Wang, Jie; Wang, Hong-Yan; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Li, Peng-peng; Wang, Kai-Yun
The antiviral activities of sulfated lentinan (sLNT) and lentinan (LNT) against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco seedlings and the underlying mechanism were investigated. Compared with LNT, sLNT showed significantly higher inhibitory effects on viral infection and TMV multiplication in a dose-dependent way, which might be due to its binding with TMV coat protein. In addition, both sLNT and LNT induced the transient production of H2O2 and expression of some defense-related genes (stilbene synthase, glucanase, acidic chitinase class IV, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 5-epi-aristolochene synthase) both locally and systemically. These results suggested that sLNT and LNT could control TMV incidence and the action mechanism might be associated with the affinity towards TMV coat protein and activation of some defense genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nishitani, Yosuke; Zhang, Ling; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Mizuno, Masashi
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is unknown whether β-1,3;1,6-glucan can induce immune suppressive effects. Here, we study intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Lentinula edodes-derived β-1,3;1,6-glucan, which is known as lentinan. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice were used to elucidate effects of lentinan in vivo. In the cellular level assessment, lentinan was added into a co-culture model consisting of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Ligated intestinal loop assay was performed for assessing effects of lentinan on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vivo. Oral administration of lentinan (100 µg/mouse) significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in body weight loss, shortening of colon lengths, histological score, and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in inflamed tissues. Lentinan reduced interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in Caco-2 cells without decreasing of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production from RAW264.7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that surface levels of TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 were decreased by lentinan treatment. A clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor, monodansylcadaverine, canceled lentinan inhibition of IL-8 mRNA expression. Moreover, lentinan inhibited TNFR1 expression in Caco-2 cells in both protein and mRNA level. Lentinan also inhibited TNFR1 mRNA expression in mouse IECs. These results suggest that lentinan exhibits intestinal anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of IL-8 mRNA expression associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activation which is triggered by TNFR1 endocytosis and lowering of their expression in IECs. Lentinan may be effective for the treatment of gut inflammation including IBD.
Zhou, Lian-di; Zhang, Qi-hui; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jun; Cao, Ya-ming
Lentinan, a (1-3)-beta glucan from Lentinus edodes, is an effective immunostimulatory drug. We tested the effects of lentinan during blood-stage infection by Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (P.y17XL). Pre-treatment of mice with lentinan significantly decreased the parasitemia and increased their survival after infection. Enhanced IL-12, IFN-gamma and NO production induced by lentinan in spleen cells of infected mice revealed that the Th1 immune response was stimulated against malaria infection. In vitro and in vivo, lentinan can result in enhanced expression of MHC II, CD80/CD86, and Toll-like receptors (TLR2/TLR4), and increased production of IL-12 in spleen dendritic cells (DCs) co-cultured with parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs). Moreover, both the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the levels of IL-10 secreted by Tregs were reduced by pre-treatment with lentinan in the spleen of malaria-infected mice. Meanwhile, apoptosis of CD4(+) T cell in spleens of mice pretreated with lentinan was significantly reduced. In summary, lentinan can induce protective Th1 immune responses to control the proliferation of malaria parasites during the blood-stage of P.y17XL infection by stimulating maturation of DCs to inhibit negative regulation of the Th1 immune response by Tregs. Taken together, our findings suggest that lentinan has prophylactic potential for the treatment of malaria.
Maeda, Y Y; Takahama, S; Kohara, Y; Yonekawa, H
Lentinan, a beta-1,6;1,3-glucan, is tumor-specific for transplantable mouse solid-type tumors and it also stimulates the production of acute phase proteins (APPs). The APP response to lentinan is of the delayed type (DT-APR) and differs from that to lipopolysaccharide, which is acute. We found that the responses were genetically controlled in mice and that low responsiveness is dominant (Maeda et al. 1991). Using 123 segregants of crosses between SWR/J (a high responder) and Mus spretus (a low responder), we analyzed the linkage between DT-APR responsiveness and the DNA polymerase chain reaction-simple sequence length polymorphism (PCR-SSLP) phenotype using 80 chromosome-specific microsatellite markers. We identified two loci (ltn1.1 and ltn1.2) responsible for DT-APR. ltn1.1 is closely linked to D3Mit11 on chromosome 3 and ltn1.2 to D11Nds9 on chromosome 11 (P <0.001). The linkage analysis also suggested that ltn1.2 is the major determinant for DT-APR. Correlation between lentinan-specific IL-6 mRNA expression (the late expression) controlled recessively and DT-APR induction suggests that the ltn1 loci control some process(es) of IL-6 expression in the regulation step before NF-IL6.
Maeda, Y Y; Sakaizumi, M; Moriwaki, K; Yonekawa, H
In order to make clear whether the expression of biological activities and antitumor polysaccharides are under genetic control, the responses of mice to lentinan, a beta-1,6;1,3-glucan, in the induction of several acute phase proteins (APPs) and T-cell-mediated vascular dilation and hemorrhage (VDH) were investigated. Twenty inbred strains of mice were divided into two groups according to their phenotypes in the induction of APPs when they were administered lentinan i.p. at a dose of 10 mg/kg; sensitive strains showed a marked increase in levels of APPs and resistant strains showed as low a level of APPs as non-treated control mice. No sex-related differences and no relation with H-2 halotypes were found in the responses. Only low-level responses were observed in F1 hybrid mice obtained by crosses between a sensitive and a resistant strain, indicating that the low APP response to lentinan is dominant. The N2 progeny between the F1 and a high responder segregated into high and low responders at a ratio of almost 1:1. These results suggest that a single major gene on an autosome is responsible for the induction of APPs. The induction of VDH also depended on the strains of mice. However, the strain distribution pattern of the VDH phenotype was distinct from that of the APP phenotype, indicating that the VDH-controlling gene was different from the APP-controlling gene. Further analyses with F1 hybrid and backcross progeny mice suggested that the high VDH response was dominant, and that the phenotype was determined by a single major gene.
Wang, Jie; Yu, Guanghong; Li, Yihong; Shen, Lili; Qian, Yumei; Yang, Jinguang; Wang, Fenglong
The inhibitory effects of sulfated lentinan with different degrees of sulfation against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the underlying mechanism were investigated. The results indicated that plants treated with increasing concentrations of sulfated lentinan, with increasing numbers of treatments and with increasing time after treatment had a decrease in the number of necrotic lesions, indicating a long-term protection against TMV that mimics vaccination. In addition, the levels of TMV-capsid protein (CP) transcripts decreased in distant leaves, indicating that sulfated lentinan induces systemic protection against TMV. The activities of the defense enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) and the amounts of several phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) were measured in control and treated plants without infection. A progressive increase in PAL activity was observed with increasing time after treatment, together with the accumulation of free and conjugated PPCs. In contrast, LOX activity remained unchanged. Interestingly, the increase in PAL activity showed a linear correlation with the decrease in necrotic lesions and the decrease in TMV-CP transcript level. Thus, sulfated lentinan induced systemic and long-term protection against TMV in tobacco plants that is determined, at least in part, by a sustained activation of PAL and the accumulation of PPCs with potential antiviral activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Y; Han, X; Li, Y-D; Zhao, S-Y; Zhang, D-J; Zhao, Z-H; Wang, Y-B
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent tumor types and the third most common form of morbidity in cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lentinan isolated from Lentinus edodes, is known to be a biologically active macromolecule with extremely strong activation of the human immune system such as host-mediated anti-cancer activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the immunoprophylaxis effect of the antigens induced by lentinan on murine hepatocellular carcinoma. The antigens were prepared by a co-culture method (HCL) and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation precipitation (Z1, Z2, Z3). The effects of antigens on murine hepatocellular carcinoma immunoprophylaxis were determined in vivo. The cellular immunity of the immunized mice was tested by spleen lymphocyte proliferation tests and peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis assays. The tumor-specific antigen was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results in vivo revealed that the antigens (HCL/Z1) activated immunoprophylaxis against hepatocellular carcinoma with a better survival status. The survival rates (60%, 100%) of the HCL/Z1 group were better than the model group (p < 0.01). The quantity of lymphocytes in the spleen in the HCL or Z1 groups treated with ConA or LPS were higher than that of the model group (p < 0.01). The phagocytosis ability of macrophages in the HCL or Z1 groups was better than that of the control group or model group (p < 0.01). The characterization of Western blot analysis showed that about 59.6 kDa tumor specific antigen combined with antiserum of immunized mice specifically appeared in antigens. The newly generated tumor-specific antigen played a key role in the anti-tumor immune response and in activating the immune system. Our results suggest that this protein could serve as a tumor vaccine, and it could generate new ideas for tumor immunoprophylaxis.
Wang, Jie; Wang, Yaofeng; Shen, Lili; Qian, Yumei; Yang, Jinguang; Wang, Fenglong
Sulphated lentinan (sLTN) is known to act as a resistance inducer by causing programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect is largely unknown. Using tobacco BY-2 cell model, morphological and biochemical studies revealed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to sLNT induced PCD. Cell viability, and HO/PI fluorescence imaging and TUNEL assays confirmed a typical cell death process caused by sLNT. Acetylsalicylic acid (an ROS scavenger), diphenylene iodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases) and protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (a protonophore and an uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation) inhibited sLNT-induced H2O2 generation and cell death, suggesting that ROS generation linked, at least partly, to a mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-like activation. This conclusion was further confirmed by double-stained cells with the mitochondria-specific marker MitoTracker RedCMXRos and the ROS probe H2DCFDA. Moreover, the sLNT-induced PCD of BY-2 cells required cellular metabolism as up-regulation of the AOX family gene transcripts and induction of the SA biosynthesis, the TCA cycle, and miETC related genes were observed. It is concluded that mitochondria play an essential role in the signaling pathway of sLNT-induced ROS generation, which possibly provided new insight into the sLNT-mediated antiviral response, including PCD.
Yoshino, Shigefumi; Oka, Masaaki
Randomized phase III study of S-1 alone versus S-1 plus Lentinan (LNT) in advanced or recurrent gastric cancer started in February 2007 conducted by the Japanese Foundation for Multidisciplinary Treatment of Cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the superiority of S-1/LNT to S-1 alone. The primary end point is to compare over all survival between both treatment groups. Secondary end points include time to treatment failure, the grade and rate of the adverse events, the evaluation of quality of life (QOL), response rate evaluated by RECIST and immunological parameters. QOL is evaluated by Japanese version of FACT-BRM questionnaire. Immunological parameters include serum complements (CH50, C3) and beta-1, 3 binding monocytes. The sample size is estimated at 150 patients per arm. Registration period is 2 years with 2-year follow-up. This study has a chance to prove the efficacy of the non-specific biological response modifier. We will have to cooperate in order to make this study a success.
Suga, Yasuyo; Takehana, Kenji
S-1 is an oral agent containing tegafur (a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil) that is used to treat various cancers, but adverse effects are frequent. Two pilot clinical studies have suggested that lentinan (LNT; β-1,3-glucan) may reduce the incidence of adverse effects caused by S-1 therapy. In this study, we established a murine model for assessment of gastrointestinal toxicity associated with S-1 and studied the effect of LNT. S-1 was administered orally to BALB/c mice at the effective dose (8.3mg/kg, as tegafur equivalent) once daily (5days per week) for 3weeks. Stool consistency and intestinal specimens were examined. We investigated the effect of combined intravenous administration of LNT at 0.1mg, which is an effective dose in murine tumor models. We also investigated the effect of a single administration of S-1. During long-term administration of S-1, some mice had loose stools and an increase in apoptotic bodies was observed in the ileal crypts. An increase in apoptotic bodies was also noted after a single administration of S-1 (15mg/kg). Prior or concomitant administration of LNT inhibited the increase in apoptotic bodies in both settings. Administration of LNT also increased the accumulation of CD11b(+)TIM-4(+) cells in the ileum, while depletion of these cells by liposomal clodronate diminished the inhibitory effect of LNT on S-1 toxicity. Combined administration of LNT with S-1 led to a decrease in apoptotic bodies in the ileal crypts, possibly because LNT promoted phagocytosis of damaged cells by CD11b(+)TIM-4(+) cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kurita, Keisuke; Matsumura, Yuriko; Takahara, Hiroki; Hatta, Kiyoshige; Shimojoh, Manabu
N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine branches were incorporated at the C-6 position of curdlan, a linear β-1,3-d-glucan, and the resulting nonnatural branched polysaccharides were evaluated in terms of the immunomodulation activities in comparison with lentinan, a β-1,3-d-glucan having d-glucose branches at C-6. To incorporate the amino sugar branches, we conducted a series of regioselective protection-deprotections of curdlan involving triphenylmethylation at C-6, phenylcarbamoylation at C-2 and C-4, and detriphenylmethylation. Subsequent glycosylation with a d-glucosamine-derived oxazoline, followed by deprotection gave rise to the branched curdlans with various substitution degrees. The products exhibited remarkable solubility in both organic solvents and water. Their immunomodulation activities were determined using mouse macrophagelike cells, and the secretions of both the tumor necrosis factor and nitric oxide proved to be significantly higher than those with lentinan. These results conclude that the amino sugar/curdlan hybrid materials are promising as a new type of polysaccharide immunoadjuvants useful for cancer chemotherapy.
Li, Mengxia; Chen, Pan; Xu, Min; Xu, Xiaojuan
We report a unique self-assembly of lentinan, a triple helical β-(1→3)-glucan (t-LNT), in water. By molecular dynamics simulation, it was found that t-LNT aggregated preferentially along the chain direction to form long chains, accompanied by side-direction linkage to form branches. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated that t-LNT formed dendrite-like fibers, which further formed fishnet-like porous/mesoporous aggregates with increasing concentration. The meshes in the fishnet were ascribed to the intersection of branches. The major driving force for aggregation was expected to be hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups in t-LNT chains. Based on this self-assembly behavior, a novel composite was prepared from t-LNT and tetraphenylethylene (TPE) by entrapping TPE aggregates into the meshes of t-LNT fishnets. The as-prepared t-LNT/TPE composite largely enhanced the blue fluorescence of TPE in water, exhibiting stable optical property and good biocompatibility, and t-LNT is expected to show great potential as a carrier of hydrophobic molecules for biomedical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoshino, Shigefumi; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Morita, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Sakata, Koichiro; Nagao, Jiro; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Murakami, Nozomu; Matsuda, Takeru; Hasegawa, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Ryoichi; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Imano, Motohiro; Naitoh, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akiyoshi; Tajiri, Takashi; Gochi, Akira; Suzuki, Michinari; Sakamoto, Junichi; Saji, Shigetoyo; Oka, Masaaki
Lentinan (LNT) is a purified β-1, 3-glucan that augments immune responses. The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of LNT in combination with S-1 as a first-line treatment for unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive S-1 alone or S-1 plus LNT. The primary end-point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end-points were time-to-treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), safety, quality of life (QOL), and biomarker. The percentages of LNT-binding monocytes in peripheral blood prior to treatment were analysed for the biomarker assessment. One hundred and fifty-four and 155 patients were randomly assigned to receive S-1 alone or S-1 plus LNT, respectively. The median OS was 13.8 and 9.9 months (P = 0.208), the median TTF was 4.3 and 2.6 months (P < 0.001), the ORR was 22.3% and 18.7% for the S-1 and S-1 plus LNT groups, respectively. The incidences of haematologic and non-haematologic adverse events were similar, and no significant changes in QOL scores were observed during the treatment in both groups. In a subpopulation of patients with LNT-binding monocytes ≥2%, patients who received more than two cycles of chemotherapy showed a longer survival time in the S-1 plus LNT group. OS did not improve and TTF was significantly worse in the S-1 plus LNT group as compared with the S-1-only group. This study showed no efficacy of LNT when combined with S-1 treatment in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer. UMIN 000000574. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Patchen, M.L.; DiLuzio, N.R.; Jacques, P.; MacVittie, T.J.
Six soluble polyglycans (glucan-C, glucan-F, glucan-S, krestin, lentinan, and schizophyllan), two soluble polymannans (mannan-A and mannan-R), and one soluble polyfructan (levan) were assayed for their ability to enhance hemopoietic recovery in C3H/HeN mice when administered either 1 h before or 1 h after a 6.5-Gy dose of cobalt-60 radiation. Hemopoietic recovery was measured by the endogenous spleen colony assay and was compared with recovery in both radiation control mice and irradiated mice treated with glucan-P (a particulate polyglycan previously shown to enhance recovery from radiation-induced hemopoietic injury). Compared with radiation controls, when administered before irradiation, mannan-A, glucan-F, and glucan-S enhanced endogenous colony formation 4.2-5.1-fold (equivalent to glucan-P), and levan and schizophyllan approximately 2.7-fold. Lentinan, krestin, mannan-R, and glucan-C did not enhance hemopoietic recovery above radiation controls under these conditions. When polyglycan administration was delayed until after irradiation, endogenous colony formation was enhanced 3.0-3.9-fold by mannan-A, schizophyllan, glucan-S, krestin, and glucan-F (at least comparable with glucan-P) but not at all by mannan-R, levan, lentinan, or glucan-C.
Bomford, R; Moreno, C
The anti-tumour activity induced by glucans (lentinan, yeast cell walls, pseudonigeran, dextran, DEAE-dextran and dextran sulphate) and fructosans (levan and carboxymethyl-levan) was compared with the activity of C. parvum. The following effects on tumour systems in CBA mice were assayed: (a) adjuvant activity on the immune response against tumour-specific transplantation antigens (TSTA) with a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma; (b) cytostatic activity of peritoneal macrophages against radiation-induced leukaemia cells; and (c) inhibition of tumour nodule formation in the lungs following i.v. injection of fibrosarcoma cells. All the polysaccharides induced cytostatic macrophages, but the dextrans and levans did so only after i.p. and not i.v. injection. Only lentinan, yeast cell walls and pseudonigeran were active in the lung-nodule inhibition test; and only lentinan and dextran sulphate showed slight adjuvant activity for TSTA. It is concluded that the anti-tumour activity induced by these polysaccharides is predominantly non-specific macrophage-mediated and much weaker than that found with C. parvum.
Zhang, Yangyang; Li, Sheng; Zhang, Lina
It has been proven in our previous work that the lentinan triple helical chains with high weight-average molecular weight (M(w) = 1.71 x 10(6)) formed easily a self-entangle one, and no ordered aggregates were detected. In the present work, we used the ultrasonic method to degrade the lentinan triple helical chains to obtain a sample with a mean value of M(w) approximately 5.0 x 10(5) g/mol. Subsequently, its dilute aqueous solution properties were studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The relaxation time distributions exhibited two modes (fast and slow) with different relaxation time scales. The fast mode was attributed to the relaxation of an individual triple helical lentinan, whereas the slow mode indicated the formation of large aggregates. On the basis of the scattering wave vector dependencies for the scattering intensity and for the amplitudes and characteristic times associated with the relaxation modes, the molecular parameters were calculated by combing static LS with DLS. The values of the radius of gyration for individuals (R(g)(indi)) and aggregates (R(g)(agg)) were 48.2 and 75.4 nm, and those of the hydrodynamic radius for individuals (R(h)(indi)) and aggregates (R(h)(agg)) were 14.9 and 98.4 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the structure-sensitive dimensionless parameter of individuals (rho(indi) = 3.23) and aggregates (rho(agg) = 0.766) indicated that the individual triple helical chains were stiff, whereas the aggregates existed as compact clusters. The aggregates consisted of short triple helical chains by packing close to form "faggot-like" assembly, and the ordered aggregates (near 10%) coexisted with the predominant triple helical chain in the aqueous solution. Atomic force microscopy provided straightforward evidence on the shape of the triple helical chains and their aggregates in water.
Stephany, Mathew Paul; Chung, Stella; Handler, Marc Zachary; Handler, Nancy Stefanie; Handler, Glenn A; Schwartz, Robert A
Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis.
Wang, Jinglin; Li, Weiyong; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Ying; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Ziming; Wang, Kaiping
The antitumor effect of Lentinan is thought rely on the activation of immune responses; however, little is known about whether Lentinan also directly attacks cancer cells. We therefore investigated the direct antitumor activity of SLNT (a water-extracted polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes) and its probable mechanism. We showed that SLNT significantly inhibited proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells and suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Annxein V-FITC/PI, DAPI, AO/EB and H&E staining assays all showed that SLNT induced cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. SLNT induced apoptosis by activating Caspase-3 via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, which presented as the activation of Caspases-9 and -8, upregulation of cytochrome c and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, downregulation of NF-κB, and overproduction of ROS and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO or antioxidant NAC blocked SLNT-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that SLNT exerts direct antitumor effects by inducing cell apoptosis via ROS-mediated intrinsic and TNF-α-mediated extrinsic pathways. SLNT may thus represent a useful candidate for colon cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27888812
Basidiomycete mushrooms represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds with anticancer properties. This feature is primarily attributed to polysaccharides and their derivatives. The anticancer potential of polysaccharides is linked to their origin, composition and chemical structure, solubility and method of isolation. Moreover, their activity can be significantly increased by chemical modifications. Anticancer effects of polysaccharides can be expressed indirectly (immunostimulation) or directly (cell proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis induction). Among the wide range of polysaccharides with documented anticancer properties, lentinan, polysaccharide-K (PSK) and schizophyllan deserve special attention. These polysaccharides for many years have been successfully applied in cancer treatment and their mechanism of action is the best known. PMID:23788896
Sun, Xiaobo; Jin, Xiaozhe; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping
In the present paper, La, Eu and Yb were selected to represent light, middle and heavy rare earths to form complexes with polysaccharides through chelating coordination of carboxyl groups, which were added into polysaccharide chains by means of carboxymethylation. Their antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated using growth rate method. These rare earth complexes exhibited various antifungal activities against the tested fungi, depending on rare earth elements, polysaccharide types and fungal species. Among these three metal elements (i.e. La, Eu and Yb), Yb formed the complexes with the most effective antifungal properties. Furthermore, the results showed that ligands of carboxymethylated polysaccharides played a key role in promoting cytotoxicity of the rare earth complexes. Carboxymethylated Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide (CGAP) was found to be the most effective ligand to form complexes with antifungal activities, followed by carboxymethylated lentinan (CLNT) and carboxymethylated Momordica charantia polysaccharide (CMCP).
van Nevel, C J; Decuypere, J A; Dierick, N; Molly, K
Among substances intended to replace growth promoting antibiotics in pig nutrition, non-digestible oligosaccharides or polysaccharides could be potential alternative compounds. Therefore, the influence of beta-1,3-1,6 glucans on bacteriological, biochemical and morphological aspects of the small intestine in weaned piglets was investigated. As sources of beta-glucans, Lentinan (extract of Lentinus edodes mycelium) or dried L. edodes mycelium were added to the diet. Four homogenous groups of 5 newly weaned piglets (4 weeks of age) received one of four diets: control diet (C), C supplemented with Avilamycin (50 mg/kg, positive control), C supplemented with 0.1% of Lentinan and C supplemented with 5% of dried L. edodes mycelium powder. A first group of 10 piglets was euthanized after 11 days and the remaining 10 on day 12 of the experiment. The gastrointestinal tract was divided in segments and samples taken from digesta (stomach, proximal and distal jejunum, caecum), mucosal scrapings (jejunum) and ring shaped tissue samples (1 cm) of proximal and distal jejunum. Bacterial counts were made with digesta and mucosal samples, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were determined. Tissue samples of both jejunal sites were embedded in paraffin wax for morphometrical (villus length, crypt depth) and histological observations (numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), goblet cells, apoptotic enterocytes on villi, mitotic cells in crypts). Only the diet containing 5% of dried L. edodes consistently resulted in lower viable counts (ca. 1-2 log10 CFU) of total bacteria, E. coli, streptococci and lactic acid bacteria, and luminal and mucosal effects agreed very well. With this diet, acetate and butyrate concentrations in the distal jejunum were doubled, which is favourable in view of the trophic effect on enterocytes and colonocytes. Villus length (V) was increased with both diets containing beta-glucans while crypt depth (C) was not
Natural morchella esculenta fruits were collected and its spores were isolated to get pure mycelium. Morchella liquid was prepared by submersed fermentation technology. The quantitative analysis showed that the liquid is relatively high in nutrient contents and several kinds of other essential components. The nutrient contents of the liquid are as follows (g/L): carbohydrates 63.1, reduced saccharide 25.6, protein 8.3, dry material 104.7, minerals 1.5. There are also several high active micromaterials as follows: morchella lentinan 1.45 g/L, 10 kinds of essential and semiessential amino acid, 12 kinds of mineral (Fe, Zn Se, Cr, etc.). The amount of soluble proteins are high in the liquid(one wider zone and four narrow zones on electrophoresis with molecular weights of 31.0 kd, 97.4 kd, 66.2 kd and 52.9 kd respectively). The morchella liquid can be used as a new kind of base material for health foods and a flavoring agent.
Jia, Xuewei; Liu, Qingye; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina
We report on a green procedure for the stabilization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by a naturally occurring β-glucan with triple helical conformation known as Lentinan (t-LNT) in water after denaturing into single chains (s-LNT) at 140 °C. The results demonstrated that the s-LNT can interact with SeNPs through Se-O-H interaction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra, UV/vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that s-LNT coated SeNPs to form a stable nano-composite Se/s-LNT, leading to good dispersion of SeNPs. Especially, the as-prepared Se/s-LNT composite in the solution could remain homogeneous and translucent for 30 days without any precipitates. Different size distribution of SeNPs was prepared by simply controlling the concentrations of selenite sodium and the corresponding reducing agent ascorbic acid. The size effect of SeNPs on anti-tumor activity was revealed that the SeNPs with more evenly particle size distribution show the higher anticancer activity.
Kumazawa, E; Tohgo, A; Soga, T; Kusama, T; Osada, Y
The antitumor effect of a synthetic lipid A analogue, DT-5461, was investigated using syngeneic tumor models in mice. Intravenous injection of DT-5461 into mice transplanted with solid tumors of MethA fibrosarcoma, MH134 hepatoma, MM46 mammary carcinoma, Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL), and colon adenocarcinomas 26 and 38 resulted in significant reductions in the weight of all tumors except Colon 26, with marked hemorrhagic necrosis of tumor tissues. Efficacy was almost equal to that of an Escherichia coli-type synthetic lipid A (compound 506), and also to those of some chemotherapeutics including Adriamycin, mitomycin C, fluorouracil and cisplatin. Furthermore, DT-5461 was more effective than other immunotherapeutics, including picibanil (OK-432) and lentinan. However, its antitumor effects were inferior to those of Adriamycin or OK-432 against the malignant ascites caused by intraperitoneal inoculation with MethA or with MH134 cells; life span was not prolonged by either intraperitoneal or intravenous administration. In addition, although DT-5461 showed direct inhibitory effects on the in vitro growth of MethA or MH134, these were much weaker than those of Adriamycin. These findings clearly indicated that DT-5461 with systemic administration is a highly effective antitumor agent on solid tumors, and suggest that the antitumor effect of DT-5461 with potent necrotizing activity might derive from indirect mechanisms related to the activation of host immune systems and not to the weak direct cytotoxicity.
Kimmons, Tom E; Phillips, Mark; Brauer, David
Shiitake mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food. Growers may be able to use the presence of health-promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide growers. This paper summarizes several studies that examined the effects of shiitake strains, mushroom cap development, and length of saprophytic association on the concentrations of a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction that includes lentinan (HMWP). Concentrations of HMWP in mushrooms varied as much as 8-fold during fruiting among the 12 strains tested in these studies. Results also indicate that the concentrations of HMWP in shiitake mushrooms are influenced by the fungal phenotype and the characteristics of the environment. General trends showed that (1) mushrooms harvested at more immature stages of development (during bud break or before veil break) tended to have higher concentrations of HMWP and (2) the initial harvests of mushrooms from an inoculated log tend to have higher concentrations of HMWP than subsequent harvests. Results suggest that growers interested in maximizing the HMWP content of their mushrooms should use shiitake strains NN-430 and 569-430.
Piotrowski, Jakub; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław
Modern medicine successfully uses multiple immunomodulators of natural origin, that can affect biological reactions and support body's natural defense mechanisms including antitumor activities. Among them is a group of products derived from fungi, including schizophyllan, lentinan, polysaccharide Krestin (PSK), and polysaccharidepeptide (PSP). Present paper is focused on polysaccharidepeptide, which due to the negligible toxicity and numerous benefits for health, is increasingly used in China and Japan as an adjuvant in the treatment of cancer. PSP is a protein-polisaccharide complex with a molecular weight 100 kDa derived from Coriolus versicolor mushroom. The results of numerous studies and clinical trials confirm that it inhibits the growth of cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo settings as well as decreases cancer treatment-related adverse side effects such as fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and pain. PSP is able to restore weakened immune response observed in patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Its anti-tumor effects seemed to be mediated through immunomodulatory regulation. PSP stimulates cells of the immune system, induces synthesis of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), eicosanoids including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine, reactive oxygen species and nitrogen mediators. There is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms of PSP action. Because of its unique properties and safety, PSP may become a widely used therapeutic agent in the near future.
Sharma, Shivani; Khanna, P K; Kapoor, S
Mycelial growth in a defined medium by submerged fermentation is a rapid and alternative method for obtaining fungal biomass of consistent quality. Biomass, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) production were optimised by response surface methodology in Lentinula edodes strain LeS (NCBI JX915793). The optimised conditions were pH 5.0, temperature 26°C, incubation period of 25 days and agitation rate of 52 r/min for L. edodes strain LeS. Under the calculated optimal culture conditions, biomass production (5.88 mg mL(-1)), EPS production (0.40 mg mL(-1)) and IPS production (12.45 mg g(-1)) were in agreement with the predicted values for biomass (5.93 mg mL(-1)), EPS (0.55 mg mL(-1)) and IPS production (12.64 mg g(-1)). Crude lentinan exhibited highest antibacterial effects followed by alcoholic, crude and aqueous extracts. The results obtained may be useful for highly effective yield of biomass and bioactive metabolites.
The antitumor effect of biological preparations was examined in a double grafted tumor system. PSK is a hot water extract of cultured mycelia from Coliolus versicolor. Its protein content is about 38% and the main glycoside portion of PSK is beta-D-glucan. Lentinan is purified from fruit bodies of Lentinus edodes and is a beta-1, 3-glucan. Cepharanthin is an extract from the root of Stephania cepharantha HAYATA, consisting of 4 kinds of biscoclaurine alkaloids. TAHEEBO tea is a hot water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, the active ingredient of which is naphthoquinones. If protein-bound polysaccharides were to be used in Western medicine, these polysaccharides would be purified, but purified beta-glucan loses its beneficial effects. Similarly, when raw Cepharanthin is purified to isolate its active ingredient (an alkaloid cepharanthine), its anti-tumor effect is weakened. Clear IAP induction was observed in serum of mice treated with extracts of Coliolus versicolor and Stephania cepharantha. However, IAP induction was not observed in the serum of mice treated with purified beta-glucan or purified alkaloid. This suggests that macrophages may recognize extracts but not purified substances. In Western medicine, purified substances with known chemical structures are recognized as drugs, but overdoses of these drugs are toxic to the body, thus adverse reactions are always an issue. In Chinese medicine, mixtures containing several crude drugs are recognized as drugs, whose active ingredients are not identified. In integrative medicine, drugs are extracts that contain active ingredients with known structures and functions. We propose a Japanese version of integrative medicine which is neither Western nor Chinese.
Sakamoto, Yuichi; Nakade, Keiko; Sato, Shiho; Yoshida, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Kazuhiro; Natsume, Satoshi; Konno, Naotake
Lentinula edodes is a popular cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. Lentinula edodes is susceptible to postharvest problems such as gill browning, fruiting body softening, and lentinan degradation. We constructed a de novo assembly draft genome sequence and performed gene prediction of Lentinula edodesDe novo assembly was carried out using short reads from paired-end and mate-paired libraries and long reads by PacBio, resulting in a contig number of 1951 and an N50 of 1 Mb. Further, we predicted genes by Augustus using RNA-seq data from the whole life cycle of Lentinula edodes, resulting in 12,959 predicted genes. This analysis revealed that Lentinula edodes lacks lignin peroxidase. To reveal genes involved in Lentinula edodes postharvest fruiting body quality loss, transcriptome analysis was carried out using Super-SAGE. This analysis revealed that many cell wall-related enzymes are upregulated after harvest, such as β-1,3-1,6-glucan-degrading enzymes in glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 5, 16, 30, 55, 128, and thaumatin-like proteins. In addition, we found several chitin-related genes are upregulated, such as putative chitinases in GH family18, exo-chitinases in GH 20, and a putative chitosanase in GH 75. The results suggest that cell wall-degrading enzymes synergistically cooperate for rapid fruiting body autolysis. Many putative transcription factor genes were upregulated postharvest, such as genes containing high mobility group (HMG) domains and zinc finger domains. Several cell death-related proteins were also upregulated postharvest.Importance Our data collectively suggest that there is a rapid fruiting body autolysis system in Lentinula edodes The genes for postharvest quality loss newly found in this research will be targets for future breeding of strains that can keep freshness longer than present strains. De novo Lentinula edodes genome assembly data will be used for construction of the complete Lentinula edodes chromosome map for the future
Trudel, J; Grenier, J; Asselin, A
Enzymes were assayed for glucanase activity after denaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in gels containing beta-1,3-glucans embedded as substrate. Lentinan, curdlan, paramylon, baker's yeast alkali-insoluble glucan, baker's yeast alkali-soluble glucan and carboxymethyl (CM)-pachyman were compared to oligomeric laminarin, which is the usual substrate for assaying beta-1,3-glucanase activities. Detecting enzyme activities by aniline blue fluorescent staining was also compared with the staining of released reducing sugars by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). For the nonreduced proteins, the Driselase extract exhibited one major band at 32.5 kDa and one less intense band at 23 kDa for most substrates with the two detection procedures. No Lyticase enzyme was detected in either detection procedures for all tested substrates. For barley enzymes, no activity was revealed after aniline blue staining while one undescribed 19 kDa glucanase activity was best shown after TTC staining with curdlan, paramylon and CM-pachyman as substrates. In the case of reduced proteins, the Lyticase extract yielded three bands (33, 36 and 46 kDa) on several substrates with both detection procedures. This was the same for the barley leaf extract (32, 36 and 39 kDa). The Driselase extract showed one 42 kDa band. Many enzymes active on beta-1,3-glucans are thus best revealed when proteins are denatured and reduced and when protein renaturation after SDS-PAGE involves a pH 8.0 treatment and the inclusion of 1 mM cysteine in buffers. However, some enzymes are only detected when proteins are denatured without reduction. Finally, the use of various polymeric beta-1,3-glucan substrates different from oligomeric laminarin is necessary to detect new types of enzymes such as the 19 kDa barley glucanase.
Ko, Yuan-Tih; Lin, Yu-Ling
The objective of this study was to establish analytical approaches to quantify 1,3-beta-glucan (1,3-beta-G) in foods. Six food categories including legumes, cereals, tubers, vegetables, fruits, and mushrooms and 17 total items were tested. An extraction procedure was designed to prepare food cold-water soluble, hot-water soluble, cold-alkaline soluble, and hot-alkaline soluble fractions. A fluorescence microassay based on aniline blue dye, which bound specifically to 1,3-beta-G, was developed to measure its content in the food fractions. Curdlan was used as standard to construct the 1,3-beta-G calibration curve, and a linear correlation within a 14 microg/mL concentration range was obtained. This microassay displayed selectivities among various 1,3-beta-G species. Biologically active ones such as pachyman and yeast glucan possessed much stronger fluorescent signals than others such as laminarin and barley glucan. Possible fluorescent interference from food proteins was estimated. This assay tolerated up to 50% of bovine serum albumin in 10 microg/mL curdlan. Analysis of the four food fractions showed that besides the well-known lentinan-containing shiitake, popular foods such as celery, chin-chian leaves, carrot, and radish contained nearly 20% 1,3-beta-G in their total sugar. Soybean dry weight contained 0.8% 1,3-beta-G, which was twice the amount compared to shiitake. Snow mushroom dry weight had the highest 1,3-beta-G content, at 2.5%, and was rich in both water (0.67%) and alkaline soluble (1.87%) forms. In conclusion, this dye-binding fluorescence microassay in conjunction with the extraction procedure can be applied in the prescreening of potential foods rich in functional 1,3-beta-G.
Wasser, S P
The number of mushrooms on Earth is estimated at 140,000, yet maybe only 10% (approximately 14,000 named species) are known. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Many, if not all, Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, culture broth. Data on mushroom polysaccharides have been collected from 651 species and 7 infraspecific taxa from 182 genera of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. These polysaccharides are of different chemical composition, with most belonging to the group of beta-glucans; these have beta-(1-->3) linkages in the main chain of the glucan and additional beta-(1-->6) branch points that are needed for their antitumor action. High molecular weight glucans appear to be more effective than those of low molecular weight. Chemical modification is often carried out to improve the antitumor activity of polysaccharides and their clinical qualities (mostly water solubility). The main procedures used for chemical improvement are: Smith degradation (oxydo-reducto-hydrolysis), formolysis, and carboxymethylation. Most of the clinical evidence for antitumor activity comes from the commercial polysaccharides lentinan, PSK (krestin), and schizophyllan, but polysaccharides of some other promising medicinal mushroom species also show good results. Their activity is especially beneficial in clinics when used in conjunction with chemotherapy. Mushroom polysaccharides prevent oncogenesis, show direct antitumor activity against various allogeneic and syngeneic tumors, and prevent tumor metastasis. Polysaccharides from mushrooms do not attack cancer cells directly, but produce their antitumor effects by activating different immune responses in the host. The antitumor action of