgas = (2.7 ± 0.6) × 1010 (10.1/μL) M⊙. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1{}-1.3+1.1 K, a dust mass of Mdust = (5.2 ± 2.1) × 108 (10.1/μL) M⊙, and a total infrared luminosity of LIR = (9.1 ± 1.2) ×1012 (10.1/μL) L⊙. We find that the properties of the interstellar medium of SMM J0939+8315 overlap with both SMGs and type-2 quasars. Hence, SMM J0939+8315 may be transitioning from a starbursting phase to an unobscured quasar phase as described by the “evolutionary link” model, according to which this system may represent an intermediate stage in the evolution of present-day galaxies at an earlier epoch.

  1. Weak gravitational lensing by galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Brainerd, T.G. |; Blandford, R.D.; Smail, I. |

    1996-08-01

    We report a detection of weak, tangential distortion of the images of cosmologically distant, faint galaxies due to gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies. A mean image polarization of ({ital p})=0.011{plus_minus}0.006 (95{percent} confidence bounds) is obtained for 3202 pairs of source (23{lt}{ital r}{sub {ital s}}{le}24) and lens (20{le}{ital r}{sub {ital d}}{le}23) galaxies with projected separations of 5{double_prime}{le}{theta}{le}34{double_prime}. Averaged over annuli of inner radius 5{double_prime} and outer radius {theta}{sub max}, the signal is string for lens-source separations of {theta}{sub max}{approx_lt}90{double_prime} consistent with quasi-isothermal galaxy halos extending to large radii ({approx_gt}100{ital h}{sup {minus}1} kpc). The observed polarization is also consistent with the signal expected on the basis of simulations incorporating measured properties of local galaxies and modest extrapolations of the observed redshift distribution of faint galaxies (to which the results are somewhat sensitive). From the simulations we obtain formal best-fit model parameters for the dark halos of the lens galaxies that consist of a characteristic circular velocity of {ital V}{asterisk}{approximately}220{plus_minus}80 kms{sup {minus}1} and characteristic radial extent of {ital s}{asterisk}{approx_gt}100{ital h}{sup {minus}1} kpc. The predicted polarization based on the model is relatively insensitive to the characteristic radial extent of the halos, {ital s}{asterisk}, and very small halos ({ital s}{asterisk}{approximately}10{ital h}{sup {minus}1} kpc) are excluded only at the 2 {sigma} level. The formal best-fit halo parameters imply typical masses for the lens galaxies within a radius of 100{ital h}{sup -1} kpc on the order of 1.0{sup +1.2}{sub {minus}0.5}{times}10{sup 12} {ital h}{sup {minus}1}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} (90% confidence bounds), in agreement with recent dynamical estimates of the masses of local spiral galaxies.

  2. Fast generation of weak lensing maps by the inverse-Gaussianization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Pengjie; Jing, Yipeng

    2016-10-01

    To take full advantage of the unprecedented power of upcoming weak lensing surveys, understanding the noise, such as cosmic variance and geometry/mask effects, is as important as understanding the signal itself. Accurately quantifying the noise requires a large number of statistically independent mocks for a variety of cosmologies. This is impractical for weak lensing simulations, which are costly for simultaneous requirements of large box size (to cover a significant fraction of the past light cone) and high resolution (to robustly probe the small scale where most lensing signal resides). Therefore, fast mock generation methods are desired and are under intensive investigation. We propose a new fast weak lensing map generation method, named the inverse-Gaussianization method, based on the finding that a lensing convergence field can be Gaussianized to excellent accuracy by a local transformation [43 Y. Yu, P. Zhang, W. Lin, W. Cui, and J. N. Fry, Phys. Rev. D 84, 023523 (2011).]. Given a simulation, it enables us to produce as many as infinite statistically independent lensing maps as fast as producing the simulation initial conditions. The proposed method is tested against simulations for each tomography bin centered at lens redshift z ˜0.5 , 1, and 2, with various statistics. We find that the lensing maps generated by our method have reasonably accurate power spectra, bispectra, and power spectrum covariance matrix. Therefore, it will be useful for weak lensing surveys to generate realistic mocks. As an example of application, we measure the probability distribution function of the lensing power spectrum, from 16384 lensing maps produced by the inverse-Gaussianization method.

  3. On the use of measured time delays in gravitational lenses to determine the Hubble constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, C.; Anderson, N.

    1985-01-01

    Gravitational lenses are rare in the known samples of quasars, indicating that the conditions involved in their formation are unusual. In particular, the distribution of matter along the light rays from the observer through the deflector to the quasar may be very different from mean conditions. It is shown that reasonable deviations in the density of matter along the beams can significantly alter the relationship between time delays and the Hubble constant, and it is concluded that gravitational lenses are not promising estimators of this constant. However, should an independent, precise determination of the Hubble constant become available, gravitational lenses could be used to probe long-range density fluctuations.

  4. Gravitational lensing: a unique probe of dark matter and dark energy

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    I review the development of gravitational lensing as a powerful tool of the observational cosmologist. After the historic eclipse expedition organized by Arthur Eddington and Frank Dyson, the subject lay observationally dormant for 60 years. However, subsequent progress has been astonishingly rapid, especially in the past decade, so that gravitational lensing now holds the key to unravelling the two most profound mysteries of our Universe—the nature and distribution of dark matter, and the origin of the puzzling cosmic acceleration first identified in the late 1990s. In this non-specialist review, I focus on the unusual history and achievements of gravitational lensing and its future observational prospects. PMID:20123743

  5. Gravitational lensing: a unique probe of dark matter and dark energy.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Richard S

    2010-03-13

    I review the development of gravitational lensing as a powerful tool of the observational cosmologist. After the historic eclipse expedition organized by Arthur Eddington and Frank Dyson, the subject lay observationally dormant for 60 years. However, subsequent progress has been astonishingly rapid, especially in the past decade, so that gravitational lensing now holds the key to unravelling the two most profound mysteries of our Universe-the nature and distribution of dark matter, and the origin of the puzzling cosmic acceleration first identified in the late 1990s. In this non-specialist review, I focus on the unusual history and achievements of gravitational lensing and its future observational prospects.

  6. Revised Lens Model for the Multiply Imaged Lensed Supernova, “SN Refsdal” in MACS J1149+2223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Traci L.

    2015-02-01

    We present a revised lens model of MACS J1149+2223, in which the first resolved multiply imaged lensed supernova (SN) was discovered. The lens model is based on the model of Johnson et al. with some modifications. We include more lensing constraints from the host galaxy of the newly discovered SN, and increase the flexibility of the model in order to better reproduce the lensing signal in the vicinity of this galaxy. The revised model accurately reconstructs the positions of the lensed SN, provides magnifications, and predicts the time delay between the instances of the SN. Finally, we reconstruct the source image of the host galaxy, and position the SN on one of its spiral arms. Products of this lens model are available to the community through MAST. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO 9722, GO 12065.

  7. 3C 220.3: A Radio Galaxy Lensing a Submillimeter Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Barthel, Peter; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Vegetti, Simona; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Westhues, Christian; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Chini, Rolf; Clements, David L.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Horesh, Assaf; Klaas, Ulrich; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Lagattuta, David J.; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-07-01

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of ~1''.8 radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a PRG not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1''.5, provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consistent with the absence of extended bright X-ray emission on our Chandra image. The projected dark matter fractions within the Einstein radii of A (1''.02) and B (0''.61) are about 0.4 ± 0.3 and 0.55 ± 0.3. The mass to i-band light ratios of A and B, M/Li ˜ 8 +/- 4 M⊙ L⊙ -1, appear comparable to those of radio-quiet lensing galaxies at the same redshift in the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey, Lenses Structure and Dynamics, and Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey samples. The lensed SMG is extremely bright with observed f(250 μm) = 440 mJy owing to a magnification factor μ ~ 10. The SMG spectrum shows luminous, narrow C IV λ1549 Å emission, revealing that the SMG houses a hidden quasar in addition to a violent starburst. Multicolor image reconstruction of the SMG indicates a bipolar morphology of the emitted ultraviolet (UV) light suggestive of cones through which UV light escapes a dust-enshrouded nucleus.

  8. EVALUATION OF HELICOPTER-MOUNTED MOTION PICTURE, HIGH MAGNIFICATION AND TELEVISION CAMERA SYSTEMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HELICOPTERS, MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS), CAMERAS, VIETNAM, VIBRATION, CAMERA MOUNTS, TELESCOPES, CAMERA LENSES, PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES, AERIAL...RECONNAISSANCE, MILITARY INTELLIGENCE, AERIAL CAMERAS, TELEVISION CAMERAS, PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM , COLOR FILM , TELEVISION EQUIPMENT.

  9. Our warped universe: the power of gravitational lensing for probing the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational lensing epitomizes a maxim of Einstein's General Relativity: space tells energy how to move and energy tells space how to curve. Through lensing, massive objects magnify and distort the shapes of distant objects, likes galaxies and quasars. The connection between the lens's mass distribution and the degree of distortion in the images allows us to observe faint, distant objects, and to infer the matter distribution and cosmic expansion in the nearby universe. Current and future surveys, both ground- and space-based, will provide data sets unprecedented in size and precision with which to probe dark energy, dark matter and the early universe through gravitational lensing. I will discuss recent advances in observations and analysis techniques in both weak and strong lensing, and the burgeoning potential of these techniques to derive important and competitive cosmological constraints from surveys of large-scale structure.

  10. CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Medezinski, Elinor; Lemze, Doron; Ford, Holland; Umetsu, Keiichi; Nonino, Mario; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Sayers, Jack; Czakon, Nicole; Waizmann, Jean-Claude; Meneghetti, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Molino, Alberto; Melchior, Peter; Grillo, Claudio; and others

    2013-11-01

    The galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55) is the largest known cosmic lens, with complex internal structures seen in deep X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and dynamical observations. We perform a combined weak- and strong-lensing analysis with wide-field BVR{sub c} i'z' Subaru/Suprime-Cam observations and 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. We find consistent weak distortion and magnification measurements of background galaxies and combine these signals to construct an optimally estimated radial mass profile of the cluster and its surrounding large-scale structure out to 5 Mpc h {sup –1}. We find consistency between strong-lensing and weak-lensing in the region where these independent data overlap, <500 kpc h {sup –1}. The two-dimensional weak-lensing map reveals a clear filamentary structure traced by distinct mass halos. We model the lensing shear field with nine halos, including the main cluster, corresponding to mass peaks detected above 2.5σ{sub κ}. The total mass of the cluster as determined by the different methods is M{sub vir} ≈ (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 15} M{sub ☉}. Although this is the most massive cluster known at z > 0.5, in terms of extreme value statistics, we conclude that the mass of MACS J0717.5+3745 by itself is not in serious tension with ΛCDM, representing only a ∼2σ departure above the maximum simulated halo mass at this redshift.

  11. The shape of the CMB lensing bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Antony; Challinor, Anthony; Hanson, Duncan E-mail: adc1000@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2011-03-01

    Lensing of the CMB generates a significant bispectrum, which should be detected by the Planck satellite at the 5-sigma level and is potentially a non-negligible source of bias for f{sub NL} estimators of local non-Gaussianity. We extend current understanding of the lensing bispectrum in several directions: (1) we perform a non-perturbative calculation of the lensing bispectrum which is ∼ 10% more accurate than previous, first-order calculations; (2) we demonstrate how to incorporate the signal variance of the lensing bispectrum into estimates of its amplitude, providing a good analytical explanation for previous Monte-Carlo results; and (3) we discover the existence of a significant lensing bispectrum in polarization, due to a previously-unnoticed correlation between the lensing potential and E-polarization as large as 30% at low multipoles. We use this improved understanding of the lensing bispectra to re-evaluate Fisher-matrix predictions, both for Planck and cosmic variance limited data. We confirm that the non-negligible lensing-induced bias for estimation of local non-Gaussianity should be robustly treatable, and will only inflate f{sub NL} error bars by a few percent over predictions where lensing effects are completely ignored (but note that lensing must still be accounted for to obtain unbiased constraints). We also show that the detection significance for the lensing bispectrum itself is ultimately limited to 9 sigma by cosmic variance. The tools that we develop for non-perturbative calculation of the lensing bispectrum are directly relevant to other calculations, and we give an explicit construction of a simple non-perturbative quadratic estimator for the lensing potential and relate its cross-correlation power spectrum to the bispectrum. Our numerical codes are publicly available as part of CAMB and LensPix.

  12. Seeing Patients Through Genetic Lenses

    PubMed Central

    FELCONE, LINDA HULL

    2005-01-01

    Biotechnology is changing how doctors ‘see’ patients and disease processes. Optical probes and computer-assisted genetic screening tools let researchers peer into the structure and functions of cellular proteins on a molecular level. Soon, this clearer vision of individual patients will be available in the clinic, making drug and biologic treatments safer. These new lenses will push medicine toward risk prediction and away from acute intervention. PMID:23393472

  13. Biomimetic Gradient Index (GRIN) Lenses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    optics include single lenses inspired by cephalopod (octopus) eyes and a three-lens, wide field of view, optical system for a surveillance sensor...camera. Details are easily resolv- able with the polymer lens. This lens system was installed on an Evolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a...lens system was installed in an NRL Evolution UAV and used to record video images at a height of up to 1000 ft. The index gradients in the polymer

  14. THE CLUSTER LENSING AND SUPERNOVA SURVEY WITH HUBBLE (CLASH): STRONG-LENSING ANALYSIS OF A383 FROM 16-BAND HST/WFC3/ACS IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Zitrin, A.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Postman, M.; Bradley, L.; Koekemoer, A.; Umetsu, K.; Benitez, N.; Molino, A.; Meneghetti, M.; Medezinski, E.; Zheng, W.; Ford, H.; Lemze, D.; Jouvel, S.; Lahav, O.; Merten, J.; Kelson, D.; Nonino, M.; Donahue, M.; and others

    2011-12-01

    We examine the inner mass distribution of the relaxed galaxy cluster A383 (z = 0.189), in deep 16 band Hubble Space Telescope/ACS+WFC3 imaging taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) multi-cycle treasury program. Our program is designed to study the dark matter distribution in 25 massive clusters, and balances depth with a wide wavelength coverage, 2000-16000 A, to better identify lensed systems and generate precise photometric redshifts. This photometric information together with the predictive strength of our strong-lensing analysis method identifies 13 new multiply lensed images and candidates, so that a total of 27 multiple images of nine systems are used to tightly constrain the inner mass profile gradient, dlog {Sigma}/dlog r {approx_equal} -0.6 {+-} 0.1 (r < 160 kpc). We find consistency with the standard distance-redshift relation for the full range spanned by the lensed images, 1.01 < z < 6.03, with the higher-redshift sources deflected through larger angles as expected. The inner mass profile derived here is consistent with the results of our independent weak-lensing analysis of wide-field Subaru images, with good agreement in the region of overlap ({approx}0.7-1 arcmin). Combining weak and strong lensing, the overall mass profile is well fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White profile with M{sub vir} = (5.37{sup +0.70}{sub -0.63} {+-} 0.26) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} h{sup -1} and a relatively high concentration, c{sub vir} = 8.77{sup +0.44}{sub -0.42} {+-} 0.23, which lies above the standard c-M relation similar to other well-studied clusters. The critical radius of A383 is modest by the standards of other lensing clusters, r{sub E} {approx_equal} 16 {+-} 2'' (for z{sub s} = 2.55), so the relatively large number of lensed images uncovered here with precise photometric redshifts validates our imaging strategy for the CLASH survey. In total we aim to provide similarly high-quality lensing data for 25 clusters

  15. RELICS: Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Dan A.; RELICS Team

    2017-01-01

    Hubble and Spitzer imaging programs observing galaxy cluster lenses have delivered some of the highest redshift galaxy candidates to date (z ~ 9 - 11, or 540 - 410 Myr after the Big Bang). These magnified galaxies are intrinsically faint, and thus more representative of the sources believed to be primarily responsible for reionization. Magnified galaxies are also observed brightly enough to be prime targets for detailed follow-up study with current and future observatories, including JWST. Building on the successes of CLASH and the Frontier Fields, we have begun RELICS, the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey. By observing 41 massive clusters for the first time at infrared wavelengths, RELICS will deliver more of the best and brightest high-redshift candidates to the community in time for the November 2017 JWST GO Cycle 1 call for proposals. I will present our early results. I will also discuss prospects for JWST to follow-up known candidates and discover new galaxies at even higher redshifts (z > 11). The discovery efficiency gains from lensing will be even more pronounced at z > 11 if luminosity function faint end slopes are steeper than alpha ~ -2, as suggested by current models and observational extrapolations.

  16. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE FAINT END OF THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼ 7-8 USING THE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING OF THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER A2744

    SciTech Connect

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Clement, Benjamin; Jauzac, Mathilde; Schaerer, Daniel; Limousin, Marceau; Jullo, Eric; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald

    2015-02-10

    Exploiting the power of gravitational lensing, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program aims at observing six massive galaxy clusters to explore the distant universe far beyond the limits of blank field surveys. Using the complete Hubble Space Telescope observations of the first HFF cluster A2744, we report the detection of 50 galaxy candidates at z ∼ 7 and eight candidates at z ∼ 8 in a total survey area of 0.96 arcmin{sup 2} in the source plane. Three of these galaxies are multiply imaged by the lensing cluster. Using an updated model of the mass distribution in the cluster we were able to calculate the magnification factor and the effective survey volume for each galaxy in order to compute the ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function (LF) at both redshifts 7 and 8. Our new measurements reliably extend the z ∼ 7 UV LF down to an absolute magnitude of M {sub UV} ∼ –15.5. We find a characteristic magnitude of M{sub UV}{sup ⋆}=−20.90{sub −0.73}{sup +0.90} mag and a faint-end slope α=−2.01{sub −0.28}{sup +0.20}, close to previous determinations in blank fields. We show here for the first time that this slope remains steep down to very faint luminosities of 0.01 L {sup *}. Although prone to large uncertainties, our results at z ∼ 8 also seem to confirm a steep faint-end slope below 0.1 L {sup *}. The HFF program is therefore providing an extremely efficient way to study the faintest galaxy populations at z > 7 that would otherwise be inaccessible with current instrumentation. The full sample of six galaxy clusters will provide even better constraints on the buildup of galaxies at early epochs and their contribution to cosmic reionization.

  17. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  18. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  19. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  20. Revised Lens Model and Predictions of Time Delay for the Multiply Imaged Lensed Supernova, “SN Refsdal”, in the FF cluster MACS J1149+2223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Traci Lin

    2015-08-01

    We present a revised lens model of MACS J1149+2223, in which the first resolved multiply imaged lensed supernova (SN) was discovered. The lens model is based on the model of Johnson et al. with some modifications. We include more lensing constraints from the host galaxy of the newly discovered SN, and increase the flexibility of the model in order to better reproduce the lensing signal in the vicinity of this galaxy. The revised model accurately reconstructs the positions of the lensed SN, provides magnifications, predicts the time delay between the instances of the SN, and derive their uncertainties. We find that the time delays between the four observed images are a few days: t(S2) = 2 +10/-6 days, t(S3)=-5 +13/-7 days, t(S4)=7 +16/-3 days. At the positions of the other images of the same host galaxy, an image of the SN had appeared on the opposite side of the cluster some 11-13 years ago, and another is predicted to appear approximately 180-280 days after S1, i.e., in a 3-month window around July 2015. This image will be less magnified than the ones already detected, with magnification of mu=5 (compared to mu~10-20 of the four images that were observed in 2014, making it about three times fainter). Finally, we reconstruct the source image of the host galaxy, and position the SN on one of its spiral arms. New lensing constraints from the full depth FF imaging will improve the accuracy of future lens models. Products of this lens model are available to the community through MAST.

  1. Diffractive efficiency improvement of diffractive cylinder lenses by Gaussian-beam illumination.

    PubMed

    Fuerer, F; Schmidt, M; Bryngdahl, O

    1997-10-13

    To maximize the diffraction efficiency of cylinder lenses with high numerical apertures (such as F/0.5 lenses) we use an iterative algorithm to determine the optimum field distribution in the lens plane. The algorithm simulates the free-space propagation between the lens and the focal plane applying the angular spectrum of plane waves. We show that the optimum field distribution in the lens plane is the phase distribution of a converging cylindrical wave-front and an amplitude distribution with Gaussian-profile. The computed results are verified by rigorous calculations, simulating a F/0.5 lens with subwavelength structures.

  2. Concentric multi-reflection lenses for ultra-compact imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric Julian

    With smaller, slimmer and lighter cameras in high demand for consumer, medical and military applications, new efforts are required to improve the performance of size constrained cameras. A major challenge for the size reduction of imaging systems is due to the scalability of the optics- as conventional imaging systems are scaled down, the focal length (i.e. magnification) scales down with the allowed optical thickness. Being additionally limited by the size of the smallest available image sensors, we find that these cameras are usually limited to short focal length, small aperture lenses. Although miniature lenses work well for moderate field of view (FOV) applications, there are others that require larger magnification and better light collection with reduced thickness, bulk and/or weight. Most camera lenses refract light, leading to the familiar cylindrical package geometry. In some cases, where extended focal length or reduced track length are required, concentric mirrors can be used to effectively reduce barrel length. Recent advances in diamond machining and image processing make it possible to take this approach to a new extreme. With up to 8 reflections, large ray angles, and a lens shaped more like a lens cap than a tube, concentric multi-reflection (CMR) lenses (sometimes referred to as Origami Optics) allow us to squeeze long focal lengths into a thin package and still collect enough light for fast, sharp exposures. Applications may range from compact imagers for micro-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveillance craft to a miniature telephoto lens for future cell phones. In this dissertation I will present work on a new class of imagers developed using the CMR design approach. The resulting prototypes have yielded images comparable with much larger commercial 'compact' cameras. I will discuss the physical design, fabrication and testing of these cameras including hybrid optical-digital optimization of the optics and post-processing to extend the depth of

  3. Formalism for testing theories of gravity using lensing by compact objects: Static, spherically symmetric case

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, Charles R.; Petters, A.O.

    2005-11-15

    We are developing a general, unified, and rigorous analytical framework for using gravitational lensing by compact objects to test different theories of gravity beyond the weak-deflection limit. In this paper we present the formalism for computing corrections to lensing observables for static, spherically symmetric gravity theories in which the corrections to the weak-deflection limit can be expanded as a Taylor series in one parameter, namely, the gravitational radius of the lens object. We take care to derive coordinate-independent expressions and compute quantities that are directly observable. We compute series expansions for the observables that are accurate to second order in the ratio {epsilon}={theta} /{theta}{sub E} of the angle subtended by the lens's gravitational radius to the weak-deflection Einstein radius, which scales with mass as {epsilon}{proportional_to}M {sup 1/2}. The positions, magnifications, and time delays of the individual images have corrections at both first and second order in {epsilon}, as does the differential time delay between the two images. Interestingly, we find that the first-order corrections to the total magnification and centroid position vanish in all gravity theories that agree with general relativity in the weak-deflection limit, but they can remain nonzero in modified theories that disagree with general relativity in the weak-deflection limit. For the Reissner-Nordstroem metric and a related metric from heterotic string theory, our formalism reveals an intriguing connection between lensing observables and the condition for having a naked singularity, which could provide an observational method for testing the existence of such objects. We apply our formalism to the galactic black hole and predict that the corrections to the image positions are at the level of 10 {mu}arc s (microarcseconds), while the correction to the time delay is a few hundredths of a second. These corrections would be measurable today if a pulsar were

  4. Noisy image magnification with total variation regularization and order-changed dictionary learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Chang, Zhiguo; Fan, Jiulun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Xiaomin; Wang, Yanzi

    2015-12-01

    Noisy low resolution (LR) images are always obtained in real applications, but many existing image magnification algorithms can not get good result from a noisy LR image. We propose a two-step image magnification algorithm to solve this problem. The proposed algorithm takes the advantages of both regularization-based method and learning-based method. The first step is based on total variation (TV) regularization and the second step is based on sparse representation. In the first step, we add a constraint on the TV regularization model to magnify the LR image and at the same time to suppress the noise in it. In the second step, we propose an order-changed dictionary training algorithm to train the dictionaries which is dominated by texture details. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better than many other algorithms when the noise is not serious. The proposed algorithm can also provide better visual quality on natural LR images.

  5. Gravitational lenses and dark matter - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models are presented for guiding the application of gravitational lenses to probe the characteristics of dark matter in the universe. Analytical techniques are defined for quantifying the mass associated with lensing galaxies (in terms of the image separation), determining the quantity of dark mass of the lensing bodies, and estimating the mass density of the lenses. The possibility that heavy halos are made of low mass stars is considered, along with the swallowing of central images of black holes or cusps in galactic nuclei and the effects produced on a lensed quasar image by nonbaryonic halos. The observable effects of dense groups and clusters and the characteristics of dark matter strings are discussed, and various types of images which are possible due to lensing phenomena and position are described.

  6. Inflatable lenses for space photovoltaic concentrator arrays

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; Piszczor, M.F.

    1997-12-31

    For 12 years, ENTECH and NASA Lewis have been developing Fresnel lens concentrator technology for space power applications. ENTECH provided the point-focus mini-dome lenses for the PASP+ array, launched in 1994. These silicone lenses performed well on orbit, with only about 3% optical performance loss after 1 year in elliptical orbit, with high radiation, atomic oxygen, and ultraviolet exposure. The only protection for these silicone lenses was a thin-film coating provided by OCLI. ENTECH also provided the line-focus lenses for the SCARLET 1 and SCARLET 2 arrays in 1995 and 1997, respectively. These lenses are laminated assemblies, with protective ceria glass superstrates over the silicone lens. In March 1997, ENTECH and NASA Lewis began development of inflatable Fresnel lenses, to achieve lower weight, smaller launch volume, reduced cost, less fragility, and other advantages. This paper summarizes the new concentrator approach, including key program results to date.

  7. Perforated-Layer Implementation Of Radio-Frequency Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1996-01-01

    Luneberg-type radio-frequency dielectric lenses made of stacked perforated circular dielectric sheets, according to proposal. Perforation pattern designed to achieve required spatial variation of permittivity. Consists of round holes distributed across face of each sheet in "Swiss-cheese" pattern, plus straight or curved slots that break up outer parts into petals in "daisy-wheel" pattern. Holes and slots made by numerically controlled machining.

  8. Comparison of techniques for correction of magnification of pelvic X-rays for hip surgery planning.

    PubMed

    The, Bertram; Kootstra, Johan W J; Hosman, Anton H; Verdonschot, Nico; Gerritsma, Carina L E; Diercks, Ron L

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an accurate method for correction of magnification of pelvic x-rays to enhance accuracy of hip surgery planning. All investigated methods aim at estimating the anteroposterior location of the hip joint in supine position to correctly position a reference object for correction of magnification. An existing method-which is currently being used in clinical practice in our clinics-is based on estimating the position of the hip joint by palpation of the greater trochanter. It is only moderately accurate and difficult to execute reliably in clinical practice. To develop a new method, 99 patients who already had a hip implant in situ were included; this enabled determining the true location of the hip joint deducted from the magnification of the prosthesis. Physical examination was used to obtain predictor variables possibly associated with the height of the hip joint. This included a simple dynamic hip joint examination to estimate the position of the center of rotation. Prediction equations were then constructed using regression analysis. The performance of these prediction equations was compared with the performance of the existing protocol. The mean absolute error in predicting the height of the hip joint center using the old method was 20 mm (range -79 mm to +46 mm). This was 11 mm for the new method (-32 mm to +39 mm). The prediction equation is: height (mm) = 34 + 1/2 abdominal circumference (cm). The newly developed prediction equation is a superior method for predicting the height of the hip joint center for correction of magnification of pelvic x-rays. We recommend its implementation in the departments of radiology and orthopedic surgery.

  9. A primer on the fundamental principles of light microscopy: Optimizing magnification, resolution, and contrast.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    The light microscope is an indispensable tool in the study of living organisms. Most biologists are familiar with microscopes, perhaps being first introduced to the wonders of the world of small things at a very early age. Yet, few fully comprehend the nature of microscopy and the basis of its utility. This review (re)-introduces the concepts of magnification, resolution, and contrast, and explores how they are intimately related and necessary for effective microscopy.

  10. Low-magnification unstable resonators used with ruby and alexandrite lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harter, D.J.; Walling, J.C.

    1986-11-01

    Low-magnification unstable resonators that utilize radially birefringent elements and that have been shown to be suitable for use with ruby and alexandrite lasers are described. From these resonators, 400 mJ of energy in a Q-switched pulse with --2.5 x diffraction-limited output has been obtained from alexandrite, and 250-mJ Q-switched output that is near diffraction limited has been obtained from ruby.

  11. Aberrations of sphero-cylindrical ophthalmic lenses.

    PubMed

    Malacara, Z; Malacara, D

    1990-04-01

    The authors have presented in two previous articles the graphic solutions resembling Tscherning ellipses, for spherical as well as for aspherical ophthalmic lenses free of astigmatism or power error. These solutions were exact, inasmuch as they were based on exact ray tracing, and not third-order theory as frequently done. In this paper sphero-cylindrical lenses are now analyzed, also using exact ray tracing. The functional dependence of the astigmatism and the power error for these lenses is described extensively.

  12. Doubly Imaged Quasar SDSS J1515+1511: Time Delay and Lensing Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalyapin, Vyacheslav N.; Goicoechea, Luis J.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze new optical observations of the gravitational lens system SDSS J1515+1511. These include a 2.6-year photometric monitoring with the Liverpool Telescope (LT) in the r band, as well as a spectroscopic follow-up with the LT and the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Our r-band LT light curves cover a quiescent microlensing period of the doubly imaged quasar at {z}{{s}} = 2.049, which permits us to robustly estimate the time delay between the two images A and B: 211 ± 5 days (1σ confidence interval; A is leading). Unfortunately, the main lensing galaxy (G1) is so faint and close to the bright quasar that it is not feasible to accurately extract its spectrum through the GTC data. However, assuming the putative redshift {z}{{G}1} = 0.742, the GTC and LT spectra of the distant quasar are used to discuss the macrolens magnification, and the extinction and microlensing effects in G1. The new constraints on the time delay and macrolens magnification ratio essentially do not change previous findings on the mass scale of G1 and external shear, while the redshift of the lensing mass is found to be consistent with the assumed value of {z}{{G}1}. This is clear evidence that G1 is indeed located at {z}{{G}1} = 0.742. From the GTC data, we also obtain the redshift of two additional objects (the secondary galaxy G2 and a new absorption system) and discuss their possible roles in the lens scenario.

  13. The Pointing Errors in Optic Ataxia Reveal the Role of "Peripheral Magnification" of the PPC.

    PubMed

    Vindras, Philippe; Blangero, Annabelle; Ota, Hisaaki; Reilly, Karen T; Rossetti, Yves; Pisella, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Interaction with visual objects in the environment requires an accurate correspondence between visual space and its internal representation within the brain. Many clinical conditions involve some impairment in visuo-motor control and the errors created by the lesion of a specific brain region are neither random nor uninformative. Modern approaches to studying the neuropsychology of action require powerful data-driven analyses and error modeling in order to understand the function of the lesioned areas. In the present paper we carried out mixed-effect analyses of the pointing errors of seven optic ataxia patients and seven control subjects. We found that a small parameter set is sufficient to explain the pointing errors produced by unilateral optic ataxia patients. In particular, the extremely stereotypical errors made when pointing toward the contralesional visual field can be fitted by mathematical models similar to those used to model central magnification in cortical or sub-cortical structure(s). Our interpretation is that visual areas that contain this footprint of central magnification guide pointing movements when the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is damaged and that the functional role of the PPC is to actively compensate for the under-representation of peripheral vision that accompanies central magnification. Optic ataxia misreaching reveals what would be hand movement accuracy and precision if the human motor system did not include elaborated corrective processes for reaching and grasping to non-foveated targets.

  14. Occurrence, bioaccumulation, and trophic magnification of pharmaceutically active compounds in Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhengxin; Lu, Guanghua; Liu, Jianchao; Yan, Zhenhua; Ma, Binni; Zhang, Zhenghua; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, bioaccumulation, and trophic magnification of pharmaceutically active compounds, (PhACs) including antibiotics (roxithromycin and erythromycin), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen and diclofenac), a non-selective β-adrenoceptor blocker (propranolol), an antiepileptic drug (carbamazepine), and steroid estrogens (17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol), were investigated in Taihu Lake, China. All eight PhACs were widely detected in surface water and sediment samples with maximal concentrations in the range of 8.74-118 ng L(-1) and 0.78-42.5 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. The investigated organisms in the natural freshwater food web in Taihu Lake included phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, and fish, and the maximal concentrations of target compounds in these biota samples ranged from 0.65 to 132 ng g(-1) dw. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for all target PhACs were lower than 1000 L kg(-1), suggesting their low bioaccumulation potential in aquatic organisms from Taihu Lake. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were estimated at 1.11 for roxithromycin, 0.31 for propranolol, and 1.06 for diclofenac, indicating none of these PhACs underwent trophic magnification in this freshwater food web.

  15. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W.; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such “hybrid microscopy” methods—combining physical and optical magnifications—can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes (“mini-microscopes”), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics—a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)—is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places. PMID:26975883

  16. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W.; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such “hybrid microscopy” methods—combining physical and optical magnifications—can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes (“mini-microscopes”), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics—a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)—is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  17. Gravitational lensing by an ensemble of isothermal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Neal; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1987-06-01

    Calculation of 28,000 models of gravitational lensing of a distant quasar by an ensemble of randomly placed galaxies, each having a singular isothermal mass distribuiton, is reported. The average surface mass density was 0.2 of the critical value in all models. It is found that the surface mass density averaged over the area of the smallest circle that encompasses the multiple images is 0.82, only slightly smaller than expected from a simple analytical model of Turner et al. (1984). The probability of getting multiple images is also as large as expected analytically. Gravitational lensing is dominated by the matter in the beam; i.e., by the beam convergence. The cases where the multiple imaging is due to asymmetry in mass distribution (i.e., due to shear) are very rare. Therefore, the observed gravitational-lens candidates for which no lensing object has been detected between the images cannot be a result of asymmetric mass distribution outside the images, at least in a model with randomly distributed galaxies. A surprisingly large number of large separations between the multiple images is found: up to 25 percent of multiple images have their angular separation 2 to 4 times larger than expected in a simple analytical model.

  18. New 1π sr acceptance angle display-type ellipsoidal mesh analyzer for electron energy and two-dimensional angular distribution as well as imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, László; Goto, Kentaro; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Fumihiko; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    We propose a Display-type Ellipsoidal Mesh Analyzer (DELMA) using a newly developed 1π sr wide acceptance angle electrostatic lens (WAAEL), energy aperture and some other electrostatic lenses [1-5]. It can display two-dimensional angular distributions of charged particles within the acceptance angle of ±60°, which is much larger than the largest acceptance angle range so far and comparable to the display-type spherical mirror analyzer (DIANA) developed by Daimon et al. [6,8-11]. It also has a focusing capability with 5 times magnification and ˜30 μm lateral resolution. The relative energy resolution is typically from 2 to 5×10-3 depending on the emission area of the sample, as well as on the diameter of energy aperture.Because this new analyzer has a function of low-magnification photoemission electron microscope, this instrument will be extended and applied as a new type Stereo-PEEM [7] in near future.

  19. Predicting weak lensing statistics from halo mass reconstructions - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Spencer

    2015-08-20

    As dark matter does not absorb or emit light, its distribution in the universe must be inferred through indirect effects such as the gravitational lensing of distant galaxies. While most sources are only weakly lensed, the systematic alignment of background galaxies around a foreground lens can constrain the mass of the lens which is largely in the form of dark matter. In this paper, I have implemented a framework to reconstruct all of the mass along lines of sight using a best-case dark matter halo model in which the halo mass is known. This framework is then used to make predictions of the weak lensing of 3,240 generated source galaxies through a 324 arcmin² field of the Millennium Simulation. The lensed source ellipticities are characterized by the ellipticity-ellipticity and galaxy-mass correlation functions and compared to the same statistic for the intrinsic and ray-traced ellipticities. In the ellipticity-ellipticity correlation function, I and that the framework systematically under predicts the shear power by an average factor of 2.2 and fails to capture correlation from dark matter structure at scales larger than 1 arcminute. The model predicted galaxy-mass correlation function is in agreement with the ray-traced statistic from scales 0.2 to 0.7 arcminutes, but systematically underpredicts shear power at scales larger than 0.7 arcminutes by an average factor of 1.2. Optimization of the framework code has reduced the mean CPU time per lensing prediction by 70% to 24 ± 5 ms. Physical and computational shortcomings of the framework are discussed, as well as potential improvements for upcoming work.

  20. Class B0631+519: Last of the Class Lenses

    SciTech Connect

    York, Tom; Jackson, N.; Browne, I.W.A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; McKean, J.P.; Norbury, M.A.; Biggs, A.D.; Blandford, R.D.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Fassnacht, C.D.; Myers, S.T.; Pearson, T.J.; Phillips, P.M.; Readhead, A.C.S.; Rusin, D.; Wilkinson, P.N.; /Jodrell Bank /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /UC, Davis /JIVE, Dwingeloo /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NFRA, Dwingeloo /NRAO, Socorro /Caltech /Pennsylvania U.

    2005-05-31

    We report the discovery of the new gravitational lens system CLASS B0631+519. Imaging with the VLA, MERLIN and the VLBA reveals a doubly-imaged flat-spectrum radio core, a doubly-imaged steep-spectrum radio lobe and possible quadruply-imaged emission from a second lobe. The maximum separation between the lensed images is 1.16 arcsec. High resolution mapping with the VLBA at 5 GHz resolves the most magnified image of the radio core into a number of sub-components spread across approximately 20 mas. No emission from the lensing galaxy or an odd image is detected down to 0.31 mJy (5{sigma}) at 8.4 GHz. Optical and near-infrared imaging with the ACS and NICMOS cameras on the HST show that there are two galaxies along the line of sight to the lensed source, as previously discovered by optical spectroscopy. We find that the foreground galaxy at z=0.0896 is a small irregular, and that the other, at z=0.6196 is a massive elliptical which appears to contribute the majority of the lensing effect. The host galaxy of the lensed source is detected in the HST near-infrared imaging as a set of arcs, which form a nearly complete Einstein ring. Mass modeling using non-parametric techniques can reproduce the near-infrared observations and indicates that the small irregular galaxy has a (localized) effect on the flux density distribution in the Einstein ring at the 5-10% level.

  1. Reducing systematic error in weak lensing cluster surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Utsumi, Yousuke; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Hamana, Takashi; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Oguri, Masamune

    2014-05-10

    Weak lensing provides an important route toward collecting samples of clusters of galaxies selected by mass. Subtle systematic errors in image reduction can compromise the power of this technique. We use the B-mode signal to quantify this systematic error and to test methods for reducing this error. We show that two procedures are efficient in suppressing systematic error in the B-mode: (1) refinement of the mosaic CCD warping procedure to conform to absolute celestial coordinates and (2) truncation of the smoothing procedure on a scale of 10'. Application of these procedures reduces the systematic error to 20% of its original amplitude. We provide an analytic expression for the distribution of the highest peaks in noise maps that can be used to estimate the fraction of false peaks in the weak-lensing κ-signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) maps as a function of the detection threshold. Based on this analysis, we select a threshold S/N = 4.56 for identifying an uncontaminated set of weak-lensing peaks in two test fields covering a total area of ∼3 deg{sup 2}. Taken together these fields contain seven peaks above the threshold. Among these, six are probable systems of galaxies and one is a superposition. We confirm the reliability of these peaks with dense redshift surveys, X-ray, and imaging observations. The systematic error reduction procedures we apply are general and can be applied to future large-area weak-lensing surveys. Our high-peak analysis suggests that with an S/N threshold of 4.5, there should be only 2.7 spurious weak-lensing peaks even in an area of 1000 deg{sup 2}, where we expect ∼2000 peaks based on our Subaru fields.

  2. The Alvarez and Lohmann refractive lenses revisited.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Sergio

    2009-05-25

    Alvarez and Lohmann lenses are variable focus optical devices based on lateral shifts of two lenses with cubic-type surfaces. I analyzed the optical performance of these types of lenses computing the first order optical properties (applying wavefront refraction and propagation) without the restriction of the thin lens approximation, and the spot diagram using a ray tracing algorithm. I proposed an analytic and numerical method to select the most optimum coefficients and the specific configuration of these lenses. The results show that Lohmann composite lens is slightly superior to Alvarez one because the overall thickness and optical aberrations are smaller.

  3. Ion exchange tempering of glass ophthalmic lenses.

    PubMed

    Keeney, A H; Duerson, H L

    1975-08-01

    We performed low velocity drop-ball tests using 5/8-, 7/8-, and 1-inch diameter steel balls on ophthalmic crown glass lenses chemically tempered by the ion exchange process. Four representative dioptric strengths (+ 2.50 spherical, - 2.50 spherical, -2.50 cylindrical, and plano) were studied with the isolated lenses mounted, convex side up, on the American National Standards Institute Z80 test block. New ion exchange lenses exhibited a 100 to 350% greater capacity for attenuation of energy from low velocity, large size missiles than matched lenses of similar strength prepared by the conventional heat-treating and air-quenching process.

  4. Comparison of two methods of visual magnification for removal of adhesive flash during bracket placement using two types of orthodontic bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, Estefania Queiroga de Santana e; Nobrega, Maria de Lourdes Martins; Dametto, Fabio Roberto; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra; Pinheiro, Fabio Henrique de Sá Leitão

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of two methods of visual magnification (operating microscope and light head magnifying glass) for removal of composite flash around orthodontic metal brackets. Material and Methods: Brackets were bonded in the center of the clinical crown of sixty well-preserved human premolars. Half of the sample was bonded with conventional Transbond XT (3M Unitek TM, USA), whereas the other half was bonded with Transbond TM Plus Color Change (3M Unitek TM, USA). For each type of composite, the choice of method to remove the flash was determined by randomly distributing the teeth into the following subgroups: A (removal by naked eye, n = 10), B (removal with the aid of light head magnifying glass, under 4x magnification, n = 10), and C (removal with the aid of an operating microscope, under 40x magnification, n = 10). Brackets were debonded and teeth taken to a scanning electron microscope (SS-x-550, Shimadzu, Japan) for visualization of their buccal surface. Quantification of composite flash was performed with Image Pro Plus software, and values were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn’s post-hoc test at 5% significance level. Results: Removal of pigmented orthodontic adhesive with the aid of light head magnifying glass proved, in general, to be advantageous in comparison to all other methods. Conclusion: There was no advantage in using Transbond TM Plus Color Change alone. Further studies are necessary to draw a more definitive conclusion in regards to the benefits of using an operating microscope. PMID:28125139

  5. Statistical connection of peak counts to power spectrum and moments in weak-lensing field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasaki, Masato

    2017-02-01

    The number density of local maxima of weak-lensing field, referred to as weak-lensing peak counts, can be used as a cosmological probe. However, its relevant cosmological information is still unclear. We study the relationship between the peak counts and other statistics in weak-lensing field by using 1000 ray-tracing simulations. We construct a local transformation of lensing field K to a new Gaussian field y, named local-Gaussianized transformation. We calibrate the transformation with numerical simulations so that the one-point distribution and the power spectrum of K can be reproduced from a single Gaussian field y and monotonic relation between y and K. Therefore, the correct information of two-point clustering and any order of moments in weak-lensing field should be preserved under local-Gaussianized transformation. We then examine if local-Gaussianized transformation can predict weak-lensing peak counts in simulations. The local-Gaussianized transformation is insufficient to explain weak-lensing peak counts in the absence of shape noise. The prediction by local-Gaussianized transformation underestimates the simulated peak counts with a level of ∼20-30 per cent over a wide range of peak heights. Local-Gaussianized transformation can predict the weak-lensing peak counts with an ∼10 per cent accuracy in the presence of shape noise. Our analyses suggest that the cosmological information beyond power spectrum and its moments would be necessary to predict the weak-lensing peak counts with a percent-level accuracy, which is an expected statistical uncertainty in upcoming wide-field galaxy surveys.

  6. MEASURING MICROLENSING USING SPECTRA OF MULTIPLY LENSED QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, V.; Mediavilla, E.; Munoz, J. A. E-mail: emg@iac.es E-mail: jmunoz@uv.es

    2012-08-10

    We report on a program of spectroscopic observations of gravitationally lensed QSOs with multiple images. We seek to establish whether microlensing is occurring in each QSO image using only single-epoch observations. We calculate flux ratios for the cores of emission lines in image pairs to set a baseline for no microlensing. The offset of the continuum flux ratios relative to this baseline yields the microlensing magnification free from extinction, as extinction affects the continuum and the lines equally. When we find chromatic microlensing, we attempt to constrain the size of the QSO accretion disk. SDSSJ1004+4112 and HE1104-1805 show chromatic microlensing with amplitudes 0.2 < |{Delta}m| < 0.6 and 0.2 < |{Delta}m| < 0.4 mag, respectively. Modeling the accretion disk with a Gaussian source (I{proportional_to}exp (- R{sup 2}/2r{sup 2}{sub s})) of size r{sub s} {proportional_to}{lambda}{sup p} and using magnification maps to simulate microlensing, we find r{sub s} ({lambda}3363) = 7 {+-} 3 lt-day(18.1 {+-} 7.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm) and p = 1.1 {+-} 0.4 for SDSS1004+4112, and r{sub s} ({lambda}3363) = 6 {+-} 2 lt-day(15.5 {+-} 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm) and p = 0.7 {+-} 0.1 for HE1104-1805. For SDSSJ1029+2623, we find strong chromaticity of {approx}0.4 mag in the continuum flux ratio, which probably arises from microlensing, although not all the available data fit within this explanation. For Q0957+561, we measure B - A magnitude differences of 0.4 mag, much greater than the {approx}0.05 mag amplitude usually inferred from light-curve variability. It may substantially modify the current interpretations of microlensing in this system, likely favoring the hypothesis of smaller sources and/or larger microdeflectors. For HS0818+1227, our data yield possible evidence of microlensing.

  7. Noncontact three-dimensional quantitative profiling of fast aspheric lenses by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goud, Bujagouni Karthik; Udupa, Dinesh Venkatesh; Prathap, Chilakala; Shinde, Deepak Dilip; Rao, Kompalli Divakar; Sahoo, Naba Kishore

    2016-12-01

    The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noncontact three-dimensional aspheric lens profiling and retrieval of aspheric surface parameters is demonstrated. Two commercially available aspheric lenses with different focal length-to-diameter ratio have been imaged using OCT, and the measured optical path length distribution has been least square fitted with the aspheric lens surface retrieving the radius of curvature, aspheric constant, and conic constants. The refractive index of these lenses has also been measured referencing with a standard Zerodur glass flat. The fitted aspheric surface coefficients of the lenses are in close agreement with the manufacturer's values, thus, envisaging the potential of OCT in rapid screening, testing of aspheric lenses, and other micro-optical components such as those used in illumination optics.

  8. Weak-lensing measurement of the mass-richness relation using the SDSS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth Johana; Rodriguez, Facundo; García Lambas, Diego; Merchán, Manuel; Foëx, Gael; Chalela, Martín

    2017-02-01

    We study the mass-richness relation using galaxy catalogues and images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use two independent methods: In the first one, we calibrate the scaling relation with weak-lensing mass estimates. In the second procedure, we apply a background subtraction technique to derive the probability distribution, P(M∣N), that groups with N-members have a virialized halo mass M. Lensing masses are derived in different richness bins for two galaxy systems sets: the maxBCG catalogue and a catalogue based on a group finder algorithm developed by Yang et al. Results of maxBCG are used to test the lensing methodology. The lensing mass-richness relation for the Yang et al. group sample shows a good agreement with P(M∣N) obtained independently with a straightforward procedure.

  9. Gravitational Lensing Extends SETI Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Factor, Richard

    Microwave SETI (The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) focuses on two primary strategies, the "Targeted Search" and the "All-Sky Survey." Although the goal of both strategies is the unequivocal discovery of a signal transmitted by intelligent species outside our solar system, they pursue the strategies in very different manners and have vastly different requirements. This chapter introduces Gravitational Lensing SETI (GL-SETI), a third strategy. Its goal is the unequivocal discovery of an extraterrestrial signal, with equipment and data processing requirements that are substantially different from the commonly-used strategies. This strategy is particularly suitable for use with smaller radio telescopes and has budgetary requirements suitable for individual researchers.

  10. Planck intermediate results. XLI. A map of lensing-induced B-modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Doré, O.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Harrison, D. L.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-12-01

    The secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-modes stem from the post-decoupling distortion of the polarization E-modes due to the gravitational lensing effect of large-scale structures. These lensing-induced B-modes constitute both a valuable probe of the dark matter distribution and an important contaminant for the extraction of the primary CMB B-modes from inflation. Planck provides accurate nearly all-sky measurements of both the polarization E-modes and the integrated mass distribution via the reconstruction of the CMB lensing potential. By combining these two data products, we have produced an all-sky template map of the lensing-induced B-modes using a real-space algorithm that minimizes the impact of sky masks. The cross-correlation of this template with an observed (primordial and secondary) B-mode map can be used to measure the lensing B-mode power spectrum at multipoles up to 2000. In particular, when cross-correlating with the B-mode contribution directly derived from the Planck polarization maps, we obtain lensing-induced B-mode power spectrum measurement at a significance level of 12σ, which agrees with the theoretical expectation derived from the Planck best-fit Λ cold dark matter model. This unique nearly all-sky secondary B-mode template, which includes the lensing-induced information from intermediate to small (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 1000) angular scales, is delivered as part of the Planck 2015 public data release. It will be particularly useful for experiments searching for primordial B-modes, such as BICEP2/Keck Array or LiteBIRD, since it will enable an estimate to be made of the lensing-induced contribution to the measured total CMB B-modes.

  11. The effects of visual magnification and physical movement scale on the manipulation of a tool with indirect vision.

    PubMed

    Bohan, Michael; McConnell, Daniel S; Chaparro, Alex; Thompson, Shelby G

    2010-03-01

    Modern tools often separate the visual and physical aspects of operation, requiring users to manipulate an instrument while viewing the results indirectly on a display. This can pose usability challenges particularly in applications, such as laparoscopic surgery, that require a high degree of movement precision. Magnification used to augment the view and, theoretically, enable finer movements, may introduce other visual-motor disruptions due to the apparent speed of the visual motion on screen (i.e., motion scaling). In this research, we sought to better understand the effects of visual magnification on human movement performance and control in operating a tool via indirect vision. Ten adult participants manipulated a computer mouse to direct a pointer to targets on a display. Results (Experiment 1) showed that, despite increased motion scaling, magnification of the view on screen enabled higher precision control of the mouse pointer. However, the relative effectiveness of visual magnification ultimately depended on the scale of the physical movement, and more specifically the precision limits of the whole-hand grip afforded by the mouse. When the physical scale of the hand/mouse movement was reduced (Experiment 2), fine-precision control began to reach its limits, even at full magnification. The role of magnification can thus be understood as "amplifying" the particular skill level afforded by the effecting limb. These findings suggest a fruitful area for future research is the optimization of hand-control interfaces of tools to maximize movement precision.

  12. Offset lenses add versatility to phototypesetting machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, A. M.

    1966-01-01

    Offset lenses facilitate the composition of inputs of other than straight baseline characters on the Photon phototypesetting machine. A number of lenses in the turret are mounted in an offset pattern that causes characters projected through them to fall on the photographic paper in the magazine above and below the baseline.

  13. Lenses and Perception: Investigations with Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    The main goals of these activities are to help students learn how a convex lens can serve as a magnifying lens and how light travels and creates images. These explorations will introduce middle school students to different types of lenses and how they work. Students will observe and describe how lenses bend light that passes through them and how…

  14. Phakic Intraocular Lenses and their Special Indications

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Roberto; Chauhan, Tulika

    2016-01-01

    Phakic intraocular lenses revolutionize refractive surgery and continue to serve as an excellent option for vision correction in patients who are not ideal candidates for laser vision correction. This article will review special indications of phakic intraocular lenses in the clinical practice. PMID:27994811

  15. Spitzer Imaging of Herschel-atlas Gravitationally Lensed Submillimeter Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopwood, R.; Wardlow, J.; Cooray, A.; Khostovan, A. A.; Kim, S.; Negrello, M.; da Cunha, E.; Burgarella, D.; Aretxaga, I.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Barton, E.; Bertoldi, F.; Bonfield, D. G.; Blundell, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooke, J.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dunlop, J.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Frayer, D.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Lagache, G.; Leeuw, L.; Maddox, S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Omont, A.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Smail, I.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; Thompson, M. A.; Valtchanov, I.; van der Werf, P.; Verma, A.; Vieira, J. D.

    2011-02-01

    We present physical properties of two submillimeter selected gravitationally lensed sources, identified in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. These submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have flux densities >100 mJy at 500 μm, but are not visible in existing optical imaging. We fit light profiles to each component of the lensing systems in Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm data and successfully disentangle the foreground lens from the background source in each case, providing important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the background SMG at rest-frame optical-near-infrared wavelengths. The SED fits show that these two SMGs have high dust obscuration with A V ~ 4-5 and star formation rates of ~100 M sun yr-1. They have low gas fractions and low dynamical masses compared with 850 μm selected galaxies.

  16. SPITZER IMAGING OF HERSCHEL-ATLAS GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED SUBMILLIMETER SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Hopwood, R.; Negrello, M.; Wardlow, J.; Cooray, A.; Khostovan, A. A.; Kim, S.; Barton, E.; Da Cunha, E.; Cooke, J.; Burgarella, D.; Aretxaga, I.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Bonfield, D. G.; Blundell, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Dannerbauer, H.

    2011-02-10

    We present physical properties of two submillimeter selected gravitationally lensed sources, identified in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. These submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have flux densities >100 mJy at 500 {mu}m, but are not visible in existing optical imaging. We fit light profiles to each component of the lensing systems in Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m data and successfully disentangle the foreground lens from the background source in each case, providing important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the background SMG at rest-frame optical-near-infrared wavelengths. The SED fits show that these two SMGs have high dust obscuration with A{sub V} {approx} 4-5 and star formation rates of {approx}100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. They have low gas fractions and low dynamical masses compared with 850 {mu}m selected galaxies.

  17. Filtering chromatic aberration for wide acceptance angle electrostatic lenses.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Ádám; Tóth, László

    2014-07-01

    Chromatic aberration is a major issue for imaging mainly with large acceptance angle electrostatic lenses. Its correction is necessary to take advantage of the outstanding spatial and angular resolution that these lenses provide. We propose a method to eliminate the effect of chromatic aberration on the measured images by determining the impact resulting from higher and lower kinetic energies. Based on a spectral image sequence and a matrix, which describes the transmission function of the lens, a system of linear equations is solved to approximate the 2D spectral intensity distribution of the sample surface. We present the description of our method and preliminary test results, which show significant contrast and image quality improvement. The presented algorithm can also be applied as a software-based energy analyzer.

  18. Improved image quality in pinhole SPECT by accurate modeling of the point spread function in low magnification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pino, Francisco; Roé, Nuria; Aguiar, Pablo; Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domènec; Pavía, Javier

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in small-animal research. Due to the high resolution required in small-animal SPECT systems, the spatially variant system response needs to be included in the reconstruction algorithm. Accurate modeling of the system response should result in a major improvement in the quality of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact that an accurate modeling of spatially variant collimator/detector response has on image-quality parameters, using a low magnification SPECT system equipped with a pinhole collimator and a small gamma camera. Methods: Three methods were used to model the point spread function (PSF). For the first, only the geometrical pinhole aperture was included in the PSF. For the second, the septal penetration through the pinhole collimator was added. In the third method, the measured intrinsic detector response was incorporated. Tomographic spatial resolution was evaluated and contrast, recovery coefficients, contrast-to-noise ratio, and noise were quantified using a custom-built NEMA NU 4–2008 image-quality phantom. Results: A high correlation was found between the experimental data corresponding to intrinsic detector response and the fitted values obtained by means of an asymmetric Gaussian distribution. For all PSF models, resolution improved as the distance from the point source to the center of the field of view increased and when the acquisition radius diminished. An improvement of resolution was observed after a minimum of five iterations when the PSF modeling included more corrections. Contrast, recovery coefficients, and contrast-to-noise ratio were better for the same level of noise in the image when more accurate models were included. Ring-type artifacts were observed when the number of iterations exceeded 12. Conclusions: Accurate modeling of the PSF improves resolution, contrast, and recovery

  19. [Use of rigid gas permeable contact lenses].

    PubMed

    Habela, M

    1992-01-01

    By application of contact lenses destined for a extended wearing, for preservation of a normal structure and metabolism of the cornea a considerable permeability of the contact lens for oxygen is necessary (Dk/L 75-80). The actually most popular in the world soft contact lenses have no such parameters. The application of rigid lenses produced from materials of high permeability for oxygen enables the extended wearing without substantial disturbances of the corneal metabolism. The paper presents a new generation of fluoro-silicone acrylates used for the production of contact lenses permeable for oxygen. Discussed are the problems connected with the adjusting of these lenses, their tolerance and influence on the corneal metabolism.

  20. Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40 ≤ L ≤ 400, and an associated likelihood for cosmological parameter constraints. We find good agreement between our measurement of the lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the ΛCDM model that best fits the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of the parameter combination σ8Ω0.25m = 0.591 ± 0.021. We combine our determination of the lensing potential with the E-mode polarization, also measured by Planck, to generate an estimate of the lensing B-mode. We show that this lensing B-mode estimate is correlated with the B-modes observed directly by Planck at the expected level and with a statistical significance of 10σ, confirming Planck's sensitivity to this known sky signal. We also correlate our lensing potential estimate with the large-scale temperature anisotropies, detecting a cross-correlation at the 3σ level, as expected because of dark energy in the concordance ΛCDM model.

  1. Lensing in the geodesic light-cone coordinates and its (exact) illustration to an off-center observer in Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi models

    SciTech Connect

    Fanizza, G.; Nugier, F. E-mail: fabienjean.nugier@unibo.it

    2015-02-01

    We present in this paper a new application of the geodesic light-cone (GLC) gauge for weak lensing calculations. Using interesting properties of this gauge, we derive an exact expression of the amplification matrix—involving convergence, magnification and shear—and of the deformation matrix—involving the optical scalars. These expressions are simple and non-perturbative as long as no caustics are created on the past light-cone and are, by construction, free from the thin lens approximation. We apply these general expressions on the example of an Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model with an off-center observer and obtain explicit forms for the lensing quantities as a direct consequence of the non-perturbative transformation between GLC and LTB coordinates. We show their evolution in redshift after a numerical integration, for underdense and overdense LTB models, and interpret their respective variations in the simple non-curvature case.

  2. Lensing Effects on the Brightness of SN Ia, When Using the Sinusoidal Potential.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadras, M. J.; Bartlett, D. F.; Motl, P.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper the effects of gravitational lensing of SN Ia are studied, for the case when the Newtonian potential is replaced by the sinusoidal potential (GM/r -> (GM cos[kr])/r). First we treat the point-mass case, then move on to the instance of a diffuse mass. As one might guess, with this new potential, the plot of the bending angle (α ) with respect to impact parameter (b) goes from dropping off as b-1, to having oscillations that die off as the b-1/2. This in turn will cause dramatic effects on magnification and brightness. In principle the value of the cosmological deceleration parameter (q0), can be determined by a measurement of the ratio of α to b. Wambsganss et al (1997) and Holz (1998) discussed the effects of weak gravitational lensing from large-scale structure on determining q0 within standard cosmology. Following their reasoning, we extend that work to the case of the sinusoidal potential.

  3. A Sneak Peek at the JWST Era: Observing Galaxies Below the Hubble Limit with Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livermore, Rachael C.

    2016-01-01

    The installation of WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope pushed the frontier of high-redshift galaxy studies to only 500 Myr after the Big Bang. However, observations in this epoch remain challenging and are limited to the brightest galaxies; the fainter sources believed to be responsible for reionizing the Universe remain beyond the grasp of Hubble. With gravitational lensing, however, we can benefit from the magnification of faint sources, which brings them within reach of today's telescopes. The Hubble Frontier Fields program is a deep survey of strongly lensing clusters observed in the optical and near-infrared. Unfortunately, detecting highly magnified, intrinsically faint galaxies in these fields has proved challenging due to the bright foregound cluster galaxies and intracluster light. We have developed a technique using wavelet decomposition to overcome these difficulties and detect galaxies at z~7 with intrinsic UV magnitudes as faint as MUV = -13. We present this method and the resulting luminosity functions, which support a steep faint-end slope extending out to the observational limits. Our method has uncovered hundreds of galaxies at z > 6 fainter than any that have been seen before, providing our first insight into the small galaxy population during the epoch of reionization and a preview of the capabilities of JWST.

  4. A fast processing route of aspheric polydimethylsiloxane lenses array (APLA) and optical characterization for smartphone microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Lai, Zheng-Hong

    2017-02-01

    A fast processing route of aspheric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lenses array (APLA) is proposed via the combined effect of inverted gravitational and heat-assisted forces. The fabrication time can be dramatically reduced to 30 s, compared favorably to the traditional duration of 2 hours of repeated cycles of addition-curing processes. In this paper, a low-cost flexible lens can be fabricated by repeatedly depositing, inverting, curing a hanging transparent PDMS elastomer droplet on a previously deposited curved structure. Complex structures with aspheric curve features and various focal lengths can be successfully produced and the fabricated 4 types of APLA have various focal lengths in the range of 7.03 mm, 6.00 mm, 5.33 mm, and 4.43 mm, respectively. Empirically, a direct relationship between the PDMS volume and focal lengths of the lenses can be experimentally deducted. Using these fabricated APLA, an ordinary commercial smartphone camera can be easily transformed to a low-cost, portable digital microscopy (50×magnification) such that point of care diagnostic can be implemented pervasively.

  5. Microscopic observation of unworn siloxane-hydrogel soft contact lenses by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    González-Méijome, José M; López-Alemany, Antonio; Almeida, José B; Parafita, Manuel A; Refojo, Miguel F

    2006-02-01

    In the present study, samples of lotrafilcon A, balafilcon A, and galyfilcon A contact lenses were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in tapping mode at areas ranging from 0.25 to 400 microm2. Mean roughness (Ra), root-mean-square roughness (Rms) and maximum roughness (Rmax) in nanometers were obtained for the three lens materials at different magnifications. The three contact lenses showed significantly different surface topography. However, roughness values were dependent of the surface area to be analyzed. For a 1 microm2 area, statistics revealed a significantly more irregular surface of balafilcon A (Ra = 6.44 nm; Rms = 8.30 nm; Rmax = 96.82 nm) compared with lotrafilcon A (Ra = 2.40 nm; Rms = 3.19 nm; Rmax = 40.89 nm) and galyfilcon A (Ra = 1.40 nm; Rms = 1.79 nm; Rmax = 15.33 nm). Ra and Rms were the most consistent parameters, with Rmax presenting more variability for larger surface areas. The higher roughness of balafilcon A is attributed to the plasma oxidation treatment used to improve wettability. Conversely, galyfilcon A displays a smoother surface. Present observations could have implications in clinical aspects of siloxane-hydrogel contact lens wear such as lens spoliation, resistance to bacterial adhesion, or mechanical interaction with the ocular surface.

  6. A calibration of the stellar mass fundamental plane at z ∼ 0.5 using the micro-lensing-induced flux ratio anomalies of macro-lensed quasars {sup ,} {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, Paul L.; Pooley, David; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    We measure the stellar mass surface densities of early-type galaxies by observing the micro-lensing of macro-lensed quasars caused by individual stars, including stellar remnants, brown dwarfs, and red dwarfs too faint to produce photometric or spectroscopic signatures. Instead of observing multiple micro-lensing events in a single system, we combine single-epoch X-ray snapshots of 10 quadruple systems, and compare the measured relative magnifications for the images with those computed from macro-models. We use these to normalize a stellar mass fundamental plane constructed using a Salpeter initial mass function with a low-mass cutoff of 0.1 M {sub ☉} and treat the zeropoint of the surface mass density as a free parameter. Our method measures the graininess of the gravitational potential produced by individual stars, in contrast to methods that decompose a smooth total gravitational potential into two smooth components, one stellar and one dark. We find the median likelihood value for the normalization factor F by which the Salpeter stellar masses must be multiplied is 1.23, with a one sigma confidence range, dominated by small number statistics, of 0.77

  7. Computerised calculation scheme for ocular magnification with the Zeiss telecentric fundus camera.

    PubMed

    Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold; Viestenz, Arne

    2003-09-01

    Littmann (1982) described a method to determine the magnification of the eye in order to relate the size of a retinal feature to its measured image size on a telecentric fundus camera film. This required information only about ametropia and corneal curvature. Several other methods have been reported since then which consider other biometric data to enhance the accuracy of this classical method. The purpose of this study is to describe a numerical calculation scheme to determine the magnification q of the eye in two cardinal meridians using paraxial raytracing. Our calculation scheme is based on ametropia, keratometry, as well as biometric data such as axial length, anterior chamber depth and thickness of the crystalline lens. It is described step-by-step in order (1) to determine the refractive powers of both surfaces of the crystalline lens, which are not directly measurable in vivo, (2) to derive the retinal image conjugate to a circular object using paraxial raytracing, (3) to fit an ellipse to the retinal image, (4) to determine the secondary principal points (Gaussian length) separately for both cardinal meridians and (5) to calculate the ocular magnification q. The power of the crystalline lens is estimated to compensate for the spherocylindrical refraction at the spectacle plane and the corneal refraction with an astigmatic component thus creating a sharp image focused at the retinal plane. The capabilities of this computing scheme are demonstrated with five clinical examples and are related to the respective values of the classical Littmann formula as well as to enhanced methods described by Bennett (1988), Bennett et al. (1994) and Garway-Heath et al. (1998).

  8. Magnification of starting torques of dc motors by maximum power point trackers in photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Singer, S.

    1989-01-01

    Direct current (dc) motors are used in terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) systems such as in water-pumping systems for irrigation and water supply. Direct current motors may also be used for space applications. Simple and low weight systems including dc motors may be of special interest in space where the motors are directly coupled to the solar cell array (with no storage). The system will operate only during times when sufficient insolation is available. An important performance characteristic of electric motors is the starting to rated torque ratio. Different types of dc motors have different starting torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of solar cell array, and the developed motor torque may not be sufficient to overcome the load starting torque. By including a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in the PV system, the starting to rated torque ratio will increase, the amount of which depends on the motor type. The starting torque ratio is calculated for the permanent magnet, series and shunt excited dc motors when powered by solar cell arrays for two cases: with and without MPPT's. Defining a motor torque magnification by the ratio of the motor torque with an MPPT to the motor torque without an MPPT, a magnification of 3 was obtained for the permanent magnet motor and a magnification of 7 for both the series and shunt motors. The effect of the variation of solar insolation on the motor starting torque was covered. All motor types are less sensitive to insolation variation in systems including MPPT's as compared to systems with MPPT's. The analysis of this paper will assist the PV system designed to determine whether or not to include an MPPT in the system for a specific motor type.

  9. The Magnification of Atomic Lines Intensity Originated by laser Breakdown in Ultrasound Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, A. V.; Nagorny, I. G.

    Atomic lines of some chemical elements like sodium and magnesium were investigated for laser breakdown of water with the ultrasound field. The effect of magnification of these atomic lines resolution for salt water in ultrasound field was obtained. It is shown that the method of registration of acoustic emission from a breakdown zone allows to investigate thresholds and dynamics of laser breakdown which will be in accord with high-speed optical methods. The study revealed important practical applications of acoustic emission for breakdown and diagnostics of cavitation in opaque environments.

  10. Human gaze stabilization during natural activities: translation, rotation, magnification, and target distance effects.

    PubMed

    Crane, B T; Demer, J L

    1997-10-01

    Stability of images on the retina was determined in 14 normal humans in response to rotational and translational perturbations during self-generated pitch and yaw, standing, walking, and running on a treadmill. The effects on image stability of target distance, vision, and spectacle magnification were examined. During locomotion the horizontal and vertical velocity of images on the retina was <4 degrees /s for a visible target located beyond 4 m. Image velocity significantly increased to >4 degrees /s during self-generated motion. For all conditions of standing and locomotion, angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR) gain was less than unity and varied significantly by activity, by target distance, and among subjects. There was no significant correlation(P > 0.05) between AVOR gain and image stability during standing and walking despite significant variation among subjects. This lack of correlation is likely due to translation of the orbit. The degree of orbital translation and rotation varied significantly with activity and viewing condition in a manner suggesting an active role in gaze stabilization. Orbital translation was consistently antiphase with rotation at predominant frequencies <4 Hz. When orbital translation was neglected in computing gaze, computed image velocities increased. The compensatory effect of orbital translation allows gaze stabilization despite subunity AVOR gain during natural activities. Orbital translation decreased during close target viewing, whereas orbital rotation decreased while wearing telescopic spectacles. As the earth fixed target was moved closer, image velocity on the retina significantly increased (P < 0.05) for all activities except standing. Latency of the AVOR increased slightly with decreasing target distance but remained <10 ms for even the closest target. This latency was similar in darkness or light, indicating that the visual pursuit tracking is probably not important in gaze stabilization. Trials with a distant target

  11. Influence of magnification on extraction efficiency in laser resonators with non-overlapping beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. G.; Peuriot, A. L.; Garea, M. T.; Santiago, G. D.

    2015-04-01

    The magnification and the Fresnel number determine the mode profile and losses in a bare unstable resonator. Upon inclusion of gain, both the beam pattern and the reflectivity are changed, more than in a stable cavity, because the counter-propagation intensities differ spatially and saturate the amplifier in a way that alters the mode profile, the reflectivity and the conditions of optimal operation. In this paper we present a numerical study of two types of cavities and compute the mode profile and losses in presence of an amplifier that saturates homogeneously. We compare these results with experimental data obtained on a TEA CO2 laser.

  12. Far-field image magnification for acoustic waves using anisotropic acoustic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ao, Xianyu; Chan, C T

    2008-02-01

    A kind of two-dimensional acoustic metamaterial is designed so that it exhibits strong anisotropy along two orthogonal directions. Based on the rectangular equal frequency contour of this metamaterial, magnifying lenses for acoustic waves, analogous to electromagnetic hyperlenses demonstrated recently in the optical regime, can be realized. Such metamaterial may offer applications in imaging for systems that obey scalar wave equations.

  13. Not only Gravitational Lensing, but in general Medium Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-05-01

    According to the General Theory of Relativity the gravity curves the spacetime and everything over there follows a curved path. The space being curved near massive cosmic bodies is just a metaphor, not a fact. We dough that gravity is only geometry. The deflection of light (Gravitational Lensing) near massive cosmic bodies is not due because of a ``curved space'', but because of the medium composition (medium that could be formed by waves, particles, plasma, dust, gaseous, fluids, solids, etc.), to the medium density, medium heterogeneity, and to the electromagnetic and gravitational fields contained in that medium that light passes through. This medium deviates the light direction, because of the interactions of photons with other particles. The space is not empty; it has various nebulae and fields and corpuscles, etc. Light bends not only because of the gravity but also because of the medium gradient and refraction index, similarly as light bends when it leaves or enters a liquid, a plastic, a glass, or a quartz. The inhomogeneous medium may act as an optical lens such that its refractive index varies in a fashion, alike the Gradient-Index Lens. We talk about a Medium Lensing, which means that photons interact with other particles in the medium. For example, the interaction between a photon of electromagnetic radiation with a charged particle (let's say with a free electron), which is known as Compton Effect, produces an increase in the photon's wavelength. In the Inverse Compton Effect the low-energy photons gain energy because they were scattered by much-higher energy free electrons.

  14. PROSPECTS FOR MEASURING THE MASS OF BLACK HOLES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS WITH RESOLVED KINEMATICS USING GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.

    2014-08-20

    Application of the most robust method of measuring black hole masses, spatially resolved kinematics of gas and stars, is presently limited to nearby galaxies. The Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) and 30m class telescopes (the Thirty Meter Telescope, the Giant Magellan Telescope, and the European Extremely Large Telescope) with milli-arcsecond resolution are expected to extend such measurements to larger distances. Here, we study the possibility of exploiting the angular magnification provided by strong gravitational lensing to measure black hole masses at high redshifts (z ∼ 1-6), using resolved gas kinematics with these instruments. We show that in ∼15% and ∼20% of strongly lensed galaxies, the inner 25 and 50 pc could be resolved, allowing the mass of ≳ 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} black holes to be dynamically measured with ALMA, if moderately bright molecular gas is present at these small radii. Given the large number of strong lenses discovered in current millimeter surveys and future optical surveys, this fraction could constitute a statistically significant population for studying the evolution of the M-σ relation at high redshifts.

  15. Planar sets of cross x-ray refractive lenses from SU-8 polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazmov, Vladimir P.; Reznikova, Elena F.; Somogyi, Andrea; Mohr, Jurgen; Saile, Volker

    2004-11-01

    Sets of planar SU-8 cross lenses focusing in two directions have been fabricated by tilted deep X-ray lithography using an X-ray mask with tilted absorber structures. The profile of the absorber structures on the mask take into account the lithographic peculiarities of SU-8 resist to reproduce the designed profile of the lens elements exactly. The cross lenses are placed on one substrate and have identical focal distances, which allow to scan the spectral range from 5 keV to 30 keV by stepping the lens substrate from one lens to the next. Another set of cross lenses was developed with different quasi-parabolic profiles to obtain a large focus depth (up to several centimeters) with uniform intensity distribution in the micron focal spot. This together with the stepping possibilities between lenses satisfies the requirement of static spectroscopy experiments. For the truncated parabolic profile, these cross lenses consist of separate segments arranged in a new mosaic form. In comparison with the known "fern"-like kinoform profile, the lenses have been developed with smaller gain loss. The testing of the new sets have been performed at the undulator ID-18F and ID-22 beamlines (ESRF, Grenoble, France; the experimental results are compared to simulations.

  16. The Third Image of the Large-Separation Lensed Quasar SDSS J1029+2623

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Masamune; Ofek, Eran O.; Inada, Naohisa; Morokuma, Tomoki; Falco, Emilio E.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Kayo, Issha; Broadhurst, Tom; Richards, Gordon T.

    2008-03-01

    We identify a third image in the unique quasar lens SDSS J1029+2623, the second known quasar lens produced by a massive cluster of galaxies. The spectrum of the third image shows similar emission and absorption features but has a redder continuum than the other two images, which can be explained by differential extinction or microlensing. We also identify several lensed arcs. Our observations suggest a complicated structure of the lens cluster at z ≈ 0.6. We argue that the three lensed images are produced by a naked cusp on the basis of successful mass models, the distribution of cluster member galaxies, and the shapes and locations of the lensed arcs. Lensing by a naked cusp is quite rare among galaxy-scale lenses but is predicted to be common among large-separation lensed quasars. Thus the discovery can be viewed as support for an important theoretical prediction of the standard cold dark matter model. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. This work is based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Use of the UH 2.2 m telescope for the observations is supported by NAOJ.

  17. High-resolution imaging of three new UV-bright lensed arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, Sahar

    2009-07-01

    We have identified and spectroscopically confirmed three new strongly lensed, UV-bright star-forming galaxies at z 2 that are similar to the well-studied gravitationally lensed Lyman Break Galaxy {LBG} MS1512-cB58, and are of comparable brightness to the ''8 O'Clock Arc'' {Allam et al. 2007} and ''Clone'' systems {Lin et al. 2008}. The 8 O'Clock Arc and Clone have already been awarded 20 orbits for deep WFPC2 and NICMOS imaging in five bands {HST cycle 16, Program 11167, PI: Allam}. Adding these three recently discovered objects thus completes a unique set of the brightest known strongly lensed galaxies at z 2, with magnitudes of r 20-21, and they provide a new window into the detailed study of the properties of high redshift galaxies. We propose 21 orbits for deep WFC3 imaging in five bands {F475W, F606W, F814W, F110W, and F160W} in order to construct detailed lensing models, to probe the mass and light profiles of the lensing galaxies and their environments, and to constrain the spectral energy distributions, star formation histories, and morphologies of the lensed galaxies.

  18. The Gini Coefficient as a Morphological Measurement of Strongly Lensed Galaxies in the Image Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian, Michael K.; Li, Nan; Gladders, Michael D.

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the morphology of strongly lensed galaxies is challenging because images of such galaxies are typically highly distorted. Lens modeling and source plane reconstruction is one approach that can provide reasonably undistorted images from which morphological measurements can be made, though at the expense of a highly spatially variable telescope point-spread function (PSF) when mapped back to the source plane. Unfortunately, modeling the lensing mass is a time- and resource-intensive process, and in many cases there are too few constraints to precisely model the lensing mass. If, however, useful morphological measurements could be made in the image plane rather than the source plane, it would bypass this issue and obviate the need for a source reconstruction process for some applications. We examine the use of the Gini coefficient as one such measurement. Because it depends on the cumulative distribution of the light of a galaxy, but not the relative spatial positions, the fact that surface brightness is conserved by lensing means that the Gini coefficient may be well preserved by strong gravitational lensing. Through simulations, we test the extent to which the Gini coefficient is conserved, including by effects due to PSF convolution and pixelization, to determine whether it is invariant enough under lensing to be used as a measurement of galaxy morphology that can be made in the image plane.

  19. LBT/LUCIFER OBSERVATIONS OF THE z {approx} 2 LENSED GALAXY J0900+2234

    SciTech Connect

    Bian Fuyan; Fan Xiaohui; Bechtold, Jill; McGreer, Ian D.; Just, Dennis W.; Sand, David J.; Green, Richard F.; Thompson, David; Peng, Chien Y.; Seifert, Walter; Ageorges, Nancy; Buschkamp, Peter; Juette, Marcus; Knierim, Volker

    2010-12-20

    We present rest-frame optical images and spectra of the gravitationally lensed, star-forming galaxy J0900+2234 (z = 2.03). The observations were performed with the newly commissioned LUCIFER1 near-infrared (NIR) instrument mounted on the Large Binocular Telescope. We fitted lens models to the rest-frame optical images and found that the galaxy has an intrinsic effective radius of 7.4 {+-} 0.8 kpc with a lens magnification factor of about 5 for the A and B components. We also discovered a new arc belonging to another lensed high-z source galaxy, which makes this lens system a potential double Einstein ring system. Using the high signal-to-noise ratio rest-frame spectra covered by the H + K band, we detected H{beta}, [O III], H{alpha}, [N II], and [S II] emission lines. Detailed physical properties of this high-z galaxy were derived. The extinction toward the ionized H II regions (E{sub g} (B - V)) was computed from the flux ratio of H{alpha} and H{beta} and appears to be much higher than that toward the stellar continuum (E{sub s} (B - V)), derived from the optical and NIR broadband photometry fitting. The metallicity was estimated using N2 and O3N2 indices. It is in the range of 1/5 - 1/3 solar abundance, which is much lower than for typical z {approx} 2 star-forming galaxies. From the flux ratio of [S II]{lambda}6717 and [S II]{lambda}6732, we found that the electron number density of the H II regions in the high-z galaxy was {approx_equal}1000 cm{sup -3}, consistent with other z {approx} 2 galaxies but much higher than that in local H II regions. The star formation rate was estimated via the H{alpha} luminosity, after correction for the lens magnification, to be about 365 {+-} 69 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Combining the FWHM of H{alpha} emission lines and the half-light radius, we found that the dynamical mass of the lensed galaxy is (5.8 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}. The gas mass is (5.1 {+-} 1.1) x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} from the H{alpha} flux surface density

  20. Influence of Clinical Factors and Magnification Correction on Normal Thickness Profiles of Macular Retinal Layers Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Higashide, Tomomi; Ohkubo, Shinji; Hangai, Masanori; Ito, Yasuki; Shimada, Noriaki; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Terasaki, Hiroko; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Chew, Paul; Li, Kenneth K. W.; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the factors which significantly contribute to the thickness variabilities in macular retinal layers measured by optical coherence tomography with or without magnification correction of analytical areas in normal subjects. Methods The thickness of retinal layers {retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GCLIPL), RNFL plus GCLIPL (ganglion cell complex, GCC), total retina, total retina minus GCC (outer retina)} were measured by macular scans (RS-3000, NIDEK) in 202 eyes of 202 normal Asian subjects aged 20 to 60 years. The analytical areas were defined by three concentric circles (1-, 3- and 6-mm nominal diameters) with or without magnification correction. For each layer thickness, a semipartial correlation (sr) was calculated for explanatory variables including age, gender, axial length, corneal curvature, and signal strength index. Results Outer retinal thickness was significantly thinner in females than in males (sr2, 0.07 to 0.13) regardless of analytical areas or magnification correction. Without magnification correction, axial length had a significant positive sr with RNFL (sr2, 0.12 to 0.33) and a negative sr with GCLIPL (sr2, 0.22 to 0.31), GCC (sr2, 0.03 to 0.17), total retina (sr2, 0.07 to 0.17) and outer retina (sr2, 0.16 to 0.29) in multiple analytical areas. The significant sr in RNFL, GCLIPL and GCC became mostly insignificant following magnification correction. Conclusions The strong correlation between the thickness of inner retinal layers and axial length appeared to result from magnification effects. Outer retinal thickness may differ by gender and axial length independently of magnification correction. PMID:26814541

  1. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  2. Strong lensing by fermionic dark matter in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, L. Gabriel; Argüelles, C. R.; Perlick, Volker; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R.

    2016-12-01

    It has been shown that a self-gravitating system of massive keV fermions in thermodynamic equilibrium correctly describes the dark matter (DM) distribution in galactic halos (from dwarf to spiral and elliptical galaxies) and that, at the same time, it predicts a denser quantum core towards the center of the configuration. Such a quantum core, for a fermion mass in the range of 50 keV ≲m c2≲345 keV , can be an alternative interpretation of the central compact object in Sgr A*, traditionally assumed to be a black hole (BH). We present in this work the gravitational lensing properties of this novel DM configuration in nearby Milky-Way-like spiral galaxies. We describe the lensing effects of the pure DM component both on halo scales, where we compare them to the effects of the Navarro-Frenk-White and the nonsingular isothermal sphere DM models, and near the galaxy center, where we compare them with the effects of a Schwarzschild BH. For the particle mass leading to the most compact DM core, m c2≈1 02 keV , we draw the following conclusions. At distances r ≳20 pc from the center of the lens the effect of the central object on the lensing properties is negligible. However, we show that measurements of the deflection angle produced by the DM distribution in the outer region at a few kpc, together with rotation curve data, could help to discriminate between different DM models. In the inner regions 1 0-6≲r ≲20 pc , the lensing effects of a DM quantum core alternative to the BH scenario becomes a theme of an analysis of unprecedented precision which is challenging for current technological developments. We show that at distances ˜1 0-4 pc strong lensing effects, such as multiple images and Einstein rings, may occur. Large differences in the deflection angle produced by a DM central core and a central BH appear at distances r ≲1 0-6 pc ; in this regime the weak-field formalism is no longer applicable and the exact general-relativistic formula has to be used

  3. Ultra-faint ultraviolet galaxies at z ∼ 2 behind the lensing cluster A1689: The luminosity function, dust extinction, and star formation rate density

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian; Freeman, William R.; Dominguez, Alberto; Richard, Johan; Stark, Daniel P.; Robertson, Brant; Scarlata, Claudia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc; Kewley, Lisa

    2014-01-10

    We have obtained deep ultraviolet imaging of the lensing cluster A1689 with the WFC3/UVIS camera onboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the F275W (30 orbits) and F336W (4 orbit