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Sample records for lentinus edodes berk

  1. Influence of olive oil press cakes on Shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, lentinus edodes (Berk.) singer (higher basidiomycetes) fruiting bodies production and effect of their crude polysaccharides on CCRF-CEM cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Andrej; Kretschmer, Nadine; Wagner, Susanne; Boechzelt, Herbert; Klinar, Dusan; Bauer, Rudolf; Pohleven, Franc

    2012-01-01

    Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer fruiting bodies were cultivated on substrates composed of beech sawdust, wheat bran, and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (gypsum), containing different proportions of olive oil press cakes (OOPC). We determined the influence of OOPC on fruiting bodies production and proliferation of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. A negative influence of OOPC on mycelia growth and maturation was noticed. When growth medium contained 80% OOPC, fruiting bodies ceased forming. To investigate the cytotoxicity on CCRF-CEM cells in vitro, cells were treated with crude polysaccharides extracted from L. edodes fruiting bodies. Also in this case a negative correlation between OOPC content and cytotoxicity was found.

  2. Effects of different levels of wheat bran, rice bran and maize powder supplementation with saw dust on the production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer)

    PubMed Central

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Hossain, Kamal; Tania, Mousumi; Ahmed, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is increasing rapidly in Bangladesh due to its nutritional and medicinal importance with excellent flavor and longer shelf life. With the aim of increased production, we have cultivated L. edodes on saw dust (SD) supplemented with different levels (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) of wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), maize powder (MP) and their combination (WB+RB+MP = 1:1:1) to investigate the growth, yield and quality of this mushroom. Most of the growth, yield and quality parameters varied significantly when mushrooms were cultivated with different levels of supplementation. The yield of mushroom was increased with the level of each supplementation upto a certain level, and then decreased. SD supplemented with 25% WB produced the highest number of fruiting bodies (34.8/500 g packet), highest biological yield (153.3/500 g packet), and biological efficiency (76.6%) of L. edodes. But the yield of the best quality mushroom was observed on SD with 40% WB supplementation; however, the qualities were not always supplementation dose dependent. In this study, we report that 25% WB supplementation with SD may be very effective for higher yield and 40% WB supplementation for better quality of L. edodes. PMID:23961143

  3. Cellulase hyperproducers constructed from polyploids of Lentinus edodes.

    PubMed

    Toyama, H; Toyama, N

    2000-01-01

    A mycelial mat of Lentinus edodes was treated with 0.01% (w/v) colchicine solution for 240 h at 26 degrees C and autopolyploidization occurred. The mycelia were treated subsequently with the haploidizing reagent, benomyl, and fanshaped sectors were produced from colonies. Among such sectors, cellulase hyperproducers could be selected. The cellulase productivity of the hyperproducer, L1, did not decrease through five generations.

  4. Turmeric bioprocessed with mycelia from the shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom lentinus edodes (agaricomycetes) protects mice against salmonellosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extracts of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes and the spice tumeric (Curcuma longa) have both been reported to have health-promoting properties. The present study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of a bioprocessed Lentinus edodes liquid mushroom mycelia culture supplemented with turmeric ...

  5. Extracellular Enzymes Produced by the Cultivated Mushroom Lentinus edodes during Degradation of a Lignocellulosic Medium

    PubMed Central

    Leatham, Gary F.

    1985-01-01

    Although the commercially important mushroom Lentinus (= Lentinula) edodes (Berk.) Sing. can be rapidly cultivated on supplemented wood particles, fruiting is not reliable. This study addressed the problem by developing more information about growth and development on a practical oakwood-oatmeal medium. The study determined (i) the components degraded during a 150-day incubation at 22°C, (ii) the apparent vegetative growth pattern, (iii) the likely growth-limiting nutrient, and (iv) assays that can be used to study key extracellular enzymes. All major components of the medium were degraded, lignin selectively so. The vegetative growth rate was most rapid during the initial 90 days, during which weight loss correlated with glucosamine accumulation (assayed after acid hydrolysis). The rate then slowed; in apparent preparation for fruiting, the cultures rapidly accumulated glucosamine (or its oligomer or polymer). Nitrogen was growth limiting. Certain enzyme activities were associated with the pattern of medium degradation, with growth, or with development. They included cellulolytic system enzymes, hemicellulases, the ligninolytic system, (gluco-)amylase, pectinase, acid protease, cell wall lytic enzymes (laminarinase, 1,4-β-d-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase, α-d-galactosidase, β-d-mannosidase), acid phosphatase, and laccase. Enzyme activities over the 150-day incubation period with and without a fruiting stimulus are reported. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the physiology and biochemistry of growth and fruiting. PMID:16346918

  6. Starch concentrations in log-grown shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food, in part from the abundance of different polysaccharides that may have functional food activities. Polysaccharide content of shiitake and shiitake-derived products are being utilized as a promotional tool to hea...

  7. Effect of Tree Species on Enzyme Secretion by the Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, Evgeny V; Glukhova, Lubov B; Sokolyanskaya, Ludmila O; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We compared cold and hot wood extracts of 3 endemic Siberian trees-namely, Prunus padus (bird cherry), Populus tremula (aspen), and Betula sp. (birch)-on biomass production and laccase and peroxidase secretion in submerged cultures by the medicinal mushroom Lentinus edodes. Of the conditions tested, only hot Prunus extracts stimulated biomass production, whereas all extracts stimulated laccase and peroxidase secretion, albeit to different extents. A large, differential stimulation of manganese peroxidase was observed by hot Prunus extracts. The results highlight important differences between tree species in the stimulation of biomass and enzyme production by L. edodes and point to potentially interesting stimulatory factors present in hot Prunus extracts. These findings are of relevance in the use of L. edodes for medicinal or biotechnological applications.

  8. Effective Removal of Cadmium Ions from a Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluid by Lentinus edodes

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xin; Huang, Wen; Bian, Yinbing

    2014-01-01

    Lentinus edodes, a functional food, was evaluated as a potential antidote for adsorption/removal of cadmium ion from simulated gastrointestinal fluids. An adsorption/removal capacity of 65.12 mg/g was achieved by L. edodes in solutions with a pH ranging from 2.5 to 6.0, while little if any adsorption was observed in solutions with a pH under 2.5. In solutions with pH 6.0, 84% of the cadmium adsorption by L. edodes occurred in the first minute. Scanning electronic microscopic examination showed that the cell wall polysaccharides of L. edodes provided a rough sponge-like surface for effective cadmium adsorption. FTIR indicated that the carboxyl, hydroxyl and –NH groups of the cell wall polysaccharides and proteins were the primary functional groups that chemically bind with cadmium ions. The energy dispersive spectrometry further revealed that cation exchange might be attributed to cadmium biosorption. These results suggested that L. edodes was effective for cadmium detoxication, especially in low concentration. PMID:25469921

  9. Production of carpophores of Lentinus edodes and Ganoderma lucidum grown on cork residues.

    PubMed

    Riu, H; Roig, G; Sancho, J

    1997-06-01

    Cork, being widely used in industry, generates high amounts of waste of difficult elimination because of its complex biological degradation, and the high pollutant smokes from its burning. Similarities between suberin (major component of cork) and lignin suggest that fungi with high lignin degrading capacity could colonize cork residues. Basidiomycetes such as Lentinus edodes and Ganoderma lucidum, besides their capacity for degrading, are edible. Thus, while using them to degrade cork, it is also possible to obtain a food product. In this study, dry matter was reduced 40%, suberin was degraded 45%, oxidizable carbon was increased 35%, and Lentinus showed a high rate of growth. These results indicate that there is an environmental alternative to the elimination of residues from the cork industry.

  10. Effect of superfine grinding on the physico-chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric properties of Lentinus edodes mushroom powders.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jian; Chen, Long; Hong, Hui; Li, Jinlong

    2015-09-01

    Lentinus edodes is an edible mushroom commonly known as shiitake, which is the second most produced and consumed edible mushroom in the world and is an important nutrient source in the human diet. To fully use L. edodes, the mushrooms are occasionally ground into powder as a flavourful and functional food additive. This study produces powders from the cap and stipe of Lentinus edodes mushrooms through superfine grinding. These powders are composed of sub-micron range particles with various size distributions. The superfine grinding process is then compared with shear pulverisation to determine the different effects on both the cap and stipe powders in terms of particle size and physico-chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric properties. When average particle size was reduced to 0.54 and 0.46 µm, respectively, the moisture and protein content, angles of repose and slide, and water holding capacity of the powders decreased to varied extents. However, soluble dietary fibre, water solubility index, and swelling capacity increased. Scanning electron microscope images suggested that the superfine grinding process effectively changed the original surface structure of the L. edodes powders. The curves of thermogravimetric analysis and those of the derivatives of thermogravimetry indicated that superfine grinding can improve the thermostability of L. edodes powders. Furthermore, superfinely ground L. edodes powders may be used as pharmaceutical or food additives in various fields. The present study suggests that superfinely ground L. edodes powders may be applied in various fields as pharmaceutical or food additives. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Purification, characterization and anti-aging capacity of mycelia zinc polysaccharide by Lentinus edodes SD-08.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqin; Wang, Cuiqin; Gao, Xia; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Lin; Zhao, Huajie; Jia, Shouhua; Jia, Le

    2015-04-09

    In the modern society, aging had been a major problem. People may rely on many medicines to delay it. However, lots of medicines were chemosynthetic, and they would do a bad side-effect on human body. Microbial sources could be used as a potential means of producing natural antioxidants. Lentinus edodes, commercial obtained in daily life, had recently become more attractive in physiological research. Zinc was now considered as a major element in assuring the correct functioning of an organism and essential for maintaining coordination of the major homeostatic networks. To investigate the bioconversion of zinc and the physiological effects of their complex (MZPS), the present studies were processed. Mycelia polysaccharides (MPS) and mycelia zinc polysaccharides (MZPS) of Lentinus edodes SD-08 were extracted by hot water leaching and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography separately. The zinc content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The evaluation of monosaccharide compositions and proportions used gas chromatogram. The analysis of molecular weight used HPGPC chromatogram. The typical structure of polysaccharide was evaluated by IR spectrum. The antioxidant activities in vitro measured through reducing power, the scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The anti-aging activities in vivo measured through the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), GSH peroxide (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). MPS and MZPS of Lentinus edodes SD-08 were extracted and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography separately, and four fractions (MPS-1, MPS-2, MZPS-1 and MZPS-2) were obtained. In addition, MPS composing of rhamnose, arabinose and mannose (molar proportion = 1.75:1.00:3.02) and MZPS containing rhamnose, arabinose, mannose and glucose (molar proportion = 7.19:2.26:1.00:8.39) were investigated by gas chromatography

  12. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from bacterial infection. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of the bio-processed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from the edible Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial mushroom culture supplemented...

  13. Molecular characterization of shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes strains (higher Basidiomycetes) using RAPD and ITS sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shivani; Khanna, Pardeep Kumar; Kapoor, Shammi

    2014-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny in seven strains of Lentinus edodes was studied based on RAPD and their internal transcribed spacers (ITS) regions. The strains were analyzed by RAPD with 20 arbitrary primers. Fifteen primers were found efficient for the amplification of the genomic DNA. The size of the polymorphic bands were in the range of 100-1000 bp. However, the size of ITS1-2 and ITS1-4 regions varied among the strains from 278 to 575 bp and from 410 to 616 bp, respectively. The higher alignment score of the ITS 1-2 region indicated more variability in the ITS 1-4 region. Thus, on the basis of RAPD-PCR and ITS sequencing it was found that strains LeC and LeI showed a high degree of divergence from all other strains.

  14. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Dietary Lentinus edodes on Plasma, Feces and Hepatic Tissues in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ki Nam; Alam, Nuhu; Lee, Jae Seong; Cho, Hae Jin; Kim, Hye Young; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

    2011-01-01

    We investigated diet supplementation with shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies on biochemical and histological changes in hypercholesterolemic rats. Six-wk old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. A diet containing 5% Lentinus edodes fruiting bodies given to hypercholesterolemic rats reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total lipid, phospholipids, and the LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 34.33, 53.21, 75.00, 34.66, 25.73, and 71.43%, respectively. Feeding mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no detrimental effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, or enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that L. edodes significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein but increased α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red-O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. These results suggest that shiitake mushrooms could be recommended as a natural cholesterol lowering substance in the diet. PMID:22783084

  15. In vivo anticancer and immunomodulating activities of mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berkeley) Singer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Enxue; Tian, Meihong; Song, Chenyang; Yan, Jingmin; Zhou, Yifa

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential of mushrooms in modulating the immune system and/or suppressing tumor growth. Among the studied bioactive compounds in mushrooms, polysaccharides are the most important. Nontoxic fungal polysaccharides have a more important role in immunomodulating and antitumor activities which are related to their effects to act of immune effecter cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells involved in the innate and adaptive immunity. Two mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides (WPLE-N-2 and WPLE-A0.5-2), purified from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, were evaluated for their effects on the cellular immune response of Sarcoma 180 (S-180)-bearing mice. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the polysaccharides for 10 days. Significant tumor regressions of the polysaccharide groups’ mice were observed compared to the control group. These polysaccharides could induce an increase in nitrite oxide (NO) production in peritoneal macrophages, significantly increase macrophage phagocytosis of tumor-bearing mice and augment concanavalin (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocytes proliferation. Our results indicated that immunomodulating activity occurred through host mediation in response to lymphocyte proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis and induction of NO production while the antitumor activity occurred through direct cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from L. edodes can be explored as novel potential immunostimulants. Our research provides essential data to a better understanding of L. edodes bioactive compounds, especially polysaccharides. Our results also confirm the key role of β-linkages in the antitumor and immunomodulating effects of polysaccharides. PMID:27095922

  16. In vivo anticancer and immunomodulating activities of mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berkeley) Singer.

    PubMed

    Jeff, Iteku Bekomo; Fan, Enxue; Tian, Meihong; Song, Chenyang; Yan, Jingmin; Zhou, Yifa

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential of mushrooms in modulating the immune system and/or suppressing tumor growth. Among the studied bioactive compounds in mushrooms, polysaccharides are the most important. Nontoxic fungal polysaccharides have a more important role in immunomodulating and antitumor activities which are related to their effects to act of immune effecter cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells involved in the innate and adaptive immunity. Two mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides (WPLE-N-2 and WPLE-A0.5-2), purified from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, were evaluated for their effects on the cellular immune response of Sarcoma 180 (S-180)-bearing mice. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the polysaccharides for 10 days. Significant tumor regressions of the polysaccharide groups' mice were observed compared to the control group. These polysaccharides could induce an increase in nitrite oxide (NO) production in peritoneal macrophages, significantly increase macrophage phagocytosis of tumor-bearing mice and augment concanavalin (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocytes proliferation. Our results indicated that immunomodulating activity occurred through host mediation in response to lymphocyte proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis and induction of NO production while the antitumor activity occurred through direct cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from L. edodes can be explored as novel potential immunostimulants. Our research provides essential data to a better understanding of L. edodes bioactive compounds, especially polysaccharides. Our results also confirm the key role of β-linkages in the antitumor and immunomodulating effects of polysaccharides.

  17. Bioconcentration factors and potential human health risks of heavy metals in cultivated Lentinus edodes in Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Donghui; Xie, Han; Song, Haihai; Xu, Heng; Wu, Yumeng

    2015-02-01

    Lentinus edodes is one of the most popular edible mushrooms in the market. However, it contains heavy metals that are poisonous to humans even at trace concentrations. The concentrations and bioconcentration factors of five heavy metals in cultivated L. edodes in Chengdu were studied, and the potential health risks to local residents associated with the cultivated L. edodes consumption were evaluated. Total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), and mercury were determined in the fruiting bodies and the substrate from three agricultural areas. Fruiting bodies samples were collected at different growing times (2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The bioconcentration factors of heavy metals from the substrate to the fruiting bodies were estimated, and the potential health risks of local L. edodes were assessed. Because antioxidant enzymes can resist the creation of reactive oxygen species and defend against heavy metals, the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) in the fruiting bodies were also determined. A gradual change in heavy metal concentrations occurred across the growing time of the fruiting bodies. Cd transferred from the substrate to the fruiting bodies in larger concentrations than did Pb, Cr, and As. However, Chengdu residents were not exposed to significant health risks associated with consumption of local L. edodes. Nevertheless, more attention should be focused on children because of their higher sensitivity to metal pollutants.

  18. Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) Productivity and Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Profiles during Wheat Straw and Tree Leaf Bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil D

    2015-01-01

    Two commercial strains of Lentinus edodes have been comparatively evaluated for their productivity and lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles in mushroom cultivation using wheat straw or tree leaves as the growth substrates. Both substrates are profitable for recycling into shiitake fruit bodies. L. edodes 3715 gave the lowest yield of mushroom during tree leaves bioconversion with the biological efficiency (BE) 74.8% while the L. edodes 3721 BE achieved 83.4%. Cultivation of shiitake on wheat straw, especially in the presence of additional nitrogen source, increased the L. edodes 3721 BE to 92-95.3% owing to the high hydrolases activity and favorable conditions. Despite the quantitative variations, each strain of L. edodes had a similar pattern for secreting enzymes into the wheat straw and tree leaves. The mushrooms laccase and MnP activities were high during substrate colonization and declined rapidly during primordia appearance and fruit body development. While oxidase activity decreased, during the same period cellulases and xylanase activity raised sharply. Both cellulase and xylanase activity peaked at the mature fruit body stage. When mushrooms again shifted to the vegetative growth, oxidase activity gradually increased, whereas the hydrolases activity dropped rapidly. The MnP, CMCase, and FP activities of L. edodes 3721 during cultivation on wheat straw were higher than those during mushroom growth on tree leaves whereas the laccase activity was rather higher in fermentation of tree leaves. Enrichment of wheat straw with an additional nitrogen source rather favored to laccase, MnP, and FPA secretion during the vegetative stage of the L. edodes 3721 growth.

  19. [Protein content determination of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) using mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometeics].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhe-Yan; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of protein determination of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) was studied in the present paper. Wavenumbers 3 581-689 cm(-1) were used for quantitative analysis of protein content after removing of the part of obvious noises. Five points Savitzky-Golay smoothing was applied to pretreat the MIR spectra and partial least squares (PLS) model was built based on the pretreated spectra. The full spectra PLS model obtained poor performance with the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) of only 1.77. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was applied to select 7 sensitive wavenumbers from the full spectra, and PLS model, multiple linear regression (MLR), back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and extreme learning machine (ELM) model were built using the selected sensitive wavenumbers. SPA-PLS model and SPA-MLR model obtained relatively worse results than SPA-BPNN model and SPA-ELM model. SPA-ELM obtained the best results with correlation coefficient of prediction (R(p)) of 0.899 5, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.431 3 and RPD of 2.18. The overall results indicated that MIR combined with chemometrics could be used for protein content determination of shiitake mushroom, and SPA could select sensitive wavenumbers to build more accurate models instead of the full spectra.

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of extracts from Lentinus edodes mycelia on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Soichiro; Watanabe, Aiko; Tamesada, Makoto; Nakamura, Risa; Hayashi, Shinji; Kodama, Daisuke; Kawase, Masaya; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2004-12-01

    Mycelia of the edible mushroom Lentinus edodes (shiitake) were cultivated in a solid medium, and two fractions were obtained by hot-water extraction (L.E.M.) and then ethanol extraction followed by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography (ESMe). The L.E.M. and ESMe were then examined for their hepatoprotective effect on dimethylnitrosamine-injured mice. Both fractions decreased the blood aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, partially inhibited the overaccumulation of collagen fibrils, and suppressed the overexpression of genes for alpha-smooth muscle actin and/or heat-shock protein 47 in the mice. Both fractions also inhibited the morphologic change and proliferation of isolated rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which play a central role in liver fibrosis, in a dose-dependent manner and without cytotoxicity. The direct interaction between the extracts and HSCs appears to be important for the hepatoprotective activity. Polyphenols contained in both fractions are considered to be potential candidates for expressing the hepatoprotective effects. The finding of antifibrotic activity in extracts from an edible mushroom is expected to be helpful in the development of hepatoprotective agents with few side effects.

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dried powder formulations of Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Andreia A J; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Dueñas, Montserrat; Barros, Lillian; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2013-06-15

    Several mushroom species have been pointed out as sources of antioxidant compounds, in addition to their important nutritional value. Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes are among the most studied species all over the world, but those studies focused on their fruiting bodies instead of other presentations, such as powdered preparations, used as supplements. In the present work the chemical composition (nutrients and bioactive compounds) and antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) of dried powder formulations of the mentioned mushroom species (APF and LPF, respectively) were evaluated. Powder formulations of both species revealed the presence of essential nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, they present a low fat content (<2g/100g) and can be used in low-calorie diets, just like the mushrooms fruiting bodies. APF showed higher antioxidant activity and higher content of tocopherols and phenolic compounds (124 and 770 μg/100g, respectively) than LPF (32 and 690 μg/100g). Both formulations could be used as antioxidant sources to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress.

  2. Decolorization of synthetic dyes by solid state cultures of Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes producing manganese peroxidase as the main ligninolytic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Boer, Cinthia Gandolfi; Obici, Larissa; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane M

    2004-09-01

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes to decolorize several synthetic dyes was investigated using solid state cultures with corn cob as substrate. Cultures, containing amido black, congo red, trypan blue, methyl green, remazol brilliant blue R, methyl violet, ethyl violet and Poly R478 at 200 ppm, were completely decolorized after 18 days of incubation. Partial decolorization was observed in the cultures containing 200 ppm of brilliant cresyl blue and methylene blue. High manganese peroxidase activity (2600 U/g substrate), but very low lignin peroxidase (<10 U/g substrate) and laccase (<16 U/g substrate) activities were detected in the cultures. In vitro, the dye decolorization was markedly decreased by the absence of manganic ions and H2O2. These data suggest that manganese peroxidase appear to be the main responsible for the capability of L. edodes to decolorize synthetic dyes.

  3. Assessment of the Safety of the Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes), in Rats: Biochemical, Hematological, and Antioxidative Parameters.

    PubMed

    Grotto, Denise; Bueno, Daiane Cristovam Rosa; Ramos, Gabriela Karine de Almeida; da Costa, Susi Rosa; Spim, Sara Rosicler Vieira; Gerenutti, Marli

    2016-01-01

    Lentinus edodes is an edible mushroom studied for use, or as an adjunct, in the prevention of illnesses such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and cancer. Despite the functional properties of L. edodes, the doses commonly reported in experimental studies are much higher than those actually consumed. Thus, we aimed to establish the optimum intake levels of L. edodes in vivo. Four groups of male Wistar rats received dry and powdered L. edodes reconstituted in water for 30 days: control (water only), L. edodes 100 mg/kg, L. edodes 400 mg/kg, and L. edodes 800 mg/kg. Biochemical and hematological parameters were assessed using commercial kits. Antioxidant parameters were quantified spectrophotometrically. Neither cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, nor transaminase activity was different among any of the L. edodes concentrations. However, fructosamine concentrations were significantly decreased in groups consuming L. edodes at 100 or 400 mg/kg. A significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration was found in the 400 and 800 mg/kg/day L. edodes groups, and leukopenia occurred in rats that consumed L. edodes 800 mg/kg/day compared with the control group. L. edodes at 100 and 400 mg/kg increased amounts of reduced glutathione compared with the control group. L. edodes was effective as an antioxidant at 100 and 400 mg/kg, but at 400 and 800 mg/kg some disturbances were observed, such as reductions in hemoglobin and leukocytes. In summary, this study has potential benefits for scientific development because the safe daily intake of L. edodes (at 100 mg/kg) is, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in a preclinical study.

  4. Elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms in liquid Culture: Composition and mechanism of protection against allergic asthma in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of a bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia bark extract (BPUBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture against allergic asthma biomarkers in U266B1 leukemia cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cel...

  5. Production of the bioactive compound eritadenine by submerged cultivation of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mycelia.

    PubMed

    Enman, Josefine; Hodge, David; Berglund, Kris A; Rova, Ulrika

    2008-04-23

    Fruit bodies and mycelia of shiitake mushroom ( Lentinus edodes) have been shown to contain the cholesterol-reducing compound eritadenine, 2( R),3( R)-dihydroxy-4-(9-adenyl)butyric acid. In the search for a production method for eritadenine, shiitake mycelia were investigated in the present study. The mycelia were cultivated both in shake flasks and in bioreactors, to investigate the effects of pH, stirring rate, and reactor type on the production and distribution of eritadenine. Both the biomass and the culture broth were examined for their eritadenine content. In the shake flasks, the final concentration of eritadenine was 1.76 mg/L and eritadenine was equally distributed between the mycelia and the growth media. In the bioreactors, the shiitake mycelia were found to contain eritadenine in relatively low levels, whereas the majority, 90.6-98.9%, was detected in the growth media. Applying a stirring rate of 250 rpm during bioreactor cultivation resulted in the highest eritadenine concentrations: 10.23 mg/L when the pH was uncontrolled and 9.59 mg/L when the pH was controlled at 5.7. Reducing the stirring rate to 50 rpm resulted in a decreased eritadenine concentration, both at pH 5.7 (5.25 mg/L) and when pH was not controlled (5.50 mg/L). The mycelia in the shake flask cultures appeared as macroscopic aggregates, whereas mycelia cultivated in bioreactors grew more as freely dispersed filaments. This study demonstrates for the first time the extra- and intracellular distribution of eritadenine produced by shiitake mycelial culture and the influence of reactor conditions on the mycelial morphology and eritadenine concentrations.

  6. Characterization of Lentinus edodes β-glucan influencing the in vitro starch digestibility of wheat starch gel.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haining; Chen, Zhongqiu; Feng, Tao; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jingsong; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhaofeng; Ye, Ran

    2017-06-01

    Lentinus edodes β-glucan (abbreviated LEBG) was prepared from fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes. The average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) of LEBG were measured to be 1.868×10(6)g/mol and 1.007, respectively. In addition, the monosaccharide composition of LEBG was composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose with a molar ratio of 5:11:18:644:16. After adding LEBG, both G' and G″ of starch gel increased. This is mainly because the connecting points between the molecular chains of LEBG and starch formed so that gel network structures were enhanced. The peak temperature in the heat flow diagram shifted to a higher temperature and the peak area of the endothermic enthalpy increased. Furthermore, LEBG can significantly inhibit starch hydrolysis. The predicted glycemic index (pGI) values were reduced when starch was replaced with LEBG at 20% (w/w). It might indicate that LEBG was suitable to develop low GI noodle or bread. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Mycelia exhibits potential antitumor activity on laryngeal squamous cancer cell line Hep-2.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiangyu; Liu, Ruihua; Liu, Jianli; Huo, Yapeng; Yang, Wei; Zeng, Meng; Yang, Chao

    2013-11-01

    A novel polysaccharide [Lentinus edodes mycelia polysaccharide 2 (LMP2)] with a molecular weight of 2.27 × 10(4) Da was isolated from the Lentinus edodes mycelia and purified by Sephadex G-200 and diethylaminoethyl-32 column chromatography. HPLC results indicated that LMP2 contained mannose, arabinose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose with a relative molar ratio of 1:0.74:3.23:1.18:10.98. Its antitumor activity was evaluated in vitro by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation assay, and transwell assay. LMP2 showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Hep-2 cells, and at the concentration of 200 mg/ml, the inhibition ratio was 37.2 % after 72 h. Furthermore, colony formation of Hep-2 cells was reduced significantly after treatment with LMP2. Invasion of Hep-2 cells was inhibited significantly by LMP2. These results suggested that LMP2 could be explored as a potential antitumor material for laryngeal carcinoma.

  8. Physicochemical responses and microbial characteristics of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) to gum arabic coating enriched with natamycin during storage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjia; Feng, Lifang; Zheng, Xiaolin; Li, Jianrong

    2013-06-01

    Physicochemical responses and microbial characteristics of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) to gum arabic (GA) coating incorporating natamycin (NA) during storage were investigated. Mushroom weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, total sugar, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, and microbial and sensory quality were measured. Mushroom coated with gum arabic+natamycin (GANA) maintained tissue firmness and showed reduction in microbial counts from yeasts and moulds compared with the control. In addition, GANA coating also delayed changes in the soluble solids concentration, total sugar and ascorbic acid. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of GANA coating by maintaining the overall quality of shiitake mushroom during the storage period. The efficiency was better than that of GA or NA treatment alone. Our study suggests that GANA has the potential to improve the quality of shiitake mushroom and extend its shelf-life up to 16d. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of a CAP (adenylyl-cyclase-associated protein) homologous gene in Lentinus edodes and its functional complementation of yeast CAP mutants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G L; Miyazaki, Y; Nakagawa, T; Tanaka, K; Shishido, K; Matsuda, H; Kawamukai, M

    1998-04-01

    The adenylyl-cyclase-associated protein, CAP, was originally identified in yeasts as a protein that functions in both signal transduction and cytoskeletal organization. This paper reports the identification of a cDNA and genomic DNA that encodes a CAP homologue from the mushroom Lentinus edodes. The L. edodes cap gene contains eight introns and an ORF encoding a 518 amino acid protein. The L. edodes CAP is 35.5% and 40.9% identical at the amino acid level with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAP and Schizosaccharomyces pombe CAP, respectively. The C-terminal domain shows greater homology (39-46% identity) with yeast CAPs than does the N-terminal domain (27-35% identity). Southern blotting and Northern blotting results suggest that L. edodes cap is a single-copy gene and uniformly expressed. Expression of the L. edodes CAP in both Schiz. pombe and Sacch. cerevisiae complemented defects associated with the loss of the C-terminal domain function of the endogenous CAP. By using a yeast two-hybrid assay, an interaction was demonstrated between the L. edodes CAP and Schiz. pombe actin. This result and the functional complementation test indicate that CAP from L. edodes has a conserved C-terminal domain function.

  10. The influence of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake mushroom) preparations on bacteriological and morphological aspects of the small intestine in piglets.

    PubMed

    van Nevel, C J; Decuypere, J A; Dierick, N; Molly, K

    2003-12-01

    Among substances intended to replace growth promoting antibiotics in pig nutrition, non-digestible oligosaccharides or polysaccharides could be potential alternative compounds. Therefore, the influence of beta-1,3-1,6 glucans on bacteriological, biochemical and morphological aspects of the small intestine in weaned piglets was investigated. As sources of beta-glucans, Lentinan (extract of Lentinus edodes mycelium) or dried L. edodes mycelium were added to the diet. Four homogenous groups of 5 newly weaned piglets (4 weeks of age) received one of four diets: control diet (C), C supplemented with Avilamycin (50 mg/kg, positive control), C supplemented with 0.1% of Lentinan and C supplemented with 5% of dried L. edodes mycelium powder. A first group of 10 piglets was euthanized after 11 days and the remaining 10 on day 12 of the experiment. The gastrointestinal tract was divided in segments and samples taken from digesta (stomach, proximal and distal jejunum, caecum), mucosal scrapings (jejunum) and ring shaped tissue samples (1 cm) of proximal and distal jejunum. Bacterial counts were made with digesta and mucosal samples, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were determined. Tissue samples of both jejunal sites were embedded in paraffin wax for morphometrical (villus length, crypt depth) and histological observations (numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), goblet cells, apoptotic enterocytes on villi, mitotic cells in crypts). Only the diet containing 5% of dried L. edodes consistently resulted in lower viable counts (ca. 1-2 log10 CFU) of total bacteria, E. coli, streptococci and lactic acid bacteria, and luminal and mucosal effects agreed very well. With this diet, acetate and butyrate concentrations in the distal jejunum were doubled, which is favourable in view of the trophic effect on enterocytes and colonocytes. Villus length (V) was increased with both diets containing beta-glucans while crypt depth (C) was not

  11. (1-3)(1-6)-β-glucan-enriched materials from Lentinus edodes mushroom as a high-fibre and low-calorie flour substitute for baked foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyoung; Lee, Seung Mi; Bae, In Young; Park, Hyuk-Gu; Gyu Lee, Hyeon; Lee, Suyong

    2011-08-15

    Extensive physiological and biological emphasis has been placed on pharmaceutical and medicinal uses of mushrooms containing β-glucans, but their incorporation into processed functional foods is quite limited. Thus, low-grade Lentinus edodes mushrooms were utilised to produce β-glucan-enriched materials (BGEMs), which were evaluated as a high-fibre and low-calorie substitute for wheat flour. The fractions obtained from Lentinus edodes mushrooms contained 514 g kg⁻¹ of (1-3)-β-glucans with (1-6)-β-linked side chains and the chemical structure was confirmed by ¹³C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. Replacement of a portion of the wheat flour with BGEMs resulted in the solutions with lower values of pasting parameters and also caused significant changes in starch gelatinisation. When BGEMs were incorporated into cake formulations, batter viscosity increased with more shear-thinning behaviours and elastic properties improved. Overall, the cakes containing more BGEMs showed decreased volume and increased hardness while no significant differences were observed between the control and BGEM cakes containing 1 g of β-glucan per serving. As a wheat flour substitute, the BGEMs that were prepared from low-grade Lentinus edodes mushrooms, could be successfully used to produce cakes containing 1 g of β-glucan per serving with quality attributes similar to those of the control. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A Bioprocessed Polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Mycelia Cultures with Turmeric Protects Chicks from a Lethal Challenge of Salmonella Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Han, Dalmuri; Lee, Hyung Tae; Lee, June Bong; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, Sang Jong; Yoon, Jang Won

    2017-02-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes mushroom mycelia cultures supplemented with black rice bran can protect mice against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia and reduce the mortality from Salmonella Typhimurium infection through upregulated T-helper 1 immunity. Here, we report that a BPP from L. edodes mushroom mycelia liquid cultures supplemented with turmeric (referred to as BPP-turmeric) alters chicken macrophage responses against avian-adapted Salmonella Gallinarum and protects chicks against a lethal challenge from Salmonella Gallinarum. In vitro analyses revealed that the water extract of BPP-turmeric (i) changed the protein expression or secretion profile of Salmonella Gallinarum, although it was not bactericidal, (ii) reduced the phagocytic activity of the chicken-derived macrophage cell line HD-11 when infected with Salmonella Gallinarum, and (iii) significantly activated the transcription expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in response to various Salmonella infections, whereas it repressed that of IL-4, IL-6, interferon-β, and interferon-γ. We also found that BPP-turmeric (0.1 g/kg of feed) as a feed additive provided significant protection to 1-day-old chicks infected with a lethal dose of Salmonella Gallinarum. Collectively, these results imply that BPP-turmeric contains biologically active component(s) that protect chicks against Salmonella Gallinarum infection, possibly by regulating macrophage immune responses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential efficacy of BPP-turmeric as a livestock feed additive for the preharvest control of fowl typhoid or foodborne salmonellosis.

  13. Identification of a 14-3-3 protein from Lentinus edodes that interacts with CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein), and conservation of this interaction in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G L; Yamamoto, T; Ozoe, F; Yano, D; Tanaka, K; Matsuda, H; Kawamukai, M

    2000-01-01

    We previously identified a gene encoding a CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) homologue from the edible Basidiomycete Lentinus edodes. To further discover the cellular functions of the CAP protein, we searched for CAP-interacting proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Among the candidates thus obtained, many clones encoded the C-terminal half of an L. edodes 14-3-3 homologue (designated cip3). Southern blot analysis indicated that L. edodes contains only one 14-3-3 gene. Overexpression of the L. edodes 14-3-3 protein in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad24 null cells complemented the loss of endogenous 14-3-3 protein functions in cell morphology and UV sensitivity, suggesting functional conservation of 14-3-3 proteins between L. edodes and S. pombe. The interaction between L. edodes CAP and 14-3-3 protein was restricted to the N-terminal domain of CAP and was confirmed by in vitro co-precipitation. Results from both the two-hybrid system and in vivo co-precipitation experiments showed the conservation of this interaction in S. pombe. The observation that a 14-3-3 protein interacts with the N-terminal portion of CAP but not with full-length CAP in L. edodes and S. pombe suggests that the C-terminal region of CAP may have a negative effect on the interaction between CAP and 14-3-3 proteins, and 14-3-3 proteins may play a role in regulation of CAP function.

  14. A phytase characterized by relatively high pH tolerance and thermostability from the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Ying-Ying; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Chen, Qing-Jun; Wang, He-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    A monomeric phytase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa was acquired from fresh fruiting bodies of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes. The isolation procedure involved chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, Affi-gel blue gel, and a final fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The purified phytase demonstrated the unique N-terminal amino acid sequence DPKRTDQVN, which exhibited no sequence similarity with those of other phytases previously reported. It expressed its maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 37 °C. Phytase activity manifested less than 20% change in activity over the pH range of 3.0-9.0, considerable thermostability with more than 60% residual activity at 70 °C, and about 40% residual activity at 95°C. It displayed a wide substrate specificity on a variety of phosphorylated compounds with the following ranking: ATP > fructose-6-phosphate > AMP > glucose-6-phosphate > ADP > sodium phytate > β -glycerophosphate. The phytase activity was moderately stimulated by Ca(2+), but inhibited by Al(3+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) at a tested concentration of 5 mM.

  15. A Phytase Characterized by Relatively High pH Tolerance and Thermostability from the Shiitake Mushroom Lentinus edodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Ying-Ying; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Chen, Qing-Jun; Wang, He-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    A monomeric phytase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa was acquired from fresh fruiting bodies of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes. The isolation procedure involved chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, Affi-gel blue gel, and a final fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The purified phytase demonstrated the unique N-terminal amino acid sequence DPKRTDQVN, which exhibited no sequence similarity with those of other phytases previously reported. It expressed its maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 37°C. Phytase activity manifested less than 20% change in activity over the pH range of 3.0–9.0, considerable thermostability with more than 60% residual activity at 70°C, and about 40% residual activity at 95°C. It displayed a wide substrate specificity on a variety of phosphorylated compounds with the following ranking: ATP > fructose-6-phosphate > AMP > glucose-6-phosphate > ADP > sodium phytate > β-glycerophosphate. The phytase activity was moderately stimulated by Ca2+, but inhibited by Al3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ at a tested concentration of 5 mM. PMID:23586045

  16. Turmeric Bioprocessed with Mycelia from the Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Protects Mice Against Salmonellosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of an extract from bioprocessed Lentinus edodes mycelial liquid culture supplemented with turmeric (bioprocessed Curcuma longa extract [BPCLE]) against murine salmonellosis. The BPLCE extract from the bioprocessed mycelia of the Salmonella Typhimurium into murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, elimination of intracellular bacteria, and elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Dietary administration of BPCLE activated leukocytes from the mice infected with Salmonella through the intraperitoneal route. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cytokines produced by splenocytes from infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of Th1 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology showed that dietary administration of BPCLE protected against necrosis of the liver resulting from a sublethal dose of Salmonella. In addition, the treatment (1) extended the lifespan of lethally infected mice, (2) suppressed the invasion of Salmonella into human Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, (3) increased excretion of the bacterium in the feces, (4) suppressed the translocation of the Salmonella to internal organs, and (5) increased total immunoglobulin A in both serum and intestinal fluids. BPCLE protected the mice against salmonellosis via cooperative effects that include the upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction, prevention of translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelial cells, and increased immunoglobulin A production in serum and intestinal fluids.

  17. Effect of alginate/nano-Ag coating on microbial and physicochemical characteristics of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjia; Feng, Lifang; Wang, Yanbo

    2013-11-15

    The effect of a novel alginate/nano-Ag coating material on the preservation quality of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) during 4±1°C storage was investigated. The results showed that the alginate/nano-Ag coating had quite a beneficial effect on the physicochemical and sensory quality, compared to the control treatment. After a 16-day storage, mushroom weight loss, softening, and browning of the alginate/nano-Ag coating were significantly inhibited. The lower microbial counts, including mesophilic, psychrophilic, pseudomonad, and yeasts and moulds, in treated mushrooms during storage should be attributed to the alginate/nano-Ag coating. Meanwhile, the contents of the reducing sugar, total sugar, total soluble solids and electrolyte leakage rate were increased to 3.9mg/g, 11.2mg/g, 5.1% and 16.5% for the alginate/nano-Ag coating and 3.7mg/g, 8.3mg/g, 6.3% and 31.7% for the control treatment. Therefore, the alginate/nano-Ag coating could be applied for preservation of the shiitake mushroom to expand its shelf life and improve its preservation quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes inhibits human colon cancer cell proliferation and suppresses tumor growth in athymic nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinglin; Li, Weiyong; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Ying; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Ziming; Wang, Kaiping

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor effect of Lentinan is thought rely on the activation of immune responses; however, little is known about whether Lentinan also directly attacks cancer cells. We therefore investigated the direct antitumor activity of SLNT (a water-extracted polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes) and its probable mechanism. We showed that SLNT significantly inhibited proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells and suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Annxein V-FITC/PI, DAPI, AO/EB and H&E staining assays all showed that SLNT induced cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. SLNT induced apoptosis by activating Caspase-3 via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, which presented as the activation of Caspases-9 and -8, upregulation of cytochrome c and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, downregulation of NF-κB, and overproduction of ROS and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO or antioxidant NAC blocked SLNT-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that SLNT exerts direct antitumor effects by inducing cell apoptosis via ROS-mediated intrinsic and TNF-α-mediated extrinsic pathways. SLNT may thus represent a useful candidate for colon cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27888812

  19. Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus species lignocellulolytic enzymes activity in submerged and solid-state fermentation of lignocellulosic wastes of different composition.

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Penninckx, Michel; Kachlishvili, Eva; Tsiklauri, Nino; Metreveli, Eka; Kharziani, Tamar; Kvesitadze, Giorgi

    2008-02-01

    Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus species from various origins were compared for the first time for their ability to produce lignocellulolytic enzyme in solid-state (SSF) and submerged (SF) fermentation of various plant raw material. Fungi cultivation in identical culture conditions revealed wide differences among both species and strains of the same species. The yields of CMCase (62.3Uml(-1)), xylanase (84.1 U ml(-1)), FPA (5.9 U ml(-1)), and laccase (4103 Ul(-1)) are the best so far obtained with the strains of oyster mushrooms. The study pointed out that the nature of lignocellulosic material and the method of fungi cultivation are factors determining the expression of lignocellulolytic potential of fungi as well as the ratio of individual enzymes in enzyme complex. SSF of tree leaves is favorable for laccase and MnP secretion by the majority L. edodes and Pleurotus strains, whereas SF provides better production of hydrolytic enzymes.

  20. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against Salmonellosis through up-regulation of the Th1 immune reaction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, but did, however stimulate uptake of the bacteria i...

  1. Influence of Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei extracts on the prevention of oxidation and retention of tocopherols in soybean oil in an accelerated storage test.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Carolina; Jorge, Neuza

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the methanol extracts of mushrooms Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the retention of tocopherols in soybean oil, when subjected to an accelerated storage test. The following treatments were subjected to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 15 days: Control (soybean oil without antioxidants), TBHQ (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of TBHQ), BHT (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of BHT), L. edodes (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of L. edodes extract) and A. blazei (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of A. blazei extract). The samples were analyzed for tocopherols naturally present in soybean oil and mass gain. The results showed, the time required to reach a 0.5% increase in mass was 13 days for TBHQ and 15 days for A. blazei. The content of tocopherols for TBHQ was 457.50 mg/kg and the A. blazei, 477.20 mg/kg.

  2. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects.

  3. Effects of semi-purified dietary fibers isolated from Lagenaria siceraria, Raphanus sativus and Lentinus edodes on fecal steroid excretions in rats.

    PubMed

    Sannoumaru, Y; Shimizu, J; Nakamura, K; Hayakawa, T; Takita, T; Innami, S

    1996-04-01

    Rats were fed diets, each of which contained 5% of the semi-purified dietary fiber (DF) preparations from three kinds of foods, continuously for a total of 7 weeks. The fat level was varied, and cholesterol (Chol) was added toward the end of the experimental period. After 7 weeks, decreases of serum and liver Chol concentrations were observed in the Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) group when compared to the cellulose (CP) group. In the absence of Chol, fecal excretions of several secondary bile acids and total bile acids were affected by the type of DF, showing an increase particularly in the Shiitake group. Total neutral steroid excretions were decreased in the test DF groups compared to the CP group at both fat levels, and were increased by Chol supplementation in all of the test DF groups. It was demonstrated that the effects of the three DF preparations on fecal steroid excretions somewhat differed depending on the dietary factors. In the absence of Chol, the lithocholic acid (LCA)/deoxycholic acid (DCA) ratio was significantly lowered in the test DF groups compared to the CP group by the fat level elevation, and was affected by the interaction of fiber with fat. This ratio responded more intensely to the dietary factors than the two other indices (composition ratios of fecal bile acids). However, this response was lost in the presence of Chol. These results suggest that further studies are warranted to examine if the intense response of the LCA/DCA ratio to the tested DF preparations and fat in the present study will also be shown to other DF and what significance it has in evaluating the function of DF.

  4. The anti-adhesive mode of action of a purified mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract with anticaries and antigingivitis properties in two oral bacterial phatogens.

    PubMed

    Signoretto, Caterina; Marchi, Anna; Bertoncelli, Anna; Burlacchini, Gloria; Papetti, Adele; Pruzzo, Carla; Zaura, Egija; Lingström, Peter; Ofek, Itzhak; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David A; Wilson, Michael; Canepari, Pietro

    2014-02-24

    In previous works we have shown that a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction from mushroom (Lentinus edodes) homogenate interferes with binding of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite and Prevotella intermedia to gingival cells. Additionally, inhibition of biofilm formation of both odonto- and periodonto-pathogenic bacteria and detachment from preformed biofilms have been described for this compound. Further purification of mushroom extract has been recently achieved and a sub-fraction (i.e. # 5) has been identified as containing the majority of the mentioned biological activities. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacterial receptors for the purified mushroom sub-fraction #5 in order to better elucidate the mode of action of this compound when interfering with bacterial adhesion to host surfaces or with bacteria-bacteria interactions in the biofilm state. Candidate bacterial molecules to act as target of this compound were bacterial surface molecules involved in cell adhesion and biofilm formation, and, thus, we have considered cell wall associated proteins (CWPs), teichoic acid (TA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of S. mutans, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. intermedia. Fifteen S. mutans CWPs and TA were capable of binding sub-fraction #5, while LTA did not. As far as P. intermedia is concerned, we show that five OMPs interact with sub-fraction # 5. Capacity of binding to P. intermedia LPS was also studied but in this case negative results were obtained. Binding sub-fraction # 5 to surface molecules of S. mutans or P. intermedia may result in inactivation of their physiological functions. As a whole, these results indicate, at molecular level, the bacterial surface alterations affecting adhesion and biofim formation. For these antimicrobial properties, the compound may find use in daily oral hygiene.

  5. Characterization and Antiproliferative Effect of Novel Acid Polysaccharides from the Spent Substrate of Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chunping; Huang, Wei; He, Peixin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a high yield of crude polysaccharide (16.73 ± 0.756%) was extracted from the spent mushroom substrate of Lentinus edodes using a hot alkali extraction method. Two groups of polysaccharides (designated as LSMS-1 and LSMS-2) were obtained from the crude extract by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and their molecular characteristics were examined by a multiangle laser-light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index detector system. The weight-average molar masses of LSMS-1 and LSMS-2 were determined to be 6.842 × 106 and 2.154 × 106 g/mol, respectively. The SEC/MALLS analysis revealed that the molecular shapes of LSMS-1 and LSMS-2 were sphere-like forms in aqueous solution. Carbohydrate composition analysis using chromatography--mass spectrometry revealed that they were both acid heteropolysaccharides. LSMS-1 comprised mainly glucose and galacturonic acid, whereas LSMS-2 mainly consisted of xylose and glucuronic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis of the purified fractions revealed typical characteristic polysaccharide groups. In addition, MTT assays with refined polysaccharide doses of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/mL suggested that both of the polysaccharide fractions exhibited antiproliferative activity against 6 tested human tumor cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, and LSMS-2 had better anticancer capacity in vitro than LSMS-1. The inhibition ratio of LSMS-2 against A549 human lung cancer cells, the SGC7901 gastric cancer cell line, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the U937 histiocytic lymphoma cell line, and the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line reached 43.55%, 29.97%, 19.63%, 18.24%, and 17.93%, respectively, at a concentration of 400 µg/mL.

  6. Effect of L-Cysteine Pretreatment on the Control of Formaldehyde and Browning of the Culinary-Medicinal Shiitake Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) during Drying and Canning Processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guijie; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Peng; Chen, Feng; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Fresh culinary-medicinal Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were pretreated by soaking in 0.1 mg/mL of L-cysteine solution for 1 hour; then the variation in formaldehyde content and browning degree were studied during hot air-drying and canning processes. The results indicated that L-cysteine pretreatment significantly inhibited the increase of formaldehyde content and browning during the drying process; these increases in the pretreatment groups ranged from 7.0% to 14.0% and 65.4% to 68.9%, respectively, of that of the control groups. While the L-cysteine pretreatment did not seem to have a significant effect on controlling the formaldehyde content during the canning process, the increase of the browning degree of the canned products of the pretreatment groups ranged from 64.8% to 78.5% of that of the control groups, indicating the inhibitive effect of L-cysteine on browning during the canning process of L. edodes. Overall, L-cysteine pretreatment improved the sensory quality of both dried and canned L. edodes.

  7. Conservation of the mycelia of the medicinal mushroom Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey. in sterile distilled water

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Monserrat; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A.; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing interest in obtaining and studying the biologically active compounds from higher basidiomycetes, such as Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Inonotus obliquus[1], but the techniques for safe long-term storage are time-consuming, susceptible to contamination, and do not prevent genetic and physiological changes during long-term maintenance [2]. A recent strategy for obtaining biologically active compounds is using mycelia submerged cultures of these mushrooms, cultured under controlled laboratory conditions [1]. However, obtaining spores of these fungi under these conditions is difficult, and in most cases the way to obtain the spores is unknown [1]. Therefore, the strategy for mycelium storage seems to be more appropriated and simple.•A modification of Castellani's method [3–7] is proposed for higher basidiomycetes, by using the mycelium of Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey., whose culture filtrates demonstrated bioactivity against lymphoma cells [8].•H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. was grown on malt extract agar with filter paper disks that were removed after 4 days, placed in tubes with sterile distilled water, and stored at 4 °C.•Filter paper disks with H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. stored at 4 °C were confirmed to be viable for up to 18 months, with no visible morphological alterations. PMID:26150929

  8. Dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes increases interferon-γ activity without causing adverse effects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes (rice bran exo-biopolymer, RBEP), a substance known to contain arabinoxylan, enhances natural killer (NK) cell activity and modulates cytokine production in healthy adults. Methods This study was designed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-group format. Eighty healthy participants with white blood cell counts of 4,000-8,000 cells/μL were randomly assigned to take six capsules per day of either 3 g RBEP or 3 g placebo for 8 weeks. Three participants in the placebo group were excluded after initiation of the protocol; no severe adverse effects from RBEP supplementation were reported. NK cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured using nonradioactive cytotoxicity assay kits and serum cytokine concentrations included interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured by Bio-Plex cytokine assay kit. This study was registered with the Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0000536). Results Supplementation of RBEP significantly increased IFN-γ production compared with the placebo group (P = 0.012). However, RBEP supplementation did not affect either NK cell activity or cytokine levels, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α, compared with the placebo group. Conclusions The data obtained in this study indicate that RBEP supplementation increases IFN-γ secretion without causing significant adverse effects, and thus may be beneficial to healthy individuals. This new rice bran-derived product may therefore be potentially useful to include in the formulation of solid and liquid foods designed for treatment and prevention of pathological states associated with defective immune responses. PMID:24755139

  9. Dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes increases interferon-γ activity without causing adverse effects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Young; Paik, Doo-Jin; Kwon, Dae Young; Park, Yongsoon

    2014-04-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes (rice bran exo-biopolymer, RBEP), a substance known to contain arabinoxylan, enhances natural killer (NK) cell activity and modulates cytokine production in healthy adults. This study was designed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-group format. Eighty healthy participants with white blood cell counts of 4,000-8,000 cells/μL were randomly assigned to take six capsules per day of either 3 g RBEP or 3 g placebo for 8 weeks. Three participants in the placebo group were excluded after initiation of the protocol; no severe adverse effects from RBEP supplementation were reported. NK cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured using nonradioactive cytotoxicity assay kits and serum cytokine concentrations included interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured by Bio-Plex cytokine assay kit. This study was registered with the Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0000536). Supplementation of RBEP significantly increased IFN-γ production compared with the placebo group (P = 0.012). However, RBEP supplementation did not affect either NK cell activity or cytokine levels, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α, compared with the placebo group. The data obtained in this study indicate that RBEP supplementation increases IFN-γ secretion without causing significant adverse effects, and thus may be beneficial to healthy individuals. This new rice bran-derived product may therefore be potentially useful to include in the formulation of solid and liquid foods designed for treatment and prevention of pathological states associated with defective immune responses.

  10. Effect of cereal brans on Lentinula edodes growth and enzyme activities during cultivation on forestry waste.

    PubMed

    Silva, E M; Machuca, A; Milagres, A M F

    2005-01-01

    To develop strategies for increasing the growth of Lentinula edodes in eucalyptus residues. To this end, we have examined the effects of cereal brans additions on production of mycelial biomass and enzymes. Three isolates of the mushroom shiitake, L. edodes (Berk. Pegler), were evaluated for enzyme and ergosterol production on eucalyptus residue supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% (w/w) of soya, wheat or rice brans. Nitrogen imput on eucalyptus residues accelerated mycelial growth by supplying the L. edodes with this limiting nutrient. High levels of enzymes activities were produced in eucalyptus residues supplemented by soya bran. Comparison of cellulose and xylanase production with manganese peroxidase (MnP) at 20% soya bran indicated that hydrolytic enzymes, but oxidative enzymes were reduced. Mycelial growth measurements revealed that eucalyptus residues supplemented with cereal brans supported fast growth of L. edodes, indicating that mycelium extension is related to the bioavailability of nitrogen. The type and concentration of nutrient supplement has a considerable effect both on substrate colonization and on the type of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes produced. These characteristics may be useful for mushroom growing. Lentinula edodes is commercially important for edible mushroom production and supplements which enhance growth and enzymes production might also be beneficial for mushroom yields.

  11. Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) Economic Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paff, L. A.; D'Allegro, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) conducted a study to measure the economic impact of the five colleges located in Berks County: Alvernia College, Albright College, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus (Penn State Berks) and Reading Area Community College (RACC). Although many higher…

  12. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  13. 75 FR 62920 - Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company-Modified Rail Certificate-in Berks County, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...--Abandonment Exemption--In Berks and Montgomery Counties, Pa., Docket No. AB 1020X (STB served Nov. 18, 2008... via OFA. See E. Penn R.R.--Abandon. Exemption--In Berks and Montgomery Counties, Pa., Docket No. AB 1020X (STB served Jan. 28, 2009). However, the County acquired the Colebrookdale Line under 49 CFR...

  14. 40. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 39. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING WEST FACE AND ENTRANCE STAIRWAY - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 38. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING COMPLETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING COMPLETE SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD ON FRONT WALL - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  20. A genome survey and postharvest transcriptome analysis in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuichi; Nakade, Keiko; Sato, Shiho; Yoshida, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Kazuhiro; Natsume, Satoshi; Konno, Naotake

    2017-03-17

    Lentinula edodes is a popular cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. Lentinula edodes is susceptible to postharvest problems such as gill browning, fruiting body softening, and lentinan degradation. We constructed a de novo assembly draft genome sequence and performed gene prediction of Lentinula edodesDe novo assembly was carried out using short reads from paired-end and mate-paired libraries and long reads by PacBio, resulting in a contig number of 1951 and an N50 of 1 Mb. Further, we predicted genes by Augustus using RNA-seq data from the whole life cycle of Lentinula edodes, resulting in 12,959 predicted genes. This analysis revealed that Lentinula edodes lacks lignin peroxidase. To reveal genes involved in Lentinula edodes postharvest fruiting body quality loss, transcriptome analysis was carried out using Super-SAGE. This analysis revealed that many cell wall-related enzymes are upregulated after harvest, such as β-1,3-1,6-glucan-degrading enzymes in glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 5, 16, 30, 55, 128, and thaumatin-like proteins. In addition, we found several chitin-related genes are upregulated, such as putative chitinases in GH family18, exo-chitinases in GH 20, and a putative chitosanase in GH 75. The results suggest that cell wall-degrading enzymes synergistically cooperate for rapid fruiting body autolysis. Many putative transcription factor genes were upregulated postharvest, such as genes containing high mobility group (HMG) domains and zinc finger domains. Several cell death-related proteins were also upregulated postharvest.Importance Our data collectively suggest that there is a rapid fruiting body autolysis system in Lentinula edodes The genes for postharvest quality loss newly found in this research will be targets for future breeding of strains that can keep freshness longer than present strains. De novo Lentinula edodes genome assembly data will be used for construction of the complete Lentinula edodes chromosome map for the future

  1. Extraction of manganese peroxidase produced by Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Silva, E M; Martins, S F; Milagres, A M F

    2008-05-01

    Lentinula edodes, commonly called shiitake, is considered a choice edible mushroom with exotic taste and medicinal quality. L. edodes grows very well and produces a range of enzymes when cultivated on eucalyptus residues. Development of appropriate experimental procedures for recovery and determination of enzymes became a widely important cash crop. In this work, enzymes produced by L. edodes were extracted using different pH buffer and determined regarding peroxidases and proteases. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) was not detected in the extracts based on veratryl alcohol or azure B oxidation. Proteases were very low while Mn-peroxidases (MnP) predominated. The optimal pH for MnP recovery was 5.0, under agitation at 25 degrees C. The oxidation of phenol red decreased after dark-colored small compounds or ions were eliminated by dialysis. The extract of L. edodes contained components of high molecular weight, such as proteases or high polyphenol, that could be involved in the LiP inactivation. L. edodes sample previously submitted to dialysis was also joined to LiP of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and a total inhibition of LiP was observed.

  2. A novel cysteine desulfurase influencing organosulfur compounds in Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Lei, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Lian-Fu; Bian, Yin-Bing; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, Salam A.; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Organosulfur compounds are the basis for the unique aroma of Lentinula edodes, and cysteine sulfoxide lyase (C-S lyase) is the key enzyme in this trait. The enzyme from Alliium sativum has been crystallized and well-characterized; however, there have been no reports of the characterization of fungi C-S lyase at the molecular level. We identified a L. edodes C-S lyase (Lecsl), cloned a gene of Csl encoded Lecsl and then combined modeling, simulations, and experiments to understand the molecular basis of the function of Lecsl. Our analysis revealed Lecsl to be a novel cysteine desulfurase and not a type of cysteine sulfoxide lyase. The pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) molecule bonded tightly to Lecsl to form a Lecsl-PLP complex. Moreover, the Lecsl had one active center that served to bind two kinds of substrates, S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and L-cysteine, and had both cysteine sulfoxide lyase and cysteine desulfurase activity. We found that the amino acid residue Asn393 was essential for the catalytic activity of Lecsl and that the gene Csl encoded a novel cysteine desulfurase to influence organosulfur compounds in L. edodes. Our results provide a new insight into understanding the formation of the unique aroma of L. edodes. PMID:26054293

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetonitrile and hexane extracts of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper highlighted the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour. Extracts of mushroom fruiting bodies were obtained using hexane and acetonitrile solvents. Acetonitrile extracts of both mushrooms exhibited higher biological activities than hexane extrac...

  4. Ground wheat straw as a substitute for portions of oak wood chips used in shiitake (Lentinula edodes) substrate formulae.

    PubMed

    Royse, Daniel J; Sanchez, Jose E

    2007-08-01

    Oak woodchips, used for production of shiitake Lentinula edodes (Berk) Pegler, are increasingly difficult to obtain due to dwindling supplies. We investigated the effect of adding ground wheat straw as a substitute for portions of oak woodchips in substrate formulae on mushroom yield and size. We also determined the effect of mushroom cropping on relative feed value (RFV) by chemical analysis of the substrate at spawning (AS) and after cropping (AC). Three formulae containing 0%, 8% and 16% ground wheat straw and 52%, 44% and 36% oak sawdust, respectively, were bulk pasteurized (111 degrees C for 20 min) in an autoclaving mixer, subjected to spawn run (21 d), browning (28 d) and a production cycle of three breaks (38 d). Mean (4 crops) mushroom yields were 11% higher when 8% wheat straw was used in the medium and 19% higher when 16% wheat straw was substituted for portions of oak sawdust. There were no significant differences in mushroom sizes between any of the treatments. Relative feed values of shiitake substrates AC increased more dramatically as more wheat straw was added to the formulae. Using mature alfalfa (full bloom) as a base value of 100%, RFVs for substrate AS were 98%, 92%, and 92% for 0%, 8% and 16% straw, respectively; RFVs AC were 118%, 120% and 133%, respectively. Substrate AC containing 16% straw had a RFV comparable to corn silage (well-eared). Fat contents of the substrates decreased by 50-62% AC, whereas potassium contents decreased by 40%. Use of ground wheat straw in synthetic medium would not only increase mushroom yield by up to 19%, but may help alleviate periodic shortages of oak sawdust. In addition, growers would avoid the added expense of aging the wheat straw (for 8-12 week) as is typically done for oak sawdust in the industry. This is the first report of RFVs for spent shiitake substrate (SSS) predicting its excellent potential for use as animal feed.

  5. Site Optimization Tracker: Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford and Washington Townships, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pilot Region-Based Optimization Program for Fund-Lead Sites in EPA Region 3. Site Optimization Tracking information for Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford and Washington Townships, Berks County, Pennsylvania.

  6. Diversity and effect of Trichoderma spp. associated with green mold disease on Lentinula edodes in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gangzheng; Cao, Xiantao; Ma, Xiaolong; Guo, Mengpei; Liu, Changhao; Yan, Lianlian; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-08-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most important edible mushrooms in China, is affected heavily by the infection of green mold that overgrows mushroom mycelia. We collected the diseased samples from main L. edodes cultivation regions in China to characterize the pathogen and to study the effect of Trichoderma spp. on L. edodes species. We identified six Trichoderma species, that is, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. viride, T. pleuroticola, T. longibrachiatum, and T. oblongisporum based on the internal transcribed spacer or tef1-α sequences and morphology characteristics. In confrontation cultures on Petri plates or in tubes, and in L. edodes cultures in a medium containing Trichoderma metabolites, L. edodes mycelia were not only distorted and swollen, but also inhibited by Trichoderma isolates. It is not possible that adjusting pH value or temperature is used for controlling L. edodes green disease, because the growth of most of Trichoderma isolates and L. edodes shared similar pH and temperature conditions. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Appraisal of Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Lentinus lepideus in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Kyung Rim; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Cheong, Jong Chun; Yoo, Young Bok; Alam, Nuhu; Ha, Tai Moon

    2011-01-01

    The wild edible mushroom, Lentinus lepideus has recently been cultivated for commercial use in Korea. While the mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes, the possible anti-hyperlipidemic action is unclear. The effects of dietary L. lepideus on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status were investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Six-wk-old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Biochemical and histological examinations were performed. A diet containing 5% L. lepideus fruiting bodies reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, total lipid, phospholipids, and the ratio of low-density to high-density lipoprotein. Body weight was reduced. The diet did not adversely affect plasma biochemical and enzyme profiles. L. lepideus reduced significantly plasma β- and pre-β-lipoprotein, while α-lipoprotein content was increased. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining revealed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. The present study suggests that a diet supplemented with L. lepideus can provide health benefits by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. PMID:22783117

  8. Heterologous expression of the Pleurotus ostreatus MnP3 gene by the laccase gene promoter in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toshitsugu; Irie, Toshikazu; Yoshino, Fumihiko

    2017-08-01

    Lentinula edodes (shiitake), which have a powerful ligninolytic system, is one of the most important edible mushrooms in Asia. In this study, we introduced the manganese peroxidase (MnP, EC 1.11.1.13) gene from Pleurotus ostreatus driven by L. edodes laccase 1 gene promoter into L. edodes for expression. The resulting transformant expressed the recombinant gene and showed a higher level of MnP activity than that of the wild-type strain.

  9. EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT FACTORS ON THE CONCENTRATION OF A HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYSACCARIDE FRACTION FROM LOG-GROWN SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiitake mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food. Growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the conc...

  10. Effects of management factors on the concentration of a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction from log-grown shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler).

    PubMed

    Kimmons, Tom E; Phillips, Mark; Brauer, David

    2010-04-14

    Shiitake mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food. Growers may be able to use the presence of health-promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide growers. This paper summarizes several studies that examined the effects of shiitake strains, mushroom cap development, and length of saprophytic association on the concentrations of a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction that includes lentinan (HMWP). Concentrations of HMWP in mushrooms varied as much as 8-fold during fruiting among the 12 strains tested in these studies. Results also indicate that the concentrations of HMWP in shiitake mushrooms are influenced by the fungal phenotype and the characteristics of the environment. General trends showed that (1) mushrooms harvested at more immature stages of development (during bud break or before veil break) tended to have higher concentrations of HMWP and (2) the initial harvests of mushrooms from an inoculated log tend to have higher concentrations of HMWP than subsequent harvests. Results suggest that growers interested in maximizing the HMWP content of their mushrooms should use shiitake strains NN-430 and 569-430.

  11. Testing a Low Molecular Mass Fraction of a Mushroom (Lentinus edodes) Extract Formulated as an Oral Rinse in a Cohort of Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Signoretto, Caterina; Burlacchini, Gloria; Marchi, Anna; Grillenzoni, Marcello; Cavalleri, Giacomo; Ciric, Lena; Lingström, Peter; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Daglia, Maria; Zaura, Egija; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David A.; Wilson, Michael; Canepari, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Although foods are considered enhancing factors for dental caries and periodontitis, laboratory researches indicate that several foods and beverages contain components endowed with antimicrobial and antiplaque activities. A low molecular mass (LMM) fraction of an aqueous mushroom extract has been found to exert these activities in in vitro experiments against potential oral pathogens. We therefore conducted a clinical trial in which we tested an LMM fraction of shiitake mushroom extract formulated in a mouthrinse in 30 young volunteers, comparing the results with those obtained in two identical cohorts, one of which received water (placebo) and the other Listerine. Plaque index, gingival index and bacterial counts in plaque samples were determined in all volunteers over the 11 days of the clinical trial. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were obtained for the plaque index on day 12 in subjects treated with mushroom versus placebo, while for the gingival index significant differences were found for both mushroom versus placebo and mushroom versus Listerine. Decreases in total bacterial counts and in counts of specific oral pathogens were observed for both mushroom extract and Listerine in comparison with placebo. The data suggest that a mushroom extract may prove beneficial in controlling dental caries and/or gingivitis/periodontitis. PMID:21912481

  12. Testing a low molecular mass fraction of a mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract formulated as an oral rinse in a cohort of volunteers.

    PubMed

    Signoretto, Caterina; Burlacchini, Gloria; Marchi, Anna; Grillenzoni, Marcello; Cavalleri, Giacomo; Ciric, Lena; Lingström, Peter; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Daglia, Maria; Zaura, Egija; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David A; Wilson, Michael; Canepari, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Although foods are considered enhancing factors for dental caries and periodontitis, laboratory researches indicate that several foods and beverages contain components endowed with antimicrobial and antiplaque activities. A low molecular mass (LMM) fraction of an aqueous mushroom extract has been found to exert these activities in in vitro experiments against potential oral pathogens. We therefore conducted a clinical trial in which we tested an LMM fraction of shiitake mushroom extract formulated in a mouthrinse in 30 young volunteers, comparing the results with those obtained in two identical cohorts, one of which received water (placebo) and the other Listerine. Plaque index, gingival index and bacterial counts in plaque samples were determined in all volunteers over the 11 days of the clinical trial. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were obtained for the plaque index on day 12 in subjects treated with mushroom versus placebo, while for the gingival index significant differences were found for both mushroom versus placebo and mushroom versus Listerine. Decreases in total bacterial counts and in counts of specific oral pathogens were observed for both mushroom extract and Listerine in comparison with placebo. The data suggest that a mushroom extract may prove beneficial in controlling dental caries and/or gingivitis/periodontitis.

  13. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  14. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lianfu; Gong, Yuhua; Cai, Yingli; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Zhangyi; Liu, Yin; Lei, Xiaoyu; Wang, Gangzheng; Guo, Mengpei; Ma, Xiaolong; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-01-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation. PMID:27500531

  15. Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) mycelium enhanced antioxidant status in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Mhd Omar, Nor Adila; Abdullah, Sumaiyah; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Aim Lentinus squarrosulus is an edible wild mushroom commonly found in Asia. This species has several interesting features such as rapid mycelial growth, and hence has the potential to be used as food, functional food, and nutraceuticals. Our previous study shows that L. squarrosulus contains potent antioxidant compounds in vitro. This study aims to investigate the in vivo bioavailability of L. squarrosulus mycelium extract and its antioxidant effect on biomarkers of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress. Methods Water extract of mycelial biomass of L. squarrosulus was analyzed for in vivo antioxidant effects, including cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), xanthine oxidase (XO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and lipid hydroperoxides (LHPs) at 0 and 28 days. GPx and XO were also analyzed in liver homogenates. Normal Sprague Dawley rats were treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract for 28 days. Results The serum CUPRAC level increased after treatment with both concentrations, indicating that there was sufficient bioavailability of the extract which contributed to the total antioxidant capacity. GPx activity in both serum and liver was increased and this correlated with LHP level after treatment with 250 mg/kg of extract, but XO activity was significantly decreased after treatment with 500 mg/kg of the extract. Lack of difference between AOPP levels implied that there were no significant changes in oxidative damage of protein after treatment. Conclusion This study clearly showed that L. squarrosulus mycelium antioxidant extract contains absorbable antioxidants that enter the circulating plasma and cause a significant acute increase in plasma antioxidant capacity. Thus, the water extract of L. squarrosulus mycelium, which can be obtained abundantly by liquid fermentation, may serve as an antioxidant ingredient in functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:26604694

  16. Developmental Research of Off-Farm Agricultural Businesses in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berks County Schools, Reading, PA.

    Student vocational interest and agricultural business surveys were conducted in Berks County, Pennsylvania to gauge career opportunities in off-farm agricultural occupations. The seven categories of businesses surveyed included agriculture supplies, agriculture mechanics, horticulture mechanics, floriculture, landscaping, turf, and garden center…

  17. Genetic dissection of fruiting body-related traits using quantitative trait loci mapping in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Yan; Bian, Yin-Bing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    To provide a better understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation of Lentinula edodes, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was employed to uncover the loci underlying seven fruiting body-related traits (FBRTs). An improved L. edodes genetic linkage map, comprising 572 markers on 12 linkage groups with a total map length of 983.7 cM, was constructed by integrating 82 genomic sequence-based insertion-deletion (InDel) markers into a previously published map. We then detected a total of 62 QTLs for seven target traits across two segregating testcross populations, with individual QTLs contributing 5.5 %-30.2 % of the phenotypic variation. Fifty-three out of the 62 QTLs were clustered in six QTL hotspots, suggesting the existence of main genomic regions regulating the morphological characteristics of fruiting bodies in L. edodes. A stable QTL hotspot on MLG2, containing QTLs for all investigated traits, was identified in both testcross populations. QTLs for related traits were frequently co-located on the linkage groups, demonstrating the genetic basis for phenotypic correlation of traits. Meta-QTL (mQTL) analysis was performed and identified 16 mQTLs with refined positions and narrow confidence intervals (CIs). Nine genes, including those encoding MAP kinase, blue-light photoreceptor, riboflavin-aldehyde-forming enzyme and cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase, and cytochrome P450s, were likely to be candidate genes controlling the shape of fruiting bodies. The study has improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation in L. edodes. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide QTL detection of FBRTs in L. edodes. The improved genetic map, InDel markers and QTL hotspot regions revealed here will assist considerably in the conduct of future genetic and breeding studies of L. edodes.

  18. Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharide alters the spatial structure of gut microbiota in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharides possess many therapeutic characteristics, including anti-tumor and immuno-modulation. The gut microbes play a critical role in modulation of immune function. However, the impact of Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharides on the gut microbes have not yet been explored. In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing technique was employed to investigate the effects of a new heteropolysaccharide L2 from Lentinula edodes on microbiota diversity and composition of small intestine, cecum, colon and distal end of colon (feces) in mice. The results demonstrated that along mouse intestine the microbiota exhibit distinctly different space distribution. L2 treatment reduced the diversity and evenness of gut microbiota along the intestine, especially in the cecum and colon. In the fecal microbial communities, the decrease of Bacteroidetes by significantly increasing Proteobacteria were observed, which were characterized by the increased Helicobacteraceae and reduced S24-7 at family level. Some OTUs, corresponding to Bacteroides acidifaciens, Alistipes and Helicobacter suncus, were found to be significantly increased in L2 treated-mice. In particular, 4 phyla Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and Planctomycetes are exclusively present in L2-treated mice. This is helpful for further demonstrating healthy action mechanism of Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharide L2.

  19. Production and molecular characterization of somatic hybrids between Pleurotus florida and Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Pijush; Sikdar, Samir Ranjan

    2014-08-01

    Nine inter-generic somatic hybrids named as pfle were produced through PEG-mediated protoplast fusion between Pleurotus florida and Lentinula edodes using double selection method. Hybridity of the newly developed strains was established on the basis of colony morphology, mycelial growth, hyphal traits, fruit-body productivity and inter single sequence repeat (ISSR) marker profiling. Hybrid population was assessed with different phenotypic variables by one-way analysis of variance. Principal component matrices were analyzed for the six phenotypic variables in scatter plot showing maximum positive correlation between each variable for all strains examined. Six ISSR primers generated 66 reproducible fragments with 98.48 % polymorphism. The dendrogram thus created based on unweighted pair-group method with mathematic averages method of clustering and Euclidean distance which exhibited three major groups between the parents and pfle hybrids. Though P. florida parent remained in one group but it showed different degrees of genetic distance with all the hybrid lines belonging to the other two groups while L. edodes was most distantly related to all the hybrid lines. L. edodes specific sequence-rich ISSR amplicon was recorded in all the hybrid lines and in L. edodes but not in P. florida. All the fruit body generating pfle hybrid lines could produce basidiocarp on paddy straw in sub-tropical climate and showed phenotypic resemblance to the P. florida parent.

  20. The two modes extension to the Berk-Breizman equation: Delayed differential equations and asymptotic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Marczynski, Slawomir

    2011-09-15

    The integro-differential Berk-Breizman (BB) equation, describing the evolution of particle-driven wave mode is transformed into a simple delayed differential equation form {nu}{partial_derivative}a({tau})/{partial_derivative}{tau}=a({tau}) -a{sup 2}({tau}- 1) a({tau}- 2). This transformation is also applied to the two modes extension of the BB theory. The obtained solutions are presented together with the derived asymptotic analytical solutions and the numerical results.

  1. Prenylhydroquinone-Derived Secondary Metabolites from Cultures of the Basidiomycete Lentinus similis BCC 52578.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Masahiko; Palasarn, Somporn; Sappana, Malipan; Srichomthong, Kitlada; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Hyde, Kevin D

    2015-08-01

    Two new prenylhydroquinone-derived compounds, Ientinospirol (1) and 1-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-l-butanone (2), were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycete Lentinus similis BCC 52578, together with the known compounds panepoxydone (3), panepoxydione (4), isopanepoxydone (5), 2,2-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2H-chromene (6), and (3R,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-methoxychroman (7). Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against all cell-lines tested, while the other compounds were inactive.

  2. A Laccase with HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activity from the Broth of Mycelial Culture of the Mushroom Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, LiJing; Wang, HeXiang; Ng, TziBun

    2012-01-01

    A 59 kDa laccase with inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (IC50 = 2.4 μM) was isolated from the broth of mycelial culture of the mushroom Lentinus tigrinus. The isolation procedure involved ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The laccase was adsorbed on both types of ion exchangers. About 95-fold purification was achieved with a 25.9% yield of the enzyme. The procedure resulted in a specific enzyme activity of 76.6 U/mg. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was GIPDLHDLTV, which showed little similarity to other mushroom laccase and other Lentinus tigrinus strain laccase. Its characteristics were different from previously reported laccase of other Lentinus tigrinus strain. Maximal laccase activity was observed at a pH of 4 and at a temperature of 60°C, respectively. This study yielded the information about the potentially exploitable activities of Lentinus tigrinus laccase. PMID:22536022

  3. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Lentinus polychrous extract.

    PubMed

    Fangkrathok, Niramai; Junlatat, Jintana; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2013-06-03

    Lentinus polychrous is a Thai local edible mushroom, traditionally used for the treatments of fever and inflammation due to snake or scorpion envenomation. The present study aimed to investigate an anti-inflammatory effect of Lentinus polychrous mycelial extract (LPME) both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxicity and suppressive effects of LPME on nitric oxide production, intracellular O2(-) production, pro-inflammatory mediator expression, TNF-α production were determined by using LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, Anti-inflammatory effect of LPME was evaluated by using carageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The LPME exhibited cytotoxicity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 280.25 ± 10.10 μg/ml and significantly suppressed the productions of NO and intracellular O2(-) with dose-dependent manner. LPME decreased the expressions of iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and COX-2 and significantly decreased the TNF-α production in LPS-activated macrophage with dose-dependent manners. Moreover, LPME showed significant suppressive effect on paw edema in rats. The results clearly revealed that the LPME inhibited NO and pro-inflammatory productions by down-regulating the gene expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to the decrease paw edema in rat which support the traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polar vineyard pruning extracts increase the activity of the main ligninolytic enzymes in Lentinula edodes cultures.

    PubMed

    Harris-Valle, Citlalli; Esqueda, Martín; Sánchez, Alfonso; Beltrán-García, Miguel; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M

    2007-10-01

    Lentinula edodes is considered an alternative recycling agent for agricultural wastes, and there have been several studies to understand the relationship between its growth and ligninolytic activity. We tested the effect of wood from viticulture pruning, extracted with solvents of differing polarity, on the biomass production and activity pattern of ligninolytic enzymes. The analysis was done by measuring the mycelial dry mass and enzyme activity of liquid growth medium during the culture of L. edodes, adding either single extracts or a combination of extracts. Polar extracts enhanced mycelial production, and the activity patterns of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, aryl alcohol oxidase, and laccase were comparable to their activities predicted by ligninolysis models proposed for other fungi. We conclude that the polar extracts could be useful for enhancing fungal biomass production and for modifying lignin degradation because the regulation of ligninolytic enzyme activity is differentially influenced by the polarity of the extract.

  5. Establishment of uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains of Lentinula edodes by crossbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chenli; Xi, Liping; Mao, Wenjun; Wan, Jianing; Li, Yan; Wang, Ying; Bao, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    The uracil auxotrophic monokaryotic strain 423-9 of Lentinula edodes was crossed with nine monokaryons (cro2-2-9, W66-1, xd2-3-2, QingKe 20A, 241-1-1, 9015-1, L66-2, 241-1-2, and Qing 23A) derived from wild type strains of L. edodes. Nine dikaryotic hybrids were established from these crosses. These hybrids were fruited and 496 single spore isolates were obtained. Among these single spore isolates, 166 were identified as monokaryons under a microscope. We screened these monokaryons on selective medium and obtained 19 uracil auxotrophic monokaryons. By using the Monkaryon-monkaryon crossing method among the uracil auxotrophic monokaryons, 56 uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains were established on selective medium. These dikaryotic strains were unable to grow on minimal medium without uracil and exhibited slow growth rates on PDA plates compared to the wild type strain. The uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains also showed more vigorous growth on sawdust cultivation medium containing uracil than that without uracil. The fruiting tests showed that they formed normal fruiting bodies on the sawdust medium containing uracil. The results show that the uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strain of L. edodes could be produced by mating, and will provide a valuable resource for future genetic studies and for spawn protection and identification. PMID:28588390

  6. Establishment of uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains of Lentinula edodes by crossbreeding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenli; Xi, Liping; Mao, Wenjun; Wan, Jianing; Li, Yan; Wang, Ying; Bao, Dapeng

    2017-03-01

    The uracil auxotrophic monokaryotic strain 423-9 of Lentinula edodes was crossed with nine monokaryons (cro2-2-9, W66-1, xd2-3-2, QingKe 20A, 241-1-1, 9015-1, L66-2, 241-1-2, and Qing 23A) derived from wild type strains of L. edodes. Nine dikaryotic hybrids were established from these crosses. These hybrids were fruited and 496 single spore isolates were obtained. Among these single spore isolates, 166 were identified as monokaryons under a microscope. We screened these monokaryons on selective medium and obtained 19 uracil auxotrophic monokaryons. By using the Monkaryon-monkaryon crossing method among the uracil auxotrophic monokaryons, 56 uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains were established on selective medium. These dikaryotic strains were unable to grow on minimal medium without uracil and exhibited slow growth rates on PDA plates compared to the wild type strain. The uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains also showed more vigorous growth on sawdust cultivation medium containing uracil than that without uracil. The fruiting tests showed that they formed normal fruiting bodies on the sawdust medium containing uracil. The results show that the uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strain of L. edodes could be produced by mating, and will provide a valuable resource for future genetic studies and for spawn protection and identification.

  7. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Light-Induced Mycelial Brown Film Formation in Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Li Hua; Tan, Qi; Bao, Da Peng; Zhang, Xue Hong; Jian, Hua Hua; Li, Yan; Yang, Rui heng

    2016-01-01

    Light-induced brown film (BF) formation by the vegetative mycelium of Lentinula edodes is important for ensuring the quantity and quality of this edible mushroom. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenotype is still unclear. In this study, a comparative proteomic analysis of mycelial BF formation in L. edodes was performed. Seventy-three protein spots with at least a twofold difference in abundance on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) maps were observed, and 52 of them were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS). These proteins were classified into the following functional categories: small molecule metabolic processes (39%), response to oxidative stress (5%), and organic substance catabolic processes (5%), followed by oxidation-reduction processes (3%), single-organism catabolic processes (3%), positive regulation of protein complex assembly (3%), and protein metabolic processes (3%). Interestingly, four of the proteins that were upregulated in response to light exposure were nucleoside diphosphate kinases. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic analysis of the mechanism of BF formation in L. edodes. Our data will provide a foundation for future detailed investigations of the proteins linked to BF formation. PMID:27868065

  8. Characterization, molecular cloning, and differential expression analysis of laccase genes from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Kwan, H S

    1999-11-01

    The effect of different substrates and various developmental stages (mycelium growth, primordium appearance, and fruiting-body formation) on laccase production in the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes was studied. The cap of the mature mushroom showed the highest laccase activity, and laccase activity was not stimulated by some well-known laccase inducers or sawdust. For our molecular studies, two genomic DNA sequences, representing allelic variants of the L. edodes lac1 gene, were isolated, and DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that lac1 encodes a putative polypeptide of 526 amino acids which is interrupted by 13 introns. The two allelic genes differ at 95 nucleotides, which results in seven amino acid differences in the encoded protein. The copper-binding domains found in other laccase enzymes are conserved in the L. edodes Lac1 proteins. A fragment of a second laccase gene (lac2) was also isolated, and competitive PCR showed that expression of lac1 and lac2 genes was different under various conditions. Our results suggest that laccases may play a role in the morphogenesis of the mushroom. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation in this economically important edible fungus.

  9. [Producing area identification of Letinus edodes using mid-infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhe-Yan; Zhang, Chu; Liu, Fei; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, Mid-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the producing area of Letinus edodes, and relevance vector machine (RVM) was put forward to build classification models as a novel classification technique, and they obtained good performances. The head and the tail of the acquired mid-infrared spectra with the absolute noise were cut off, and the remaining spectra in the range of 3,581-689 cm(-1) (full spectra) of Letinus edodes were preprocessed by multiplicative scatter correction (MSC). Five classification techniques, including partial least Squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), K-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN), support vector machine (SVM) and RVM, were applied to build classification models based on the preprocessed full spectra. All classification models obtained classification accuracy over 80%, KNN, SVM and RVM models based on full spectra obtained similar and good performances with classification accuracy over 90% in both the calibration set and the prediction set. The weighted regression coefficients (Bw) were used to select effective wave numbers of mid-infrared spectra and 6 effective wave numbers in total were selected on the basis of the weighted regression coefficients of PLS-DA model based on full spectra. PLS-DA, KNN, SVM and RVM models were built using these effective wave numbers. Compared with the classification models based on full spectra, PLS-DA models based on effective wave numbers obtained relatively worse results with classification accuracy less than 80%, and KNN, SVM and RVM obtained similar results in both calibration set and prediction set with classification accuracy over 90%. RVM performed well with classification rate over 90% based on full spectra and effective wave numbers. The overall results indicated that producing area of Letinus edodes could be identified by mid-infrared spectroscopy, while wave number selection and the RVM algorithm could be

  10. Decolorization of synthetic melanins by crude laccases of Lentinus polychrous Lév.

    PubMed

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2013-01-01

    Melanins are complex natural pigments that darken the skin and are difficult to degrade. This study evaluated synthetic melanin decolorization by the crude laccase from fungus Lentinus polychrous in the absence and presence of selected redox mediators. The greatest melanin decolorization activity was 87 % at pH 6.5 within 3 h in the presence of 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS), whereas only about 22 % melanin decolorized at pH 5.0 in case of no mediator. The optimum temperatures for melanin decolorization in the absence and presence of ABTS were 55 and 35°C, respectively. Using a natural redox mediator, 1.0 mmol/L vanillin leads to 45 % melanin decolorization. Our results suggest the possibility of applying vanillin for L. polychrous laccase-catalyzed decolorization of melanin.

  11. 76 FR 73684 - Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks... Adjustment Assistance on October 19, 2011, applicable to workers of Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Reading.../Robert Half International were employed on- site at the Reading, Pennsylvania location of Tiger Drylac...

  12. 77 FR 3500 - Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...] Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment Services... Powder Coatings, Inc., Reading, Pennsylvania. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of powder coatings. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 3, 2011 (76...

  13. Oxalic Acid from Lentinula edodes Culture Filtrate: Antimicrobial Activity on Phytopathogenic Bacteria and Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, A-Min; Lee, In-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Yeop

    2016-01-01

    The culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes shows potent antimicrobial activity against the plant pathogenic bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum. Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted using Diaion HP-20 column chromatography, and the insoluble active compound was not adsorbed on the resin. Further fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggested that the active compounds were organic acids. Nine organic acids were detected in the culture filtrate of L. edodes; oxalic acid was the major component and exhibited antibacterial activity against nine different phytopathogenic bacteria. Quantitative analysis by HPLC revealed that the content of oxalic acid was higher in the water extract from spent mushroom substrate than in liquid culture. This suggests that the water extract of spent L. edodes substrate is an eco-friendly control agent for plant diseases. PMID:28154495

  14. Oxalic Acid from Lentinula edodes Culture Filtrate: Antimicrobial Activity on Phytopathogenic Bacteria and Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses.

    PubMed

    Kwak, A-Min; Lee, In-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Yeop; Yun, Bong-Sik; Kang, Hee-Wan

    2016-12-01

    The culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes shows potent antimicrobial activity against the plant pathogenic bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum. Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted using Diaion HP-20 column chromatography, and the insoluble active compound was not adsorbed on the resin. Further fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggested that the active compounds were organic acids. Nine organic acids were detected in the culture filtrate of L. edodes; oxalic acid was the major component and exhibited antibacterial activity against nine different phytopathogenic bacteria. Quantitative analysis by HPLC revealed that the content of oxalic acid was higher in the water extract from spent mushroom substrate than in liquid culture. This suggests that the water extract of spent L. edodes substrate is an eco-friendly control agent for plant diseases.

  15. Whole genome de novo sequencing and genome annotation of the world popular cultivated edible mushroom, Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Shim, Donghwan; Park, Sin-Gi; Kim, Kangmin; Bae, Wonsil; Lee, Gir Won; Ha, Byeong-Suk; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Kim, Myungkil; Ryoo, Rhim; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Nou, Ill-Sup; Koo, Chang-Duck; Hong, Chang Pyo; Ryu, Hojin

    2016-04-10

    Lentinula edodes, the popular shiitake mushroom, is one of the most important cultivated edible mushrooms. It is used as a food and for medicinal purposes. Here, we present the 46.1 Mb draft genome of L. edodes, comprising 13,028 predicted gene models. The genome assembly consists of 31 scaffolds. Gene annotation provides key information about various signaling pathways and secondary metabolites. This genomic information should help establish the molecular genetic markers for MAS/MAB and increase our understanding of the genome structure and function.

  16. [Relationship between the aggressiveness and catalase activity of Septoria nodorum berk. in wheat].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I V; Iarullina, L G; Burkhanova, G F; Zaĭkina, E A

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of hydrogen peroxide (H202) generation, the character of a fungal catalase gene expression, and the catalase activity in wheat plants, infected with Septoria nodorum Berk. strains differing in their aggressiveness, has been carried out. The decreased intensity of H202 accumulation in infected tissues, influenced by an aggressive S. nodorum strain and caused by the enhanced transcriptional activity of the fungal catalase gene and the heightened synthesis of its product, has been revealed to be more expressed compared to a similar decrease influenced by a less aggressive strain. An assumption was made that the expression activity of the catalase gene and, therefore, the activity ofcatalase involved in the regulation of the H202 content in the infected zone represent important factors providing high.aggressiveness and pathogenicity of S. nodorum.

  17. Biodegradation of oak (Quercus alba) wood during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes): a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Vane, Christopher H; Drage, Trevor C; Snape, Colin E

    2003-02-12

    The chemical transformations that occur during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) on oak (Quercus alba) were investigated to improve mushroom cultivation and utilization of the spent substrate. Oak logs were decayed by L. edodes over 8 years, during which time they were sampled at six intervals (30, 40, 66, 76, 77, and 101 months). Fresh and decayed oak samples were analyzed using solid-state (13)C NMR and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Degraded oak exhibited lower carbon contents and increased oxygen content compared to the control. Solid-state (13)C NMR analysis revealed that polysaccharides were the major component of both fresh and decayed oak but that L. edodes mediated the preferential loss of cellulose and xylans as compared to lignin, which remained in an altered form. Several trends point toward the degradation of lignin, including a decrease in the proportion of syringyl units as compared to guaiacyl units and a reduction in side-chain length. An increase in guaiacyl and syringyl acid-to-aldehyde ratios occurred with growth, which suggested that the fungus had caused oxidation of Calpha-Cbeta bonds. The overall effect of L. edodes on oak is similar to that of many white-rot fungi, which simultaneously degrade all cell wall components.

  18. Characterization of the post-harvest changes in gene transcription in the gill of the Lentinula edodes fruiting body.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuichi; Nakade, Keiko; Sato, Toshitsugu

    2009-08-01

    We compared the gene expression patterns of Lentinula edodes fresh fruiting bodies and fruiting bodies 3 days after harvest, by suppression subtractive hybridization, to characterize the physiologic changes that occur after harvest, such as gill browning and cell wall lysis of the fruiting body, which are responsible for the loss of food quality and value. We found increase of transcription levels of several enzyme encoding genes, such as, two phenol oxidases encoding genes (tyr tyrosinase, lcc4 laccase), and several cell wall degradation-related enzyme-encoding genes, such as mixed-linked glucanase (mlg1), chitinases (chi1, chi2), chitin deacetylase (chd1), and chitosanase (cho1), after harvesting. We isolated a putative transcription factor-encoding gene (L. edodes exp1) with high similarity to exp1 from Coprinopsis cinerea, which is involved in autolysis of the cap during spore diffusion. Transcription of L. edodes exp1 increased post-harvest, which suggests that its target genes are up-regulated after harvesting. These enzymes and the transcription factor may be involved in L. edodes fruiting body senescence.

  19. Effects of certain heavy metals on the growth, dye decolorization, and enzyme activity of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Nóra; Mécs, Imre

    2003-06-01

    Various physiological parameters of Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) in the presence of nine heavy metal salts were investigated. The mycelial growth was highly sensitive to cadmium and mercury, but less sensitive to zinc, copper, and lead. This resistance can be particularly dangerous to humans in the case of edible fungi such as Shiitake because of the possible heavy metal accumulation during growth and fruiting body production. All of the tested heavy metals inhibited decolorization of the dye Poly R-478 and the production of manganese peroxidase to a greater extent than they inhibited growth. Interestingly, with the exception of iron, the addition of all heavy metal salts investigated led to the increase of laccase production. Apart from cadmium and iron, none of the heavy metals inhibited the in vitro enzyme activities in concentrations up to 3mM. The results of this study indicated the applicability of L. edodes in biosorption technologies used in the removal of toxic metals from contaminated effluents and in bioremediation technologies designed to treat complex wastes contaminated with heavy metals in addition to other xenobiotics.

  20. Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berkeley) Pegler) extracts as a modulator of micronuclei induced in HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, C K; Poersch, A; Ribeiro, L R; Eira, A F; Cólus, I M S

    2006-12-01

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berkeley) Pegler) is one of the most consumed mushrooms, for both therapeutic purposes and as food, therefore, the study of its biological properties is of great interest for producers and consumers. Aqueous extracts of the shiitake mushroom (L. edodes (Berkeley) Pegler) were evaluated by the micronucleus test (MN) in HEp-2 cells in vitro, to analyze their possible mutagenic and antimutagenic activities. None of the three extract concentrations tested (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mg/mL) presented mutagenicity at any of the preparation temperatures (4 degrees C, 22+/-2 degrees C and 60 degrees C). In the antimutagenicity evaluation, all extract concentrations at all preparation temperatures presented a strong protective activity for the HEp-2 cells in response to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in the different treatment protocols: pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment and post-treatment. The extracts prepared at 22+/-2 degrees C presented the lowest frequencies of MN in the evaluations of mutagenicity and antimutagenicity, indicating these as the best option for potential therapeutic use.

  1. Polysaccharide and extracts from Lentinula edodes: structural features and antiviral activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lentinula edodes, known as shiitake, has been utilized as food, as well as, in popular medicine, moreover, compounds isolated from its mycelium and fruiting body have shown several therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral activity of aqueous (AqE) and ethanol (EtOHE) extracts and polysaccharide (LeP) from Lentinula edodes in the replication of poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1). Methods The time-of-addition assay was performed at the times -2, -1, 0, 1 and 2 h of the infection. The virucidal activity and the inhibition of viral adsorption were also evaluated. Plaque assay was used to monitor antiviral activity throughout. Results The AqE and LeP were more effective when added at 0 h of infection, however, EtOHE was more effective at the times 1 h and 2 h of the infection. AqE, EtOHE and LeP showed low virucidal activity, and the inhibition of viral adsorption was not significant. Conclusions The results allowed us to conclude that AqE, EtOHE and LeP act on the initial processes of the replication of both strains of virus. PMID:22336004

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Douglassville Disposal Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania (second remedial action), June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-24

    The Douglassville Disposal site occupies approximately 50 acres of land in Union Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. It is almost entirely within the 100-year floodplain of the Schuylkill River. In 1941, Berks Associates began recycling lubrication oil at the site; waste solvents were recycled in the 1950s and 1960s. Wastes generated from those recycling processes were stored in onsite lagoons from 1941 until 1972. In November 1970, heavy rains caused the lagoons to overflow and release 1,000,000 - 3,000,000 gallons of wastes down the Schuylkill River. Operations then turned to the practice of refining waste oils for use as fuel in industrial boilers. Beginning in 1979, oily waste sludge from the new recycling process was landfarmed onsite.

  3. Nutritional Composition of Three Domesticated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms: Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuai; Tang, Qing-Jiu; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Chuan-hua; Cao, Hui; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional composition of three recently domesticated culinary-medicinal mushroom species (Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba) was evaluated for contents of protein, fiber, fat, total sugar content, amino acid, carbohydrate, and nucleotide components. The data indicated that fruiting bodies of these three mushroom species contained abundant nutritional substances. The protein contents of L. squarrosulus and O. submucida were 26.32% and 14.70%, which could be comparable to other commercially cultivated species. T. aurantialba contained 74.11% of carbohydrate, of which soluble polysaccharide was 40.55%. Oudemansiella sudmusida contained 15.95% of arabitol as the highest sugar alcohol in three mushrooms. These mushrooms also possessed distinct taste by their flavor component composition. Among them, L. squarrosulus contained 10.68% and 9.25% of monosodium glutamate-like and sweet amino acids, which were higher than the other two mushrooms. However, the nucleotide amounts of the three mushrooms were all lower than those of other commercially cultivated mushrooms. Among them, L. squarrosulus contained the highest amount of flavor nucleotides, which was 1.01‰. Results revealed that these three mushroom species are potentially suitable resources for commercial cultivation and healthy food.

  4. Bioremediation of engine oil polluted soil by the tropical white rot fungus, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. (Singer).

    PubMed

    Adenipekun, Clementina O; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S

    2008-06-15

    This study was conducted to test the efficacy of an indigenous white rot fungus Lentinus squarrosulus in degrading engine oil in soil. Flasks containing sterilized garden soil (100 g) moistened with 75% distilled water (w/v) were contaminated with engine oil 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40% w/w concentrations, inoculated with L. squarrosulus and incubated at room temperature for 90 days. Levels of organic matter, pH, total hydrocarbon and elemental content (C, Cu, Fe, K, N, Ni, Zn and available P) were determined post-fungal treatment. Results indicate that contaminated soils inoculated with L. squarrosulus had increased organic matter, carbon and available phosphorus, while the nitrogen and available potassium was reduced. A relatively high percentage degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) was observed at 1% engine oil concentration (94.46%), which decreased to 64.05% TPH degradation at 40% engine oil contaminated soil after 90 days of incubation. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Ni recovered from straw/fungal biomass complex increased with the increase of engine-oil contamination and bio-accumulation by the white-rot fungus. The improvement of nutrient content values as well as the bioaccumulation of heavy metals at all levels of engine oil concentrations tested through inoculations with L. squarrosulus is of importance for the bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soils.

  5. Analysis of the Biotechnological Potential of a Lentinus crinitus Isolate in the Light of Its Secretome.

    PubMed

    Cambri, Geison; de Sousa, Mirta Mittelstedt Leal; Fonseca, Davi de Miranda; Marchini, Fabricio; da Silveira, Joana Lea Meira; Paba, Jaime

    2016-12-02

    Analysis of fungal secretomes is a prospection tool for the discovery of new catalysts with biotechnological applications. Since enzyme secretion is strongly modulated by environmental factors, evaluation of growth conditions is of utmost importance to achieve optimal enzyme production. In this work, a nonsequenced wood-rotting fungus, Lentinus crinitus, was used for secretome analysis by enzymatic assays and a proteomics approach. Enzyme production was assessed after the fungus was cultured in seven different carbon sources and three nitrogen-containing compounds. The biomass yields and secreted protein arrays differed drastically among growing conditions. A mixture of secreted extracts derived from solid and liquid cultures was inspected by shotgun mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) prior to analysis via LC-MS/MS. Proteins were identified using mass spectrometry (MS)-driven BLAST. The spectrum of secreted proteins comprised CAZymes, oxidase/reductases, proteases, and lipase/esterases. Although preseparation by 2-DE improved the number of identifications (162) compared with the shotgun approach (98 identifications), the two strategies revealed similar protein patterns. Culture media with reduced water content stimulated the expression of oxidases/reductases, while hydrolases were induced during submerged fermentation. The diversity of proteins observed within both the CAZyme and oxidoreductase groups revealed in this fungus a powerful arsenal of enzymes dedicated to the breakdown and consumption of lignocellulose.

  6. Structural elucidation and immunostimulating property of a novel polysaccharide extracted from an edible mushroom Lentinus fusipes.

    PubMed

    Manna, Dilip K; Maity, Prasenjit; Nandi, Ashis K; Pattanayak, Manabendra; Panda, Bibhash C; Mandal, Amit K; Tripathy, Satyajit; Acharya, Krishnendu; Sahoo, Atish K; Gupta, Nibha; Roy, Somnath; Islam, Syed S

    2017-02-10

    A water soluble heteroglycan (PS-II) with an average molecular weight∼60kDa was isolated from the hot aqueous extract of an edible mushroom Lentinus fusipes. The structural characterization of PS-II was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analyses, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 1D/2D NMR experiments. Total acid hydrolysis indicated the presence of D-galactose and D-glucose in a molar ratio of approximately 1:1. The chemical and NMR analyses revealed that the proposed repeating unit of the PS-II had a backbone chain consisting of three (1→6)-linked α-d-galactopyranosyl residue and two (1→6)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl residues, one of the β-d-glucopyranosyl residue was branched at O-3 position with a terminal β-d-glucopyranosyl. The PS-II exhibited significant in vitro splenocyte and macrophage activations with optimum dose of 20μg/ml and 80μg/ml respectively. Flow cytometry study revealed the protective role of the PS-II against nicotine stimulated lymphocytes. Moreover, the ROS scavenging property of PS-II was also established using DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  7. [Effect of wood modification on lignin consumption and synthesis of lignolytic enzymes by the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus].

    PubMed

    Kadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykian, N A; Samuilov, V D

    2003-01-01

    Lignin consumption and synthesis of lignolytic enzymes by the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus cultivated on solid phase (modified and unmodified birch and pine sawdusts) were studied. The fungus grew better and consumed more readily the birch lignin than the pine wood. Peroxidase activity was higher in the case of pine sawdust; laccase and lignolytic activities, in the case of birth sawdust. Treatment with ammonia or sulfuric acid decreased lignin consumption by the fungus cultivated on either medium. Modification of sawdust by ultrasound increased lignin consumption and may be recommended for accelerating biodegradation of lignocellulose substrates.

  8. Aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibit high antioxidant capability and promising in vitro antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Finimundy, T C; Gambato, G; Fontana, R; Camassola, M; Salvador, M; Moura, S; Hess, J; Henriques, J A P; Dillon, A J P; Roesch-Ely, M

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom extracts are increasingly sold as dietary supplements because of several of their properties, including the enhancement of immune function and antitumor activity. We hypothesized that soluble polar substances present in mushroom extracts may show antioxidant and anticancer properties. This report shows that Brazilian aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exert inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the human tumor cell lines laryngeal carcinoma (Hep-2) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa). Cell viability was determined after using 3 different temperatures (4°C, 22°C, and 50°C) for mushroom extraction. Biochemical assays carried out in parallel indicated higher amounts of polyphenols in the L edodes extracts at all extraction temperatures investigated. The scavenging ability of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher activity for L edodes extracts. Superoxide dismutase-like activity showed no statistically significant difference among the groups for the 2 tested extracts, and catalase-like activity was increased with the L edodes extracts at 4°C. The results for the cytotoxic activity from P sajor-caju extracts at 22°C revealed the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.64% ± 0.02% for Hep-2 and 0.25% ± 0.02% for HeLa. A higher cytotoxic activity was found for the L edodes extract at 22°C, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.78% ± 0.02% for Hep-2 and 0.57% ± 0.01% for HeLa. Substantial morphological modifications in cells were confirmed by Giemsa staining after treatment with either extract, suggesting inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis with increasing extract concentrations. These results indicate that the aqueous extracts of Brazilian L edodes and P sajor-caju mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, further investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic uses and to elucidate their modes of

  9. Plasmodium immobilization of Physarella oblonga (Berk. & Curt.) Morgan (Myxomycetes) using kaolinite as a matrix of entrapment.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sheyla M; Cavalcanti, Laise H; Pereira, Eugênia C; Silva, Nicácio H

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of using kaolinite-immobilized plasmodium fragments of Physarella oblonga (Berk. & Curt.) Morgan to maintain their metabolic activity was examined. The immobilization process was carried out with 1 mg of plasmodium of P. oblonga entrapped in 10 g of kaolinite. Sodium acetate (1 mM) was used as a metabolic precursor. The collection of fractions was carried out during a one month period, and extracted with ether/ethyl acetate and chloroform/acetonitrile. The extractions from plasmodium in natura were accomplished with the same solvents. The extracts obtained were analyzed in a spectrophotometer at 266 nm and 310 nm, and by thin layer chromatography to assess the productivity of the immobilized plasmodium. The absorbances of the extracts in both wavelengths and the chromatographic tests showed the synthesis of compounds by the immobilized material. Three chromatographic spots were observed in the extracts obtained from the immobilized plasmodium. Two spots coincided with the R(f) values and coloration of the spots observed for the material in natura used as a reference. The kaolinite-immobilized plasmodium of P. oblonga can remain metabolically active for at least one month at room temperature and ambient light conditions.

  10. Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of a polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K

    2003-02-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of a wood inhabiting polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat. were studied. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. The aqueous extract did not exhibit cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines. All the three extracts were highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumor induced by DLA cell line in mice. However, the antitumor activity of ethyl acetate extract was higher than that of methanol and aqueous extracts. The ethyl acetate extract was also effective in preventing the EAC induced ascites tumor development in mice. The antitumor activity of all the three extracts against solid tumor at a dose of 50 mg/kg (p.o.) was comparable to the clinically used standard reference drug, cisplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment of the extracts was also effective in inhibiting the tumor growth induced by DLA cell lines. The experimental results revealed that ethyl acetate extract of P. rimosus possessed significant antitumor activity. The findings thus suggest the potential use of this mushroom as antitumor agent. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  11. Biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) using vanillin as an activator.

    PubMed

    Tsujiyama, S; Muraoka, T; Takada, N

    2013-07-01

    The white-rot shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, was used to degrade an environmentally hazardous compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), using vanillin as an activator. Vanillin increased the mycelial growth from 74 to 118 mg/150 ml culture and accelerated laccase and Mn-peroxidase production from the maximum on days 24-28 without vanillin to days 10-14. It eliminated 92% of 100 mM DCP with 50 mg vanillin/l compared with only 15% without vanillin. GC-MS revealed that a diaryl ether dimer of DCP was formed in the culture without vanillin, whereas dimer formation was diminished with vanillin addition. This indicates that vanillin enhances the degradation of DCP and disrupts the formation of the toxic dimer. Therefore, lignin-derived phenol such as vanillin can be used as natural and eco-friendly activators to control white-rot mushrooms, thereby facilitating the effective degradation of environmentally hazardous compounds.

  12. Increased mycelial biomass production by Lentinula edodes intermittently illuminated by green light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Lubov B; Sokolyanskaya, Ludmila O; Plotnikov, Evgeny V; Gerasimchuk, Anna L; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc; Karnachuk, Raisa A

    2014-11-01

    Fungi possess a range of light receptors to regulate metabolism and differentiation. To study the effect of light on Lentinula edodes (the shiitake mushroom), mycelial cultures were exposed to blue, green, and red fluorescent lights and light-emitting diodes, as well as green laser light. Biomass production, morphology, and pigment production were evaluated. Exposure to green light at intervals of 1 min/d at 0.4 W/m(2) stimulated biomass production by 50-100 %, depending on the light source. Light intensities in excess of 1.8 W/m(2) or illumination longer than 30 min/d did not affect biomass production. Carotenoid production and morphology remained unaltered during increased biomass production. These observations provide a cornerstone to the study of photoreception by this important fungus.

  13. Determination of Glucan Contents in the Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia of Lentinula edodes Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Won Chull; Park, Young Ae; Ka, Kang Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) containing β-glucans may be beneficial for human health; they have been used in the treatment of cancer, hypertension, and high cholesterol levels. The objective of this study was to determine the β-glucan content in different sections of the fruiting bodies and mycelia of ten shiitake mushroom cultivars. The measured β-glucan content ranged from 20.06 ± 1.76% to 44.21 ± 0.13% in the pileus sections, and from 29.74 ± 1.40% to 56.47 ± 4.72% in the stipe sections. The results of this study indicate that the variance in β-glucan content dependent on the shiitake cultivar, and that the β-glucan content is higher in the stipe than in the pileus. PMID:25346611

  14. Effects of Aeration of Sawdust Cultivation Bags on Hyphal Growth of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Ham, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Young-Jin; Kim, Eui-Sung; Shim, Kyu-Kwang; Kim, Myung-Kon; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2012-09-01

    The effects of aeration through lid filters on the hyphal growth of Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) in sawdust cultivation bags were investigated. The aeration treatment levels were traditional 27 mm hole cotton plugs, cotton balls and combinations of seven hole sizes × two hole positions (up and under) in the lids covering plastic bags containing 1.4 kg sawdust medium at 63% moisture that had been autoclaved for one hour and inoculated with sawdust spawn of L. edodes strain 921. Aeration treatment effects were measured based on the CO(2) concentration at the 15th wk, as well as the hyphal growth rate and degree of weight loss of bags every 14 days for 15 wk. In bags with traditional cotton plugs, the CO(2) concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3%, daily mean hyphal growth was 2.3 ± 0.6 mm and daily mean weight loss was 0.84 ± 0.26 g. In the bags with 15 mm diameter holes, the CO(2) concentration was 6.0 ± 1.6%, daily hyphal growth was 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and daily weight loss was 0.86 ± 0.4 g. The bags with 15 mm holes had a higher CO(2) concentration and lower water loss than bags with other hole sizes, but the hyphal growth was not significantly different from that of other bags. The weight loss of bags increased proportionally relative to the lid hole sizes. Taken together, these results indicate that traditional cotton plugs are economically efficient, but 15 mm hole lids are the most efficient at maintaining hyphal growth and controlling water loss while allowing CO(2) emissions.

  15. Association Mapping Reveals Genetic Loci Associated with Important Agronomic Traits in Lentinula edodes, Shiitake Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuang; Gong, Wenbing; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Zhiquan; Nong, Wenyan; Bian, Yinbing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Association mapping is a robust approach for the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, by genotyping 297 genome-wide molecular markers of 89 Lentinula edodes cultivars in China, the genetic diversity, population structure and genetic loci associated with 11 agronomic traits were examined. A total of 873 alleles were detected in the tested strains with a mean of 2.939 alleles per locus, and the Shannon's information index was 0.734. Population structure analysis revealed two robustly differentiated groups among the Chinese L. edodes cultivars (FST = 0.247). Using the mixed linear model, a total of 43 markers were detected to be significantly associated with four traits. The number of markers associated with traits ranged from 9 to 26, and the phenotypic variations explained by each marker varied from 12.07% to 31.32%. Apart from five previously reported markers, the remaining 38 markers were newly reported here. Twenty-one markers were identified as simultaneously linked to two to four traits, and five markers were associated with the same traits in cultivation tests performed in two consecutive years. The 43 traits-associated markers were related to 97 genes, and 24 of them were related to 10 traits-associated markers detected in both years or identified previously, 13 of which had a >2-fold expression change between the mycelium and primordium stages. Our study has provided candidate markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and useful clues for understanding the genetic architecture of agronomic traits in the shiitake mushroom. PMID:28261189

  16. Lentinula edodes enhances the biocontrol activity of Cryptococcus laurentii against Penicillium expansum contamination and patulin production in apple fruits.

    PubMed

    Tolaini, V; Zjalic, S; Reverberi, M; Fanelli, C; Fabbri, A A; Del Fiore, A; De Rossi, P; Ricelli, A

    2010-04-15

    Penicillium expansum is a post-harvest pathogen of apples which can produce the hazardous mycotoxin patulin. The yeast Cryptococcus laurentii (LS28) is a biocontrol agent able to colonize highly oxidative environments such as wounds in apples. In this study culture filtrates of the basidiomycete Lentinula edodes (LF23) were used to enhance the biocontrol activity of LS28. In vitro L. edodes culture filtrates improved the growth of C. laurentii and the activity of its catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, which play a key role in oxidant scavenging. In addition, LF23 also delayed P. expansum conidia germination. The biocontrol effect of LS28 used together with LF23 in wounded apples improved the inhibition of P. expansum growth and patulin production in comparison with LS28 alone, under both experimental and semi-commercial conditions. The biocontrol effect was confirmed by a semi-quantitative PCR analysis set up for monitoring the growth of P. expansum.

  17. Selection of strains of Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana adapted for efficient mycelial growth on wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Mata, G; Delpech, P; Savoie, J M

    2001-09-01

    Mycelial growth rates are presented for 11 strains of Lentinula edodes and six strains of Lentinula boryana cultivated on solid media: derived from malt extract (MEA); malt yeast extract (YMEA); and, YMEA plus soluble lignin derivatives (YMEA+WSLD). The results were compared with data for mycelial growth rates, of the same strains cultivated on substrates derived from wheat straw treated at different temperatures (50, 65, 75 and autoclaving at 121 degrees C). In general, the addition of WSLD significantly reduced mycelial growth rates in both species. The greatest mycelial growth rate was obtained on sterilized straw at 121 degrees C for the majority of strains. However, this growth was not significantly different from that obtained at 75 degrees C. L. edodes showed greater growth rates than L. boryana. The feasibility of using estimates of mycelial growth rate on YMEA and YMEA+WSLD are discussed as possible indicators of a strain's potential for mycelial growth on substrates derived from wheat straw.

  18. γ-ray production in young open clusters: Berk 87, Cyg OB2 and Westerlund 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, W.

    2007-11-01

    Young open clusters are sites of cosmic ray acceleration as indicated by recent detections of the TeV γ-ray sources in the directions of two open clusters (Cyg OB2 and Westerlund 2). In fact, up to now a few different scenarios for acceleration of particles inside open clusters have been considered, i.e. shocks in massive star winds, pulsars and their nebulae, supernova shocks, massive compact binaries. Here we consider in detail the radiation processes due to both electrons and hadrons accelerated inside the open cluster. As a specific scenario, we apply the acceleration process at the shocks arising in the winds of Wolf-Rayet (WR) type stars. Particles diffuse through the medium of the open cluster during the activity time of the acceleration scenario defined by the age of the WR star. They interact with the matter and radiation, at first inside the open cluster and, later in the dense surrounding clouds. We calculate the broad-band spectrum in different processes for three exemplary open clusters (Berk 87, Cyg OB2, Westerlund 2) for which the best observational constraints on the spectra are at present available. It is assumed that the high-energy phenomena, observed from the X-ray up to the GeV-TeV γ-ray energies, are related to each other. We conclude that the most likely description of the radiation processes in these objects is achieved in the hybrid (leptonic-hadronic) model in which leptons are responsible for the observed X-ray and GeV γ-ray emission and hadrons are responsible for the TeV γ-ray emission.

  19. Multi-stage IT project evaluation: The flexibility value obtained by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik (2004) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abid, Fathi; Guermazi, Dorra

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a multi-stage information technology investment project, by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik's (2004) model, which takes into account specific features of IT projects and considers the real option to suspend investment at each stage. We present a particular case of the model where the project value is the solution of an optimal control problem with a single state variable. In this case, the model is more intuitive and tractable. The case study confirms the practical potential of the model and highlights the importance of the real-option approach compared to classical discounted cash flow techniques in the valuation of IT projects.

  20. Polysaccharide-inducible endoglucanases from Lentinula edodes exhibit a preferential hydrolysis of 1,3-1,4-β-glucan and xyloglucan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Takumi; Nakano, Yuki; Takahashi, Machiko; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Konno, Naotake

    2013-08-07

    Three genes encoding glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12) enzymes from Lentinula edodes, namely Lecel12A, Lecel12B, and Lecel12C, were newly cloned by PCR using highly conserved sequence primers. To investigate enzymatic properties, recombinant enzymes encoded by L. edodes DNAs and GH12 genes from Postia placenta (PpCel12A and PpCel12B) and Schizophyllum commune (ScCel12A) were prepared in Brevibacillus choshinensis. Recombinant LeCel12A, PpCel12A, and PpCel12B, which were grouped in GH12 subfamily 1, preferentially hydrolyzed 1,3-1,4-β-glucan. By contrast, LeCel12B, LeCel12C, and ScCel12A, members of the subfamily 2, exhibited specific hydrolysis of xyloglucan. These results suggest that two subfamilies of GH12 are separated based on the substrate specificity. Transcript levels of L. edodes genes increased 72 h after growth of L. edodes mycelia cells in the presence of plant cell wall polymers such as xyloglucan, 1,3-1,4-β-glucan, and cellulose. These results suggest that L. edodes GH12 enzymes have evolved to hydrolyze 1,3-1,4-β-glucan and xyloglucan, which might enhance hyphal extension and nutrient acquisition.

  1. Consuming Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Mushrooms Daily Improves Human Immunity: A Randomized Dietary Intervention in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoshuang; Stanilka, Joy M; Rowe, Cheryl A; Esteves, Elizabethe A; Nieves, Carmelo; Spaiser, Samuel J; Christman, Mary C; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi; Percival, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms are widely cited for their medicinal qualities, yet very few human intervention studies have been done using contemporary guidelines. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of whole, dried Lentinula edodes (shiitake) mushrooms could improve human immune function. Primary objectives were to ascertain whether L. edodes consumption would improve γδ-T cell proliferation and activation responses, quantify a dose response, and elicit cytokine secretion patterns. Secondary objectives included determining changes in natural killer T (NK-T) cell proliferation and activation, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum. Fifty-two healthy males and females, aged 21-41 years, participated in a 4-week parallel group study, consuming either 5 or 10 g of mushrooms daily. Each subject had blood drawn before and after 4 weeks of daily L. edodes consumption. Saliva and serum were also collected. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in autologous serum for 24 hours or 6 days, stained, and examined by flow cytometry. Eating L. edodes for 4 weeks resulted in increased ex vivo proliferation of γδ-T (60% more, p < 0.0001) and NK-T (2-fold more, p < 0.0001) cells. Both cell types also demonstrated a greater ability to express activation receptors, suggesting that consuming mushrooms improved cell effector function. The increase in sIgA implied improved gut immunity. The reduction in CRP suggested lower inflammation. The pattern of cytokines secreted before and after mushroom consumption was significantly different; consumption resulted in increased interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1α levels, a decreased macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/chemokine C-C ligand 3 (MIP-1α/CCL3) level, and no change to IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-1β, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels. Regular L. edodes consumption resulted in improved immunity, as seen by improved cell proliferation and

  2. Structural and Functional Roles of Glycosylation in Fungal Laccase from Lentinus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Wen-Yih; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Hsu, Chih-An; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds by reducing O2 to water. Here we report the crystal structure at 1.8 Å resolution of a native laccase (designated nLcc4) isolated from a white-rot fungus Lentinus sp. nLcc4 is composed of three cupredoxin-like domains D1-D3 each folded into a Greek key β-barrel topology. T1 and T2/T3 copper binding sites and three N-glycosylated sites at Asn75, Asn238, and Asn458 were elucidated. Initial rate kinetic analysis revealed that the kcat, Km, and kcat/Km of nLcc4 with substrate ABTS were 3,382 s-1, 65.0 ± 6.5 μM, and 52 s-1μM-1, respectively; and the values with lignosulfonic acid determined using isothermal titration calorimetry were 0.234 s-1, 56.7 ± 3.2 μM, and 0.004 s-1μM-1, respectively. Endo H-deglycosylated nLcc4 (dLcc4), with only one GlcNAc residue remaining at each of the three N-glycosylation sites in the enzyme, exhibited similar kinetic efficiency and thermal stability to that of nLcc4. The isolated Lcc4 gene contains an open reading frame of 1563 bp with a deduced polypeptide of 521 amino acid residues including a predicted signaling peptide of 21 residues at the N-terminus. Recombinant wild-type Lcc4 and mutant enzymes N75D, N238D and N458D were expressed in Pichia pastoris cells to evaluate the effect on enzyme activity by single glycosylation site deficiency. The mutant enzymes secreted in the cultural media of P. pastoris cells were observed to maintain only 4-50% of the activity of the wild-type laccase. Molecular dynamics simulations analyses of various states of (de-)glycosylation in nLcc support the kinetic results and suggest that the local H-bond networks between the domain connecting loop D2-D3 and the glycan moieties play a crucial role in the laccase activity. This study provides new insights into the role of glycosylation in the structure and function of a Basidiomycete fungal laccase. PMID:25849464

  3. Bioaugmentation of a historically contaminated soil by polychlorinated biphenyls with Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several species belonging to the ecological group of white-rot basidiomycetes are able to bring about the remediation of matrices contaminated by a large variety of anthropic organic pollutants. Among them, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are characterized by a high recalcitrance due to both their low bioavailability and the inability of natural microbial communities to degrade them at significant rates and extents. Objective of this study was to assess the impact of a maize stalk-immobilized Lentinus tigrinus CBS 577.79 inoculant combined with soybean oil (SO), as a possible PCB-mobilizing agent, on the bioremediation and resident microbiota of an actual Aroclor 1260 historically contaminated soil under unsaturated solid-phase conditions. Results Best overall PCB depletions (33.6 ± 0.3%) and dechlorination (23.2 ± 1.3%) were found after 60 d incubation in the absence of SO where, however, the fungus appeared to exert adverse effects on both the growth of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria and the abundance of genes coding for both biphenyl dioxygenase (bph) and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. A significant (P < 0.001) linear inverse relationship between depletion yields and degree of chlorination was observed in both augmented and control microcosms in the absence of SO; conversely, this negative correlation was not evident in SO-amended microcosms where the additive inhibited the biodegradation of low chlorinated congeners. The presence of SO, in fact, resulted in lower abundances of both biphenyl-degrading bacteria and bph. Conclusions The PCB depletion extents obtained in the presence of L. tigrinus are by far higher than those reported in other remediation studies conducted under unsaturated solid phase conditions on actual site soils historically contaminated by Aroclor 1260. These results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy with the maize stalk-immobilized mycelium of this species might be promising in the reclamation of PCB

  4. Multi-elemental analysis of Lentinula edodes mushrooms available in trade.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Gąsecka, Monika; Jasińska, Agnieszka; Budzyńska, Sylwia; Budka, Anna

    2017-03-04

    The present study investigated the content of 62 elements in the fruiting bodies of Lentinula edodes (Shiitake mushroom) cultivated commercially in Poland on various substrates from 2007-2015. The general mean content (mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW)) of the studied elements ranked in the following order: K (26,335) > P (11,015) > Mg (2,284) > Ca (607) > Na (131) > Zn (112) > Fe (69) > Mn (33) > B (32) > Rb (17) > Cu (14.5) > Al (11.2) > Te (2.9) > As (1.80) > Cd (1.76) > Ag (1.73) > Nd (1.70) > Sr (1.46) > Se (1.41) > U (1.11) > Pt (0.90) > Ce (0.80) > Ba (0.61) > Co (0.59) > Tl (0.58) > Er (0.50) > Pb (0.42) > Li (0.40) > Pr (0.39) > Ir (0.37) > In (0.35) > Mo (0.31) > Cr (0.29) > Ni (0.28) > Sb (0.26) > Re (0.24) > Ti (0.19) > Bi (0.18) > Th (0.12) > La (0.10) = Pd (0.10) > Os (0.09) = Zr (0.09) > Rh (0.08) > Ho (0.07) > Ru (0.06) > Sm (0.04) = Eu (0.04) = Tm (0.04) > Gd (0.03) > Sc (0.02) = Y (0.02) > Lu (0.01) = Yb (0.01) = V (0.01). The contents of Au, Be, Dy, Ga, Ge, Hf, and Tb were below the limits of detection (0.02, 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, 0.02 mg kg(-1) respectively). The concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Er, Fe, In, Lu, Mn, Nd, Sr, Ti, Tm, and Zr were comparable over the period the mushrooms were cultivated. The study revealed that Lentinula edodes contained As and Cd at levels potentially adverse to human health. This highlights the need to monitor these elements in food products obtained from this mushroom species and ensure that only low levels of these elements are present in cultivation substrates.

  5. Quantitative changes in the biochemical composition of lignocellulosic residues during the vegetative growth of Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Esqueda, Martín; Gutiérrez, Aldo; Beltrán-García, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The chemical changes in barley-straw (BS), wheat-straw (WS) and vineyard-pruning (VP) substrates were determined during colonization of Lentinula edodes mycelia (during primordium development) in solid state fermentation. Primordia appeared 39-50 days after inoculation. VP appeared to promote early sporophore initiation. The concentration of hemicellulose in BS and VP decreased gradually from 25.5% to 15.6% and from 15.8% to 12.3%, respectively. However in WS, hemicellulose decreased from 27.2% to 9.5%. Lignin broke down continuously in BS and WS, with 31.8% and 34.4% degradation, respectively; higher than that of cellulose. During the pinning stage, the C:N ratio decreased in VP and BS, but not in WS. On all substrates the phenols decreased notably throughout the first week of mycelial growth. The time elapsed (days) to pinning was positively correlated with cellulose content (r=0.89), total sugar (r=0.85) and inversely correlated to lignin (r=−1.00) and phenol content (r=−0.55). PMID:24031601

  6. Hydrolytic enzyme activities in shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) strains cultivated on coffee pulp.

    PubMed

    Mata, Gerardo; Salmones, Dulce; Pérez-Merlo, Rosalía

    Hydrolytic enzyme production (cellulases, laminarinases and xylanases) was studied in cultures of Lentinula edodes on sterilized coffee pulp. Samples of substrate colonized by mycelia were taken after 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of incubation at 25°C (W1 to W5) and during the fruiting period at different stages: formation of primordia (PF), first harvest (H) and one week after the first harvest (PH). The enzymatic activity was lower during the early mycelial growth and showed higher levels during the formation and development of fruiting bodies. During the reproductive stage of the fungus, the samples were subjected to a soaking treatment; however, it was not possible to relate this soaking treatment to the increase in enzyme production. The levels of enzymatic activity suggest that secretion of the studied enzymes does not influence the adaptability of the strains to the substrate. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharide rejuvenates mice in terms of immune responses and gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Yang, Jiguo; Ning, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by impaired immunity and unbalanced gut microbiota. Prebiotics have the capability to prevent or reverse age-related declines in health by modulating gut microbiota. Mushroom polysaccharides have been suggested to be potential prebiotics. However, their effects on the immunity and gut microbiota in aged mice have not been determined. This study firstly assessed the effects of a heteropolysaccharide L2 isolated from the fruit body of L. edodes on the immune response of aged mice, and then compared the composition of fecal microbiota in adult (N), old (O) and L2-treated old (Oa) mice using the high-throughput pyrosequencing technique. The results showed that L2 can restore the age-attenuated immune responses by increasing cytokine levels in peripheral blood. Moreover, L2 can partly reverse the age-altered composition of gut microbiota. The Euclidean distances (De) among 3 groups (N, O and Oa) are determined to be De(O, N) = 0.19, De(O, Oa) = 0.20, and De(N, Oa) = 0.10, i.e. there is a marked reduction in the distance from 0.19 to 0.1 by L2. This suggests the beneficial effects of L2 on enhancing immunity and improving gut health.

  8. Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect.

    PubMed

    Drori, Ariel; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Danay, Ofer; Levanon, Dan; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  9. Constructing a new integrated genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci for vegetative mycelium growth rate in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Liu, Wei; Lu, Ying-Ying; Bian, Yin-Bing; Zhou, Yan; Kwan, Hoi Shan; Cheung, Man Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2014-03-01

    The most saturated linkage map for Lentinula edodes to date was constructed based on a monokaryotic population of 146 single spore isolates (SSIs) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), insertion-deletion (InDel) markers, and the mating-type loci. Five hundred and twenty-four markers were located on 13 linkage groups (LGs). The map spanned a total length of 1006.1 cM, with an average marker spacing of 2.0 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was utilized to uncover the loci regulating and controlling the vegetative mycelium growth rate on various synthetic media, and complex medium for commercial cultivation of L. edodes. Two and 13 putative QTLs, identified respectively in the monokaryotic population and two testcross dikaryotic populations, were mapped on seven different LGs. Several vegetative mycelium growth rate-related QTLs uncovered here were clustered on LG4 (Qmgr1, Qdgr1, Qdgr2 and Qdgr9) and LG6 (Qdgr3, Qdgr4 and Qdgr5), implying the presence of main genomic areas responsible for growth rate regulation and control. The QTL hotspot region on LG4 was found to be in close proximity to the region containing the mating-type A (MAT-A) locus. Moreover, Qdgr2 on LG4 was detected on different media, contributing 8.07 %-23.71 % of the phenotypic variation. The present study provides essential information for QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in L. edodes.

  10. Evaluation of the ground-water resources of parts of Lancaster and Berks Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhart, J.M.; Lazorchick, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Secondary openings in bedrock are the avenues for virtually all ground-water flow in a 626-sqare-mile area in Lancaster and Berks Counties, Pennsylvania. The number, size, and interconnection of secondary openings are functions of lithology, depth, and topography. Ground water actively circulates to depths of 150 to 300 feet below land surface. Total average annual ground-water recharge for the area is 388 million gallons per day, most of which discharges to streams from local, unconfined flow systems. A digital ground-water flow model was developed to simulate unconfined flow under several different recharge and withdrawal scenarios. On the basis of lithologic and hydrologic differences, the modeled area was sub-divided into 22 hydrogeologic units. A finite-difference grid with rectangular blocks, each 2,015 by 2,332 feet, was used. The model was calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state calibration was used to determine hydraulic conductivities and stream leakage coefficients and the transient calibration was used to determine specific yields. The 22 hydrogeologic units fall into four general lithologies: Carbonate rocks, metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and Triassic sedimentary rocks. Average hydraulic conductivity ranges from about 8.8 feet per day in carbonate units to about .5 feet per day in metamorphic units. The Stonehenge Formation (limestone) has the greatest average hydraulic conductivity--85.2 feet per day in carbonate units to about 0.11 feet per day in the greatest gaining-strem leakage coefficient--16.81 feet per day. Specific yield ranges from 0.06 to 0.09 in carbonate units, and is 0.02 to 0.015, and 0.012 in metamorphic, Paleozoic sedimentary, and Triassic sedimentary units, respectively. Transient simulations were made to determine the effects of four different combinations of natural and artificial stresses. Natural aquifer conditions (no ground-water withdrawals) and actual aquifer conditions

  11. [Salicylic and jasmonic acids in regulation of the proantioxidant state in wheat leaves infected by Septoria nodorum Berk].

    PubMed

    Iarullina, L G; Troshina, N B; Cherepanova, E A; Zaikina, E A; Maksimov, I V

    2011-01-01

    Influence of mediators of the signal systems of salicylic (SA) and jasmonic (JA) acids and their mixture on reactive oxygen species' (ROS) (superoxide radical O2*- and H2O2) generation and activity of oxidoreductases (oxalate oxidase, peroxidase and catalase) in leaves of wheat Triticum aestivum L. infected by Septoria leaf blotch pathogen Septoria nodorum Berk. has been studied. Presowing treatment of seeds by SA and JA decreased the development rate of fungus on wheat leaves. SA provided earlier inductive effect on production of O2*- and H2O2 compared with JA. The protective effect of the salicylic and jasmonic acids against Septoria leaf blotch pathogen was caused by activation of oxalate oxidase, induction of anion and cation peroxidases, and decrease of catalase activity. Ability of compounds to stimulate ROS in the plant tissues can be used as criteria for evaluation of immune-modulating activity of new substances for protection of the plants.

  12. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng; Feng, Zhihong; Shi, Wen; Zhao, Zhihui; Wu, Yongjiang; Wu, Aibo

    2014-08-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most cultivated edible fungi in the world, are usually neglected for mycotoxins contamination due to the initial thinking of its resistance to mycotoxingenic molds. In the present study, a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in L. edodes. Targeted mycotoxins were extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure without any further clean-up step, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (100 × 3 mm, 2.7 μm) with a linear gradient elution program using water containing 5 mM ammonium acetate and methanol as the mobile phase. After validation by determining linearity (R(2) > 0.99), sensitivity (LOQ ≤ 20 ng/kg), recovery (73.6-117.9%), and precision (0.8-19.5%), the established method has been successfully applied to reveal the contamination states of various mycotoxins in L. edodes. Among the 30 tested samples, 22 were contaminated by various mycotoxins with the concentration levels ranging from 3.3-28,850.7 μg/kg, predicting that the edible fungus could be infected by the mycotoxins-producing fungi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about real mycotoxins contamination in L. edodes.

  13. Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, and decolorization of chemically different dyes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, M; Sato, T; Watanabe, H; Saito, K; Kawata, M; Enei, H

    2002-11-01

    A laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes. The enzyme was purified to a homogeneous preparation using hydrophobic, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatographies. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the purified laccase, Lcc 1, to be a monomeric protein of 72.2 kDa. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of around pH 3.0. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was around 4.0, and it was most active at 40 degrees C and stable up to 35 degrees C. The enzyme contained 23.8% carbohydrate and some copper atoms. The enzyme oxidized 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, p-phenylendiamine, pyrogallol, guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, catechol, and ferulic acid, but not veratryl alcohol, tyrosine, and beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc 1 showed close homology to the N-terminal sequences determined for laccases from Phlebia radiata, Trametes villosa, and Trametes versicolor, but only low similarity was observed to a previously reported laccase from L. edodes. Lcc 1 was effective in the decolorization of chemically different dyes - Remazole Brilliant Blue R, Bromophenol Blue, methyl red, and Naphtol Blue Black - without any mediators, but the decolorization of two dyes - red poly(vinylamine)sulfonate-anthrapyridone dye and Reactive Orange 16 - did require some redox mediators.

  14. Optimised isolation of polysaccharides from Lentinula edodes strain NCBI JX915793 using response surface methodology and their antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shivani; Khanna, P K; Kapoor, S

    2016-01-01

    Mycelial growth in a defined medium by submerged fermentation is a rapid and alternative method for obtaining fungal biomass of consistent quality. Biomass, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) production were optimised by response surface methodology in Lentinula edodes strain LeS (NCBI JX915793). The optimised conditions were pH 5.0, temperature 26°C, incubation period of 25 days and agitation rate of 52 r/min for L. edodes strain LeS. Under the calculated optimal culture conditions, biomass production (5.88 mg mL(-1)), EPS production (0.40 mg mL(-1)) and IPS production (12.45 mg g(-1)) were in agreement with the predicted values for biomass (5.93 mg mL(-1)), EPS (0.55 mg mL(-1)) and IPS production (12.64 mg g(-1)). Crude lentinan exhibited highest antibacterial effects followed by alcoholic, crude and aqueous extracts. The results obtained may be useful for highly effective yield of biomass and bioactive metabolites.

  15. The tropical white rot fungus, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont.: lignocellulolytic enzymes activities and sugar release from cornstalks under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Adenipekun, Clementina O; Ohimain, Elijah I; Shahbazi, Ghasem

    2012-05-01

    Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., a high temperature tolerant white rot fungus that is found across sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia, is attracting attention due to its rapid mycelia growth and potential for use in food and biodegradation. A solid state fermentation (SSF) experiment with L. squarrosulus (strain MBFBL 201) on cornstalks was conducted. The study evaluated lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, loss of organic matter (LOM), exopolysaccharide content, and the release of water soluble sugars from degraded substrate. The results showed that L. squarrosulus was able to degrade cornstalks significantly, with 58.8% LOM after 30 days of SSF. Maximum lignocellulolytic enzyme activities were obtained on day 6 of cultivation: laccase = 154.5 U/L, MnP = 13 U/L, peroxidase = 27.4 U/L, CMCase = 6.0 U/mL and xylanase = 14.5 U/mL. L. squarrosulus is a good producer of exopolysaccharides (3.0-5.13 mg/mL). Glucose and galactose were the most abundant sugars detected in the substrate during SSF, while fructose, xylose and trehalose, although detected on day zero of the experiment, were absent in treated substrates. The preference for hemicellulose over cellulose, combined with the high temperature tolerance and the very fast growth rate characteristics of L. squarrosulus could make it an ideal candidate for application in industrial pretreatment and biodelignification of lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Proximate composition and functionality of the culinary-medicinal tiger sawgill mushroom, Lentinus tigrinus (higher Basidiomycetes), from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Dulay, Rich Milton R; Arenas, Minerva C; Kalaw, Sofronio P; Reyes, Renato G; Cabrera, Esperanza C

    2014-01-01

    The proximate composition and functionality of Lentinus tigrinus were evaluated to establish and popularize this mushroom as functional food source. The evaluation of functionality focused on the antibacterial and hypoglycemic activities of the mushroom extracts. An acute single oral dose toxicity test in mice was used for its biosafety analysis. The pileus contained higher amounts of protein (25.9%), fat (2.1%), and ash (7.4%) and a higher energetic value (142.1 kcal/100 g) than the corresponding stipe, whereas the stipe contained higher amounts of total carbohydrates (67.7%), which consist of dietary fiber (63.0%) and reducing sugar (4.7%), than the pileus. Biosafety analysis confirmed that L. tigrinus is an edible mushroom species; it was found to be toxicologically safe in imprinting control region mice. The administration of lyophilized hot water extract of the fruiting body (both 100 and 250 mg/ kg doses) to diabetic mice significantly lowered the glucose level by 26.9% in the third week, which was significantly comparable to the results of the antidiabetic agent glibenclamide, which was used as a positive control. In vitro antibacterial assay showed that the ethanolic extract of the fruiting body and the immobilized secondary mycelia had high antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus but not on Escherichia coli. Combining its useful nutrients and significant biological properties, L. tigrinus can be considered a natural source of safe nutraceuticals.

  17. Assessment of Palm Press Fibre and Sawdust-Based Substrate Formulas for Efficient Carpophore Production of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer

    PubMed Central

    Chiejina, Nneka Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient substrate formulas to improve yield and shorten production time is one of the prerequisites for commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms. In this study, fifteen substrate formulas consisting of varying ratios of palm press fibre (PPF), mahogany sawdust (MS), Gmelina sawdust, wheat bran (WB), and fixed proportions of 1% calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and 1% sucrose were assessed for efficient Lentinus squarrosulus production. Proximate compositions of mushrooms produced on the different substrate formulas were also analysed and compared. Substrate formulations containing 85% PPF, 13% WB, 1% CaCO3, and 1% sucrose were found to produce the highest carpophore yield, biological efficiency and size (206.5 g/kg, 61.96%, and 7.26 g, respectively). Days to production (first harvest) tended to increase with an increase in the amount of WB in the substrate formulas, except for PPF based formulas. The addition of WB in amounts equivalent to 8~18% in substrate formulas containing 80~90% PPF resulted in a decrease in the time to first harvest by an average of 17.7 days compared to 80~90% MS with similar treatment. Nutritional content of mushrooms was affected by the different substrate formulas. Protein content was high for mushrooms produced on formulas containing PPF as the basal substrate. Thus, formulas comprising PPF, WB, CaCO3, and sucrose at 85% : 13% : 1% : 1%) respectively could be explored as starter basal ingredients for efficient large scale production of L. squarrosulus. PMID:26839507

  18. Nutritional value and proteases of Lentinus citrinus produced by solid state fermentation of lignocellulosic waste from tropical region.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ana Rita Gaia; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; de Souza Kirsch, Larissa; Campelo, Maria da Conceição Loureiro; de Aguiar Oliveira, Ila Maria

    2016-09-01

    This paper examined the growth and yield performance of Lentinus citrinus on cupuaçu exocarp (Theobroma grandiflorum) mixed with litter (CE + LI) or rice bran (Oryza sativa) (CE + RB) in the ratio of 2:1 (800 g:200 g) to investigate the nutritional composition and proteolytic potential of the fruiting body produced. Significance values of yield were determined on substrate combinations. In CE + LI the biological efficiency of the mushrooms was 93.5% and the content of fat (4.5%), fiber (11.0%), protein (27.0%) and amino acids were higher when compared with CE + RB. Among the amino acids, the amount of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, arginine and leucine was high. The biological efficiency on CE + RB reduced to 84.2% and based on the nutritional value, carbohydrates (53.59%), energy (324.33 kcal) and minerals such as zinc, iron, copper, potassium and phosphorus were higher in this substrate combination. Protease activity from fruiting body was significant in CE + LI (463.55 U/mL). This protease showed an optimal activity at 50 °C in neutral and alkaline pH with maximum stability at 30 °C at alkaline pH. This is the first report of L. citrinus fruiting body nutritional composition with potential for human food and application in industrial processes.

  19. Effect of Tween 80 and Acetone on the Secretion, 
Structure and Antioxidant Activities of Exopolysaccharides from Lentinus tigrinus.

    PubMed

    He, Peixin; Wu, Shuangshuang; Pan, Lige; Sun, Siwen; Mao, Duobin; Xu, Chunping

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the addition of Tween 80 and acetone on secretion, structure and antioxidant activities of Lentinus tigrinus exopolysaccharides (EPS) were investigated. It was found that Tween 80 and acetone displayed a stimulatory effect on EPS secretion. The EPS obtained by the addition of Tween 80 (EPS-T), acetone (EPS-A) and control (EPS--C) were purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration chromatography and molecular mass of purified fractions was estimated to be 22.1, 137 and 12 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that EPS-T, EPS-A and EPS-C were mainly composed of glucose and mannose. Congo Red test indicated that EPS-T and EPS-A had a highly ordered conformation of triple helix, while EPS-C had a random coil conformation. Furthermore, EPS-A exhibited higher DPPH scavenging and antiproliferative activities than EPS--C and EPS-T, which might be attributed to the molecular mass.

  20. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  1. Effect of Tween 80 and Acetone on the Secretion, 
Structure and Antioxidant Activities of Exopolysaccharides from Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    He, Peixin; Wu, Shuangshuang; Pan, Lige; Sun, Siwen; Mao, Duobin

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this study, the effects of the addition of Tween 80 and acetone on secretion, structure and antioxidant activities of Lentinus tigrinus exopolysaccharides (EPS) were investigated. It was found that Tween 80 and acetone displayed a stimulatory effect on EPS secretion. The EPS obtained by the addition of Tween 80 (EPS-T), acetone (EPS-A) and control (EPS--C) were purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration chromatography and molecular mass of purified fractions was estimated to be 22.1, 137 and 12 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that EPS-T, EPS-A and EPS-C were mainly composed of glucose and mannose. Congo Red test indicated that EPS-T and EPS-A had a highly ordered conformation of triple helix, while EPS-C had a random coil conformation. Furthermore, EPS-A exhibited higher DPPH scavenging and antiproliferative activities than EPS--C and EPS-T, which might be attributed to the molecular mass. PMID:27956860

  2. [Interrelation between the composition of lipids and products of their peroxidation and the secretion of ligninolytic enzymes during growth of Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus].

    PubMed

    Kadimaliev, D A; Nadezhina, O S; Atykian, N A; Revin, V V; Samuilov, V D

    2006-01-01

    Lipid composition, intracellular products of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the activities of extracellular enzymes were studied during submerged cultivation of the xylotrophic fungus Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus VKM F-3616D. The maximum secretion of ligninolytic enzymes during the phase of active mycelium growth correlated with increased content of readily oxidized phospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids and with low content of the LPO products. In the idiophase, which was characterized by lower excretion of extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, the content of more stable phospholipids, saturated fatty acids, and LPO products increased. A relationship between the composition of mycelial lipids and the secretion of ligninolytic enzymes was revealed.

  3. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Treesearch

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  4. Identification of potent odorants in a novel nonalcoholic beverage produced by fermentation of wort with shiitake (Lentinula edodes).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Horlamus, Felix; Quitmann, Hendrich; Zorn, Holger

    2014-05-07

    Novel refreshments with pleasant flavors were developed by fermentation of wort with basidiomycetes. Among 31 screened fungi, shiitake (Lentinula edodes) produced the most pleasant flavor. It was perceived as fruity, slightly sour, and plum-like. Flavor compounds were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The key odor-active compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometry detector and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). For HS-SPME, a revised method of increasing the GC inlet split ratio was used. Most of the key odor-active compounds (e.g., 2-acetylpyrrole, β-damascenone, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenylethanol) were detected with both extraction techniques. However, distinct differences between these two methods were observed.

  5. A metabolomics approach to evaluate the effects of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) treatment in undernourished young rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molz, Patrícia; Ellwanger, Joel Henrique; Eliete Iochims dos Santos, Carla; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; de Campos, Deivis; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Prá, Daniel; Putzke, Marisa Terezinha Lopes; Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech

    2014-01-01

    Undernourishment is characterized by a decrease of the metabolic rate as a result of lack of nutrients important to life. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) can be an alternative to reverse undernourishment. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolic changes and consequent elemental concentrations found in undernourished rats and undernourished rats treated with shiitake mushroom (n = 12 rats each group). To determine the elemental concentration, blood samples were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). For metabolomics, blood samples were tested under Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that the supplementation with shiitake mushroom in undernourished rats altered the composition of blood proteins, elements and volume. Several strong correlations were observed between the elemental concentrations and metabolic parameters.

  6. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from Lentinula edodes C91–3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ben; Zhong, Mintao; Lun, Yongzhi; Wang, Xiaoli; Sun, Wenchang; Li, Xingyun; Ning, Anhong; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Huang, Min

    2012-01-01

    An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of Lentinula edodes C91–3—was expressed and characterized in Pichia pastoris GS115. The total RNA was obtained from Lentinula edodes C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3′-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and 5′-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (p < 0.05). There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (p < 0.05). At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins. PMID:22754362

  7. A novel Lentinula edodes laccase and its comparative enzymology suggest guaiacol-based laccase engineering for bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kin-Sing; Cheung, Man-Kit; Au, Chun-Hang; Kwan, Hoi-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are versatile biocatalysts for the bioremediation of various xenobiotics, including dyes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, current sources of new enzymes, simple heterologous expression hosts and enzymatic information (such as the appropriateness of common screening substrates on laccase engineering) remain scarce to support efficient engineering of laccase for better "green" applications. To address the issue, this study began with cloning the laccase family of Lentinula edodes. Three laccases perfectio sensu stricto (Lcc4A, Lcc5, and Lcc7) were then expressed from Pichia pastoris, characterized and compared with the previously reported Lcc1A and Lcc1B in terms of kinetics, stability, and degradation of dyes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Lcc7 represented a novel laccase, and it exhibited both the highest catalytic efficiency (assayed with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) [ABTS]) and thermostability. However, its performance on "green" applications surprisingly did not match the activity on the common screening substrates, namely, ABTS and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. On the other hand, correlation analyses revealed that guaiacol is much better associated with the decolorization of multiple structurally different dyes than are the two common screening substrates. Comparison of the oxidation chemistry of guaiacol and phenolic dyes, such as azo dyes, further showed that they both involve generation of phenoxyl radicals in laccase-catalyzed oxidation. In summary, this study concluded a robust expression platform of L. edodes laccases, novel laccases, and an indicative screening substrate, guaiacol, which are all essential fundamentals for appropriately driving the engineering of laccases towards more efficient "green" applications.

  8. A Novel Lentinula edodes Laccase and Its Comparative Enzymology Suggest Guaiacol-Based Laccase Engineering for Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kin-Sing; Cheung, Man-Kit; Au, Chun-Hang; Kwan, Hoi-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are versatile biocatalysts for the bioremediation of various xenobiotics, including dyes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, current sources of new enzymes, simple heterologous expression hosts and enzymatic information (such as the appropriateness of common screening substrates on laccase engineering) remain scarce to support efficient engineering of laccase for better “green” applications. To address the issue, this study began with cloning the laccase family of Lentinula edodes. Three laccases perfectio sensu stricto (Lcc4A, Lcc5, and Lcc7) were then expressed from Pichia pastoris, characterized and compared with the previously reported Lcc1A and Lcc1B in terms of kinetics, stability, and degradation of dyes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Lcc7 represented a novel laccase, and it exhibited both the highest catalytic efficiency (assayed with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) [ABTS]) and thermostability. However, its performance on “green” applications surprisingly did not match the activity on the common screening substrates, namely, ABTS and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. On the other hand, correlation analyses revealed that guaiacol is much better associated with the decolorization of multiple structurally different dyes than are the two common screening substrates. Comparison of the oxidation chemistry of guaiacol and phenolic dyes, such as azo dyes, further showed that they both involve generation of phenoxyl radicals in laccase-catalyzed oxidation. In summary, this study concluded a robust expression platform of L. edodes laccases, novel laccases, and an indicative screening substrate, guaiacol, which are all essential fundamentals for appropriately driving the engineering of laccases towards more efficient “green” applications. PMID:23799101

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Douglassville Disposal Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The Douglassville Disposal Site occupies approximately 50 acres of land along the southern bank of the Schuylkill River in southeastern Berks County, Union Township, Pennsylvania. Site operations included lubricating-oil recycling in 1941 and waste solvents recycling in the 1950's and 1960's. Wastes generated from these operations were stored in several lagoons located in the northern half of the site until 1972. In November 1970, ten days of heavy rain caused the lagoons to overflow and breach safety dikes releasing 2-3 million gallons of wastes. The dikes were repaired and a Federal decree was issued stating that no more waste material was to be stored in the lagoons. Actions were also initiated to dispose of remaining waste materials. Before the action could be carried out, tropical storm Agnes caused the Schuylkill River to overflow its banks and inundate the entire site. An estimated 6 to 8 million gallons of wastes were released and carried downstream by floodwaters for about 15 miles.

  10. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase II, November 1998 to May 1999, at Crossley Farms Superfund Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    2000-01-01

    Between November 1998 and May 1999, geophysical logging was conducted in 29 boreholes at the Crossley Farms Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the fluidproducing zones, fluid-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, and casing depth. The wells range in depth from 96 to 500 feet below land surface. Gamma logs only were collected in three bedrock wells. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so that the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, video, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluidtemperature and fluid-resistivity logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical, video logs, and drillers notes, 24 of the wells were reconstructed such that water levels can be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing fractures in each well.

  11. Reduction of organic and inorganic selenium compounds by the edible medicinal basidiomycete Lentinula edodes and the accumulation of elemental selenium nanoparticles in its mycelium.

    PubMed

    Vetchinkina, Elena; Loshchinina, Ekaterina; Kursky, Viktor; Nikitina, Valentina

    2013-12-01

    We report for the first time that the medicinal basidiomycete Lentinula edodes can reduce selenium from inorganic sodium selenite (Se(IV)) and the organoselenium compound 1,5-diphenyl-3-selenopentanedione-1,5 (DAPS-25) to the elemental state, forming spherical nanoparticles. Submerged cultivation of the fungus with sodium selenite or with DAPS-25 produced an intense red coloration of L. edodes mycelial hyphae, indicating accumulation of elemental selenium (Se(0)) in a red modification. Several methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and X-ray fluorescence, were used to show that red Se(0) accumulated intracellularly in the fungal hyphae as electron-dense nanoparticles with a diameter of 180.51±16.82 nm. Under designated cultivation conditions, shiitake did not reduce selenium from sodium selenate (Se(VI)).

  12. The tyrosinase-encoding gene of Lentinula edodes, Letyr, is abundantly expressed in the gills of the fruit-body during post-harvest preservation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toshitsugu; Kanda, Katsuhiro; Okawa, Kumiko; Takahashi, Machiko; Watanabe, Hisayuki; Hirano, Tatsuya; Yaegashi, Kaori; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2009-05-01

    The gill browning of Lentinula edodes fruit-bodies during preservation is thought to be due to melanin biosynthesis catalyzed by tyrosinase. We isolated a genomic DNA sequence and cDNA encoding a putative tyrosinase from the white rot basidiomycete Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom). The gene, named Letyr, consists of a 1,854-bp open reading frame interrupted by eight introns, and encodes a putative protein of 618 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass of 68 kDa. Amino acid residues known to be involved in copper-binding domains were conserved in the deduced amino acid residues of LeTyr. Transcriptional and translational expression of Letyr in the gills of the fruit-body increased during preservation after harvest. This correlation between Letyr expression and fruit-body preservation suggests that tyrosinase gene expression contributes to gill browning.

  13. Influence of Food Waste Compost on the Yield and Mineral Content of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, and Pholiota adipose Fruiting Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Eun-Young; Choi, Ji-Young; Choi, Jong-Woon

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate applicability of food waste compost (FWC) as a substrate for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, and Pholiota adipose, and to determine contents of Ca, Mg, Na, and K in fruiting bodies (FB). FB yield per substrate in FWC-free controls was 53 ± 4 g/kg for G. lucidum, 270 ± 90 g/kg for L. edodes, and 1,430 ± 355 g/kg for P. adipose. Substrates supplemented with FWC showed the highest FB production at FWC content of 10% for G. lucidum (64 ± 6 g/kg), and 13% for L. edodes (665 ± 110 g/kg) and P. adipose (2,345 ± 395 g/kg), which were 1.2~2.5 times higher than the values for the controls. P. adipose contained higher amounts of mineral elements than the other species. Ca, Mg, Na, and K content in FB did not show a significant relation to FWC content. PMID:24493941

  14. Trace metals related to historical iron smelting at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). The ore used at Hopewell Furnace was obtained from iron mines within 5 miles of the furnace. The iron-ore deposits were formed about 200 million years ago and contain abundant magnetite, the primary iron mineral, and accessory minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, lead, and other metals. Hopewell Furnace, built by Mark Bird during 1770-71, was one of the last of the charcoal-burning, cold-blast iron furnaces operated in Pennsylvania. The most productive years for Hopewell Furnace were from 1830 to 1837. Castings were the most profitable product, especially the popular Hopewell Stove. More than 80,000 stoves were cast at Hopewell, which produced as many as 23 types and sizes of cooking and heating stoves. Beginning in the 1840s, the iron industry shifted to large-scale, steam-driven coke and anthracite furnaces. Independent rural enterprises like Hopewell could no longer compete when the iron and steel industries consolidated in urban manufacturing centers. The furnace ceased operation in 1883 (Kurjack, 1954). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, completed a study at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS) in Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, to determine the fate of toxic trace metals, such as arsenic, cobalt, and lead, released into the environment during historical iron-smelting operations. The results of the study, conducted during 2008-10, are presented in this fact sheet.

  15. Influence of nitrogen sources on the enzymatic activity and grown by Lentinula edodes in biomass Eucalyptus benthamii.

    PubMed

    Pedri, Z C; Lozano, L M S; Hermann, K L; Helm, C V; Peralta, R M; Tavares, L B B

    2015-11-01

    Lignocellulose is the most abundant environmental component and a renewable organic resource in soil. There are some filamentous fungi which developed the ability to break down and use cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as an energy source. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of three nitrogen resources (ammonium sulfate, saltpetre, soybean) in the holocellulolitic activity of Lentinula edodes EF 50 using as substrate sawdust E. benthamii. An experimental design mixture was applied with repetition in the central point consisting of seven treatments (T) of equal concentrations of nitrogen in ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate and soybean. The enzymatic activity of avicelase, carboxymetilcellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanases and manganese peroxidase was determined. The humidity, pH, water activity (aw) and qualitative analysis of mycelial growth in 8 times of cultivation were evaluated. The results showed negative effect on enzyme production in treatments with maximum concentration of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The treatments with cooked soybean flour expressed higher enzymatic activities in times of 3, 6 and 9 days of culture, except in the activity of manganese peroxidase. The highest production was observed in the treatment with ammonium sulfate, and soybean (83.86 UI.L-1) at 20 days of cultivation.

  16. Anti-HCV effect of Lentinula edodes mycelia solid culture extracts and low-molecular-weight lignin.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Koji; Yamane, Seiji; Okamoto, Toru; Watari, Akihiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2015-06-19

    Lentinula edodes mycelia solid culture extract (MSCE) contains several bioactive molecules, including some polyphenolic compounds, which exert immunomodulatory, antitumor, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we examined the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity of MSCE and low-molecular-weight lignin (LM-lignin), which is the active component responsible for the hepatoprotective effect of MSCE. Both MSCE and LM-lignin inhibited the entry of two HCV pseudovirus (HCVpv) types into Huh7.5.1 cells. LM-lignin inhibited HCVpv entry at a lower concentration than MSCE and inhibited the entry of HCV particles in cell culture (HCVcc). MSCE also inhibited HCV subgenome replication. LM-lignin had no effect on HCV replication, suggesting that MSCE contains additional active substances. We demonstrate here for the first time the anti-HCV effects of plant-derived LM-lignin and MSCE. The hepatoprotective effect of LM-lignin suggests that lignin derivatives, which can be produced in abundance from existing plant resources, may be effective in the treatment of HCV-related diseases.

  17. Influence of nitrogen sources on the enzymatic activity and grown by Lentinula edodes in biomass Eucalyptus benthamii.

    PubMed

    Pedri, Z C; Lozano, L M S; Hermann, K L; Helm, C V; Peralta, R M; Tavares, L B B

    2015-11-10

    AbstractLignocellulose is the most abundant environmental component and a renewable organic resource in soil. There are some filamentous fungi which developed the ability to break down and use cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as an energy source. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of three nitrogen resources (ammonium sulfate, saltpetre, soybean) in the holocellulolitic activity of Lentinula edodes EF 50 using as substrate sawdust E. benthamii. An experimental design mixture was applied with repetition in the central point consisting of seven treatments (T) of equal concentrations of nitrogen in ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate and soybean. The enzymatic activity of avicelase, carboxymetilcellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanases and manganese peroxidase was determined. The humidity, pH, water activity (aw) and qualitative analysis of mycelial growth in 8 times of cultivation were evaluated. The results showed negative effect on enzyme production in treatments with maximum concentration of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The treatments with cooked soybean flour expressed higher enzymatic activities in times of 3, 6 and 9 days of culture, except in the activity of manganese peroxidase. The highest production was observed in the treatment with ammonium sulfate, and soybean (83.86 UI.L-1) at 20 days of cultivation.

  18. Influence of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on shiitake (Lentinula edodes) yield and mushroom size.

    PubMed

    Royse, Daniel J; Sanchez-Vazquez, Jose E

    2003-11-01

    Synthetic substrate consisting of oak sawdust (50%), white millet (28%), winter rye (11%) and soft red wheat bran (11%) was non-supplemented or supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% (dry weight basis) precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)). Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) was grown in two crops to determine the effect of three CaCO(3) levels on mushroom yield and size. Yields and biological efficiencies (averages for two crops) from substrates non-supplemented with CaCO(3) were lower by 14.1%, 18.4% and 24.9% compared to treatments supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% CaCO(3), respectively. Mushroom size (weight) was larger with non-supplemented substrate (16.8 g) compared to substrate supplemented with 0.6% CaCO(3) (15.1 g). However, mushroom production was more consistent from crop to crop when 0.6% CaCO(3) was added to substrate.

  19. Water-quality study of Tulpehocken Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania, prior to impoundment of Blue Marsh Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Blue Marsh Lake is planned as a multipurpose impoundment to be constructed on Tulpehocken Creek near Bernville, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Prior to construction, samples of water, bed material, and soil were collected throughout the impoundment site to determine concentrations of nutrients, insecticides, trace metals, suspended sediment, and bacteria. Analyses of water suggest the Tulpehocken Creek basin to be a highly fertile environment. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations near the proposed dam site had median values of 4.5 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. Suspended sediment discharges average between 100 and 200 tons (90.7 to 181.4 metric tons) per day during normal flows but may exceed 10,000 tons (9,070 metric tons) per day during storm runoff. Highest yields were measured during winter and early spring. Concentrations range from 3 mg/L to more than 500 mg/L. Bed material samples contain trace quantities of aldrin, DDT, DDD, DDE, dieldrin, and chlordane. Polychlorinated biphyenyls (PCB's) ranged from 10 to 100 μg/kg. Soils at the impoundment site are of average fertility. However, the silt loam texture is ideal for attachment and growth of aquatic plants. Bacteria populations indicative of recent fecal contamination are prevalent in the major inflows to the proposed lake. Fecal Coliform exceeded the standards recommended by the Federal Water Pollution Administration Committee on Water Quality Criteria for public water supply in 29 percent of the monthly samples, and exceeded the recommended public bathing waters standard in 83 percent of the samples collected from June to September. Arsenic from an industrial waste was found in the water, suspended sediment, and bed material of Tulpehocken Creek in concentrations of 0 to 30 μg/l, 2 to 879 μg/l, and 1 to 79 μg/g, respectively. It represents a potential environmental hazard; however, the measured concentrations are less than that known to be harmful to man, fish, or wildlife, according to published water

  20. Exploring the potential of novel biomixtures and Lentinula edodes fungus for the degradation of selected pesticides. Evaluation for use in biobed systems.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A P; Rodrigues, S C; Caldeira, A T; Teixeira, D M

    2016-01-15

    An approach to reduce the contamination of water sources with pesticides is the use of biopurificaction systems. The active core of these systems is the biomixture. The composition of biomixtures depends on the availability of local agro-industrial wastes and design should be adapted to every region. In Portugal, cork processing is generally regarded as environmentally friendly and would be interesting to find applications for its industry residues. In this work the potential use of different substrates in biomixtures, as cork (CBX); cork and straw, coat pine and LECA (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates), was tested on the degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin pesticides. Bioaugmentation strategies using the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes inoculated into the CBX, was also assessed. The results obtained from this study clearly demonstrated the relevance of using natural biosorbents as cork residues to increase the capacity of pesticide dissipation in biomixtures for establishing biobeds. Furthermore, higher degradation of all the pesticides was achieved by use of bioaugmented biomixtures. Indeed, the biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 were able to mineralize the selected xenobiotics, revelling that these white-rot fungi might be a suitable fungus for being used as inoculum sources in on-farm sustainable biopurification system, in order to increase its degradation efficiency. After 120 days, maximum degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin, of bioaugmented CBX, was 89.9%, 75.0%, 65.0% and 99.4%, respectively.. The dominant metabolic route of terbuthylazine in biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 proceeded mainly via hydroxylation, towards production of terbuthylazine-hydroxy-2 metabolite. Finally, sorption process to cork by pesticides proved to be a reversible process, working cork as a mitigating factor reducing the toxicity to microorganisms in the biomixture, especially in the

  1. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn’s formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  2. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn's formulation and genetic factors of the different strains.

  3. The structure and stratigraphy of the Pen Argyl Member of the Martinsburg Formation in Lehigh and Berks counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lash, Gary George

    1978-01-01

    The Pen Argyl Member, the upper claystone slate member of the Martinsburg Formation, was studied in three quadrangles in Lehigh and Berks Counties, Pennsylvania. Graptolites collected from the Pen Argyl Member at Lehigh Gap indicate a lower Upper Ordovician (Edenian-Maysvillian) age for the Pen Argyl Member. The Pen Argyl Member in this area is located on the normal limb and in the brow of the large, recumbent Musconetcong nappe. It is a deep water flysch deposit emplaced by turbidity currents from a southeasterly source. Sedimentologic and structural evidence show that the Pen Argyl member overlies the sandy middle Ramseyburg Member, thus supporting the tripartite subdivision of the Martinsburg Formation. Field and thin section study indicates that the penetrative slaty cleavage formed in an indurated rock probably by pressure solution and neocrystallization under lower greenschist facies metamorphism. Strain-slip cleavage formed as a result of a stress couple operating parallel to the slaty cleavage that transposed the slaty cleavage into a more spaced cleavage. Both cleavages are believed to have formed within the same stress continuum and in close succession. Analysis of the folds in the Pen Argyl Member indicate six phases of major and minor folding. The earliest folding, F1, resulted in the development of the recumbent nappe. F2 folds can only be determined statistically; these axes plunge either northeast or southwest Asymmetric folds, F3, and associated F4 crenulations formed within the same stress continuum. F5 folds are large open folds and are exemplified by the Mosservi!le anticline. Kink folds, F6 and associated crenulations are fault related and were the last folds to form. Faults in the Pen Argyl Member range from small displacements along slaty cleavage to large reverse faults. The largest of these, the Eckville fault, is recognized throughout the three quadrangle area. It is a high angle reverse fault that separates the Shochary sequence from the

  4. Monitoring decay of black gum wood (Nyssa sylvatica) during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vane, Christopher H

    2003-05-01

    Abstract diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) and elemental analysis were employed to monitor biodegradation of black gum wood (Nyssa sylvatica) during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes). Black gum was decayed for up to 4.3 years by L. edodes, during which time it was sampled at 19, 31, and 52 months. Biodegraded woods displayed increased % O (w/w) and decreased % C (w/w) relative to the undecayed control. The DRIFT spectra of decayed black gum showed a decrease in relative intensity of absorption bands at 1735 cm(-1) assigned to carboxyl functional groups from xylans and an increase in the absorption band at 1640 cm(-1) assigned to conjugated carbonyl groups originating from lignin. Xylan decay was rapid initially but slowed after 19 months; however, oxidative decay of the lignin side chains occurred throughout the 52-month decay period. Overall elemental and DRIFT data show that both polysaccharides and lignin were decayed during cultivation of the edible white-rot fungus.

  5. Improvement of QOL and Immunological Function With Lentinula Edodes Mycelia in Patients Undergoing Cancer Immunotherapy: An Open Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Keishi; Itoh, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Yasunobu

    2016-07-01

    Context • Combined treatment with an extract of Lentinula edodes mycelia (LEM) and chemotherapy has been reported to improve quality of life (QOL) and immunological function in cancer patients. However, those effects have not been elucidated for patients receiving cancer immunotherapy. Objective • The present study intended to investigate the effects of oral LEM on QOL and immunological function in cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. Design • The research team designed an open-label, single-armed pilot study. Setting • The study took place at Bio-Thera Clinic, a facility associated with Tokyo Women's Medical University in Tokyo, Japan. Participants • The participants were 10 cancer patients undergoing cancer immunotherapy at Bio-Thera Clinic. Intervention • The participants received either dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine therapy or CD3-activated T-lymphocyte (CAT) therapy as immunotherapy. They received the immunotherapy only for the first 4 wk of the study, and then oral LEM (1800 mg/d) was added for the next 4 wk. Outcome Measures • Preintervention and at 4 and 8 wk after the start of the study, participants completed a QOL survey, and immunological parameters were measured. Results • Participants' QOL symptom scores increased (ie, worsened) by 5.1 ± 1.7 during the first 4 wk of treatment when they were receiving immunotherapy only, but it decreased (ie, improved) by -2.5 ± 1.6 during the next 4 wk when the immunotherapy was combined with the LEM, P < .05. The measurement of the immunological parameters during the 4 wk of immunotherapy combined with LEM showed that the amount of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) produced in the peripheral blood tended to increase as compared with that during the first 4 wk of immunotherapy only. The rise in IFN-γ was correlated with changes in several regulatory T cells (Tregs) (ie, forkhead box P3 [FOXP3]+/cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4]+ and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]). Conclusions • The

  6. Enhancing Nutritional Contents of Lentinus sajor-caju Using Residual Biogas Slurry Waste of Detoxified Mahua Cake Mixed with Wheat Straw

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Kumar, Ashwani; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Residual biogas slurries (BGS) of detoxified mahua cake and cow dung were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS). Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in protein content (29.6-38.9%), sugars (29.1-32.3%) and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn) was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%), lignin (%), celluloses (%), and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N, and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake) in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%), hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1%) and lignin (27.4-39.23%) in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of L. sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS. PMID:27790187

  7. Enhancing Nutritional Contents of Lentinus sajor-caju Using Residual Biogas Slurry Waste of Detoxified Mahua Cake Mixed with Wheat Straw.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Kumar, Ashwani; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Residual biogas slurries (BGS) of detoxified mahua cake and cow dung were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS). Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg(-1) fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in protein content (29.6-38.9%), sugars (29.1-32.3%) and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn) was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%), lignin (%), celluloses (%), and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N, and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake) in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%), hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1%) and lignin (27.4-39.23%) in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of L. sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  8. Biobleaching of Acacia kraft pulp with extracellular enzymes secreted by Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 using low-cost media.

    PubMed

    Afrida, Sitompul; Tamai, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    The white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 have been shown in previous studies to have high biobleaching activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities and stabilities of extracellular enzymes, prepared from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus culture grown in three types of economical media of agricultural and forestry wastes, for biobleaching of Acacia oxygen-delignified kraft pulp using kappa number reduction as an indicator of delignification. After 3 days of incubation, the extracellular enzymes preparations from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus cultures in media of Acacia mangium wood powder supplemented with rice bran and addition 1 % glucose (WRBG), resulted in significant decrease of 4.4 and 6.7 %, respectively. A slightly higher kappa number reduction (7.4 %) was achieved with the combine extracellular enzymes from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus. One of the strategies for reducing the cost of enzyme production for treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry is the utilization of agricultural and forestry waste. Thus, WRBG has potential as a culture medium for producing stable lignolytic enzymes simply and economically.

  9. Molecular characterizations of somatic hybrids developed between Pleurotus florida and Lentinus squarrosulus through inter-simple sequence repeat markers and sequencing of ribosomal RNA-ITS gene.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Pijush; Chattaraj, Shruti; Sikdar, Samir Ranjan

    2017-10-01

    The 12 pfls somatic hybrids and 2 parents of Pleurotus florida and Lentinus squarrosulus were characterized by ISSR and sequencing of rRNA-ITS genes. Five ISSR primers were used and amplified a total of 54 reproducible fragments with 98.14% polymorphism among all the pfls hybrid populations and parental strains. UPGMA-based cluster exhibited a dendrogram with three major groups between the parents and pfls hybrids. Parent P. florida and L. squarrosulus showed different degrees of genetic distance with all the hybrid lines and they showed closeness to hybrid pfls 1m and pfls 1h, respectively. ITS1(F) and ITS4(R) amplified the rRNA-ITS gene with 611-867 bp sequence length. The nucleotide polymorphisms were found in the ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S rRNA region with different number of bases. Based on rRNA-ITS sequence, UPGMA cluster exhibited three distinct groups between L. squarrosulus and pfls 1p, pfls 1m and pfls 1s, and pfls 1e and P. florida.

  10. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested

  11. Anticoagulant resistance in the United Kingdom and a new guideline for the management of resistant infestations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.).

    PubMed

    Buckle, Alan

    2013-03-01

    Anticoagulant resistance was first discovered in UK Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) in 1958 and has been present ever since. The possible detrimental impact of resistance on effective rodent control was quickly recognised, and, for almost three decades, extensive research was conducted on the geographical distribution and severity of anticoagulant resistance in UK rats. Various schemes for the eradication of resistant rats were also implemented. At first, surveys showed resistance only to the first-generation anticoagulants, such as warfarin, chlorophacinone and coumatetralyl, but, later, resistance to the more potent second-generation anticoagulants, such as difenacoum and bromadiolone, was also discovered. Unlike some European countries, where only one or two resistance mutations occur, virtually all known rat resistance mutations occur in the United Kingdom, and five (Leu128Gln, Tyr139Ser, Tyr139Cys, Tyr139Phe and Leu120Gln) are known to have significant impacts on anticoagulant efficacy. Little is currently known of the geographical extent of anticoagulant resistance among Norway rats in the United Kingdom because no comprehensive survey has been conducted recently. At an operational level, anticoagulants generally retain their utility for Norway rat control, but it is impossible to control resistant rats in some areas because of restrictions on the use of the more potent resistance-breaking compounds. This paper reviews the development of resistance in Norway rats in the United Kingdom, outlines the present situation for resistance management and introduces a new resistance management guideline from the UK Rodenticide Resistance Action Group.

  12. [Surgery of orbital tumors with the Krönlein-Berke-Reese method in material from the Ophthalmology Clinics in Bałystok].

    PubMed

    Bakunowicz-Lazarczyk, A; Mariak, Z; Stankiewicz, A; Kita, D

    1996-01-01

    To analyse the results of surgical treatment of tumors located in the posterior part of the orbit. 12 patients (5 women and 7 men, aged 10-70 years) with tumors located in the posterior part of the orbit, operated on in the years 1985-1995 in Ophtalmology Clinic in Bialystok with the use of Krönlein-Berke-Reese lateral orbitotomy method. Tissues of removed tumor were evaluated histopathologically. In 7 cases tumor was removed completely, including 3 cases with simultaneous optic nerve removal. In 3 other cases tumor was removed partially, whereas in 2 cases eventration of the orbit was necessary. Persistent postsurgical defects of the eyeball mobility were not found in any of the patients. In 2 patients with partially removed tumor a constant blepharoptosis was observed, which required further operation. Visual acuity in patients with preserved optic nerve remained unchanged in 6 out of 7 cases. In 1 case-completely removed cavernoma-visual acuity decreased from 5/7 to 5/16. Lateral orbitotomy enables successful removal of tumors located in the posterior part of the orbit. Moreover, this method is relatively safe, especially in comparison with cranial approach to tumors badly located in the orbit.

  13. The H+/K+-ATPase inhibitory activities of Trametenolic acid B from Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat, and its effects on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyin; Huang, Nianyu; Wang, Junzhi; Luo, Huajun; He, Haibo; Ding, Mingruo; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Zou, Kun

    2013-09-01

    Trametenolic acid B (TAB), the bioactive component in the Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat, was reported to possess cytotoxic activities and thrombin inhibiting effects. This study was performed to investigate the effects of TAB on H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and gastric cancer. The H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity was determined by gastric parietal cells. Compared to the normal control group, TAB (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/mL) inhibited the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity by 15.97, 16.96, 24.86 and 16.25%, respectively. In the study, 36 Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, TAB-L (TAB, 5 mg/kg/day, i.g.), TAB-M (TAB, 20 mg/kg/day, i.g.), TAB-H (TAB, 40 mg/kg/day, i.g.) and omeprazole (OL, 10 mg/kg/day, i.g.). All mice except the control group were administrated with anhydrous alcohol (5.0 mL/kg, i.g.) for induced gastric-ulcer 1h after the 5th day. At the same time, the control mice were given the same volume of physiological saline. After 4h, TAB was evaluated for H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities of ulcerative gaster, gastric ulcer index and ulcer inhibition. In vitro, the anti-proliferation effect of TAB to gastric cancer cell (HGC-27) in acid environment was detected by MTT, and the apoptosis morphological changes were also observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. The results indicated that TAB inhibited moderately H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro. Compared to the model group, TAB showed anti-ulcer effects in gastric tissue with the dosages of 20 and 5 mg/kg in vivo. Apart from that, TAB could selectively inhibit gastric cancer cell viability and reduce cell apoptosis against HGC-27 cells at low doses in acid environment.

  14. Antitumor activity of a polysaccharide-protein complex isolated from a wood-rotting polypore macro fungus Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Meera, C R; Janardhanan, Kainoor K

    2012-01-01

    A protein-bound, water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complex was isolated from a medicinal mushroom, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat (PPC-Pr). The isolation was achieved by hot water extraction, filtration, solvent precipitation, dialysis, and freeze-drying. The proximate analysis showed that PPC-Pr comprised 54.8% polysaccharide and 28.6% protein. The molecular weight of the compound was determined by gel filtration using a Sephadex G 100. The molecular weight of PPC-Pr was approximately 1,200,000 D. The thin-layer chromatography analysis of PPC-Pr after acid hydrolysis with trifluroacetic acid showed that it was composed of glucose as the only monosaccharide unit. The amino acid profile analysis of PPC-Pr revealed that it contained large amounts of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, and serine. Thus, the results indicated that PPC-Pr is a glucan-protein complex. The PPC-Pr did not show in vitro cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma ascites and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell lines. The PPC-Pr was found to be effective in increasing the life span of ascites tumors induced by Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell line in mice. PPC-Pr also was found to have significant preventive and curative effects on solid tumors induced by the Dalton's lymphoma ascites cell line. The experimental results thus indicated that protein-bound polysaccharide (PPC-Pr) isolated from P. rimosus possessed profound antitumor activity. The findings suggest the potential therapeutic use of this compound as an antitumor agent.

  15. Water-Soluble Compounds from Lentinula edodes Influencing the HMG-CoA Reductase Activity and the Expression of Genes Involved in the Cholesterol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Caz, Víctor; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Martin-Hernandez, Roberto; Largo, Carlota; Tabernero, María; Marín, Francisco R; Iacomini, Marcello; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2016-03-09

    A water extract from Lentinula edodes (LWE) showed HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity but contained no statins. NMR indicated the presence of water-soluble α- and β-glucans and fucomannogalactans. Fractions containing derivatives of these polysaccharides with molecular weight down to approximately 1 kDa still retained their inhibitory activity. Once digested LWE was applied to Caco2 in transport experiments, no significant effect was noticed on the modulation of cholesterol-related gene expression. But, when the lower compartment of the Caco2 monolayer was applied to HepG2, some genes were modulated (after 24 h). LWE was also administrated to normo- and hypercholesterolemic mice, and no significant lowering of serum cholesterol levels was observed; but reduction of triglycerides in liver was observed. However, LWE supplementation modulated the transcriptional profile of some genes involved in the cholesterol metabolism similarly to simvastatin, suggesting that it could hold potential as a hypolipidemic/hypocholesterolemic extract, although further dose-dependent studies should be carried out.

  16. Evaluation of geophysical logs and aquifer-isolation tests, Phase III, August 2002 to March 2004, Crossley Farm superfund site, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Low, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2002 and March 2004, geophysical logging was conducted in 23 boreholes at the Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical-borehole flow, and fracture orientation where applicable. The boreholes ranged in depth from 71 to 503 ft(feet) below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper (22 boreholes), fluid-temperature (17 boreholes),single-point-resistance (17 boreholes), natural-gamma (17 boreholes), fluid-flow (18 boreholes), and acoustic-televiewer (13 boreholes) logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing zones, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy; the geologist log also provided information on the location of possible water-producing zones. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicated active flow in 10 boreholes. Seven of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas and three boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates lithologic contacts (changes in lithology from a gneiss dominated by quartz-plagioclase-feldspar mineralogy to a gneiss dominated by hornblende mineralogy) are typically fractured, permeable, and effective transmitters of water. Single-well, aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were performed on two boreholes. Packers were set at depths ranging from 210 to 465 ft

  17. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  18. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  19. Studies on the biosynthesis of phenols in fungi. Production of 4-methoxytoluquinol, epoxysuccinic acid and a diacetylenic alcohol by surface cultures of Lentinus degener I.M.I. 110525

    PubMed Central

    Packter, N. M.

    1969-01-01

    1. 4-Methoxytoluquinol was secreted into the medium by surface cultures of the basidiomycete Lentinus degener Kalchbr. (approx. 100mg./l. of medium). In addition, epoxysuccinic acid (150–200mg.) and a long-chain diacetylenic alcohol (3mg.) were also secreted. Epoxysuccinic acid has previously been found in the culture medium of some Fungi Imperfecti. These metabolites were all synthesized during the early phase of growth but maximum production occurred some time later. 2. Supplementation of the medium with cycloheximide or 8-azaguanine inhibited the production of epoxysuccinic acid. 3. Sodium [1-14C]acetate and 6-methyl[14C]salicylic acid were not incorporated into 4-methoxytoluquinol, but [U-14C]tyrosine and [Me-14C]methionine were incorporated to the extent of 0·55 and 4·75% respectively (minimum values). Degradation studies established that the aromatic ring and C-methyl group were derived from the ring and β-carbon atom of tyrosine; the O-methyl group alone was formed from methionine. PMID:5810100

  20. Equilibrium and kinetic studies on biosorption of Pb(II) by common edible macrofungi: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Hao, Ruixia; Yang, Shiqin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we studied the natural bioaccumulation and biosorption of Pb(II) in several common edible macrofungi. The macrofungi include the following species: Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, and Agrocybe cylindracea. The present analysis of Pb(II) revealed distinct capabilities of metal accumulation among individual species. Moreover, the natural concentrations of lead did not reach a health risk level when cultivated in uncontaminated soil. In the biosorption experiment by edible macrofungi, we found that the equilibrium data of living sporocarp (P. eryngii and H. marmoreus) and the homogenate of L. edodes and F. velutipes fit the Freundlich model well. Other data samples exhibited a better fit to the Langmuir model. The edible macrofungi showed a higher lead removal capacity than did other biosorbents. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order kinetics model exhibited the best fit to the biosorption processes. The effectiveness of edible macrofungi as biosorbents for Pb(II) was confirmed.

  1. Shiitake dermatitis: the first case reported in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Adriano, André Ricardo; Acosta, Martha Liliana; Azulay, David Rubem; Quiroz, Carlos Daniel; Talarico, Samantha Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Shiitake Dermatitis is often presented as papules and erythemato-violaceous linear streaks. It can be associated with bleomycin treatment, dermatomyositis and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). There is not any previous report concerning this rare etiology in our country. Shiitake is the second most consumed mushroom worldwide and it can cause flagellate erythema when ingested raw or half cooked. It has a higher incidence in Oriental countries because of their eating habits, this is the first case reported in Brazil, in a male patient that presented a cutaneous rash after consuming this raw mushroom. PMID:23793190

  2. Mushroom Extracts Decrease Bone Resorption and Improve Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Erjavec, Igor; Brkljacic, Jelena; Vukicevic, Slobodan; Jakopovic, Boris; Jakopovich, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have shown promising effects in the treatment of cancer and various chronic diseases. Osteoporosis is considered one of the most widespread chronic diseases, for which currently available therapies show mixed results. In this research we investigated the in vitro effects of water extracts of the culinary-medicinal mushrooms Trametes versicolor, Grifola frondosa, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus on a MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cell line, primary rat osteoblasts, and primary rat osteoclasts. In an animal osteoporosis model, rats were ovariectomized and then fed 2 mushroom blends of G. frondosa and L. edodes for 42 days. Bone loss was monitored using densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and micro computed tomography. In the concentration test, mushroom extracts showed no toxic effect on MC3T3-E1 cells; a dose of 24 µg/mL showed the most proliferative effect. Mushroom extracts of T. versicolor, G. frondosa, and L. edodes inhibited osteoclast activity, whereas the extract of L. edodes increased osteoblast mineralization and the production of osteocalcin, a specific osteoblastic marker. In animals, mushroom extracts did not prevent trabecular bone loss in the long bones. However, we show for the first time that the treatment with a combination of extracts from L. edodes and G. frondosa significantly reduced trabecular bone loss at the lumbar spine. Inhibitory properties of extracts from L. edodes on osteoclasts and the promotion of osteoblasts in vitro, together with the potential to decrease lumbar spine bone loss in an animal osteoporosis model, indicate that medicinal mushroom extracts can be considered as a preventive treatment and/or a supplement to pharmacotherapy to enhance its effectiveness and ameliorate its harmful side effects.

  3. Geology and groundwater resources of northern Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles R.; MacLachlan, David B.

    1978-01-01

    The area of investigation comprises approximately 540 square miles and lies entirely within the Great Valley section of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province. The Great Valley is underlain chiefly by carbon ate rocks in the south and by shale and graywacke in the north. Most of the carbonate rocks are included in two great nappes that differ appreciably in stratigraphic detail.

  4. Water resources of Oley Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulachok, G.N.; Wood, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Oley Township covers an area of 24 square miles, about half of which is underlain by highly permeable carbonate rocks. Nondomestic wells in these rocks typically have yields of 200 gallons per minute, and some wells yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. Ground-water yield for Oley Township is about 0.5 million gallons per day per square mile. Thus, about 12 million gallons per day could be pumped from wells on a sustained basis. However, pumping this amount would adversely affect streamflow. A series of discharge measurements on Manatawny Creek in January 1983 showed that the creek was gaining approximately 12 cubic feet per second where it crosses the more- permeable carbonate rocks. Thus, the streams are directly connected to these aquifers. The northern and western parts of the township are mostly underlain by shale, quartzite, granite, gneiss, and carbonate rocks of low permeability, and some wells do not yield enough water for domestic supplies. A water-table map shows that two active quarries in low-permeability rocks have had little effect on the hydrologic system. Specific yields are about 4.5 percent for the carbonate rocks; 5 percent for quartzite, granite, and gneiss; 1 percent for the noncarbonate sedimentary rocks; and 1.5 percent for the Jacksonburg Limestone, which consists of argillaceous limestone. In 1982--a year of average precipitation--the ground-water contribution to total streamflow ranged from 56 to 88 percent. Basins with the highest percentage of carbonate rock contribute the largest amount of ground water to streamflow. Evapotranspiration averaged about 26 inches in 1982. Water loss was 32 inches in the Limekiln Creek basin; this suggests that about 6 inches of precipitation bypassed the Limekiln Creek gaging station as ground-water underflow. The most serious water-quality problems are excessive nitrate concentrations and bacterial contamination. Water from 3 of 19 wells in carbonate rocks had nitrate concentrations in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter. Water from 5 of the 19 wells had fecal streptococci counts of more than 20 colonies per 100 milliliters. Although most agencies concerned with the protection of public health have not set limits for fecal streptococci, they are pathogenic, and their presence in drinking water is undesirable.

  5. A toxic metabolite of Nigrospora oryzae (Berk and Br.) petch.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Davis, N D; Diener, U L

    1986-09-01

    Nigrospora oryzae was isolated from dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) collected in Auburn and from hay shipped under refrigeration to Florida. Some of these samples were eaten by cattle and horses that subsequently developed lameness. Metabolites of N. oryzae were separated by thin layer chromatography and tested for toxicity. Only one metabolite was toxic. Metabolite A showed toxicity to brine shrimp with an LD50 = 500 micrograms/ml in 8 h. It also had an antibiotic effect on Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 with a minimum inhibitory level of 10.1 micrograms/disc. As little as 435 micrograms of a crude methanolic extract of N. oryzae showed mild toxicity to chick embryos. The metabolite was not toxic to mice nor rats at the levels tested. Quantitative procedures developed for the determination of metabolite A showed that the maximum production occurred in yeast extract-sucrose liquid medium with an initial pH of 5-6, when incubated as a stationary culture for 28 days at 25 degrees C. It was concluded that metabolite A is a weak antibiotic rather than a mycotoxin, and was probably not associated with the symptoms of lameness observed in cattle and horses. The antibiotic is not one previously reported for N. oryzae.

  6. Limnological survey of Sacony Creek Basin, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James L.; Kulp, Kenneth P.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of water, fish and benthic macroinvertabrates collected at 10 sampling stations over a 10-month period indicate that Sacony Creek and its major tributaries contain water of good to excellent quality. The waters were found to be free of excessive quantities of dissolved nutrients, oxidizable matter, and fecal coliform bacteria. (p>Fish inhabitants include a sizabel wild trout population in the upper Sacony basin and a diverse ware-water population, dominated by white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), in the lower basin. A population of 590 trout or 119 pounds per acre (113 kilograms per square hectometre) was estimated for good habitat in the upper basin. A maximum standing crop of 558.7 pounds per acre (626 kilograms per square hectometre) was measured at one of the more productive reaches. Benthic macroinvertebrate collections tended to support he water chemistry and fish population studies. Diversity (d) and redundancy (r) ranged from 2.44 to 3.46 and 0.14 to 0.38, respectively. Such diversity and redundancy values indicate a healthy environment at all stations.

  7. [Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].

    PubMed

    Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

    2013-01-01

    Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts.

  8. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed.

  9. Screening of Lignocellulose-Degrading Superior Mushroom Strains and Determination of Their CMCase and Laccase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels. PMID:24693246

  10. Screening of lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains and determination of their CMCase and laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels.

  11. Vitamin D2 Stability During the Refrigerated Storage of Ultraviolet B-Treated Cultivated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Slawinska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Jablonska-Rys, Ewa; Parfieniuk, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on the synthesis of vitamin D2 and its stability during refrigerated storage was determined in fresh cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinus edodes) after harvest. The irradiated mushrooms were stored at 4°C for up to 10 days. The concentrations of vitamin D2 and ergosterol were determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The cultivated mushrooms not treated with UVB were devoid of vitamin D2. After UVB irradiation, we obtained mushrooms with a large amount of ergocalciferol. A. bisporus showed the lowest vitamin D2 content (3.55 ± 0.11 μg D2/g dry weight); P. ostreatus contained 58.96 ± 1.15 μg D2/g dry weight, and L. edodes contained 29.46 ± 2.21 μg/g dry weight. During storage at 4°C, the amount of vitamin D2 was gradually decreased in P. ostreatus and L. edodes, whereas in A. bisporus vitamin D2 gradually increased until the sixth day, then decreased. Mushrooms exposed to UVB radiation contain a significant amount of vitamin D2 and are therefore an excellent food source of vitamin D.

  12. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum.

  13. Encapsulation of shiitake (Lenthinus edodes) flavors by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Hirokazu; Yoshii, Hidefumi; Ohe, Hisashi; Yasuda, Masahumi; Furuta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Hiroshige; Ohkawara, Masaaki; Linko, Pekka

    2004-01-01

    Powdery encapsulation of shiitake flavors, extracted from dried shiitake, was investigated by spray drying. Flavor retention increased with an increase in drying air temperature and solid content, and decreased with an increase in dextrose equivalents of maltodextrin. A heat-treatment of the extract liquid made the lenthionine concentration increase, but did not influence the concentrations of the other flavors. The formation of lenthionine with heat-treatment could be described by the consecutive unimolecular-type first order reaction. Lenthionine content in a spray-dried powder prepared with the heated extracted liquid significantly increased. alpha-Cyclodextrin was the most suitable encapsulant of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins to prepare the spray-dried powder, including lenthionine. The flavor retentions were markedly increased by using of alpha-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin in combination as an encapsulant.

  14. Identification and characterization of genes related to cellulolytic activity in basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Volpini, A F N; Thomazine, T; Umeo, S H; Pereira, G A; Linde, G A; Valle, J S; Colauto, N B; Barcellos, F G; Souza, S G H

    2016-09-16

    Enzymes produced by basidiomycetes that are involved in the cellulose degradation process, and their respective codifying genes, must be identified to facilitate the development of novel biotechnological strategies and applications in the agro-industry. The objective of this study was to identify prospective cellulase-producing genes and characterize their cellulolytic activity, in order to elucidate the potential biotechnological applications (with respect to vegetal residues) of basidiomycetes. The basidiomycete strains Lentinula edodes U8-1, Lentinus crinitus U9-1, and Schizophyllum commune U6-7 were analyzed in this study. The cellulolytic activities of these fungi were evaluated based on the halo formation in carboxymethyl cellulose culture medium after dyeing with Congo red. The presence of cellulase-codifying genes (cel7A, cel6B, cel3A, and egl) in these fungal strains was also evaluated. L. edodes and S. commune presented the highest cellulolytic halo to mycelial growth radius ratio, followed by L. crinitus. Four genes were amplified in the L. edodes strain, whereas three and one genes were isolated from L. crinitus and S. commune, respectively. The cel6B gene (L. edodes) presented the conserved domain glyco_hydro_6 and characterized as cellobiohydrolase gene. The results of this study contribute to the existing knowledge on cellulases in basidiomycetes, and serve as a basis for future studies on the expression of these genes and the characterization of the catalytic activity of these enzymes. This allows for better utilization of these fungi in degrading vegetal fibers from agro-industrial residues and in other biotechnological applications.

  15. Isolation of high quality and yield of RNA from Agaricus bisporus with a simple, inexpensive and reliable method.

    PubMed

    Meng, De-Mei; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Sheng, Ji-Ping

    2012-07-01

    A method for isolating high purity and quantity RNA from Agaricus bisporus which is rich in proteins, carbohydrate, fiber and secondary metabolites, is described. RNA was extracted from mycelium, primordia, sporophores at two development stages and two post-harvest storage stages as well as from pileipellis, inner cap, gill and stipe of the mature sporophore. The A(260)/A(230) and A(260)/A(280) ratios of isolated RNA from fruiting bodies were both ~2 and the yield was about 200 μg/g fresh wt (FW). The yield of RNA from mycelium was approx. 100 μg/g FW. High quality RNA was also extracted from fruiting body tissues of Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus eryngii with yields from 130 to 225 μg/g FW. RNA extracted from all samples was intact, as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis and was suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR.

  16. Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Zhao, Yingting; Huang, Jijun; Zeng, Hongliang; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-04-15

    Various drying methods play important roles in the preservation of foods. However, how the different drying methods affect the quality of some foods is not clear. This paper evaluates the effects of hot air, vacuum, microwave, and microwave vacuum drying techniques on important qualities and volatile compounds of whole shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. These four drying methods resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) increase in the content of total free amino acids and the relative content of sulfur compounds of dried products. Microwave vacuum drying helped to maintain larger amounts of taste-active amino acids, and improved nutrient retention and color attributes. Furthermore, the uniform honeycomb network created by microwave vacuum drying along with a less collapsed structure of dried samples can be used to explain the observed high rehydration ratio. Therefore, microwave vacuum drying should be a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mushrooms.

  17. Base non-specific acid ribonuclease from Irpex lacteus, primary structure and phylogenetic relationships in RNase T2 family enzyme.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Fauzi, H; Iwama, M; Onda, T; Ohgi, K; Irie, M

    1995-11-01

    Two base non-specific acid RNases (RNase Irp1 and RNase Irp2) were purified from a commercial enzyme, "Driselase" (Irpex lacteus) in a homogenous state on SDS-PAGE by several steps of chromatographic separations. RNAse Irp2 was a simple polypeptide with 235 amino acid residues and RNase Irp1 was a glycopeptide with 248 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences of both RNases were identified by Edman degradation of the peptides derived from these RNAses. RNase Irp1 was composed of the RNase Irp2 and extra C-terminal 13 residues of peptide. The phylogenetic relation of these RNases with the other fungal RNases already known was discussed. The sequence of RNase Irp2 was very highly homologous (67.5%) with that of RNase Le2 from Lentinus edodes.

  18. Quantification of Water-Soluble Metabolites in Medicinal Mushrooms Using Proton NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Chien, Shih-Chang; Mishchuk, Darya O; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-01-01

    The water-soluble metabolites in 5 mushrooms were identified and quantified using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and software for targeted metabolite detection and quantification. In total, 35 compounds were found in Agaricus brasiliensis, 25 in Taiwanofungus camphoratus, 23 in Ganoderma lucidum (Taiwan) and Lentinus edodes, and 16 in G. lucidum (China). Total amounts of all identified metabolites in A. brasiliensis, T. camphoratus, G. lucidum, G. lucidum (China), and L. edodes were 149,950.51, 12,834.18, 9,549.09, 2,788.41, and 111,726.51 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. These metabolites were categorized into 4 groups: free amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and nucleosides. Carbohydrates were the most abundant metabolites among all 4 groups, with mannitol having the highest concentration among all analyzed metabolites (848-94,104 mg/kg dry weight). Principal components analysis (PCA) showed obvious distinction among the metabolites of the 5 different kinds of mushrooms analyzed in this study. Thus PCA could provide an optional analytical way of identifying and recognizing the compositions of flavor products. Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrate that NMRbased metabolomics is a powerful tool for differentiating between various medicinal mushrooms.

  19. 76 FR 12022 - Foreign-Trade Zone 147-Berks County, PA; Site Renumbering Notice; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... County; Site 11 (310 acres)--ProLogis Park 81, Interstate 81 and Walnut Bottom Road, Cumberland County..., Centerville Road, Newville; Site 19 (292 acres, sunset 5/31/2014)--I-81 Commerce Park, Walnut Bottom...

  20. Geohydrology of the Furnace Creek basin and vicinity, Berks, Lancaster, and Lebanon counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Furnace Creek basin is an area of 8.95 square miles, about three- fourths of which is underlain by metamorphic rocks of low permeability. Reported yields for 14 wells in these rocks range from 1 to 60 gal/min (gallons per minute), with a median of 7.5 gal/min. The northern part of the study area consists of highly permeable carbonate rocks. Nondomestic wells in these rocks typically yield from 200 to 300 gal/min and one well yields 1,200 gal/min. Ground-water discharge from a 4.18-square-mile drainage area underlain by Precambrian granitic and hornblende gneiss averaged 868,000 gallons per day per square mile from October 1983 through September 1985. Thus, as much as 3,630,000 gallons per day could be pumped from wells in this area on a sustained basis. However, pumping this amount would have major adverse effects on streamflow. A water-budget analysis for March 1984 to February 1985 showed that precipitation was 52.16 inches, streamflow was 26.38 inches, evapotranspiration was 29.29 inches, ground-water storage decreased by 5.94 inches and diversions made by Womelsdorf-Robesonia Joint Authority for water supply totaled 2.43 inches. Precipitation during this period was above normal. Four of 18 wells sampled for water quality had iron, manganese, or nitrate concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limits. The crystalline rocks in the study area yield soft to moderately hard water that is generally acidic.

  1. Natural Language Processing Systems Evaluation Workshop Held in Berkely, California on 18 June 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    superfast type. looped tht it A31l be built with taste by peo. writer ought to be possible in the monolingual case pie who understand languages and...34 in Nirenburg, S. .bhnaon, R, King, M., wid des Tombe, L. (1985) (ed.) Maichine Trenulation: 7heretieel endl "Eutaw& A Multilingual System under

  2. Flood Plain Information, Antietam Creek and Heister Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    the floodwaters overspilling into and flowing through the old channel. For this reason, only the profile and flooded area outlines for the original...be flowing full with a major portion of the floodwaters overspilling and flowing through the original channel. Therefore, the flooded area outline and...ABOVE MOUTH CROSS SECTION U.S. ROUTE GROUND ELEVATION IN FEET SEA LEVEL DATUM NOTES STONE TOWN I. MAP BASED ON U.S G.S. 7.5 MIN. DUADRANGLES: READING

  3. Evaluation of geophysical logs, phase I, for Crossley Farms Superfund Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-one wells were drilled at Crossley Farms Superfund Site between December 15, 1987, and May 1, 1988, to define and monitor the horizontal and vertical distribution of ground-water contamination emanating from a suspected contaminant source area (Blackhead Hill). Eight well clusters were drilled on or near the Crossley Site and three well clusters were drilled at locations hydrologically down gradient from the site. Depths of wells range from 21 to 299 feet below land surface. These wells were installed in saprolite in shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock aquifer. Borehole-geophysical and video logging were conducted between April 24, 1997, and May 8, 1997, to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical flow, borehole depth, and casing integrity in each well. This data and interpretation will be used to determine the location of the well intake for the existing open-hole wells, which will be retrofitted to isolate and monitor water-producing zones and prevent further cross-contamination within each open borehole, and identify wells that may need rehabilitation or replacement. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluidresistivity logs indicated possible fluid-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller?s notes, all wells will be constructed so that water-level fluctuations can be monitored and discrete water samples collected from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones in each well. Geophysical logs were run on seven bedrock and two deep bedrock wells. Gamma logs were run on 10 bedrock wells. Twenty-two wells were inspected visually with the borehole video camera for casing integrity.

  4. Hepatoprotective Effects of Panus giganteus (Berk.) Corner against Thioacetamide- (TAA-) Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wei-Lun; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Kek-Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-01-01

    Panus giganteus, a culinary and medicinal mushroom consumed by selected indigenous communities in Malaysia, is currently being considered for large scale cultivation. This study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus against thioacetamide- (TAA-) induced liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with TAA thrice weekly and were orally administered freeze-dried fruiting bodies of P. giganteus (0.5 or 1 g/kg) daily for two months, while control rats were given vehicle or P. giganteus only. After 60 days, rats administered with P. giganteus showed lower liver body weight ratio, restored levels of serum liver biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters comparable to treatment with the standard drug silymarin. Gross necropsy and histopathological examination further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. This is the first report on hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. The present study showed that P. giganteus was able to prevent or reduce the severity of TAA-induced liver injury. PMID:22649470

  5. Bacteriological water quality of Tulpehocken Creek basin, Berks and Lebanon Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James L.

    1978-01-01

    A four month intensive study of the bacteriological quality of water in the Tulpehocken Creek basin indicates that (1) the streams locally contain high densities of bacteria indicative of fecal contamination, (2) nonpoint waste sources, particularly livestock, are the dominant influence in the excessive bacteriological-indicator counts observed, and (3) retention time of water in the proposed Blue Marsh Lake is believed sufficient to reduce bacteria densities to acceptable levels except following intense rainfall and runoff events during normally low flow periods.

  6. Restoration of Gruber Wagon Works, Blue Marsh Lake, Berks County, Pennsylvania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-11

    Job L.S. $ 21. Painting - - Job L.S. $ 22. Otto Engine Support Systems - - - Job L.S. $ 23. Restoration of Machinery Drive System - - - Job L.5...1.2.2 Corrugated metal pipe arch culvert tailrace section within building. 1.2.3 Underground fuel tank and supply line to Otto Engine . 1.3 Applicable

  7. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K

    2001-11-01

    The methanolic extract of a macrofungus, P. rimosus possessed significant in vitro superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated in carrageenan and dextran induced acute and formalin induced chronic inflammatory models in mice. The extract showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity in both models, comparable to the standard reference drug diclofenac. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol extract of P. rimosus is possibly attributed to it's free radical scavenging properties. The findings also reveal the potential therapeutic value of P.rimosus extract as an antiinflammatory agent.

  8. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had low concentrations of nutrients and major ions but had elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and strontium when compared to sites sampled in adjacent watersheds. The background site on Baptism Creek generally had the lowest concentrations and yields of constituents. Low concentrations of nutrients and major ions at all five sites indicate that measured concentrations can be attributed to general land use and geology and not to point sources. Streambed-sediment sampling results indicated higher concentrations of all metals except nickel at sites on French Creek compared to the background site on Baptism Creek. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, and nickel were highest in sediment from the sampling site upstream from Hopewell Furnace. The highest concentrations of arsenic, boron, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, and zinc were detected at the site just below Hopewell Furnace, which indicates that the source of these metals may be in Hopewell Furnace NHS. The invertebrate community at the background site on Baptism Creek was dominated by pollution sensitive taxa indicating a healthy, diverse benthic-macroinvertebrate community. Benthic-macroinvertebrate communities at sampling sites on French Creek indicated disturbed communities when compared to the background site on Baptism Creek and that the overall stream quality immediately above and below Hopewell Furnace NHS is degraded. The benthic-macroinvertebrate communities were dominated by pollution-tolerant taxa, and taxa were less diverse than at the background site. Habitat conditions at the upstream site on French Creek were good but were degraded at downstream sites on French Creek. The major habitat issues at these sites were related to a lack of stable substrate, erosion, and deposition. Water quality and streambed-sediment quality do not indicate that the degraded benthic-macroinvertebrate communities are the result of poor water quality. Habitat conditions (erosion and sedimentation) and physical alterations (water temperature) from the outfall of Hopewell Lake are the most likely causes of the impaired communities.

  9. Synergistic Effect of Dietary Curcuma, Capsicum, and Lentinus on enhancing local immunity against Eimeria acervulina infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditionally, the application of prophylactic antibiotics has been successful in reducing infection-related morbidity and mortality in animal production. However, with increasing concerns over the widespread use of feed-added chemicals in animal production and the emergence of antibiotic resistant ...

  10. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in the Laccase Gene of Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinula edodes)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Kim, Sangil; Lee, Jung Won; Jeon, Bong-Kyun; Yun, Jung-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    We identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the laccase gene to establish a line-diagnostic system for shiitake mushrooms. A total of 89 fungal isolates representing four lines, including Korean registered, Korean wild type, Chinese, and Japanese lines, were analyzed. The results suggest that SNP markers in the laccase gene can be useful for line typing in shiitake mushrooms. PMID:25892919

  11. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Mattila, P; Könkö, K; Eurola, M; Pihlava, J M; Astola, J; Vahteristo, L; Hietaniemi, V; Kumpulainen, J; Valtonen, M; Piironen, V

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se), vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(12), C, D, folates, and niacin), and certain phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, and phenolic acids) in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Selenium, toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and other mineral elements were analyzed by ETAAS, ICP-MS, and ICP methods, respectively; vitamins were detected by microbiological methods (folates, niacin, and vitamin B(12)) or HPLC methods (other vitamins), and phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (flavonoids) or GC--MS methods (lignans and phenolic acids). Cultivated mushrooms were found to be good sources of vitamin B(2), niacin, and folates, with contents varying in the ranges 1.8--5.1, 31--65, and 0.30--0.64 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), respectively. Compared with vegetables, mushrooms proved to be a good source of many mineral elements, e.g., the contents of K, P, Zn, and Cu varied in the ranges 26.7--47.3 g/kg, 8.7--13.9 g/kg, 47--92 mg/kg, and 5.2--35 mg/kg dw, respectively. A. bisporus/brown contained large amounts of Se (3.2 mg/kg dw) and the levels of Cd were quite high in L. edodes (1.2 mg/kg dw). No flavonoids or lignans were found in the mushrooms analyzed. In addition, the phenolic acid contents were very low.

  12. Heat-stable components of wood ear mushroom, Auricularia polytricha (higher Basidiomycetes), inhibit in vitro activity of beta secretase (BACE1).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Sheean, Paul; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Head, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of mushrooms has been linked with protection against dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), by several biological pathways including inhibiting beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is responsible for releasing toxic β-amyloid peptide in the brain. We have investigated the capacity of several medicinal mushroom species-Auricularia polytricha (wood ear mushroom), Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom), Flammulina velutipes (winter or enoki mushroom), and Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom)-in the regulation of BACE1. Mushrooms were subjected to a generic food-compatible processing method to detect process-stable or process-modified products; the effects of processing were interpreted to infer the chemical classes associated with bioactivity. We have shown previously that in addition to enzyme inhibition, in the presence of the BACE1 proenzyme, heteropolymeric species such as heparin can activate BACE1 by modulating access to the catalytic site. We observed both inhibitory and activating components of the various mushrooms. Only BACE1 inhibitory species were detected in unprocessed and processed forms of A. polytricha, whereas the dominant extracted species from A. bisporus, F. velutipes, and L. edodese were activators of BACE1. It is not known whether activating species were masking the presence of inhibitory species in A. bisporus, F. velutipes, and L. edodes. Inhibitory species were attributed to hispidin-derived polyphenols, whereas activating species were attributed to soluble polysaccharides and possibly low-mass Maillard products produced during processing. Larger molecular BACE1-activating species are unlikely to be bioavailable to brain in contrast with possible brain bioavailability of smaller, lipophilic hispidins.

  13. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus) has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. Methods The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom’s aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF) as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. Results The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g) may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. Conclusions P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are responsible for neurite stimulation. Hence, this mushroom may be developed as a nutraceutical for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22812497

  14. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; Wong, Wei-Lun; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-07-19

    Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus) has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom's aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF) as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g) may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are responsible for neurite stimulation. Hence, this mushroom may be developed as a nutraceutical for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Occurrence of bacteria in Blue Marsh Lake and selected tributaries, Berks County, Pennsylvania; September-October 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Michele L.

    2002-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has water-quality standards that limit the number of specific bacteria in water that is considered safe for recreational use. Bacteria such as fecal streptococci, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are used to assess recreational water quality because they usually live in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. Fecal indicator bacteria commonly are associated with waterborne disease-causing organisms (pathogens). These indicator bacteria are used routinely as a measure of the quality of water for recreational activities such as swimming, boating, and water skiing. If the indicator bacteria are present, effective measures could be taken to prevent the transmission or epidemic outbreak of waterborne diseases as a result of contamination of these waters from human or animal waste.

  16. 78 FR 70537 - University of California, Berkely, et al.; Notice of Decision on Application for Duty-Free Entry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... its template, a DNA gene, while synthesizing the messenger RNA. Having access to higher scan rates in an aqueous environment will provide an unprecedented view of transcription through nucleosomal DNA... events that accompany transcription by RNAP II through the nucleosome including spontaneous DNA...

  17. Polysaccharide protein complex isolated from mushroom Phellinus rimosus (berk.) Pilat alleviates γ radiation-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jini; Smina, Thozhuthum Parambil Pathmanabhan; Janardhanan, Kainoor Krishnankutty

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiations generate reactive oxygen species in irradiated tissue that induces several pathophysiological changes in the body. Radiotherapy induced toxicity is a major dose-limiting factor in anticancer treatments. Radioprotective agents are of significant importance in medical, industrial, environmental, military, and space applications. Radioprotective effect of polysaccharide protein complex (PPC-Pr) isolated from mushroom, Phellinus rimosus, was evaluated in Swiss albino mice. PPC-Pr (5 and 10 mg/kg bwt, i.p.) significantly increased leukocyte count, bone marrow cellularity, glutathione content, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in blood as well as intestinal mucosa when compared with the irradiated control group. Histopathological observation of intestinal jejunal mucosa revealed the tissue protective effects of PPC-Pr. Further radioprotective activity of PPC-Pr was in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest potential radioprotective efficacy of PPC-Pr.

  18. Radiological survey of properties in the vicinity of the former Cotter site, Hazelwood/Berkely, Missouri (LM003)

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Johnson, C.A.

    1987-05-01

    A radiological survey was conducted in 1984 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory of private properties adjacent to the former Cotter site at 9200 Latty Avenue, Hazelwood/Berkeley, Missouri. During the 1960s and 1970s, process wastes and residues generated by the production and refining of uranium materials were stored at the site. Subsequent to the removal and transport of the stored wastes, along with a portion of the top soil, to other locations, it was found that the soil remaining on the site contained radioactive residuals. This report describes the survey of the properties adjacent to the site. Included were gamma exposure rates at the ground surface and at 1 m above the surface throughout the site; sampling of surface soil; sampling of subsurface soil from auger holes; gamma logging of auger holes; and, sampling of sediment and surface waters receiving drainage from the site. The results of the survey demonstrated some degree of radioactive contamination over most of the area surveyed. The major contaminant was /sup 230/Th with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 238/U occurring in lesser amounts. The maximum concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 238/U found in soil were 1400, 81,000, and 990 pCi/g, respectively. The maximum depth at which contamination was measured was 2 m. Although samples of drainage waters showed no evidence of contamination, migration of the radioactive materials was indicated by elevated concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 238/U in sediment samples taken from those waters. The pattern of radionuclide contamination observed in most soil and sediment samples is typical of the wastes and residues which had been stored at the former Cotter site. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical composition and nutrition value of dried cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cağlarirmak, Necla

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fiber, raw fiber, fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, vitamin A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B6 (pyridoxine), and niacin contents of dried cultivated mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus were determined and evaluated for nutrient and chemical composition. Assays of dried mushroom samples were carried out after the drying process. Dried shiitake samples showed the highest dietary fiber and raw fiber content (23.23 +/- 0.018 and 9.71 +/- 0.039 microg/100 g, respectively). Mushrooms in this study were valuable sources of vitamins such as retinol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and niacin. A. bisporus contained the highest vitamin A content (43.93 +/- 1.85 microg/100 g) and shiitake had the highest contents of thiamine and pyridoxine (0.63 +/- 0.012 and 0.56 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g, respectively). Portobello had the highest riboflavin and niacin contents (0.90 +/- 0.015 and 8.37 +/- 0.17 mg/100 g, respectively).

  2. Contributions of non-volatile and volatile compounds to the umami taste and overall flavour of shiitake mushroom extracts and their application as flavour enhancers in cooked minced meat.

    PubMed

    Dermiki, Maria; Phanphensophon, Natalie; Mottram, Donald S; Methven, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of dried shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were prepared as taste and flavour enhancers for meat formulations. Effects of time and temperature on the chemical and sensory properties of the extracts were examined. Extracts prepared at 70°C had significantly higher concentrations (p<0.001) of the savoury tasting 5'-ribonucleotides than those prepared at 22°C but increasing the extraction time from 30 to 360 min only increased their recovery slightly (p=0.053). In contrast, higher temperature extracts had considerably smaller concentrations of the major volatile compounds, such as lenthionine, 1-octen-3-ol, 1,3-dithiethane and dimethyl disulfide, because of loss through volatilisation. A sensory discrimination test showed that the lower temperature extract was perceived to have less umami taste than the higher temperature extract (p=0.048). Incorporating the 70°C shiitake extract into minced meat formulations led to significantly higher levels of savoury tasting 5'-ribonucleotides in the cooked meat but no significant difference in umami perception.

  3. Discrimination method of the volatiles from fresh mushrooms by an electronic nose using a trapping system and statistical standardization to reduce sensor value variation.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kouki; Shimizu, Nobuo; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-11-13

    Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values.

  4. The Anticaries Effect of a Food Extract (Shiitake) in a Short-Term Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Lingström, Peter; Zaura, Egija; Hassan, Haidar; Buijs, Mark J.; Hedelin, Pamie; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David; Daglia, Maria; Karbowiak, Aneta; Signoretto, Caterina; Rosema, Martijn; van der Weijden, Fridus; Wilson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate whether low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom shiitake extract (Lentinus edodes) possesses caries-preventive properties. The study was designed as a double-blind, three-leg, cross-over, randomized, controlled clinical trial carried out on two series of volunteers at the University of Gothenburg, and the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam. Volunteers rinsed twice daily with a solution containing low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom, placebo (negative control without active ingredients), or Meridol (positive control, AmF-SnF2) for two weeks, with a two-week washout period between each rinsing period. Changes in the acidogenicity of dental plaque before and after a sucrose challenge, shifts in microbial composition, and plaque scores were determined. Frequent rinses with shiitake reduced the metabolic activity of dental plaque. No reduction of plaque scores and no inhibition of the production of organic acids in plaque was found. Minor differences in microbial composition between test sessions were found. To conclude, the results indicate that shiitake extract has anticariogenic potential, but not to the same extent as the positive control. PMID:22500081

  5. Bioactive and Structural Metabolites of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia Species Causal Agents of Cultivated Mushrooms Diseases1

    PubMed Central

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A–E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi—including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.—chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined. PMID:19787100

  6. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles of metals and metalloids by basidiomycetes. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by using purified fungal phenol oxidases.

    PubMed

    Vetchinkina, Elena P; Loshchinina, Ekaterina A; Vodolazov, Ilya R; Kursky, Viktor F; Dykman, Lev A; Nikitina, Valentina E

    2017-02-01

    The work shows the ability of cultured Basidiomycetes of different taxonomic groups-Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Grifola frondosa-to recover gold, silver, selenium, and silicon, to elemental state with nanoparticles formation. It examines the effect of these metal and metalloid compounds on the parameters of growth and accumulation of biomass; the optimal cultivation conditions and concentrations of the studied ion-containing compounds for recovery of nanoparticles have been identified. Using the techniques of transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray phase analysis, the degrees of oxidation of the bioreduced elements, the ζ-potential of colloidal solutions uniformity, size, shape, and location of the nanoparticles in the culture fluid, as well as on the surface and the inside of filamentous hyphae have been determined. The study has found the part played by homogeneous chromatographically pure fungal phenol-oxidizing enzymes (laccases, tyrosinases, and Mn-peroxidases) in the recovery mechanism with formation of electrostatically stabilized colloidal solutions. A hypothetical mechanism of gold(III) reduction from HAuCl4 to gold(0) by phenol oxidases with gold nanoparticles formation of different shapes and sizes has been introduced.

  7. Screen and effect analysis of immunostimulants for sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Hao, Linhua

    2009-02-01

    Immunostimulants may improve disease resistance of aquaculture animals by promoting the nonspecific immunity response of the organisms. Five types of saccharides, including chitosan, yeast polysaccharide, burdock oligosaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide and lentinus edodes polysaccharide, were screened for potential use as immunostimulants by using spectrophotometry. The saccharides were injected into Apostichopus japonicus, a sea cucumber, and the lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the coelomic fluid and epidermal slime were monitored in six consecutive days. The results show that the lysozyme activity of the animal’s coelomic fluid was significantly stimulated on day 2, day 4 and day 6 after the injection of the saccharides ( P<0.05). The effects of chitosan and yeast polysaccharide were the most notable. The lysozyme activity of the epidermal slime was significantly increased by chitosana, yeast polysaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide, and burdock oligosaccharide on day 1 and day 2 after the injection ( P<0.05). The SOD activity of the coelomic fluid was significantly promoted by the saccharides on day 2 and day 4 post-injection ( P<0.05), while the SOD activity of the epidermal slime increased on day 2. These findings indicate that chitosan and yeast polysaccharide are the most effective immunostimulants and potential healthy anti-disease feedstuff for A. japonicus.

  8. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  9. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  10. Storage temperature and UV-irradiation influence on the ergosterol content in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; García-Lafuente, Ana; Guillamón, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Ergosterol (5,7,22-ergostatrien-3β-ol) and ergosteryl derivatives from different genera of edible mushrooms were separated and quantified by an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The technique allowed a rapid separation of free ergosterol and two ergosteryl derivatives occurring in mushrooms. The ergosterol content varied considerably depending on the fungus. Thus, the species Agaricus bisporus and Hygrophorus marzuolus presented high quantities of ergosterol (6.4-6.8 mg/g, dry matter) followed by Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe gambosa, Lentinus edodes, and Boletus edulis (3.3-4.0mg/g). In contrast, other species, such as Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus and Craterellus cornucopioides, contained significantly lower ergosterol amounts (0.2-0.4 mg/g). Two ergosteryl derivatives were found in mushrooms and also the content depended on the fungus. The stability of ergosterol, in terms of the formation of ergosterol peroxide, was evaluated under different storage temperatures and UV radiation. The lower the temperature (-20°C) and the radiation time (10 min), the lower ergosterol oxidation was observed.

  11. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Shimizu, Nobuo; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values. PMID:24233028

  12. Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).

    PubMed

    Sliva, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    In Asia, a variety of dietary products have been used for centuries as popular remedies to prevent or treat different diseases. A large number of herbs and extracts from medicinal mushrooms are used for the treatment of diseases. Mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Hericium erinaceum (Yamabushitake), and Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have been collected and consumed in China, Korea, and Japan for centuries. Until recently, these mushrooms were largely unknown in the West and were considered 'fungi' without any nutritional value. However, most mushrooms are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat, cholesterol, and calories. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties, which contribute to their anticancer effects. Furthermore, other bioactive substances, including triterpenes, proteins, lipids, cerebrosides, and phenols, have been identified and characterized in medicinal mushrooms. This review summarizes the biological effects of Ganoderma lucidum upon specific signaling molecules and pathways, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects.

  13. A novel biosorbent: characterization of the spent mushroom compost and its application for removal of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-qiu; Zeng, Guang-ming; Tu, Xiang; Huang, Guo-he; Chen, Yao-ning

    2005-01-01

    The spent mushroom compost of Lentinus edodes was used as a biosorbent for adsorbing cadmium, lead and chromium from solutions under batch conditions for the first time. Titration of the biomass revealed that it contained at least three types of functional groups. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that the carboxyl, phosphoryl, phenolic groups were the main groups. The simulated values of pKH and molar quantity were 5.00 and 0.44 mmol/g, 7.32 and 1.38 mmol/g, 10.45 and 1.44 mmol/g, respectively. The biosorption ability increased with pH in acid condition. When 10 mg/L biomass dosage was added in, there was no significant increment of metal uptake. The maximum uptake estimated with the Langmiur isotherm model were 833.33 mg/g for Cd(II), 1000.00 mg/g for Pb(II) and 44.44 mg/g for Cr(III), respectively. All the results showed that vast potential sorption capacity was existed in the biomass for adsorbing these three kinds of metals studied.

  14. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  15. In vitro fermentation characteristics of two mushroom species, an herb, and their polysaccharide fractions, using chicken cecal contents as inoculum.

    PubMed

    Guo, F C; Williams, B A; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A

    2003-10-01

    In vitro fermentabilities of two mushrooms (Lentinus edodes--LenS; Tremella fuciformis--TreS), an herb (Astragalus membranaceus--AstS), and their polysaccharide fractions (LenE, TreE, and AstE) were investigated using microflora from chicken ceca. Polysaccharides were extracted using the hot water method. The mushrooms had lower polysaccharide yields (8 to 10%) than the herb (31%). Fermentation kinetics were determined using the in vitro cumulative gas production technique. End-products, such as gas, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia, were also determined. The gas profiles of intact materials were similar for AstS and LenS. The TreS had a diphasic digestion pattern. The extracts had similar profiles to the intact materials though gas production rates were faster. Intact materials tended to produce less VFA than the extracts though LenS and AstE had the highest total VFA production overall. Intact materials contained more protein than the extracts, and therefore resulted in more branched-chain fatty acids and ammonia. Fermentation kinetics and end-point products demonstrated differences in availability of substrates between the mushrooms and herb. These medicinal mushroom and herb materials, particularly their polysaccharide extracts, show promise in altering microbial activities and composition in chicken ceca. In vivo experiments are necessary for confirmation of this hypothesis.

  16. The anticaries effect of a food extract (shiitake) in a short-term clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lingström, Peter; Zaura, Egija; Hassan, Haidar; Buijs, Mark J; Hedelin, Pamie; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David; Daglia, Maria; Karbowiak, Aneta; Signoretto, Caterina; Rosema, Martijn; van der Weijden, Fridus; Wilson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate whether low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom shiitake extract (Lentinus edodes) possesses caries-preventive properties. The study was designed as a double-blind, three-leg, cross-over, randomized, controlled clinical trial carried out on two series of volunteers at the University of Gothenburg, and the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam. Volunteers rinsed twice daily with a solution containing low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom, placebo (negative control without active ingredients), or Meridol (positive control, AmF-SnF(2)) for two weeks, with a two-week washout period between each rinsing period. Changes in the acidogenicity of dental plaque before and after a sucrose challenge, shifts in microbial composition, and plaque scores were determined. Frequent rinses with shiitake reduced the metabolic activity of dental plaque. No reduction of plaque scores and no inhibition of the production of organic acids in plaque was found. Minor differences in microbial composition between test sessions were found. To conclude, the results indicate that shiitake extract has anticariogenic potential, but not to the same extent as the positive control.

  17. Bioactive and structural metabolites of pseudomonas and burkholderia species causal agents of cultivated mushrooms diseases.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-05-09

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A-E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi-including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.-chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined.

  18. Preparation, characterization, and biological properties of β-glucans

    PubMed Central

    Rahar, Sandeep; Swami, Gaurav; Nagpal, Navneet; Nagpal, Manisha A.; Singh, Gagan Shah

    2011-01-01

    β-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as, interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. β-glucans are found in different species, such as, Rhynchelytrum repens, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Tremella mesenterica, Tremella aurantia, Zea may, Agaricus blazei, Phellinus baummi, Saccharomyces cerevisae (yeast), and Agaricus blazei murell (mushroom). Analysis of the fractions reveals the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces of rhamnose and galactose. The presence of β-glucan in these fractions is confirmed by hydrolyzing the polymers with endo-β-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the characteristic oligosaccharides produced. The 4 M KOH fractions from different tissues are subjected to gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B, with separation of polysaccharides, with different degrees of polymerization, the highest molecular mass (above 2000 kDa) being found in young leaves. The molecular mass of the leaf blade polymers is similar (250 kDa) to that of the maize coleoptiles β-glucan used for comparison. The 4 M KOH fraction injected into rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes has shown hypoglycemic activity, reducing blood sugar to normal levels for approximately 24 hours. This performance is better than that obtained with pure β-glucan from barley, which decreases blood sugar levels for about four hours. These results suggest that the activity of β-glucans is responsible for the use of this plant extract as a hypoglycemic drug in folk medicine. PMID:22171300

  19. Preparation, characterization, and biological properties of β-glucans.

    PubMed

    Rahar, Sandeep; Swami, Gaurav; Nagpal, Navneet; Nagpal, Manisha A; Singh, Gagan Shah

    2011-04-01

    β-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as, interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. β-glucans are found in different species, such as, Rhynchelytrum repens, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Tremella mesenterica, Tremella aurantia, Zea may, Agaricus blazei, Phellinus baummi, Saccharomyces cerevisae (yeast), and Agaricus blazei murell (mushroom). Analysis of the fractions reveals the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces of rhamnose and galactose. The presence of β-glucan in these fractions is confirmed by hydrolyzing the polymers with endo-β-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the characteristic oligosaccharides produced. The 4 M KOH fractions from different tissues are subjected to gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B, with separation of polysaccharides, with different degrees of polymerization, the highest molecular mass (above 2000 kDa) being found in young leaves. The molecular mass of the leaf blade polymers is similar (250 kDa) to that of the maize coleoptiles β-glucan used for comparison. The 4 M KOH fraction injected into rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes has shown hypoglycemic activity, reducing blood sugar to normal levels for approximately 24 hours. This performance is better than that obtained with pure β-glucan from barley, which decreases blood sugar levels for about four hours. These results suggest that the activity of β-glucans is responsible for the use of this plant extract as a hypoglycemic drug in folk medicine.

  20. The shiitake mushroom-derived immuno-stimulant lentinan protects against murine malaria blood-stage infection by evoking adaptive immune-responses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian-di; Zhang, Qi-hui; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jun; Cao, Ya-ming

    2009-04-01

    Lentinan, a (1-3)-beta glucan from Lentinus edodes, is an effective immunostimulatory drug. We tested the effects of lentinan during blood-stage infection by Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (P.y17XL). Pre-treatment of mice with lentinan significantly decreased the parasitemia and increased their survival after infection. Enhanced IL-12, IFN-gamma and NO production induced by lentinan in spleen cells of infected mice revealed that the Th1 immune response was stimulated against malaria infection. In vitro and in vivo, lentinan can result in enhanced expression of MHC II, CD80/CD86, and Toll-like receptors (TLR2/TLR4), and increased production of IL-12 in spleen dendritic cells (DCs) co-cultured with parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs). Moreover, both the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the levels of IL-10 secreted by Tregs were reduced by pre-treatment with lentinan in the spleen of malaria-infected mice. Meanwhile, apoptosis of CD4(+) T cell in spleens of mice pretreated with lentinan was significantly reduced. In summary, lentinan can induce protective Th1 immune responses to control the proliferation of malaria parasites during the blood-stage of P.y17XL infection by stimulating maturation of DCs to inhibit negative regulation of the Th1 immune response by Tregs. Taken together, our findings suggest that lentinan has prophylactic potential for the treatment of malaria.

  1. Anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive potential of sprouted and solid-state bioprocessed soybean.

    PubMed

    McCue, Patrick; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2005-01-01

    Long-term type 2 diabetes can lead to numerous biological complications, such as hypertension and cardio-vascular disease. Key enzymes involved in the enzymatic breakdown of complex carbohydrates,pancreatic alpha-amylase and intestinal alpha-glucosidase, have been targeted as potential avenues for modulation of type 2 diabetes-associated post-prandial hyperglycemia through mild inhibition of their enzymatic activities so as to decrease meal-derived glucose absorption. Further, inhibition of hypertension-linked angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was targeted as a potential approach for modulation of diabetes-linked hypertension. Water-soluble extracts of soybean optimized for phenolic content via sprouting or bioprocessing by dietary fungus (Rhizopus oligosporus, Lentinus edodes) were investigated for inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA), yeast alpha-glucosidase, and rabbit lung ACE in vitro. PPA was allowed to react with each phenolic-optimized extract and the derivatized enzyme-phytochemical mixtures obtained were characterized for residual amylase activity. Alpha-glucosidase and ACE activities were determined in the presence of each phenolic-optimized extract. All of the soybean extracts possessed marked anti-amylase activity, with extracts of R. oligosporus-bioprocessed soybean having the strongest inhibitory activity, but only slight anti-glucosidase activity. The anti-amylase activity of each extract seemed associated with extract antioxidant activity. Anti-enzyme activity was slightly associated with total soluble phenolic content per se, but seemed more associated to the length of sprouting or bioprocessing of the soybean substrate. Short-term sprouting or bioprocessing seemed to improve anti-amylase activity, while long-term sprouting or bioprocessing seemed to aid anti-glucosidase activity. While ACE activity was strongly inhibited by all of the soybean extracts (44-97%), only sprouting was found to increase this inhibition

  2. Novel and rapid method for determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in edible fungus using direct gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled on-line with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nan, Jingxi; Wang, Juan; Piao, Xiangfan; Yang, Cui; Wu, Xue; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-09-01

    In this work a new analytical method for a rapid and simultaneous determination of 28 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) residues in edible fungus using gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE), coupled with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GP-MSE-GC-MS) has been developed and optimized. GP-MSE, a novel gas flow liquid-phase microextraction technique, has been then fruitfully used as innovative and one-step extraction procedure, allowing a direct injection into the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) system without any further cleaning step. Once optimized, the GP-MSE-GC-MS analysis procedure showed reproducibility values, resolutions, linear responses, detection and quantification limits that allowed to consider this method suitable for the analysis of the 28 OPPs in real samples. Furthermore, OPP recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 85.26% to 100.21%, and from 1.6% to 6.9%, respectively. This procedure was then used for the analysis of real samples and the obtained results were compared with those of ultrasonic extraction-solid phase extraction. Among the 28 OPPs, 14 of them were found in Lentinus edodes and Enoki mushrooms fungus samples, with a total concentrations of 112.7 and 210.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated then that GP-MSE-GC-MS provided a highly efficient, solvent-saving, accurate and sensitive quantitative analysis method for a rapid determination of OPPs in edible fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of tumor-specific antigen induced by lentinan on murine H22 hepatocellular carcinoma immunoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Han, X; Li, Y-D; Zhao, S-Y; Zhang, D-J; Zhao, Z-H; Wang, Y-B

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent tumor types and the third most common form of morbidity in cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lentinan isolated from Lentinus edodes, is known to be a biologically active macromolecule with extremely strong activation of the human immune system such as host-mediated anti-cancer activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the immunoprophylaxis effect of the antigens induced by lentinan on murine hepatocellular carcinoma. The antigens were prepared by a co-culture method (HCL) and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation precipitation (Z1, Z2, Z3). The effects of antigens on murine hepatocellular carcinoma immunoprophylaxis were determined in vivo. The cellular immunity of the immunized mice was tested by spleen lymphocyte proliferation tests and peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis assays. The tumor-specific antigen was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results in vivo revealed that the antigens (HCL/Z1) activated immunoprophylaxis against hepatocellular carcinoma with a better survival status. The survival rates (60%, 100%) of the HCL/Z1 group were better than the model group (p < 0.01). The quantity of lymphocytes in the spleen in the HCL or Z1 groups treated with ConA or LPS were higher than that of the model group (p < 0.01). The phagocytosis ability of macrophages in the HCL or Z1 groups was better than that of the control group or model group (p < 0.01). The characterization of Western blot analysis showed that about 59.6 kDa tumor specific antigen combined with antiserum of immunized mice specifically appeared in antigens. The newly generated tumor-specific antigen played a key role in the anti-tumor immune response and in activating the immune system. Our results suggest that this protein could serve as a tumor vaccine, and it could generate new ideas for tumor immunoprophylaxis.

  4. Effects of mushroom and chicory extracts on the shape, physiology and proteome of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Signoretto, Caterina; Marchi, Anna; Bertoncelli, Anna; Burlacchini, Gloria; Milli, Alberto; Tessarolo, Francesco; Caola, Iole; Papetti, Adele; Pruzzo, Carla; Zaura, Egija; Lingström, Peter; Ofek, Itzhak; Spratt, David A; Pratten, Jonathan; Wilson, Michael; Canepari, Pietro

    2013-05-29

    Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity. Previous studies indicated antimicrobial and antiplaque activities in a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction of extracts from either an edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes) or from Italian red chicory (Cichorium intybus). We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. The effects on shape, macromolecular syntheses and cell proteome were analysed. The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited only by roughly 50%. The partial inhibition of protein synthesis is compatible with the observed significant increase in cell mass. The increase in these parameters is linked to the morphological alteration with transition from cocci of the untreated control to elongated cells. Interestingly, these modifications were also observed at sub-MIC concentrations. Finally, membrane and cytosol proteome analysis was conducted under LMM mushroom extract treatment in comparison with untreated S. mutans cells. Significant changes were observed for 31 membrane proteins and 20 of the cytosol fractions. The possible role of the changed proteins is discussed. This report has shown an antibiotic-like mode of action of mushroom and chicory extracts as demonstrated by induced morphogenetic effects and inhibition of specific macromolecular synthesis. This feature as well as the safe use of this extract as result of its natural origin render the LMM both mushroom and chicory extracts

  5. Effects of mushroom and chicory extracts on the shape, physiology and proteome of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity. Previous studies indicated antimicrobial and antiplaque activities in a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction of extracts from either an edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes) or from Italian red chicory (Cichorium intybus). Methods We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. The effects on shape, macromolecular syntheses and cell proteome were analysed. Results The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited only by roughly 50%. The partial inhibition of protein synthesis is compatible with the observed significant increase in cell mass. The increase in these parameters is linked to the morphological alteration with transition from cocci of the untreated control to elongated cells. Interestingly, these modifications were also observed at sub-MIC concentrations. Finally, membrane and cytosol proteome analysis was conducted under LMM mushroom extract treatment in comparison with untreated S. mutans cells. Significant changes were observed for 31 membrane proteins and 20 of the cytosol fractions. The possible role of the changed proteins is discussed. Conclusions This report has shown an antibiotic-like mode of action of mushroom and chicory extracts as demonstrated by induced morphogenetic effects and inhibition of specific macromolecular synthesis. This feature as well as the safe use of this extract as result of its natural origin render the

  6. [Intratumoral administration of biological preparations--recommendation for integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Ebina, T

    2001-10-01

    The antitumor effect of biological preparations was examined in a double grafted tumor system. PSK is a hot water extract of cultured mycelia from Coliolus versicolor. Its protein content is about 38% and the main glycoside portion of PSK is beta-D-glucan. Lentinan is purified from fruit bodies of Lentinus edodes and is a beta-1, 3-glucan. Cepharanthin is an extract from the root of Stephania cepharantha HAYATA, consisting of 4 kinds of biscoclaurine alkaloids. TAHEEBO tea is a hot water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, the active ingredient of which is naphthoquinones. If protein-bound polysaccharides were to be used in Western medicine, these polysaccharides would be purified, but purified beta-glucan loses its beneficial effects. Similarly, when raw Cepharanthin is purified to isolate its active ingredient (an alkaloid cepharanthine), its anti-tumor effect is weakened. Clear IAP induction was observed in serum of mice treated with extracts of Coliolus versicolor and Stephania cepharantha. However, IAP induction was not observed in the serum of mice treated with purified beta-glucan or purified alkaloid. This suggests that macrophages may recognize extracts but not purified substances. In Western medicine, purified substances with known chemical structures are recognized as drugs, but overdoses of these drugs are toxic to the body, thus adverse reactions are always an issue. In Chinese medicine, mixtures containing several crude drugs are recognized as drugs, whose active ingredients are not identified. In integrative medicine, drugs are extracts that contain active ingredients with known structures and functions. We propose a Japanese version of integrative medicine which is neither Western nor Chinese.

  7. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers.

    PubMed

    Guo, F C; Kwakkel, R P; Williams, B A; Li, W K; Li, H S; Luo, J Y; Li, X P; Wei, Y X; Yan, Z T; Verstegen, M W A

    2004-10-01

    (1) This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. (2) Three extracts (LenE, TreE and AstE) were supplemented at inclusion rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg from 7 to 14 d of age and compared with an antibiotic treatment group (20 mg/kg, virginiamycin (VRG) as well as a group of non-supplemented birds. (3) Body weight (BW) gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the extract-supplemented groups were not significantly different from those of the antibiotic group. Significant effects of type of extract and concentration on growth performance were found from 7 to 28 d of age. Generally, birds fed with LenE showed higher BW gain and lower FCR from 7 to 28 d of age than those fed with TreE and AstE and 2 g/kg LenE was considered the optimal inclusion rate for enhanced broiler growth. However, the extracts had no significant effect on the relative weights of organs and GIT compared with the antibiotic group. (4) The birds fed the extracts showed better growth performance than the non-supplemented birds, but were not significantly different from those fed VRG. Of the three extracts, LenE appeared to be a potential growth promoter. Future studies are needed to investigate whether the extracts can be used as alternatives for antibiotic growth promoters in challenged birds, and to elucidate the mechanisms for potentially enhanced growth performance in poultry.

  8. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of medicinal mushroom extracts, with special emphasis on the Lion's Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaodong; Tan, Qi; Liu, Ruina; Yu, Kangying; Li, Pingzuo; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Although the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic superficial gastritis, the underlining pharmaceutical mechanism is yet to be fully understood. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts prepared from the fruiting bodies of 14 mushroom species (H. erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps militaris, Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus brasiliensis, A. bisporus, Coprinus comatus, Grifola frondosa, Phellinus igniarius, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizygus marmoreus) were determined against Helicobacter pylori using laboratory strains of ATCC 43504 and SS1 as well as 9 clinical isolates via an in vitro microplate agar diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts (EEs) of 12 mushrooms inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro, with MIC values <3 mg/mL. EEs of H. erinaceus and G. lucidum also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 7360;10 mg/mL) but had no effect on the growth of two Escherichia coli test strains (MIC >10 mg/mL). MIC values of ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of H. erinaceus against 9 clinical isolates of H. pylori ranged between 62.5 and 250 µg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity of EAFs was found to be concentration-dependant, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values for H. pylori ATCC 43504 were 73.0 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. The direct inhibitory effect of EEs and EAFs of H. erinaceus against H. pylori could be another pharmaceutical mechanism of medicinal mushrooms-besides the immunomodulating effect of polysaccharides, suggested previously-in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal disorders. Further research to identify the active component(s) is currently undertaking in our laboratory.

  9. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  10. Characterization of a linear DNA plasmid from the filamentous fungal plant pathogen Glomerella musae [Anamorph: Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and Curt.) arx.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, S.; Redman, R.S.; Grantham, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 7.4-kilobase (kb) DNA plasmid was isolated from Glomerella musae isolate 927 and designated pGML1. Exonuclease treatments indicated that pGML1 was a linear plasmid with blocked 5' termini. Cell-fractionation experiments combined with sequence-specific PCR amplification revealed that pGML1 resided in mitochondria. The pGML1 plasmid hybridized to cesium chloride-fractionated nuclear DNA but not to A + T-rich mitochondrial DNA. An internal 7.0-kb section of pGML1 was cloned and did not hybridize with either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA from G. musae. Sequence analysis revealed identical terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of 520 bp at the ends of the cloned 7.0-kb section of pGML1. The occurrence of pGML1 did not correspond with the pathogenicity of G. musae on banana fruit. Four additional isolates of G. musae possessed extrachromosomal DNA fragments similar in size and sequence to pGML1.

  11. European Specialist Workshop on ’Active Microwave Semiconductor Devices’ (8th) Held at Maidenhead, Berks., UK on 4-6 May 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-06

    Andersson, S P Svensson, J Kanski , G Landren Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden LUNCH FI OMVPE Applied to the Growth of Active Microwave Devices...Metal on MBE-Grown GaAs (001) T.G. Andersson, S.P. Svensson, J. Kanski and G. Landgren Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, S-112...J. Phys. C 15, 1982, 6673. 2. G. Landgren, S.P. Svensson and T.G. Andersson, Surf. Sc. 122, 1982, 55. 3. S.P. Svensson, J. Kanski , T.G. Andersson and

  12. Estimating the Economic Impact of Higher Education: A Case Study of the Five Colleges in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Professional File Number 117, Summer 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allegro, Mary-Lou; Paff, Lolita A.

    2010-01-01

    Most economic impact studies are prepared by external consultants at significant cost to an individual college, a higher education state system, or a set of institutions with similar Carnegie Classifications. This case study provides a detailed framework that academic institutions may use to derive economic impact estimates without hiring external…

  13. Preparation of Black Hoof medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus (Berk. et M.A. Curt.) Teng (Aphyllophoromycetideae) beta-glucan sulfate and in vitro tumor cell growth inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Bae, In Young; Shin, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharide beta-glucans were extracted from the medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus (Hymenochaetaceae, Aphyllophoromycetideae) and subjected to sulfation. Chemical modification of the beta-glucan was confirmed by structural analysis, and its biological properties were compared with those of native beta-glucan. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis indicated that successive preparation of the sulfated derivative yielded a degree of substitution of 0.47. Nitric oxide production measured by the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) experiments increased 1.5-fold after sulfation. In addition, the introduction of sulfate groups into the beta-glucan chains improved in vitro growth inhibitory activity against SNU-C2A cells. Therefore, sulfated beta-glucan extracted from Ph. linteus may be beneficial for immune support due to its incorporation of functional groups into its polymer structure.

  14. Selenium bioaccumulation in shiitake mushrooms: a nutritional alternative source of this element.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Regiane Gonçalves Feitosa Leal; da Luz, Jose Maria R; Freitas, Rodrigo de B; Higuchi, Angela; Kasuya, Maria Catarina M; Vanetti, Maria Cristina D

    2012-09-01

    Mushrooms have effective mechanisms to absorb and accumulate trace elements from substrates and, therefore could be used as a strategy to produce mineral-enriched food and nutritional supplements. This study aimed to enrich shiitake mushrooms with selenium (Se), an important dietary element in human health. Strains of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) were grown on artificial logs composed of eucalyptus sawdust, and were subjected to cold shock in water containing sodium selenite (Na(2)SeO(3) ) at concentrations of up to 1.28 mM. The content of Se in the mushrooms increased linearly with increasing amounts of Na(2)SeO(3) added to the cold water although above 0.96 mM, mushroom formation was inhibited. Concentrations greater than 17 mg Se 100/g of dried mushrooms were observed after treatment with 0.64 mM Na(2)SeO(3). Shiitake mushroom had a demonstrate potential to offer an effective and economical way to produce Se-enriched products and, the strategy of adding selenite in cold water, used in this study, showed promising once it does not interfere with mycelial growth. Selenium is an essential trace element for both human and animals and is required for the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, which is used for the synthesis of about a dozen selenoenzymes. In this study, it is demonstrated that shiitake mushroom is a good Se accumulator and only one step during fructification was necessary to obtained enriched mushroom. Se enriched shiitake mushroom can be considered to be an excellent source of this element and used to consumption in different ways. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. 7. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: TWO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: TWO CHICKEN HOUSES, PIG BARN, MILKSHED, BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  16. 6. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: GRANARY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: GRANARY, TWO CHICKEN HOUSES, PIG BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  17. 1. Summer, 1975 L TO R: PRIVY, PIG BARN, SILO, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Summer, 1975 L TO R: PRIVY, PIG BARN, SILO, BARN - Konig-Speicher Farm, North side of Church Road, south of Tulpehocken Creek, North Heidelberg Township (moved to Willow Street, Lenhartsville, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  18. Type studies of corticioid Hymenomycetes (Basidiomycota) with aculei - Part II

    Treesearch

    Karen K. Nakasone

    2012-01-01

    Type specimens of fifteen, resupinate, crustose basidiomycetes with aculei described by various authors were examined. Nine taxa are later synonyms: Hydnum albiceps Berk. & Rav. (= Phlebia fascicularis), Hydnum chrysodon Berk. & M.A. Curtis (= Hydnophlebia chrysorhiza), Hydnum...

  19. Vacuum-soaking of wood chip shiitake (Lentinula edodes) logs to reduce soak time and log weight variability and to stimulate mushroom yield.

    PubMed

    Royse, D J; Rhodes, T W; Sanchez, J E

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic logs were vacuum-soaked or regular-soaked to determine the effects of soaking on yield and mushroom size, log weight variability and water distribution within the log. Yields (g/log) from substrates vacuum-soaked were higher by 26.7%, 18.6% and 35.8% (mean = 27.2%) for crops I, II and III, respectively, when compared with regular-soaked. However, mushroom size averaged only 11.2 g for vacuum-soaked logs vs 17 g for regular-soaked logs (51.8% larger for regular-soaked). The time required for vacuum-soaking logs was generally less than 3 min, compared with regular-soaking times ranging over 3-15 h. Water tended to accumulate more in the outside zone in the vacuum-soaked logs, compared with regular-soaked logs. Mean moisture contents for crops I and II for outside, middle and interior zones of vacuum-soaked logs were 66%, 47.5% and 42.2%, respectively, while regular-soaked logs for the same zones were 62.4%, 52.1% and 50.9%, respectively. Vacuum-soaked log weights had lower standard deviations than weights for regular-soaked logs in four out of six soaks, indicating a more uniform soaking process.

  20. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu Ting; Wasser, Solomon P

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are part of fungal biota characterized by wonder. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet they become so bountiful and nourishing. Mushrooms are environmentally friendly. They biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues, which would otherwise cause health hazards. The extant records show the continued use of some mushrooms, e.g., Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps sinensis are now centuries old. This review presents a pyramid model for mushroom uses (industries), as food, dietary supplements (tonic), and medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make us healthier, fitter, and happier, and help us live longer. The sense of purpose and vision for the mushroom industries is also briefly discussed. A variety of mushrooms have been used traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health and in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MM) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. In particular, the most important for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully as drugs in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Mushrooms are superior sources of different types of dietary supplements (DSs

  1. The Cryptococcus neoformans Gene DHA1 Encodes an Antigen That Elicits a Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction in Immune Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, M. Alejandra; Grace, Greg G.; Orsborn, Kris I.; Schafer, Fredda; Murphy, Juneann W.; Orbach, Marc J.; Galgiani, John N.

    2000-01-01

    When mice are vaccinated with a culture filtrate from Cryptococcus neoformans (CneF), they mount a protective cell-mediated immune response as detected by dermal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to CneF. We have identified a gene (DHA1) whose product accounts at least in part for the DTH reactivity. Using an acapsular mutant (Cap-67) of C. neoformans strain B3501, we prepared a culture filtrate (CneF-Cap67) similar to that used for preparing the commonly used skin test antigen made with C. neoformans 184A (CneF-184A). CneF-Cap67 elicited DTH in mice immunized with CneF-184A. Deglycosylation of CneF-Cap67 did not diminish its DTH activity. Furthermore, size separation by either chromatography or differential centrifugation identified the major DTH activity of CneF-Cap67 to be present in fractions that contained proteins of approximately 19 to 20 kDa. Using N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences derived from the 20-kDa band, oligonucleotide primers were designed, two of which produced a 776-bp amplimer by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using RNA from Cap-67 to prepare cDNA for the template. The amplimer was used as a probe to isolate clones containing the full-length DHA1 gene from a phage genomic library prepared from strain B3501. The full-length cDNA was obtained by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends and RT-PCR. Analysis of DHA1 revealed a similarity between the deduced open reading frame and that of a developmentally regulated gene from Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom) associated with fruiting-body formation. Also, the gene product contained several amino acid sequences identical to those determined biochemically from the purified 20-kDa peptide encoded by DHA1. Recombinant DHA1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to elicit DTH reactions similar to those elicited by CneF-Cap67 in mice immunized against C. neoformans. Thus, DHA1 is the first gene to be cloned from C. neoformans whose product has been shown to possess immunologic

  2. National Dam Inspection Program. Stanford Avenue Stormwater Retention Pond (NDI Number PA-01146, DER Number 6-467), Delaware River Basin, Tributary to Wyomissing Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    refusal and six borings were drilled 10 feet into rock. Laboratory testinq included phvsical properties and compaction tests. Borrow materials from...be given to installing a trash rack at the low level outlet in the event that the fence should fail during a large storm oermitting large debris to...DAM STABILITY SEEPAGE STUDIES MATERIALS INVESTIGATIONS BORING RECORDS LABORATORY Complete records are located in FIELD the Township Engineer’s files

  3. The anti-inflammatory activity of Phellinus linteus (Berk. & M.A. Curt.) is mediated through the PKCdelta/Nrf2/ARE signaling to up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Chul; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Hong, Hye-Young; Jeon, Kyung-Bum; Hahn, Jang-Hee; Kim, Young-Myeong; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yosida, Takemi; Park, Eun-Hee; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2007-09-05

    It has been reported that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates the anti-inflammatory activity of the n-BuOH subfraction (PL) prepared from fruiting bodies of Phellinus linteus. This continuing work aimed to elucidate the signaling pathway to the up-regulation of HO-1 by PL. In RAW264.7 macrophage cells, PL was able to enhance phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), but not PKCalpha/betaII, in a time-dependent manner. PL-induced HO-1 expression was dramatically released by GF109203X, a general inhibitor of PKC, and rottlerin, a specific PKCdelta inhibitor but not by Gö6976, a selective inhibitor for PKCalpha/beta. Additionally, PL treatment resulted in a marked increase in antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven transcriptional activity, which was dependent on PKCdelta but not PKCalpha. An increase by PL treatment in the ARE-driven transcriptional activity was further enhanced by Nrf2, whereas it was diminished by Keap1. Furthermore, pretreatment of rottlerin and overexpression of PKCdelta (K376R), a kinase-inactive form of PKCdelta, partly blocked the suppression by PL of nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and iNOS promoter activity, which were elevated in the lypopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Similarly, expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its promoter activity were suppressed by PL, which were dependent upon PKCdelta. The present findings indicate that Phellinus linteus gives rise to an anti-inflammatory activity though the PKCdelta/Nrf2/ARE signaling to the up-regulation of HO-1 in an in vitro inflammation model.

  4. National Dam Inspection Program. Hopewell Dam (NDS I.D. Number PA 00724, DER I.D. Number 6-401), Delaware River Basin, Scotts Run, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    and possible loss of life in the event of failure, a formal procedure of observation and warning during periods of high precipitation should be... periodically . Visual inspection indicated two small holes in the mortar of the small stones of the ogee section between the notch and the left spillway...surveillance of the dam during periods of high rainfall runoff. It is also noted that the manual contains factual errors relative to the physical

  5. National Dam Inspection Program. SCS PA 477 (NDS I.D. Number PA 00720, DER I.D. Number 6-457), Delaware River Basin, Tributary of Mill Creek. Berks County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    condition of the dam, the only recommendations made beyond routine maintenance of the dam are: 1. The multiflora rose should be removed from the...drainage swale between the embankment and the highway to prevent the spread of the multiflora rose to the embankment. ii " ’-1 I’P" " " """ z i,’i .. K ’li...worn through the embankment cover, as shown in Photograph No. 8, Appendix C, but no significant erosion has resulted. Multiflora rose is starting to

  6. Development of Biomimetic Surfaces by Vesicle Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Gawrisch, K., Krueger, S., Orts, W., Majkrzak, C. F., Berk, N., and Silverton , J. V., 1996), atomic force microscopy (Egawa, H. and Furusawa, K...W., Majkrzak, C. F., Berk, N., and Silverton , J. V., 1996; Lingler, S., Rubinstein, I., Knoll, W., and Offenhausser, A., 1997; Reimhult, E., Hook...Biophysical Journal, 73, 1954-1966. Koenig, B. W., K. Gawrisch, S. Krueger, W. Orts, C. F. Majkrzak, N. Berk, and J. V. Silverton , 1996: Membrane

  7. Structural details below roadway, looking north from south abutment. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structural details below roadway, looking north from south abutment. - Pleasantville Covered Bridge, Spanning Little Manatawny Creek at Covered Bridge Road (State Route 1030), Manatawny, Berks County, PA

  8. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 FIREPLACE, NORTHWEST ROOM, FIRST FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  9. Test and Evaluation of Public Service Uses of Cable Television: Reading, Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Reading Consortium.

    The New York University-Reading Consortium proposed to evaluate the use of interactive cable television for the delivery of public services to the the elderly residents of Reading, Pennsylvania. The project represented the collaborative efforts of New York University, the City of reading, the Berks TV Cable Company, the Berks County Senior…

  10. 5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN CRIB-WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB, PIG BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  11. 4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN CRIB, -WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  12. A Story About People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Alternate Media Center.

    The Community Video Workshop, a pilot project being undertaken by the Alternate Media Center of New York University's School of the Arts in cooperation with ATC and Berks TV Cable Company, was intended to make cable television facilities available to Berks County. This document consists of a collection of newspaper clippings, letters, memos, and…

  13. 3. Anthony Bley, Photographer. September, 1976 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Anthony Bley, Photographer. September, 1976 L TO R: CORN CRIB, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, BARN, MILKSHED - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION. - Spang House, 3 miles North of State Route 562, West side of Manatawny Creek (Spangsville, Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF END OF TRUSS SHOWING CONNECTION OF DECORATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF END OF TRUSS SHOWING CONNECTION OF DECORATIVE "KNEE", RAILING ENDPOST AND UPPER AND LOWER CHORDS - Scarlets Mill Bridge, Spanning former Reading Railroad, Scarlets Mill, Berks County, PA

  16. 40. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING GRUBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING GRUBER- BUILT HUB-BORING MACHINE. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  17. 76 FR 18210 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...), (713) 627- 5947 (fax), or bdonaldson@spectraenergy.com or to Kathy Cash, Rates & Certificates, Texas... TTY, (202) 502-8659. Questions regarding the application may be directed to Berk Donaldson, Rates...

  18. 34. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAILS OF JOHN GLEASON SPOKE LATHE. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  19. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; the structure at right is the Keim Stone Cabin, HABS No. PA-1041). - Keim House, West of Lobachsville (Pike Township), Lobachsville, Berks County, PA

  20. 158. BLACKSMITH SHOP, DRIVE SHAFT FOR BLACKSMITH AND WOOD SHOPS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. BLACKSMITH SHOP, DRIVE SHAFT FOR BLACKSMITH AND WOOD SHOPS. BELT ON RIGHT POWERS GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  1. 145. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHEAST AT GRUBER BUILT BAND SAW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    145. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHEAST AT GRUBER BUILT BAND SAW AND POT BELLIED STOVE (NOT IN ORIGINAL LOCATION). - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  2. 1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE PAINTED RED. HEX SIGNS ARE PAINTED OCHRE, BLACK, RED, WHITE AND BLUE. NOTE PAINTED FLAGS ON SHED - Decorated White Barn, (Maiden Creek Township), Maiden Creek, Berks County, PA

  3. Anticipating the Social Consequences of AIDS: A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on the social consequences of the AIDS epidemic, arguing that sociologists have an important contribution to make in planning for the long-range social consequences of AIDS. Concludes with three different commentaries on Berk's article. (Author/BSR)

  4. 178. PAINT SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD CENTER OF ROOM. OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. PAINT SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD CENTER OF ROOM. OPENING IN BACKGROUND IS SLIDING WALL. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  5. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  6. 118. BENCH SHOP, NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ROOM FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. BENCH SHOP, NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ROOM FROM OUTSIDE. OFFICE SAFE AT CENTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. 125. BENCH SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT CENTER OF ROOM SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. BENCH SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT CENTER OF ROOM SHOWING TOOL SHARPENER ON RIGHT AND ELECTRIC TABLE SAW AT CENTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  8. 175. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WALL OF STORAGE ROOM, ADDED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    175. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WALL OF STORAGE ROOM, ADDED WITH ELEVATOR ADDITION OF 1905. WALL IS EXTERIOR OF ORIGINAL WAGON WORKS OF 1883. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  9. 97. NORTHWEST CORNER OF BOILER ROOM. EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN REMOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. NORTHWEST CORNER OF BOILER ROOM. EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN REMOVED AND ROOM IS NOW USED FOR STORAGE. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  10. 173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  11. ELEVATION VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH PEDESTRIAN SUSPENSION BRIDGE (HAER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH PEDESTRIAN SUSPENSION BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-120) AT RIGHT. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA

  12. 3. DETAIL OF WEST TOWER, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF WEST TOWER, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  13. 4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END OF SPAN, LOOKING SW, SHOWING RIBBED ARCH CONSTRUCTION. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Peacock's Lock Viaduct, Spanning Schuykill River at Reading Railroad, Reading, Berks County, PA

  14. LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-116). - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot Bridge, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA

  15. 2. LOOKING NW, WITH READING DEPOT IN BACKGROUND. Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NW, WITH READING DEPOT IN BACKGROUND. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  16. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  17. 4. VIEW RECONSTRUCTED TOWER, LOOKING NNE. Philadelphia & Reading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW RECONSTRUCTED TOWER, LOOKING NNE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  18. 18. June 1974. BASEMENT, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING BELTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. June 1974. BASEMENT, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING BELTING AND ENGAGING MECHANISM FOR DRIVING THE TABLE SAW. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  19. 1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND FADED PAINTINGS OF FARM ANIMALS: COW, DONKEYS AND HORSE. - De Turck House, Barn, State Route 662 vicinity, Oley Township, Oley, Berks County, PA

  20. ABUTMENT. NOTE HOW ARCHES BUTT AGAINST A CONCRETE PAD ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ABUTMENT. NOTE HOW ARCHES BUTT AGAINST A CONCRETE PAD ADDED IN 1968. NOTE ALSO IRON TIE ROD AT LOWER CHORD. - Dreibelbis Station Bridge, Spanning Maiden Creek, Balthaser Road (TR 745), Lenhartsville, Berks County, PA

  1. New records of truffle fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Turkey

    Treesearch

    Aziz Turkoglu; Michael Angelo. Castellano

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records of 5 truffle taxa in Turkey: Gymnomyces xanthosporus (Hawker) A.H.Sm., Hymenogaster griseus Vittad., Hymenogaster olivaceous Vittad., Hymenogaster thwaitesii Berk. & Broome, and Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. & C.Tul. We also report a new...

  2. 161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO SHAFTS WHICH RUN POWER PRESS AND HYDRAULIC TIRE SETTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  3. 55. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING ROGERSFORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING ROGERSFORD POWER PUNCH AND SHEAR WITH THE TIRE BENDER AT LEFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. Formation of ectomycorrhizae following inoculation of containerized Sitka spruce seedlings.

    Treesearch

    C.G. Shaw; R. Molina

    1980-01-01

    Containerized Sitka spruce, [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] were inoculated at sowing with pure cultures of either Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, Laccaria laccata (Scop. ex Fr.) Berk. & Br., Astraeus pteridis (Shear) Feller, Amanita pantherina...

  5. 2. Photocopy of photographs (from the collection of Mr. and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photographs (from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Reifsnyder) ca. 1930, photographer unknown HOUSE WITH WORKHORSES AND PEOPLE IN FOREGROUND - George Stoudt House, Eight Cornered House Road (Penn Township), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  6. 71. Photocopy of an original owned by Franklin P. Gruber. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Photocopy of an original owned by Franklin P. Gruber. GRUBER-BUILT TRUCK BODY c.1920. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. 72. Photocopy of an original owned by Franklin P. Gruber. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Photocopy of an original owned by Franklin P. Gruber. GRUBER-BUILT TRUCK BODY c.1920. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  8. 123. BENCH SHOP, SOUTH WALL SHOWING TOOL SHARPENER ON LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. BENCH SHOP, SOUTH WALL SHOWING TOOL SHARPENER ON LEFT AND WOOD BORING MACHINE ON RIGHT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  9. 122. BENCH SHOP, SOUTHWEST CORNER SHOWING WOOD BORING MACHINE. DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. BENCH SHOP, SOUTHWEST CORNER SHOWING WOOD BORING MACHINE. DOOR TO WOODSHOP ON RIGHT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  10. 75 FR 23841 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Reading Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... to Berks County Industrial Development Authority. The property was transferred to the City of Reading... needed for airport development as shown on the Airport Layout Plan. Any proceeds from the sale...

  11. 2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE TOPOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE APPROACH ROAD. - Speicher Bridge, Church Road over Tulpehocken Creek between Penn & North Heidelberg Townships, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  12. Red Thread Found on Bermuda Grass

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1966-01-01

    Red thread fungus (Corticium fuciforme (Berk.) Wakef.) was observed in 1965 and 1966 on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) on lawns in Leland, Mississippi. Red thread is a serious disease on fescues but has not previously been reported on Bermuda grass.

  13. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 EAST WALL, SOUTHWEST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 NORTHEAST ELEVATION. - Griesemer Mill, 3.5 miles North of State Route 562, near Manatawny Creek, Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 EAST WALL OF SOUTHWEST ROOM, FIRST FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  16. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 EAST WALL, NORTHWEST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS, NORTH CORNER. - Griesemer Mill, 3.5 miles North of State Route 562, near Manatawny Creek, Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  18. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 NORTHEAST CORNER, NORTHWEST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  19. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 DOORWAYS, NORTHWEST TO SOUTHWEST ROOMS, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  20. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 FIREPLACE, EAST WALL, NORTHWEST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. - Hunter House, 2 miles North of Yellow House, east of State Route 662 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  2. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 FRONT DOORWAY ON THE EAST. - Hunter House, 2 miles North of Yellow House, east of State Route 662 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  3. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 NORTHWEST CORNER, NORTHWEST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. - Hunter House, 2 miles North of Yellow House, east of State Route 662 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 VIEW FROM NORTH. - Griesemer Mill Covered Bridge, 3.5 miles north of State Route 562, spanning Manatawny Creek, Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST ELEVATIONS. - Griesemer Mill, 3.5 miles North of State Route 562, near Manatawny Creek, Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 INTERIOR, VIEW EAST. - Griesemer Mill Covered Bridge, 3.5 miles north of State Route 562, spanning Manatawny Creek, Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. - Hunter House, 2 miles North of Yellow House, east of State Route 662 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  9. Carbon-fiber microelectrode amperometry reveals sickle-cell-induced inflammation and chronic morphine effects on single mast cells.

    PubMed

    Manning, Benjamin M; Hebbel, Robert P; Gupta, Kalpna; Haynes, Christy L

    2012-03-16

    Sickle cell disease, caused by a mutation of hemoglobin, is characterized by a complex pathophysiology including an important inflammatory component. Mast cells are tissue-resident leukocytes known to influence a range of immune functions in a variety of different ways, largely through the secretion of biologically active mediators from preformed granules. However, it is not understood how mast cells influence the inflammatory environment in sickle cell disease. A notable consequence of sickle cell disease is severe pain. Therefore, morphine is often used to treat this disease. Because mast cells express opioid receptors, it is pertinent to understand how chronic morphine exposure influences mast cell function and inflammation in sickle cell disease. Herein, carbon-fiber microelectrode amperometry (CFMA) was used to monitor the secretion of immunoactive mediators from single mast cells. CFMA enabled the detection and quantification of discrete exocytotic events from single mast cells. Mast cells from two transgenic mouse models expressing human sickle hemoglobin (hBERK1 and BERK) and a control mouse expressing normal human hemoglobin (HbA-BERK) were monitored using CFMA to explore the impact of sickle-cell-induced inflammation and chronic morphine exposure on mast cell function. This work, utilizing the unique mechanistic perspective provided by CFMA, describes how mast cell function is significantly altered in hBERK1 and BERK mice, including decreased serotonin released compared to HbA-BERK controls. Furthermore, morphine was shown to significantly increase the serotonin released from HbA-BERK mast cells and demonstrated the capacity to reverse the observed sickle-cell-induced changes in mast cell function.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Pain Behaviours in Humanized Mouse Models of Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jianxun; Benson, Barbara; Tran, Huy; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a hallmark feature of sickle cell anemia (SCA) but management of chronic as well as acute pain remains a major challenge. Mouse models of SCA are essential to examine the mechanisms of pain and develop novel therapeutics. To facilitate this effort, we compared humanized homozygous BERK and Townes sickle mice for the effect of gender and age on pain behaviors. Similar to previously characterized BERK sickle mice, Townes sickle mice show more mechanical, thermal, and deep tissue hyperalgesia with increasing age. Female Townes sickle mice demonstrate more hyperalgesia compared to males similar to that reported for BERK mice and patients with SCA. Mechanical, thermal and deep tissue hyperalgesia increased further after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment in Townes sickle mice. Together, these data show BERK sickle mice exhibit a significantly greater degree of hyperalgesia for all behavioral measures as compared to gender- and age-matched Townes sickle mice. However, the genetically distinct “knock-in” strategy of human α and β transgene insertion in Townes mice as compared to BERK mice, may provide relative advantage for further genetic manipulations to examine specific mechanisms of pain. PMID:27494522

  11. Revised stereochemistry of ceramide-trafficking inhibitor HPA-12 by X-ray crystallography analysis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masaharu; Huang, Yi-Yong; Yamano, Akihito; Kobayashi, Shū

    2013-06-07

    In response to Berkeš's report revising the stereochemistry of HPA-12, an important ceramide-trafficking inhibitor that was discovered and synthesized and its stereochemistry determined in 2001, the synthesis and the stereochemistry were reinvestigated. A large-scale synthetic method for HPA-12 based on a Zn-catalyzed asymmetric Mannich-type reaction in water was developed. Single crystals of HPA-12 for X-ray crystallographic analysis were obtained from ethyl propionate/n-hexane, and the stereochemistry was definitely determined to be 1R,3S, consistent with Berkeš's revised structure.

  12. Chromosomal integration of recombinant alpha-amylase and glucoamylase genes in saccharomyces cerevisiae for starch conversion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombinant constructs of barley '-amylase and Lentinula edodes glucoamylase genes were integrated into the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The insertion was confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene sequence in the chromosomes. The expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE of the enzymes puri...

  13. Effect of fungal treatments of fibrous agricultural by-products on chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation and methane production.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, D V; Phuong, H N; Cone, J W; Baars, J J P; Sonnenberg, A S M; Hendriks, W H

    2013-02-01

    Maize stover, rice straw, oil palm fronds and sugarcane bagasse were treated with the white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, or Pleurotus ostreatus at 24 °C for 0-6 weeks. The fungi increased total gas production from oil palm fronds by 68-132%, but none of the fungi improved the in vitro rumen fermentability of maize stover. C. subvermispora and L. edodes increased total gas production of sugarcane bagasse by 65-71%, but P. eryngii and P. ostreatus decreased it by 22-50%. There was a linear relationship (P<0.05) between the proportion of lignin in the original substrate and the increase in in vitro gas production observed for C. subvermispora and L. edodes treatments (R2=0.92 and 0.96, respectively). It is concluded that C. subvermispora and L. edodes have a particularly high potential to improve the nutritive value of highly lignified ruminant feeds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

  15. Harvest intensity and competition control impacts on loblolly pine fusiform rust incidence

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Eaton; Paula Spaine; Felipe G. Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    The Long Term Soil Productivity experiment tests the effects of soil compaction, surface organic matter removal, and understory control on net primary productivity. An unintended consequence of these treatments may be an effect on the incidence of fusiform rust [Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miy. ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme Burdsall et Snow]. Loblolly pine (Pinus...

  16. Effect of detergent on the quantification of grapevine downy mildew Sporangia from leaf discs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevine downy mildew (DM), caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & Curt.) Berlese & de Toni, is a major disease, especially in humid viticultural areas. Development of resistant cultivars is an important objective for grapevine breeding. In order to establish a reliable and inexpensive...

  17. Effects of fire on cultural resources-Introduction [Chapter 1

    Treesearch

    Kevin C. Ryan; Cassandra L. Koerner; Kristine M. Lee; Nelson Siefkin

    2012-01-01

    The world’s diverse cultures have their varying creation stories (Moyers and Campbell 1988; UGA 2000). Many of these stories contain physical features: the mountains, hills, plains, and rivers of their native lands that are integral components of cultural traditions (Berkes and others 2000; Goetcheus 2002; King 2003; Martin 2002; Parker 1993; Parker and King 1990;...

  18. Uncertainty analysis in ecological studies: an overview

    Treesearch

    Harbin Li; Jianguo Wu

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale simulation models are essential tools for scientific research and environmental decision-making because they can be used to synthesize knowledge, predict consequences of potential scenarios, and develop optimal solutions (Clark et al. 2001, Berk et al. 2002, Katz 2002). Modeling is often the only means of addressing complex environmental problems that occur...

  19. Fusiform Rust Trends in East Texas: 1969 to 2002

    Treesearch

    Dean W. Coble; Young-Jin Lee

    2004-01-01

    Fusiform rust [Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miyabe ex Shirai f. sp. Fusiforme] infection rates in east Texas increased to nearly 50 percent in slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and about 15 percent in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations during the 18-year period from 1969 to 1987. New...

  20. Equal Educational Opportunity: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity of the United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session on Equal Educational Opportunity. Part 22--Education Information. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., December 1-3, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity.

    Contents of these hearings include the testimony of the following witnesses, as well as materials appended as pertinent to the hearings: (1) Dr. Francis Keppel, Chairman of the Board, General Learning Corp., New York, N.Y.; (2) Mr. Joel Berke, The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., and Dr. Robert J. Goettel, Syracuse University Research…

  1. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of the Mechanisms by which TSC Regulates Neuronal Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    type 1 IGF receptor (Igf1r). Cell 75, 59–72. 15 Camarero, G., Avendano, C., Fernandez-Moreno, C., Villar , A., Contreras, J., de Pablo, F., Pichel...migration but not for fate determina- tion and tumourigenesis in the cerebellum. Development 129, 3513–3522. 31 Yue, Q., Groszer, M., Gil , J. S., Berk

  2. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of the Mechanisms by Which TSC Regulates Neuronal Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Villar , A., Contreras, J., de Pablo, F., Pichel, J. G. and Varela-Nieto, I. (2001) Delayed inner ear maturation and neuronal loss in postnatal Igf-1...Development 129, 3513–3522. 31 Yue, Q., Groszer, M., Gil , J. S., Berk, A. J., Messing, A., Wu, H. and Liu, X. (2005) PTEN deletion in Bergmann

  3. PbX marks the spot.

    PubMed

    Sagerström, Charles G

    2004-06-01

    Pbx and Meis proteins act as cofactors to various transcription factors, but their exact functions have been unclear. A report by Berkes et al. in Molecular Cell now demonstrates that Pbx and Meis may penetrate repressive chromatin to mark specific genes for activation.

  4. 40 CFR 81.339 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Allen Township X (C) Reading Air Basin X (D) Carbon County X (E) Remaining Portions of AQCR X III. South.../01 Attainment Reading Area: Berks County Unclassifiable/Attainment Schuylkill County Area: Schuylkill..., 2005 for all areas in Pennsylvania. The Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley and Reading areas are maintenance...

  5. 40 CFR 81.339 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Allen Township X (C) Reading Air Basin X (D) Carbon County X (E) Remaining Portions of AQCR X III. South.../01 Attainment Reading Area: Berks County Unclassifiable/Attainment Schuylkill County Area: Schuylkill..., 2005 for all areas in Pennsylvania. The Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley and Reading areas are maintenance...

  6. 40 CFR 81.339 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Allen Township X (C) Reading Air Basin X (D) Carbon County X (E) Remaining Portions of AQCR X III. South... Washington County 10/19/01 Attainment Westmoreland County 10/19/01 Attainment Reading Area: Berks County... Reading areas are maintenance areas for the 1-hour NAAQS for purposes of 40 CFR part 51 subpart X...

  7. Coming Together in the Middle Years: A Longitudinal Study of Sex Role Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livson, Florine B.

    This study examines the hypothesis that in early adulthood each sex represses opposite-sex characteristics in order to provide optimum conditions for care of the young. Sex roles become less distinct in the second half of life, when parenting is completed. The study draws on longitudinal data from the Oakland Growth Study at Berkely, which…

  8. Positive Returns from Investment in Fusiform Rust Research

    Treesearch

    John M. Pye; John E. Wagner; Thomas P. Holmes; Frederick W. Cubbage

    1997-01-01

    Fusiform rust [Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miy. ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme Burdsall et Snow] is a widespread and damaging disease of loblolly and slash pine across much of the Southern United States. Research by government and university scientists has identified families of these species with improved genetic resistance to infection by the disease, allowing production...

  9. Proceedings of 1980 Symposium ’Wood Adhesives-Research, Application, and Needs’ Held at Madison, Wisconsin on 23-25 September 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-25

    bonded plywood wall some of which can produce similar symptoms. paneling, furniture with UF-bonded veneers, Hollowell , et al. (1979) has identified...Laboratory *Control(DeviceOff) DeviceOn Report No. ORMIL-TM-4318 (1973). Hollowell , C. D., J. V. Berk, C. Lin, Similar formaldehyde reductions were W

  10. Use of PCR analysis for identification of species and genus of Septoria on grain crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research on methods for molecular-genetic testing of the Septoria pathogens of wheat was initiated. Two species of septoria were studied: Septoria tritici Rob. et Desm., and Stagonospora nodorum [Berk] Castellani and E.G. Germano. Different protocols for extraction of DNA were applied; the best meth...

  11. Local Bifurcation Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    characteris- tics of the new solutions are intimately related to those of xo(p) at criticality, i.e. at ga = 0. It is this intrinsic relationship that...from Escuela de Organizacion Industrial, Madrid, Spain. The M.S. and Ph.D. were received from the University of California at Berkely in Civil Engineer

  12. Tip Saves Energy, Money for Pennsylvania Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A wastewater treatment plant in Berks County, Pennsylvania is saving nearly $45,000 a year and reducing hundreds of metric tons of greenhouse gases since employing an energy conservation tip offered by the Water Protection Division in EPA’s R3 and PADEP.

  13. Evidence-Based versus Junk-Based Evaluation Research: Some Lessons from 35 Years of the Evaluation Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Along with the late Howard Freeman, Richard Berk was a founding editor of "Evaluation Review" (then "Evaluation Quarterly") in 1977. He resigned as editor of this journal at the end of 2010. In this article, he reflects on his experiences. (Contains 3 notes.)

  14. 14. June 1974. VIEW OF THE ENGINE ROOM, LOOKING NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. June 1974. VIEW OF THE ENGINE ROOM, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING THE OTTO GASOLINE ENGINE, THE DRIVE PULLEY IS BARELY VISIBLE TO THE LEFT OF THE FLYWHEEL. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  15. 45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT CHASE FOR TWO BELTS FROM THE BASEMENT, THE W. E. & J. BARNES CO. DRILL PRESS, AND THE DRILL PRESS USED FOR REAMING. THE BELT PASSING THROUGH THE WALL POWERS THE SANDER IN THE WOOD SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  16. [Cordyceps sinensis, a fungi used in the Chinese traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-12-31

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is an ascomycete fungus known in China since antiquity, which is still being used today. A summary, showing relevant papers about this fungus, regarding habitat, history, marketing, consumption, nomenclature, pharmacological composition, culture and medical use, is presented.

  17. 78 FR 24192 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ..., Houston, Texas 77251-1642, filed in Docket No. CP13-130-000, a prior notice request pursuant to sections... seeks authorization to perform ] replacement of the portions of existing Lines 1-B-1 and 1-B-2... questions regarding this application should be directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates &...

  18. 76 FR 29234 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No. CP11-477-000, a Prior Notice request pursuant to... abandon in place, 5.7-miles of its 12-inch pipeline designated Line 40-B-4-C located in federal waters in... should be directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates & Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP,...

  19. 43. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE GRUBER-BUILT TABLE SAW, c.1885-90. THE POT-BELLIED STOVE IS NOT IN ITS ORIGINAL LOCATION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  20. 61. August 1974. PAINT SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. August 1974. PAINT SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE WINDOW IS IN THE CENTER OF A SLIDING DOOR THAT OPENS ONTO THE PORCH AT THE EAST END OF THE ORIGINAL 1883 SHOP. THE DOOR WAS USED FOR HAULING THE WAGONS UP TO THE PAINT SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  1. Single-Sample Face Recognition with Image Corruption and Misalignment via Sparse Illumination Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    1998. [5] T. Cootes, C. Taylor, and J. Graham . Active shape models – their training and application. CVIU, 61:38–59, 1995. [6] W. Deng, J. Hu, and J...1- minimization algorithms for robust face recognition. Techni- cal Report arXiv:1007.3753, University of California, Berke- ley , 2012. [30] M. Yang

  2. 81. EXTERIOR VIEW, EAST SIDE, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO BOILER ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. EXTERIOR VIEW, EAST SIDE, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO BOILER ROOM ON LEFT, ENTRANCE TO STABLES AT CENTER, AND ENTRANCE TO ENGINE ROOM ON RIGHT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  3. Undergraduate Writing Majors and the Rhetoric of Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisser, Christian; Grobman, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The authors draw on two surveys conducted in 2009-10 with graduates from the BA in Professional Writing at Penn State Berks, a branch campus of Penn State University. The surveys led the authors to understand a set of common attributes among our alumni (what they call a "rhetoric of professionalism") while at the same time problematizing…

  4. 66. August 1974. WAGON STORAGE, VIEW LOOKING EAST. NOTE THREELEGGED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. August 1974. WAGON STORAGE, VIEW LOOKING EAST. NOTE THREE-LEGGED STOOL ORIGINALLY USED FOR THE PROCESS OF TIRE-SETTING. WHEEL WAS LAID ON STOOL, HEATED TIRE LAID ON TOP OF IT, THEN COOLED WITH WATER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  5. What We All (Supposedly) Know about the Poor: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Ruby Payne's "Framework"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworin, Joel E.; Bomer, Randy

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a professional development text by Ruby Payne that claims to inform teachers about the lives and minds of children from poor households. We use Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995; Gee, 2005; Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, & Mosley, 2005) to examine how the author enlists readers' participation in deficit…

  6. 75 FR 41276 - US Rail Partners, Ltd. and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad Company-Continuance in Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... modified certificate of public convenience and necessity in STB Finance Docket No. 35383, Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company-- ] Modified Rail Certificate, wherein EBGR seeks to lease and operate... Railroad Company (EWGR). BNGR operates approximately 35 miles of rail line between Wellington, Kan.,...

  7. Projecting the Future for Situation Assessment and Planning: A Cognitive Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    them from similar experiences are complex psychological processes. Human retrieval mechanisms are heuristic in nature. They do not automatically...Ryback, 1967; Seashore, Underwood, Houston, & Berks, 1956; Thorndike , 1931; Waters, 1933). Experience with feedback as expertise. Even if we define...repertoire of procedurally-specified future projection strategies. Second, we would educate the analysts regarding general cognitive factors, such as

  8. 35. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE GRUBER-BUILT DADO CUTTING MACHINE ORIGINALLY LOCATED IN THE BENCH SHOP. CORNER IS DEVOTED TO STORAGE OF MATERIALS. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  9. Seed Treatment with Systemic Fungicides for the Control of Fusiform Rust in Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    John G. Mexal; Glenn A. Snow

    1978-01-01

    A new systemic fungicide, Bayleton, may economically control fusiform rust in southern pine nurseries. Stratified seeds of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were imbibed with Bayleton and two other systemic fungicides, and the seedlings were inoculated at three stages of emergence with spores of Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miyabe ex...

  10. What We All (Supposedly) Know about the Poor: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Ruby Payne's "Framework"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworin, Joel E.; Bomer, Randy

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a professional development text by Ruby Payne that claims to inform teachers about the lives and minds of children from poor households. We use Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995; Gee, 2005; Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, & Mosley, 2005) to examine how the author enlists readers' participation in deficit…

  11. New records of some Ascomycete truffle fungi from Turkey

    Treesearch

    Aziz TÜRKOÐLU; Michael Angelo CASTELLANO

    2014-01-01

    We report the first records of 6 Ascomycete truffle taxa in Turkey: Genea verrucosa Vittad., Genea klotzschii Berk. & Broome, Stephensia bombycina (Vittad.) Tul. & C.Tul., Terfezia olbiensis Tul. & C.Tul., Tuber excavatum Vittad., and Tuber rufum Pico. We also...

  12. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  13. The effects of environmental conditions on the growth of Merulius lacrymans

    Treesearch

    Jesse D. Diller; E. James Koch

    1960-01-01

    The two building decay fungi, the European Merulius lacrymans Fr. and the native Poria incrassate (Berk. & Curt.) Burt., do not often become established in buildings. But when they do, these fungi can cause serious damage to structural timbers. In extreme cases they have advanced to the second and third floor of buildings. This...

  14. 44. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH THE DOOR TO THE WOOD SHOP; ON THE LEFT IS THE D. H. POTTS TIRE SHRINKER; TO THE RIGHT OF THE DOOR IS THE BELT CHASE FROM THE BASEMENT LINESHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  15. 47. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE LINESHAFT ALONG THE SOUTH WALL. MACHINES SHOWN (LEFT TO RIGHT): WELLS BROS. & CO. BOLT THREADER, DEFIANCE MACHINE WORKS POWER PRESS, AND THE WEST TIRE SETTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  16. Assessment of Probable Future Land Use and Habitat Conditions in Water Resources Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    R. Varney, and F. C. Craighead, Jr. 1974. A population analysis of the Yellowstone grizzly bears. Montana Forest Conservation Experiment Station Bull...34The wolves of Isle Royale." University of Georgia, Contributions in Systems Ecology. No. 5. Sargent, F. 0. and P. R. Berke. 1979. Planning undeveloped

  17. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon, and... Carbon County map, and continue to Bench Mark (BM) 1032 located on Highway 902, south of the village of...

  18. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon, and... Carbon County map, and continue to Bench Mark (BM) 1032 located on Highway 902, south of the village of...

  19. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon, and... Carbon County map, and continue to Bench Mark (BM) 1032 located on Highway 902, south of the village of...

  20. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon, and... Carbon County map, and continue to Bench Mark (BM) 1032 located on Highway 902, south of the village of...

  1. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon, and... Carbon County map, and continue to Bench Mark (BM) 1032 located on Highway 902, south of the village of...

  2. Decline in Values of Slash Pine Stands Infected with Fusiform Rust

    Treesearch

    F.E. Bridgwater; W.D. Smith

    2002-01-01

    Losses in product values due tofusiform rust, caused by Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miyabe ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme, were estimated from four, 2.5-yr-old slash pine, Pinus elliotii Engelm., plantations planted in southern Mississippi over a range of sites with different growth potential and expected rust infection levels. The...

  3. Candidate genes associated with QTL controlling resistance to fusarium root rot in pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium root rot (FRR) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a serious pathogen in the USA and Europe and genetic resistance offers an effective and economical control for this pathogen. Fusarium root rot is caused by the fungus pathogen (Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) (Anamorph): Fusarium sol...

  4. 75 FR 71094 - Notice of Commission Meeting and Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... meeting include the dockets listed below: 1. Pennsylvania Utility Company, D-1975-093 CP-4. An application..., Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. 3. Amity Township, D-1990-078 CP-3. An application to renew the approval of...), in Amity Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. 4. Shoemakersville Borough Authority, D-1993-074 CP-3...

  5. 75 FR 7454 - Notice of Commission Meeting and Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. 3. Palmerton Borough, D-1981-024 CP-8. An application for... CP-8. The existing surface water withdrawal allocation provides for a maximum of 71 mg/30 days to..., which is classified as Special Protection Waters. 4. Antietam Valley Municipal Authority, D-1987-045 CP...

  6. Physiological specialization of Stagonospora nodorum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Septoriosis is a harmful disease of wheat, widespread all over the world, including Russia. Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Castellani and E.G. Germano is one of the main agents of Septoria wheat diseases. There is no information on physiological specialization of this pathogen. Not many authors stud...

  7. Snow Mold Investigations in Eastern Washington

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer; A. G. Law

    1961-01-01

    "Snow mold of turf" in the Pacific Northwest must include both Fusarium Patch caused by Calonectria graminicola (Berk and Br.) (conidial stage Fusarium nivale (Fr. ) CES.), and Gray snow mold caused by Typhula itoana Imai, which occur together to give a disease complex. Snow mold of turf is the most...

  8. Growth sensitivity of Corynespora cassiicola to Thiophanate-methyl, Iprodione, and Fludioxonil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei, causal agent of Corynespora leaf spot, can cause devastating epidemics in African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl.) production facilities. Because of phytotoxicity and visible residue issues with some fungicides such as chlorothalonil, pro...

  9. Criminogenic Effects of the Prison Environment on Inmate Behavior: Some Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Scott D.; Gaes, Gerald G.

    2005-01-01

    The current study analyzed a subset of the experimental data collected by Berk, Ladd, Graziano, and Baek (2003) to test whether different intensities of incarceration make inmates more criminal while incarcerated. There were 561 male inmates whose equivalent classification scores indicated they had the same level of risk to commit institutional…

  10. [Pathogenicity of Phylloporia chrysita (Aphyllophorales: Hymenochaetaceae) on Erythrochiton gymnanthus (Rutaceae)].

    PubMed

    Esquivel, R E; Carranza, J

    1996-12-01

    The pathogenicity of Phylloporia chrysita (Berk.) Ryv. on Erythrochiton gymnanthus K. (Rutaceae) was studied in Carara Biological Reserve, seasonal Pacific of Costa Rica. Growth rate and distribution of basidiocarps were determined on health and diseased plants. P. chrysita caused 52% growth reduction on diseased plants. Fungal hyphae were observed on epidermis, parenchyma and vascular tissue, where they caused cellular breakdown.

  11. Evidence-Based versus Junk-Based Evaluation Research: Some Lessons from 35 Years of the Evaluation Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Along with the late Howard Freeman, Richard Berk was a founding editor of "Evaluation Review" (then "Evaluation Quarterly") in 1977. He resigned as editor of this journal at the end of 2010. In this article, he reflects on his experiences. (Contains 3 notes.)

  12. 26. July 1974. BENCH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. July 1974. BENCH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING THE BORING MACHINE PURCHASED IN 1885. THE BIT MAY BE LOWERED BY THE HANGING LINKAGE OR THE TABLE RAISED BY THE FOOT PEDAL. NOTICE THE CHASE FOR THE BELTS, BUILT NO LESS CAREFULLY THAN THE MACHINE ITSELF. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  13. 39. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING (LEFTTORIGHT): ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING (LEFT-TO-RIGHT): GRUBER-BUILT HUB-BORING MACHINE, MORTISING MACHINE, AND GRUBER-BUILT BELT-SANDER: ALL ARE POWERED FROM LINESHAFTING IN THE BLACKSMITH SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  14. Resistance to Tan Spot and Stagonospora nodorum Blotch in Wheat-Alien Species Derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tan spot [caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs.] and Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) [caused by Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Castellani and Germano] are destructive fungal diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the world. Host plant resistance is thought to be an effi...

  15. Evolving toward Laughter in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strean, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Lowman (1995) described the relationship between teacher and student and student engagement as the two most important ingredients in learning in higher education. Humour builds teacher-student connection (Berk, 1998) and engages students in the learning process. The bond between student and teacher is essential for learning, satisfaction, and…

  16. Fast Implicit Methods for Stiff Moving Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    y) of the elliptic system (2): multiplying Eq. (2) by S, integrating over Ω and applying Gauss ’ theorem yields 1 2 µ(γ)− ∫ Γ P (γ)S(γ − σ)An(σ)µ(σ...Fast ADI iteration for first-order elliptic systems. Preprint, UC Berke- ley Mathematics Department, 2011. [15] J. Strain. Geometric nonuniform fast

  17. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  18. Evidence for resistance polymorphism in the Bromus tectorum/Ustilago bullata pathosystem: implications for biocontrol

    Treesearch

    S. E. Meyer; D. L. Nelson; S. Clement

    2001-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass or downy brome) is an important exotic weed in natural ecosystems as well as in winter cereal cropland in semiarid western North America. The systemic, seedling-infecting head smut pathogen Ustilago bullata Berk. commonly infects cheatgrass stands, often at epidemic levels. We examined factors...

  19. Reading Area Community College Community Needs Assessment Telephone Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Area Community Coll., PA.

    A telephone survey was conducted in 1981 at Reading Area Community College (RACC) to determine the educational needs of the community, particularly those of prospective students and employers. More specifically, the study sought to determine how the Berks County community perceived the quality of education provided at RACC and to ascertain the…

  20. MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects Jeffrey Chou Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...AND ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Berkely, Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences,Berkeley,CA,94720 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...in partial satisfaction of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering – Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

  1. 30. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING THE WOOD-TURNING LATHE AND THE SPOKE CUT-OFF SAW MOUNTED ON ITS WAYS. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  2. 29. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE BELT CHASE FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF POWER FROM THE MAIN LINE-SHAFT BELOW TO THE MACHINES ALONG THE EAST WALL OF THE WOOD SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  3. 31. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING THE WOOD-TURNING LATHE, THE GRUBER-BUILT SPOKE-TENONING MACHINE, AND ASSOCIATED BELT DRIVES. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. An Integrated Approach Toward Reducing Losses from Fusiform Rust in Merchantable Slash and Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    Roger P. Belanger; Thomas Miller; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Stephen W. Fraedrich; John F. Godbee

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the selective thinning of trees with rust galls as a means of reducing losses to the fusiform rust (Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miyabe ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme) disease in merchantable slash (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and...

  5. CaMKIIα underlies spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors in Berkeley sickle cell transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Chen, Yan; Tian, Xuebi; Yang, Cheng; Lu, Jian; Xiao, Chun; DeSimone, Joseph; Wilkie, Diana J; Molokie, Robert E; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2016-12-01

    Pain is one of the most challenging and stressful conditions to patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and their clinicians. Patients with SCD start experiencing pain as early as 3 months old and continue having it throughout their lives. Although many aspects of the disease are well understood, little progress has been made in understanding and treating pain in SCD. This study aimed to investigate the functional involvement of Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα) in the persistent and refractory pain associated with SCD. We found that nonevoked ongoing pain as well as evoked hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli were present in Berkeley sickle cell transgenic mice (BERK mice), but not nonsickle control littermates. Prominent activation of CaMKIIα was observed in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord dorsal horn region of BERK mice. Intrathecal administration of KN93, a selective inhibitor of CaMKII, significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in BERK mice. Meanwhile, spinal inhibition of CaMKII elicited conditioned place preference in the BERK mice, indicating the contribution of CaMKII in the ongoing spontaneous pain of SCD. We further targeted CaMKIIα by siRNA knockdown. Both evoked pain and ongoing spontaneous pain were effectively attenuated in BERK mice. These findings elucidated, for the first time, an essential role of CaMKIIα as a cellular mechanism in the development and maintenance of spontaneous and evoked pain in SCD, which can potentially offer new targets for pharmacological intervention of pain in SCD.

  6. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  7. Self-Heating Pasteurization of Substrates for Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms Cultivation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales, Viviana; Sánchez, Jose E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a self-heating pasteurization technique in preparing substrates for mushroom production. Seven species were used: Agrocybe aegerita, Auricularia fuscosuccinea, Pleurotus djamor, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, and Ganoderma lucidum. They were cultivated on grass, corncob, wood shavings, and a mixture thereof. The self-heating technique allowed for pasteurization of 3 of the substrates (grass, corncob, and the mixture). The preheating chamber comprised a drawer placed under the pasteurization crate. With this chamber, it was possible to increase inlet air temperatures by 4--5°C. The evaluated mushroom species responded in different ways to the pasteurization process. P. ostreatus (control) and P. djamor produced basidiomes when cultivated in all pasteurization substrates. A. aegerita and P. eryngii fruited only on corncob and the mixture, whereas A. fuscosuccinea fruited only on the pasteurized corncob. G. lucidum and L. edodes did not fructify on the pasteurized substrates.

  8. Enhancement of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) aqueous extract and antioxidant yield with fungal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pengilly, Mia; Joubert, Elizabeth; van Zyl, Willem H; Botha, Alfred; Bloom, Marinda

    2008-06-11

    The leaves and stems of the Rooibos plant ( Aspalathus linearis) are used for the production of an herbal tea known for its health promoting properties, which have been linked to its flavonoid content but which is substantially reduced by the traditional processing method employed. Selected food-grade fungi were screened for their potential to improve the yield of soluble matter extracted from rooibos plant material. Fungal cocktails of hydrolyzing enzymes enhanced either the yield of soluble solids ( Lentinula edodes and Rhizopus oryzae cultured in yeast peptone-wheat straw medium) or the yield in antioxidants from fermented rooibos ( R. oryzae cultured in potato dextrose or yeast peptone-wheat straw medium). When applied to green rooibos, L. edodes (cultured in yeast peptone-wheat straw medium) enhanced the release of soluble solids as well as color formation, leading to semifermented rooibos with a relatively high aspalathin content, compared to fermented rooibos.

  9. Assessment of arsenic bioaccessibility in raw and cooked edible mushrooms by a PBET method.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Llorens-Muñoz, Mariona; Funes-Collado, Virginia; Sahuquillo, Àngels; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports arsenic analysis in Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus before and after being cooked. Furthermore, arsenic in raw and cooked mushroom was determined in the gastric and gastrointestinal bioaccessible fractions obtained after simulating human digestion by means of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Several certified reference materials (SRM 1568a, SRM 1570a, CRM 7503-a, BC211 and IPE-120) were analysed to evaluate the proposed methods. Total arsenic content was 1393, 181 and 335μgAskg(-1) for L. edodes, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, respectively, and decreased by between 53% and 71% in boiled mushroom and less than 11% in griddled mushroom. High bioaccessibility was observed in raw, boiled and griddled mushroom, ranging from 74% to 89% and from 80% to 100% for gastric and gastrointestinal extracts, respectively, suggesting the need to consider the potential health risk of consumption of the mushrooms analysed.

  10. Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Fruit Body Formation in Cultivating Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Koichi; Yoshida, Kohei; Saito, Tatsuya; Kusaka, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Takahashi, Kyusuke; Sakamoto, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of high-voltage electrical stimulation on fruit body formation in cultivating mushrooms was evaluated using a compact pulsed power generator designed and based on an inductive energy storage system. An output voltage from 50 to 130 kV with a 100 ns pulse width was used as the electrical stimulation to determine the optimum amplitude. The pulsed high voltage was applied to a sawdust-based substrate of Lyophyllum decastes and natural logs hosting Lentinula edodes, Pholiota nameko, and Naematoloma sublateritium. The experimental results showed that the fruit body formation of mushrooms increased 1.3–2.0 times in terms of the total weight. The accumulated yield of Lentinula edodes for four cultivation seasons was improved from 160 to 320 g by applying voltages of 50 or 100 kV. However, the yield was decreased from 320 to 240 g upon increasing the applied voltage from 100 to 130 kV. The yield of the other types of mushrooms showed tendencies similar to those of Lentinula edodes when voltage was applied. An optimal voltage was confirmed for efficient fruit body induction. The hypha activity was evaluated by the amount of hydrophobin release, which was mainly observed before the fruit body formation. The hydrophobin release decreased for three hours after stimulation. However, the hydrophobin release from the vegetative hyphae increased 2.3 times one day after the stimulation. PMID:27694776

  11. The TEAM workshops: A short history

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.

    1990-08-28

    Early in 1985, Sam Berk of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy, suggested that the development and validation of 3-D eddy current codes would benefit from the compilation of benchmark problems that could be used to validate the codes and from a series of workshops for the comparison of solution methods and codes. (Two years later, at the first International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology in Tokyo, Sam Berk proposed the acronym TEAM for the workshops.) At a three-day planning meeting at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in November 1985, eleven participants from five countries defined the goals, format, schedule and problems for the workshops. The ultimate goal is to show the effectiveness of numerical techniques and associated computer codes in solving electromagnetic field problems, and to gain confidence in their predictions. The workshops should also provide cooperation between workers, leading to an interchange of ideas. This note reviews the three cycles of workshops and the problems.

  12. The genus Alwisia (Myxomycetes) revalidated, with two species new to science.

    PubMed

    Leontyev, Dmitry V; Schnittler, Martin; Moreno, Gabriel; Stephenson, Steven L; Mitchell, David W; Rojas, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Based on morphological investigations and a phylogeny constructed with partial sequences of the SSU rDNA gene, we revalidate the genus Alwisia and propose the combination Alwisia bombarda Berk. & Broome to be used against Tubifera bombarda (Berk. & Broome) G.W. Martin. Two new species, Alwisia morula and A. repens, are described based on material collected respectively in Costa Rica and Australia. Both new species lack a capillitium and possess individually stalked subspherical sporothecae. Alwisia repens differs from A. morula by its procumbent stalks and iridescent peridium. A comparison of 83 sequences of species in the genera Lycogala, Reticularia and Tubifera with a recent two-gene phylogeny of the bright-spored myxomycetes resulted in a similar topology of both Bayesian and maximum likelihood trees and placed A. bombarda, A. morula and A. repens in one well delimited clade within Reticulariaceae. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  13. [Resupinate basidiomycetes from Costa Rica. Myxariaceae s. Jülich, Sebacinaceae Wells & Oberw., and Tremellodendropsidaceae Jülich].

    PubMed

    Kisimova-Horovitz, L; Oberwinkler, F; Gómez, L D

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen representatives of Myxariaceae sensu Jülich: Heterochaetella brachyspora (Bourdot & Galzin) Luck-Allen, Myxarium atratum (Peck) Ginns & Lefebvre, M. granulum Hauersl., M. laccatum (Bourdot & Galzin) Reid, M. mesomorphum (Bourdot & Galzin) Haursl., M. mesonucleatum Kisim., Oberw. & L.D. Gómez nov. sp., M. subsphaerosporum Kisim., Oberw. & L.D. Gómez nov. sp., Protodontia subgelatinosa (Karst.) Pilát; Pseudohydum gelatinosum (Fr.) P. Karst., P. gelatinosum var. paucidentata Lowy; one species of Sebacinaceae, Efibulobasidium albescens (Sacc. & Malbr.) K. Wells; and the Tremellodrendropisidaceae Tremellodendropsis flagelliformis (Berk.) Crawford var.ovalispora Crawford, are reported or described from Costa Rica. The corticioid Cystidiodontia artocreas (Berk & Curt. ex Cooke) Hjortstam is also reported from Costa Rica.

  14. Progress in the development of phase-sensitive neutron reflectometry methods.

    PubMed

    Majkrzak, C F; Berk, N F; Kienzle, P; Perez-Salas, U

    2009-04-07

    It has been a number of years since phase-sensitive specular neutron reflectometry (PSNR) methods employing reference layers were first introduced to help remove the ambiguity inherent in the reconstruction of scattering length density (SLD) depth profiles (Majkrzak, C. F.; Berk, N. F. Physica B 2003, 336, 27) from specular reflectivity measurements. Although a number of scientific applications of PSNR techniques have now been successfully realized (Majkrzak, C. F.; Berk, N. F.; Perez-Salas, U. A. Langmuir 2003, 19, 7796 and references therein), in certain cases practical difficulties remain. In this article, we describe possible solutions to two specific problems: (1) the need for explicit, detailed knowledge of the SLD profile of a given reference layer of finite thickness; and (2) for a reference layer of finite thickness in which only two density variations are possible, how to identify which of two mathematical solutions corresponds to the true physical structure.

  15. Contribution to the knowledge of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina. Southernmost record in the world.

    PubMed

    Manfrino, Romina G; González, Alda; Barneche, Jorge; Tornesello Galván, Julieta; Hywell-Jones, Nigel; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2017-03-23

    The aim of this study was to identify entomopathogenic fungi infecting spiders (Araneae) in a protected area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The Araneae species identified was Stenoterommata platensis. The pathogens identified were Lecanicillium aphanocladii Zare & W. Gams, Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel Jones & Samson and Ophiocordyceps caloceroides (Berk & M.A. Curtis). This study constitutes the southernmost records in the world and contributes to expanding the knowledge of the biodiversity of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina.

  16. The filters for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer - Calibration and lifetesting results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, P. W.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gibson, J.; Hull, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the transmission calibrations of the seven sets of flight integration filters for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite are presented. The Berkely EUV Calibration Facility was used to determine absolute transmissions over six orders of magnitue at 28 wavelengths. A lifetesting program designed to monitor changes in the transmission and mechanical properties of the EUVE filters over the lifetime of the mission is described.

  17. International Conference on Curves and Surfaces (4th), Saint-Malo, France, 1-7 July 1999. Proceedings, Volume 1. Curve and Surface Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    cerca. unontreal. cal JEREMY LEVESLEY (**247,**291), Mathematics & Computer Science Dept., University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LEI 7RH...JAMES A. SETHIAN (* 193), Department of Mathematics, and Lawrence Berke- ley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94 720, USA...at his own expense; the Society’s funds had been depleted by the production of a Historia Piscium (History of Fishes) that failed to become a best

  18. Cryptographic Techniques for Privacy Preserving Identity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-13

    Cryptographic Techniques for Privacy Preserving Identity John Bethencourt Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...AND ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Berkely,Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences ,Berkeley,CA,94720 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Copyright © 2011, by the author(s). All rights reserved. Permission to make digital or

  19. Guidelines for Managing Vegetation on Earth-Covered Magazines Within the U.S. Army Materiel Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Mow grasses near end of periods of rapid niques are used to reduce overall long- growth. term costs. * Mow wildflowers in the fall. • Allows a...ciety of Agronomy. Bradshaw, A.D. and M.J. Chadwich (1980) The Restoration of Land. Berkeley, California : Univer- sity of California Press. Brady, N.C... California , Berke- ley, Division of Agricultural Sciences. Claridge, EB. and AM. Mirza (1981) Erosion control along transportation routes in northern cli

  20. Behavioral-Based Predictors of Workplace Violence in the Army STARRS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Springer; 2010. 34. Draper NR, Smith H. Applied Regression Analysis. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 1981. 35. Berk RA. Regression Analysis: A... John Snow Inc, Kaiser Permanente, Lake Nona Institute, Matria Inc, Mensante, Merck & Co Inc, Ortho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, Pfizer Inc...Health, the US Department of the Army, or the US Department of Defense. Additional Contributions: John Mann, MD, Maria Oquendo, MD, Barbara Stanley

  1. Endlessly Circulating Messages in IEEE 1588-2008 Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-13

    engine. A. The Ptolemy II Simulation Ptolemy II is a general actor model based simulation engine developed at the University of California at Berke...ley [7]. Ptolemy allows simulations incorporating different models of computation such as continuous, discrete event, and synchronous reactive. In...a letter, i.e., A, B, C, and D. The number in the upper left corner of each icon is the clockIdentity. • The DE Director: The Ptolemy II component

  2. Sensitization of C-fiber nociceptors in mice with sickle cell disease is decreased by local inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uhelski, Megan L; Gupta, Kalpna; Simone, Donald A

    2017-09-01

    Chronic pain and hyperalgesia, as well as pain resulting from episodes of vaso-occlusion, are characteristic features of sickle cell disease (SCD) and are difficult to treat. Since there is growing evidence that increasing local levels of endocannabinoids can decrease hyperalgesia, we examined the effects of URB597, a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, which blocks the hydrolysis of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, on hyperalgesia and sensitization of cutaneous nociceptors in a humanized mouse model of SCD. Using homozygous HbSS-BERK sickle mice, we determined the effects of URB597 on mechanical hyperalgesia and on sensitization of C-fiber nociceptors in vivo. Intraplantar administration of URB597 (10 μg in 10 μL) decreased the frequency of withdrawal responses evoked by a von Frey monofilament (3.9 mN bending force) applied to the plantar hind paw. This was blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 but not by the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630. Also, URB597 decreased hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK/CB2R sickle mice, further confirming the role of CB1 receptors in the effects produced by URB597. Electrophysiological recordings were made from primary afferent fibers of the tibial nerve in anesthetized mice. The proportion of Aδ- and C-fiber nociceptors that exhibited spontaneous activity and responses of C-fibers to mechanical and thermal stimuli were greater in HbSS-BERK sickle mice as compared to control HbAA-BERK mice. Spontaneous activity and evoked responses of nociceptors were decreased by URB597 via CB1 receptors. It is suggested that enhanced endocannabinoid activity in the periphery may be beneficial in alleviating chronic pain associated with SCD.

  3. Tolerance of Loblolly Pines to Fusiform Rust

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Walkinshaw; James P. Barnett

    1995-01-01

    Loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) that were 8 to 17 yr old tolerated one to three fusiform rust (Cronartium quercuum [Berk.] Miyabe ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme) galls in their stems.Families with four or more galls in their stems lost 2.5% or more of the trees by age 17.In living trees with less than four stem galls, diameter growth was comparable to...

  4. Evaluation of Sun Glint Correction Algorithms for High-Spatial Resolution Hyperspectral Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY Chad I. Miller Civilian, Department of the Navy B.S., Humboldt State University, 2003 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the...75 LIST OF REFERENCES Berk, Alexander , Lawrence S. Bernstein, and David C. Robertson. MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for...Introductory Remote Sensing - Principles and Concepts. London, U.K.: Routledge, 2000. Goetz, Alexander F. H., Gregg Vane, Jerry E. Solomon, and Barrett N

  5. Modeling Information Quality Expectation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Swarm Sensor Databases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    the theoretical world . Because of this, some assumptions need to be made about the capabilities of UAV swarms as operational... the past 15 years, the concept of using swarming technology in the military world has taken hold and become a major research thrust. By harnessing the ...plotting package from the Ptolemy II project originating at the University of California at Berkely [3]. Ptolemy II is a set of

  6. Enterprise Information Lifecycle Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    String repoUID) and added to the adapter map. Currently only Berkeley Repositories are supported via the Berke- ley Repository Adapter...Figure 24. Example Gaussian membership functions Usage: gauss mean stdev FUZZIFY inVar5 TERM poor := gauss 2 2; TERM good := gauss 5 2; TERM...excellent := gauss 8 2; END_FUZZIFY Generalized bell Figure 25. Example generalized bell membership functions Approved for Public Release

  7. Effects of Climate Change on Regional Crop Production in Eastern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S. T.; Mangan, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Regional climate changes can significantly alter crop yields for agriculturally important areas. Berks County, PA, is an agrarian community whose crop production is typical of southeastern Pennsylvania, with corn as a major crop. Mean annual temperatures in Pennsylvania are predicted to increase by 4 degrees C and precipitation is expected to increase 5% by 2100. We examined changes in 20th Century Berks County crop yields, particularly corn, in response to yearly variations in temperature and precipitation. Crop yields for corn are predicted by models to increase up to a 29 degrees C threshold, beyond which yields will significantly decrease. This study quantifies the effects of recent climate change on Berks County crop production and predicts potential changes for the future. It is important to consider regional climate change effects if we are to fully understand the impacts of global change on food crop production. This study also incorporates anecdotal data from farmers to note their perceptions of crop productivity as related to environmental changes and to determine other factors that may affect farming practices and crop yields.

  8. Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Eleni; Aguiar, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Caio César; Bonfá, Maricy Raquel B.; da Silva, Roberto; Boscolo, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Wood rotting Basidiomycetes collected in the “Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista”, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, concerning Aphyllophorales order and identified as Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 and Phellinus rimosus SXS47 were tested for ligninases production by solid state fermentation (SSF) using wheat bran or rice straw as culture media. C. byrsina produced the highest laccase (200 U mL-1) and Lentinus sp produced the highest activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) (7 and 8 U mL-1, respectively), when cultivated on wheat bran. The effect of N addition on enzyme production was studied in medium containing rice straw and the data showed an increase of 3 up to 4-fold in the laccase production compared to that obtained in SSF on wheat bran. The laccases presented optimum pH at 3.0-3.5 and were stable at neutral pH values. Optimum pH for MnP and LiP activities was at 3.5 and between 4.5 and 6.0, respectively. All the strains produced laccase with optimum activities between 55-60ºC while the peroxidases presented maximum activity at temperatures of 30 to 55ºC. The crude enzymes promoted decolorization of chemically different dyes with around 70% of decolorization of RBBR and cybacron blue 3GA in 6h of treatment. The data indicated that enzymes from these basidiomycetes strains are able to decolorize synthetic dyes. PMID:24031314

  9. Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eleni; Aguiar, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Caio César; Bonfá, Maricy Raquel B; da Silva, Roberto; Boscolo, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Wood rotting Basidiomycetes collected in the "Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista", São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, concerning Aphyllophorales order and identified as Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 and Phellinus rimosus SXS47 were tested for ligninases production by solid state fermentation (SSF) using wheat bran or rice straw as culture media. C. byrsina produced the highest laccase (200 U mL(-1)) and Lentinus sp produced the highest activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) (7 and 8 U mL(-1), respectively), when cultivated on wheat bran. The effect of N addition on enzyme production was studied in medium containing rice straw and the data showed an increase of 3 up to 4-fold in the laccase production compared to that obtained in SSF on wheat bran. The laccases presented optimum pH at 3.0-3.5 and were stable at neutral pH values. Optimum pH for MnP and LiP activities was at 3.5 and between 4.5 and 6.0, respectively. All the strains produced laccase with optimum activities between 55-60ºC while the peroxidases presented maximum activity at temperatures of 30 to 55ºC. The crude enzymes promoted decolorization of chemically different dyes with around 70% of decolorization of RBBR and cybacron blue 3GA in 6h of treatment. The data indicated that enzymes from these basidiomycetes strains are able to decolorize synthetic dyes.

  10. Extracellular oxidases of the lignin-degrading fungus Panus tigrinus.

    PubMed

    Cadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykyan, N A; Samuilov, V D

    2005-06-01

    Two extracellular oxidases (laccases) were isolated from the extracellular fluid of the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus cultivated in low-nitrogen medium supplemented with birch sawdust. The enzymes were purified by successive chromatography on columns with TEAE-cellulose and DEAE-Toyopearl 650M. Both oxidases catalyze oxidation of pyrocatechol and ABTS. Moreover, oxidase 1 also catalyzes oxidation of guaiacol, o-phenylenediamine, and syringaldazine. The enzymes have identical pH (7.0) and temperature (60-65 degrees C) optimums. Absorption spectra of the oxidases differ from the spectra of typical "blue" laccases and are similar to the spectrum of yellow oxidase.

  11. Degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin pesticides by selected fungi cultures.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A P; Serrano, C; Pires, T; Mestrinho, E; Dias, L; Teixeira, D Martins; Caldeira, A T

    2012-10-01

    Contamination of waters by xenobiotic compounds such as pesticides presents a serious environmental problem with substantial levels of pesticides now contaminating European water resources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus oryzae, Lentinula edodes, Penicillium brevicompactum and Lecanicillium saksenae, for the biodegradation of the pesticides terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. These pesticides are common soil and water contaminants and terbuthylazine is considered the most persistent triazine herbicide in surface environments. P. brevicompactum and L. saksenae were achieved by enrichment, isolation and screening of fungi capable to metabolize the pesticides studied. The isolates were obtained from two pesticide-primed materials (soil and biomixture). Despite the relatively high persistence of terbuthylazine, the results obtained in this work showed that the fungi species studied have a high capability of biotransformation of this xenobiotic, comparatively the results obtained in other similar studies. The highest removal percentage of terbuthylazine from liquid medium was achieved with A. oryzae (~80%), although the major biodegradation has been reached with P. brevicompactum. The higher ability of P. brevicompactum to metabolize terbuthylazine was presumably acquired through chronic exposure to contamination with the herbicide. L. saksenae could remove 99.5% of the available pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. L. edodes proved to be a fungus with a high potential for biodegradation of pesticides, especially difenoconazole and pendimethalin. Furthermore, the metabolite desethyl-terbuthylazine was detected in L. edodes liquid culture medium, indicating terbuthylazine biodegradation by this fungus. The fungi strains investigated could prove to be valuable as active pesticide-degrading microorganisms, increasing the efficiency of biopurification systems containing

  12. Medicinal uses of mushrooms in Nigeria: towards full and sustainable exploitation.

    PubMed

    Oyetayo, Olusegun V

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been appreciated as sources of food nutrients and pharmacologically important compounds useful in medicine. Yet not all the medicinal properties of mushrooms have been exploited. The above statement is more pertinent to mushrooms that are indigenous to Nigeria. There are inadequate data on the identity and medicinal properties of these wild mushrooms. Information on the ethnomedicinal uses of some mushrooms such as Pleurotus tuber-regium used for headache, stomach pain fever, cold, constipation; Lentinus squarullosus for mumps, heart diseases; Termitomyces microcarpus for gonorrhea; Calvatia cyathiformis for leucorrhea, barreness; Ganoderma lucidum for treating arthritis, neoplasia; G. resinaceum used for hyperglycemia, liver diseases (hepatoprotector); G. applanatum used as antioxidant and for diabetes had been gathered through survey. The above information is mostly obtained from traditional herbalists who in most cases will not disclose their preparation compositions. A lot of these mushrooms are obtained only in the wild. Scientific documents of the identities and medicinal properties are still scanty. Preliminary studies on some species of Temitomyces, Lenzites and Lentinus species showed that they possess appreciable antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Moreover, molecular characterization also reveals that they are not 100% homologous with existing sequences under the same name in GenBank. It is therefore pertinent that well structured studies on their ecology, identification and medicinal uses be carried out. This will make the full exploitation of the medicinal potentials of mushrooms indigenous to Nigeria realizable.

  13. Immunomodulating compounds in Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are distinguished as important food containing immunomodulating and anticancer agents. These compounds belong mostly to polysaccharides especially β-d-glucans. Among them, β-1,3-glucan with side chain β-1,6-glucose residues have more important roles in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In this review, we have introduced polysaccharide mainly from Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei Murill with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In addition, the mechanism of activation of immune response and signal cascade are also reviewed. PMID:23704809

  14. Effective Hazardous Waste Management: The Newest DoD Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-05

    U.S. Military," The Defense Monitor, No. 6, 1989, p. 1. 2. William H. Parker III, "Environment Moves to the Front Burner ," Defense, March/April 1990, p...21. 3. Richard L. Berke, "Oratory of Environmentalism Becomes the Sound of Politics," The New York Times (New York), 17 April 1990, pp. Al & B10 . 4...Parker, William H. III. "Environment Moves to the Front Burner ." Defense, March/April 1990, pp. 21-32. Pollack, Stephanie, and Shulman, Seth. "The

  15. Reiterated sequences within the intron of an immediate-early gene of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, R J; Umene, K; Enquist, L W

    1981-01-01

    We describe the nucleotide sequence of a herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA fragment containing the intron of the immediate-early mRNA-5 (IE mRNA-5) gene. The location of the intron within this fragment was determined by a Berk & Sharp nuclease S1 protection analysis, and by cloning and sequencing cDNA containing sequences overlapping t he IE mRNA-5 splice point. We found that the 149 base pair (bp) intron contained four copies of an identical 23 bp GC rich tandem repeat followed by a further reiteration consisting of the first 15 bp only. Images PMID:6272198

  16. Individual Differences in Dual Task Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-10

    34 june eo . 1961 Pagc 2 Navy Navy Dr William Montague 1 Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Navy Personnel R&D Center Research Development...751 iniversity of Western Australia Portland, OR 97207 4edlands W.A. 6009 kUSTRALIA ’%A.khf/ WA.M3nNUL us dune eo . )yo Page 10 Non Govt Non Govt MR...Fred Reif Cambridge, MA 02138 SESAME c/o Physics Department 1 Dr. Robert Smith University of California Department of Computer Science Berkely, CA

  17. [Determination of illudin S in Omphalotus guepiniformis and foods that caused food poisoning by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Yoshimasa; Itou, Takeshi

    2009-08-01

    A simple method was developed for determination of illudin S in fungi (Omphalotus guepiniformis: poisonous mushroom) and a food that caused food poisoning, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Illudin S in fungi and the food that caused food poisoning was extracted with methanol and then cleaned up with an Oasis HLB cartridge. LC separation was performed with an octadecylated silica column (Inertsil ODS-3, 2.1 mm i.d. x 150 mm) and a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid-methanol (7 : 3) at a flow rate 0.2 mL/min. Mass spectral acquisition was performed in the positive mode and illudin S was targeted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with electrospray ionization (ESI). The recoveries of illudin S were 84-94% from edible fungi (Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Panellus serotinus). The detection limits of illudin S in the fungi (L. edodes, P. ostreatus and P. serotinus) were 0.08-0.10 microg/g respectively. Illudin S was detected in the food that caused food poisoning at the level of 2.0 and 15.1 microg/g in the soup and fungi, respectively. The recovery of illudin S from a mushroom soup (cooked at 100 degrees C for 10 min) sample which simulated food poisoning was 74.8%. These results indicate that the developed method is suitable for the determination of illudin S in fungi (O. guepiniformis) and foods that caused food poisoning.

  18. Mushroom polysaccharides and lipids synthesized in liquid agitated and static cultures. Part I: screening various mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kapoti, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

    2012-06-01

    The effect of four synthetic media containing glucose (initial concentration 30 g l(-1)) on mycelial growth, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and cellular lipids production was examined in 11 mushroom species after 12 and 16 days of culture in static- and shake-flasks. Fatty acid analysis of cellular lipids produced was also performed. Agitation had a positive effect on biomass production, glucose consumption and lipid biosynthesis. Media that favoured the production of biomass were not suitable for EPS biosynthesis and vice versa. Biomass values varied from ~1.0 g l(-1) (Lentinula edodes) to ~19 g l(-1) (Pleurotus ostreatus), while the highest EPS quantity achieved ranged between 1.6 and 1.8 g l(-1) (for Ganoderma lucidum and L. edodes, respectively). Quantities of total cellular lipids varied between 2.5 and 18.5 % w/w, in dry mycelial mass for the fungi tested. Lipid in dry weight values were influenced by the medium composition. Cellular lipids presented noticeable quantities of poly-unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid. Compared to most of the mushrooms tested, lipids of Volvariella volvacea were more saturated. The ability of several mushroom species of our study to produce in notable quantities the above-mentioned added-value compounds renders these fungi worthy for further investigations.

  19. Optimizing edible fungal growth and biodegradation of inedible crop residues using various cropping methods.

    PubMed

    Nyochembeng, Leopold M; Beyl, Caula A; Pacumbaba, R P

    2008-09-01

    Long-term manned space flights to Mars require the development of an advanced life support (ALS) ecosystem including efficient food crop production, processing and recycling waste products thereof. Using edible white rot fungi (EWRF) to achieve effective biomass transformation in ALS requires optimal and rapid biodegradative activity on lignocellulosic wastes. We investigated the mycelial growth of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus on processed residues of various crops under various cropping patterns. In single cropping, mycelial growth and fruiting in all strains were significantly repressed on sweet potato and basil. However, growth of the strains was improved when sweet potato and basil residues were paired with rice or wheat straw. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus) strains were better than shiitake (L. edodes) strains under single, paired, and mixed cropping patterns. Mixed cropping further eliminated the inherent inhibitory effect of sweet potato, basil, or lettuce on fungal growth. Co-cropping fungal species had a synergistic effect on rate of fungal growth, substrate colonization, and fruiting. Use of efficient cropping methods may enhance fungal growth, fruiting, biodegradation of crop residues, and efficiency of biomass recycling.

  20. Detection limit of Clostridium botulinum spores in dried mushroom samples sourced from China.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Pradeep K; Plowman, June; Aldus, Clare F; Xing, Zengtao; Zhao, Yong; Peck, Michael W

    2013-08-16

    A survey of dried mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) and Auricularia auricula (Wood Ear)) sourced from China was carried out to determine the natural contamination of these mushrooms with spores of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and non-proteolytic C. botulinum. The mushrooms were collected from supermarkets and retailers in 21 cities in China during October 2008. Spore loads of C. botulinum in mushrooms have a degree of uncertainty and variability and this study contributes valuable data for determining prevalence of spores of C. botulinum in mushrooms. An optimized detection protocol that combined selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR was used to test for spores of proteolytic and non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Detection limits were calculated, using a maximum likelihood protocol, from mushroom samples inoculated with defined numbers of spores of proteolytic C. botulinum or non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Based on the maximum likelihood detection limit, it is estimated that dried mushroom A. auricula contained <550spores/kg of proteolytic C. botulinum, and <350spores/kg of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Dried L. edodes contained <1500spores/kg of proteolytic C. botulinum and it was not possible to determine reliable detection limits for spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum using the current detection protocol.

  1. In vitro antitumor activity of Latcripin-15 regulator of chromosome condensation 1 domain protein

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Xingyun; Liu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Jing; Ning, Anhong; Huang, Min; Zhong, Mintao

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most significant health problems worldwide and thus the development of novel therapeutic agents with fewer side effects is required. The present study investigated the in vitro anticancer effects of a newly isolated fungal protein. In this study, Latcripin-15 (LP-15) regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) domain protein, which is obtained from the Lentinula edodes C91-3 fungal strain, was identified, cloned, expressed, purified and re-folded to assess the in vitro antitumor activity of the protein. LP-15 RCC1 full-length cDNA was isolated from Lentinula edodes using 3′ and 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends and then cloned, expressed, purified and re-folded in vitro. In addition, the effects of the isolated LP-15 RCC1 protein's functional domain on the viability and apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining. The LP-15 RCC1 functional domain protein was successfully expressed, purified and re-folded in vitro. Treatment with the LP-15 RCC1 functional domain protein significantly reduced tumor cell viability and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The results of the present study indicate that the LP-15 RCC1 functional domain requires further investigation as a novel therapeutic agent for cancer therapy. PMID:27899975

  2. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  3. Analysis of particles produced during airbag deployment by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and their deposition on surrounding surfaces: a mid-research summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, J. Matney

    2011-06-01

    Airbags can be encountered in forensic work when investigating a car crash and are typically constructed with primerlike material to begin the deployment apparatus. The mechanisms of airbag deployment can produce particles ideal for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. A recent study published by Berk studied airbags with vents and showed that it is possible for particles generated from the deployment of these airbags to deposit on surfaces in the vehicle as the airbags deflate.1 Another paper published by Berk reported particles similar in morphology and composition to primer gunshot residue (GSR) are produced by side impact airbags.2 This paper's aim will be to show mid-point results of a study still in progress in which non-vented airbags were analyzed to determine if they exhibited the same particle depositing features as their vented airbag counterparts. Further investigation in this study is being performed to find more airbags which produce primer gunshot residue-like particles containing lead, barium, and antimony from airbag deployment. To date, the study has resulted in (1) non-vented airbags exhibiting deposition of particles suitable for SEM/EDS analysis and (2) no gunshot residue-like particles being detected from the airbag residues studied thus far.

  4. Sensitization of nociceptive spinal neurons contributes to pain in a transgenic model of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Rajput, Sugandha; Gupta, Kalpna; Simone, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pain is a major characteristic feature of sickle cell disease (SCD). The refractory nature of pain and the development of chronic pain syndromes in many patients with SCD suggest that central neural mechanisms contribute to pain in this disease. We used HbSS-BERK sickle mice, which show chronic features of pain similar to those observed in SCD, and determined whether sensitization of nociceptive neurons in the spinal cord contributes to pain and hyperalgesia in SCD. Electrophysiological recordings of action potential activity were obtained from single identified dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord in anesthetized mice. Compared with control HbAA-BERK mice, nociceptive dorsal horn neurons in sickle mice exhibited enhanced excitability as evidenced by enlarged receptive fields, increased rate of spontaneous activity, lower mechanical thresholds, enhanced responses to mechanical stimuli, and prolonged afterdischarges following mechanical stimulation. These changes were accompanied by increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the spinal cord that are known to contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p44/p42 extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38. These findings demonstrate that central sensitization contributes to pain in SCD.

  5. Intraorbital foreign bodies--5 own cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Jarosław; Dziubdziela, Włodzimierz; Gierek, Tatiana; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Mrukwa-Kominek, Ewa; Niedzielska, Iwona; Paluch, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Five patients were surgically treated for intraorbital foreign body: a 14-year-old girl had a door glass splinter, a 23-year-old man a metallic foreign body--gunshot pellet, a 55-year-old man a splinter from a metallic bar, a 48-year-old patient the splinters of circular saw and 61-year-old man with shot. Two foreign bodies were removed using the Krönlein-Reese-Berk lateral orbitotomy, two others by Sewell medial orbitotomy and one with superior orbitotomy of Dandy-Naffziger. Radiographs and CT scans were used to identify and localize intraorbital foreign bodies. In one case we found coexistence foreign body (shot) and tumor--inflammation pseudotumor of the orbita. It is possible, that in this case long-time occupy foreign body in the orbita was a cause of that tumor. All foreign bodies were successfully removed, and postoperative course was uneventful. The Krönlein-Reese-Berk orbitotomy provides a satisfactory access to the lateral and posterior orbit, which is of particular importance in the case of a deeply penetrating foreign body (metallic or glass). Surgical removal of intraorbital foreign bodies is a classic example of an interdisciplinary therapeutic approach. Best outcome is usually a result of a team of an ophtalmologist, ENT surgeon, maxillary surgeon and possibly also neurosurgeon performing the operation.

  6. Incorporated nematocysts in Aeolidiella stephanieae (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Aeolidoidea) mature by acidification shown by the pH sensitive fluorescing alkaloid Ageladine A.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Dana; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Wägele, Heike

    2012-11-01

    The sequestration of nematocysts (a special group of cnidocysts) from cnidarian prey with subsequent use in defence is described for few metazoan phyla. Members of the taxon Aeolidoidea (Nudibranchia, Gastropoda) are well-known for this. Questions regarding the reasons some nematocysts do not discharge when the gastropod feeds and how these same nematocysts can be transported along the digestive tract into specialized morphological structures called cnidosacs, remain unanswered. Within the cnidosac, nematocysts are incorporated in cells and finally be used for defence against predators. The most plausible explanation for this phenomenon suggests there are immature and therefore non-functional nematocysts in the food. A recent study by Berking and Herrmann (2005) on cnidarians suggested that the nematocysts mature by acidification via proton transfer into the nematocyst capsule. According to this hypothesis only immature nematocysts are transported into the cnidosac where they are then made functional through an accumulation of protons. In this study we present a fluorescence staining method that tests the hypothesis by Berking and Herrmann (2005) and detects changes in the pH values of incorporated nematocysts, interpreted as changes in maturation stages. This marker, the fluorescent dye Ageladine A, stains nematocyst capsules according to their pH values. With Ageladine A we were able to show that kleptocnides indeed change their pH value after incorporation into the aeolidoidean cnidosac. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitization of nociceptive spinal neurons contributes to pain in a transgenic model of sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Rajput, Sugandha; Gupta, Kalpna; Simone, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major characteristic feature of sickle cell disease (SCD). The refractory nature of pain and the development of chronic pain syndromes in many patients with SCD suggest that central neural mechanisms contribute to pain in this disease. We used HbSS-BERK sickle mice, which show chronic features of pain similar to those observed in SCD, and determined whether sensitization of nociceptive neurons in the spinal cord contributes to pain and hyperalgesia in SCD. Electrophysiological recordings of action potential activity were obtained from single, identified dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord in anesthetized mice. Compared to control HbAA-BERK mice, nociceptive dorsal horn neurons in sickle mice exhibited enhanced excitability as evidenced by enlarged receptive fields, increased rate of spontaneous activity, lower mechanical thresholds, enhanced responses to mechanical stimuli, and prolonged after-discharges following mechanical stimulation. These changes were accompanied by increased phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the spinal cord that are known to contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p44/p42 extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38. These findings demonstrate that central sensitization contributes to pain in SCD. PMID:25630029

  8. Design, synthesis, biological activities, and 3D-QSAR of new N,N'-diacylhydrazines containing 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propane moiety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Hai; Pan, Li; Ma, Yi; Weng, Jian-Quan; Tan, Cheng-Xia; Li, Yong-Hong; Shi, Yan-Xia; Li, Bao-Ju; Li, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-10-01

    A series of new N,N'-diacylhydrazine derivatives were synthesized efficiently under microwave irradiation. Their structures were characterized by (1) H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. Various biological activities of these compounds were tested. Most of them exhibited higher herbicidal activities against dicotyledonous weeds than monocotyledonous weeds. In addition, favorable in vivo fungicidal activities were also found of these compounds against Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum(Lib.)de Bary, Erysiphe cichoracearum, and Colletotrichum orbiculare (Berk aLMont) Arx. All compounds displayed excellent plant growth regulatory activities: 100% inhibition was achieved against the radicle growth of cucumber. To further investigate the structure-activity relationship, comparative molecular field analysis was performed on the basis of herbicidal activity data, resulting in a statistically reliable model with good predictive power (r(2) = 0.913, q(2) =0.556). Based on the calculation, five additional novel compounds were designed and synthesized. Satisfyingly, compound 4u displayed excellent herbicidal activity (94.7%) at 1500 g/ha, although it is less active than 2,4-D. Meanwhile, this compound also exhibited good fungicidal activity against C. orbiculare (Berk aLMont) Arx (82.16%). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Free radical scavenging and antimicrobial properties of extracts of wild mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Oyetayo, V.O.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of extracts obtained from four wild mushrooms, Termitomyces clypeatus (TCE), Termitomyces robustus (TRE), Lentinus subnudus (LSE) and Lenzites species (LZE) collected in Nigeria were investigated. LSE and LZE displayed good scavenging activity against 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferrous ion radicals at concentration of 2 mg/mL. However, TRE and TCE exhibited better superoxide anion scavenging effect at 2 mg/mL. All extracts (TCE, TRE, LSE and LZE) had comparable scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals as butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) used as control. Moreover, extracts from the wild mushrooms were able to inhibit the growth of all indicator organisms at concentrations between 12.5 mg/mL to 100 mg/mL. LSE and LZE, however, showed better antimicrobial effect on the indicator organisms. The results suggest that extracts obtained from the four wild mushrooms may serve as sources of new bioactive compounds with effective antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. PMID:24031376

  10. Unliganded and substrate bound structures of the cellooligosaccharide active lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase LsAA9A at low pH.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Kristian E H; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Tandrup, Tobias; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2017-03-24

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have been found to be key components in microbial (bacterial and fungal) degradation of biomass. They are copper metalloenzymes that degrade polysaccharides oxidatively and act in synergy with glycoside hydrolases. Recently crystallographic studies carried out at pH 5.5 of the LPMO from Lentinus similis belonging to the fungal LPMO family AA9 have provided the first atomic resolution view of substrate-LPMO interactions. The LsAA9A structure presented here determined at pH 3.5 shows significant disorder of the active site in the absence of substrate ligand. Furthermore some differences are also observed in regards to substrate (cellohexaose) binding, although the major interaction with the N-terminal histidine remains unchanged.

  11. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  13. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  14. Easy preparation of dietary fiber with the high water-holding capacity from food sources.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eiji; Murakami, Kazumi; Kurita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    Dietary fibers were prepared as alkali- and acid-insoluble fractions with chemical phosphorylation from Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius), defatted soybean (Glycine max), and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes). The dietary fiber fractions treated with alkaline solution containing sodium metaphosphate had the lower protein content and higher total dietary fiber content than those of the preparations without phosphorylation. Alkaline extraction followed by phosphorylation led to a 1.5-fold increase in the water holding capacity of dietary fiber compared with no phosphorylation, whereas the binding capacity to bile acids of dietary fiber was almost the same. The alkali- and acid-insoluble extraction with phosphorylation provided an efficient preparation of water-insoluble dietary fiber with high-water holding capacity from various food sources.

  15. Selection of strains for shiitake production in axenic substrate.

    PubMed

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Maciel, William Pereira; Marques, Simone Cristina; da Silveira E Santos, Débora Marques; Rinker, Danny Lee; Dias, Eustáquio Souza

    2016-10-01

    Shiitake mushroom consumption is increasing in Brazil. In addition to the implementation of new production methods, it is also important to increase productivity, quality and reduce production costs. In this study, six commercial Lentinula edodes strains were characterized for genetic diversity (rep-PCR analysis) and mushroom production (yield, number and weight of individual mushrooms) using different substrates and cultural conditions. All strains showed genetic differences by repetitive element palindromic based-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The richest substrate resulted in the greatest production under both environmental conditions. Strains LE4 and LE6 produced the majority of their mushrooms earlier than the other strains. The highest number of mushrooms was observed in the LE6 strain while the highest weights of individual mushrooms were observed in the LE4 strain. Controlled environmental conditions resulted in superior production for all strains, except for LE4, which had empirically greater yield in the semi-controlled environmental condition.

  16. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  17. Characterization of phytase activity from cultivated edible mushrooms and their production substrates.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Patrick D; Royse, Daniel J

    2004-12-15

    Phytase is used commercially to maximize phytic acid degradation and to decrease phosphorus levels in poultry and swine manure. To determine phytase content in edible mushrooms, basidiomata of Agaricus bisporus and three specialty mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus cornucopiae) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were surveyed. Enzyme activity ranged from 0.046 to 0.074 unit/g of tissue for four A. bisporus types (closed and open whites and closed and open browns) grown at The Pennsylvania State University's Mushroom Test Demonstration Facility (MTDF). The addition of various nutrient supplements to phase II mushroom production substrate did not alter phytase activity in A. bisporus. Portabella mushrooms (open brown) obtained from a commercial farm had significantly higher levels of phytase activity (0.211 unit/g of tissue) compared to A. bisporus grown at the MTDF. Of the specialty mushrooms surveyed, maitake (G. frondosa) had 20% higher phytase activity (0.287 unit/g of tissue) than commercial portabella mushrooms. The yellow oyster mushroom (P. cornucopiae) ranked second in level of phytase activity (0.213 unit/g of tissue). Shiitake (L. edodes) contained the least amount of phytase in basidiomata (0.107 unit/g of tissue). Post-crop steam treatment (60 degrees C, 24 h) of SMS reduced phytase activity from 0.074 to 0.018 unit/g. Phytase was partially purified from commercially grown portabella basidiomata 314-fold with an estimated molecular mass of 531 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The optimum pH for activity was 5.5, but appreciable phytase activity was observed over the range of pH 5.0-8.0. Partially purified A. bisporus phytase was inactivated following a 10-min incubation at > or =60 degrees C.

  18. A Comparative Accuracy Analysis of Classification Methods in Determination of Cultivated Lands with Spot 5 Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kaya, S.; Alganci, U.; Sertel, E.; Ustundag, B.

    2013-12-01

    A Comparative Accuracy Analysis of Classification Methods in Determination of Cultivated Lands with Spot 5 Satellite Imagery Ugur ALGANCI1, Sinasi KAYA1,2, Elif SERTEL1,2,Berk USTUNDAG3 1 ITU, Center for Satellite Communication and Remote Sensing, 34469, Maslak-Istanbul,Turkey 2 ITU, Department of Geomatics, 34469, Maslak-Istanbul, Turkey 3 ITU, Agricultural and Environmental Informatics Research Center,34469, Maslak-Istanbul,Turkey alganci@itu.edu.tr, kayasina@itu.edu.tr, sertele@itu.edu.tr, berk@berk.tc ABSTRACT Cultivated land determination and their area estimation are important tasks for agricultural management. Derived information is mostly used in agricultural policies and precision agriculture, in specifically; yield estimation, irrigation and fertilization management and farmers declaration verification etc. The use of satellite image in crop type identification and area estimate is common for two decades due to its capability of monitoring large areas, rapid data acquisition and spectral response to crop properties. With launch of high and very high spatial resolution optical satellites in the last decade, such kind of analysis have gained importance as they provide information at big scale. With increasing spatial resolution of satellite images, image classification methods to derive the information form them have become important with increase of the spectral heterogeneity within land objects. In this research, pixel based classification with maximum likelihood algorithm and object based classification with nearest neighbor algorithm were applied to 2012 dated 2.5 m resolution SPOT 5 satellite images in order to investigate the accuracy of these methods in determination of cotton and corn planted lands and their area estimation. Study area was selected in Sanliurfa Province located on Southeastern Turkey that contributes to Turkey's agricultural production in a major way. Classification results were compared in terms of crop type identification using

  19. Chalcogenide Glasses. Part 3. Chalcogenide Glass-Forming Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    Vol. 47, No. 3 (1974) p. 510-513 59. Berkes, J.S. and Myers, M.B., J. Electrochem. Soc,. 118 (1971) p. 1485-1491 60. Platakis, N.S. and Gatos , H.C., J...N.S., Sad-6opan, V. and Gatos , H.C., J. Electrochem. Soc. 116 (1969) p. 1436-1439 63. Flaschen, S.S., Pearson, A.D. and Northover, W.R., J. AppI. Phvs...S.R., J. Appi. Phys. 51(6) (1980) p. 3289-3309 91. Lebedev, E.A. and Rogachev, N.A., Soy . Phys. Semicond. 15(8) (1981) P-876-8 8 0 69 jr

  20. A long-term study of Rattus norvegicus in the London borough of Enfield using baiting returns as an indicator of sewer population levels.

    PubMed Central

    Channon, D.; Cole, M.; Cole, L.

    2000-01-01

    This is a long-term study that investigates the dynamics of a population of Rattus norvegicus (Berk) inhabiting a sewerage system in London. Thirteen years (1986/7-1998/9) of data from sewer baiting records were analysed (a total of 35,478 records). Manholes were baited with the anticoagulant Brodifacoum (0.005%) on a pinhead oatmeal bait base. Time series analysis was conducted on the data set to determine the underlying trend of the data and the population fluctuations about this trend. An exponential curve was found to give an accurate and realistic fit to the data and indicated that the rat population had decreased over the study period. Decomposition analysis indicated a 5-year cycle best described fluctuations around this trend. PMID:11117969

  1. [Modulation of glucocorticoid receptor interaction with non-steroidal drugs].

    PubMed

    Golikov, P P; Nikolaeva, N Iu

    1993-01-01

    The Scatchard analysis of the specific binding of triamcinolone 3H-acetonide (TA-3HA) to Type II glucocorticoid receptors of cytosol from the liver of female Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g has shown that emoxipin at concentrations of 1 and 2 mM and analgin at concentrations of 5 and 10 mM reduce the density of glucocorticoid receptors and the association constant of a hormone-receptor complex. Analgin, 5 mM, increases the dissociation velocity constant of TA-3HA 5 times the effect of unlabeled triamcinolone acetonide. Emoxipin, 1 mM, produces the same effect on the receptor dissociation velocity constant of TA-3HA as the unlabeled triamcinolone acetonide. The Berke analysis has established that emoxipin and analgin reduce glucocorticoid receptor interactions by uncompetitive inhibition.

  2. The host guides morphogenesis and stomatal targeting in the grapevine pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Beate; Riemann, Michael; Büche, Claudia; Kassemeyer, Hanns-Heinz; Nick, Peter

    2002-07-01

    The oomycete grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola Berk. & Curt. Ex de Bary) is a serious pathogen of grapevine and spreads by extremely efficient cycles of asexual propagation. The high efficiency must involve efficient sensing of the host. We therefore analyzed the time course and morphology of the early development of this pathogen in a host system, by infection of leaf discs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Müller-Thurgau), and in a host-free system. Host factors were demonstrated to influence pathogen development in the following ways: (i) the release of zoospores from mature sporangia was accelerated, (ii) the morphogenesis of the germ tube was coordinated, and (iii) the zoospores were targeted to the stomata by factors that depended on stomata closure. The findings show that the early development of P. viticola is regulated, specifically and coordinately, by factors originating from the host plant.

  3. A search for p-mode pulsations in white dwarf stars using the Berkeley Visible Imaging Tube detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Welsh, B. Y.; Koen, C.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kotze, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-speed photometry (resolution 0.1 s) obtained during the commissioning of the Berkely Visible Imaging Tube system on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The observations were an attempt to search for very rapid p-mode oscillations in white dwarf stars and included three DA stars known to be g-mode pulsators (ZZ Cet, HK Cet and AF Pic), one other DA star (WD 1056-384) not known to be variable and one AM Cvn star (HP Lib). No evidence was found for any variations greater than about 1 mmag in amplitude (˜0.1 per cent) at frequencies in excess of 60 mHz (periods <17 s) in any of the target stars, though several previously known g-mode frequencies were recovered.

  4. Validation of criterion-referenced archery cutting scores.

    PubMed

    Ishee, J H; Titlow, L W

    1993-04-01

    This study investigated an empirical method for setting optimal cutting scores for a criterion-referenced archery test. The classification-outcome probabilities and approaches to validity suggested by Berk were utilized. Pretest scores were obtained on 35 uninstructed college-age women on six ends (six arrows each) from 20 yards (18.3 m) after an unrecorded warm-up end. Posttest scores were after 15 weeks of instruction. Score distributions were the primary determinant for accurately classifying students as true mastery and true nonmastery. Accuracy is a function of the amount of overlap between distributions. Using the point at which the distributions overlapped, classification accuracy was estimated. Probabilities associated with 80 points were p(TM) + p(TN) = .83 and p(FM) + p(FN) = .14. Scores above and below 80 points had lower probabilities of classification accuracy. Reliability estimated using Kappa was .59. Statistical validity of the cutting score (phi) was .68.

  5. [The effect of salicylic and jasmonic acids on the activity and range of protective proteins during the infection of wheat by the septoriosis pathogen].

    PubMed

    Iarullina, L G; Kasimova, R I; Burkhanova, G F; Akhatova, A R

    2015-01-01

    The influence of salicylic (SA) and jasmonic (JA) acids as signaling systems mediators on the generation of H2O2 and expression of genes encoding protective proteins was studied in the leaves of wheat Triticum aestivum L. upon infection with the pathogen of septoriosis Septoria nodorum Berk. It was found that presowing treatment of seeds with SA and JA decreased the development of the fungus on the leaves of wheat and had a stimulating effect on the production of H2O2 in the area of infection. An increased expression of genes encoding oxalate oxidase AJ556991.1 and anionic peroxidase TC 151917 was shown in infected tissues with the method of polymerase chain reaction.

  6. New records of Cantharellus species from the northwestern Himalayas of India

    PubMed Central

    Deepika, Kumari; Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Upadhyay, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated several collections of the genus Cantharellus (Cantharellaceae) from the northwestern Himalayas, India, on the basis of morphology and molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships and species limits were investigated by using nuclear ribosomal large subunit sequences (LSU). We recognized 13 species: Cantharellus appalachiensis Petersen, C. cibarius Fries, C. lateritius (Berk) Singer, C. miniatescens Heinem, C. minor Peck, C. pseudoformosus and seven species, C. applanatus sp. nov., C. elongatipes sp. nov., C. fibrillosus sp. nov., C. himalayensis sp. nov., C. indicus sp. nov., C. natarajanii sp. nov., and C. umbonatus sp. nov., as new to science. All these species are described and their taxonomy and ecology are discussed. In addition, a key is provided to all the recognized species. The phylogenetic analysis recovered 10 major supported clades of Cantharellus species. PMID:24587961

  7. Experimental validation of the MODTRAN 5.3 sea surface radiance model using MIRAMER campaign measurements.

    PubMed

    Ross, Vincent; Dion, Denis; St-Germain, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Radiometric images taken in mid-wave and long-wave infrared bands are used as a basis for validating a sea surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) being implemented into MODTRAN 5 (Berk et al. [Proc. SPIE5806, 662 (2005)]). The images were obtained during the MIRAMER campaign that took place in May 2008 in the Mediterranean Sea near Toulon, France. When atmosphere radiances are matched at the horizon to remove possible calibration offsets, the implementation of the BRDF in MODTRAN produces good sea surface radiance agreement, usually within 2% and at worst 4% from off-glint azimuthally averaged measurements. Simulations also compare quite favorably to glint measurements. The observed sea radiance deviations between model and measurements are not systematic, and are well within expected experimental uncertainties. This is largely attributed to proper radiative coupling between the surface and the atmosphere implemented using the DISORT multiple scattering algorithm.

  8. Rust and Thinning Management Effect on Cup Quality and Plant Performance for Two Cultivars of Coffea arabica L.

    PubMed

    Echeverria-Beirute, Fabian; Murray, Seth C; Klein, Patricia; Kerth, Chris; Miller, Rhonda; Bertrand, Benoit

    2017-09-29

    Beverage quality is a complex attribute of coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Genotype (G), environment (E), management (M), postharvest processing, and roasting are all involved. However, little is known about how G × M interactions influence beverage quality. We investigated how yield and coffee leaf rust (CLR) disease (caused by Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br.) management affect cup quality and plant performance, in two coffee cultivars. Sensory and chemical analyses revealed that 10 of 70 attributes and 18 of 154 chemical volatile compounds were significantly affected by G and M. Remarkably, acetaminophen was found for the first time in roasted coffee and in higher concentrations under more stressful conditions. A principal component analysis described 87% of the variation in quality and plant overall performance. This study is a first step in understanding the complexity of the physiological, metabolic, and molecular changes in coffee production, which will be useful for the improvement of coffee cultivars.

  9. The genus Cordyceps: a chemical and pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Zuji; Sun, Wen; Lin, Xiao

    2013-04-01

    Natural remedies are becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. Historically, natural remedies have been shown to present interesting biological and pharmacological activity and are used as chemotherapeutic agents. For centuries Cordyceps, which is a genus of more than 400 species in the family Clavicipitaceae, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. This study highlights the chemistry and pharmacology of Cordyceps, especially Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. and C. militaris (Fr.) L. Information was obtained from Google Scholar and the journal databases PubMed and Scopus.  Many bioactive components of Cordyceps have been extracted, such as cordycepin, cordycepic acid, ergosterol, polysaccharides, nucleosides and peptides. Studies show that Cordyceps and its active principles possess a wide range of pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antihyperglycaemic, antiapoptosis, immunomodulatory, nephroprotective, and hepatoprotective. More research is required to discover the full extent of the activity of Cordyceps. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012. Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Two dimensional (r-theta) transport model for synchrotron radiation of FRC plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qerushi, Artan; Barnes, Dan; TAE Team

    2013-10-01

    A two dimensional (r-theta) transport model has been developed for describing the power loss in FRC reactor plasmas and the transport of energy due to synchrotron radiation as well as the transport of energy due to synchrotron radiation. The transport model uses 1d FRC equilibrium profiles and solves the equation of radiative transfer in two dimensions (r-theta) taking into account the absorption and emission of synchrotron radiation. Relativistic expressions are used for both the absorption and the emission coefficients of synchrotron radiation. The reflection of synchrotron radiation from metal walls is taken into account using the approach of Krajcik. The results of the two-dimensional calculations are compared with simpler 1d calculations, which use an approach developed by Dawson and Berk et al., and 0d calculations which use an approach developed by Trubnikov.

  11. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice by ethyl acetate extract of a polypore fungus, Phellinus rimosus.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Jose, Nayana; Janardhanan, K K

    2002-06-01

    Pretreatment of ethyl acetate extract of Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat protected cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Single dose of the extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) decreased cisplatin induced serum creatinine and urea levels. The cisplatin depleted renal antioxidant defence system, such as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), were restored by the treatment of the extract. The enhanced renal antioxidant defence system prevented cisplatin induced tissue lipid peroxidation. The experimental results suggest that ethyl acetate extract of P. rimosus protected cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity, possibly by enhancing renal antioxidant status. The extract did not interfere with the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin.

  12. Theoretical interpretation of frequency sweeping observations in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, R. G. L.; Dendy, R. O.; Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2005-03-01

    Frequency sweeping (chirping) of high frequency magnetohydrodynamic modes is widely observed in tokamak plasmas. In this paper observations of chirping in neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [A. Sykes, R. J. Akers, L. C. Appel et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)] are considered, and it is shown that these may be interpreted using the Berk-Breizman augmentation of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. This model includes an energetic particle source: it leads not only to a single chirp but also to a series of bursting events. This repetitious behavior is characteristic of the chirping seen in experiments such as MAST. The similarity between features in velocity space and features in frequency space reinforces the theory that hole-clump pair formation is responsible for the observed frequency sweeping.

  13. [The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on the components of pro- and antioxidant systems of wheat and the development of protective reactions in fungal pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Veselova, S V; Nuzhnaia, T V; Maksimov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which inhibits the reception of ethylene, on the following has been studied: hydrogen peroxide generation, oxalate oxidase activity, peroxidase activity, catalase activity, and lignin accumulation in infected leaves of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeds that differ in their resistance to the causative agent of leaf blotch Septoria nodorum Berk. A decrease in the development of leaf blotch in wheat leaves under the influence of 1-MCP was, on one hand, followed by an inhibition of catalase activity; on the other hand, it was accompanied by an increase in oxalate oxidase and peroxidase activity, as well as an accumulation of H2O2 in tissues and lignin in the infected zone. The role of the ethylene reception system in the plants' protective response to infection with a hemibiotrophic pathogen, the causative agent of leaf blotch, is discussed.

  14. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Boer, Frits

    2009-07-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child's temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537-551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children's temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction.

  15. Immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharides from submerged cultured Cordyceps gunnii.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Chen, Jing; Si, Chuan-Ling; Liu, Nian; Lian, Hong-Yu; Ding, Li-Na; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2012-09-01

    The genus Cordyceps (Clavicipitaceae) is a group of entomopathogenic fungi that is widely used as tonic food or invigorant with broad-spectrum medicinal properties in China. Cordyceps gunnii (Berk.)Berk (C. gunnii), is also well known as the Chinese rare caterpillar fungus and has similar pharmacological activities with Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis). Polysaccharides (PS) from various Cordyceps species have demonstrated many interesting biological activities, including antitumor, immunopotentiation, hypoglycemic, and hypocholesterolemic activities. To investigate the effect of C. gunnii PS on the immunostimulatory antitumor function and expression of immune related cytokines in normal, immuno-suppressive, and H22-bearing mice, respectively. C. gunnii PS were extracted with hot water at 80°C for 2 h. Normal, immuno-suppressive, and H22-bearing mice were treated with PS respectively. By detecting the value of macrophage phagocytic index, proliferation of lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cell activity and expression of related cytokines, interleukin (IL-4), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor inhibition index in H22-bearing mice additionally, the effect of PS on immunostimulatory antitumor function and its mechanism were studied. The total sugar content of the PS was determined to be 95% after purification. PS markedly increased the thymus and spleen indexes, the macrophage phagocytosis, the proliferation of splenic cells, and the level of IFN-γ and TNF-α. In tumor growth inhibition test, PS showed remarkable inhibition effects. PS from the C. gunnii could enhance nonspecific immunological function, humoral immunity, cellular immunity in mice, and inhibit tumor growth.

  16. Toroidal Alfven Waves in Advanced Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Herbert L.

    2003-10-01

    In burning plasma experiments, alpha particles have speeds that readily resonate with shear Alfven waves. It is essential to understand this Alfven wave spectrum for toroidal plasma confinement. Most interest has focused on the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE), and a method of analysis has been developed to understand the structure of this mode at a flux surface with a given magnetic shear. However, this model fails when the shear is too low or reversed. In this case a new method of analysis is required, which must incorporate novel fluid-like effects from the energetic particles [1] and also include effects that are second order in the inverse toroidal aspect ratio. With this new method [2] we can obtain spectral features that agree with experimental results. In particular, this theory gives an explanation for the so-called Cascade modes that have been observed in JT-60 [3], JET [4], and TFTR [5]. For these Cascade modes, slow upward frequency sweeping is observed, beginning from frequencies below the TAE range but then often blending into the TAE range of frequencies. The theoretical understanding of the Cascades modes has evolved to the point where these modes can be used as a diagnostic "signature" [6] to experimentally optimize the formation of thermal barriers in reversed-shear operation when the minimum q value is an integer. [1] H. L. Berk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 185 (2002). [2] B. N. Breizman et al., submitted to Phys. Plasmas (2003). [3] H. Kimura et al., Nucl. Fusion 38, 1303 (1998). [4] S. Sharapov et al., Phys. Lett. A 289, 127 (2001); S. Sharapov, Phys. Plasmas 9, 2027 (2002). [5] R. Nazikian, H. L. Berk, et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 47, 327 (2002). [6] E. Joffrin et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 44, 1739 (2002); E. Joffrin et al., in Proc. 2002 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, submitted to Nucl. Fusion.

  17. Cognitive and behavior deficits in sickle cell mice are associated with profound neuropathologic changes in hippocampus and cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Almeida, Luis E.F.; de Souza Batista, Celia M.; Khaibullina, Alfia; Xu, Nuo; Albani, Sarah; Guth, Kira A.; Seo, Ji Sung; Quezado, Martha; Quezado, Zenaide M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Strokes are perhaps the most serious complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and by the fifth decade occur in approximately 25% of patients. While most patients do not develop strokes, mounting evidence indicates that even without brain abnormalities on imaging studies, SCD patients can present profound neurocognitive dysfunction. We sought to evaluate the neurocognitive behavior profile of humanized SCD mice (Townes, BERK) and to identify hematologic and neuropathologic abnormalities associated with the behavioral alterations observed in these mice. Heterozygous and homozygous Townes mice displayed severe cognitive deficits shown by significant delays in spatial learning compared to controls. Homozygous Townes also had increased depression- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as reduced performance on voluntary wheel running compared to controls. Behavior deficits observed in Townes were also seen in BERKs. Interestingly, most deficits in homozygotes were observed in older mice and were associated with worsening anemia. Further, neuropathologic abnormalities including the presence of large bands of dark/pyknotic (shrunken) neurons in CA1 and CA3 fields of hippocampus and evidence of neuronal dropout in cerebellum were present in homozygotes but not control Townes. These observations suggest that cognitive and behavioral deficits in SCD mice mirror those described in SCD patients and that aging, anemia, and profound neuropathologic changes in hippocampus and cerebellum are possible biologic correlates of those deficits. These findings support using SCD mice for studies of cognitive deficits in SCD and point to vulnerable brain areas with susceptibility to neuronal injury in SCD and to mechanisms that potentially underlie those deficits. PMID:26462816

  18. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Yu-Kai; Yu, Hui-Tzu; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) contain several bioactive components such as lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and ergothioneine. This article reports the results of 49 samples, including 9 fruiting bodies, 39 mycelia, and 1 vegetative cell, of 35 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from 18 genera: Agaricus, Agrocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Cyathus, Daedalia, Flammulina, Fomes, Ganoderma, Grifola, Laetiporus, Lentinus, Morchella, Ophiocordyceps, Pleurotus, Trametes, Tremella, and Verpa. The results show that Cyathus striatus strain 978 contained the highest amount of lovastatin (995.66 mg/kg) in mycelia. Among fruiting bodies, 6 samples contained a high amount of GABA (274.86-822.45 mg/kg), whereas among mycelia, contents of GABA in 27 samples ranged from 215.36 to 2811.85 mg/kg. Among mycelia, Pleurotus cornucopiae strain 1101 contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (3482.09 mg/kg). Overall, these 3 bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and the results obtained might be related to their beneficial effects.

  19. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects.

  20. Nutrient compositions of culinary-medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) are a food with high nutritional value. This article summarizes the results of proximate composition studies of 38 fruiting bodies and 19 mycelia of 32 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Antrodia, Auricularia, Boletus, Clitocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Trametes, Dictyophora, Flammulina, Ganoderma, Grifola, Hericium, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Sparassis, Termitomyces, Tremella, and Tricholoma. Based on the proximate composition, most fruiting bodies and mycelia are low in fat and rich in protein and dietary fiber (DF); however, some are rich in soluble polysaccharides and others are rich in crude fiber. Due to the high amount of DF present, the energy provided by 100 g of dry fruiting bodies and mycelia is 46.96-292.37 kcal and 195.84-373.22 kcal, respectively. The energy (100 g) is classified into four levels: first level of >300 kcal, second level of 200-300 kcal, third level of 100-200 kcal, and fourth level of <100 kcal. Most fruiting bodies are listed in the third level; nine mycelia are listed in the first level and ten in the second level. Overall, the information about the proximate composition and energy are of great interest for fruiting bodies and mycelia to be used as foods or food-flavoring materials or in the formulation of health foods.

  1. Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

    2013-04-01

    The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    PubMed

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds.

  3. Evaluation of the chemical and antioxidant properties of wild and cultivated mushrooms of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obodai, Mary; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Fernandes, Angela; Barros, Lillian; Mensah, Deborah L Narh; Dzomeku, Matilda; Urben, Arailde F; Prempeh, Juanita; Takli, Richard K

    2014-11-26

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of both wild and cultivated edible mushrooms in Ghana is limited. This study reports their nutritional value, composition in lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules, minerals and antioxidant properties. The samples were found to be nutritionally rich in carbohydrates, ranging from 64.14 ± 0.93 g in Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 to 80.17 ± 0.34 g in Lentinus squarosullus strain LSF. The highest level of proteins (28.40 ± 0.86 g) was recorded in the mentioned P. ostreatus strain. Low fat contents were registered in the samples, with Auricularia auricula recording the lowest value. High levels of potassium were also observed with the following decreasing order of elements: K > P ~ Na > Mg > Ca. High levels of antioxidants were also observed, thus making mushrooms suitable to be used as functional foods or nutraceutical sources. Furthermore, this study provides new information regarding chemical properties of mushrooms from Ghana, which is very important for the biodiversity characterization of this country.

  4. Comparative study of antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of selected edible wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Lee, Mee Yee; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the antioxidant activities (AOA) and total phenolic content (TPC) of water extracts of selected edible wild mushrooms: Pleurotus porrigens, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe conica, and Lentinus ciliatus. The AOA were evaluated against DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching (beta-CB) assays, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method for TPC. BHA was used as reference. P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability (90.78 +/- 0.30%) and FRAP (6.37 +/- 0.22 mM FE/100g), while Sch. commune showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) ABTS*+ inhibition activity (94.96 +/- 0.70%) and beta-CB inhibition activity (94.18 +/- 0.17%), respectively. TPC was found in a descending order of P. poriggens > L. ciliatus = Pleurotus ostreatus (cultivated) > H. conica = Sch. commune. Positive correlation was observed between the AOA and TPC. When compared to BHA (2 mM), P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability and reducing power, while Sch. commune showed comparable DPPH* scavenging ability and ABTS*+ inhibition activity. All the mushrooms have better ABTS*+ inhibition activity than BHA (1 mM). The beta-CB inhibition activity of BHA was significantly higher than those of edible wild mushrooms. The water extracts of edible wild mushrooms showed potent antioxidant activities compared to BHA to a certain extent.

  5. Molecular Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Three Wild Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms from Tripura, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Aparajita Roy; Borthakur, Madhusmita; Saha, Ajay Krishna; Joshi, Santa Ram; Das, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 3 wild culinary-medicinal mushrooms using molecular tools and to analyze their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties were studied by evaluating free radical scavenging, reducing power, and chelating effect. The mushrooms were identified as Lentinus squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium, and Macrocybe gigantean by amplifying internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. The results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of M. gigantean has the highest free radical scavenging effect and chelating effect, whereas the methanolic extract of L. squarrosulus has the highest reducing power. The highest total phenol content and the most ascorbic acid were found in the M. gigantean extracts. Among the 3 mushroom extracts, M. gigantean displayed the most potent antioxidant activity. Molecular characterization using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region as a universal DNA marker was an effective tool in the identification and phylogenetic analysis of the studied mushrooms. The study also indicated that these wild macrofungi are rich sources of natural antioxidants.

  6. Isolation and molecular characterization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic degrading fungal isolates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ahmed, Safia; Robson, Geoff; Javed, Imran; Ali, Naeem; Atiq, Naima; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrant nature of polyvinyl chloride creates serious environmental concerns during manufacturing and waste disposal. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen different soil fungi having potential to biodegrade PVC films. After 10 months of soil burial experiment, it was observed that a number of fungal strains were flourishing on PVC films. On morphological as well as on 18rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic basis they were identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium PV1, Lentinus tigrinus PV2, Aspergillus niger PV3, and Aspergillus sydowii PV4. The biodegradation ability of these fungal isolates was further checked in shake flask experiments by taking thin films of PVC (C source) in mineral salt medium. A significant change in color and surface deterioration of PVC films was confirmed through visual observation and Scanning electron microscopy. During shake flask experiments, P. chrysosporium PV1 produced maximum biomass of about 2.57 mg ml(-1) followed by A. niger PV3. P. chrysosporium PV1 showed significant reduction (178,292 Da(-1)) in Molecular weight of the PVC film than control (200,000 Da(-1)) by gel permeation chromatography. Furthermore more Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance also revealed structural changes in the PVC. It was concluded that isolated fungal strains have significant potential for biodegradation of PVC plastics.

  7. Edible wild mushrooms of the Western Ghats: Data on the ethnic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Karun, Namera C; Sridhar, Kandikere R

    2017-10-01

    The edible wild mushrooms are most important in food security of ethnic groups and tribals throughout the world. Various indigenous strategies are followed to trace wild mushrooms suitable for human consumption. Data presented in this article projects ethnic knowledge on 51 edible wild mushrooms (in 23 genera) in the Western Ghats region of India. Information collected with support of ethnic groups/tribals pertains to habitats, substrates, mutualistic association, extent of availability, extent of edibility and method of processing of wild mushrooms. Extensive field visits and interactions with ethnic groups were performed to collect the data on each mushroom. Initially, most of these mushrooms were identified based on the indigenous methods and designated with vernacular names (Are-Gowda, Kodava and Tulu). Based on macromorphology (in field) and micromorphology (in laboratory), each mushroom was identified with its systematic name. Among the 51 wild mushrooms irrespective of extent of availability, the most preferred include Astraeus hygrometricus, Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Fistulina hepatica, Lentinus sajor-caju, Pleurotus (5 spp.) and Scleroderma citrinum and Termitomyces (18 spp.). This data forecasts the importance of documentation of traditional knowledge, protection of habitats, management of resources (tree species and substrates) and sustainable exploitation of wild mushrooms.

  8. Comparative assessment of bioremediation approaches to highly recalcitrant PAH degradation in a real industrial polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Viñas, M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A

    2013-03-15

    High recalcitrant characteristics and low bioavailability rates due to aging processes can hinder high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) bioremediation in real industrial polluted soils. With the aim of reducing the residual fraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and (HMW-PAHs) in creosote-contaminated soil remaining after a 180-d treatment in a pilot-scale biopile, either biostimulation (BS) of indigenous microbial populations with a lignocellulosic substrate (LS) or fungal bioaugmentation with two strains of white-rot fungi (WRF) (i.e., Trametes versicolor and Lentinus tigrinus) were comparatively tested. The impact of bivalent manganese ions and two mobilizing agents (MAs) (i.e., Soybean Oil and Brij 30) on the degradation performances of biostimulated and bioaugmented microcosms was also compared. The results reveal soil colonization by both WRF strains was clearly hampered by an active native soil microbiota. In fact, a proper enhancement of native microbiota by means of LS amendment promoted the highest biodegradation of HMW-PAHs, even of those with five aromatic rings after 60 days of treatment, but HMW-PAH-degrading bacteria were specifically inhibited when non-ionic surfactant Brij 30 was amended. Effects of bioaugmentation and other additives such as non-ionic surfactants on the degrading capability of autochthonous soil microbiota should be evaluated in polluted soils before scaling up the remediation process at field scale.

  9. Antibacterial and DNA degradation potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized via green route.

    PubMed

    Manna, Dilip K; Mandal, Amit K; Sen, Ipsita K; Maji, Praloy K; Chakraborti, Soumyananda; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Islam, Syed S

    2015-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using a hetero polysaccharide (PS) isolated from Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer. The polysaccharide fraction (consisting of glucose, fucose and galactose) serves the role of both reducing as well as stabilizing agent. UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 407 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibited that the average diameter of the nanoparticles was 2.78±1.47 nm. The XRD analysis revealed face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity of the AgNPs-PS conjugate was tested against multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Escherichia coli strain MREC33 and found that the killing was due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Internalization of AgNPs-PS conjugate along with its DNA degradation capability was demonstrated using flow cytometry. AgNPs-PS conjugates showed negligible toxicity to human RBCs. This LD50 dosage of AgNPs-PS conjugates in combination with each of the four antibiotics (ampicillin, azithromycin, kanamycin and netilmicin) to which E. coli MREC33 was resistant, showed synergistic effect to inhibit complete bacterial growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for production of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Rani, P; Kalyani, N; Prathiba, K

    2008-12-01

    The degradation of lignocellulosic wastes such as paddy straw, sorghum stalk, and banana pseudostem was investigated during solid-state fermentation by edible mushrooms Pleurotus eous and Lentinus connotus. Biological efficiency of 55-65% was observed in paddy straw followed by sorghum stalk (45%) and banana pseudostem (33%) for both fungal species. The activity of extracellular enzymes, namely cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase, together with the content of cellulose, lignin, and phenols, was studied in spent substrates on seventh, 17th, and 27th days of spawning, and these values were used as indicators of the extent of lignocellulosic degradation by mushroom. Both the mushroom species proved to be efficient degraders of lignocellulosic biomass of paddy straw and sorghum stalk, and the extent of cellulose degradation was 63-72% of dry weight (d.w.), and lignin degradation was 23-30% of the d.w. In banana pseudostem, the extent of the degradation was observed to be only 15-22% of the d.w. for both lignin and cellulose. Preferential removal of cellulose during initial growth period and delayed degradation of lignin were observed in all three substrates. This is associated with decrease in activity of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase and increase in laccase activity with spawn aging in spent substrates. Thus, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by P. eous and L. connotus offers a promising way to convert low-quality biomass into an improved human food.

  11. Screening of antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of some edible mushrooms cultivated in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammed; Kubra, Khadizatul; Ahmed, Sheikh

    2015-02-07

    For a long time mushrooms have been playing an important role in several aspects of the human activity. Recently edible mushrooms are used extensively in cooking and make part of new food in Bangladesh for their beneficial properties. The aim of this study is to screen some values of mushrooms used in Bangladesh. Methanolic extracts of 3 edible mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Hypsizigus tessulatus) isolated from Chittagong, Bangladesh were used in this study. Phenolic compounds in the mushroom methanolic extracts were estimated by a colorimetric assay. The antioxidant activity was determined by radical 1, 1-diphenyl;-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Eight microbial isolates were used for antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of mushrooms by the agar well diffusion method with slight modification. Determination of antimicrobial activity indicated considerable activity against all bacteria and fungi reveling zone of inhibition ranged from 7 ± 0.2 to 20 ± 0.1 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts showed that they are also active even in least concentrations ranged from 1 mg/ml to 9 mg/ml. Lentinula edodes showed the best antimicrobial activity than others. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was quite resistant and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was more sensitive than others microbial isolates. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like ascorbic Acid . The concentration (IC50) ranged from 100 ± 1.20 to 110 ± 1.24 μg/ml. Total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 to 10.66 ± 0.52 mg/ml. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 2.50 ± 0.008 mg/ml to 4.76 ± 0.11 mg/ml; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.00 mg/ml to 0

  12. A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Phyllosticta (Botryosphaeriales)

    PubMed Central

    Wikee, S.; Lombard, L.; Nakashima, C.; Motohashi, K.; Chukeatirote, E.; Cheewangkoon, R.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Hyde, K.D.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Phyllosticta is a geographically widespread genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a diverse host range. This study redefines Phyllosticta, and shows that it clusters sister to the Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales, Dothideomycetes), for which the older family name Phyllostictaceae is resurrected. In moving to a unit nomenclature for fungi, the generic name Phyllosticta was chosen over Guignardia in previous studies, an approach that we support here. We use a multigene DNA dataset of the ITS, LSU, ACT, TEF and GPDH gene regions to investigate 129 isolates of Phyllosticta, representing about 170 species names, many of which are shown to be synonyms of the ubiquitous endophyte P. capitalensis. Based on the data generated here, 12 new species are introduced, while epitype and neotype specimens are designated for a further seven species. One species of interest is P. citrimaxima associated with tan spot of Citrus maxima fruit in Thailand, which adds a fifth species to the citrus black spot complex. Previous morphological studies lumped many taxa under single names that represent complexes. In spite of this Phyllosticta is a species-rich genus, and many of these taxa need to be recollected in order to resolve their phylogeny and taxonomy. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Phyllosticta abieticola Wikee & Crous, P. aloeicola Wikee & Crous, P. citrimaxima Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. leucothoicola Wikee, Motohashi & Crous, P. mangifera-indica Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. neopyrolae Wikee, Motohashi, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. pachysandricola Wikee, Motohashi & Crous, P. paxistimae Wikee & Crous, P. podocarpicola Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. rhaphiolepidis Wikee, C. Nakash. & Crous, P. rubra Wikee & Crous, P. vacciniicola Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie; New combinations - P. foliorum (Sacc.) Wikee & Crous, P. philoprina (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Wikee & Crous; Epitypifications (basionyms) - P. concentrica Sacc., P. cussoniae Cejp, P

  13. Remote sensing to monitor cover crop adoption in southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, Wells; Sjoerd Duiker,; Greg McCarty,; Prabhakara, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, winter cereal cover crops are often planted in rotation with summer crops to reduce the loss of nutrients and sediment from agricultural systems. Cover crops can also improve soil health, control weeds and pests, supplement forage needs, and support resilient cropping systems. In southeastern Pennsylvania, cover crops can be successfully established following corn (Zea mays L.) silage harvest and are strongly promoted for use in this niche. They are also planted following corn grain, soybean (Glycine max L.), and vegetable harvest. In Pennsylvania, the use of winter cover crops for agricultural conservation has been supported through a combination of outreach, regulation, and incentives. On-farm implementation is thought to be increasing, but the actual extent of cover crops is not well quantified. Satellite imagery can be used to map green winter cover crop vegetation on agricultural fields and, when integrated with additional remote sensing data products, can be used to evaluate wintertime vegetative groundcover following specific summer crops. This study used Landsat and SPOT (System Probatoire d’ Observation de la Terre) satellite imagery, in combination with the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer, to evaluate the extent and amount of green wintertime vegetation on agricultural fields in four Pennsylvania counties (Berks, Lebanon, Lancaster, and York) from 2010 to 2013. In December of 2010, a windshield survey was conducted to collect baseline data on winter cover crop implementation, with particular focus on identifying corn harvested for silage (expected earlier harvest date and lower levels of crop residue), versus for grain (expected later harvest date and higher levels of crop residue). Satellite spectral indices were successfully used to detect both the amount of green vegetative groundcover and the amount of crop residue on the surveyed fields. Analysis of wintertime satellite imagery

  14. Characterization and cloning of laccase gene from Hericium coralloides NBRC 7716 suitable for production of epitheaflagallin 3-O-gallate.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuya; Takagi, Shinya; Miki, Asami; Kurokawa, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Epitheaflagallin 3-O-gallate (ETFGg) is a minor polyphenol found in black tea extract, which has good physiological functions. It is synthesized from epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) with gallic acid via laccase oxidation. Various basidiomycetes and fungi were screened to find a suitable laccase for the production of ETFGg. A basidiomycete, Hericium coralloides NBRC 7716, produced an appropriate extracellular laccase. The purified laccase produced twice the level of ETFGg compared with commercially available laccase from Trametes sp. The enzyme, termed Lcc2, is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 67.2 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc2 is quite different from laccase isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium. Lcc2 showed similar substrate specificity to known laccases and could oxidize various phenolic substrates, including pyrogallol, gallic acid, and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The full-length lcc2 gene was obtained by PCR using degenerate primers, which were designed based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc2 and conserved copper-binding sites of laccases, and 5'-, and 3'-RACE PCR with mRNA. The Lcc2 gene showed homology with Lentinula edodes laccase (sharing 77% amino acid identity with Lcc6). We successfully produced extracellular Lcc2 using a heterologous expression system with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, it was confirmed that the recombinant laccase generates similar levels of ETFGg as the native enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-02-01

    Herein, it was reported and compared the chemical composition and nutritional value of the most consumed species as fresh cultivated mushrooms: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown mushrooms), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom), Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom), Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) and Flammulina velutipes (Golden needle mushroom). Shiitake revealed the highest levels of macronutrients, unless proteins, as also the highest sugars, tocopherols and PUFA levels, and the lowest SFA content. White and brown mushrooms showed similar macronutrients composition, as also similar values of total sugars, MUFA, PUFA and total tocopherols. Oyster and king oyster mushrooms gave the highest MUFA contents with similar contents in PUFA, MUFA and SFA in both samples. They also revealed similar moisture, ash, carbohydrates and energy values. This study contributes to the elaboration of nutritional databases of the most consumed fungi species worldwide, allowing comparison between them. Moreover it was reported that cultivated and the wild samples of the same species have different chemical composition, including sugars, fatty acids and tocopherols profiles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of Mushroom-Based Cosmeceutical Formulations with Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Tyrosinase, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Properties.

    PubMed

    Taofiq, Oludemi; Heleno, Sandrina A; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Alves, Maria José; Barros, Lillian; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; González-Paramás, Ana M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-10-14

    The cosmetic industry is in a constant search for natural compounds or extracts with relevant bioactive properties, which became valuable ingredients to design cosmeceutical formulations. Mushrooms have been markedly studied in terms of nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, there is still slow progress in the biotechnological application of mushroom extracts in cosmetic formulations, either as antioxidants, anti-aging, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory agents or as hyperpigmentation correctors. In the present work, the cosmeceutical potential of ethanolic extracts prepared from Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinula edodes was analyzed in terms of anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The extracts were characterized in terms of phenolic acids and ergosterol composition, and further incorporated in a base cosmetic cream to achieve the same bioactive purposes. From the results obtained, the final cosmeceutical formulations presented 85%-100% of the phenolic acids and ergosterol levels found in the mushroom extracts, suggesting that there was no significant loss of bioactive compounds. The final cosmeceutical formulation also displayed all the ascribed bioactivities and as such, mushrooms can further be exploited as natural cosmeceutical ingredients.

  17. Solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy of mushrooms gives directly the ratio between proteins and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pizzoferrato, L; Manzi, P; Bertocchi, F; Fanelli, C; Rotilio, G; Paci, M

    2000-11-01

    The solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR technique has the potential of monitoring the chemical composition in the solid state of an intact food sample. This property has been utilized to study mushrooms of different species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus pulmunarius, and Lentinula edodes), already characterized by chemical analyses for protein and dietary fiber components. Solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy reveals a large difference in the ratio between the glucidic and the proteic resonances probably depending on the mushroom species. An accurate inspection by model compounds and suitable mixtures of proteins and saccharides gives a methodology to interpret these experimental data. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.93; R(2) = 0.81) has been obtained by comparing the NMR data with the results of the chemical analyses. The results suggest the possibility to perform a taxonomic study and/or a nutritional study on the basis of the ratio between protein and polysaccharide levels determined by NMR or chemical methodologies.

  18. Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    JEDINAK, ANDREJ; SLIVA, DANIEL

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the global consumption of mushrooms, only two epidemiological studies demonstrated an inverse correlation between mushroom intake and the risk of cancer. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated whether extracts from edible mushrooms Agaricus bisporus (portabella), Flammulina velutipes (enoki), Lentinula edodes (shiitake) and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster) affect the growth of breast and colon cancer cells. Here, we identified as the most potent, P. ostreatus (oyster mushroom) which suppressed proliferation of breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and colon cancer (HT-29, HCT-116) cells, without affecting proliferation of epithelial mammary MCF-10A and normal colon FHC cells. Flow cytometry revealed that the inhibition of cell proliferation by P. ostreatus was associated with the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, P. ostreatus induced the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1), whereas inhibited the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma Rb protein in MCF-7 cells. In addition, P. ostreatus also up-regulated expression of p21 and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in HT-29 cells, suggesting that that P. ostreatus suppresses the proliferation of breast and colon cancer cells via p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway. In conclusion, our results indicated that the edible oyster mushroom has potential therapeutic/preventive effects on breast and colon cancer. PMID:19020765

  19. Forest farming of shiitake mushrooms: an integrated evaluation of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, J N; Mihail, J D; Pickens, J B

    2009-12-01

    Two outdoor shiitake (Lentinula edodes) cultivation experiments, established in Missouri USA in 1999 and 2000, produced mushrooms in 2000-2005. We examined shiitake production in response to substrate species, inoculum form, inoculum strain, and inoculation timing, using total mushroom weight per log as the primary response variable with log characteristics as covariates. The significantly greater mushroom weight produced by sugar maple logs compared with white or northern red oak was attributable to the higher proportion of undiscolored wood volume in the maple logs, rather than to bark thickness or log diameter. The "wide temperature range" shiitake strain produced significantly greater yield compared with the "warm" or "cold" weather strains. Both the wide-range and warm-weather strains were stimulated to fruit by significant rain events, while the cold-weather strain was responsive to temperature. Inoculation with sawdust spawn gave significantly greater yield than colonized wooden dowels or pre-packaged "thimble" plug inoculum. The second and third full years following inoculation were the most productive.

  20. Preparation and swelling behavior of a novel self-assembled β-cyclodextrin/acrylic acid/sodium alginate hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Qinglin

    2014-11-26

    A novel biodegradable β-cyclodextrin/acrylic acid/sodium alginate (CSA) hydrogel with a three-dimensional network structure was self-assembled by inverse suspension copolymerization. The CSA resin was pH sensitive and had good water absorption properties in pH 6-8 buffer solutions. At a β-CD:AA:SA mass ratio of 1:9:3 the CSA water absorbency was found to be 1403 g/g and the CSA hydrogel strength was 4.968 N. In 0.005-0.1 mol/L chloride salt and sulfate salt solutions the CSA water absorbencies increased as follows: NaCl>KCl>MgCl2>CaCl2>FeCl3, and Na2SO4>K2SO4>FeSO4>Al2(SO4)3, respectively. The release of water from the CSA hydrogel occurred slowly over 120 h. The biodegradation efficiency of the resin reached 85.3% for Lentinula edodes. The super water absorbency, good salt resistance and excellent water retention properties of CSA make it suitable for application as an agricultural water retention agent in saline soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.