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Sample records for lentinus edodes berk

  1. Influence of olive oil press cakes on Shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, lentinus edodes (Berk.) singer (higher basidiomycetes) fruiting bodies production and effect of their crude polysaccharides on CCRF-CEM cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Andrej; Kretschmer, Nadine; Wagner, Susanne; Boechzelt, Herbert; Klinar, Dusan; Bauer, Rudolf; Pohleven, Franc

    2012-01-01

    Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer fruiting bodies were cultivated on substrates composed of beech sawdust, wheat bran, and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (gypsum), containing different proportions of olive oil press cakes (OOPC). We determined the influence of OOPC on fruiting bodies production and proliferation of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. A negative influence of OOPC on mycelia growth and maturation was noticed. When growth medium contained 80% OOPC, fruiting bodies ceased forming. To investigate the cytotoxicity on CCRF-CEM cells in vitro, cells were treated with crude polysaccharides extracted from L. edodes fruiting bodies. Also in this case a negative correlation between OOPC content and cytotoxicity was found.

  2. Effects of different levels of wheat bran, rice bran and maize powder supplementation with saw dust on the production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer)

    PubMed Central

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Hossain, Kamal; Tania, Mousumi; Ahmed, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is increasing rapidly in Bangladesh due to its nutritional and medicinal importance with excellent flavor and longer shelf life. With the aim of increased production, we have cultivated L. edodes on saw dust (SD) supplemented with different levels (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) of wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), maize powder (MP) and their combination (WB+RB+MP = 1:1:1) to investigate the growth, yield and quality of this mushroom. Most of the growth, yield and quality parameters varied significantly when mushrooms were cultivated with different levels of supplementation. The yield of mushroom was increased with the level of each supplementation upto a certain level, and then decreased. SD supplemented with 25% WB produced the highest number of fruiting bodies (34.8/500 g packet), highest biological yield (153.3/500 g packet), and biological efficiency (76.6%) of L. edodes. But the yield of the best quality mushroom was observed on SD with 40% WB supplementation; however, the qualities were not always supplementation dose dependent. In this study, we report that 25% WB supplementation with SD may be very effective for higher yield and 40% WB supplementation for better quality of L. edodes. PMID:23961143

  3. Cellulase hyperproducers constructed from polyploids of Lentinus edodes.

    PubMed

    Toyama, H; Toyama, N

    2000-01-01

    A mycelial mat of Lentinus edodes was treated with 0.01% (w/v) colchicine solution for 240 h at 26 degrees C and autopolyploidization occurred. The mycelia were treated subsequently with the haploidizing reagent, benomyl, and fanshaped sectors were produced from colonies. Among such sectors, cellulase hyperproducers could be selected. The cellulase productivity of the hyperproducer, L1, did not decrease through five generations.

  4. Extracellular Enzymes Produced by the Cultivated Mushroom Lentinus edodes during Degradation of a Lignocellulosic Medium

    PubMed Central

    Leatham, Gary F.

    1985-01-01

    Although the commercially important mushroom Lentinus (= Lentinula) edodes (Berk.) Sing. can be rapidly cultivated on supplemented wood particles, fruiting is not reliable. This study addressed the problem by developing more information about growth and development on a practical oakwood-oatmeal medium. The study determined (i) the components degraded during a 150-day incubation at 22°C, (ii) the apparent vegetative growth pattern, (iii) the likely growth-limiting nutrient, and (iv) assays that can be used to study key extracellular enzymes. All major components of the medium were degraded, lignin selectively so. The vegetative growth rate was most rapid during the initial 90 days, during which weight loss correlated with glucosamine accumulation (assayed after acid hydrolysis). The rate then slowed; in apparent preparation for fruiting, the cultures rapidly accumulated glucosamine (or its oligomer or polymer). Nitrogen was growth limiting. Certain enzyme activities were associated with the pattern of medium degradation, with growth, or with development. They included cellulolytic system enzymes, hemicellulases, the ligninolytic system, (gluco-)amylase, pectinase, acid protease, cell wall lytic enzymes (laminarinase, 1,4-β-d-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase, α-d-galactosidase, β-d-mannosidase), acid phosphatase, and laccase. Enzyme activities over the 150-day incubation period with and without a fruiting stimulus are reported. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the physiology and biochemistry of growth and fruiting. PMID:16346918

  5. Starch concentrations in log-grown shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food, in part from the abundance of different polysaccharides that may have functional food activities. Polysaccharide content of shiitake and shiitake-derived products are being utilized as a promotional tool to hea...

  6. Effect of Tree Species on Enzyme Secretion by the Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, Evgeny V; Glukhova, Lubov B; Sokolyanskaya, Ludmila O; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We compared cold and hot wood extracts of 3 endemic Siberian trees-namely, Prunus padus (bird cherry), Populus tremula (aspen), and Betula sp. (birch)-on biomass production and laccase and peroxidase secretion in submerged cultures by the medicinal mushroom Lentinus edodes. Of the conditions tested, only hot Prunus extracts stimulated biomass production, whereas all extracts stimulated laccase and peroxidase secretion, albeit to different extents. A large, differential stimulation of manganese peroxidase was observed by hot Prunus extracts. The results highlight important differences between tree species in the stimulation of biomass and enzyme production by L. edodes and point to potentially interesting stimulatory factors present in hot Prunus extracts. These findings are of relevance in the use of L. edodes for medicinal or biotechnological applications.

  7. Effective Removal of Cadmium Ions from a Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluid by Lentinus edodes

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xin; Huang, Wen; Bian, Yinbing

    2014-01-01

    Lentinus edodes, a functional food, was evaluated as a potential antidote for adsorption/removal of cadmium ion from simulated gastrointestinal fluids. An adsorption/removal capacity of 65.12 mg/g was achieved by L. edodes in solutions with a pH ranging from 2.5 to 6.0, while little if any adsorption was observed in solutions with a pH under 2.5. In solutions with pH 6.0, 84% of the cadmium adsorption by L. edodes occurred in the first minute. Scanning electronic microscopic examination showed that the cell wall polysaccharides of L. edodes provided a rough sponge-like surface for effective cadmium adsorption. FTIR indicated that the carboxyl, hydroxyl and –NH groups of the cell wall polysaccharides and proteins were the primary functional groups that chemically bind with cadmium ions. The energy dispersive spectrometry further revealed that cation exchange might be attributed to cadmium biosorption. These results suggested that L. edodes was effective for cadmium detoxication, especially in low concentration. PMID:25469921

  8. Production of carpophores of Lentinus edodes and Ganoderma lucidum grown on cork residues.

    PubMed

    Riu, H; Roig, G; Sancho, J

    1997-06-01

    Cork, being widely used in industry, generates high amounts of waste of difficult elimination because of its complex biological degradation, and the high pollutant smokes from its burning. Similarities between suberin (major component of cork) and lignin suggest that fungi with high lignin degrading capacity could colonize cork residues. Basidiomycetes such as Lentinus edodes and Ganoderma lucidum, besides their capacity for degrading, are edible. Thus, while using them to degrade cork, it is also possible to obtain a food product. In this study, dry matter was reduced 40%, suberin was degraded 45%, oxidizable carbon was increased 35%, and Lentinus showed a high rate of growth. These results indicate that there is an environmental alternative to the elimination of residues from the cork industry.

  9. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from bacterial infection. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of the bio-processed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from the edible Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial mushroom culture supplemented...

  10. Molecular characterization of shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes strains (higher Basidiomycetes) using RAPD and ITS sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shivani; Khanna, Pardeep Kumar; Kapoor, Shammi

    2014-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny in seven strains of Lentinus edodes was studied based on RAPD and their internal transcribed spacers (ITS) regions. The strains were analyzed by RAPD with 20 arbitrary primers. Fifteen primers were found efficient for the amplification of the genomic DNA. The size of the polymorphic bands were in the range of 100-1000 bp. However, the size of ITS1-2 and ITS1-4 regions varied among the strains from 278 to 575 bp and from 410 to 616 bp, respectively. The higher alignment score of the ITS 1-2 region indicated more variability in the ITS 1-4 region. Thus, on the basis of RAPD-PCR and ITS sequencing it was found that strains LeC and LeI showed a high degree of divergence from all other strains.

  11. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Dietary Lentinus edodes on Plasma, Feces and Hepatic Tissues in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ki Nam; Alam, Nuhu; Lee, Jae Seong; Cho, Hae Jin; Kim, Hye Young; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

    2011-01-01

    We investigated diet supplementation with shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies on biochemical and histological changes in hypercholesterolemic rats. Six-wk old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. A diet containing 5% Lentinus edodes fruiting bodies given to hypercholesterolemic rats reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total lipid, phospholipids, and the LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 34.33, 53.21, 75.00, 34.66, 25.73, and 71.43%, respectively. Feeding mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no detrimental effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, or enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that L. edodes significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein but increased α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red-O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. These results suggest that shiitake mushrooms could be recommended as a natural cholesterol lowering substance in the diet. PMID:22783084

  12. In vivo anticancer and immunomodulating activities of mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berkeley) Singer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Enxue; Tian, Meihong; Song, Chenyang; Yan, Jingmin; Zhou, Yifa

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential of mushrooms in modulating the immune system and/or suppressing tumor growth. Among the studied bioactive compounds in mushrooms, polysaccharides are the most important. Nontoxic fungal polysaccharides have a more important role in immunomodulating and antitumor activities which are related to their effects to act of immune effecter cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells involved in the innate and adaptive immunity. Two mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides (WPLE-N-2 and WPLE-A0.5-2), purified from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, were evaluated for their effects on the cellular immune response of Sarcoma 180 (S-180)-bearing mice. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the polysaccharides for 10 days. Significant tumor regressions of the polysaccharide groups’ mice were observed compared to the control group. These polysaccharides could induce an increase in nitrite oxide (NO) production in peritoneal macrophages, significantly increase macrophage phagocytosis of tumor-bearing mice and augment concanavalin (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocytes proliferation. Our results indicated that immunomodulating activity occurred through host mediation in response to lymphocyte proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis and induction of NO production while the antitumor activity occurred through direct cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from L. edodes can be explored as novel potential immunostimulants. Our research provides essential data to a better understanding of L. edodes bioactive compounds, especially polysaccharides. Our results also confirm the key role of β-linkages in the antitumor and immunomodulating effects of polysaccharides. PMID:27095922

  13. In vivo anticancer and immunomodulating activities of mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berkeley) Singer.

    PubMed

    Jeff, Iteku Bekomo; Fan, Enxue; Tian, Meihong; Song, Chenyang; Yan, Jingmin; Zhou, Yifa

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential of mushrooms in modulating the immune system and/or suppressing tumor growth. Among the studied bioactive compounds in mushrooms, polysaccharides are the most important. Nontoxic fungal polysaccharides have a more important role in immunomodulating and antitumor activities which are related to their effects to act of immune effecter cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells involved in the innate and adaptive immunity. Two mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides (WPLE-N-2 and WPLE-A0.5-2), purified from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, were evaluated for their effects on the cellular immune response of Sarcoma 180 (S-180)-bearing mice. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the polysaccharides for 10 days. Significant tumor regressions of the polysaccharide groups' mice were observed compared to the control group. These polysaccharides could induce an increase in nitrite oxide (NO) production in peritoneal macrophages, significantly increase macrophage phagocytosis of tumor-bearing mice and augment concanavalin (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocytes proliferation. Our results indicated that immunomodulating activity occurred through host mediation in response to lymphocyte proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis and induction of NO production while the antitumor activity occurred through direct cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from L. edodes can be explored as novel potential immunostimulants. Our research provides essential data to a better understanding of L. edodes bioactive compounds, especially polysaccharides. Our results also confirm the key role of β-linkages in the antitumor and immunomodulating effects of polysaccharides.

  14. Bioconcentration factors and potential human health risks of heavy metals in cultivated Lentinus edodes in Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Donghui; Xie, Han; Song, Haihai; Xu, Heng; Wu, Yumeng

    2015-02-01

    Lentinus edodes is one of the most popular edible mushrooms in the market. However, it contains heavy metals that are poisonous to humans even at trace concentrations. The concentrations and bioconcentration factors of five heavy metals in cultivated L. edodes in Chengdu were studied, and the potential health risks to local residents associated with the cultivated L. edodes consumption were evaluated. Total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), and mercury were determined in the fruiting bodies and the substrate from three agricultural areas. Fruiting bodies samples were collected at different growing times (2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The bioconcentration factors of heavy metals from the substrate to the fruiting bodies were estimated, and the potential health risks of local L. edodes were assessed. Because antioxidant enzymes can resist the creation of reactive oxygen species and defend against heavy metals, the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) in the fruiting bodies were also determined. A gradual change in heavy metal concentrations occurred across the growing time of the fruiting bodies. Cd transferred from the substrate to the fruiting bodies in larger concentrations than did Pb, Cr, and As. However, Chengdu residents were not exposed to significant health risks associated with consumption of local L. edodes. Nevertheless, more attention should be focused on children because of their higher sensitivity to metal pollutants.

  15. Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) Productivity and Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Profiles during Wheat Straw and Tree Leaf Bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil D

    2015-01-01

    Two commercial strains of Lentinus edodes have been comparatively evaluated for their productivity and lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles in mushroom cultivation using wheat straw or tree leaves as the growth substrates. Both substrates are profitable for recycling into shiitake fruit bodies. L. edodes 3715 gave the lowest yield of mushroom during tree leaves bioconversion with the biological efficiency (BE) 74.8% while the L. edodes 3721 BE achieved 83.4%. Cultivation of shiitake on wheat straw, especially in the presence of additional nitrogen source, increased the L. edodes 3721 BE to 92-95.3% owing to the high hydrolases activity and favorable conditions. Despite the quantitative variations, each strain of L. edodes had a similar pattern for secreting enzymes into the wheat straw and tree leaves. The mushrooms laccase and MnP activities were high during substrate colonization and declined rapidly during primordia appearance and fruit body development. While oxidase activity decreased, during the same period cellulases and xylanase activity raised sharply. Both cellulase and xylanase activity peaked at the mature fruit body stage. When mushrooms again shifted to the vegetative growth, oxidase activity gradually increased, whereas the hydrolases activity dropped rapidly. The MnP, CMCase, and FP activities of L. edodes 3721 during cultivation on wheat straw were higher than those during mushroom growth on tree leaves whereas the laccase activity was rather higher in fermentation of tree leaves. Enrichment of wheat straw with an additional nitrogen source rather favored to laccase, MnP, and FPA secretion during the vegetative stage of the L. edodes 3721 growth.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of extracts from Lentinus edodes mycelia on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Soichiro; Watanabe, Aiko; Tamesada, Makoto; Nakamura, Risa; Hayashi, Shinji; Kodama, Daisuke; Kawase, Masaya; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2004-12-01

    Mycelia of the edible mushroom Lentinus edodes (shiitake) were cultivated in a solid medium, and two fractions were obtained by hot-water extraction (L.E.M.) and then ethanol extraction followed by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography (ESMe). The L.E.M. and ESMe were then examined for their hepatoprotective effect on dimethylnitrosamine-injured mice. Both fractions decreased the blood aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, partially inhibited the overaccumulation of collagen fibrils, and suppressed the overexpression of genes for alpha-smooth muscle actin and/or heat-shock protein 47 in the mice. Both fractions also inhibited the morphologic change and proliferation of isolated rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which play a central role in liver fibrosis, in a dose-dependent manner and without cytotoxicity. The direct interaction between the extracts and HSCs appears to be important for the hepatoprotective activity. Polyphenols contained in both fractions are considered to be potential candidates for expressing the hepatoprotective effects. The finding of antifibrotic activity in extracts from an edible mushroom is expected to be helpful in the development of hepatoprotective agents with few side effects.

  17. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dried powder formulations of Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Andreia A J; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Dueñas, Montserrat; Barros, Lillian; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2013-06-15

    Several mushroom species have been pointed out as sources of antioxidant compounds, in addition to their important nutritional value. Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes are among the most studied species all over the world, but those studies focused on their fruiting bodies instead of other presentations, such as powdered preparations, used as supplements. In the present work the chemical composition (nutrients and bioactive compounds) and antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) of dried powder formulations of the mentioned mushroom species (APF and LPF, respectively) were evaluated. Powder formulations of both species revealed the presence of essential nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, they present a low fat content (<2g/100g) and can be used in low-calorie diets, just like the mushrooms fruiting bodies. APF showed higher antioxidant activity and higher content of tocopherols and phenolic compounds (124 and 770 μg/100g, respectively) than LPF (32 and 690 μg/100g). Both formulations could be used as antioxidant sources to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress.

  18. Decolorization of synthetic dyes by solid state cultures of Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes producing manganese peroxidase as the main ligninolytic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Boer, Cinthia Gandolfi; Obici, Larissa; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane M

    2004-09-01

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes to decolorize several synthetic dyes was investigated using solid state cultures with corn cob as substrate. Cultures, containing amido black, congo red, trypan blue, methyl green, remazol brilliant blue R, methyl violet, ethyl violet and Poly R478 at 200 ppm, were completely decolorized after 18 days of incubation. Partial decolorization was observed in the cultures containing 200 ppm of brilliant cresyl blue and methylene blue. High manganese peroxidase activity (2600 U/g substrate), but very low lignin peroxidase (<10 U/g substrate) and laccase (<16 U/g substrate) activities were detected in the cultures. In vitro, the dye decolorization was markedly decreased by the absence of manganic ions and H2O2. These data suggest that manganese peroxidase appear to be the main responsible for the capability of L. edodes to decolorize synthetic dyes.

  19. Assessment of the Safety of the Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes), in Rats: Biochemical, Hematological, and Antioxidative Parameters.

    PubMed

    Grotto, Denise; Bueno, Daiane Cristovam Rosa; Ramos, Gabriela Karine de Almeida; da Costa, Susi Rosa; Spim, Sara Rosicler Vieira; Gerenutti, Marli

    2016-01-01

    Lentinus edodes is an edible mushroom studied for use, or as an adjunct, in the prevention of illnesses such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and cancer. Despite the functional properties of L. edodes, the doses commonly reported in experimental studies are much higher than those actually consumed. Thus, we aimed to establish the optimum intake levels of L. edodes in vivo. Four groups of male Wistar rats received dry and powdered L. edodes reconstituted in water for 30 days: control (water only), L. edodes 100 mg/kg, L. edodes 400 mg/kg, and L. edodes 800 mg/kg. Biochemical and hematological parameters were assessed using commercial kits. Antioxidant parameters were quantified spectrophotometrically. Neither cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, nor transaminase activity was different among any of the L. edodes concentrations. However, fructosamine concentrations were significantly decreased in groups consuming L. edodes at 100 or 400 mg/kg. A significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration was found in the 400 and 800 mg/kg/day L. edodes groups, and leukopenia occurred in rats that consumed L. edodes 800 mg/kg/day compared with the control group. L. edodes at 100 and 400 mg/kg increased amounts of reduced glutathione compared with the control group. L. edodes was effective as an antioxidant at 100 and 400 mg/kg, but at 400 and 800 mg/kg some disturbances were observed, such as reductions in hemoglobin and leukocytes. In summary, this study has potential benefits for scientific development because the safe daily intake of L. edodes (at 100 mg/kg) is, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in a preclinical study.

  20. Elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms in liquid Culture: Composition and mechanism of protection against allergic asthma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of a bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia bark extract (BPUBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture against allergic asthma biomarkers in U266B1 leukemia cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cel...

  1. Production of the bioactive compound eritadenine by submerged cultivation of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mycelia.

    PubMed

    Enman, Josefine; Hodge, David; Berglund, Kris A; Rova, Ulrika

    2008-04-23

    Fruit bodies and mycelia of shiitake mushroom ( Lentinus edodes) have been shown to contain the cholesterol-reducing compound eritadenine, 2( R),3( R)-dihydroxy-4-(9-adenyl)butyric acid. In the search for a production method for eritadenine, shiitake mycelia were investigated in the present study. The mycelia were cultivated both in shake flasks and in bioreactors, to investigate the effects of pH, stirring rate, and reactor type on the production and distribution of eritadenine. Both the biomass and the culture broth were examined for their eritadenine content. In the shake flasks, the final concentration of eritadenine was 1.76 mg/L and eritadenine was equally distributed between the mycelia and the growth media. In the bioreactors, the shiitake mycelia were found to contain eritadenine in relatively low levels, whereas the majority, 90.6-98.9%, was detected in the growth media. Applying a stirring rate of 250 rpm during bioreactor cultivation resulted in the highest eritadenine concentrations: 10.23 mg/L when the pH was uncontrolled and 9.59 mg/L when the pH was controlled at 5.7. Reducing the stirring rate to 50 rpm resulted in a decreased eritadenine concentration, both at pH 5.7 (5.25 mg/L) and when pH was not controlled (5.50 mg/L). The mycelia in the shake flask cultures appeared as macroscopic aggregates, whereas mycelia cultivated in bioreactors grew more as freely dispersed filaments. This study demonstrates for the first time the extra- and intracellular distribution of eritadenine produced by shiitake mycelial culture and the influence of reactor conditions on the mycelial morphology and eritadenine concentrations.

  2. A novel polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Mycelia exhibits potential antitumor activity on laryngeal squamous cancer cell line Hep-2.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiangyu; Liu, Ruihua; Liu, Jianli; Huo, Yapeng; Yang, Wei; Zeng, Meng; Yang, Chao

    2013-11-01

    A novel polysaccharide [Lentinus edodes mycelia polysaccharide 2 (LMP2)] with a molecular weight of 2.27 × 10(4) Da was isolated from the Lentinus edodes mycelia and purified by Sephadex G-200 and diethylaminoethyl-32 column chromatography. HPLC results indicated that LMP2 contained mannose, arabinose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose with a relative molar ratio of 1:0.74:3.23:1.18:10.98. Its antitumor activity was evaluated in vitro by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation assay, and transwell assay. LMP2 showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Hep-2 cells, and at the concentration of 200 mg/ml, the inhibition ratio was 37.2 % after 72 h. Furthermore, colony formation of Hep-2 cells was reduced significantly after treatment with LMP2. Invasion of Hep-2 cells was inhibited significantly by LMP2. These results suggested that LMP2 could be explored as a potential antitumor material for laryngeal carcinoma.

  3. Characterization of Lentinus edodes β-glucan influencing the in vitro starch digestibility of wheat starch gel.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haining; Chen, Zhongqiu; Feng, Tao; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jingsong; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhaofeng; Ye, Ran

    2017-06-01

    Lentinus edodes β-glucan (abbreviated LEBG) was prepared from fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes. The average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) of LEBG were measured to be 1.868×10(6)g/mol and 1.007, respectively. In addition, the monosaccharide composition of LEBG was composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose with a molar ratio of 5:11:18:644:16. After adding LEBG, both G' and G″ of starch gel increased. This is mainly because the connecting points between the molecular chains of LEBG and starch formed so that gel network structures were enhanced. The peak temperature in the heat flow diagram shifted to a higher temperature and the peak area of the endothermic enthalpy increased. Furthermore, LEBG can significantly inhibit starch hydrolysis. The predicted glycemic index (pGI) values were reduced when starch was replaced with LEBG at 20% (w/w). It might indicate that LEBG was suitable to develop low GI noodle or bread.

  4. Identification of a CAP (adenylyl-cyclase-associated protein) homologous gene in Lentinus edodes and its functional complementation of yeast CAP mutants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G L; Miyazaki, Y; Nakagawa, T; Tanaka, K; Shishido, K; Matsuda, H; Kawamukai, M

    1998-04-01

    The adenylyl-cyclase-associated protein, CAP, was originally identified in yeasts as a protein that functions in both signal transduction and cytoskeletal organization. This paper reports the identification of a cDNA and genomic DNA that encodes a CAP homologue from the mushroom Lentinus edodes. The L. edodes cap gene contains eight introns and an ORF encoding a 518 amino acid protein. The L. edodes CAP is 35.5% and 40.9% identical at the amino acid level with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAP and Schizosaccharomyces pombe CAP, respectively. The C-terminal domain shows greater homology (39-46% identity) with yeast CAPs than does the N-terminal domain (27-35% identity). Southern blotting and Northern blotting results suggest that L. edodes cap is a single-copy gene and uniformly expressed. Expression of the L. edodes CAP in both Schiz. pombe and Sacch. cerevisiae complemented defects associated with the loss of the C-terminal domain function of the endogenous CAP. By using a yeast two-hybrid assay, an interaction was demonstrated between the L. edodes CAP and Schiz. pombe actin. This result and the functional complementation test indicate that CAP from L. edodes has a conserved C-terminal domain function.

  5. The influence of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake mushroom) preparations on bacteriological and morphological aspects of the small intestine in piglets.

    PubMed

    van Nevel, C J; Decuypere, J A; Dierick, N; Molly, K

    2003-12-01

    Among substances intended to replace growth promoting antibiotics in pig nutrition, non-digestible oligosaccharides or polysaccharides could be potential alternative compounds. Therefore, the influence of beta-1,3-1,6 glucans on bacteriological, biochemical and morphological aspects of the small intestine in weaned piglets was investigated. As sources of beta-glucans, Lentinan (extract of Lentinus edodes mycelium) or dried L. edodes mycelium were added to the diet. Four homogenous groups of 5 newly weaned piglets (4 weeks of age) received one of four diets: control diet (C), C supplemented with Avilamycin (50 mg/kg, positive control), C supplemented with 0.1% of Lentinan and C supplemented with 5% of dried L. edodes mycelium powder. A first group of 10 piglets was euthanized after 11 days and the remaining 10 on day 12 of the experiment. The gastrointestinal tract was divided in segments and samples taken from digesta (stomach, proximal and distal jejunum, caecum), mucosal scrapings (jejunum) and ring shaped tissue samples (1 cm) of proximal and distal jejunum. Bacterial counts were made with digesta and mucosal samples, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were determined. Tissue samples of both jejunal sites were embedded in paraffin wax for morphometrical (villus length, crypt depth) and histological observations (numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), goblet cells, apoptotic enterocytes on villi, mitotic cells in crypts). Only the diet containing 5% of dried L. edodes consistently resulted in lower viable counts (ca. 1-2 log10 CFU) of total bacteria, E. coli, streptococci and lactic acid bacteria, and luminal and mucosal effects agreed very well. With this diet, acetate and butyrate concentrations in the distal jejunum were doubled, which is favourable in view of the trophic effect on enterocytes and colonocytes. Villus length (V) was increased with both diets containing beta-glucans while crypt depth (C) was not

  6. Identification of a 14-3-3 protein from Lentinus edodes that interacts with CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein), and conservation of this interaction in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G L; Yamamoto, T; Ozoe, F; Yano, D; Tanaka, K; Matsuda, H; Kawamukai, M

    2000-01-01

    We previously identified a gene encoding a CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) homologue from the edible Basidiomycete Lentinus edodes. To further discover the cellular functions of the CAP protein, we searched for CAP-interacting proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Among the candidates thus obtained, many clones encoded the C-terminal half of an L. edodes 14-3-3 homologue (designated cip3). Southern blot analysis indicated that L. edodes contains only one 14-3-3 gene. Overexpression of the L. edodes 14-3-3 protein in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad24 null cells complemented the loss of endogenous 14-3-3 protein functions in cell morphology and UV sensitivity, suggesting functional conservation of 14-3-3 proteins between L. edodes and S. pombe. The interaction between L. edodes CAP and 14-3-3 protein was restricted to the N-terminal domain of CAP and was confirmed by in vitro co-precipitation. Results from both the two-hybrid system and in vivo co-precipitation experiments showed the conservation of this interaction in S. pombe. The observation that a 14-3-3 protein interacts with the N-terminal portion of CAP but not with full-length CAP in L. edodes and S. pombe suggests that the C-terminal region of CAP may have a negative effect on the interaction between CAP and 14-3-3 proteins, and 14-3-3 proteins may play a role in regulation of CAP function.

  7. A polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes inhibits human colon cancer cell proliferation and suppresses tumor growth in athymic nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinglin; Li, Weiyong; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Ying; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Ziming; Wang, Kaiping

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor effect of Lentinan is thought rely on the activation of immune responses; however, little is known about whether Lentinan also directly attacks cancer cells. We therefore investigated the direct antitumor activity of SLNT (a water-extracted polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes) and its probable mechanism. We showed that SLNT significantly inhibited proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells and suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Annxein V-FITC/PI, DAPI, AO/EB and H&E staining assays all showed that SLNT induced cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. SLNT induced apoptosis by activating Caspase-3 via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, which presented as the activation of Caspases-9 and -8, upregulation of cytochrome c and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, downregulation of NF-κB, and overproduction of ROS and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO or antioxidant NAC blocked SLNT-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that SLNT exerts direct antitumor effects by inducing cell apoptosis via ROS-mediated intrinsic and TNF-α-mediated extrinsic pathways. SLNT may thus represent a useful candidate for colon cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27888812

  8. A Phytase Characterized by Relatively High pH Tolerance and Thermostability from the Shiitake Mushroom Lentinus edodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Ying-Ying; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Chen, Qing-Jun; Wang, He-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    A monomeric phytase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa was acquired from fresh fruiting bodies of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes. The isolation procedure involved chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, Affi-gel blue gel, and a final fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The purified phytase demonstrated the unique N-terminal amino acid sequence DPKRTDQVN, which exhibited no sequence similarity with those of other phytases previously reported. It expressed its maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 37°C. Phytase activity manifested less than 20% change in activity over the pH range of 3.0–9.0, considerable thermostability with more than 60% residual activity at 70°C, and about 40% residual activity at 95°C. It displayed a wide substrate specificity on a variety of phosphorylated compounds with the following ranking: ATP > fructose-6-phosphate > AMP > glucose-6-phosphate > ADP > sodium phytate > β-glycerophosphate. The phytase activity was moderately stimulated by Ca2+, but inhibited by Al3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ at a tested concentration of 5 mM. PMID:23586045

  9. A phytase characterized by relatively high pH tolerance and thermostability from the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Ying-Ying; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Chen, Qing-Jun; Wang, He-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    A monomeric phytase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa was acquired from fresh fruiting bodies of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes. The isolation procedure involved chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, Affi-gel blue gel, and a final fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The purified phytase demonstrated the unique N-terminal amino acid sequence DPKRTDQVN, which exhibited no sequence similarity with those of other phytases previously reported. It expressed its maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 37 °C. Phytase activity manifested less than 20% change in activity over the pH range of 3.0-9.0, considerable thermostability with more than 60% residual activity at 70 °C, and about 40% residual activity at 95°C. It displayed a wide substrate specificity on a variety of phosphorylated compounds with the following ranking: ATP > fructose-6-phosphate > AMP > glucose-6-phosphate > ADP > sodium phytate > β -glycerophosphate. The phytase activity was moderately stimulated by Ca(2+), but inhibited by Al(3+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) at a tested concentration of 5 mM.

  10. Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus species lignocellulolytic enzymes activity in submerged and solid-state fermentation of lignocellulosic wastes of different composition.

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Penninckx, Michel; Kachlishvili, Eva; Tsiklauri, Nino; Metreveli, Eka; Kharziani, Tamar; Kvesitadze, Giorgi

    2008-02-01

    Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus species from various origins were compared for the first time for their ability to produce lignocellulolytic enzyme in solid-state (SSF) and submerged (SF) fermentation of various plant raw material. Fungi cultivation in identical culture conditions revealed wide differences among both species and strains of the same species. The yields of CMCase (62.3Uml(-1)), xylanase (84.1 U ml(-1)), FPA (5.9 U ml(-1)), and laccase (4103 Ul(-1)) are the best so far obtained with the strains of oyster mushrooms. The study pointed out that the nature of lignocellulosic material and the method of fungi cultivation are factors determining the expression of lignocellulolytic potential of fungi as well as the ratio of individual enzymes in enzyme complex. SSF of tree leaves is favorable for laccase and MnP secretion by the majority L. edodes and Pleurotus strains, whereas SF provides better production of hydrolytic enzymes.

  11. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against Salmonellosis through up-regulation of the Th1 immune reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, but did, however stimulate uptake of the bacteria i...

  12. Influence of Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei extracts on the prevention of oxidation and retention of tocopherols in soybean oil in an accelerated storage test.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Carolina; Jorge, Neuza

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the methanol extracts of mushrooms Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the retention of tocopherols in soybean oil, when subjected to an accelerated storage test. The following treatments were subjected to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 15 days: Control (soybean oil without antioxidants), TBHQ (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of TBHQ), BHT (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of BHT), L. edodes (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of L. edodes extract) and A. blazei (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of A. blazei extract). The samples were analyzed for tocopherols naturally present in soybean oil and mass gain. The results showed, the time required to reach a 0.5% increase in mass was 13 days for TBHQ and 15 days for A. blazei. The content of tocopherols for TBHQ was 457.50 mg/kg and the A. blazei, 477.20 mg/kg.

  13. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects.

  14. Effects of semi-purified dietary fibers isolated from Lagenaria siceraria, Raphanus sativus and Lentinus edodes on fecal steroid excretions in rats.

    PubMed

    Sannoumaru, Y; Shimizu, J; Nakamura, K; Hayakawa, T; Takita, T; Innami, S

    1996-04-01

    Rats were fed diets, each of which contained 5% of the semi-purified dietary fiber (DF) preparations from three kinds of foods, continuously for a total of 7 weeks. The fat level was varied, and cholesterol (Chol) was added toward the end of the experimental period. After 7 weeks, decreases of serum and liver Chol concentrations were observed in the Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) group when compared to the cellulose (CP) group. In the absence of Chol, fecal excretions of several secondary bile acids and total bile acids were affected by the type of DF, showing an increase particularly in the Shiitake group. Total neutral steroid excretions were decreased in the test DF groups compared to the CP group at both fat levels, and were increased by Chol supplementation in all of the test DF groups. It was demonstrated that the effects of the three DF preparations on fecal steroid excretions somewhat differed depending on the dietary factors. In the absence of Chol, the lithocholic acid (LCA)/deoxycholic acid (DCA) ratio was significantly lowered in the test DF groups compared to the CP group by the fat level elevation, and was affected by the interaction of fiber with fat. This ratio responded more intensely to the dietary factors than the two other indices (composition ratios of fecal bile acids). However, this response was lost in the presence of Chol. These results suggest that further studies are warranted to examine if the intense response of the LCA/DCA ratio to the tested DF preparations and fat in the present study will also be shown to other DF and what significance it has in evaluating the function of DF.

  15. Effect of L-Cysteine Pretreatment on the Control of Formaldehyde and Browning of the Culinary-Medicinal Shiitake Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) during Drying and Canning Processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guijie; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Peng; Chen, Feng; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Fresh culinary-medicinal Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were pretreated by soaking in 0.1 mg/mL of L-cysteine solution for 1 hour; then the variation in formaldehyde content and browning degree were studied during hot air-drying and canning processes. The results indicated that L-cysteine pretreatment significantly inhibited the increase of formaldehyde content and browning during the drying process; these increases in the pretreatment groups ranged from 7.0% to 14.0% and 65.4% to 68.9%, respectively, of that of the control groups. While the L-cysteine pretreatment did not seem to have a significant effect on controlling the formaldehyde content during the canning process, the increase of the browning degree of the canned products of the pretreatment groups ranged from 64.8% to 78.5% of that of the control groups, indicating the inhibitive effect of L-cysteine on browning during the canning process of L. edodes. Overall, L-cysteine pretreatment improved the sensory quality of both dried and canned L. edodes.

  16. Conservation of the mycelia of the medicinal mushroom Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey. in sterile distilled water

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Monserrat; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A.; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing interest in obtaining and studying the biologically active compounds from higher basidiomycetes, such as Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Inonotus obliquus[1], but the techniques for safe long-term storage are time-consuming, susceptible to contamination, and do not prevent genetic and physiological changes during long-term maintenance [2]. A recent strategy for obtaining biologically active compounds is using mycelia submerged cultures of these mushrooms, cultured under controlled laboratory conditions [1]. However, obtaining spores of these fungi under these conditions is difficult, and in most cases the way to obtain the spores is unknown [1]. Therefore, the strategy for mycelium storage seems to be more appropriated and simple.•A modification of Castellani's method [3–7] is proposed for higher basidiomycetes, by using the mycelium of Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey., whose culture filtrates demonstrated bioactivity against lymphoma cells [8].•H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. was grown on malt extract agar with filter paper disks that were removed after 4 days, placed in tubes with sterile distilled water, and stored at 4 °C.•Filter paper disks with H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. stored at 4 °C were confirmed to be viable for up to 18 months, with no visible morphological alterations. PMID:26150929

  17. Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) Economic Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paff, L. A.; D'Allegro, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) conducted a study to measure the economic impact of the five colleges located in Berks County: Alvernia College, Albright College, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus (Penn State Berks) and Reading Area Community College (RACC). Although many higher…

  18. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  19. 75 FR 62920 - Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company-Modified Rail Certificate-in Berks County, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...--Abandonment Exemption--In Berks and Montgomery Counties, Pa., Docket No. AB 1020X (STB served Nov. 18, 2008... via OFA. See E. Penn R.R.--Abandon. Exemption--In Berks and Montgomery Counties, Pa., Docket No. AB 1020X (STB served Jan. 28, 2009). However, the County acquired the Colebrookdale Line under 49 CFR...

  20. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  1. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  2. 37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  3. 40. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  4. 38. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING COMPLETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING COMPLETE SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD ON FRONT WALL - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  5. A genome survey and postharvest transcriptome analysis in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuichi; Nakade, Keiko; Sato, Shiho; Yoshida, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Kazuhiro; Natsume, Satoshi; Konno, Naotake

    2017-03-17

    Lentinula edodes is a popular cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. Lentinula edodes is susceptible to postharvest problems such as gill browning, fruiting body softening, and lentinan degradation. We constructed a de novo assembly draft genome sequence and performed gene prediction of Lentinula edodesDe novo assembly was carried out using short reads from paired-end and mate-paired libraries and long reads by PacBio, resulting in a contig number of 1951 and an N50 of 1 Mb. Further, we predicted genes by Augustus using RNA-seq data from the whole life cycle of Lentinula edodes, resulting in 12,959 predicted genes. This analysis revealed that Lentinula edodes lacks lignin peroxidase. To reveal genes involved in Lentinula edodes postharvest fruiting body quality loss, transcriptome analysis was carried out using Super-SAGE. This analysis revealed that many cell wall-related enzymes are upregulated after harvest, such as β-1,3-1,6-glucan-degrading enzymes in glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 5, 16, 30, 55, 128, and thaumatin-like proteins. In addition, we found several chitin-related genes are upregulated, such as putative chitinases in GH family18, exo-chitinases in GH 20, and a putative chitosanase in GH 75. The results suggest that cell wall-degrading enzymes synergistically cooperate for rapid fruiting body autolysis. Many putative transcription factor genes were upregulated postharvest, such as genes containing high mobility group (HMG) domains and zinc finger domains. Several cell death-related proteins were also upregulated postharvest.Importance Our data collectively suggest that there is a rapid fruiting body autolysis system in Lentinula edodes The genes for postharvest quality loss newly found in this research will be targets for future breeding of strains that can keep freshness longer than present strains. De novo Lentinula edodes genome assembly data will be used for construction of the complete Lentinula edodes chromosome map for the future

  6. A novel cysteine desulfurase influencing organosulfur compounds in Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Lei, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Lian-Fu; Bian, Yin-Bing; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, Salam A.; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Organosulfur compounds are the basis for the unique aroma of Lentinula edodes, and cysteine sulfoxide lyase (C-S lyase) is the key enzyme in this trait. The enzyme from Alliium sativum has been crystallized and well-characterized; however, there have been no reports of the characterization of fungi C-S lyase at the molecular level. We identified a L. edodes C-S lyase (Lecsl), cloned a gene of Csl encoded Lecsl and then combined modeling, simulations, and experiments to understand the molecular basis of the function of Lecsl. Our analysis revealed Lecsl to be a novel cysteine desulfurase and not a type of cysteine sulfoxide lyase. The pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) molecule bonded tightly to Lecsl to form a Lecsl-PLP complex. Moreover, the Lecsl had one active center that served to bind two kinds of substrates, S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and L-cysteine, and had both cysteine sulfoxide lyase and cysteine desulfurase activity. We found that the amino acid residue Asn393 was essential for the catalytic activity of Lecsl and that the gene Csl encoded a novel cysteine desulfurase to influence organosulfur compounds in L. edodes. Our results provide a new insight into understanding the formation of the unique aroma of L. edodes. PMID:26054293

  7. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetonitrile and hexane extracts of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper highlighted the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour. Extracts of mushroom fruiting bodies were obtained using hexane and acetonitrile solvents. Acetonitrile extracts of both mushrooms exhibited higher biological activities than hexane extrac...

  8. Ground wheat straw as a substitute for portions of oak wood chips used in shiitake (Lentinula edodes) substrate formulae.

    PubMed

    Royse, Daniel J; Sanchez, Jose E

    2007-08-01

    Oak woodchips, used for production of shiitake Lentinula edodes (Berk) Pegler, are increasingly difficult to obtain due to dwindling supplies. We investigated the effect of adding ground wheat straw as a substitute for portions of oak woodchips in substrate formulae on mushroom yield and size. We also determined the effect of mushroom cropping on relative feed value (RFV) by chemical analysis of the substrate at spawning (AS) and after cropping (AC). Three formulae containing 0%, 8% and 16% ground wheat straw and 52%, 44% and 36% oak sawdust, respectively, were bulk pasteurized (111 degrees C for 20 min) in an autoclaving mixer, subjected to spawn run (21 d), browning (28 d) and a production cycle of three breaks (38 d). Mean (4 crops) mushroom yields were 11% higher when 8% wheat straw was used in the medium and 19% higher when 16% wheat straw was substituted for portions of oak sawdust. There were no significant differences in mushroom sizes between any of the treatments. Relative feed values of shiitake substrates AC increased more dramatically as more wheat straw was added to the formulae. Using mature alfalfa (full bloom) as a base value of 100%, RFVs for substrate AS were 98%, 92%, and 92% for 0%, 8% and 16% straw, respectively; RFVs AC were 118%, 120% and 133%, respectively. Substrate AC containing 16% straw had a RFV comparable to corn silage (well-eared). Fat contents of the substrates decreased by 50-62% AC, whereas potassium contents decreased by 40%. Use of ground wheat straw in synthetic medium would not only increase mushroom yield by up to 19%, but may help alleviate periodic shortages of oak sawdust. In addition, growers would avoid the added expense of aging the wheat straw (for 8-12 week) as is typically done for oak sawdust in the industry. This is the first report of RFVs for spent shiitake substrate (SSS) predicting its excellent potential for use as animal feed.

  9. Site Optimization Tracker: Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford and Washington Townships, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pilot Region-Based Optimization Program for Fund-Lead Sites in EPA Region 3. Site Optimization Tracking information for Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford and Washington Townships, Berks County, Pennsylvania.

  10. Appraisal of Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Lentinus lepideus in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Kyung Rim; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Cheong, Jong Chun; Yoo, Young Bok; Alam, Nuhu; Ha, Tai Moon

    2011-01-01

    The wild edible mushroom, Lentinus lepideus has recently been cultivated for commercial use in Korea. While the mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes, the possible anti-hyperlipidemic action is unclear. The effects of dietary L. lepideus on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status were investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Six-wk-old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Biochemical and histological examinations were performed. A diet containing 5% L. lepideus fruiting bodies reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, total lipid, phospholipids, and the ratio of low-density to high-density lipoprotein. Body weight was reduced. The diet did not adversely affect plasma biochemical and enzyme profiles. L. lepideus reduced significantly plasma β- and pre-β-lipoprotein, while α-lipoprotein content was increased. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining revealed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. The present study suggests that a diet supplemented with L. lepideus can provide health benefits by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. PMID:22783117

  11. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  12. EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT FACTORS ON THE CONCENTRATION OF A HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYSACCARIDE FRACTION FROM LOG-GROWN SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiitake mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food. Growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the conc...

  13. Effects of management factors on the concentration of a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction from log-grown shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler).

    PubMed

    Kimmons, Tom E; Phillips, Mark; Brauer, David

    2010-04-14

    Shiitake mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food. Growers may be able to use the presence of health-promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide growers. This paper summarizes several studies that examined the effects of shiitake strains, mushroom cap development, and length of saprophytic association on the concentrations of a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction that includes lentinan (HMWP). Concentrations of HMWP in mushrooms varied as much as 8-fold during fruiting among the 12 strains tested in these studies. Results also indicate that the concentrations of HMWP in shiitake mushrooms are influenced by the fungal phenotype and the characteristics of the environment. General trends showed that (1) mushrooms harvested at more immature stages of development (during bud break or before veil break) tended to have higher concentrations of HMWP and (2) the initial harvests of mushrooms from an inoculated log tend to have higher concentrations of HMWP than subsequent harvests. Results suggest that growers interested in maximizing the HMWP content of their mushrooms should use shiitake strains NN-430 and 569-430.

  14. Testing a low molecular mass fraction of a mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract formulated as an oral rinse in a cohort of volunteers.

    PubMed

    Signoretto, Caterina; Burlacchini, Gloria; Marchi, Anna; Grillenzoni, Marcello; Cavalleri, Giacomo; Ciric, Lena; Lingström, Peter; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Daglia, Maria; Zaura, Egija; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David A; Wilson, Michael; Canepari, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Although foods are considered enhancing factors for dental caries and periodontitis, laboratory researches indicate that several foods and beverages contain components endowed with antimicrobial and antiplaque activities. A low molecular mass (LMM) fraction of an aqueous mushroom extract has been found to exert these activities in in vitro experiments against potential oral pathogens. We therefore conducted a clinical trial in which we tested an LMM fraction of shiitake mushroom extract formulated in a mouthrinse in 30 young volunteers, comparing the results with those obtained in two identical cohorts, one of which received water (placebo) and the other Listerine. Plaque index, gingival index and bacterial counts in plaque samples were determined in all volunteers over the 11 days of the clinical trial. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were obtained for the plaque index on day 12 in subjects treated with mushroom versus placebo, while for the gingival index significant differences were found for both mushroom versus placebo and mushroom versus Listerine. Decreases in total bacterial counts and in counts of specific oral pathogens were observed for both mushroom extract and Listerine in comparison with placebo. The data suggest that a mushroom extract may prove beneficial in controlling dental caries and/or gingivitis/periodontitis.

  15. Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) mycelium enhanced antioxidant status in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Mhd Omar, Nor Adila; Abdullah, Sumaiyah; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Aim Lentinus squarrosulus is an edible wild mushroom commonly found in Asia. This species has several interesting features such as rapid mycelial growth, and hence has the potential to be used as food, functional food, and nutraceuticals. Our previous study shows that L. squarrosulus contains potent antioxidant compounds in vitro. This study aims to investigate the in vivo bioavailability of L. squarrosulus mycelium extract and its antioxidant effect on biomarkers of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress. Methods Water extract of mycelial biomass of L. squarrosulus was analyzed for in vivo antioxidant effects, including cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), xanthine oxidase (XO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and lipid hydroperoxides (LHPs) at 0 and 28 days. GPx and XO were also analyzed in liver homogenates. Normal Sprague Dawley rats were treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract for 28 days. Results The serum CUPRAC level increased after treatment with both concentrations, indicating that there was sufficient bioavailability of the extract which contributed to the total antioxidant capacity. GPx activity in both serum and liver was increased and this correlated with LHP level after treatment with 250 mg/kg of extract, but XO activity was significantly decreased after treatment with 500 mg/kg of the extract. Lack of difference between AOPP levels implied that there were no significant changes in oxidative damage of protein after treatment. Conclusion This study clearly showed that L. squarrosulus mycelium antioxidant extract contains absorbable antioxidants that enter the circulating plasma and cause a significant acute increase in plasma antioxidant capacity. Thus, the water extract of L. squarrosulus mycelium, which can be obtained abundantly by liquid fermentation, may serve as an antioxidant ingredient in functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:26604694

  16. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lianfu; Gong, Yuhua; Cai, Yingli; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Zhangyi; Liu, Yin; Lei, Xiaoyu; Wang, Gangzheng; Guo, Mengpei; Ma, Xiaolong; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-01-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation. PMID:27500531

  17. Genetic dissection of fruiting body-related traits using quantitative trait loci mapping in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Yan; Bian, Yin-Bing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    To provide a better understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation of Lentinula edodes, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was employed to uncover the loci underlying seven fruiting body-related traits (FBRTs). An improved L. edodes genetic linkage map, comprising 572 markers on 12 linkage groups with a total map length of 983.7 cM, was constructed by integrating 82 genomic sequence-based insertion-deletion (InDel) markers into a previously published map. We then detected a total of 62 QTLs for seven target traits across two segregating testcross populations, with individual QTLs contributing 5.5 %-30.2 % of the phenotypic variation. Fifty-three out of the 62 QTLs were clustered in six QTL hotspots, suggesting the existence of main genomic regions regulating the morphological characteristics of fruiting bodies in L. edodes. A stable QTL hotspot on MLG2, containing QTLs for all investigated traits, was identified in both testcross populations. QTLs for related traits were frequently co-located on the linkage groups, demonstrating the genetic basis for phenotypic correlation of traits. Meta-QTL (mQTL) analysis was performed and identified 16 mQTLs with refined positions and narrow confidence intervals (CIs). Nine genes, including those encoding MAP kinase, blue-light photoreceptor, riboflavin-aldehyde-forming enzyme and cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase, and cytochrome P450s, were likely to be candidate genes controlling the shape of fruiting bodies. The study has improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation in L. edodes. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide QTL detection of FBRTs in L. edodes. The improved genetic map, InDel markers and QTL hotspot regions revealed here will assist considerably in the conduct of future genetic and breeding studies of L. edodes.

  18. The two modes extension to the Berk-Breizman equation: Delayed differential equations and asymptotic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Marczynski, Slawomir

    2011-09-15

    The integro-differential Berk-Breizman (BB) equation, describing the evolution of particle-driven wave mode is transformed into a simple delayed differential equation form {nu}{partial_derivative}a({tau})/{partial_derivative}{tau}=a({tau}) -a{sup 2}({tau}- 1) a({tau}- 2). This transformation is also applied to the two modes extension of the BB theory. The obtained solutions are presented together with the derived asymptotic analytical solutions and the numerical results.

  19. Production and molecular characterization of somatic hybrids between Pleurotus florida and Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Pijush; Sikdar, Samir Ranjan

    2014-08-01

    Nine inter-generic somatic hybrids named as pfle were produced through PEG-mediated protoplast fusion between Pleurotus florida and Lentinula edodes using double selection method. Hybridity of the newly developed strains was established on the basis of colony morphology, mycelial growth, hyphal traits, fruit-body productivity and inter single sequence repeat (ISSR) marker profiling. Hybrid population was assessed with different phenotypic variables by one-way analysis of variance. Principal component matrices were analyzed for the six phenotypic variables in scatter plot showing maximum positive correlation between each variable for all strains examined. Six ISSR primers generated 66 reproducible fragments with 98.48 % polymorphism. The dendrogram thus created based on unweighted pair-group method with mathematic averages method of clustering and Euclidean distance which exhibited three major groups between the parents and pfle hybrids. Though P. florida parent remained in one group but it showed different degrees of genetic distance with all the hybrid lines belonging to the other two groups while L. edodes was most distantly related to all the hybrid lines. L. edodes specific sequence-rich ISSR amplicon was recorded in all the hybrid lines and in L. edodes but not in P. florida. All the fruit body generating pfle hybrid lines could produce basidiocarp on paddy straw in sub-tropical climate and showed phenotypic resemblance to the P. florida parent.

  20. Prenylhydroquinone-Derived Secondary Metabolites from Cultures of the Basidiomycete Lentinus similis BCC 52578.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Masahiko; Palasarn, Somporn; Sappana, Malipan; Srichomthong, Kitlada; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Hyde, Kevin D

    2015-08-01

    Two new prenylhydroquinone-derived compounds, Ientinospirol (1) and 1-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-l-butanone (2), were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycete Lentinus similis BCC 52578, together with the known compounds panepoxydone (3), panepoxydione (4), isopanepoxydone (5), 2,2-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2H-chromene (6), and (3R,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-methoxychroman (7). Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against all cell-lines tested, while the other compounds were inactive.

  1. Characterization, molecular cloning, and differential expression analysis of laccase genes from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Kwan, H S

    1999-11-01

    The effect of different substrates and various developmental stages (mycelium growth, primordium appearance, and fruiting-body formation) on laccase production in the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes was studied. The cap of the mature mushroom showed the highest laccase activity, and laccase activity was not stimulated by some well-known laccase inducers or sawdust. For our molecular studies, two genomic DNA sequences, representing allelic variants of the L. edodes lac1 gene, were isolated, and DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that lac1 encodes a putative polypeptide of 526 amino acids which is interrupted by 13 introns. The two allelic genes differ at 95 nucleotides, which results in seven amino acid differences in the encoded protein. The copper-binding domains found in other laccase enzymes are conserved in the L. edodes Lac1 proteins. A fragment of a second laccase gene (lac2) was also isolated, and competitive PCR showed that expression of lac1 and lac2 genes was different under various conditions. Our results suggest that laccases may play a role in the morphogenesis of the mushroom. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation in this economically important edible fungus.

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Light-Induced Mycelial Brown Film Formation in Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Li Hua; Tan, Qi; Bao, Da Peng; Zhang, Xue Hong; Jian, Hua Hua; Li, Yan; Yang, Rui heng

    2016-01-01

    Light-induced brown film (BF) formation by the vegetative mycelium of Lentinula edodes is important for ensuring the quantity and quality of this edible mushroom. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenotype is still unclear. In this study, a comparative proteomic analysis of mycelial BF formation in L. edodes was performed. Seventy-three protein spots with at least a twofold difference in abundance on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) maps were observed, and 52 of them were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS). These proteins were classified into the following functional categories: small molecule metabolic processes (39%), response to oxidative stress (5%), and organic substance catabolic processes (5%), followed by oxidation-reduction processes (3%), single-organism catabolic processes (3%), positive regulation of protein complex assembly (3%), and protein metabolic processes (3%). Interestingly, four of the proteins that were upregulated in response to light exposure were nucleoside diphosphate kinases. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic analysis of the mechanism of BF formation in L. edodes. Our data will provide a foundation for future detailed investigations of the proteins linked to BF formation. PMID:27868065

  3. 77 FR 3500 - Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...] Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment Services... Powder Coatings, Inc., Reading, Pennsylvania. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of powder coatings. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 3, 2011 (76...

  4. 76 FR 73684 - Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks... Adjustment Assistance on October 19, 2011, applicable to workers of Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Reading.../Robert Half International were employed on- site at the Reading, Pennsylvania location of Tiger...

  5. [Producing area identification of Letinus edodes using mid-infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhe-Yan; Zhang, Chu; Liu, Fei; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, Mid-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the producing area of Letinus edodes, and relevance vector machine (RVM) was put forward to build classification models as a novel classification technique, and they obtained good performances. The head and the tail of the acquired mid-infrared spectra with the absolute noise were cut off, and the remaining spectra in the range of 3,581-689 cm(-1) (full spectra) of Letinus edodes were preprocessed by multiplicative scatter correction (MSC). Five classification techniques, including partial least Squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), K-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN), support vector machine (SVM) and RVM, were applied to build classification models based on the preprocessed full spectra. All classification models obtained classification accuracy over 80%, KNN, SVM and RVM models based on full spectra obtained similar and good performances with classification accuracy over 90% in both the calibration set and the prediction set. The weighted regression coefficients (Bw) were used to select effective wave numbers of mid-infrared spectra and 6 effective wave numbers in total were selected on the basis of the weighted regression coefficients of PLS-DA model based on full spectra. PLS-DA, KNN, SVM and RVM models were built using these effective wave numbers. Compared with the classification models based on full spectra, PLS-DA models based on effective wave numbers obtained relatively worse results with classification accuracy less than 80%, and KNN, SVM and RVM obtained similar results in both calibration set and prediction set with classification accuracy over 90%. RVM performed well with classification rate over 90% based on full spectra and effective wave numbers. The overall results indicated that producing area of Letinus edodes could be identified by mid-infrared spectroscopy, while wave number selection and the RVM algorithm could be

  6. Decolorization of synthetic melanins by crude laccases of Lentinus polychrous Lév.

    PubMed

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2013-01-01

    Melanins are complex natural pigments that darken the skin and are difficult to degrade. This study evaluated synthetic melanin decolorization by the crude laccase from fungus Lentinus polychrous in the absence and presence of selected redox mediators. The greatest melanin decolorization activity was 87 % at pH 6.5 within 3 h in the presence of 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS), whereas only about 22 % melanin decolorized at pH 5.0 in case of no mediator. The optimum temperatures for melanin decolorization in the absence and presence of ABTS were 55 and 35°C, respectively. Using a natural redox mediator, 1.0 mmol/L vanillin leads to 45 % melanin decolorization. Our results suggest the possibility of applying vanillin for L. polychrous laccase-catalyzed decolorization of melanin.

  7. Oxalic Acid from Lentinula edodes Culture Filtrate: Antimicrobial Activity on Phytopathogenic Bacteria and Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, A-Min; Lee, In-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Yeop

    2016-01-01

    The culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes shows potent antimicrobial activity against the plant pathogenic bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum. Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted using Diaion HP-20 column chromatography, and the insoluble active compound was not adsorbed on the resin. Further fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggested that the active compounds were organic acids. Nine organic acids were detected in the culture filtrate of L. edodes; oxalic acid was the major component and exhibited antibacterial activity against nine different phytopathogenic bacteria. Quantitative analysis by HPLC revealed that the content of oxalic acid was higher in the water extract from spent mushroom substrate than in liquid culture. This suggests that the water extract of spent L. edodes substrate is an eco-friendly control agent for plant diseases. PMID:28154495

  8. [Relationship between the aggressiveness and catalase activity of Septoria nodorum berk. in wheat].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I V; Iarullina, L G; Burkhanova, G F; Zaĭkina, E A

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of hydrogen peroxide (H202) generation, the character of a fungal catalase gene expression, and the catalase activity in wheat plants, infected with Septoria nodorum Berk. strains differing in their aggressiveness, has been carried out. The decreased intensity of H202 accumulation in infected tissues, influenced by an aggressive S. nodorum strain and caused by the enhanced transcriptional activity of the fungal catalase gene and the heightened synthesis of its product, has been revealed to be more expressed compared to a similar decrease influenced by a less aggressive strain. An assumption was made that the expression activity of the catalase gene and, therefore, the activity ofcatalase involved in the regulation of the H202 content in the infected zone represent important factors providing high.aggressiveness and pathogenicity of S. nodorum.

  9. Whole genome de novo sequencing and genome annotation of the world popular cultivated edible mushroom, Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Shim, Donghwan; Park, Sin-Gi; Kim, Kangmin; Bae, Wonsil; Lee, Gir Won; Ha, Byeong-Suk; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Kim, Myungkil; Ryoo, Rhim; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Nou, Ill-Sup; Koo, Chang-Duck; Hong, Chang Pyo; Ryu, Hojin

    2016-04-10

    Lentinula edodes, the popular shiitake mushroom, is one of the most important cultivated edible mushrooms. It is used as a food and for medicinal purposes. Here, we present the 46.1 Mb draft genome of L. edodes, comprising 13,028 predicted gene models. The genome assembly consists of 31 scaffolds. Gene annotation provides key information about various signaling pathways and secondary metabolites. This genomic information should help establish the molecular genetic markers for MAS/MAB and increase our understanding of the genome structure and function.

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Douglassville Disposal Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania (second remedial action), June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-24

    The Douglassville Disposal site occupies approximately 50 acres of land in Union Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. It is almost entirely within the 100-year floodplain of the Schuylkill River. In 1941, Berks Associates began recycling lubrication oil at the site; waste solvents were recycled in the 1950s and 1960s. Wastes generated from those recycling processes were stored in onsite lagoons from 1941 until 1972. In November 1970, heavy rains caused the lagoons to overflow and release 1,000,000 - 3,000,000 gallons of wastes down the Schuylkill River. Operations then turned to the practice of refining waste oils for use as fuel in industrial boilers. Beginning in 1979, oily waste sludge from the new recycling process was landfarmed onsite.

  11. Characterization of the post-harvest changes in gene transcription in the gill of the Lentinula edodes fruiting body.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuichi; Nakade, Keiko; Sato, Toshitsugu

    2009-08-01

    We compared the gene expression patterns of Lentinula edodes fresh fruiting bodies and fruiting bodies 3 days after harvest, by suppression subtractive hybridization, to characterize the physiologic changes that occur after harvest, such as gill browning and cell wall lysis of the fruiting body, which are responsible for the loss of food quality and value. We found increase of transcription levels of several enzyme encoding genes, such as, two phenol oxidases encoding genes (tyr tyrosinase, lcc4 laccase), and several cell wall degradation-related enzyme-encoding genes, such as mixed-linked glucanase (mlg1), chitinases (chi1, chi2), chitin deacetylase (chd1), and chitosanase (cho1), after harvesting. We isolated a putative transcription factor-encoding gene (L. edodes exp1) with high similarity to exp1 from Coprinopsis cinerea, which is involved in autolysis of the cap during spore diffusion. Transcription of L. edodes exp1 increased post-harvest, which suggests that its target genes are up-regulated after harvesting. These enzymes and the transcription factor may be involved in L. edodes fruiting body senescence.

  12. Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berkeley) Pegler) extracts as a modulator of micronuclei induced in HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, C K; Poersch, A; Ribeiro, L R; Eira, A F; Cólus, I M S

    2006-12-01

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berkeley) Pegler) is one of the most consumed mushrooms, for both therapeutic purposes and as food, therefore, the study of its biological properties is of great interest for producers and consumers. Aqueous extracts of the shiitake mushroom (L. edodes (Berkeley) Pegler) were evaluated by the micronucleus test (MN) in HEp-2 cells in vitro, to analyze their possible mutagenic and antimutagenic activities. None of the three extract concentrations tested (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mg/mL) presented mutagenicity at any of the preparation temperatures (4 degrees C, 22+/-2 degrees C and 60 degrees C). In the antimutagenicity evaluation, all extract concentrations at all preparation temperatures presented a strong protective activity for the HEp-2 cells in response to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in the different treatment protocols: pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment and post-treatment. The extracts prepared at 22+/-2 degrees C presented the lowest frequencies of MN in the evaluations of mutagenicity and antimutagenicity, indicating these as the best option for potential therapeutic use.

  13. Polysaccharide and extracts from Lentinula edodes: structural features and antiviral activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lentinula edodes, known as shiitake, has been utilized as food, as well as, in popular medicine, moreover, compounds isolated from its mycelium and fruiting body have shown several therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral activity of aqueous (AqE) and ethanol (EtOHE) extracts and polysaccharide (LeP) from Lentinula edodes in the replication of poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1). Methods The time-of-addition assay was performed at the times -2, -1, 0, 1 and 2 h of the infection. The virucidal activity and the inhibition of viral adsorption were also evaluated. Plaque assay was used to monitor antiviral activity throughout. Results The AqE and LeP were more effective when added at 0 h of infection, however, EtOHE was more effective at the times 1 h and 2 h of the infection. AqE, EtOHE and LeP showed low virucidal activity, and the inhibition of viral adsorption was not significant. Conclusions The results allowed us to conclude that AqE, EtOHE and LeP act on the initial processes of the replication of both strains of virus. PMID:22336004

  14. Effects of certain heavy metals on the growth, dye decolorization, and enzyme activity of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Nóra; Mécs, Imre

    2003-06-01

    Various physiological parameters of Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) in the presence of nine heavy metal salts were investigated. The mycelial growth was highly sensitive to cadmium and mercury, but less sensitive to zinc, copper, and lead. This resistance can be particularly dangerous to humans in the case of edible fungi such as Shiitake because of the possible heavy metal accumulation during growth and fruiting body production. All of the tested heavy metals inhibited decolorization of the dye Poly R-478 and the production of manganese peroxidase to a greater extent than they inhibited growth. Interestingly, with the exception of iron, the addition of all heavy metal salts investigated led to the increase of laccase production. Apart from cadmium and iron, none of the heavy metals inhibited the in vitro enzyme activities in concentrations up to 3mM. The results of this study indicated the applicability of L. edodes in biosorption technologies used in the removal of toxic metals from contaminated effluents and in bioremediation technologies designed to treat complex wastes contaminated with heavy metals in addition to other xenobiotics.

  15. Structural elucidation and immunostimulating property of a novel polysaccharide extracted from an edible mushroom Lentinus fusipes.

    PubMed

    Manna, Dilip K; Maity, Prasenjit; Nandi, Ashis K; Pattanayak, Manabendra; Panda, Bibhash C; Mandal, Amit K; Tripathy, Satyajit; Acharya, Krishnendu; Sahoo, Atish K; Gupta, Nibha; Roy, Somnath; Islam, Syed S

    2017-02-10

    A water soluble heteroglycan (PS-II) with an average molecular weight∼60kDa was isolated from the hot aqueous extract of an edible mushroom Lentinus fusipes. The structural characterization of PS-II was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analyses, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 1D/2D NMR experiments. Total acid hydrolysis indicated the presence of D-galactose and D-glucose in a molar ratio of approximately 1:1. The chemical and NMR analyses revealed that the proposed repeating unit of the PS-II had a backbone chain consisting of three (1→6)-linked α-d-galactopyranosyl residue and two (1→6)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl residues, one of the β-d-glucopyranosyl residue was branched at O-3 position with a terminal β-d-glucopyranosyl. The PS-II exhibited significant in vitro splenocyte and macrophage activations with optimum dose of 20μg/ml and 80μg/ml respectively. Flow cytometry study revealed the protective role of the PS-II against nicotine stimulated lymphocytes. Moreover, the ROS scavenging property of PS-II was also established using DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  16. Bioremediation of engine oil polluted soil by the tropical white rot fungus, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. (Singer).

    PubMed

    Adenipekun, Clementina O; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S

    2008-06-15

    This study was conducted to test the efficacy of an indigenous white rot fungus Lentinus squarrosulus in degrading engine oil in soil. Flasks containing sterilized garden soil (100 g) moistened with 75% distilled water (w/v) were contaminated with engine oil 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40% w/w concentrations, inoculated with L. squarrosulus and incubated at room temperature for 90 days. Levels of organic matter, pH, total hydrocarbon and elemental content (C, Cu, Fe, K, N, Ni, Zn and available P) were determined post-fungal treatment. Results indicate that contaminated soils inoculated with L. squarrosulus had increased organic matter, carbon and available phosphorus, while the nitrogen and available potassium was reduced. A relatively high percentage degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) was observed at 1% engine oil concentration (94.46%), which decreased to 64.05% TPH degradation at 40% engine oil contaminated soil after 90 days of incubation. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Ni recovered from straw/fungal biomass complex increased with the increase of engine-oil contamination and bio-accumulation by the white-rot fungus. The improvement of nutrient content values as well as the bioaccumulation of heavy metals at all levels of engine oil concentrations tested through inoculations with L. squarrosulus is of importance for the bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soils.

  17. Nutritional Composition of Three Domesticated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms: Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuai; Tang, Qing-Jiu; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Chuan-hua; Cao, Hui; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional composition of three recently domesticated culinary-medicinal mushroom species (Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba) was evaluated for contents of protein, fiber, fat, total sugar content, amino acid, carbohydrate, and nucleotide components. The data indicated that fruiting bodies of these three mushroom species contained abundant nutritional substances. The protein contents of L. squarrosulus and O. submucida were 26.32% and 14.70%, which could be comparable to other commercially cultivated species. T. aurantialba contained 74.11% of carbohydrate, of which soluble polysaccharide was 40.55%. Oudemansiella sudmusida contained 15.95% of arabitol as the highest sugar alcohol in three mushrooms. These mushrooms also possessed distinct taste by their flavor component composition. Among them, L. squarrosulus contained 10.68% and 9.25% of monosodium glutamate-like and sweet amino acids, which were higher than the other two mushrooms. However, the nucleotide amounts of the three mushrooms were all lower than those of other commercially cultivated mushrooms. Among them, L. squarrosulus contained the highest amount of flavor nucleotides, which was 1.01‰. Results revealed that these three mushroom species are potentially suitable resources for commercial cultivation and healthy food.

  18. Turmeric bioprocessed with Shiitake mushroom mycelia protects mice against salmonellosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracts of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes and the spice tumeric (Curcuma longa) have both been reported to have health-promoting properties. The present study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of a bioprocessed Lentinus edodes liquid mushroom mycelia culture supplemented with turmeric ...

  19. Aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibit high antioxidant capability and promising in vitro antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Finimundy, T C; Gambato, G; Fontana, R; Camassola, M; Salvador, M; Moura, S; Hess, J; Henriques, J A P; Dillon, A J P; Roesch-Ely, M

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom extracts are increasingly sold as dietary supplements because of several of their properties, including the enhancement of immune function and antitumor activity. We hypothesized that soluble polar substances present in mushroom extracts may show antioxidant and anticancer properties. This report shows that Brazilian aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exert inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the human tumor cell lines laryngeal carcinoma (Hep-2) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa). Cell viability was determined after using 3 different temperatures (4°C, 22°C, and 50°C) for mushroom extraction. Biochemical assays carried out in parallel indicated higher amounts of polyphenols in the L edodes extracts at all extraction temperatures investigated. The scavenging ability of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher activity for L edodes extracts. Superoxide dismutase-like activity showed no statistically significant difference among the groups for the 2 tested extracts, and catalase-like activity was increased with the L edodes extracts at 4°C. The results for the cytotoxic activity from P sajor-caju extracts at 22°C revealed the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.64% ± 0.02% for Hep-2 and 0.25% ± 0.02% for HeLa. A higher cytotoxic activity was found for the L edodes extract at 22°C, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.78% ± 0.02% for Hep-2 and 0.57% ± 0.01% for HeLa. Substantial morphological modifications in cells were confirmed by Giemsa staining after treatment with either extract, suggesting inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis with increasing extract concentrations. These results indicate that the aqueous extracts of Brazilian L edodes and P sajor-caju mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, further investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic uses and to elucidate their modes of

  20. Hydrolytic enzyme activities in shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) strains cultivated on coffee pulp.

    PubMed

    Mata, Gerardo; Salmones, Dulce; Pérez-Merlo, Rosalía

    Hydrolytic enzyme production (cellulases, laminarinases and xylanases) was studied in cultures of Lentinula edodes on sterilized coffee pulp. Samples of substrate colonized by mycelia were taken after 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of incubation at 25°C (W1 to W5) and during the fruiting period at different stages: formation of primordia (PF), first harvest (H) and one week after the first harvest (PH). The enzymatic activity was lower during the early mycelial growth and showed higher levels during the formation and development of fruiting bodies. During the reproductive stage of the fungus, the samples were subjected to a soaking treatment; however, it was not possible to relate this soaking treatment to the increase in enzyme production. The levels of enzymatic activity suggest that secretion of the studied enzymes does not influence the adaptability of the strains to the substrate.

  1. Biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) using vanillin as an activator.

    PubMed

    Tsujiyama, S; Muraoka, T; Takada, N

    2013-07-01

    The white-rot shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, was used to degrade an environmentally hazardous compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), using vanillin as an activator. Vanillin increased the mycelial growth from 74 to 118 mg/150 ml culture and accelerated laccase and Mn-peroxidase production from the maximum on days 24-28 without vanillin to days 10-14. It eliminated 92% of 100 mM DCP with 50 mg vanillin/l compared with only 15% without vanillin. GC-MS revealed that a diaryl ether dimer of DCP was formed in the culture without vanillin, whereas dimer formation was diminished with vanillin addition. This indicates that vanillin enhances the degradation of DCP and disrupts the formation of the toxic dimer. Therefore, lignin-derived phenol such as vanillin can be used as natural and eco-friendly activators to control white-rot mushrooms, thereby facilitating the effective degradation of environmentally hazardous compounds.

  2. Determination of Glucan Contents in the Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia of Lentinula edodes Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Won Chull; Park, Young Ae; Ka, Kang Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) containing β-glucans may be beneficial for human health; they have been used in the treatment of cancer, hypertension, and high cholesterol levels. The objective of this study was to determine the β-glucan content in different sections of the fruiting bodies and mycelia of ten shiitake mushroom cultivars. The measured β-glucan content ranged from 20.06 ± 1.76% to 44.21 ± 0.13% in the pileus sections, and from 29.74 ± 1.40% to 56.47 ± 4.72% in the stipe sections. The results of this study indicate that the variance in β-glucan content dependent on the shiitake cultivar, and that the β-glucan content is higher in the stipe than in the pileus. PMID:25346611

  3. Effects of Aeration of Sawdust Cultivation Bags on Hyphal Growth of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Ham, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Young-Jin; Kim, Eui-Sung; Shim, Kyu-Kwang; Kim, Myung-Kon; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2012-09-01

    The effects of aeration through lid filters on the hyphal growth of Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) in sawdust cultivation bags were investigated. The aeration treatment levels were traditional 27 mm hole cotton plugs, cotton balls and combinations of seven hole sizes × two hole positions (up and under) in the lids covering plastic bags containing 1.4 kg sawdust medium at 63% moisture that had been autoclaved for one hour and inoculated with sawdust spawn of L. edodes strain 921. Aeration treatment effects were measured based on the CO(2) concentration at the 15th wk, as well as the hyphal growth rate and degree of weight loss of bags every 14 days for 15 wk. In bags with traditional cotton plugs, the CO(2) concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3%, daily mean hyphal growth was 2.3 ± 0.6 mm and daily mean weight loss was 0.84 ± 0.26 g. In the bags with 15 mm diameter holes, the CO(2) concentration was 6.0 ± 1.6%, daily hyphal growth was 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and daily weight loss was 0.86 ± 0.4 g. The bags with 15 mm holes had a higher CO(2) concentration and lower water loss than bags with other hole sizes, but the hyphal growth was not significantly different from that of other bags. The weight loss of bags increased proportionally relative to the lid hole sizes. Taken together, these results indicate that traditional cotton plugs are economically efficient, but 15 mm hole lids are the most efficient at maintaining hyphal growth and controlling water loss while allowing CO(2) emissions.

  4. Association Mapping Reveals Genetic Loci Associated with Important Agronomic Traits in Lentinula edodes, Shiitake Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuang; Gong, Wenbing; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Zhiquan; Nong, Wenyan; Bian, Yinbing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Association mapping is a robust approach for the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, by genotyping 297 genome-wide molecular markers of 89 Lentinula edodes cultivars in China, the genetic diversity, population structure and genetic loci associated with 11 agronomic traits were examined. A total of 873 alleles were detected in the tested strains with a mean of 2.939 alleles per locus, and the Shannon's information index was 0.734. Population structure analysis revealed two robustly differentiated groups among the Chinese L. edodes cultivars (FST = 0.247). Using the mixed linear model, a total of 43 markers were detected to be significantly associated with four traits. The number of markers associated with traits ranged from 9 to 26, and the phenotypic variations explained by each marker varied from 12.07% to 31.32%. Apart from five previously reported markers, the remaining 38 markers were newly reported here. Twenty-one markers were identified as simultaneously linked to two to four traits, and five markers were associated with the same traits in cultivation tests performed in two consecutive years. The 43 traits-associated markers were related to 97 genes, and 24 of them were related to 10 traits-associated markers detected in both years or identified previously, 13 of which had a >2-fold expression change between the mycelium and primordium stages. Our study has provided candidate markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and useful clues for understanding the genetic architecture of agronomic traits in the shiitake mushroom. PMID:28261189

  5. Multi-stage IT project evaluation: The flexibility value obtained by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik (2004) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abid, Fathi; Guermazi, Dorra

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a multi-stage information technology investment project, by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik's (2004) model, which takes into account specific features of IT projects and considers the real option to suspend investment at each stage. We present a particular case of the model where the project value is the solution of an optimal control problem with a single state variable. In this case, the model is more intuitive and tractable. The case study confirms the practical potential of the model and highlights the importance of the real-option approach compared to classical discounted cash flow techniques in the valuation of IT projects.

  6. Lentinula edodes enhances the biocontrol activity of Cryptococcus laurentii against Penicillium expansum contamination and patulin production in apple fruits.

    PubMed

    Tolaini, V; Zjalic, S; Reverberi, M; Fanelli, C; Fabbri, A A; Del Fiore, A; De Rossi, P; Ricelli, A

    2010-04-15

    Penicillium expansum is a post-harvest pathogen of apples which can produce the hazardous mycotoxin patulin. The yeast Cryptococcus laurentii (LS28) is a biocontrol agent able to colonize highly oxidative environments such as wounds in apples. In this study culture filtrates of the basidiomycete Lentinula edodes (LF23) were used to enhance the biocontrol activity of LS28. In vitro L. edodes culture filtrates improved the growth of C. laurentii and the activity of its catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, which play a key role in oxidant scavenging. In addition, LF23 also delayed P. expansum conidia germination. The biocontrol effect of LS28 used together with LF23 in wounded apples improved the inhibition of P. expansum growth and patulin production in comparison with LS28 alone, under both experimental and semi-commercial conditions. The biocontrol effect was confirmed by a semi-quantitative PCR analysis set up for monitoring the growth of P. expansum.

  7. Selection of strains of Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana adapted for efficient mycelial growth on wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Mata, G; Delpech, P; Savoie, J M

    2001-09-01

    Mycelial growth rates are presented for 11 strains of Lentinula edodes and six strains of Lentinula boryana cultivated on solid media: derived from malt extract (MEA); malt yeast extract (YMEA); and, YMEA plus soluble lignin derivatives (YMEA+WSLD). The results were compared with data for mycelial growth rates, of the same strains cultivated on substrates derived from wheat straw treated at different temperatures (50, 65, 75 and autoclaving at 121 degrees C). In general, the addition of WSLD significantly reduced mycelial growth rates in both species. The greatest mycelial growth rate was obtained on sterilized straw at 121 degrees C for the majority of strains. However, this growth was not significantly different from that obtained at 75 degrees C. L. edodes showed greater growth rates than L. boryana. The feasibility of using estimates of mycelial growth rate on YMEA and YMEA+WSLD are discussed as possible indicators of a strain's potential for mycelial growth on substrates derived from wheat straw.

  8. γ-ray production in young open clusters: Berk 87, Cyg OB2 and Westerlund 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, W.

    2007-11-01

    Young open clusters are sites of cosmic ray acceleration as indicated by recent detections of the TeV γ-ray sources in the directions of two open clusters (Cyg OB2 and Westerlund 2). In fact, up to now a few different scenarios for acceleration of particles inside open clusters have been considered, i.e. shocks in massive star winds, pulsars and their nebulae, supernova shocks, massive compact binaries. Here we consider in detail the radiation processes due to both electrons and hadrons accelerated inside the open cluster. As a specific scenario, we apply the acceleration process at the shocks arising in the winds of Wolf-Rayet (WR) type stars. Particles diffuse through the medium of the open cluster during the activity time of the acceleration scenario defined by the age of the WR star. They interact with the matter and radiation, at first inside the open cluster and, later in the dense surrounding clouds. We calculate the broad-band spectrum in different processes for three exemplary open clusters (Berk 87, Cyg OB2, Westerlund 2) for which the best observational constraints on the spectra are at present available. It is assumed that the high-energy phenomena, observed from the X-ray up to the GeV-TeV γ-ray energies, are related to each other. We conclude that the most likely description of the radiation processes in these objects is achieved in the hybrid (leptonic-hadronic) model in which leptons are responsible for the observed X-ray and GeV γ-ray emission and hadrons are responsible for the TeV γ-ray emission.

  9. Bioaugmentation of a historically contaminated soil by polychlorinated biphenyls with Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several species belonging to the ecological group of white-rot basidiomycetes are able to bring about the remediation of matrices contaminated by a large variety of anthropic organic pollutants. Among them, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are characterized by a high recalcitrance due to both their low bioavailability and the inability of natural microbial communities to degrade them at significant rates and extents. Objective of this study was to assess the impact of a maize stalk-immobilized Lentinus tigrinus CBS 577.79 inoculant combined with soybean oil (SO), as a possible PCB-mobilizing agent, on the bioremediation and resident microbiota of an actual Aroclor 1260 historically contaminated soil under unsaturated solid-phase conditions. Results Best overall PCB depletions (33.6 ± 0.3%) and dechlorination (23.2 ± 1.3%) were found after 60 d incubation in the absence of SO where, however, the fungus appeared to exert adverse effects on both the growth of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria and the abundance of genes coding for both biphenyl dioxygenase (bph) and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. A significant (P < 0.001) linear inverse relationship between depletion yields and degree of chlorination was observed in both augmented and control microcosms in the absence of SO; conversely, this negative correlation was not evident in SO-amended microcosms where the additive inhibited the biodegradation of low chlorinated congeners. The presence of SO, in fact, resulted in lower abundances of both biphenyl-degrading bacteria and bph. Conclusions The PCB depletion extents obtained in the presence of L. tigrinus are by far higher than those reported in other remediation studies conducted under unsaturated solid phase conditions on actual site soils historically contaminated by Aroclor 1260. These results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy with the maize stalk-immobilized mycelium of this species might be promising in the reclamation of PCB

  10. Polysaccharide-inducible endoglucanases from Lentinula edodes exhibit a preferential hydrolysis of 1,3-1,4-β-glucan and xyloglucan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Takumi; Nakano, Yuki; Takahashi, Machiko; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Konno, Naotake

    2013-08-07

    Three genes encoding glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12) enzymes from Lentinula edodes, namely Lecel12A, Lecel12B, and Lecel12C, were newly cloned by PCR using highly conserved sequence primers. To investigate enzymatic properties, recombinant enzymes encoded by L. edodes DNAs and GH12 genes from Postia placenta (PpCel12A and PpCel12B) and Schizophyllum commune (ScCel12A) were prepared in Brevibacillus choshinensis. Recombinant LeCel12A, PpCel12A, and PpCel12B, which were grouped in GH12 subfamily 1, preferentially hydrolyzed 1,3-1,4-β-glucan. By contrast, LeCel12B, LeCel12C, and ScCel12A, members of the subfamily 2, exhibited specific hydrolysis of xyloglucan. These results suggest that two subfamilies of GH12 are separated based on the substrate specificity. Transcript levels of L. edodes genes increased 72 h after growth of L. edodes mycelia cells in the presence of plant cell wall polymers such as xyloglucan, 1,3-1,4-β-glucan, and cellulose. These results suggest that L. edodes GH12 enzymes have evolved to hydrolyze 1,3-1,4-β-glucan and xyloglucan, which might enhance hyphal extension and nutrient acquisition.

  11. Multi-elemental analysis of Lentinula edodes mushrooms available in trade.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Gąsecka, Monika; Jasińska, Agnieszka; Budzyńska, Sylwia; Budka, Anna

    2017-03-04

    The present study investigated the content of 62 elements in the fruiting bodies of Lentinula edodes (Shiitake mushroom) cultivated commercially in Poland on various substrates from 2007-2015. The general mean content (mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW)) of the studied elements ranked in the following order: K (26,335) > P (11,015) > Mg (2,284) > Ca (607) > Na (131) > Zn (112) > Fe (69) > Mn (33) > B (32) > Rb (17) > Cu (14.5) > Al (11.2) > Te (2.9) > As (1.80) > Cd (1.76) > Ag (1.73) > Nd (1.70) > Sr (1.46) > Se (1.41) > U (1.11) > Pt (0.90) > Ce (0.80) > Ba (0.61) > Co (0.59) > Tl (0.58) > Er (0.50) > Pb (0.42) > Li (0.40) > Pr (0.39) > Ir (0.37) > In (0.35) > Mo (0.31) > Cr (0.29) > Ni (0.28) > Sb (0.26) > Re (0.24) > Ti (0.19) > Bi (0.18) > Th (0.12) > La (0.10) = Pd (0.10) > Os (0.09) = Zr (0.09) > Rh (0.08) > Ho (0.07) > Ru (0.06) > Sm (0.04) = Eu (0.04) = Tm (0.04) > Gd (0.03) > Sc (0.02) = Y (0.02) > Lu (0.01) = Yb (0.01) = V (0.01). The contents of Au, Be, Dy, Ga, Ge, Hf, and Tb were below the limits of detection (0.02, 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, 0.02 mg kg(-1) respectively). The concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Er, Fe, In, Lu, Mn, Nd, Sr, Ti, Tm, and Zr were comparable over the period the mushrooms were cultivated. The study revealed that Lentinula edodes contained As and Cd at levels potentially adverse to human health. This highlights the need to monitor these elements in food products obtained from this mushroom species and ensure that only low levels of these elements are present in cultivation substrates.

  12. Quantitative changes in the biochemical composition of lignocellulosic residues during the vegetative growth of Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Esqueda, Martín; Gutiérrez, Aldo; Beltrán-García, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The chemical changes in barley-straw (BS), wheat-straw (WS) and vineyard-pruning (VP) substrates were determined during colonization of Lentinula edodes mycelia (during primordium development) in solid state fermentation. Primordia appeared 39-50 days after inoculation. VP appeared to promote early sporophore initiation. The concentration of hemicellulose in BS and VP decreased gradually from 25.5% to 15.6% and from 15.8% to 12.3%, respectively. However in WS, hemicellulose decreased from 27.2% to 9.5%. Lignin broke down continuously in BS and WS, with 31.8% and 34.4% degradation, respectively; higher than that of cellulose. During the pinning stage, the C:N ratio decreased in VP and BS, but not in WS. On all substrates the phenols decreased notably throughout the first week of mycelial growth. The time elapsed (days) to pinning was positively correlated with cellulose content (r=0.89), total sugar (r=0.85) and inversely correlated to lignin (r=−1.00) and phenol content (r=−0.55). PMID:24031601

  13. Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharide rejuvenates mice in terms of immune responses and gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Yang, Jiguo; Ning, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by impaired immunity and unbalanced gut microbiota. Prebiotics have the capability to prevent or reverse age-related declines in health by modulating gut microbiota. Mushroom polysaccharides have been suggested to be potential prebiotics. However, their effects on the immunity and gut microbiota in aged mice have not been determined. This study firstly assessed the effects of a heteropolysaccharide L2 isolated from the fruit body of L. edodes on the immune response of aged mice, and then compared the composition of fecal microbiota in adult (N), old (O) and L2-treated old (Oa) mice using the high-throughput pyrosequencing technique. The results showed that L2 can restore the age-attenuated immune responses by increasing cytokine levels in peripheral blood. Moreover, L2 can partly reverse the age-altered composition of gut microbiota. The Euclidean distances (De) among 3 groups (N, O and Oa) are determined to be De(O, N) = 0.19, De(O, Oa) = 0.20, and De(N, Oa) = 0.10, i.e. there is a marked reduction in the distance from 0.19 to 0.1 by L2. This suggests the beneficial effects of L2 on enhancing immunity and improving gut health.

  14. Evaluation of the ground-water resources of parts of Lancaster and Berks Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhart, J.M.; Lazorchick, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Secondary openings in bedrock are the avenues for virtually all ground-water flow in a 626-sqare-mile area in Lancaster and Berks Counties, Pennsylvania. The number, size, and interconnection of secondary openings are functions of lithology, depth, and topography. Ground water actively circulates to depths of 150 to 300 feet below land surface. Total average annual ground-water recharge for the area is 388 million gallons per day, most of which discharges to streams from local, unconfined flow systems. A digital ground-water flow model was developed to simulate unconfined flow under several different recharge and withdrawal scenarios. On the basis of lithologic and hydrologic differences, the modeled area was sub-divided into 22 hydrogeologic units. A finite-difference grid with rectangular blocks, each 2,015 by 2,332 feet, was used. The model was calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state calibration was used to determine hydraulic conductivities and stream leakage coefficients and the transient calibration was used to determine specific yields. The 22 hydrogeologic units fall into four general lithologies: Carbonate rocks, metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and Triassic sedimentary rocks. Average hydraulic conductivity ranges from about 8.8 feet per day in carbonate units to about .5 feet per day in metamorphic units. The Stonehenge Formation (limestone) has the greatest average hydraulic conductivity--85.2 feet per day in carbonate units to about 0.11 feet per day in the greatest gaining-strem leakage coefficient--16.81 feet per day. Specific yield ranges from 0.06 to 0.09 in carbonate units, and is 0.02 to 0.015, and 0.012 in metamorphic, Paleozoic sedimentary, and Triassic sedimentary units, respectively. Transient simulations were made to determine the effects of four different combinations of natural and artificial stresses. Natural aquifer conditions (no ground-water withdrawals) and actual aquifer conditions

  15. Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect.

    PubMed

    Drori, Ariel; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Danay, Ofer; Levanon, Dan; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  16. Constructing a new integrated genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci for vegetative mycelium growth rate in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Liu, Wei; Lu, Ying-Ying; Bian, Yin-Bing; Zhou, Yan; Kwan, Hoi Shan; Cheung, Man Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2014-03-01

    The most saturated linkage map for Lentinula edodes to date was constructed based on a monokaryotic population of 146 single spore isolates (SSIs) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), insertion-deletion (InDel) markers, and the mating-type loci. Five hundred and twenty-four markers were located on 13 linkage groups (LGs). The map spanned a total length of 1006.1 cM, with an average marker spacing of 2.0 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was utilized to uncover the loci regulating and controlling the vegetative mycelium growth rate on various synthetic media, and complex medium for commercial cultivation of L. edodes. Two and 13 putative QTLs, identified respectively in the monokaryotic population and two testcross dikaryotic populations, were mapped on seven different LGs. Several vegetative mycelium growth rate-related QTLs uncovered here were clustered on LG4 (Qmgr1, Qdgr1, Qdgr2 and Qdgr9) and LG6 (Qdgr3, Qdgr4 and Qdgr5), implying the presence of main genomic areas responsible for growth rate regulation and control. The QTL hotspot region on LG4 was found to be in close proximity to the region containing the mating-type A (MAT-A) locus. Moreover, Qdgr2 on LG4 was detected on different media, contributing 8.07 %-23.71 % of the phenotypic variation. The present study provides essential information for QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in L. edodes.

  17. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng; Feng, Zhihong; Shi, Wen; Zhao, Zhihui; Wu, Yongjiang; Wu, Aibo

    2014-08-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most cultivated edible fungi in the world, are usually neglected for mycotoxins contamination due to the initial thinking of its resistance to mycotoxingenic molds. In the present study, a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in L. edodes. Targeted mycotoxins were extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure without any further clean-up step, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (100 × 3 mm, 2.7 μm) with a linear gradient elution program using water containing 5 mM ammonium acetate and methanol as the mobile phase. After validation by determining linearity (R(2) > 0.99), sensitivity (LOQ ≤ 20 ng/kg), recovery (73.6-117.9%), and precision (0.8-19.5%), the established method has been successfully applied to reveal the contamination states of various mycotoxins in L. edodes. Among the 30 tested samples, 22 were contaminated by various mycotoxins with the concentration levels ranging from 3.3-28,850.7 μg/kg, predicting that the edible fungus could be infected by the mycotoxins-producing fungi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about real mycotoxins contamination in L. edodes.

  18. Optimised isolation of polysaccharides from Lentinula edodes strain NCBI JX915793 using response surface methodology and their antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shivani; Khanna, P K; Kapoor, S

    2016-01-01

    Mycelial growth in a defined medium by submerged fermentation is a rapid and alternative method for obtaining fungal biomass of consistent quality. Biomass, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) production were optimised by response surface methodology in Lentinula edodes strain LeS (NCBI JX915793). The optimised conditions were pH 5.0, temperature 26°C, incubation period of 25 days and agitation rate of 52 r/min for L. edodes strain LeS. Under the calculated optimal culture conditions, biomass production (5.88 mg mL(-1)), EPS production (0.40 mg mL(-1)) and IPS production (12.45 mg g(-1)) were in agreement with the predicted values for biomass (5.93 mg mL(-1)), EPS (0.55 mg mL(-1)) and IPS production (12.64 mg g(-1)). Crude lentinan exhibited highest antibacterial effects followed by alcoholic, crude and aqueous extracts. The results obtained may be useful for highly effective yield of biomass and bioactive metabolites.

  19. Assessment of Palm Press Fibre and Sawdust-Based Substrate Formulas for Efficient Carpophore Production of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer

    PubMed Central

    Chiejina, Nneka Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient substrate formulas to improve yield and shorten production time is one of the prerequisites for commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms. In this study, fifteen substrate formulas consisting of varying ratios of palm press fibre (PPF), mahogany sawdust (MS), Gmelina sawdust, wheat bran (WB), and fixed proportions of 1% calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and 1% sucrose were assessed for efficient Lentinus squarrosulus production. Proximate compositions of mushrooms produced on the different substrate formulas were also analysed and compared. Substrate formulations containing 85% PPF, 13% WB, 1% CaCO3, and 1% sucrose were found to produce the highest carpophore yield, biological efficiency and size (206.5 g/kg, 61.96%, and 7.26 g, respectively). Days to production (first harvest) tended to increase with an increase in the amount of WB in the substrate formulas, except for PPF based formulas. The addition of WB in amounts equivalent to 8~18% in substrate formulas containing 80~90% PPF resulted in a decrease in the time to first harvest by an average of 17.7 days compared to 80~90% MS with similar treatment. Nutritional content of mushrooms was affected by the different substrate formulas. Protein content was high for mushrooms produced on formulas containing PPF as the basal substrate. Thus, formulas comprising PPF, WB, CaCO3, and sucrose at 85% : 13% : 1% : 1%) respectively could be explored as starter basal ingredients for efficient large scale production of L. squarrosulus. PMID:26839507

  20. Nutritional value and proteases of Lentinus citrinus produced by solid state fermentation of lignocellulosic waste from tropical region.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ana Rita Gaia; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; de Souza Kirsch, Larissa; Campelo, Maria da Conceição Loureiro; de Aguiar Oliveira, Ila Maria

    2016-09-01

    This paper examined the growth and yield performance of Lentinus citrinus on cupuaçu exocarp (Theobroma grandiflorum) mixed with litter (CE + LI) or rice bran (Oryza sativa) (CE + RB) in the ratio of 2:1 (800 g:200 g) to investigate the nutritional composition and proteolytic potential of the fruiting body produced. Significance values of yield were determined on substrate combinations. In CE + LI the biological efficiency of the mushrooms was 93.5% and the content of fat (4.5%), fiber (11.0%), protein (27.0%) and amino acids were higher when compared with CE + RB. Among the amino acids, the amount of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, arginine and leucine was high. The biological efficiency on CE + RB reduced to 84.2% and based on the nutritional value, carbohydrates (53.59%), energy (324.33 kcal) and minerals such as zinc, iron, copper, potassium and phosphorus were higher in this substrate combination. Protease activity from fruiting body was significant in CE + LI (463.55 U/mL). This protease showed an optimal activity at 50 °C in neutral and alkaline pH with maximum stability at 30 °C at alkaline pH. This is the first report of L. citrinus fruiting body nutritional composition with potential for human food and application in industrial processes.

  1. The tropical white rot fungus, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont.: lignocellulolytic enzymes activities and sugar release from cornstalks under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Adenipekun, Clementina O; Ohimain, Elijah I; Shahbazi, Ghasem

    2012-05-01

    Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., a high temperature tolerant white rot fungus that is found across sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia, is attracting attention due to its rapid mycelia growth and potential for use in food and biodegradation. A solid state fermentation (SSF) experiment with L. squarrosulus (strain MBFBL 201) on cornstalks was conducted. The study evaluated lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, loss of organic matter (LOM), exopolysaccharide content, and the release of water soluble sugars from degraded substrate. The results showed that L. squarrosulus was able to degrade cornstalks significantly, with 58.8% LOM after 30 days of SSF. Maximum lignocellulolytic enzyme activities were obtained on day 6 of cultivation: laccase = 154.5 U/L, MnP = 13 U/L, peroxidase = 27.4 U/L, CMCase = 6.0 U/mL and xylanase = 14.5 U/mL. L. squarrosulus is a good producer of exopolysaccharides (3.0-5.13 mg/mL). Glucose and galactose were the most abundant sugars detected in the substrate during SSF, while fructose, xylose and trehalose, although detected on day zero of the experiment, were absent in treated substrates. The preference for hemicellulose over cellulose, combined with the high temperature tolerance and the very fast growth rate characteristics of L. squarrosulus could make it an ideal candidate for application in industrial pretreatment and biodelignification of lignocellulosic biomass.

  2. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  3. Effect of Tween 80 and Acetone on the Secretion, 
Structure and Antioxidant Activities of Exopolysaccharides from Lentinus tigrinus.

    PubMed

    He, Peixin; Wu, Shuangshuang; Pan, Lige; Sun, Siwen; Mao, Duobin; Xu, Chunping

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the addition of Tween 80 and acetone on secretion, structure and antioxidant activities of Lentinus tigrinus exopolysaccharides (EPS) were investigated. It was found that Tween 80 and acetone displayed a stimulatory effect on EPS secretion. The EPS obtained by the addition of Tween 80 (EPS-T), acetone (EPS-A) and control (EPS--C) were purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration chromatography and molecular mass of purified fractions was estimated to be 22.1, 137 and 12 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that EPS-T, EPS-A and EPS-C were mainly composed of glucose and mannose. Congo Red test indicated that EPS-T and EPS-A had a highly ordered conformation of triple helix, while EPS-C had a random coil conformation. Furthermore, EPS-A exhibited higher DPPH scavenging and antiproliferative activities than EPS--C and EPS-T, which might be attributed to the molecular mass.

  4. Effect of Tween 80 and Acetone on the Secretion, 
Structure and Antioxidant Activities of Exopolysaccharides from Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    He, Peixin; Wu, Shuangshuang; Pan, Lige; Sun, Siwen; Mao, Duobin

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this study, the effects of the addition of Tween 80 and acetone on secretion, structure and antioxidant activities of Lentinus tigrinus exopolysaccharides (EPS) were investigated. It was found that Tween 80 and acetone displayed a stimulatory effect on EPS secretion. The EPS obtained by the addition of Tween 80 (EPS-T), acetone (EPS-A) and control (EPS--C) were purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration chromatography and molecular mass of purified fractions was estimated to be 22.1, 137 and 12 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that EPS-T, EPS-A and EPS-C were mainly composed of glucose and mannose. Congo Red test indicated that EPS-T and EPS-A had a highly ordered conformation of triple helix, while EPS-C had a random coil conformation. Furthermore, EPS-A exhibited higher DPPH scavenging and antiproliferative activities than EPS--C and EPS-T, which might be attributed to the molecular mass. PMID:27956860

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Douglassville Disposal Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The Douglassville Disposal Site occupies approximately 50 acres of land along the southern bank of the Schuylkill River in southeastern Berks County, Union Township, Pennsylvania. Site operations included lubricating-oil recycling in 1941 and waste solvents recycling in the 1950's and 1960's. Wastes generated from these operations were stored in several lagoons located in the northern half of the site until 1972. In November 1970, ten days of heavy rain caused the lagoons to overflow and breach safety dikes releasing 2-3 million gallons of wastes. The dikes were repaired and a Federal decree was issued stating that no more waste material was to be stored in the lagoons. Actions were also initiated to dispose of remaining waste materials. Before the action could be carried out, tropical storm Agnes caused the Schuylkill River to overflow its banks and inundate the entire site. An estimated 6 to 8 million gallons of wastes were released and carried downstream by floodwaters for about 15 miles.

  6. A metabolomics approach to evaluate the effects of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) treatment in undernourished young rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molz, Patrícia; Ellwanger, Joel Henrique; Eliete Iochims dos Santos, Carla; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; de Campos, Deivis; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Prá, Daniel; Putzke, Marisa Terezinha Lopes; Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech

    2014-01-01

    Undernourishment is characterized by a decrease of the metabolic rate as a result of lack of nutrients important to life. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) can be an alternative to reverse undernourishment. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolic changes and consequent elemental concentrations found in undernourished rats and undernourished rats treated with shiitake mushroom (n = 12 rats each group). To determine the elemental concentration, blood samples were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). For metabolomics, blood samples were tested under Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that the supplementation with shiitake mushroom in undernourished rats altered the composition of blood proteins, elements and volume. Several strong correlations were observed between the elemental concentrations and metabolic parameters.

  7. Identification of potent odorants in a novel nonalcoholic beverage produced by fermentation of wort with shiitake (Lentinula edodes).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Horlamus, Felix; Quitmann, Hendrich; Zorn, Holger

    2014-05-07

    Novel refreshments with pleasant flavors were developed by fermentation of wort with basidiomycetes. Among 31 screened fungi, shiitake (Lentinula edodes) produced the most pleasant flavor. It was perceived as fruity, slightly sour, and plum-like. Flavor compounds were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The key odor-active compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometry detector and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). For HS-SPME, a revised method of increasing the GC inlet split ratio was used. Most of the key odor-active compounds (e.g., 2-acetylpyrrole, β-damascenone, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenylethanol) were detected with both extraction techniques. However, distinct differences between these two methods were observed.

  8. A novel Lentinula edodes laccase and its comparative enzymology suggest guaiacol-based laccase engineering for bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kin-Sing; Cheung, Man-Kit; Au, Chun-Hang; Kwan, Hoi-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are versatile biocatalysts for the bioremediation of various xenobiotics, including dyes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, current sources of new enzymes, simple heterologous expression hosts and enzymatic information (such as the appropriateness of common screening substrates on laccase engineering) remain scarce to support efficient engineering of laccase for better "green" applications. To address the issue, this study began with cloning the laccase family of Lentinula edodes. Three laccases perfectio sensu stricto (Lcc4A, Lcc5, and Lcc7) were then expressed from Pichia pastoris, characterized and compared with the previously reported Lcc1A and Lcc1B in terms of kinetics, stability, and degradation of dyes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Lcc7 represented a novel laccase, and it exhibited both the highest catalytic efficiency (assayed with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) [ABTS]) and thermostability. However, its performance on "green" applications surprisingly did not match the activity on the common screening substrates, namely, ABTS and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. On the other hand, correlation analyses revealed that guaiacol is much better associated with the decolorization of multiple structurally different dyes than are the two common screening substrates. Comparison of the oxidation chemistry of guaiacol and phenolic dyes, such as azo dyes, further showed that they both involve generation of phenoxyl radicals in laccase-catalyzed oxidation. In summary, this study concluded a robust expression platform of L. edodes laccases, novel laccases, and an indicative screening substrate, guaiacol, which are all essential fundamentals for appropriately driving the engineering of laccases towards more efficient "green" applications.

  9. Influence of Food Waste Compost on the Yield and Mineral Content of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, and Pholiota adipose Fruiting Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Eun-Young; Choi, Ji-Young; Choi, Jong-Woon

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate applicability of food waste compost (FWC) as a substrate for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, and Pholiota adipose, and to determine contents of Ca, Mg, Na, and K in fruiting bodies (FB). FB yield per substrate in FWC-free controls was 53 ± 4 g/kg for G. lucidum, 270 ± 90 g/kg for L. edodes, and 1,430 ± 355 g/kg for P. adipose. Substrates supplemented with FWC showed the highest FB production at FWC content of 10% for G. lucidum (64 ± 6 g/kg), and 13% for L. edodes (665 ± 110 g/kg) and P. adipose (2,345 ± 395 g/kg), which were 1.2~2.5 times higher than the values for the controls. P. adipose contained higher amounts of mineral elements than the other species. Ca, Mg, Na, and K content in FB did not show a significant relation to FWC content. PMID:24493941

  10. Trace metals related to historical iron smelting at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). The ore used at Hopewell Furnace was obtained from iron mines within 5 miles of the furnace. The iron-ore deposits were formed about 200 million years ago and contain abundant magnetite, the primary iron mineral, and accessory minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, lead, and other metals. Hopewell Furnace, built by Mark Bird during 1770-71, was one of the last of the charcoal-burning, cold-blast iron furnaces operated in Pennsylvania. The most productive years for Hopewell Furnace were from 1830 to 1837. Castings were the most profitable product, especially the popular Hopewell Stove. More than 80,000 stoves were cast at Hopewell, which produced as many as 23 types and sizes of cooking and heating stoves. Beginning in the 1840s, the iron industry shifted to large-scale, steam-driven coke and anthracite furnaces. Independent rural enterprises like Hopewell could no longer compete when the iron and steel industries consolidated in urban manufacturing centers. The furnace ceased operation in 1883 (Kurjack, 1954). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, completed a study at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS) in Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, to determine the fate of toxic trace metals, such as arsenic, cobalt, and lead, released into the environment during historical iron-smelting operations. The results of the study, conducted during 2008-10, are presented in this fact sheet.

  11. Water-quality study of Tulpehocken Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania, prior to impoundment of Blue Marsh Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Blue Marsh Lake is planned as a multipurpose impoundment to be constructed on Tulpehocken Creek near Bernville, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Prior to construction, samples of water, bed material, and soil were collected throughout the impoundment site to determine concentrations of nutrients, insecticides, trace metals, suspended sediment, and bacteria. Analyses of water suggest the Tulpehocken Creek basin to be a highly fertile environment. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations near the proposed dam site had median values of 4.5 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. Suspended sediment discharges average between 100 and 200 tons (90.7 to 181.4 metric tons) per day during normal flows but may exceed 10,000 tons (9,070 metric tons) per day during storm runoff. Highest yields were measured during winter and early spring. Concentrations range from 3 mg/L to more than 500 mg/L. Bed material samples contain trace quantities of aldrin, DDT, DDD, DDE, dieldrin, and chlordane. Polychlorinated biphyenyls (PCB's) ranged from 10 to 100 μg/kg. Soils at the impoundment site are of average fertility. However, the silt loam texture is ideal for attachment and growth of aquatic plants. Bacteria populations indicative of recent fecal contamination are prevalent in the major inflows to the proposed lake. Fecal Coliform exceeded the standards recommended by the Federal Water Pollution Administration Committee on Water Quality Criteria for public water supply in 29 percent of the monthly samples, and exceeded the recommended public bathing waters standard in 83 percent of the samples collected from June to September. Arsenic from an industrial waste was found in the water, suspended sediment, and bed material of Tulpehocken Creek in concentrations of 0 to 30 μg/l, 2 to 879 μg/l, and 1 to 79 μg/g, respectively. It represents a potential environmental hazard; however, the measured concentrations are less than that known to be harmful to man, fish, or wildlife, according to published water

  12. Influence of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on shiitake (Lentinula edodes) yield and mushroom size.

    PubMed

    Royse, Daniel J; Sanchez-Vazquez, Jose E

    2003-11-01

    Synthetic substrate consisting of oak sawdust (50%), white millet (28%), winter rye (11%) and soft red wheat bran (11%) was non-supplemented or supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% (dry weight basis) precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)). Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) was grown in two crops to determine the effect of three CaCO(3) levels on mushroom yield and size. Yields and biological efficiencies (averages for two crops) from substrates non-supplemented with CaCO(3) were lower by 14.1%, 18.4% and 24.9% compared to treatments supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% CaCO(3), respectively. Mushroom size (weight) was larger with non-supplemented substrate (16.8 g) compared to substrate supplemented with 0.6% CaCO(3) (15.1 g). However, mushroom production was more consistent from crop to crop when 0.6% CaCO(3) was added to substrate.

  13. Influence of nitrogen sources on the enzymatic activity and grown by Lentinula edodes in biomass Eucalyptus benthamii.

    PubMed

    Pedri, Z C; Lozano, L M S; Hermann, K L; Helm, C V; Peralta, R M; Tavares, L B B

    2015-11-10

    AbstractLignocellulose is the most abundant environmental component and a renewable organic resource in soil. There are some filamentous fungi which developed the ability to break down and use cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as an energy source. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of three nitrogen resources (ammonium sulfate, saltpetre, soybean) in the holocellulolitic activity of Lentinula edodes EF 50 using as substrate sawdust E. benthamii. An experimental design mixture was applied with repetition in the central point consisting of seven treatments (T) of equal concentrations of nitrogen in ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate and soybean. The enzymatic activity of avicelase, carboxymetilcellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanases and manganese peroxidase was determined. The humidity, pH, water activity (aw) and qualitative analysis of mycelial growth in 8 times of cultivation were evaluated. The results showed negative effect on enzyme production in treatments with maximum concentration of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The treatments with cooked soybean flour expressed higher enzymatic activities in times of 3, 6 and 9 days of culture, except in the activity of manganese peroxidase. The highest production was observed in the treatment with ammonium sulfate, and soybean (83.86 UI.L-1) at 20 days of cultivation.

  14. Influence of nitrogen sources on the enzymatic activity and grown by Lentinula edodes in biomass Eucalyptus benthamii.

    PubMed

    Pedri, Z C; Lozano, L M S; Hermann, K L; Helm, C V; Peralta, R M; Tavares, L B B

    2015-11-01

    Lignocellulose is the most abundant environmental component and a renewable organic resource in soil. There are some filamentous fungi which developed the ability to break down and use cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as an energy source. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of three nitrogen resources (ammonium sulfate, saltpetre, soybean) in the holocellulolitic activity of Lentinula edodes EF 50 using as substrate sawdust E. benthamii. An experimental design mixture was applied with repetition in the central point consisting of seven treatments (T) of equal concentrations of nitrogen in ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate and soybean. The enzymatic activity of avicelase, carboxymetilcellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanases and manganese peroxidase was determined. The humidity, pH, water activity (aw) and qualitative analysis of mycelial growth in 8 times of cultivation were evaluated. The results showed negative effect on enzyme production in treatments with maximum concentration of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The treatments with cooked soybean flour expressed higher enzymatic activities in times of 3, 6 and 9 days of culture, except in the activity of manganese peroxidase. The highest production was observed in the treatment with ammonium sulfate, and soybean (83.86 UI.L-1) at 20 days of cultivation.

  15. Anti-HCV effect of Lentinula edodes mycelia solid culture extracts and low-molecular-weight lignin.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Koji; Yamane, Seiji; Okamoto, Toru; Watari, Akihiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2015-06-19

    Lentinula edodes mycelia solid culture extract (MSCE) contains several bioactive molecules, including some polyphenolic compounds, which exert immunomodulatory, antitumor, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we examined the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity of MSCE and low-molecular-weight lignin (LM-lignin), which is the active component responsible for the hepatoprotective effect of MSCE. Both MSCE and LM-lignin inhibited the entry of two HCV pseudovirus (HCVpv) types into Huh7.5.1 cells. LM-lignin inhibited HCVpv entry at a lower concentration than MSCE and inhibited the entry of HCV particles in cell culture (HCVcc). MSCE also inhibited HCV subgenome replication. LM-lignin had no effect on HCV replication, suggesting that MSCE contains additional active substances. We demonstrate here for the first time the anti-HCV effects of plant-derived LM-lignin and MSCE. The hepatoprotective effect of LM-lignin suggests that lignin derivatives, which can be produced in abundance from existing plant resources, may be effective in the treatment of HCV-related diseases.

  16. Exploring the potential of novel biomixtures and Lentinula edodes fungus for the degradation of selected pesticides. Evaluation for use in biobed systems.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A P; Rodrigues, S C; Caldeira, A T; Teixeira, D M

    2016-01-15

    An approach to reduce the contamination of water sources with pesticides is the use of biopurificaction systems. The active core of these systems is the biomixture. The composition of biomixtures depends on the availability of local agro-industrial wastes and design should be adapted to every region. In Portugal, cork processing is generally regarded as environmentally friendly and would be interesting to find applications for its industry residues. In this work the potential use of different substrates in biomixtures, as cork (CBX); cork and straw, coat pine and LECA (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates), was tested on the degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin pesticides. Bioaugmentation strategies using the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes inoculated into the CBX, was also assessed. The results obtained from this study clearly demonstrated the relevance of using natural biosorbents as cork residues to increase the capacity of pesticide dissipation in biomixtures for establishing biobeds. Furthermore, higher degradation of all the pesticides was achieved by use of bioaugmented biomixtures. Indeed, the biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 were able to mineralize the selected xenobiotics, revelling that these white-rot fungi might be a suitable fungus for being used as inoculum sources in on-farm sustainable biopurification system, in order to increase its degradation efficiency. After 120 days, maximum degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin, of bioaugmented CBX, was 89.9%, 75.0%, 65.0% and 99.4%, respectively.. The dominant metabolic route of terbuthylazine in biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 proceeded mainly via hydroxylation, towards production of terbuthylazine-hydroxy-2 metabolite. Finally, sorption process to cork by pesticides proved to be a reversible process, working cork as a mitigating factor reducing the toxicity to microorganisms in the biomixture, especially in the

  17. The structure and stratigraphy of the Pen Argyl Member of the Martinsburg Formation in Lehigh and Berks counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lash, Gary George

    1978-01-01

    The Pen Argyl Member, the upper claystone slate member of the Martinsburg Formation, was studied in three quadrangles in Lehigh and Berks Counties, Pennsylvania. Graptolites collected from the Pen Argyl Member at Lehigh Gap indicate a lower Upper Ordovician (Edenian-Maysvillian) age for the Pen Argyl Member. The Pen Argyl Member in this area is located on the normal limb and in the brow of the large, recumbent Musconetcong nappe. It is a deep water flysch deposit emplaced by turbidity currents from a southeasterly source. Sedimentologic and structural evidence show that the Pen Argyl member overlies the sandy middle Ramseyburg Member, thus supporting the tripartite subdivision of the Martinsburg Formation. Field and thin section study indicates that the penetrative slaty cleavage formed in an indurated rock probably by pressure solution and neocrystallization under lower greenschist facies metamorphism. Strain-slip cleavage formed as a result of a stress couple operating parallel to the slaty cleavage that transposed the slaty cleavage into a more spaced cleavage. Both cleavages are believed to have formed within the same stress continuum and in close succession. Analysis of the folds in the Pen Argyl Member indicate six phases of major and minor folding. The earliest folding, F1, resulted in the development of the recumbent nappe. F2 folds can only be determined statistically; these axes plunge either northeast or southwest Asymmetric folds, F3, and associated F4 crenulations formed within the same stress continuum. F5 folds are large open folds and are exemplified by the Mosservi!le anticline. Kink folds, F6 and associated crenulations are fault related and were the last folds to form. Faults in the Pen Argyl Member range from small displacements along slaty cleavage to large reverse faults. The largest of these, the Eckville fault, is recognized throughout the three quadrangle area. It is a high angle reverse fault that separates the Shochary sequence from the

  18. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn’s formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  19. Monitoring decay of black gum wood (Nyssa sylvatica) during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vane, Christopher H

    2003-05-01

    Abstract diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) and elemental analysis were employed to monitor biodegradation of black gum wood (Nyssa sylvatica) during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes). Black gum was decayed for up to 4.3 years by L. edodes, during which time it was sampled at 19, 31, and 52 months. Biodegraded woods displayed increased % O (w/w) and decreased % C (w/w) relative to the undecayed control. The DRIFT spectra of decayed black gum showed a decrease in relative intensity of absorption bands at 1735 cm(-1) assigned to carboxyl functional groups from xylans and an increase in the absorption band at 1640 cm(-1) assigned to conjugated carbonyl groups originating from lignin. Xylan decay was rapid initially but slowed after 19 months; however, oxidative decay of the lignin side chains occurred throughout the 52-month decay period. Overall elemental and DRIFT data show that both polysaccharides and lignin were decayed during cultivation of the edible white-rot fungus.

  20. Enhancing Nutritional Contents of Lentinus sajor-caju Using Residual Biogas Slurry Waste of Detoxified Mahua Cake Mixed with Wheat Straw

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Kumar, Ashwani; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Residual biogas slurries (BGS) of detoxified mahua cake and cow dung were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS). Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in protein content (29.6-38.9%), sugars (29.1-32.3%) and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn) was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%), lignin (%), celluloses (%), and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N, and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake) in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%), hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1%) and lignin (27.4-39.23%) in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of L. sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS. PMID:27790187

  1. Biobleaching of Acacia kraft pulp with extracellular enzymes secreted by Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 using low-cost media.

    PubMed

    Afrida, Sitompul; Tamai, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    The white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 have been shown in previous studies to have high biobleaching activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities and stabilities of extracellular enzymes, prepared from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus culture grown in three types of economical media of agricultural and forestry wastes, for biobleaching of Acacia oxygen-delignified kraft pulp using kappa number reduction as an indicator of delignification. After 3 days of incubation, the extracellular enzymes preparations from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus cultures in media of Acacia mangium wood powder supplemented with rice bran and addition 1 % glucose (WRBG), resulted in significant decrease of 4.4 and 6.7 %, respectively. A slightly higher kappa number reduction (7.4 %) was achieved with the combine extracellular enzymes from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus. One of the strategies for reducing the cost of enzyme production for treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry is the utilization of agricultural and forestry waste. Thus, WRBG has potential as a culture medium for producing stable lignolytic enzymes simply and economically.

  2. Improvement of QOL and Immunological Function With Lentinula Edodes Mycelia in Patients Undergoing Cancer Immunotherapy: An Open Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Keishi; Itoh, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Yasunobu

    2016-07-01

    Context • Combined treatment with an extract of Lentinula edodes mycelia (LEM) and chemotherapy has been reported to improve quality of life (QOL) and immunological function in cancer patients. However, those effects have not been elucidated for patients receiving cancer immunotherapy. Objective • The present study intended to investigate the effects of oral LEM on QOL and immunological function in cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. Design • The research team designed an open-label, single-armed pilot study. Setting • The study took place at Bio-Thera Clinic, a facility associated with Tokyo Women's Medical University in Tokyo, Japan. Participants • The participants were 10 cancer patients undergoing cancer immunotherapy at Bio-Thera Clinic. Intervention • The participants received either dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine therapy or CD3-activated T-lymphocyte (CAT) therapy as immunotherapy. They received the immunotherapy only for the first 4 wk of the study, and then oral LEM (1800 mg/d) was added for the next 4 wk. Outcome Measures • Preintervention and at 4 and 8 wk after the start of the study, participants completed a QOL survey, and immunological parameters were measured. Results • Participants' QOL symptom scores increased (ie, worsened) by 5.1 ± 1.7 during the first 4 wk of treatment when they were receiving immunotherapy only, but it decreased (ie, improved) by -2.5 ± 1.6 during the next 4 wk when the immunotherapy was combined with the LEM, P < .05. The measurement of the immunological parameters during the 4 wk of immunotherapy combined with LEM showed that the amount of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) produced in the peripheral blood tended to increase as compared with that during the first 4 wk of immunotherapy only. The rise in IFN-γ was correlated with changes in several regulatory T cells (Tregs) (ie, forkhead box P3 [FOXP3]+/cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4]+ and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]). Conclusions • The

  3. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested

  4. Anticoagulant resistance in the United Kingdom and a new guideline for the management of resistant infestations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.).

    PubMed

    Buckle, Alan

    2013-03-01

    Anticoagulant resistance was first discovered in UK Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) in 1958 and has been present ever since. The possible detrimental impact of resistance on effective rodent control was quickly recognised, and, for almost three decades, extensive research was conducted on the geographical distribution and severity of anticoagulant resistance in UK rats. Various schemes for the eradication of resistant rats were also implemented. At first, surveys showed resistance only to the first-generation anticoagulants, such as warfarin, chlorophacinone and coumatetralyl, but, later, resistance to the more potent second-generation anticoagulants, such as difenacoum and bromadiolone, was also discovered. Unlike some European countries, where only one or two resistance mutations occur, virtually all known rat resistance mutations occur in the United Kingdom, and five (Leu128Gln, Tyr139Ser, Tyr139Cys, Tyr139Phe and Leu120Gln) are known to have significant impacts on anticoagulant efficacy. Little is currently known of the geographical extent of anticoagulant resistance among Norway rats in the United Kingdom because no comprehensive survey has been conducted recently. At an operational level, anticoagulants generally retain their utility for Norway rat control, but it is impossible to control resistant rats in some areas because of restrictions on the use of the more potent resistance-breaking compounds. This paper reviews the development of resistance in Norway rats in the United Kingdom, outlines the present situation for resistance management and introduces a new resistance management guideline from the UK Rodenticide Resistance Action Group.

  5. The H+/K+-ATPase inhibitory activities of Trametenolic acid B from Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat, and its effects on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyin; Huang, Nianyu; Wang, Junzhi; Luo, Huajun; He, Haibo; Ding, Mingruo; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Zou, Kun

    2013-09-01

    Trametenolic acid B (TAB), the bioactive component in the Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat, was reported to possess cytotoxic activities and thrombin inhibiting effects. This study was performed to investigate the effects of TAB on H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and gastric cancer. The H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity was determined by gastric parietal cells. Compared to the normal control group, TAB (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/mL) inhibited the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity by 15.97, 16.96, 24.86 and 16.25%, respectively. In the study, 36 Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, TAB-L (TAB, 5 mg/kg/day, i.g.), TAB-M (TAB, 20 mg/kg/day, i.g.), TAB-H (TAB, 40 mg/kg/day, i.g.) and omeprazole (OL, 10 mg/kg/day, i.g.). All mice except the control group were administrated with anhydrous alcohol (5.0 mL/kg, i.g.) for induced gastric-ulcer 1h after the 5th day. At the same time, the control mice were given the same volume of physiological saline. After 4h, TAB was evaluated for H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities of ulcerative gaster, gastric ulcer index and ulcer inhibition. In vitro, the anti-proliferation effect of TAB to gastric cancer cell (HGC-27) in acid environment was detected by MTT, and the apoptosis morphological changes were also observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. The results indicated that TAB inhibited moderately H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro. Compared to the model group, TAB showed anti-ulcer effects in gastric tissue with the dosages of 20 and 5 mg/kg in vivo. Apart from that, TAB could selectively inhibit gastric cancer cell viability and reduce cell apoptosis against HGC-27 cells at low doses in acid environment.

  6. Water-Soluble Compounds from Lentinula edodes Influencing the HMG-CoA Reductase Activity and the Expression of Genes Involved in the Cholesterol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Caz, Víctor; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Martin-Hernandez, Roberto; Largo, Carlota; Tabernero, María; Marín, Francisco R; Iacomini, Marcello; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2016-03-09

    A water extract from Lentinula edodes (LWE) showed HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity but contained no statins. NMR indicated the presence of water-soluble α- and β-glucans and fucomannogalactans. Fractions containing derivatives of these polysaccharides with molecular weight down to approximately 1 kDa still retained their inhibitory activity. Once digested LWE was applied to Caco2 in transport experiments, no significant effect was noticed on the modulation of cholesterol-related gene expression. But, when the lower compartment of the Caco2 monolayer was applied to HepG2, some genes were modulated (after 24 h). LWE was also administrated to normo- and hypercholesterolemic mice, and no significant lowering of serum cholesterol levels was observed; but reduction of triglycerides in liver was observed. However, LWE supplementation modulated the transcriptional profile of some genes involved in the cholesterol metabolism similarly to simvastatin, suggesting that it could hold potential as a hypolipidemic/hypocholesterolemic extract, although further dose-dependent studies should be carried out.

  7. Evaluation of geophysical logs and aquifer-isolation tests, Phase III, August 2002 to March 2004, Crossley Farm superfund site, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Low, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2002 and March 2004, geophysical logging was conducted in 23 boreholes at the Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical-borehole flow, and fracture orientation where applicable. The boreholes ranged in depth from 71 to 503 ft(feet) below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper (22 boreholes), fluid-temperature (17 boreholes),single-point-resistance (17 boreholes), natural-gamma (17 boreholes), fluid-flow (18 boreholes), and acoustic-televiewer (13 boreholes) logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing zones, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy; the geologist log also provided information on the location of possible water-producing zones. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicated active flow in 10 boreholes. Seven of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas and three boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates lithologic contacts (changes in lithology from a gneiss dominated by quartz-plagioclase-feldspar mineralogy to a gneiss dominated by hornblende mineralogy) are typically fractured, permeable, and effective transmitters of water. Single-well, aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were performed on two boreholes. Packers were set at depths ranging from 210 to 465 ft

  8. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  9. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  10. Studies on the biosynthesis of phenols in fungi. Production of 4-methoxytoluquinol, epoxysuccinic acid and a diacetylenic alcohol by surface cultures of Lentinus degener I.M.I. 110525

    PubMed Central

    Packter, N. M.

    1969-01-01

    1. 4-Methoxytoluquinol was secreted into the medium by surface cultures of the basidiomycete Lentinus degener Kalchbr. (approx. 100mg./l. of medium). In addition, epoxysuccinic acid (150–200mg.) and a long-chain diacetylenic alcohol (3mg.) were also secreted. Epoxysuccinic acid has previously been found in the culture medium of some Fungi Imperfecti. These metabolites were all synthesized during the early phase of growth but maximum production occurred some time later. 2. Supplementation of the medium with cycloheximide or 8-azaguanine inhibited the production of epoxysuccinic acid. 3. Sodium [1-14C]acetate and 6-methyl[14C]salicylic acid were not incorporated into 4-methoxytoluquinol, but [U-14C]tyrosine and [Me-14C]methionine were incorporated to the extent of 0·55 and 4·75% respectively (minimum values). Degradation studies established that the aromatic ring and C-methyl group were derived from the ring and β-carbon atom of tyrosine; the O-methyl group alone was formed from methionine. PMID:5810100

  11. Equilibrium and kinetic studies on biosorption of Pb(II) by common edible macrofungi: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Hao, Ruixia; Yang, Shiqin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we studied the natural bioaccumulation and biosorption of Pb(II) in several common edible macrofungi. The macrofungi include the following species: Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, and Agrocybe cylindracea. The present analysis of Pb(II) revealed distinct capabilities of metal accumulation among individual species. Moreover, the natural concentrations of lead did not reach a health risk level when cultivated in uncontaminated soil. In the biosorption experiment by edible macrofungi, we found that the equilibrium data of living sporocarp (P. eryngii and H. marmoreus) and the homogenate of L. edodes and F. velutipes fit the Freundlich model well. Other data samples exhibited a better fit to the Langmuir model. The edible macrofungi showed a higher lead removal capacity than did other biosorbents. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order kinetics model exhibited the best fit to the biosorption processes. The effectiveness of edible macrofungi as biosorbents for Pb(II) was confirmed.

  12. Mushroom Extracts Decrease Bone Resorption and Improve Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Erjavec, Igor; Brkljacic, Jelena; Vukicevic, Slobodan; Jakopovic, Boris; Jakopovich, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have shown promising effects in the treatment of cancer and various chronic diseases. Osteoporosis is considered one of the most widespread chronic diseases, for which currently available therapies show mixed results. In this research we investigated the in vitro effects of water extracts of the culinary-medicinal mushrooms Trametes versicolor, Grifola frondosa, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus on a MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cell line, primary rat osteoblasts, and primary rat osteoclasts. In an animal osteoporosis model, rats were ovariectomized and then fed 2 mushroom blends of G. frondosa and L. edodes for 42 days. Bone loss was monitored using densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and micro computed tomography. In the concentration test, mushroom extracts showed no toxic effect on MC3T3-E1 cells; a dose of 24 µg/mL showed the most proliferative effect. Mushroom extracts of T. versicolor, G. frondosa, and L. edodes inhibited osteoclast activity, whereas the extract of L. edodes increased osteoblast mineralization and the production of osteocalcin, a specific osteoblastic marker. In animals, mushroom extracts did not prevent trabecular bone loss in the long bones. However, we show for the first time that the treatment with a combination of extracts from L. edodes and G. frondosa significantly reduced trabecular bone loss at the lumbar spine. Inhibitory properties of extracts from L. edodes on osteoclasts and the promotion of osteoblasts in vitro, together with the potential to decrease lumbar spine bone loss in an animal osteoporosis model, indicate that medicinal mushroom extracts can be considered as a preventive treatment and/or a supplement to pharmacotherapy to enhance its effectiveness and ameliorate its harmful side effects.

  13. [Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].

    PubMed

    Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

    2013-01-01

    Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts.

  14. Limnological survey of Sacony Creek Basin, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James L.; Kulp, Kenneth P.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of water, fish and benthic macroinvertabrates collected at 10 sampling stations over a 10-month period indicate that Sacony Creek and its major tributaries contain water of good to excellent quality. The waters were found to be free of excessive quantities of dissolved nutrients, oxidizable matter, and fecal coliform bacteria. (p>Fish inhabitants include a sizabel wild trout population in the upper Sacony basin and a diverse ware-water population, dominated by white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), in the lower basin. A population of 590 trout or 119 pounds per acre (113 kilograms per square hectometre) was estimated for good habitat in the upper basin. A maximum standing crop of 558.7 pounds per acre (626 kilograms per square hectometre) was measured at one of the more productive reaches. Benthic macroinvertebrate collections tended to support he water chemistry and fish population studies. Diversity (d) and redundancy (r) ranged from 2.44 to 3.46 and 0.14 to 0.38, respectively. Such diversity and redundancy values indicate a healthy environment at all stations.

  15. Water resources of Oley Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulachok, G.N.; Wood, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Oley Township covers an area of 24 square miles, about half of which is underlain by highly permeable carbonate rocks. Nondomestic wells in these rocks typically have yields of 200 gallons per minute, and some wells yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. Ground-water yield for Oley Township is about 0.5 million gallons per day per square mile. Thus, about 12 million gallons per day could be pumped from wells on a sustained basis. However, pumping this amount would adversely affect streamflow. A series of discharge measurements on Manatawny Creek in January 1983 showed that the creek was gaining approximately 12 cubic feet per second where it crosses the more- permeable carbonate rocks. Thus, the streams are directly connected to these aquifers. The northern and western parts of the township are mostly underlain by shale, quartzite, granite, gneiss, and carbonate rocks of low permeability, and some wells do not yield enough water for domestic supplies. A water-table map shows that two active quarries in low-permeability rocks have had little effect on the hydrologic system. Specific yields are about 4.5 percent for the carbonate rocks; 5 percent for quartzite, granite, and gneiss; 1 percent for the noncarbonate sedimentary rocks; and 1.5 percent for the Jacksonburg Limestone, which consists of argillaceous limestone. In 1982--a year of average precipitation--the ground-water contribution to total streamflow ranged from 56 to 88 percent. Basins with the highest percentage of carbonate rock contribute the largest amount of ground water to streamflow. Evapotranspiration averaged about 26 inches in 1982. Water loss was 32 inches in the Limekiln Creek basin; this suggests that about 6 inches of precipitation bypassed the Limekiln Creek gaging station as ground-water underflow. The most serious water-quality problems are excessive nitrate concentrations and bacterial contamination. Water from 3 of 19 wells in carbonate rocks had nitrate concentrations in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter. Water from 5 of the 19 wells had fecal streptococci counts of more than 20 colonies per 100 milliliters. Although most agencies concerned with the protection of public health have not set limits for fecal streptococci, they are pathogenic, and their presence in drinking water is undesirable.

  16. Geology and groundwater resources of northern Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles R.; MacLachlan, David B.

    1978-01-01

    The area of investigation comprises approximately 540 square miles and lies entirely within the Great Valley section of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province. The Great Valley is underlain chiefly by carbon ate rocks in the south and by shale and graywacke in the north. Most of the carbonate rocks are included in two great nappes that differ appreciably in stratigraphic detail.

  17. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed.

  18. Screening of lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains and determination of their CMCase and laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels.

  19. Screening of Lignocellulose-Degrading Superior Mushroom Strains and Determination of Their CMCase and Laccase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels. PMID:24693246

  20. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum.

  1. Encapsulation of shiitake (Lenthinus edodes) flavors by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Hirokazu; Yoshii, Hidefumi; Ohe, Hisashi; Yasuda, Masahumi; Furuta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Hiroshige; Ohkawara, Masaaki; Linko, Pekka

    2004-01-01

    Powdery encapsulation of shiitake flavors, extracted from dried shiitake, was investigated by spray drying. Flavor retention increased with an increase in drying air temperature and solid content, and decreased with an increase in dextrose equivalents of maltodextrin. A heat-treatment of the extract liquid made the lenthionine concentration increase, but did not influence the concentrations of the other flavors. The formation of lenthionine with heat-treatment could be described by the consecutive unimolecular-type first order reaction. Lenthionine content in a spray-dried powder prepared with the heated extracted liquid significantly increased. alpha-Cyclodextrin was the most suitable encapsulant of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins to prepare the spray-dried powder, including lenthionine. The flavor retentions were markedly increased by using of alpha-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin in combination as an encapsulant.

  2. Identification and characterization of genes related to cellulolytic activity in basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Volpini, A F N; Thomazine, T; Umeo, S H; Pereira, G A; Linde, G A; Valle, J S; Colauto, N B; Barcellos, F G; Souza, S G H

    2016-09-16

    Enzymes produced by basidiomycetes that are involved in the cellulose degradation process, and their respective codifying genes, must be identified to facilitate the development of novel biotechnological strategies and applications in the agro-industry. The objective of this study was to identify prospective cellulase-producing genes and characterize their cellulolytic activity, in order to elucidate the potential biotechnological applications (with respect to vegetal residues) of basidiomycetes. The basidiomycete strains Lentinula edodes U8-1, Lentinus crinitus U9-1, and Schizophyllum commune U6-7 were analyzed in this study. The cellulolytic activities of these fungi were evaluated based on the halo formation in carboxymethyl cellulose culture medium after dyeing with Congo red. The presence of cellulase-codifying genes (cel7A, cel6B, cel3A, and egl) in these fungal strains was also evaluated. L. edodes and S. commune presented the highest cellulolytic halo to mycelial growth radius ratio, followed by L. crinitus. Four genes were amplified in the L. edodes strain, whereas three and one genes were isolated from L. crinitus and S. commune, respectively. The cel6B gene (L. edodes) presented the conserved domain glyco_hydro_6 and characterized as cellobiohydrolase gene. The results of this study contribute to the existing knowledge on cellulases in basidiomycetes, and serve as a basis for future studies on the expression of these genes and the characterization of the catalytic activity of these enzymes. This allows for better utilization of these fungi in degrading vegetal fibers from agro-industrial residues and in other biotechnological applications.

  3. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world.

  4. Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Zhao, Yingting; Huang, Jijun; Zeng, Hongliang; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-04-15

    Various drying methods play important roles in the preservation of foods. However, how the different drying methods affect the quality of some foods is not clear. This paper evaluates the effects of hot air, vacuum, microwave, and microwave vacuum drying techniques on important qualities and volatile compounds of whole shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. These four drying methods resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) increase in the content of total free amino acids and the relative content of sulfur compounds of dried products. Microwave vacuum drying helped to maintain larger amounts of taste-active amino acids, and improved nutrient retention and color attributes. Furthermore, the uniform honeycomb network created by microwave vacuum drying along with a less collapsed structure of dried samples can be used to explain the observed high rehydration ratio. Therefore, microwave vacuum drying should be a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mushrooms.

  5. Quantification of Water-Soluble Metabolites in Medicinal Mushrooms Using Proton NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Chien, Shih-Chang; Mishchuk, Darya O; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-01-01

    The water-soluble metabolites in 5 mushrooms were identified and quantified using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and software for targeted metabolite detection and quantification. In total, 35 compounds were found in Agaricus brasiliensis, 25 in Taiwanofungus camphoratus, 23 in Ganoderma lucidum (Taiwan) and Lentinus edodes, and 16 in G. lucidum (China). Total amounts of all identified metabolites in A. brasiliensis, T. camphoratus, G. lucidum, G. lucidum (China), and L. edodes were 149,950.51, 12,834.18, 9,549.09, 2,788.41, and 111,726.51 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. These metabolites were categorized into 4 groups: free amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and nucleosides. Carbohydrates were the most abundant metabolites among all 4 groups, with mannitol having the highest concentration among all analyzed metabolites (848-94,104 mg/kg dry weight). Principal components analysis (PCA) showed obvious distinction among the metabolites of the 5 different kinds of mushrooms analyzed in this study. Thus PCA could provide an optional analytical way of identifying and recognizing the compositions of flavor products. Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrate that NMRbased metabolomics is a powerful tool for differentiating between various medicinal mushrooms.

  6. Restoration of Gruber Wagon Works, Blue Marsh Lake, Berks County, Pennsylvania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-11

    Job L.S. $ 21. Painting - - Job L.S. $ 22. Otto Engine Support Systems - - - Job L.S. $ 23. Restoration of Machinery Drive System - - - Job L.5...1.2.2 Corrugated metal pipe arch culvert tailrace section within building. 1.2.3 Underground fuel tank and supply line to Otto Engine . 1.3 Applicable

  7. Natural Language Processing Systems Evaluation Workshop Held in Berkely, California on 18 June 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    superfast type. looped tht it A31l be built with taste by peo. writer ought to be possible in the monolingual case pie who understand languages and...34 in Nirenburg, S. .bhnaon, R, King, M., wid des Tombe, L. (1985) (ed.) Maichine Trenulation: 7heretieel endl "Eutaw& A Multilingual System under

  8. Evaluation of geophysical logs, phase I, for Crossley Farms Superfund Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-one wells were drilled at Crossley Farms Superfund Site between December 15, 1987, and May 1, 1988, to define and monitor the horizontal and vertical distribution of ground-water contamination emanating from a suspected contaminant source area (Blackhead Hill). Eight well clusters were drilled on or near the Crossley Site and three well clusters were drilled at locations hydrologically down gradient from the site. Depths of wells range from 21 to 299 feet below land surface. These wells were installed in saprolite in shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock aquifer. Borehole-geophysical and video logging were conducted between April 24, 1997, and May 8, 1997, to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical flow, borehole depth, and casing integrity in each well. This data and interpretation will be used to determine the location of the well intake for the existing open-hole wells, which will be retrofitted to isolate and monitor water-producing zones and prevent further cross-contamination within each open borehole, and identify wells that may need rehabilitation or replacement. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluidresistivity logs indicated possible fluid-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller?s notes, all wells will be constructed so that water-level fluctuations can be monitored and discrete water samples collected from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones in each well. Geophysical logs were run on seven bedrock and two deep bedrock wells. Gamma logs were run on 10 bedrock wells. Twenty-two wells were inspected visually with the borehole video camera for casing integrity.

  9. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had low concentrations of nutrients and major ions but had elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and strontium when compared to sites sampled in adjacent watersheds. The background site on Baptism Creek generally had the lowest concentrations and yields of constituents. Low concentrations of nutrients and major ions at all five sites indicate that measured concentrations can be attributed to general land use and geology and not to point sources. Streambed-sediment sampling results indicated higher concentrations of all metals except nickel at sites on French Creek compared to the background site on Baptism Creek. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, and nickel were highest in sediment from the sampling site upstream from Hopewell Furnace. The highest concentrations of arsenic, boron, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, and zinc were detected at the site just below Hopewell Furnace, which indicates that the source of these metals may be in Hopewell Furnace NHS. The invertebrate community at the background site on Baptism Creek was dominated by pollution sensitive taxa indicating a healthy, diverse benthic-macroinvertebrate community. Benthic-macroinvertebrate communities at sampling sites on French Creek indicated disturbed communities when compared to the background site on Baptism Creek and that the overall stream quality immediately above and below Hopewell Furnace NHS is degraded. The benthic-macroinvertebrate communities were dominated by pollution-tolerant taxa, and taxa were less diverse than at the background site. Habitat conditions at the upstream site on French Creek were good but were degraded at downstream sites on French Creek. The major habitat issues at these sites were related to a lack of stable substrate, erosion, and deposition. Water quality and streambed-sediment quality do not indicate that the degraded benthic-macroinvertebrate communities are the result of poor water quality. Habitat conditions (erosion and sedimentation) and physical alterations (water temperature) from the outfall of Hopewell Lake are the most likely causes of the impaired communities.

  10. Geohydrology of the Furnace Creek basin and vicinity, Berks, Lancaster, and Lebanon counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Furnace Creek basin is an area of 8.95 square miles, about three- fourths of which is underlain by metamorphic rocks of low permeability. Reported yields for 14 wells in these rocks range from 1 to 60 gal/min (gallons per minute), with a median of 7.5 gal/min. The northern part of the study area consists of highly permeable carbonate rocks. Nondomestic wells in these rocks typically yield from 200 to 300 gal/min and one well yields 1,200 gal/min. Ground-water discharge from a 4.18-square-mile drainage area underlain by Precambrian granitic and hornblende gneiss averaged 868,000 gallons per day per square mile from October 1983 through September 1985. Thus, as much as 3,630,000 gallons per day could be pumped from wells in this area on a sustained basis. However, pumping this amount would have major adverse effects on streamflow. A water-budget analysis for March 1984 to February 1985 showed that precipitation was 52.16 inches, streamflow was 26.38 inches, evapotranspiration was 29.29 inches, ground-water storage decreased by 5.94 inches and diversions made by Womelsdorf-Robesonia Joint Authority for water supply totaled 2.43 inches. Precipitation during this period was above normal. Four of 18 wells sampled for water quality had iron, manganese, or nitrate concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limits. The crystalline rocks in the study area yield soft to moderately hard water that is generally acidic.

  11. Hepatoprotective Effects of Panus giganteus (Berk.) Corner against Thioacetamide- (TAA-) Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wei-Lun; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Kek-Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-01-01

    Panus giganteus, a culinary and medicinal mushroom consumed by selected indigenous communities in Malaysia, is currently being considered for large scale cultivation. This study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus against thioacetamide- (TAA-) induced liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with TAA thrice weekly and were orally administered freeze-dried fruiting bodies of P. giganteus (0.5 or 1 g/kg) daily for two months, while control rats were given vehicle or P. giganteus only. After 60 days, rats administered with P. giganteus showed lower liver body weight ratio, restored levels of serum liver biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters comparable to treatment with the standard drug silymarin. Gross necropsy and histopathological examination further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. This is the first report on hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. The present study showed that P. giganteus was able to prevent or reduce the severity of TAA-induced liver injury. PMID:22649470

  12. 76 FR 12022 - Foreign-Trade Zone 147-Berks County, PA; Site Renumbering Notice; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... County; Site 11 (310 acres)--ProLogis Park 81, Interstate 81 and Walnut Bottom Road, Cumberland County..., Centerville Road, Newville; Site 19 (292 acres, sunset 5/31/2014)--I-81 Commerce Park, Walnut Bottom...

  13. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in the Laccase Gene of Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinula edodes)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Kim, Sangil; Lee, Jung Won; Jeon, Bong-Kyun; Yun, Jung-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    We identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the laccase gene to establish a line-diagnostic system for shiitake mushrooms. A total of 89 fungal isolates representing four lines, including Korean registered, Korean wild type, Chinese, and Japanese lines, were analyzed. The results suggest that SNP markers in the laccase gene can be useful for line typing in shiitake mushrooms. PMID:25892919

  14. Heat-stable components of wood ear mushroom, Auricularia polytricha (higher Basidiomycetes), inhibit in vitro activity of beta secretase (BACE1).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Sheean, Paul; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Head, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of mushrooms has been linked with protection against dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), by several biological pathways including inhibiting beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is responsible for releasing toxic β-amyloid peptide in the brain. We have investigated the capacity of several medicinal mushroom species-Auricularia polytricha (wood ear mushroom), Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom), Flammulina velutipes (winter or enoki mushroom), and Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom)-in the regulation of BACE1. Mushrooms were subjected to a generic food-compatible processing method to detect process-stable or process-modified products; the effects of processing were interpreted to infer the chemical classes associated with bioactivity. We have shown previously that in addition to enzyme inhibition, in the presence of the BACE1 proenzyme, heteropolymeric species such as heparin can activate BACE1 by modulating access to the catalytic site. We observed both inhibitory and activating components of the various mushrooms. Only BACE1 inhibitory species were detected in unprocessed and processed forms of A. polytricha, whereas the dominant extracted species from A. bisporus, F. velutipes, and L. edodese were activators of BACE1. It is not known whether activating species were masking the presence of inhibitory species in A. bisporus, F. velutipes, and L. edodes. Inhibitory species were attributed to hispidin-derived polyphenols, whereas activating species were attributed to soluble polysaccharides and possibly low-mass Maillard products produced during processing. Larger molecular BACE1-activating species are unlikely to be bioavailable to brain in contrast with possible brain bioavailability of smaller, lipophilic hispidins.

  15. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Mattila, P; Könkö, K; Eurola, M; Pihlava, J M; Astola, J; Vahteristo, L; Hietaniemi, V; Kumpulainen, J; Valtonen, M; Piironen, V

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se), vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(12), C, D, folates, and niacin), and certain phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, and phenolic acids) in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Selenium, toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and other mineral elements were analyzed by ETAAS, ICP-MS, and ICP methods, respectively; vitamins were detected by microbiological methods (folates, niacin, and vitamin B(12)) or HPLC methods (other vitamins), and phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (flavonoids) or GC--MS methods (lignans and phenolic acids). Cultivated mushrooms were found to be good sources of vitamin B(2), niacin, and folates, with contents varying in the ranges 1.8--5.1, 31--65, and 0.30--0.64 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), respectively. Compared with vegetables, mushrooms proved to be a good source of many mineral elements, e.g., the contents of K, P, Zn, and Cu varied in the ranges 26.7--47.3 g/kg, 8.7--13.9 g/kg, 47--92 mg/kg, and 5.2--35 mg/kg dw, respectively. A. bisporus/brown contained large amounts of Se (3.2 mg/kg dw) and the levels of Cd were quite high in L. edodes (1.2 mg/kg dw). No flavonoids or lignans were found in the mushrooms analyzed. In addition, the phenolic acid contents were very low.

  16. 78 FR 70537 - University of California, Berkely, et al.; Notice of Decision on Application for Duty-Free Entry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... its template, a DNA gene, while synthesizing the messenger RNA. Having access to higher scan rates in an aqueous environment will provide an unprecedented view of transcription through nucleosomal DNA... events that accompany transcription by RNAP II through the nucleosome including spontaneous...

  17. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus) has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. Methods The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom’s aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF) as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. Results The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g) may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. Conclusions P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are responsible for neurite stimulation. Hence, this mushroom may be developed as a nutraceutical for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22812497

  18. In vitro fermentation characteristics of two mushroom species, an herb, and their polysaccharide fractions, using chicken cecal contents as inoculum.

    PubMed

    Guo, F C; Williams, B A; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A

    2003-10-01

    In vitro fermentabilities of two mushrooms (Lentinus edodes--LenS; Tremella fuciformis--TreS), an herb (Astragalus membranaceus--AstS), and their polysaccharide fractions (LenE, TreE, and AstE) were investigated using microflora from chicken ceca. Polysaccharides were extracted using the hot water method. The mushrooms had lower polysaccharide yields (8 to 10%) than the herb (31%). Fermentation kinetics were determined using the in vitro cumulative gas production technique. End-products, such as gas, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia, were also determined. The gas profiles of intact materials were similar for AstS and LenS. The TreS had a diphasic digestion pattern. The extracts had similar profiles to the intact materials though gas production rates were faster. Intact materials tended to produce less VFA than the extracts though LenS and AstE had the highest total VFA production overall. Intact materials contained more protein than the extracts, and therefore resulted in more branched-chain fatty acids and ammonia. Fermentation kinetics and end-point products demonstrated differences in availability of substrates between the mushrooms and herb. These medicinal mushroom and herb materials, particularly their polysaccharide extracts, show promise in altering microbial activities and composition in chicken ceca. In vivo experiments are necessary for confirmation of this hypothesis.

  19. Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).

    PubMed

    Sliva, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    In Asia, a variety of dietary products have been used for centuries as popular remedies to prevent or treat different diseases. A large number of herbs and extracts from medicinal mushrooms are used for the treatment of diseases. Mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Hericium erinaceum (Yamabushitake), and Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have been collected and consumed in China, Korea, and Japan for centuries. Until recently, these mushrooms were largely unknown in the West and were considered 'fungi' without any nutritional value. However, most mushrooms are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat, cholesterol, and calories. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties, which contribute to their anticancer effects. Furthermore, other bioactive substances, including triterpenes, proteins, lipids, cerebrosides, and phenols, have been identified and characterized in medicinal mushrooms. This review summarizes the biological effects of Ganoderma lucidum upon specific signaling molecules and pathways, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects.

  20. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  1. Novel and rapid method for determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in edible fungus using direct gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled on-line with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nan, Jingxi; Wang, Juan; Piao, Xiangfan; Yang, Cui; Wu, Xue; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-09-01

    In this work a new analytical method for a rapid and simultaneous determination of 28 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) residues in edible fungus using gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE), coupled with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GP-MSE-GC-MS) has been developed and optimized. GP-MSE, a novel gas flow liquid-phase microextraction technique, has been then fruitfully used as innovative and one-step extraction procedure, allowing a direct injection into the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) system without any further cleaning step. Once optimized, the GP-MSE-GC-MS analysis procedure showed reproducibility values, resolutions, linear responses, detection and quantification limits that allowed to consider this method suitable for the analysis of the 28 OPPs in real samples. Furthermore, OPP recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 85.26% to 100.21%, and from 1.6% to 6.9%, respectively. This procedure was then used for the analysis of real samples and the obtained results were compared with those of ultrasonic extraction-solid phase extraction. Among the 28 OPPs, 14 of them were found in Lentinus edodes and Enoki mushrooms fungus samples, with a total concentrations of 112.7 and 210.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated then that GP-MSE-GC-MS provided a highly efficient, solvent-saving, accurate and sensitive quantitative analysis method for a rapid determination of OPPs in edible fungus.

  2. The anticaries effect of a food extract (shiitake) in a short-term clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lingström, Peter; Zaura, Egija; Hassan, Haidar; Buijs, Mark J; Hedelin, Pamie; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David; Daglia, Maria; Karbowiak, Aneta; Signoretto, Caterina; Rosema, Martijn; van der Weijden, Fridus; Wilson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate whether low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom shiitake extract (Lentinus edodes) possesses caries-preventive properties. The study was designed as a double-blind, three-leg, cross-over, randomized, controlled clinical trial carried out on two series of volunteers at the University of Gothenburg, and the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam. Volunteers rinsed twice daily with a solution containing low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom, placebo (negative control without active ingredients), or Meridol (positive control, AmF-SnF(2)) for two weeks, with a two-week washout period between each rinsing period. Changes in the acidogenicity of dental plaque before and after a sucrose challenge, shifts in microbial composition, and plaque scores were determined. Frequent rinses with shiitake reduced the metabolic activity of dental plaque. No reduction of plaque scores and no inhibition of the production of organic acids in plaque was found. Minor differences in microbial composition between test sessions were found. To conclude, the results indicate that shiitake extract has anticariogenic potential, but not to the same extent as the positive control.

  3. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  4. Storage temperature and UV-irradiation influence on the ergosterol content in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; García-Lafuente, Ana; Guillamón, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Ergosterol (5,7,22-ergostatrien-3β-ol) and ergosteryl derivatives from different genera of edible mushrooms were separated and quantified by an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The technique allowed a rapid separation of free ergosterol and two ergosteryl derivatives occurring in mushrooms. The ergosterol content varied considerably depending on the fungus. Thus, the species Agaricus bisporus and Hygrophorus marzuolus presented high quantities of ergosterol (6.4-6.8 mg/g, dry matter) followed by Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe gambosa, Lentinus edodes, and Boletus edulis (3.3-4.0mg/g). In contrast, other species, such as Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus and Craterellus cornucopioides, contained significantly lower ergosterol amounts (0.2-0.4 mg/g). Two ergosteryl derivatives were found in mushrooms and also the content depended on the fungus. The stability of ergosterol, in terms of the formation of ergosterol peroxide, was evaluated under different storage temperatures and UV radiation. The lower the temperature (-20°C) and the radiation time (10 min), the lower ergosterol oxidation was observed.

  5. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Shimizu, Nobuo; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values. PMID:24233028

  6. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  7. Synthesis and swelling properties of β-cyclodextrin-based superabsorbent resin with network structure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin; Fang, Guizhen; Zhang, Bin

    2013-02-15

    A biodegradable, β-cyclodextrin-based superabsorbent resin was synthesized by the inverse suspension method. The microstructure, chemical structure, and thermal performance of the resin were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The effects of the synthesis conditions (dosage of cross-linking agent, mass ratios of acrylic acid to acrylamide, mass ratios of β-cyclodextrin to total monomer, neutralization degree, initiator dosage, and reaction time) were optimized to achieve a resin with a maximum swelling capacity. The water absorbency of the optimized resin in distilled water was 1544.76 g/g and that in 0.9 wt.% NaCl was 144.52 g/g. The resin, which is thermoplastic as well as pH-sensitive, had good salt resistance and underwent a maximum in swelling with time in CaCl(2) and AlCl(3) solutions. The fracture surface of the dry resin contained many pores. After swelling, the internal hydrogel showed a typical three-dimensional network structure. The biodegradation of the resin reached 71.2% after 18 days treatment at 30 °C with Lentinus edodes.

  8. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles of metals and metalloids by basidiomycetes. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by using purified fungal phenol oxidases.

    PubMed

    Vetchinkina, Elena P; Loshchinina, Ekaterina A; Vodolazov, Ilya R; Kursky, Viktor F; Dykman, Lev A; Nikitina, Valentina E

    2017-02-01

    The work shows the ability of cultured Basidiomycetes of different taxonomic groups-Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Grifola frondosa-to recover gold, silver, selenium, and silicon, to elemental state with nanoparticles formation. It examines the effect of these metal and metalloid compounds on the parameters of growth and accumulation of biomass; the optimal cultivation conditions and concentrations of the studied ion-containing compounds for recovery of nanoparticles have been identified. Using the techniques of transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray phase analysis, the degrees of oxidation of the bioreduced elements, the ζ-potential of colloidal solutions uniformity, size, shape, and location of the nanoparticles in the culture fluid, as well as on the surface and the inside of filamentous hyphae have been determined. The study has found the part played by homogeneous chromatographically pure fungal phenol-oxidizing enzymes (laccases, tyrosinases, and Mn-peroxidases) in the recovery mechanism with formation of electrostatically stabilized colloidal solutions. A hypothetical mechanism of gold(III) reduction from HAuCl4 to gold(0) by phenol oxidases with gold nanoparticles formation of different shapes and sizes has been introduced.

  9. Bioactive and Structural Metabolites of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia Species Causal Agents of Cultivated Mushrooms Diseases1

    PubMed Central

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A–E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi—including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.—chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined. PMID:19787100

  10. Screen and effect analysis of immunostimulants for sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Hao, Linhua

    2009-02-01

    Immunostimulants may improve disease resistance of aquaculture animals by promoting the nonspecific immunity response of the organisms. Five types of saccharides, including chitosan, yeast polysaccharide, burdock oligosaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide and lentinus edodes polysaccharide, were screened for potential use as immunostimulants by using spectrophotometry. The saccharides were injected into Apostichopus japonicus, a sea cucumber, and the lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the coelomic fluid and epidermal slime were monitored in six consecutive days. The results show that the lysozyme activity of the animal’s coelomic fluid was significantly stimulated on day 2, day 4 and day 6 after the injection of the saccharides ( P<0.05). The effects of chitosan and yeast polysaccharide were the most notable. The lysozyme activity of the epidermal slime was significantly increased by chitosana, yeast polysaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide, and burdock oligosaccharide on day 1 and day 2 after the injection ( P<0.05). The SOD activity of the coelomic fluid was significantly promoted by the saccharides on day 2 and day 4 post-injection ( P<0.05), while the SOD activity of the epidermal slime increased on day 2. These findings indicate that chitosan and yeast polysaccharide are the most effective immunostimulants and potential healthy anti-disease feedstuff for A. japonicus.

  11. A novel biosorbent: characterization of the spent mushroom compost and its application for removal of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-qiu; Zeng, Guang-ming; Tu, Xiang; Huang, Guo-he; Chen, Yao-ning

    2005-01-01

    The spent mushroom compost of Lentinus edodes was used as a biosorbent for adsorbing cadmium, lead and chromium from solutions under batch conditions for the first time. Titration of the biomass revealed that it contained at least three types of functional groups. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that the carboxyl, phosphoryl, phenolic groups were the main groups. The simulated values of pKH and molar quantity were 5.00 and 0.44 mmol/g, 7.32 and 1.38 mmol/g, 10.45 and 1.44 mmol/g, respectively. The biosorption ability increased with pH in acid condition. When 10 mg/L biomass dosage was added in, there was no significant increment of metal uptake. The maximum uptake estimated with the Langmiur isotherm model were 833.33 mg/g for Cd(II), 1000.00 mg/g for Pb(II) and 44.44 mg/g for Cr(III), respectively. All the results showed that vast potential sorption capacity was existed in the biomass for adsorbing these three kinds of metals studied.

  12. The shiitake mushroom-derived immuno-stimulant lentinan protects against murine malaria blood-stage infection by evoking adaptive immune-responses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian-di; Zhang, Qi-hui; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jun; Cao, Ya-ming

    2009-04-01

    Lentinan, a (1-3)-beta glucan from Lentinus edodes, is an effective immunostimulatory drug. We tested the effects of lentinan during blood-stage infection by Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (P.y17XL). Pre-treatment of mice with lentinan significantly decreased the parasitemia and increased their survival after infection. Enhanced IL-12, IFN-gamma and NO production induced by lentinan in spleen cells of infected mice revealed that the Th1 immune response was stimulated against malaria infection. In vitro and in vivo, lentinan can result in enhanced expression of MHC II, CD80/CD86, and Toll-like receptors (TLR2/TLR4), and increased production of IL-12 in spleen dendritic cells (DCs) co-cultured with parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs). Moreover, both the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the levels of IL-10 secreted by Tregs were reduced by pre-treatment with lentinan in the spleen of malaria-infected mice. Meanwhile, apoptosis of CD4(+) T cell in spleens of mice pretreated with lentinan was significantly reduced. In summary, lentinan can induce protective Th1 immune responses to control the proliferation of malaria parasites during the blood-stage of P.y17XL infection by stimulating maturation of DCs to inhibit negative regulation of the Th1 immune response by Tregs. Taken together, our findings suggest that lentinan has prophylactic potential for the treatment of malaria.

  13. Preparation, characterization, and biological properties of β-glucans

    PubMed Central

    Rahar, Sandeep; Swami, Gaurav; Nagpal, Navneet; Nagpal, Manisha A.; Singh, Gagan Shah

    2011-01-01

    β-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as, interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. β-glucans are found in different species, such as, Rhynchelytrum repens, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Tremella mesenterica, Tremella aurantia, Zea may, Agaricus blazei, Phellinus baummi, Saccharomyces cerevisae (yeast), and Agaricus blazei murell (mushroom). Analysis of the fractions reveals the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces of rhamnose and galactose. The presence of β-glucan in these fractions is confirmed by hydrolyzing the polymers with endo-β-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the characteristic oligosaccharides produced. The 4 M KOH fractions from different tissues are subjected to gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B, with separation of polysaccharides, with different degrees of polymerization, the highest molecular mass (above 2000 kDa) being found in young leaves. The molecular mass of the leaf blade polymers is similar (250 kDa) to that of the maize coleoptiles β-glucan used for comparison. The 4 M KOH fraction injected into rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes has shown hypoglycemic activity, reducing blood sugar to normal levels for approximately 24 hours. This performance is better than that obtained with pure β-glucan from barley, which decreases blood sugar levels for about four hours. These results suggest that the activity of β-glucans is responsible for the use of this plant extract as a hypoglycemic drug in folk medicine. PMID:22171300

  14. Preparation, characterization, and biological properties of β-glucans.

    PubMed

    Rahar, Sandeep; Swami, Gaurav; Nagpal, Navneet; Nagpal, Manisha A; Singh, Gagan Shah

    2011-04-01

    β-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as, interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. β-glucans are found in different species, such as, Rhynchelytrum repens, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Tremella mesenterica, Tremella aurantia, Zea may, Agaricus blazei, Phellinus baummi, Saccharomyces cerevisae (yeast), and Agaricus blazei murell (mushroom). Analysis of the fractions reveals the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces of rhamnose and galactose. The presence of β-glucan in these fractions is confirmed by hydrolyzing the polymers with endo-β-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the characteristic oligosaccharides produced. The 4 M KOH fractions from different tissues are subjected to gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B, with separation of polysaccharides, with different degrees of polymerization, the highest molecular mass (above 2000 kDa) being found in young leaves. The molecular mass of the leaf blade polymers is similar (250 kDa) to that of the maize coleoptiles β-glucan used for comparison. The 4 M KOH fraction injected into rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes has shown hypoglycemic activity, reducing blood sugar to normal levels for approximately 24 hours. This performance is better than that obtained with pure β-glucan from barley, which decreases blood sugar levels for about four hours. These results suggest that the activity of β-glucans is responsible for the use of this plant extract as a hypoglycemic drug in folk medicine.

  15. Bioactive and structural metabolites of pseudomonas and burkholderia species causal agents of cultivated mushrooms diseases.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-05-09

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A-E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi-including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.-chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined.

  16. Anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive potential of sprouted and solid-state bioprocessed soybean.

    PubMed

    McCue, Patrick; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2005-01-01

    Long-term type 2 diabetes can lead to numerous biological complications, such as hypertension and cardio-vascular disease. Key enzymes involved in the enzymatic breakdown of complex carbohydrates,pancreatic alpha-amylase and intestinal alpha-glucosidase, have been targeted as potential avenues for modulation of type 2 diabetes-associated post-prandial hyperglycemia through mild inhibition of their enzymatic activities so as to decrease meal-derived glucose absorption. Further, inhibition of hypertension-linked angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was targeted as a potential approach for modulation of diabetes-linked hypertension. Water-soluble extracts of soybean optimized for phenolic content via sprouting or bioprocessing by dietary fungus (Rhizopus oligosporus, Lentinus edodes) were investigated for inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA), yeast alpha-glucosidase, and rabbit lung ACE in vitro. PPA was allowed to react with each phenolic-optimized extract and the derivatized enzyme-phytochemical mixtures obtained were characterized for residual amylase activity. Alpha-glucosidase and ACE activities were determined in the presence of each phenolic-optimized extract. All of the soybean extracts possessed marked anti-amylase activity, with extracts of R. oligosporus-bioprocessed soybean having the strongest inhibitory activity, but only slight anti-glucosidase activity. The anti-amylase activity of each extract seemed associated with extract antioxidant activity. Anti-enzyme activity was slightly associated with total soluble phenolic content per se, but seemed more associated to the length of sprouting or bioprocessing of the soybean substrate. Short-term sprouting or bioprocessing seemed to improve anti-amylase activity, while long-term sprouting or bioprocessing seemed to aid anti-glucosidase activity. While ACE activity was strongly inhibited by all of the soybean extracts (44-97%), only sprouting was found to increase this inhibition

  17. [Intratumoral administration of biological preparations--recommendation for integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Ebina, T

    2001-10-01

    The antitumor effect of biological preparations was examined in a double grafted tumor system. PSK is a hot water extract of cultured mycelia from Coliolus versicolor. Its protein content is about 38% and the main glycoside portion of PSK is beta-D-glucan. Lentinan is purified from fruit bodies of Lentinus edodes and is a beta-1, 3-glucan. Cepharanthin is an extract from the root of Stephania cepharantha HAYATA, consisting of 4 kinds of biscoclaurine alkaloids. TAHEEBO tea is a hot water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, the active ingredient of which is naphthoquinones. If protein-bound polysaccharides were to be used in Western medicine, these polysaccharides would be purified, but purified beta-glucan loses its beneficial effects. Similarly, when raw Cepharanthin is purified to isolate its active ingredient (an alkaloid cepharanthine), its anti-tumor effect is weakened. Clear IAP induction was observed in serum of mice treated with extracts of Coliolus versicolor and Stephania cepharantha. However, IAP induction was not observed in the serum of mice treated with purified beta-glucan or purified alkaloid. This suggests that macrophages may recognize extracts but not purified substances. In Western medicine, purified substances with known chemical structures are recognized as drugs, but overdoses of these drugs are toxic to the body, thus adverse reactions are always an issue. In Chinese medicine, mixtures containing several crude drugs are recognized as drugs, whose active ingredients are not identified. In integrative medicine, drugs are extracts that contain active ingredients with known structures and functions. We propose a Japanese version of integrative medicine which is neither Western nor Chinese.

  18. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers.

    PubMed

    Guo, F C; Kwakkel, R P; Williams, B A; Li, W K; Li, H S; Luo, J Y; Li, X P; Wei, Y X; Yan, Z T; Verstegen, M W A

    2004-10-01

    (1) This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. (2) Three extracts (LenE, TreE and AstE) were supplemented at inclusion rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg from 7 to 14 d of age and compared with an antibiotic treatment group (20 mg/kg, virginiamycin (VRG) as well as a group of non-supplemented birds. (3) Body weight (BW) gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the extract-supplemented groups were not significantly different from those of the antibiotic group. Significant effects of type of extract and concentration on growth performance were found from 7 to 28 d of age. Generally, birds fed with LenE showed higher BW gain and lower FCR from 7 to 28 d of age than those fed with TreE and AstE and 2 g/kg LenE was considered the optimal inclusion rate for enhanced broiler growth. However, the extracts had no significant effect on the relative weights of organs and GIT compared with the antibiotic group. (4) The birds fed the extracts showed better growth performance than the non-supplemented birds, but were not significantly different from those fed VRG. Of the three extracts, LenE appeared to be a potential growth promoter. Future studies are needed to investigate whether the extracts can be used as alternatives for antibiotic growth promoters in challenged birds, and to elucidate the mechanisms for potentially enhanced growth performance in poultry.

  19. Effects of mushroom and chicory extracts on the shape, physiology and proteome of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity. Previous studies indicated antimicrobial and antiplaque activities in a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction of extracts from either an edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes) or from Italian red chicory (Cichorium intybus). Methods We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. The effects on shape, macromolecular syntheses and cell proteome were analysed. Results The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited only by roughly 50%. The partial inhibition of protein synthesis is compatible with the observed significant increase in cell mass. The increase in these parameters is linked to the morphological alteration with transition from cocci of the untreated control to elongated cells. Interestingly, these modifications were also observed at sub-MIC concentrations. Finally, membrane and cytosol proteome analysis was conducted under LMM mushroom extract treatment in comparison with untreated S. mutans cells. Significant changes were observed for 31 membrane proteins and 20 of the cytosol fractions. The possible role of the changed proteins is discussed. Conclusions This report has shown an antibiotic-like mode of action of mushroom and chicory extracts as demonstrated by induced morphogenetic effects and inhibition of specific macromolecular synthesis. This feature as well as the safe use of this extract as result of its natural origin render the

  20. Preparation of Black Hoof medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus (Berk. et M.A. Curt.) Teng (Aphyllophoromycetideae) beta-glucan sulfate and in vitro tumor cell growth inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Bae, In Young; Shin, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharide beta-glucans were extracted from the medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus (Hymenochaetaceae, Aphyllophoromycetideae) and subjected to sulfation. Chemical modification of the beta-glucan was confirmed by structural analysis, and its biological properties were compared with those of native beta-glucan. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis indicated that successive preparation of the sulfated derivative yielded a degree of substitution of 0.47. Nitric oxide production measured by the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) experiments increased 1.5-fold after sulfation. In addition, the introduction of sulfate groups into the beta-glucan chains improved in vitro growth inhibitory activity against SNU-C2A cells. Therefore, sulfated beta-glucan extracted from Ph. linteus may be beneficial for immune support due to its incorporation of functional groups into its polymer structure.

  1. Estimating the Economic Impact of Higher Education: A Case Study of the Five Colleges in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Professional File Number 117, Summer 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allegro, Mary-Lou; Paff, Lolita A.

    2010-01-01

    Most economic impact studies are prepared by external consultants at significant cost to an individual college, a higher education state system, or a set of institutions with similar Carnegie Classifications. This case study provides a detailed framework that academic institutions may use to derive economic impact estimates without hiring external…

  2. European Specialist Workshop on ’Active Microwave Semiconductor Devices’ (8th) Held at Maidenhead, Berks., UK on 4-6 May 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-06

    Hewitt Raytheon Co , USA 15.45 hrs ’An improved dual-gate MESFET frequency doubler’ H V Shurmer University of Warwick, UK 16.00 hrs TEA I ’V 09.30 hrs...wafers were annealed at either 7500C or 850 0C. Carrier concentration and mobility pro - files of the annealed samples were obtained by differential Hall...spite of a high value of the source resistance (2.30/mm). By applying the Fukui equation F = I + 2Cgs fK.R sR/ gmo , the K factor has been found to be

  3. Characterization of a linear DNA plasmid from the filamentous fungal plant pathogen Glomerella musae [Anamorph: Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and Curt.) arx.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, S.; Redman, R.S.; Grantham, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 7.4-kilobase (kb) DNA plasmid was isolated from Glomerella musae isolate 927 and designated pGML1. Exonuclease treatments indicated that pGML1 was a linear plasmid with blocked 5' termini. Cell-fractionation experiments combined with sequence-specific PCR amplification revealed that pGML1 resided in mitochondria. The pGML1 plasmid hybridized to cesium chloride-fractionated nuclear DNA but not to A + T-rich mitochondrial DNA. An internal 7.0-kb section of pGML1 was cloned and did not hybridize with either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA from G. musae. Sequence analysis revealed identical terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of 520 bp at the ends of the cloned 7.0-kb section of pGML1. The occurrence of pGML1 did not correspond with the pathogenicity of G. musae on banana fruit. Four additional isolates of G. musae possessed extrachromosomal DNA fragments similar in size and sequence to pGML1.

  4. Vacuum-soaking of wood chip shiitake (Lentinula edodes) logs to reduce soak time and log weight variability and to stimulate mushroom yield.

    PubMed

    Royse, D J; Rhodes, T W; Sanchez, J E

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic logs were vacuum-soaked or regular-soaked to determine the effects of soaking on yield and mushroom size, log weight variability and water distribution within the log. Yields (g/log) from substrates vacuum-soaked were higher by 26.7%, 18.6% and 35.8% (mean = 27.2%) for crops I, II and III, respectively, when compared with regular-soaked. However, mushroom size averaged only 11.2 g for vacuum-soaked logs vs 17 g for regular-soaked logs (51.8% larger for regular-soaked). The time required for vacuum-soaking logs was generally less than 3 min, compared with regular-soaking times ranging over 3-15 h. Water tended to accumulate more in the outside zone in the vacuum-soaked logs, compared with regular-soaked logs. Mean moisture contents for crops I and II for outside, middle and interior zones of vacuum-soaked logs were 66%, 47.5% and 42.2%, respectively, while regular-soaked logs for the same zones were 62.4%, 52.1% and 50.9%, respectively. Vacuum-soaked log weights had lower standard deviations than weights for regular-soaked logs in four out of six soaks, indicating a more uniform soaking process.

  5. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu Ting; Wasser, Solomon P

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are part of fungal biota characterized by wonder. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet they become so bountiful and nourishing. Mushrooms are environmentally friendly. They biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues, which would otherwise cause health hazards. The extant records show the continued use of some mushrooms, e.g., Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps sinensis are now centuries old. This review presents a pyramid model for mushroom uses (industries), as food, dietary supplements (tonic), and medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make us healthier, fitter, and happier, and help us live longer. The sense of purpose and vision for the mushroom industries is also briefly discussed. A variety of mushrooms have been used traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health and in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MM) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. In particular, the most important for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully as drugs in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Mushrooms are superior sources of different types of dietary supplements (DSs

  6. The Cryptococcus neoformans Gene DHA1 Encodes an Antigen That Elicits a Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction in Immune Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, M. Alejandra; Grace, Greg G.; Orsborn, Kris I.; Schafer, Fredda; Murphy, Juneann W.; Orbach, Marc J.; Galgiani, John N.

    2000-01-01

    When mice are vaccinated with a culture filtrate from Cryptococcus neoformans (CneF), they mount a protective cell-mediated immune response as detected by dermal delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to CneF. We have identified a gene (DHA1) whose product accounts at least in part for the DTH reactivity. Using an acapsular mutant (Cap-67) of C. neoformans strain B3501, we prepared a culture filtrate (CneF-Cap67) similar to that used for preparing the commonly used skin test antigen made with C. neoformans 184A (CneF-184A). CneF-Cap67 elicited DTH in mice immunized with CneF-184A. Deglycosylation of CneF-Cap67 did not diminish its DTH activity. Furthermore, size separation by either chromatography or differential centrifugation identified the major DTH activity of CneF-Cap67 to be present in fractions that contained proteins of approximately 19 to 20 kDa. Using N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences derived from the 20-kDa band, oligonucleotide primers were designed, two of which produced a 776-bp amplimer by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using RNA from Cap-67 to prepare cDNA for the template. The amplimer was used as a probe to isolate clones containing the full-length DHA1 gene from a phage genomic library prepared from strain B3501. The full-length cDNA was obtained by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends and RT-PCR. Analysis of DHA1 revealed a similarity between the deduced open reading frame and that of a developmentally regulated gene from Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom) associated with fruiting-body formation. Also, the gene product contained several amino acid sequences identical to those determined biochemically from the purified 20-kDa peptide encoded by DHA1. Recombinant DHA1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to elicit DTH reactions similar to those elicited by CneF-Cap67 in mice immunized against C. neoformans. Thus, DHA1 is the first gene to be cloned from C. neoformans whose product has been shown to possess immunologic

  7. National Dam Inspection Program. Stanford Avenue Stormwater Retention Pond (NDI Number PA-01146, DER Number 6-467), Delaware River Basin, Tributary to Wyomissing Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    refusal and six borings were drilled 10 feet into rock. Laboratory testinq included phvsical properties and compaction tests. Borrow materials from...be given to installing a trash rack at the low level outlet in the event that the fence should fail during a large storm oermitting large debris to...DAM STABILITY SEEPAGE STUDIES MATERIALS INVESTIGATIONS BORING RECORDS LABORATORY Complete records are located in FIELD the Township Engineer’s files

  8. National Dam Inspection Program. Hopewell Dam (NDS I.D. Number PA 00724, DER I.D. Number 6-401), Delaware River Basin, Scotts Run, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    and possible loss of life in the event of failure, a formal procedure of observation and warning during periods of high precipitation should be... periodically . Visual inspection indicated two small holes in the mortar of the small stones of the ogee section between the notch and the left spillway...surveillance of the dam during periods of high rainfall runoff. It is also noted that the manual contains factual errors relative to the physical

  9. Development of Biomimetic Surfaces by Vesicle Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Gawrisch, K., Krueger, S., Orts, W., Majkrzak, C. F., Berk, N., and Silverton , J. V., 1996), atomic force microscopy (Egawa, H. and Furusawa, K...W., Majkrzak, C. F., Berk, N., and Silverton , J. V., 1996; Lingler, S., Rubinstein, I., Knoll, W., and Offenhausser, A., 1997; Reimhult, E., Hook...Biophysical Journal, 73, 1954-1966. Koenig, B. W., K. Gawrisch, S. Krueger, W. Orts, C. F. Majkrzak, N. Berk, and J. V. Silverton , 1996: Membrane

  10. Structural details below roadway, looking north from south abutment. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structural details below roadway, looking north from south abutment. - Pleasantville Covered Bridge, Spanning Little Manatawny Creek at Covered Bridge Road (State Route 1030), Manatawny, Berks County, PA

  11. 5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN CRIB-WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB, PIG BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  12. 4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN CRIB, -WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  13. 3. Anthony Bley, Photographer. September, 1976 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Anthony Bley, Photographer. September, 1976 L TO R: CORN CRIB, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, BARN, MILKSHED - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  14. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; the structure at right is the Keim Stone Cabin, HABS No. PA-1041). - Keim House, West of Lobachsville (Pike Township), Lobachsville, Berks County, PA

  15. ELEVATION VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH PEDESTRIAN SUSPENSION BRIDGE (HAER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH PEDESTRIAN SUSPENSION BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-120) AT RIGHT. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA

  16. 3. DETAIL OF WEST TOWER, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF WEST TOWER, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  17. 4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END OF SPAN, LOOKING SW, SHOWING RIBBED ARCH CONSTRUCTION. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Peacock's Lock Viaduct, Spanning Schuykill River at Reading Railroad, Reading, Berks County, PA

  18. LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-116). - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot Bridge, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA

  19. 2. LOOKING NW, WITH READING DEPOT IN BACKGROUND. Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NW, WITH READING DEPOT IN BACKGROUND. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  20. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  1. 4. VIEW RECONSTRUCTED TOWER, LOOKING NNE. Philadelphia & Reading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW RECONSTRUCTED TOWER, LOOKING NNE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  2. 18. June 1974. BASEMENT, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING BELTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. June 1974. BASEMENT, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING BELTING AND ENGAGING MECHANISM FOR DRIVING THE TABLE SAW. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF END OF TRUSS SHOWING CONNECTION OF DECORATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF END OF TRUSS SHOWING CONNECTION OF DECORATIVE "KNEE", RAILING ENDPOST AND UPPER AND LOWER CHORDS - Scarlets Mill Bridge, Spanning former Reading Railroad, Scarlets Mill, Berks County, PA

  4. Anticipating the Social Consequences of AIDS: A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on the social consequences of the AIDS epidemic, arguing that sociologists have an important contribution to make in planning for the long-range social consequences of AIDS. Concludes with three different commentaries on Berk's article. (Author/BSR)

  5. 158. BLACKSMITH SHOP, DRIVE SHAFT FOR BLACKSMITH AND WOOD SHOPS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. BLACKSMITH SHOP, DRIVE SHAFT FOR BLACKSMITH AND WOOD SHOPS. BELT ON RIGHT POWERS GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  6. 2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE TOPOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE APPROACH ROAD. - Speicher Bridge, Church Road over Tulpehocken Creek between Penn & North Heidelberg Townships, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE PAINTED RED. HEX SIGNS ARE PAINTED OCHRE, BLACK, RED, WHITE AND BLUE. NOTE PAINTED FLAGS ON SHED - Decorated White Barn, (Maiden Creek Township), Maiden Creek, Berks County, PA

  8. 1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND FADED PAINTINGS OF FARM ANIMALS: COW, DONKEYS AND HORSE. - De Turck House, Barn, State Route 662 vicinity, Oley Township, Oley, Berks County, PA

  9. 75 FR 23841 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Reading Regional Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... to Berks County Industrial Development Authority. The property was transferred to the City of Reading... needed for airport development as shown on the Airport Layout Plan. Any proceeds from the sale...

  10. Carbon-fiber microelectrode amperometry reveals sickle-cell-induced inflammation and chronic morphine effects on single mast cells.

    PubMed

    Manning, Benjamin M; Hebbel, Robert P; Gupta, Kalpna; Haynes, Christy L

    2012-03-16

    Sickle cell disease, caused by a mutation of hemoglobin, is characterized by a complex pathophysiology including an important inflammatory component. Mast cells are tissue-resident leukocytes known to influence a range of immune functions in a variety of different ways, largely through the secretion of biologically active mediators from preformed granules. However, it is not understood how mast cells influence the inflammatory environment in sickle cell disease. A notable consequence of sickle cell disease is severe pain. Therefore, morphine is often used to treat this disease. Because mast cells express opioid receptors, it is pertinent to understand how chronic morphine exposure influences mast cell function and inflammation in sickle cell disease. Herein, carbon-fiber microelectrode amperometry (CFMA) was used to monitor the secretion of immunoactive mediators from single mast cells. CFMA enabled the detection and quantification of discrete exocytotic events from single mast cells. Mast cells from two transgenic mouse models expressing human sickle hemoglobin (hBERK1 and BERK) and a control mouse expressing normal human hemoglobin (HbA-BERK) were monitored using CFMA to explore the impact of sickle-cell-induced inflammation and chronic morphine exposure on mast cell function. This work, utilizing the unique mechanistic perspective provided by CFMA, describes how mast cell function is significantly altered in hBERK1 and BERK mice, including decreased serotonin released compared to HbA-BERK controls. Furthermore, morphine was shown to significantly increase the serotonin released from HbA-BERK mast cells and demonstrated the capacity to reverse the observed sickle-cell-induced changes in mast cell function.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Pain Behaviours in Humanized Mouse Models of Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jianxun; Benson, Barbara; Tran, Huy; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a hallmark feature of sickle cell anemia (SCA) but management of chronic as well as acute pain remains a major challenge. Mouse models of SCA are essential to examine the mechanisms of pain and develop novel therapeutics. To facilitate this effort, we compared humanized homozygous BERK and Townes sickle mice for the effect of gender and age on pain behaviors. Similar to previously characterized BERK sickle mice, Townes sickle mice show more mechanical, thermal, and deep tissue hyperalgesia with increasing age. Female Townes sickle mice demonstrate more hyperalgesia compared to males similar to that reported for BERK mice and patients with SCA. Mechanical, thermal and deep tissue hyperalgesia increased further after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment in Townes sickle mice. Together, these data show BERK sickle mice exhibit a significantly greater degree of hyperalgesia for all behavioral measures as compared to gender- and age-matched Townes sickle mice. However, the genetically distinct “knock-in” strategy of human α and β transgene insertion in Townes mice as compared to BERK mice, may provide relative advantage for further genetic manipulations to examine specific mechanisms of pain. PMID:27494522

  12. Revised stereochemistry of ceramide-trafficking inhibitor HPA-12 by X-ray crystallography analysis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masaharu; Huang, Yi-Yong; Yamano, Akihito; Kobayashi, Shū

    2013-06-07

    In response to Berkeš's report revising the stereochemistry of HPA-12, an important ceramide-trafficking inhibitor that was discovered and synthesized and its stereochemistry determined in 2001, the synthesis and the stereochemistry were reinvestigated. A large-scale synthetic method for HPA-12 based on a Zn-catalyzed asymmetric Mannich-type reaction in water was developed. Single crystals of HPA-12 for X-ray crystallographic analysis were obtained from ethyl propionate/n-hexane, and the stereochemistry was definitely determined to be 1R,3S, consistent with Berkeš's revised structure.

  13. Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

  14. Chromosomal integration of recombinant alpha-amylase and glucoamylase genes in saccharomyces cerevisiae for starch conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant constructs of barley '-amylase and Lentinula edodes glucoamylase genes were integrated into the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The insertion was confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene sequence in the chromosomes. The expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE of the enzymes puri...

  15. [Pathogenicity of Phylloporia chrysita (Aphyllophorales: Hymenochaetaceae) on Erythrochiton gymnanthus (Rutaceae)].

    PubMed

    Esquivel, R E; Carranza, J

    1996-12-01

    The pathogenicity of Phylloporia chrysita (Berk.) Ryv. on Erythrochiton gymnanthus K. (Rutaceae) was studied in Carara Biological Reserve, seasonal Pacific of Costa Rica. Growth rate and distribution of basidiocarps were determined on health and diseased plants. P. chrysita caused 52% growth reduction on diseased plants. Fungal hyphae were observed on epidermis, parenchyma and vascular tissue, where they caused cellular breakdown.

  16. 45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT CHASE FOR TWO BELTS FROM THE BASEMENT, THE W. E. & J. BARNES CO. DRILL PRESS, AND THE DRILL PRESS USED FOR REAMING. THE BELT PASSING THROUGH THE WALL POWERS THE SANDER IN THE WOOD SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  17. Assessment of Probable Future Land Use and Habitat Conditions in Water Resources Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    R. Varney, and F. C. Craighead, Jr. 1974. A population analysis of the Yellowstone grizzly bears. Montana Forest Conservation Experiment Station Bull...34The wolves of Isle Royale." University of Georgia, Contributions in Systems Ecology. No. 5. Sargent, F. 0. and P. R. Berke. 1979. Planning undeveloped

  18. Single-Sample Face Recognition with Image Corruption and Misalignment via Sparse Illumination Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    1998. [5] T. Cootes, C. Taylor, and J. Graham . Active shape models – their training and application. CVIU, 61:38–59, 1995. [6] W. Deng, J. Hu, and J...1- minimization algorithms for robust face recognition. Techni- cal Report arXiv:1007.3753, University of California, Berke- ley , 2012. [30] M. Yang

  19. Physiological specialization of Stagonospora nodorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septoriosis is a harmful disease of wheat, widespread all over the world, including Russia. Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Castellani and E.G. Germano is one of the main agents of Septoria wheat diseases. There is no information on physiological specialization of this pathogen. Not many authors stud...

  20. Resistance to Tan Spot and Stagonospora nodorum Blotch in Wheat-Alien Species Derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tan spot [caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs.] and Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) [caused by Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Castellani and Germano] are destructive fungal diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the world. Host plant resistance is thought to be an effi...

  1. 44. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH THE DOOR TO THE WOOD SHOP; ON THE LEFT IS THE D. H. POTTS TIRE SHRINKER; TO THE RIGHT OF THE DOOR IS THE BELT CHASE FROM THE BASEMENT LINESHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  2. Tip Saves Energy, Money for Pennsylvania Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A wastewater treatment plant in Berks County, Pennsylvania is saving nearly $45,000 a year and reducing hundreds of metric tons of greenhouse gases since employing an energy conservation tip offered by the Water Protection Division in EPA’s R3 and PADEP.

  3. Evidence-Based versus Junk-Based Evaluation Research: Some Lessons from 35 Years of the Evaluation Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Along with the late Howard Freeman, Richard Berk was a founding editor of "Evaluation Review" (then "Evaluation Quarterly") in 1977. He resigned as editor of this journal at the end of 2010. In this article, he reflects on his experiences. (Contains 3 notes.)

  4. Criminogenic Effects of the Prison Environment on Inmate Behavior: Some Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Scott D.; Gaes, Gerald G.

    2005-01-01

    The current study analyzed a subset of the experimental data collected by Berk, Ladd, Graziano, and Baek (2003) to test whether different intensities of incarceration make inmates more criminal while incarcerated. There were 561 male inmates whose equivalent classification scores indicated they had the same level of risk to commit institutional…

  5. 14. June 1974. VIEW OF THE ENGINE ROOM, LOOKING NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. June 1974. VIEW OF THE ENGINE ROOM, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING THE OTTO GASOLINE ENGINE, THE DRIVE PULLEY IS BARELY VISIBLE TO THE LEFT OF THE FLYWHEEL. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  6. Use of PCR analysis for identification of species and genus of Septoria on grain crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on methods for molecular-genetic testing of the Septoria pathogens of wheat was initiated. Two species of septoria were studied: Septoria tritici Rob. et Desm., and Stagonospora nodorum [Berk] Castellani and E.G. Germano. Different protocols for extraction of DNA were applied; the best meth...

  7. 78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... this document. Rosellinia bunodes (Berk. & Broome) Sacc., a pathogenic fungus. R. pepo Pat., a pathogenic fungus. Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Percival, a pathogenic fungus that causes potato wart disease. Thecaphora solani (Thirum. & M. O'Brien) Mordue, a pathogenic fungus that causes potato smut....

  8. A Study of Emergency Room Health CAre Providers and the Fixed Facility Physical Capabilities to Manage the Presenting Radiologically Injured Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Richter, Harold W. Berk, Charles D. Teatus, Nancy E . Larkham, Elroy J. Friesen , and Richard W. Epllich, "A Systems Approach to the Management of Radiation...RADIATION ............................ 41 E . NAVAL HOSPITAL, PORTSMOUTH PLAN FOR HOSPITAL RECEPTION OF RADIOLOGICAL CASUALTIES...the Hospital Reception of Radiological Casualties Plan for Naval Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia (Appendix E ). Typically, basic radiation physics

  9. 61. August 1974. PAINT SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. August 1974. PAINT SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE WINDOW IS IN THE CENTER OF A SLIDING DOOR THAT OPENS ONTO THE PORCH AT THE EAST END OF THE ORIGINAL 1883 SHOP. THE DOOR WAS USED FOR HAULING THE WAGONS UP TO THE PAINT SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  10. [Cordyceps sinensis, a fungi used in the Chinese traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-12-31

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is an ascomycete fungus known in China since antiquity, which is still being used today. A summary, showing relevant papers about this fungus, regarding habitat, history, marketing, consumption, nomenclature, pharmacological composition, culture and medical use, is presented.

  11. Effect of detergent on the quantification of grapevine downy mildew Sporangia from leaf discs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine downy mildew (DM), caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & Curt.) Berlese & de Toni, is a major disease, especially in humid viticultural areas. Development of resistant cultivars is an important objective for grapevine breeding. In order to establish a reliable and inexpensive...

  12. 66. August 1974. WAGON STORAGE, VIEW LOOKING EAST. NOTE THREELEGGED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. August 1974. WAGON STORAGE, VIEW LOOKING EAST. NOTE THREE-LEGGED STOOL ORIGINALLY USED FOR THE PROCESS OF TIRE-SETTING. WHEEL WAS LAID ON STOOL, HEATED TIRE LAID ON TOP OF IT, THEN COOLED WITH WATER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  13. 75 FR 41276 - US Rail Partners, Ltd. and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad Company-Continuance in Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... modified certificate of public convenience and necessity in STB Finance Docket No. 35383, Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company-- ] Modified Rail Certificate, wherein EBGR seeks to lease and operate... Railroad Company (EWGR). BNGR operates approximately 35 miles of rail line between Wellington, Kan.,...

  14. What We All (Supposedly) Know about the Poor: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Ruby Payne's "Framework"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworin, Joel E.; Bomer, Randy

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a professional development text by Ruby Payne that claims to inform teachers about the lives and minds of children from poor households. We use Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995; Gee, 2005; Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, & Mosley, 2005) to examine how the author enlists readers' participation in deficit…

  15. 78 FR 24192 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ..., Houston, Texas 77251-1642, filed in Docket No. CP13-130-000, a prior notice request pursuant to sections... seeks authorization to perform ] replacement of the portions of existing Lines 1-B-1 and 1-B-2... questions regarding this application should be directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates &...

  16. 76 FR 44898 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... application pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and part 157 of the Commission's... Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates and Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP, P.O. Box 1642... public record (eLibrary) for this proceeding, or issue a Notice of Schedule for Environmental Review....

  17. 76 FR 7833 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an application under sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural...) Authorization under NGA sections 7(b) and 7(c) to construct, own, operate, and maintain certain pipeline and... be directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates and Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP,...

  18. 76 FR 18210 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... abandon in place two inactive supply laterals designated as Line 41-B-1 and Line 41-B-1- A. The..., filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7(b) of... TTY, (202) 502-8659. Questions regarding the application may be directed to Berk Donaldson,...

  19. 76 FR 29234 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No. CP11-477-000, a Prior Notice request pursuant to... abandon in place, 5.7-miles of its 12-inch pipeline designated Line 40-B-4-C located in federal waters in... should be directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates & Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP,...

  20. 76 FR 2360 - Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Applicants), jointly filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c... implement the proposed facilities. The Applicants state that the proposed project will provide a total of... directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates and Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP, PO Box...

  1. 76 FR 38381 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 13, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056... Application should be directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates and Certificates, Texas Eastern...

  2. Counter Radicalization and Recruitment to Al-Qaeda: Fighting the War of Deeds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    scholarship.law.berkely.edu/ facpubs/1215, for an excellent discussion of policy; legality ( espe - cially the distinction between political assassination in peacetime...Military, Economic, Financial, Intelligence and Law Enforcement (DIMEFIL) or Military, Infor- mation/Intelligence, Diplomatic, Legal , Infrastruc- ture... Legal , Military), which explicitly incorporates the cyber dimension of warfare, increasing to eight the instruments of national power. After

  3. Evolving toward Laughter in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strean, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Lowman (1995) described the relationship between teacher and student and student engagement as the two most important ingredients in learning in higher education. Humour builds teacher-student connection (Berk, 1998) and engages students in the learning process. The bond between student and teacher is essential for learning, satisfaction, and…

  4. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of the Mechanisms by which TSC Regulates Neuronal Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    type 1 IGF receptor (Igf1r). Cell 75, 59–72. 15 Camarero, G., Avendano, C., Fernandez-Moreno, C., Villar , A., Contreras, J., de Pablo, F., Pichel...migration but not for fate determina- tion and tumourigenesis in the cerebellum. Development 129, 3513–3522. 31 Yue, Q., Groszer, M., Gil , J. S., Berk

  5. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of the Mechanisms by Which TSC Regulates Neuronal Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Villar , A., Contreras, J., de Pablo, F., Pichel, J. G. and Varela-Nieto, I. (2001) Delayed inner ear maturation and neuronal loss in postnatal Igf-1...Development 129, 3513–3522. 31 Yue, Q., Groszer, M., Gil , J. S., Berk, A. J., Messing, A., Wu, H. and Liu, X. (2005) PTEN deletion in Bergmann

  6. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  7. MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects Jeffrey Chou Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...AND ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Berkely, Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences,Berkeley,CA,94720 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...in partial satisfaction of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering – Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

  8. CaMKIIα underlies spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors in Berkeley sickle cell transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Chen, Yan; Tian, Xuebi; Yang, Cheng; Lu, Jian; Xiao, Chun; DeSimone, Joseph; Wilkie, Diana J; Molokie, Robert E; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2016-12-01

    Pain is one of the most challenging and stressful conditions to patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and their clinicians. Patients with SCD start experiencing pain as early as 3 months old and continue having it throughout their lives. Although many aspects of the disease are well understood, little progress has been made in understanding and treating pain in SCD. This study aimed to investigate the functional involvement of Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα) in the persistent and refractory pain associated with SCD. We found that nonevoked ongoing pain as well as evoked hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli were present in Berkeley sickle cell transgenic mice (BERK mice), but not nonsickle control littermates. Prominent activation of CaMKIIα was observed in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord dorsal horn region of BERK mice. Intrathecal administration of KN93, a selective inhibitor of CaMKII, significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in BERK mice. Meanwhile, spinal inhibition of CaMKII elicited conditioned place preference in the BERK mice, indicating the contribution of CaMKII in the ongoing spontaneous pain of SCD. We further targeted CaMKIIα by siRNA knockdown. Both evoked pain and ongoing spontaneous pain were effectively attenuated in BERK mice. These findings elucidated, for the first time, an essential role of CaMKIIα as a cellular mechanism in the development and maintenance of spontaneous and evoked pain in SCD, which can potentially offer new targets for pharmacological intervention of pain in SCD.

  9. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  10. Assessment of arsenic bioaccessibility in raw and cooked edible mushrooms by a PBET method.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Llorens-Muñoz, Mariona; Funes-Collado, Virginia; Sahuquillo, Àngels; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports arsenic analysis in Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus before and after being cooked. Furthermore, arsenic in raw and cooked mushroom was determined in the gastric and gastrointestinal bioaccessible fractions obtained after simulating human digestion by means of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Several certified reference materials (SRM 1568a, SRM 1570a, CRM 7503-a, BC211 and IPE-120) were analysed to evaluate the proposed methods. Total arsenic content was 1393, 181 and 335μgAskg(-1) for L. edodes, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, respectively, and decreased by between 53% and 71% in boiled mushroom and less than 11% in griddled mushroom. High bioaccessibility was observed in raw, boiled and griddled mushroom, ranging from 74% to 89% and from 80% to 100% for gastric and gastrointestinal extracts, respectively, suggesting the need to consider the potential health risk of consumption of the mushrooms analysed.

  11. Enhancement of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) aqueous extract and antioxidant yield with fungal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pengilly, Mia; Joubert, Elizabeth; van Zyl, Willem H; Botha, Alfred; Bloom, Marinda

    2008-06-11

    The leaves and stems of the Rooibos plant ( Aspalathus linearis) are used for the production of an herbal tea known for its health promoting properties, which have been linked to its flavonoid content but which is substantially reduced by the traditional processing method employed. Selected food-grade fungi were screened for their potential to improve the yield of soluble matter extracted from rooibos plant material. Fungal cocktails of hydrolyzing enzymes enhanced either the yield of soluble solids ( Lentinula edodes and Rhizopus oryzae cultured in yeast peptone-wheat straw medium) or the yield in antioxidants from fermented rooibos ( R. oryzae cultured in potato dextrose or yeast peptone-wheat straw medium). When applied to green rooibos, L. edodes (cultured in yeast peptone-wheat straw medium) enhanced the release of soluble solids as well as color formation, leading to semifermented rooibos with a relatively high aspalathin content, compared to fermented rooibos.

  12. The genus Alwisia (Myxomycetes) revalidated, with two species new to science.

    PubMed

    Leontyev, Dmitry V; Schnittler, Martin; Moreno, Gabriel; Stephenson, Steven L; Mitchell, David W; Rojas, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Based on morphological investigations and a phylogeny constructed with partial sequences of the SSU rDNA gene, we revalidate the genus Alwisia and propose the combination Alwisia bombarda Berk. & Broome to be used against Tubifera bombarda (Berk. & Broome) G.W. Martin. Two new species, Alwisia morula and A. repens, are described based on material collected respectively in Costa Rica and Australia. Both new species lack a capillitium and possess individually stalked subspherical sporothecae. Alwisia repens differs from A. morula by its procumbent stalks and iridescent peridium. A comparison of 83 sequences of species in the genera Lycogala, Reticularia and Tubifera with a recent two-gene phylogeny of the bright-spored myxomycetes resulted in a similar topology of both Bayesian and maximum likelihood trees and placed A. bombarda, A. morula and A. repens in one well delimited clade within Reticulariaceae.

  13. [Resupinate basidiomycetes from Costa Rica. Myxariaceae s. Jülich, Sebacinaceae Wells & Oberw., and Tremellodendropsidaceae Jülich].

    PubMed

    Kisimova-Horovitz, L; Oberwinkler, F; Gómez, L D

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen representatives of Myxariaceae sensu Jülich: Heterochaetella brachyspora (Bourdot & Galzin) Luck-Allen, Myxarium atratum (Peck) Ginns & Lefebvre, M. granulum Hauersl., M. laccatum (Bourdot & Galzin) Reid, M. mesomorphum (Bourdot & Galzin) Haursl., M. mesonucleatum Kisim., Oberw. & L.D. Gómez nov. sp., M. subsphaerosporum Kisim., Oberw. & L.D. Gómez nov. sp., Protodontia subgelatinosa (Karst.) Pilát; Pseudohydum gelatinosum (Fr.) P. Karst., P. gelatinosum var. paucidentata Lowy; one species of Sebacinaceae, Efibulobasidium albescens (Sacc. & Malbr.) K. Wells; and the Tremellodrendropisidaceae Tremellodendropsis flagelliformis (Berk.) Crawford var.ovalispora Crawford, are reported or described from Costa Rica. The corticioid Cystidiodontia artocreas (Berk & Curt. ex Cooke) Hjortstam is also reported from Costa Rica.

  14. The TEAM workshops: A short history

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.

    1990-08-28

    Early in 1985, Sam Berk of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy, suggested that the development and validation of 3-D eddy current codes would benefit from the compilation of benchmark problems that could be used to validate the codes and from a series of workshops for the comparison of solution methods and codes. (Two years later, at the first International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology in Tokyo, Sam Berk proposed the acronym TEAM for the workshops.) At a three-day planning meeting at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in November 1985, eleven participants from five countries defined the goals, format, schedule and problems for the workshops. The ultimate goal is to show the effectiveness of numerical techniques and associated computer codes in solving electromagnetic field problems, and to gain confidence in their predictions. The workshops should also provide cooperation between workers, leading to an interchange of ideas. This note reviews the three cycles of workshops and the problems.

  15. Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Fruit Body Formation in Cultivating Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Koichi; Yoshida, Kohei; Saito, Tatsuya; Kusaka, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Takahashi, Kyusuke; Sakamoto, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of high-voltage electrical stimulation on fruit body formation in cultivating mushrooms was evaluated using a compact pulsed power generator designed and based on an inductive energy storage system. An output voltage from 50 to 130 kV with a 100 ns pulse width was used as the electrical stimulation to determine the optimum amplitude. The pulsed high voltage was applied to a sawdust-based substrate of Lyophyllum decastes and natural logs hosting Lentinula edodes, Pholiota nameko, and Naematoloma sublateritium. The experimental results showed that the fruit body formation of mushrooms increased 1.3–2.0 times in terms of the total weight. The accumulated yield of Lentinula edodes for four cultivation seasons was improved from 160 to 320 g by applying voltages of 50 or 100 kV. However, the yield was decreased from 320 to 240 g upon increasing the applied voltage from 100 to 130 kV. The yield of the other types of mushrooms showed tendencies similar to those of Lentinula edodes when voltage was applied. An optimal voltage was confirmed for efficient fruit body induction. The hypha activity was evaluated by the amount of hydrophobin release, which was mainly observed before the fruit body formation. The hydrophobin release decreased for three hours after stimulation. However, the hydrophobin release from the vegetative hyphae increased 2.3 times one day after the stimulation. PMID:27694776

  16. Contribution to the knowledge of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina. Southernmost record in the world.

    PubMed

    Manfrino, Romina G; González, Alda; Barneche, Jorge; Tornesello Galván, Julieta; Hywell-Jones, Nigel; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2017-03-23

    The aim of this study was to identify entomopathogenic fungi infecting spiders (Araneae) in a protected area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The Araneae species identified was Stenoterommata platensis. The pathogens identified were Lecanicillium aphanocladii Zare & W. Gams, Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel Jones & Samson and Ophiocordyceps caloceroides (Berk & M.A. Curtis). This study constitutes the southernmost records in the world and contributes to expanding the knowledge of the biodiversity of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina.

  17. Guidelines for Managing Vegetation on Earth-Covered Magazines Within the U.S. Army Materiel Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Mow grasses near end of periods of rapid niques are used to reduce overall long- growth. term costs. * Mow wildflowers in the fall. • Allows a...ciety of Agronomy. Bradshaw, A.D. and M.J. Chadwich (1980) The Restoration of Land. Berkeley, California : Univer- sity of California Press. Brady, N.C... California , Berke- ley, Division of Agricultural Sciences. Claridge, EB. and AM. Mirza (1981) Erosion control along transportation routes in northern cli

  18. The Army Communications Objectives Measurement System (ACOMS): Survey Analysis Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    grouped first by brigade and second by one-year age groupings. Thus, questions concerning sex differences in the full sample as well as area and age...employment histories (Rossi, Berk, & Lenihan, 1980), the effectiveness of various treatment regimens (Crowley & Hu, 1977), juvenile delinquency (Wilson, 1981...have to run analyses of variance to show that no signifi- cant differences among sexes , ethnicities, propensities or sites need to be considered in

  19. Modeling Information Quality Expectation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Swarm Sensor Databases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    the theoretical world . Because of this, some assumptions need to be made about the capabilities of UAV swarms as operational... the past 15 years, the concept of using swarming technology in the military world has taken hold and become a major research thrust. By harnessing the ...plotting package from the Ptolemy II project originating at the University of California at Berkely [3]. Ptolemy II is a set of

  20. Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Eleni; Aguiar, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Caio César; Bonfá, Maricy Raquel B.; da Silva, Roberto; Boscolo, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Wood rotting Basidiomycetes collected in the “Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista”, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, concerning Aphyllophorales order and identified as Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 and Phellinus rimosus SXS47 were tested for ligninases production by solid state fermentation (SSF) using wheat bran or rice straw as culture media. C. byrsina produced the highest laccase (200 U mL-1) and Lentinus sp produced the highest activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) (7 and 8 U mL-1, respectively), when cultivated on wheat bran. The effect of N addition on enzyme production was studied in medium containing rice straw and the data showed an increase of 3 up to 4-fold in the laccase production compared to that obtained in SSF on wheat bran. The laccases presented optimum pH at 3.0-3.5 and were stable at neutral pH values. Optimum pH for MnP and LiP activities was at 3.5 and between 4.5 and 6.0, respectively. All the strains produced laccase with optimum activities between 55-60ºC while the peroxidases presented maximum activity at temperatures of 30 to 55ºC. The crude enzymes promoted decolorization of chemically different dyes with around 70% of decolorization of RBBR and cybacron blue 3GA in 6h of treatment. The data indicated that enzymes from these basidiomycetes strains are able to decolorize synthetic dyes. PMID:24031314

  1. Degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin pesticides by selected fungi cultures.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A P; Serrano, C; Pires, T; Mestrinho, E; Dias, L; Teixeira, D Martins; Caldeira, A T

    2012-10-01

    Contamination of waters by xenobiotic compounds such as pesticides presents a serious environmental problem with substantial levels of pesticides now contaminating European water resources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus oryzae, Lentinula edodes, Penicillium brevicompactum and Lecanicillium saksenae, for the biodegradation of the pesticides terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. These pesticides are common soil and water contaminants and terbuthylazine is considered the most persistent triazine herbicide in surface environments. P. brevicompactum and L. saksenae were achieved by enrichment, isolation and screening of fungi capable to metabolize the pesticides studied. The isolates were obtained from two pesticide-primed materials (soil and biomixture). Despite the relatively high persistence of terbuthylazine, the results obtained in this work showed that the fungi species studied have a high capability of biotransformation of this xenobiotic, comparatively the results obtained in other similar studies. The highest removal percentage of terbuthylazine from liquid medium was achieved with A. oryzae (~80%), although the major biodegradation has been reached with P. brevicompactum. The higher ability of P. brevicompactum to metabolize terbuthylazine was presumably acquired through chronic exposure to contamination with the herbicide. L. saksenae could remove 99.5% of the available pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. L. edodes proved to be a fungus with a high potential for biodegradation of pesticides, especially difenoconazole and pendimethalin. Furthermore, the metabolite desethyl-terbuthylazine was detected in L. edodes liquid culture medium, indicating terbuthylazine biodegradation by this fungus. The fungi strains investigated could prove to be valuable as active pesticide-degrading microorganisms, increasing the efficiency of biopurification systems containing

  2. Medicinal uses of mushrooms in Nigeria: towards full and sustainable exploitation.

    PubMed

    Oyetayo, Olusegun V

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been appreciated as sources of food nutrients and pharmacologically important compounds useful in medicine. Yet not all the medicinal properties of mushrooms have been exploited. The above statement is more pertinent to mushrooms that are indigenous to Nigeria. There are inadequate data on the identity and medicinal properties of these wild mushrooms. Information on the ethnomedicinal uses of some mushrooms such as Pleurotus tuber-regium used for headache, stomach pain fever, cold, constipation; Lentinus squarullosus for mumps, heart diseases; Termitomyces microcarpus for gonorrhea; Calvatia cyathiformis for leucorrhea, barreness; Ganoderma lucidum for treating arthritis, neoplasia; G. resinaceum used for hyperglycemia, liver diseases (hepatoprotector); G. applanatum used as antioxidant and for diabetes had been gathered through survey. The above information is mostly obtained from traditional herbalists who in most cases will not disclose their preparation compositions. A lot of these mushrooms are obtained only in the wild. Scientific documents of the identities and medicinal properties are still scanty. Preliminary studies on some species of Temitomyces, Lenzites and Lentinus species showed that they possess appreciable antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Moreover, molecular characterization also reveals that they are not 100% homologous with existing sequences under the same name in GenBank. It is therefore pertinent that well structured studies on their ecology, identification and medicinal uses be carried out. This will make the full exploitation of the medicinal potentials of mushrooms indigenous to Nigeria realizable.

  3. Immunomodulating compounds in Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are distinguished as important food containing immunomodulating and anticancer agents. These compounds belong mostly to polysaccharides especially β-d-glucans. Among them, β-1,3-glucan with side chain β-1,6-glucose residues have more important roles in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In this review, we have introduced polysaccharide mainly from Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei Murill with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In addition, the mechanism of activation of immune response and signal cascade are also reviewed. PMID:23704809

  4. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Stimulates Fibronectin Gene Expression in Fibroblasts Isolated from Rat Thoracic Aorta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-13

    immunoreactive binding proteins for IGF-I in human amniotic fluid: Relationship to fetal maturity. J. Clin. Endocrino !. Metab. 65(3): 423-43 I. Baxter... Endocrino !. Metab. 65: 432-440. Berk, B.C., Alexander, R.W., Brock, T,A., Gilbone, RC., and Webb, RC. (1986) Vasoconstriction a new activity of... Endocrino !. 2(5): 401-411. Liau, G., and Chan, L.M. (1989) Regulation of extracellular matrix RNA levels in cultured smooth muscle ceUs. Relationship to

  5. Adaptive Control Techniques for Large Space Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-15

    Adaptive Systems: A Ji . Fixed-Point Analysis", submitted, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems; Special Issue on Adaptive Systems, Sept. 1987. I.M.Y...Shaped Cost Functionals: Extensions of LQG Methods," *.. AIAA J. of Guidance and Control, pp. 529-535, Nov-Dec. 1980. [81 C.A. Desoer , R.W. Liu, J. Murray...for Parameter Conver- gence in Adaptive Control," Memo No. UCB/ERL M84/25, Univ. of California, Berke- ley, 1984. [19] C.A. Desoer and M. Vidyasagar

  6. Reiterated sequences within the intron of an immediate-early gene of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, R J; Umene, K; Enquist, L W

    1981-01-01

    We describe the nucleotide sequence of a herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA fragment containing the intron of the immediate-early mRNA-5 (IE mRNA-5) gene. The location of the intron within this fragment was determined by a Berk & Sharp nuclease S1 protection analysis, and by cloning and sequencing cDNA containing sequences overlapping t he IE mRNA-5 splice point. We found that the 149 base pair (bp) intron contained four copies of an identical 23 bp GC rich tandem repeat followed by a further reiteration consisting of the first 15 bp only. Images PMID:6272198

  7. In vitro antitumor activity of Latcripin-15 regulator of chromosome condensation 1 domain protein

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Xingyun; Liu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Jing; Ning, Anhong; Huang, Min; Zhong, Mintao

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most significant health problems worldwide and thus the development of novel therapeutic agents with fewer side effects is required. The present study investigated the in vitro anticancer effects of a newly isolated fungal protein. In this study, Latcripin-15 (LP-15) regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) domain protein, which is obtained from the Lentinula edodes C91-3 fungal strain, was identified, cloned, expressed, purified and re-folded to assess the in vitro antitumor activity of the protein. LP-15 RCC1 full-length cDNA was isolated from Lentinula edodes using 3′ and 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends and then cloned, expressed, purified and re-folded in vitro. In addition, the effects of the isolated LP-15 RCC1 protein's functional domain on the viability and apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining. The LP-15 RCC1 functional domain protein was successfully expressed, purified and re-folded in vitro. Treatment with the LP-15 RCC1 functional domain protein significantly reduced tumor cell viability and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The results of the present study indicate that the LP-15 RCC1 functional domain requires further investigation as a novel therapeutic agent for cancer therapy. PMID:27899975

  8. Mushroom polysaccharides and lipids synthesized in liquid agitated and static cultures. Part I: screening various mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kapoti, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

    2012-06-01

    The effect of four synthetic media containing glucose (initial concentration 30 g l(-1)) on mycelial growth, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and cellular lipids production was examined in 11 mushroom species after 12 and 16 days of culture in static- and shake-flasks. Fatty acid analysis of cellular lipids produced was also performed. Agitation had a positive effect on biomass production, glucose consumption and lipid biosynthesis. Media that favoured the production of biomass were not suitable for EPS biosynthesis and vice versa. Biomass values varied from ~1.0 g l(-1) (Lentinula edodes) to ~19 g l(-1) (Pleurotus ostreatus), while the highest EPS quantity achieved ranged between 1.6 and 1.8 g l(-1) (for Ganoderma lucidum and L. edodes, respectively). Quantities of total cellular lipids varied between 2.5 and 18.5 % w/w, in dry mycelial mass for the fungi tested. Lipid in dry weight values were influenced by the medium composition. Cellular lipids presented noticeable quantities of poly-unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid. Compared to most of the mushrooms tested, lipids of Volvariella volvacea were more saturated. The ability of several mushroom species of our study to produce in notable quantities the above-mentioned added-value compounds renders these fungi worthy for further investigations.

  9. Optimizing edible fungal growth and biodegradation of inedible crop residues using various cropping methods.

    PubMed

    Nyochembeng, Leopold M; Beyl, Caula A; Pacumbaba, R P

    2008-09-01

    Long-term manned space flights to Mars require the development of an advanced life support (ALS) ecosystem including efficient food crop production, processing and recycling waste products thereof. Using edible white rot fungi (EWRF) to achieve effective biomass transformation in ALS requires optimal and rapid biodegradative activity on lignocellulosic wastes. We investigated the mycelial growth of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus on processed residues of various crops under various cropping patterns. In single cropping, mycelial growth and fruiting in all strains were significantly repressed on sweet potato and basil. However, growth of the strains was improved when sweet potato and basil residues were paired with rice or wheat straw. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus) strains were better than shiitake (L. edodes) strains under single, paired, and mixed cropping patterns. Mixed cropping further eliminated the inherent inhibitory effect of sweet potato, basil, or lettuce on fungal growth. Co-cropping fungal species had a synergistic effect on rate of fungal growth, substrate colonization, and fruiting. Use of efficient cropping methods may enhance fungal growth, fruiting, biodegradation of crop residues, and efficiency of biomass recycling.

  10. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  11. [Determination of illudin S in Omphalotus guepiniformis and foods that caused food poisoning by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Yoshimasa; Itou, Takeshi

    2009-08-01

    A simple method was developed for determination of illudin S in fungi (Omphalotus guepiniformis: poisonous mushroom) and a food that caused food poisoning, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Illudin S in fungi and the food that caused food poisoning was extracted with methanol and then cleaned up with an Oasis HLB cartridge. LC separation was performed with an octadecylated silica column (Inertsil ODS-3, 2.1 mm i.d. x 150 mm) and a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid-methanol (7 : 3) at a flow rate 0.2 mL/min. Mass spectral acquisition was performed in the positive mode and illudin S was targeted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with electrospray ionization (ESI). The recoveries of illudin S were 84-94% from edible fungi (Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Panellus serotinus). The detection limits of illudin S in the fungi (L. edodes, P. ostreatus and P. serotinus) were 0.08-0.10 microg/g respectively. Illudin S was detected in the food that caused food poisoning at the level of 2.0 and 15.1 microg/g in the soup and fungi, respectively. The recovery of illudin S from a mushroom soup (cooked at 100 degrees C for 10 min) sample which simulated food poisoning was 74.8%. These results indicate that the developed method is suitable for the determination of illudin S in fungi (O. guepiniformis) and foods that caused food poisoning.

  12. Detection limit of Clostridium botulinum spores in dried mushroom samples sourced from China.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Pradeep K; Plowman, June; Aldus, Clare F; Xing, Zengtao; Zhao, Yong; Peck, Michael W

    2013-08-16

    A survey of dried mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) and Auricularia auricula (Wood Ear)) sourced from China was carried out to determine the natural contamination of these mushrooms with spores of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and non-proteolytic C. botulinum. The mushrooms were collected from supermarkets and retailers in 21 cities in China during October 2008. Spore loads of C. botulinum in mushrooms have a degree of uncertainty and variability and this study contributes valuable data for determining prevalence of spores of C. botulinum in mushrooms. An optimized detection protocol that combined selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR was used to test for spores of proteolytic and non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Detection limits were calculated, using a maximum likelihood protocol, from mushroom samples inoculated with defined numbers of spores of proteolytic C. botulinum or non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Based on the maximum likelihood detection limit, it is estimated that dried mushroom A. auricula contained <550spores/kg of proteolytic C. botulinum, and <350spores/kg of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Dried L. edodes contained <1500spores/kg of proteolytic C. botulinum and it was not possible to determine reliable detection limits for spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum using the current detection protocol.

  13. Intraorbital foreign bodies--5 own cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Jarosław; Dziubdziela, Włodzimierz; Gierek, Tatiana; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Mrukwa-Kominek, Ewa; Niedzielska, Iwona; Paluch, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Five patients were surgically treated for intraorbital foreign body: a 14-year-old girl had a door glass splinter, a 23-year-old man a metallic foreign body--gunshot pellet, a 55-year-old man a splinter from a metallic bar, a 48-year-old patient the splinters of circular saw and 61-year-old man with shot. Two foreign bodies were removed using the Krönlein-Reese-Berk lateral orbitotomy, two others by Sewell medial orbitotomy and one with superior orbitotomy of Dandy-Naffziger. Radiographs and CT scans were used to identify and localize intraorbital foreign bodies. In one case we found coexistence foreign body (shot) and tumor--inflammation pseudotumor of the orbita. It is possible, that in this case long-time occupy foreign body in the orbita was a cause of that tumor. All foreign bodies were successfully removed, and postoperative course was uneventful. The Krönlein-Reese-Berk orbitotomy provides a satisfactory access to the lateral and posterior orbit, which is of particular importance in the case of a deeply penetrating foreign body (metallic or glass). Surgical removal of intraorbital foreign bodies is a classic example of an interdisciplinary therapeutic approach. Best outcome is usually a result of a team of an ophtalmologist, ENT surgeon, maxillary surgeon and possibly also neurosurgeon performing the operation.

  14. Cognitive and behavior deficits in sickle cell mice are associated with profound neuropathologic changes in hippocampus and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Almeida, Luis E F; de Souza Batista, Celia M; Khaibullina, Alfia; Xu, Nuo; Albani, Sarah; Guth, Kira A; Seo, Ji Sung; Quezado, Martha; Quezado, Zenaide M N

    2016-01-01

    Strokes are perhaps the most serious complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and by the fifth decade occur in approximately 25% of patients. While most patients do not develop strokes, mounting evidence indicates that even without brain abnormalities on imaging studies, SCD patients can present profound neurocognitive dysfunction. We sought to evaluate the neurocognitive behavior profile of humanized SCD mice (Townes, BERK) and to identify hematologic and neuropathologic abnormalities associated with the behavioral alterations observed in these mice. Heterozygous and homozygous Townes mice displayed severe cognitive deficits shown by significant delays in spatial learning compared to controls. Homozygous Townes also had increased depression- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as reduced performance on voluntary wheel running compared to controls. Behavior deficits observed in Townes were also seen in BERKs. Interestingly, most deficits in homozygotes were observed in older mice and were associated with worsening anemia. Further, neuropathologic abnormalities including the presence of large bands of dark/pyknotic (shrunken) neurons in CA1 and CA3 fields of hippocampus and evidence of neuronal dropout in cerebellum were present in homozygotes but not control Townes. These observations suggest that cognitive and behavioral deficits in SCD mice mirror those described in SCD patients and that aging, anemia, and profound neuropathologic changes in hippocampus and cerebellum are possible biologic correlates of those deficits. These findings support using SCD mice for studies of cognitive deficits in SCD and point to vulnerable brain areas with susceptibility to neuronal injury in SCD and to mechanisms that potentially underlie those deficits.

  15. Sensitization of nociceptive spinal neurons contributes to pain in a transgenic model of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Rajput, Sugandha; Gupta, Kalpna; Simone, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pain is a major characteristic feature of sickle cell disease (SCD). The refractory nature of pain and the development of chronic pain syndromes in many patients with SCD suggest that central neural mechanisms contribute to pain in this disease. We used HbSS-BERK sickle mice, which show chronic features of pain similar to those observed in SCD, and determined whether sensitization of nociceptive neurons in the spinal cord contributes to pain and hyperalgesia in SCD. Electrophysiological recordings of action potential activity were obtained from single identified dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord in anesthetized mice. Compared with control HbAA-BERK mice, nociceptive dorsal horn neurons in sickle mice exhibited enhanced excitability as evidenced by enlarged receptive fields, increased rate of spontaneous activity, lower mechanical thresholds, enhanced responses to mechanical stimuli, and prolonged afterdischarges following mechanical stimulation. These changes were accompanied by increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the spinal cord that are known to contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p44/p42 extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38. These findings demonstrate that central sensitization contributes to pain in SCD.

  16. Analysis of particles produced during airbag deployment by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and their deposition on surrounding surfaces: a mid-research summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, J. Matney

    2011-06-01

    Airbags can be encountered in forensic work when investigating a car crash and are typically constructed with primerlike material to begin the deployment apparatus. The mechanisms of airbag deployment can produce particles ideal for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. A recent study published by Berk studied airbags with vents and showed that it is possible for particles generated from the deployment of these airbags to deposit on surfaces in the vehicle as the airbags deflate.1 Another paper published by Berk reported particles similar in morphology and composition to primer gunshot residue (GSR) are produced by side impact airbags.2 This paper's aim will be to show mid-point results of a study still in progress in which non-vented airbags were analyzed to determine if they exhibited the same particle depositing features as their vented airbag counterparts. Further investigation in this study is being performed to find more airbags which produce primer gunshot residue-like particles containing lead, barium, and antimony from airbag deployment. To date, the study has resulted in (1) non-vented airbags exhibiting deposition of particles suitable for SEM/EDS analysis and (2) no gunshot residue-like particles being detected from the airbag residues studied thus far.

  17. Unliganded and substrate bound structures of the cellooligosaccharide active lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase LsAA9A at low pH.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Kristian E H; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Tandrup, Tobias; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2017-03-24

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have been found to be key components in microbial (bacterial and fungal) degradation of biomass. They are copper metalloenzymes that degrade polysaccharides oxidatively and act in synergy with glycoside hydrolases. Recently crystallographic studies carried out at pH 5.5 of the LPMO from Lentinus similis belonging to the fungal LPMO family AA9 have provided the first atomic resolution view of substrate-LPMO interactions. The LsAA9A structure presented here determined at pH 3.5 shows significant disorder of the active site in the absence of substrate ligand. Furthermore some differences are also observed in regards to substrate (cellohexaose) binding, although the major interaction with the N-terminal histidine remains unchanged.

  18. A Comparative Accuracy Analysis of Classification Methods in Determination of Cultivated Lands with Spot 5 Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kaya, S.; Alganci, U.; Sertel, E.; Ustundag, B.

    2013-12-01

    A Comparative Accuracy Analysis of Classification Methods in Determination of Cultivated Lands with Spot 5 Satellite Imagery Ugur ALGANCI1, Sinasi KAYA1,2, Elif SERTEL1,2,Berk USTUNDAG3 1 ITU, Center for Satellite Communication and Remote Sensing, 34469, Maslak-Istanbul,Turkey 2 ITU, Department of Geomatics, 34469, Maslak-Istanbul, Turkey 3 ITU, Agricultural and Environmental Informatics Research Center,34469, Maslak-Istanbul,Turkey alganci@itu.edu.tr, kayasina@itu.edu.tr, sertele@itu.edu.tr, berk@berk.tc ABSTRACT Cultivated land determination and their area estimation are important tasks for agricultural management. Derived information is mostly used in agricultural policies and precision agriculture, in specifically; yield estimation, irrigation and fertilization management and farmers declaration verification etc. The use of satellite image in crop type identification and area estimate is common for two decades due to its capability of monitoring large areas, rapid data acquisition and spectral response to crop properties. With launch of high and very high spatial resolution optical satellites in the last decade, such kind of analysis have gained importance as they provide information at big scale. With increasing spatial resolution of satellite images, image classification methods to derive the information form them have become important with increase of the spectral heterogeneity within land objects. In this research, pixel based classification with maximum likelihood algorithm and object based classification with nearest neighbor algorithm were applied to 2012 dated 2.5 m resolution SPOT 5 satellite images in order to investigate the accuracy of these methods in determination of cotton and corn planted lands and their area estimation. Study area was selected in Sanliurfa Province located on Southeastern Turkey that contributes to Turkey's agricultural production in a major way. Classification results were compared in terms of crop type identification using

  19. Selection of strains for shiitake production in axenic substrate.

    PubMed

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Maciel, William Pereira; Marques, Simone Cristina; da Silveira E Santos, Débora Marques; Rinker, Danny Lee; Dias, Eustáquio Souza

    2016-10-01

    Shiitake mushroom consumption is increasing in Brazil. In addition to the implementation of new production methods, it is also important to increase productivity, quality and reduce production costs. In this study, six commercial Lentinula edodes strains were characterized for genetic diversity (rep-PCR analysis) and mushroom production (yield, number and weight of individual mushrooms) using different substrates and cultural conditions. All strains showed genetic differences by repetitive element palindromic based-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The richest substrate resulted in the greatest production under both environmental conditions. Strains LE4 and LE6 produced the majority of their mushrooms earlier than the other strains. The highest number of mushrooms was observed in the LE6 strain while the highest weights of individual mushrooms were observed in the LE4 strain. Controlled environmental conditions resulted in superior production for all strains, except for LE4, which had empirically greater yield in the semi-controlled environmental condition.

  20. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps.

  1. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  2. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  3. Easy preparation of dietary fiber with the high water-holding capacity from food sources.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eiji; Murakami, Kazumi; Kurita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    Dietary fibers were prepared as alkali- and acid-insoluble fractions with chemical phosphorylation from Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius), defatted soybean (Glycine max), and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes). The dietary fiber fractions treated with alkaline solution containing sodium metaphosphate had the lower protein content and higher total dietary fiber content than those of the preparations without phosphorylation. Alkaline extraction followed by phosphorylation led to a 1.5-fold increase in the water holding capacity of dietary fiber compared with no phosphorylation, whereas the binding capacity to bile acids of dietary fiber was almost the same. The alkali- and acid-insoluble extraction with phosphorylation provided an efficient preparation of water-insoluble dietary fiber with high-water holding capacity from various food sources.

  4. Characterization of phytase activity from cultivated edible mushrooms and their production substrates.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Patrick D; Royse, Daniel J

    2004-12-15

    Phytase is used commercially to maximize phytic acid degradation and to decrease phosphorus levels in poultry and swine manure. To determine phytase content in edible mushrooms, basidiomata of Agaricus bisporus and three specialty mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus cornucopiae) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were surveyed. Enzyme activity ranged from 0.046 to 0.074 unit/g of tissue for four A. bisporus types (closed and open whites and closed and open browns) grown at The Pennsylvania State University's Mushroom Test Demonstration Facility (MTDF). The addition of various nutrient supplements to phase II mushroom production substrate did not alter phytase activity in A. bisporus. Portabella mushrooms (open brown) obtained from a commercial farm had significantly higher levels of phytase activity (0.211 unit/g of tissue) compared to A. bisporus grown at the MTDF. Of the specialty mushrooms surveyed, maitake (G. frondosa) had 20% higher phytase activity (0.287 unit/g of tissue) than commercial portabella mushrooms. The yellow oyster mushroom (P. cornucopiae) ranked second in level of phytase activity (0.213 unit/g of tissue). Shiitake (L. edodes) contained the least amount of phytase in basidiomata (0.107 unit/g of tissue). Post-crop steam treatment (60 degrees C, 24 h) of SMS reduced phytase activity from 0.074 to 0.018 unit/g. Phytase was partially purified from commercially grown portabella basidiomata 314-fold with an estimated molecular mass of 531 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The optimum pH for activity was 5.5, but appreciable phytase activity was observed over the range of pH 5.0-8.0. Partially purified A. bisporus phytase was inactivated following a 10-min incubation at > or =60 degrees C.

  5. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  6. [The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on the components of pro- and antioxidant systems of wheat and the development of protective reactions in fungal pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Veselova, S V; Nuzhnaia, T V; Maksimov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which inhibits the reception of ethylene, on the following has been studied: hydrogen peroxide generation, oxalate oxidase activity, peroxidase activity, catalase activity, and lignin accumulation in infected leaves of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeds that differ in their resistance to the causative agent of leaf blotch Septoria nodorum Berk. A decrease in the development of leaf blotch in wheat leaves under the influence of 1-MCP was, on one hand, followed by an inhibition of catalase activity; on the other hand, it was accompanied by an increase in oxalate oxidase and peroxidase activity, as well as an accumulation of H2O2 in tissues and lignin in the infected zone. The role of the ethylene reception system in the plants' protective response to infection with a hemibiotrophic pathogen, the causative agent of leaf blotch, is discussed.

  7. Theoretical interpretation of frequency sweeping observations in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, R. G. L.; Dendy, R. O.; Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2005-03-01

    Frequency sweeping (chirping) of high frequency magnetohydrodynamic modes is widely observed in tokamak plasmas. In this paper observations of chirping in neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [A. Sykes, R. J. Akers, L. C. Appel et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)] are considered, and it is shown that these may be interpreted using the Berk-Breizman augmentation of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. This model includes an energetic particle source: it leads not only to a single chirp but also to a series of bursting events. This repetitious behavior is characteristic of the chirping seen in experiments such as MAST. The similarity between features in velocity space and features in frequency space reinforces the theory that hole-clump pair formation is responsible for the observed frequency sweeping.

  8. Experimental validation of the MODTRAN 5.3 sea surface radiance model using MIRAMER campaign measurements.

    PubMed

    Ross, Vincent; Dion, Denis; St-Germain, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Radiometric images taken in mid-wave and long-wave infrared bands are used as a basis for validating a sea surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) being implemented into MODTRAN 5 (Berk et al. [Proc. SPIE5806, 662 (2005)]). The images were obtained during the MIRAMER campaign that took place in May 2008 in the Mediterranean Sea near Toulon, France. When atmosphere radiances are matched at the horizon to remove possible calibration offsets, the implementation of the BRDF in MODTRAN produces good sea surface radiance agreement, usually within 2% and at worst 4% from off-glint azimuthally averaged measurements. Simulations also compare quite favorably to glint measurements. The observed sea radiance deviations between model and measurements are not systematic, and are well within expected experimental uncertainties. This is largely attributed to proper radiative coupling between the surface and the atmosphere implemented using the DISORT multiple scattering algorithm.

  9. A search for p-mode pulsations in white dwarf stars using the Berkeley Visible Imaging Tube detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Welsh, B. Y.; Koen, C.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kotze, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-speed photometry (resolution 0.1 s) obtained during the commissioning of the Berkely Visible Imaging Tube system on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The observations were an attempt to search for very rapid p-mode oscillations in white dwarf stars and included three DA stars known to be g-mode pulsators (ZZ Cet, HK Cet and AF Pic), one other DA star (WD 1056-384) not known to be variable and one AM Cvn star (HP Lib). No evidence was found for any variations greater than about 1 mmag in amplitude (˜0.1 per cent) at frequencies in excess of 60 mHz (periods <17 s) in any of the target stars, though several previously known g-mode frequencies were recovered.

  10. Validation of criterion-referenced archery cutting scores.

    PubMed

    Ishee, J H; Titlow, L W

    1993-04-01

    This study investigated an empirical method for setting optimal cutting scores for a criterion-referenced archery test. The classification-outcome probabilities and approaches to validity suggested by Berk were utilized. Pretest scores were obtained on 35 uninstructed college-age women on six ends (six arrows each) from 20 yards (18.3 m) after an unrecorded warm-up end. Posttest scores were after 15 weeks of instruction. Score distributions were the primary determinant for accurately classifying students as true mastery and true nonmastery. Accuracy is a function of the amount of overlap between distributions. Using the point at which the distributions overlapped, classification accuracy was estimated. Probabilities associated with 80 points were p(TM) + p(TN) = .83 and p(FM) + p(FN) = .14. Scores above and below 80 points had lower probabilities of classification accuracy. Reliability estimated using Kappa was .59. Statistical validity of the cutting score (phi) was .68.

  11. Two dimensional (r-theta) transport model for synchrotron radiation of FRC plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qerushi, Artan; Barnes, Dan; TAE Team

    2013-10-01

    A two dimensional (r-theta) transport model has been developed for describing the power loss in FRC reactor plasmas and the transport of energy due to synchrotron radiation as well as the transport of energy due to synchrotron radiation. The transport model uses 1d FRC equilibrium profiles and solves the equation of radiative transfer in two dimensions (r-theta) taking into account the absorption and emission of synchrotron radiation. Relativistic expressions are used for both the absorption and the emission coefficients of synchrotron radiation. The reflection of synchrotron radiation from metal walls is taken into account using the approach of Krajcik. The results of the two-dimensional calculations are compared with simpler 1d calculations, which use an approach developed by Dawson and Berk et al., and 0d calculations which use an approach developed by Trubnikov.

  12. New records of Cantharellus species from the northwestern Himalayas of India

    PubMed Central

    Deepika, Kumari; Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Upadhyay, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated several collections of the genus Cantharellus (Cantharellaceae) from the northwestern Himalayas, India, on the basis of morphology and molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships and species limits were investigated by using nuclear ribosomal large subunit sequences (LSU). We recognized 13 species: Cantharellus appalachiensis Petersen, C. cibarius Fries, C. lateritius (Berk) Singer, C. miniatescens Heinem, C. minor Peck, C. pseudoformosus and seven species, C. applanatus sp. nov., C. elongatipes sp. nov., C. fibrillosus sp. nov., C. himalayensis sp. nov., C. indicus sp. nov., C. natarajanii sp. nov., and C. umbonatus sp. nov., as new to science. All these species are described and their taxonomy and ecology are discussed. In addition, a key is provided to all the recognized species. The phylogenetic analysis recovered 10 major supported clades of Cantharellus species. PMID:24587961

  13. A long-term study of Rattus norvegicus in the London borough of Enfield using baiting returns as an indicator of sewer population levels.

    PubMed Central

    Channon, D.; Cole, M.; Cole, L.

    2000-01-01

    This is a long-term study that investigates the dynamics of a population of Rattus norvegicus (Berk) inhabiting a sewerage system in London. Thirteen years (1986/7-1998/9) of data from sewer baiting records were analysed (a total of 35,478 records). Manholes were baited with the anticoagulant Brodifacoum (0.005%) on a pinhead oatmeal bait base. Time series analysis was conducted on the data set to determine the underlying trend of the data and the population fluctuations about this trend. An exponential curve was found to give an accurate and realistic fit to the data and indicated that the rat population had decreased over the study period. Decomposition analysis indicated a 5-year cycle best described fluctuations around this trend. PMID:11117969

  14. Chalcogenide Glasses. Part 3. Chalcogenide Glass-Forming Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    Vol. 47, No. 3 (1974) p. 510-513 59. Berkes, J.S. and Myers, M.B., J. Electrochem. Soc,. 118 (1971) p. 1485-1491 60. Platakis, N.S. and Gatos , H.C., J...N.S., Sad-6opan, V. and Gatos , H.C., J. Electrochem. Soc. 116 (1969) p. 1436-1439 63. Flaschen, S.S., Pearson, A.D. and Northover, W.R., J. AppI. Phvs...S.R., J. Appi. Phys. 51(6) (1980) p. 3289-3309 91. Lebedev, E.A. and Rogachev, N.A., Soy . Phys. Semicond. 15(8) (1981) P-876-8 8 0 69 jr

  15. [Modulation of glucocorticoid receptor interaction with non-steroidal drugs].

    PubMed

    Golikov, P P; Nikolaeva, N Iu

    1993-01-01

    The Scatchard analysis of the specific binding of triamcinolone 3H-acetonide (TA-3HA) to Type II glucocorticoid receptors of cytosol from the liver of female Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g has shown that emoxipin at concentrations of 1 and 2 mM and analgin at concentrations of 5 and 10 mM reduce the density of glucocorticoid receptors and the association constant of a hormone-receptor complex. Analgin, 5 mM, increases the dissociation velocity constant of TA-3HA 5 times the effect of unlabeled triamcinolone acetonide. Emoxipin, 1 mM, produces the same effect on the receptor dissociation velocity constant of TA-3HA as the unlabeled triamcinolone acetonide. The Berke analysis has established that emoxipin and analgin reduce glucocorticoid receptor interactions by uncompetitive inhibition.

  16. Toroidal Alfven Waves in Advanced Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Herbert L.

    2003-10-01

    In burning plasma experiments, alpha particles have speeds that readily resonate with shear Alfven waves. It is essential to understand this Alfven wave spectrum for toroidal plasma confinement. Most interest has focused on the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE), and a method of analysis has been developed to understand the structure of this mode at a flux surface with a given magnetic shear. However, this model fails when the shear is too low or reversed. In this case a new method of analysis is required, which must incorporate novel fluid-like effects from the energetic particles [1] and also include effects that are second order in the inverse toroidal aspect ratio. With this new method [2] we can obtain spectral features that agree with experimental results. In particular, this theory gives an explanation for the so-called Cascade modes that have been observed in JT-60 [3], JET [4], and TFTR [5]. For these Cascade modes, slow upward frequency sweeping is observed, beginning from frequencies below the TAE range but then often blending into the TAE range of frequencies. The theoretical understanding of the Cascades modes has evolved to the point where these modes can be used as a diagnostic "signature" [6] to experimentally optimize the formation of thermal barriers in reversed-shear operation when the minimum q value is an integer. [1] H. L. Berk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 185 (2002). [2] B. N. Breizman et al., submitted to Phys. Plasmas (2003). [3] H. Kimura et al., Nucl. Fusion 38, 1303 (1998). [4] S. Sharapov et al., Phys. Lett. A 289, 127 (2001); S. Sharapov, Phys. Plasmas 9, 2027 (2002). [5] R. Nazikian, H. L. Berk, et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 47, 327 (2002). [6] E. Joffrin et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 44, 1739 (2002); E. Joffrin et al., in Proc. 2002 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, submitted to Nucl. Fusion.

  17. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Boer, Frits

    2009-07-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child's temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537-551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children's temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction.

  18. Cognitive and behavior deficits in sickle cell mice are associated with profound neuropathologic changes in hippocampus and cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Almeida, Luis E.F.; de Souza Batista, Celia M.; Khaibullina, Alfia; Xu, Nuo; Albani, Sarah; Guth, Kira A.; Seo, Ji Sung; Quezado, Martha; Quezado, Zenaide M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Strokes are perhaps the most serious complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and by the fifth decade occur in approximately 25% of patients. While most patients do not develop strokes, mounting evidence indicates that even without brain abnormalities on imaging studies, SCD patients can present profound neurocognitive dysfunction. We sought to evaluate the neurocognitive behavior profile of humanized SCD mice (Townes, BERK) and to identify hematologic and neuropathologic abnormalities associated with the behavioral alterations observed in these mice. Heterozygous and homozygous Townes mice displayed severe cognitive deficits shown by significant delays in spatial learning compared to controls. Homozygous Townes also had increased depression- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as reduced performance on voluntary wheel running compared to controls. Behavior deficits observed in Townes were also seen in BERKs. Interestingly, most deficits in homozygotes were observed in older mice and were associated with worsening anemia. Further, neuropathologic abnormalities including the presence of large bands of dark/pyknotic (shrunken) neurons in CA1 and CA3 fields of hippocampus and evidence of neuronal dropout in cerebellum were present in homozygotes but not control Townes. These observations suggest that cognitive and behavioral deficits in SCD mice mirror those described in SCD patients and that aging, anemia, and profound neuropathologic changes in hippocampus and cerebellum are possible biologic correlates of those deficits. These findings support using SCD mice for studies of cognitive deficits in SCD and point to vulnerable brain areas with susceptibility to neuronal injury in SCD and to mechanisms that potentially underlie those deficits. PMID:26462816

  19. Evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for production of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Rani, P; Kalyani, N; Prathiba, K

    2008-12-01

    The degradation of lignocellulosic wastes such as paddy straw, sorghum stalk, and banana pseudostem was investigated during solid-state fermentation by edible mushrooms Pleurotus eous and Lentinus connotus. Biological efficiency of 55-65% was observed in paddy straw followed by sorghum stalk (45%) and banana pseudostem (33%) for both fungal species. The activity of extracellular enzymes, namely cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase, together with the content of cellulose, lignin, and phenols, was studied in spent substrates on seventh, 17th, and 27th days of spawning, and these values were used as indicators of the extent of lignocellulosic degradation by mushroom. Both the mushroom species proved to be efficient degraders of lignocellulosic biomass of paddy straw and sorghum stalk, and the extent of cellulose degradation was 63-72% of dry weight (d.w.), and lignin degradation was 23-30% of the d.w. In banana pseudostem, the extent of the degradation was observed to be only 15-22% of the d.w. for both lignin and cellulose. Preferential removal of cellulose during initial growth period and delayed degradation of lignin were observed in all three substrates. This is associated with decrease in activity of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase and increase in laccase activity with spawn aging in spent substrates. Thus, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by P. eous and L. connotus offers a promising way to convert low-quality biomass into an improved human food.

  20. Comparative assessment of bioremediation approaches to highly recalcitrant PAH degradation in a real industrial polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Viñas, M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A

    2013-03-15

    High recalcitrant characteristics and low bioavailability rates due to aging processes can hinder high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) bioremediation in real industrial polluted soils. With the aim of reducing the residual fraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and (HMW-PAHs) in creosote-contaminated soil remaining after a 180-d treatment in a pilot-scale biopile, either biostimulation (BS) of indigenous microbial populations with a lignocellulosic substrate (LS) or fungal bioaugmentation with two strains of white-rot fungi (WRF) (i.e., Trametes versicolor and Lentinus tigrinus) were comparatively tested. The impact of bivalent manganese ions and two mobilizing agents (MAs) (i.e., Soybean Oil and Brij 30) on the degradation performances of biostimulated and bioaugmented microcosms was also compared. The results reveal soil colonization by both WRF strains was clearly hampered by an active native soil microbiota. In fact, a proper enhancement of native microbiota by means of LS amendment promoted the highest biodegradation of HMW-PAHs, even of those with five aromatic rings after 60 days of treatment, but HMW-PAH-degrading bacteria were specifically inhibited when non-ionic surfactant Brij 30 was amended. Effects of bioaugmentation and other additives such as non-ionic surfactants on the degrading capability of autochthonous soil microbiota should be evaluated in polluted soils before scaling up the remediation process at field scale.

  1. Evaluation of the chemical and antioxidant properties of wild and cultivated mushrooms of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obodai, Mary; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Fernandes, Angela; Barros, Lillian; Mensah, Deborah L Narh; Dzomeku, Matilda; Urben, Arailde F; Prempeh, Juanita; Takli, Richard K

    2014-11-26

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of both wild and cultivated edible mushrooms in Ghana is limited. This study reports their nutritional value, composition in lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules, minerals and antioxidant properties. The samples were found to be nutritionally rich in carbohydrates, ranging from 64.14 ± 0.93 g in Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 to 80.17 ± 0.34 g in Lentinus squarosullus strain LSF. The highest level of proteins (28.40 ± 0.86 g) was recorded in the mentioned P. ostreatus strain. Low fat contents were registered in the samples, with Auricularia auricula recording the lowest value. High levels of potassium were also observed with the following decreasing order of elements: K > P ~ Na > Mg > Ca. High levels of antioxidants were also observed, thus making mushrooms suitable to be used as functional foods or nutraceutical sources. Furthermore, this study provides new information regarding chemical properties of mushrooms from Ghana, which is very important for the biodiversity characterization of this country.

  2. Isolation and molecular characterization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic degrading fungal isolates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ahmed, Safia; Robson, Geoff; Javed, Imran; Ali, Naeem; Atiq, Naima; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrant nature of polyvinyl chloride creates serious environmental concerns during manufacturing and waste disposal. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen different soil fungi having potential to biodegrade PVC films. After 10 months of soil burial experiment, it was observed that a number of fungal strains were flourishing on PVC films. On morphological as well as on 18rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic basis they were identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium PV1, Lentinus tigrinus PV2, Aspergillus niger PV3, and Aspergillus sydowii PV4. The biodegradation ability of these fungal isolates was further checked in shake flask experiments by taking thin films of PVC (C source) in mineral salt medium. A significant change in color and surface deterioration of PVC films was confirmed through visual observation and Scanning electron microscopy. During shake flask experiments, P. chrysosporium PV1 produced maximum biomass of about 2.57 mg ml(-1) followed by A. niger PV3. P. chrysosporium PV1 showed significant reduction (178,292 Da(-1)) in Molecular weight of the PVC film than control (200,000 Da(-1)) by gel permeation chromatography. Furthermore more Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance also revealed structural changes in the PVC. It was concluded that isolated fungal strains have significant potential for biodegradation of PVC plastics.

  3. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Yu-Kai; Yu, Hui-Tzu; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) contain several bioactive components such as lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and ergothioneine. This article reports the results of 49 samples, including 9 fruiting bodies, 39 mycelia, and 1 vegetative cell, of 35 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from 18 genera: Agaricus, Agrocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Cyathus, Daedalia, Flammulina, Fomes, Ganoderma, Grifola, Laetiporus, Lentinus, Morchella, Ophiocordyceps, Pleurotus, Trametes, Tremella, and Verpa. The results show that Cyathus striatus strain 978 contained the highest amount of lovastatin (995.66 mg/kg) in mycelia. Among fruiting bodies, 6 samples contained a high amount of GABA (274.86-822.45 mg/kg), whereas among mycelia, contents of GABA in 27 samples ranged from 215.36 to 2811.85 mg/kg. Among mycelia, Pleurotus cornucopiae strain 1101 contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (3482.09 mg/kg). Overall, these 3 bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and the results obtained might be related to their beneficial effects.

  4. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects.

  5. Nutrient compositions of culinary-medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) are a food with high nutritional value. This article summarizes the results of proximate composition studies of 38 fruiting bodies and 19 mycelia of 32 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Antrodia, Auricularia, Boletus, Clitocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Trametes, Dictyophora, Flammulina, Ganoderma, Grifola, Hericium, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Sparassis, Termitomyces, Tremella, and Tricholoma. Based on the proximate composition, most fruiting bodies and mycelia are low in fat and rich in protein and dietary fiber (DF); however, some are rich in soluble polysaccharides and others are rich in crude fiber. Due to the high amount of DF present, the energy provided by 100 g of dry fruiting bodies and mycelia is 46.96-292.37 kcal and 195.84-373.22 kcal, respectively. The energy (100 g) is classified into four levels: first level of >300 kcal, second level of 200-300 kcal, third level of 100-200 kcal, and fourth level of <100 kcal. Most fruiting bodies are listed in the third level; nine mycelia are listed in the first level and ten in the second level. Overall, the information about the proximate composition and energy are of great interest for fruiting bodies and mycelia to be used as foods or food-flavoring materials or in the formulation of health foods.

  6. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    PubMed

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds.

  7. Molecular Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Three Wild Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms from Tripura, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Aparajita Roy; Borthakur, Madhusmita; Saha, Ajay Krishna; Joshi, Santa Ram; Das, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 3 wild culinary-medicinal mushrooms using molecular tools and to analyze their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties were studied by evaluating free radical scavenging, reducing power, and chelating effect. The mushrooms were identified as Lentinus squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium, and Macrocybe gigantean by amplifying internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. The results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of M. gigantean has the highest free radical scavenging effect and chelating effect, whereas the methanolic extract of L. squarrosulus has the highest reducing power. The highest total phenol content and the most ascorbic acid were found in the M. gigantean extracts. Among the 3 mushroom extracts, M. gigantean displayed the most potent antioxidant activity. Molecular characterization using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region as a universal DNA marker was an effective tool in the identification and phylogenetic analysis of the studied mushrooms. The study also indicated that these wild macrofungi are rich sources of natural antioxidants.

  8. Remote sensing to monitor cover crop adoption in southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, Wells; Sjoerd Duiker,; Greg McCarty,; Prabhakara, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, winter cereal cover crops are often planted in rotation with summer crops to reduce the loss of nutrients and sediment from agricultural systems. Cover crops can also improve soil health, control weeds and pests, supplement forage needs, and support resilient cropping systems. In southeastern Pennsylvania, cover crops can be successfully established following corn (Zea mays L.) silage harvest and are strongly promoted for use in this niche. They are also planted following corn grain, soybean (Glycine max L.), and vegetable harvest. In Pennsylvania, the use of winter cover crops for agricultural conservation has been supported through a combination of outreach, regulation, and incentives. On-farm implementation is thought to be increasing, but the actual extent of cover crops is not well quantified. Satellite imagery can be used to map green winter cover crop vegetation on agricultural fields and, when integrated with additional remote sensing data products, can be used to evaluate wintertime vegetative groundcover following specific summer crops. This study used Landsat and SPOT (System Probatoire d’ Observation de la Terre) satellite imagery, in combination with the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer, to evaluate the extent and amount of green wintertime vegetation on agricultural fields in four Pennsylvania counties (Berks, Lebanon, Lancaster, and York) from 2010 to 2013. In December of 2010, a windshield survey was conducted to collect baseline data on winter cover crop implementation, with particular focus on identifying corn harvested for silage (expected earlier harvest date and lower levels of crop residue), versus for grain (expected later harvest date and higher levels of crop residue). Satellite spectral indices were successfully used to detect both the amount of green vegetative groundcover and the amount of crop residue on the surveyed fields. Analysis of wintertime satellite imagery

  9. A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Phyllosticta (Botryosphaeriales)

    PubMed Central

    Wikee, S.; Lombard, L.; Nakashima, C.; Motohashi, K.; Chukeatirote, E.; Cheewangkoon, R.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Hyde, K.D.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Phyllosticta is a geographically widespread genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a diverse host range. This study redefines Phyllosticta, and shows that it clusters sister to the Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales, Dothideomycetes), for which the older family name Phyllostictaceae is resurrected. In moving to a unit nomenclature for fungi, the generic name Phyllosticta was chosen over Guignardia in previous studies, an approach that we support here. We use a multigene DNA dataset of the ITS, LSU, ACT, TEF and GPDH gene regions to investigate 129 isolates of Phyllosticta, representing about 170 species names, many of which are shown to be synonyms of the ubiquitous endophyte P. capitalensis. Based on the data generated here, 12 new species are introduced, while epitype and neotype specimens are designated for a further seven species. One species of interest is P. citrimaxima associated with tan spot of Citrus maxima fruit in Thailand, which adds a fifth species to the citrus black spot complex. Previous morphological studies lumped many taxa under single names that represent complexes. In spite of this Phyllosticta is a species-rich genus, and many of these taxa need to be recollected in order to resolve their phylogeny and taxonomy. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Phyllosticta abieticola Wikee & Crous, P. aloeicola Wikee & Crous, P. citrimaxima Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. leucothoicola Wikee, Motohashi & Crous, P. mangifera-indica Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. neopyrolae Wikee, Motohashi, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. pachysandricola Wikee, Motohashi & Crous, P. paxistimae Wikee & Crous, P. podocarpicola Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. rhaphiolepidis Wikee, C. Nakash. & Crous, P. rubra Wikee & Crous, P. vacciniicola Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie; New combinations - P. foliorum (Sacc.) Wikee & Crous, P. philoprina (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Wikee & Crous; Epitypifications (basionyms) - P. concentrica Sacc., P. cussoniae Cejp, P

  10. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop

    2015-01-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  11. Forest farming of shiitake mushrooms: an integrated evaluation of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, J N; Mihail, J D; Pickens, J B

    2009-12-01

    Two outdoor shiitake (Lentinula edodes) cultivation experiments, established in Missouri USA in 1999 and 2000, produced mushrooms in 2000-2005. We examined shiitake production in response to substrate species, inoculum form, inoculum strain, and inoculation timing, using total mushroom weight per log as the primary response variable with log characteristics as covariates. The significantly greater mushroom weight produced by sugar maple logs compared with white or northern red oak was attributable to the higher proportion of undiscolored wood volume in the maple logs, rather than to bark thickness or log diameter. The "wide temperature range" shiitake strain produced significantly greater yield compared with the "warm" or "cold" weather strains. Both the wide-range and warm-weather strains were stimulated to fruit by significant rain events, while the cold-weather strain was responsive to temperature. Inoculation with sawdust spawn gave significantly greater yield than colonized wooden dowels or pre-packaged "thimble" plug inoculum. The second and third full years following inoculation were the most productive.

  12. Oxygen abundance in local disk and bulge: chemical evolution with a strictly universal IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.; Milanese, E.

    2009-09-01

    This paper has two parts: one about observational constraints related to the empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD), and the other about inhomogeneous models of chemical evolution, in particular the theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD). In the first part, the EDOD is deduced from subsamples related to two different samples involving (i) N=532 solar neighbourhood (SN) stars within the range, -1.5<[Fe/H]<0.5, for which the oxygen abundance has been determined both in presence and in absence of the local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) approximation (Ramirez et al. in Astron. Astrophys. 465:271, 2007); and (ii) N=64 SN thick disk, SN thin disk, and bulge K-giant stars within the range, -1.7<[Fe/H]<0.5, for which the oxygen abundance has been determined (Melendez et al. in Astron. Astrophys. 484:L21, 2008). A comparison is made with previous results implying use of [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations (Caimmi in Astron. Nachr. 322:241, 2001b; New Astron. 12:289, 2007) related to (iii) 372 SN halo subdwarfs (Ryan and Norris in Astron. J. 101:1865, 1991); and (iv) 268 K-giant bulge stars (Sadler et al. in Astron. J. 112:171, 1996). The EDOD of the SN thick + thin disk is determined by weighting the mass, for assumed SN thick to thin disk mass ratio within the range, 0.1-0.9. In the second part, inhomogeneous models of chemical evolution for the SN thick disk, the SN thin disk, the SN thick + thin disk, the SN halo, and the bulge, are computed assuming the instantaneous recycling approximation. The EDOD data are fitted, to an acceptable extent, by their TDOD counterparts with the exception of the thin or thick + thin disk, where two additional restrictions are needed: (i) still undetected, low-oxygen abundance thin disk stars exist, and (ii) a single oxygen overabundant star is removed from a thin disk subsample. In any case, the (assumed power-law) stellar initial mass function (IMF) is universal but gas can be inhibited from

  13. Study on vitamin D₂ stability in dried mushrooms during drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Sławińska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Korona, Marta; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Stachniuk, Anna

    2016-05-15

    The main objective of this work was to determine the stability of vitamin D2 in dried mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes during storage, as well as to examine the possibility of inducing vitamin D2 production in dried mushrooms by UVB irradiation. After 1.5 year storage of dried mushrooms, the level of vitamin D2 in button mushrooms was found to be 6.90 μg/g dw, which is a 48.32% of initial level of vitamin D2. In the case of dried oyster and shiitake mushrooms there was a decrease to the level of 66.90% and 68.40%, respectively. It was determined that dried mushrooms can produce ergocalciferol under UVB irradiation. The highest content of vitamin D2 was observed in A. bisporus. Freeze-dried A. bisporus contained from 42.08 to 119.21 μg/g dw and hot-air dried mushrooms contained from 21.51 to 81.17 μg/g dw vitamin D2.

  14. Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    JEDINAK, ANDREJ; SLIVA, DANIEL

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the global consumption of mushrooms, only two epidemiological studies demonstrated an inverse correlation between mushroom intake and the risk of cancer. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated whether extracts from edible mushrooms Agaricus bisporus (portabella), Flammulina velutipes (enoki), Lentinula edodes (shiitake) and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster) affect the growth of breast and colon cancer cells. Here, we identified as the most potent, P. ostreatus (oyster mushroom) which suppressed proliferation of breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and colon cancer (HT-29, HCT-116) cells, without affecting proliferation of epithelial mammary MCF-10A and normal colon FHC cells. Flow cytometry revealed that the inhibition of cell proliferation by P. ostreatus was associated with the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, P. ostreatus induced the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1), whereas inhibited the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma Rb protein in MCF-7 cells. In addition, P. ostreatus also up-regulated expression of p21 and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in HT-29 cells, suggesting that that P. ostreatus suppresses the proliferation of breast and colon cancer cells via p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway. In conclusion, our results indicated that the edible oyster mushroom has potential therapeutic/preventive effects on breast and colon cancer. PMID:19020765

  15. The Effects of Fractions from Shiitake Mushroom on Composition and Cariogenicity of Dental Plaque Microcosms in an In Vitro Caries Model

    PubMed Central

    Zaura, Egija; Buijs, Mark J.; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Ciric, Lena; Papetti, Adele; Signoretto, Caterina; Stauder, Monica; Lingström, Peter; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David A.; Wilson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticariogenic potential of the (sub)fractions obtained from the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) in in vitro caries model. We used a modified constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) with pooled saliva as the inoculum and bovine dentin as a substratum. The test compounds were low molecular weight fraction (MLMW) of the shiitake extract and subfractions 4 and 5 (SF4 and SF5) of this fraction. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and water served as a positive and a negative control, respectively. Dentin mineral loss was quantified (TMR), microbial shifts within the microcosms were determined (qPCR), and the acidogenicity of the microcosms was assessed (CIA). From the compounds tested, the SF4 of shiitake showed strong inhibiting effect on dentin demineralization and induced microbial shifts that could be associated with oral health. The acid producing potential was increased, suggesting uncoupling of the glycolysis of the microbiota by the exposure to SF4. In conclusion, the results suggest that SF4 of shiitake has an anticariogenic potential. PMID:21941428

  16. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of reactive Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Velmurugan, Natarajan; Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Lee, Yang Soo

    2012-11-30

    The treatment of effluents from textile industry with microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, has recently gained attention. The present study was conducted using white rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes sp., and Lentinula edodes for the decolorization of reactive textile Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye. I. lacteus resulted in the best decolorization and degradation of the dye within four days. Therefore, more detailed studies were carried out using I. lacteus. The decolorization was evaluated at various concentration, pH values, and temperatures. The activities of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase enzymes were estimated to reveal the roles of enzymes in decolorization. The colorless nature of the fungal cells revealed that decolorization occurred through degradation, and confirmed by analysis of the metabolites by UV-visible spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography after decolorization. The metabolites were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and functional group analysis was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The degraded dye metabolites were assessed for phytotoxicity using Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea, which demonstrated nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed after degradation of dye.

  17. Sugarcane bagasse degradation and characterization of three white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiu Qin; Yang, Jin Shui; Zhu, Ning; Wang, En Tao; Yuan, Hong Li

    2013-03-01

    In order to investigate the details of lignin biodegradation, the characteristics and process of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) degradation by three lignin degrading fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium PC2, Lentinula edode LE16 and Pleurotus ostreatus PO45, were studied. We found that the ligninolytic enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were produced first, and that the cellulolytic enzyme CMCase was produced subsequently. These three fungi were more efficient to degrade lignin (85-93%) than hemicelluloses (64-88%) and cellulose (15-67%) in 12weeks, in which P. chrysosporium PC2 was the most efficient strain to degrade all the ingredients. Results of the FTIR and CP/MAS (13)C NMR revealed that the three fungi preferentially degraded syringyl units. The PPO and MnP as the main ligninolytic enzymes, especially the presence of PPO, were new findings in this study, which improved our knowledge of biopretreatment of SCB and evidenced these strains as valuable resource for SCB biotransformation.

  18. Assessment of heavy metals in some wild edible mushrooms collected from Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fangkun; Qu, Li; Fan, Wenxiu; Qiao, Meiying; Hao, Hailing; Wang, Xuejing

    2011-08-01

    Eight heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in 14 different wild-growing edible mushroom species (Coprinus comatus, Voluariella volvacea, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Hericium erinaceus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lenfinus edodes, Collybia velutipes, Agaricus bisporus, Russula albida, Clitocybe conglobata, Pleurotus eryngii, Lepista sordida, and Pleurotus ostreatus) collected from Yunnan province, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The ranges of element concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were 6.8-31.9, 42.9-94.3, 67.5-843, 13.5-113, 0.06-0.58, 10.7-42.7, 0.76-5.1, and 0.67-12.9 mg/kg, respectively. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of zinc, cadmium, and lead in some edible mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits. The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  19. Beta-induced Alfven-acousti Eigenmodes in NSTX and DIII-D Driven by Beam Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Berk, H. L.; Crocker, N. A.; Darrow, D.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G. Y.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Menard, J.; Nazikian, R.

    2009-03-06

    Kinetic theory and experimental observations of a special class of energetic particle driven instabilities called here Beta-induced Alfven-Acoustic Eigenmodes (BAAE) are reported confirming previous results [N.N. Gorelenkov H.L. Berk, N.A. Crocker et. al. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49 B371 (2007)] The kinetic theory is based on the ballooning dispersion relation where the drift frequency effects are retained. BAAE gaps are recovered in kinetic theory. It is shown that the observed certain low-frequency instabilities on DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42 614 (2002)] and National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, S.M. Kaye, Y.-K M. Peng et. al., Nucl. Fusion 40 3Y 557 (2000)] are consistent with their identification as BAAEs. BAAEs deteriorated the fast ion confinement in DIII-D and can have a similar effect in next-step fusion plasmas, especially if excited together with multiple global Toroidicity-induced shear Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) instabilities. BAAEs can also be used to diagnose safety factor profiles, a technique known as magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy.

  20. The effects of a sensory motor activities protocol based on the theory of sensory integration on children diagnosed with preprimary impairments.

    PubMed

    Paul, Stanley; Sinen, Patricia; Johnson, Joy; Latshaw, Christina; Newton, Jami; Nelson, April; Powers, Robert

    2003-01-01

    According to the theory of sensory integration (SI), when an infant successfully meets the challenges of his/her environment, the brain learns to organize the sensation for production of adaptive responses. Research studies have shown mixed results about the effects of the SI therapy and most studies have used single system designs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Sensory Integrative Treatment Protocol (SITP) in treating children with preprimary impairments. Two intact classrooms were used as experimental and control groups. The experimental group consisted of 15 children and the control group consisted of 16 children diagnosed with preprimary impairments. Descriptive statistics and a 2 (group) × 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVA were employed in data analyses. DeGangi-Berk Test of Sensory Integration (TSI) and the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP) were used as the instruments to measure change within and between the two groups before and after the intervention. TSI and MAP scores went up considerably for the children in the experimental group following the intervention. Based on the results, the researchers suggest that "Sensory Integration Treatment Protocol" based on the theory of sensory integration was effective in reducing sensory integration dysfunction and improving preschool performance in children diagnosed with pre-primary impairments.

  1. Simple, rapid /sup 125/I-labeled cyclosporine double antibody/polyethylene glycol radioimmunoassay used in a pediatric cardiac transplant program

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, L.S.; Webb, G.; Imperio, N.C.; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S.L.; Eby, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    We modified the Sandoz cyclosporine radioimmunoassay because of our need for frequent clinical monitoring of cyclosporine drug levels in allo- and xenograft pediatric cardiac transplant patients. With application of a commercially available (/sup 125/I)cyclosporine label in place of (/sup 3/H)cyclosporine and a second antibody/polyethylene glycol (PEG) method of separation in place of charcoal separation, we simplified and enhanced the speed and precision of assay performance. Studies of 140 whole blood samples comparing this new method to the (/sup 3/H)cyclosporine radioimmunoassay (RIA) method of Berk and colleagues yielded a coefficient of correlation of 0.96 (p less than 0.00001) with means of 626 and 667 ng/ml for (/sup 3/H)RIA and (/sup 125/I)RIA, respectively, and a regression equation of y = 28 + 1.02x. The major advantages are that total assay time is reduced to approximately 1 h; (/sup 125/I)cyclosporine label is used, avoiding the problems associated with liquid scintillation counting; and precision is enhanced by separating bound and free fractions with second antibody/PEG. These modifications should provide for greater ease of assay performance and improved clinical utility of cyclosporine monitoring not only in the pediatric but also in the adult transplant patient.

  2. Cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to alleviate pain in sickle cell anemia via inhibition of mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Lucile; Vang, Derek; Nguyen, Julia; Benson, Barbara; Lei, Jianxun; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a manifestation of a single point mutation in hemoglobin, but inflammation and pain are the insignia of this disease which can start in infancy and continue throughout life. Earlier studies showed that mast cell activation contributes to neurogenic inflammation and pain in sickle mice. Morphine is the common analgesic treatment but also remains a major challenge due to its side effects and ability to activate mast cells. We, therefore, examined cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to mitigate mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia, using HbSS-BERK sickle and cannabinoid receptor-2-deleted sickle mice. We show that cannabinoids mitigate mast cell activation, inflammation and neurogenic inflammation in sickle mice via both cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2. Thus, cannabinoids influence systemic and neural mechanisms, ameliorating the disease pathobiology and hyperalgesia in sickle mice. This study provides ‘proof of principle’ for the potential of cannabinoid/cannabinoid receptor-based therapeutics to treat several manifestations of sickle cell anemia. PMID:26703965

  3. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A.; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia. PMID:26294734

  4. PLASMA ENERGETIC PARTICLES SIMULATION CENTER (PEPSC)

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Herbert L.

    2014-05-23

    The main effort of the Texas group was to develop theoretical and simplified numerical models to understand chirping phenomena often seen for Alfven and geodesic acoustic waves in experimental plasmas such as D-III-D, NSTX and JET. Its main numerical effort was to modify the AEGIS code, which was originally developed as an eigenvalue solver. To apply to the chirping problem this code has to be able to treat the linear response to the continuum and the response of the plasma to external drive or to an internal drive that comes from the formation of phase space chirping structures. The theoretical underpinning of this investigation still needed to be more fully developed to understand how to best formulate the theoretical problem. Considerable progress was made on this front by B.N. Breizman and his collaborators and a new reduced model was developed by H. L. Berk and his PhD student, G. Wang which can be uses as simplified model to describe chirping in a large aspect ratio tokamak. This final report will concentrate on these two directions that were developed as well as results that were found in the work with the AEGIS code and in the progress in developing a novel quasi-linear formulation for a description of Alfvenic modes destabilized by energetic particles, such as alpha particles in a burning plasma.

  5. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, María E.; Balatti, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  6. The HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid exhibit multiple modalities of benefit for the vascular pathobiology of sickle transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Vercellotti, Gregory M.; Pace, Betty S.; Solovey, Anna N.; Kollander, Rahn; Abanonu, Chine F.; Nguyen, Julia; Vineyard, Julie V.; Belcher, John D.; Abdulla, Fuad; Osifuye, Shadé; Eaton, John W.; Kelm, Robert J.; Slungaard, Arne

    2010-01-01

    The vascular pathobiology of sickle cell anemia involves inflammation, coagulation, vascular stasis, reperfusion injury, iron-based oxidative biochemistry, deficient nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and red cell sickling. These disparate pathobiologies intersect and overlap, so it is probable that multimodality therapy will be necessary for this disease. We have, therefore, tested a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), for efficacy in reducing endothelial activation. We found that pulmonary vascular endothelial VCAM-1 and tissue factor (TF) expression (both are indicators of endothelial activation) are powerfully and significantly inhibited by TSA. This is seen both with pretreatment before the inducing stress of hypoxia/reoxygenation (NY1DD sickle transgenic mouse), and upon longer-term therapy after endothelial activation has already occurred (hBERK1 sickle mouse at ambient air). In addition, TSA prevented vascular stasis in sickle mice, it exhibited activity as an iron chelator, and it induced expression of the antisickling hemoglobin, hemoglobin F. Notably, the TSA analog SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxaminc acid) that is already approved for human clinical use exhibits the same spectrum of biologic effects as TSA. We suggest that SAHA possibly could provide true, multimodality, salubrious effects for prevention and treatment of the chronic vasculopathy of sickle cell anemia. PMID:20053759

  7. The HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid exhibit multiple modalities of benefit for the vascular pathobiology of sickle transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hebbel, Robert P; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Pace, Betty S; Solovey, Anna N; Kollander, Rahn; Abanonu, Chine F; Nguyen, Julia; Vineyard, Julie V; Belcher, John D; Abdulla, Fuad; Osifuye, Shadé; Eaton, John W; Kelm, Robert J; Slungaard, Arne

    2010-03-25

    The vascular pathobiology of sickle cell anemia involves inflammation, coagulation, vascular stasis, reperfusion injury, iron-based oxidative biochemistry, deficient nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and red cell sickling. These disparate pathobiologies intersect and overlap, so it is probable that multimodality therapy will be necessary for this disease. We have, therefore, tested a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), for efficacy in reducing endothelial activation. We found that pulmonary vascular endothelial VCAM-1 and tissue factor (TF) expression (both are indicators of endothelial activation) are powerfully and significantly inhibited by TSA. This is seen both with pretreatment before the inducing stress of hypoxia/reoxygenation (NY1DD sickle transgenic mouse), and upon longer-term therapy after endothelial activation has already occurred (hBERK1 sickle mouse at ambient air). In addition, TSA prevented vascular stasis in sickle mice, it exhibited activity as an iron chelator, and it induced expression of the antisickling hemoglobin, hemoglobin F. Notably, the TSA analog SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxaminc acid) that is already approved for human clinical use exhibits the same spectrum of biologic effects as TSA. We suggest that SAHA possibly could provide true, multimodality, salubrious effects for prevention and treatment of the chronic vasculopathy of sickle cell anemia.

  8. The Gaussian curvature of the oil-water interface in an isometric bicontinuous microemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Choi, Sung-Min

    1997-02-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements are made on a three-component isometric (equal volume fractions of water and oil) microemulsion system, composed of AOT/water (0.4% NaCl)/D-octane, in the one-phase channel near the three-phase region at and around the hydrophile-lipophile balance temperature. A previous SANS contrast variation experiment indicated that the microstructure of this type of isometric microemulsion is bicontinuous in water and oil with the surfactant film at the interface having a zero mean curvature. We analyze SANS data taken with an oil-water contrast in terms of a modified Berk's random wave model. We choose a spectral function which is an inverse sixth-order polynomial, with three parameters a, b and c, as introduced by Lee and Chen earlier. This three-parameter spectral function is then used in conjunction with Cahn's clipping scheme to obtain the Debye correlation function appropriate for the microemulsion system. The model analysis results in good agreement with the intensity data in an absolute scale. We then use the three parameters so obtained to calculate the average Gaussian curvature of the interface. We discuss the variation of the average Gaussian curvature as a function of the surfactant volume fraction and its implication on the degree of local order of the bicontinuous structure. We also show a 3-D reconstructed morphology of the most disordered microemulsion.

  9. Measurement of the Gaussian curvature of the surfactant film in an isometric bicontinuous one-phase microemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Lee, D. D.; Kimishima, K.; Jinnai, H.; Hashimoto, T.

    1996-12-01

    Small-angle x-ray and neutron-scattering (SAXS and SANS) measurements are made of a three-component isometric microemulsion, C10E4-D2O-octane, in the one-phase channel around the hydrophile-lipophile balance temperature of the system. A previous SANS contrast variation experiment indicated that the microstructure of this isometric microemulsion is bicontinuous in water and oil, with the surfactant film having a zero mean curvature. We analyze the SAXS and SANS data taken with a bulk contrast in terms of a modified Berk's random wave model. We choose a spectral function which is an inverse sixth-order polynomial, with three parameters a, b, and c, as introduced by Lee and Chen earlier. This three-parameter spectral function is then used in conjunction with Cahn's clipping scheme to obtain the Debye correlation function for the microemulsion. The analysis gives an excellent agreement with the intensity data in an absolute scale. We then use the three parameters so obtained to calculate the mean Gaussian curvature of the surfactant film. We also show a three-dimensional-reconstructed morphology of the microemulsion.

  10. Dual-Directional Immunomodulatory Effects of Corbrin Capsule on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    PubMed Central

    He, Tianyi; Zhao, Ruxing; Lu, Yiran; Li, Wenjuan; Hou, Xinguo; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effects of Corbrin Capsule (CS-C-Q80), a drug derived from Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc., on autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). Methods. 44 Patients with Graves's disease (GD) and 56 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) were randomly assigned to treatment group (GD-Tx and HT-Tx) or control group (GD-Ct and HT-Ct). The control groups were given methimazole or levothyroxine only while the treatment groups were given Corbrin Capsule (2.0 g tid) besides the same conventional prescriptions as control groups. Thyroid hormones, thyroid antibodies, and T lymphocyte subsets were quantified at baseline and 24 weeks posttreatment. Results. Significant drop of serum anti-TPO-Ab levels was observed in both GD-Tx and HT-Tx groups. Before treatment, GD patients had higher helper T cells compared to cytotoxic T cells, while HT patients suffered from a nearly inverted proportion of helper T/cytotoxic T cells. There was a significant drop of the helper T/cytotoxic T cells ratio in GD-Tx to the median of the normal ranges after Corbrin treatment for 24 weeks, while that in HT-Tx was elevated. Conclusion. Corbrin Capsule could restore the balance between helper T and cytotoxic T cells in both GD and HT patients with dual-directional immunomodulatory effects. And it could significantly reduce the autoantibody levels in both GD and HT. PMID:27721890

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of silymarin

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Mendoza, Nancy; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, Ángel; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, Cesar; García-Luna y González-Rubio, Manuel; Gayosso-de-Lucio, Juan A; Morales-González, José A

    2014-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants in treating illnesses has been reported since ancestral times. In the case of hepatic diseases, several species such as Silybum marianum, Phyllanthus niruri, and Panus giganteus (Berk.) have been shown to ameliorate hepatic lesions. Silymarin is a natural compound derived from the species Silybum marianum, which is commonly known as Milk thistle. This plant contains at least seven flavoligands and the flavonoid taxifolin. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of silymarin is caused by its ability to inhibit the free radicals that are produced from the metabolism of toxic substances such as ethanol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride. The generation of free radicals is known to damage cellular membranes and cause lipoperoxidation. Silymarin enhances hepatic glutathione and may contribute to the antioxidant defense of the liver. It has also been shown that silymarin increases protein synthesis in hepatocytes by stimulating RNA polymerase I activity. A previous study on humans reported that silymarin treatment caused a slight increase in the survival of patients with cirrhotic alcoholism compared with untreated controls. PMID:24672644

  12. Optical detection of downy mildew in grapevine leaves: daily kinetics of autofluorescence upon infection

    PubMed Central

    Cerovic, Zoran G.

    2013-01-01

    A 15-day survey of autofluorescence has been conducted upon infection by downy mildew [Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Berl. & de Toni] of leaves of a susceptible grapevine genotype. Different autofluorescence signals were followed from the cellular to the whole-leaf level by using four types of devices for fluorosensing: a macroscope, a spectrofluorimeter, a portable field optical sensor (the Multiplex 3), and a field fluorescence sensor prototype with 335nm excitation. It was shown for the first time, by the three different techniques and at three different scales, that the stilbene-dependent violet–blue autofluorescence (VBF) had a transitory behaviour, increasing to a maximum 6 days post-inoculation (DPI) and then decreasing to a constant lower level, nevertheless significantly higher than in the control leaf. This behaviour could be sensed from both sides of the leaf. On the abaxial side, VBF could discriminate the presence of infection from 1 DPI, and on the adaxial side from 3 DPI. There was a constant increase in blue-excited green fluorescence starting from 8 DPI, concomitant with a decrease in leaf chlorophyll content sensed by one reflectance and two fluorescence indices available on the Multiplex 3 sensor. These results show that a pre-symptomatic and symptomatic sensing of downy mildew is possible by autofluorescence-based sensors, and this is potentially applicable in the field. PMID:23213137

  13. Generalized multiband typical medium dynamical cluster approximation: Application to (Ga,Mn)N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Nelson, R.; Siddiqui, Elisha; Tam, K.-M.; Yu, U.; Berlijn, T.; Ku, W.; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Moreno, J.; Jarrell, M.

    2016-12-01

    We generalize the multiband typical medium dynamical cluster approximation and the formalism introduced by Blackman, Esterling, and Berk so that it can deal with localization in multiband disordered systems with both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder with complicated potentials. We also introduce an ansatz for the momentum-resolved typical density of states that greatly improves the numerical stability of the method while preserving the independence of scattering events at different frequencies. Starting from the first-principles effective Hamiltonian, we apply this method to the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1 -xMnxN , and find the impurity band is completely localized for Mn concentrations x <0.03 , while for 0.03

  14. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice.

    PubMed

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia.

  15. Simulation and theory of spontaneous TAE frequency sweeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ge; Berk, H. L.

    2012-09-01

    A simulation model, based on the linear tip model of Rosenbluth, Berk and Van Dam (RBV), is developed to study frequency sweeping of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs). The time response of the background wave in the RBV model is given by a Volterra integral equation. This model captures the properties of TAE waves both in the gap and in the continuum. The simulation shows that phase space structures form spontaneously at frequencies close to the linearly predicted frequency, due to resonant particle-wave interactions and background dissipation. The frequency sweeping signals are found to chirp towards the upper and lower continua. However, the chirping signals penetrate only the lower continuum, whereupon the frequency chirps and mode amplitude increases in synchronism to produce an explosive solution. An adiabatic theory describing the evolution of a chirping signal is developed which replicates the chirping dynamics of the simulation in the lower continuum. This theory predicts that a decaying chirping signal will terminate at the upper continuum though in the numerical simulation the hole disintegrates before the upper continuum is reached.

  16. Model for spontaneous frequency sweeping of an Alfvén wave in a toroidal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ge; Berk, H. L.

    2012-05-01

    We study the frequency chirping signals arising from spontaneously excited toroidial Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) waves that are being driven by an inverted energetic particle distribution whose free energy is tapped from the generic particle/wave resonance interaction. Initially a wave is excited inside the Alfvén gap with a frequency determined from the linear tip model of Rosenbluth, Berk and Van dam (RBV) [1]. Hole/clumps structures are formed and are observed to chirp towards lower energy states. We find that the chirping signals from clump enter the Alfvén continuum which eventually produce more rapid chirping signals. The accuracy of the adiabatic approximation for the mode evolution is tested and verified by demonstrating that a WKB-like decomposition of the time response for the field phase and amplitude agree with the data. Plots of the phase space structure correlate well with the chirping dependent shape of the separatrix structure. A novel aspect of the simulation is that it performed close to the wave frame of the phase space structure, which enables the numerical time step to remain the same during the simulation, independent of the rest frame frequency.

  17. Water Channel Facility for Fluid Dynamics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslam-Panah, Azar; Sabatino, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    This study presents the design, assembly, and verification process of the circulating water channel constructed by undergraduate students at the Penn State University at Berks. This work was significantly inspired from the closed-loop free-surface water channel at Lafayette College (Sabatino and Maharjan, 2015) and employed for experiments in fluid dynamics. The channel has a 11 ft length, 2.5 ft width, and 2 ft height glass test section with a maximum velocity of 3.3 ft/s. First, the investigation justifies the needs of a water channel in an undergraduate institute and its potential applications in the whole field of engineering. Then, the design procedures applied to find the geometry and material of some elements of the channel, especially the contraction, the test section, the inlet and end tanks, and the pump system are described. The optimization of the contraction design, including the maintenance of uniform exit flow and avoidance of flow separation, is also included. Finally, the discussion concludes by identifying the problems with the undergraduate education through this capstone project and suggesting some new investigations to improve flow quality.

  18. New remarkable records of microfungi from Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009 we organized a botanical student excursion to the eastern part of Sardinia, Italy. On this occasion we were able to collect and identify over 80 species of microfungi growing on higher plants. The collecting sites were spread over a large area, among them were La Caletta, Capo Comino, Monte Albo, Cala Gonone, Monte Maccione, San Teodoro, Capo Testa. The collected microfungi were parasitic or saprophytic; Basidiomycotina (Uredinales), Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina (Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes) were predominant. Examples are Pezicula corticola (Jörg.) NANNF. (new for Sardinia), on Pyrus communis. Puccinia chamaecyparissi TROTT. (new for Sardinia), on Santolina insularis. Sphaceloma oleae CICC. and GRANITI (new for Sardinia) and Phlyctema vagabunda DESM. (new for Sardinia), on Olea europaea and Arbutus unedo. Puccinia pseudosphaeria MONT. (new for Sardinia), on Sonchus oleraceus. Discula umbrinella (BERK. and BR.) SUTTON (new for Sardinia)(D. quercina WEST. and BARK), on Quercus coccifera. Zaghouania phillyreae PAT. (new for Sardinia), on Phillyrea angustifolia. Phymatotrichum omnivorum (DUGGAR) HENNEBERT, new on Verbascum thapsus for Sardinia. Guignardia punctoidea (COOKE) SCHROTER (new for Sardinia), on Quercus ilex. Many of the collected species are rare or unknown for the area of investigation until now. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  19. Isotopic evidence indicates saprotrophy in post-fire Morchella in Oregon and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, Erik A; Rice, Samuel F; Weber, Nancy S; Smith, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the nutritional strategy of true morels (genus Morchella) collected in 2003 and 2004 in Oregon and Alaska, 1 or 2 y after forest fires. We hypothesized that the patterns of stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) in the sporocarps would match those of saprotrophic fungi and that radiocarbon (Δ(14)C) analyses would indicate that Morchella was assimilating old carbon not current-year photosynthate. We compared radiocarbon and stable isotopes in Morchella with values from concurrently collected foliage, the ectomycorrhizal Geopyxis carbonaria (Alb. & Schwein.) Sacc., the saprotrophic Plicaria endocarpoides (Berk.) Rifai, and with literature to determine isotopic values for ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic fungi. Geopyxis, Plicaria and Morchella, respectively, were 3‰, 5‰ and 6‰ higher in 13C than foliage and 5‰, 7‰ and 7‰ higher in (15)N. High (15)N enrichment in Morchella indicated that recent litter was not the primary source for Morchella nitrogen, and similar (13)C and (15)N enrichments to Plicaria suggest that Morchella assimilates its carbon and nitrogen from the same source pool as this saprotrophic fungus. From radiocarbon analyses Morchella averaged 11 ± 6 y old (n = 19), Plicaria averaged 17 ± 5 y old (n = 3), foliage averaged 1 ± 2 y old (n = 8) and Geopyxis (n = 1) resembled foliage in Δ(14)C. We conclude that morels fruiting in post-fire environments in our study assimilated old carbon and were saprotrophic.

  20. Producer survey of bird-livestock interactions in commercial dairies.

    PubMed

    Shwiff, S A; Carlson, J C; Glass, J H; Suckow, J; Lowney, M S; Moxcey, K M; Larson, B; Linz, G M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this producer survey was to identify and estimate damage caused by bird-livestock interactions in commercial dairies. The interactions between birds and livestock have previously been implicated in causing economic damage while contributing to the environmental dissemination of microorganisms pathogenic to livestock and humans. Very little research exists to help producers understand what bird species use dairies, why they use dairies, or the scope and nature of damage created as a result of bird-livestock interactions. To better characterize these interactions, we surveyed dairy operators within Pennsylvania, New York, and Wisconsin. Survey results suggest that the most common and destructive bird species found on commercial dairies are invasive to North America, and their use of dairies is associated with the loss of cattle feed, increased operating costs, and an increase in dairies self-reporting Salmonella spp. and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Cattle feed loss estimates generated from this survey were used to parameterize an input-output (IO) economic model using data from 10 counties in the state of Pennsylvania (Bedford, Berks, Blair, Bradford, Chester, Cumberland, Franklin, Lancaster, Lebanon, and Somerset). This IO model allowed us to estimate direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of feed loss from bird damage to dairies within these counties. The IO model output suggests that feed loss costs Pennsylvania between $4.11 and $12.08 million (mean $10.6 million) in total economic damage, with approximately 43 to 128 jobs (mean 112) forgone statewide in 2009.

  1. Surveys of microfungi in a former industrial area in Duisburg-Nord.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Dachowski, M; Kricke, R

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and forty microfungi (Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes) were collected in the "Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord" located in North Rhine-Westphalia. New hosts for rarely found fungi are recorded for the first time. New for Germany are Massaria inquinans (Tode) De Not. and Nitschkia grevillei (Rhem) Nannf. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Pirottaea nigrostriata Graddon on Artemisia vulgaris L., Ceratopycnis clematidis Höhn. on Clematis vitalba L., Dasyscyphus aff. humuli (W. Phillips) Dennis on Humulus lupulus L. and Leptosphaeria derasa (Berk. & Br.) Auersw. on Senecio inaequidens DC. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma (Durieu & Mont.) E. Müller & Booth and Phomopsis platanoides (Cooke) Died. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Microsphaeropsis pseudaspera Sutton, Mycosphaerella osborniae D. Hawksw. & Sivan. and Phomopsis oblita Sacc. on Artemisia vulgaris L., Leptosphaeria acuta (Fr.) P. Karst. and Leptosphaeria doliolum (Pers.) Ces. & De Not. on Bryonia dioica Jacq., Ophiobolus erythrosporus (Riess) G. Winter and Pleospora herbarum (Pers.) Rabenh. ex Ces. & De Not. on Dipsacus sylvestris (Huds), Keissleriella ocellata (Niessl) Bose on Hypericum perforatum L., Dactylaria aff. graminicola on Lolium perenne L., Siroplacodium aff. atrum on Oenothera beinnis L., Diatrypella favacea (Fr.) Sacc. on Prunus spec., Hapalosphaeria deformans (Syd.) Syd. and Microdiscula rubicola (Bres.) Höhn. on Rubus fructicosus agg. L., Cryptodiaporthe salicina (Pers.) Wehm. on Salix alba L. and Pleurophoma pleurospora (Sacc.) Höhn. on Salix caprea L.

  2. Quantification of pain in sickle mice using facial expressions and body measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Aditya; Gupta, Mihir; Lamarre, Yann; Jahagirdar, Balkrishna; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a hallmark feature of sickle cell disease (SCD). Subjects typically quantify pain by themselves, which can be biased by other factors leading to overtreatment or under-treatment. Reliable and accurate quantification of pain, in real time, might enable to provide appropriate levels of analgesic treatment. The mouse grimace scale (MGS), a standardized behavioral coding system with high accuracy and reliability has been used to quantify varied types of pain. We hypothesized that addition of the objective parameters of body length and back curvature will strengthen the reproducibility of MGS. We examined MGS scores and body length and back curvature of transgenic BERK sickle and control mice following cold treatment or following treatment with analgesic cannabinoid CP55,940. We observed that sickle mice demonstrated decreased length and increased back curvature in response to cold. These observations correlate with changes in facial expression for the MGS score. CP55,940 treatment of sickle mice showed an increase in body length and a decrease in back curvature concordant with MGS scores indicative of an analgesic effect. Thus, body parameters combined with facial expressions may provide a quantifiable unbiased method for objective measure of pain in SCD. PMID:26852657

  3. A putative precursor for the small ribosomal RNA from mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Osinga, K A; Evers, R F; Van der Laan, J C; Tabak, H F

    1981-01-01

    We have characterized a putative precursor RNA (15.5S) for the 15S ribosomal RNA in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hybrids were formed with mitochondrial RNA and mtDNA fragments terminally labelled at restriction sites located within the gene coding for 15S ribosomal RNA and treated with S1 nuclease (Berk, A.J. and Sharp, J.A. (1977) 12, 721-732). Sites of resistant hybrids were measured by agarose gel electrophoresis and end points of RNAs determined. The 15.5S RNA is approximately 80 nucleotides longer than the 15S ribosomal RNA, with the extra sequences being located at the 5'-end. Both 15S ribosomal RNA and 15.5S RNA are fully localised within a 2000 base pair HapII fragment. This putative precursor and the mature 15S ribosomal RNA are also found in petite mutants which retain the 15S ribosomal RNA gene. The petite mutant with the smallest genetic complexity has its end point of deletion (junction) just outside the HapII site located in the 5' flank of the 15S ribosomal RNA genes as determined by S1 nuclease analysis. This leaves a DNA stretch approximately 300 base pairs long where an initiation signal for mitochondrial transcription may be present. Images PMID:6262728

  4. Cytotoxicity of some edible mushrooms extracts over liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells in conjunction with their antioxidant and antibacterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Sadi, Gökhan; Emsen, Buğrahan; Kaya, Abdullah; Kocabaş, Aytaç; Çınar, Seval; Kartal, Deniz İrtem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mushrooms have been valued for their nutritive content and as traditional medicines; several important medicinal properties of mushrooms have been recognized worldwide. Objective: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the cell growth inhibitory potential of four edible mushrooms; Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers. (Agaricaceae), Tricholoma fracticum (Britzelm.) Kreisel (Tricholomataceae), Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. and Nordholm (Rhizopogonaceae), Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.) Fr. (Polyporaceae) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in conjunction with their antioxidant and antibacterial capacities. Materials and Methods: Five different extracts of edible mushrooms were obtained using water, methanol, acetone, n-hexane and chloroform as solvent systems for cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Results: C. comatus showed substantial in vitro cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cell lines with all extracts especially with chloroform 50% inhibition (IC50 value of 0.086 mg/ml) and acetone (IC50 value of 0.420 mg/ml). Chloroform extract of C. comatus had maximum amount of β-carotene (25.94 μg/mg), total phenolic content (76.32 μg/mg) and lycopene (12.00 μg/mg), and n-hexane extract of L. tigrinus had maximum amount of flavonoid (3.67 μg/mg). While chloroform extract of C. comatus showed the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) capturing activity (1.579 mg/ml), the best result for metal chelating activity was obtained from methanolic extract (0.842 mg/ml). Moreover, all tested mushrooms demonstrated antibacterial activity and n-hexane extract of L. tigrinus and acetone extracts of T. fracticum were the most active against tested microorganism. Conclusion: These results indicate that different extracts of investigated mushroom have considerable cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties and may be utilized as a promising source of therapeutics. PMID:26109775

  5. Isolation and Physicochemical Characterization of Laccase from Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1 Isolated from Its Native Habitat in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jarina; Malla, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    At present, few organisms are known to and capable of naturally producing laccases and white rot fungi are one such group. In the present study, three fungal species, namely, Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1, Ganoderma japonicum, and Lentinula edodes, isolated from their native habitat in Nepal were screened for laccase production, and G. lucidum-CDBT1 was found to express highest levels of enzyme (day 10 culture media showed 0.92 IU/mg total protein or 92 IU/mL laccase activity with ABTS as substrate). Lignin extracted from rice straw was used in Olga medium for laccase production and isolation from G. lucidum-CDBT1. Presence of lignin (5 g/L) and copper sulfate (30 μM) in the media increased the extracellular laccase content by 111% and 114%, respectively. The laccase enzyme produced by G. lucidum-CDBT1 was fractionated by ammonium sulfate and purified by DEAE Sepharose anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to have a molecular mass of 43 kDa and exhibits optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 30°C. The isolated laccase was thermally stable for up to 70°C for 1 h and exhibited broad pH stability. The kinetic constants, Km, Vmax, and Kcat, determined using 2,2′-azinobis-(-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as substrate were found to be 110 μM, 36 μmol/min/mg, and 246 min−1, respectively. The isolated thermostable laccase will be used in future experiments for delignification process. PMID:27822471

  6. Determination of total cadmium, lead, arsenic, mercury and inorganic arsenic in mushrooms: outcome of IMEP-116 and IMEP-39

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, F.; Llorente-Mirandes, T.; López-Sánchez, J.F.; Rubio, R.; Sánchez Agullo, A.; Raber, G.; Scharf, H.; Vélez, D.; Devesa, V.; Fiamegos, Y.; Emteborg, H.; Seghers, J.; Robouch, P.; de la Calle, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate General of the European Commission, operates the International Measurement Evaluation Program (IMEP). IMEP organises inter-laboratory comparisons in support of European Union policies. This paper presents the results of two proficiency tests (PTs): IMEP-116 and IMEP-39, organised for the determination of total Cd, Pb, As, Hg and inorganic As (iAs) in mushrooms. Participation in IMEP-116 was restricted to National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) officially appointed by national authorities in European Union member states. IMEP-39 was open to all other laboratories wishing to participate. Thirty-seven participants from 25 countries reported results in IMEP-116, and 62 laboratories from 36 countries reported for the IMEP-39 study. Both PTs were organised in support to Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, which sets the maximum levels for certain contaminants in food. The test item used in both PTs was a blend of mushrooms of the variety shiitake (Lentinula edodes). Five laboratories, with demonstrated measurement capability in the field, provided results to establish the assigned values (X ref). The standard uncertainties associated to the assigned values (u ref) were calculated by combining the uncertainty of the characterisation (u char) with a contribution for homogeneity (u bb) and for stability (u st), whilst u char was calculated following ISO 13528. Laboratory results were rated with z- and zeta (ζ)-scores in accordance with ISO 13528. The standard deviation for proficiency assessment, σ p, ranged from 10% to 20% depending on the analyte. The percentage of satisfactory z-scores ranged from 81% (iAs) to 97% (total Cd) in IMEP-116 and from 64% (iAs) to 84% (total Hg) in IMEP-39. PMID:25365736

  7. Spawn viability in edible mushrooms after freezing in liquid nitrogen without a cryoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Mata, Gerardo; Pérez-Merlo, Rosalía

    2003-08-01

    Five strains of edible mushrooms (Lentinula boryana, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus pulmonarius, and Volvariella volvacea) were studied. Spawn were prepared from sorghum seeds and then incubated for 14 days under optimum conditions for each species. Once covered by mycelia, the sorghum seeds were placed in polycarbonate vials for freezing in liquid nitrogen. The effect of adding a cryoprotective solution before freezing (either 10% glycerol v/v or 5% dimethylsulfoxide v/v) was evaluated as a function of mycelial growth and percent viability. Three main treatments were undertaken: (1) freezing with a glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide cryoprotectant, (2) freezing with water and (3) freezing without cryoprotectant or water. Samples were maintained frozen for a week, after which time they were thawed (10 min at 30 degrees C) and the seeds placed in Petri dishes with a culture medium. A recovery rate of 96.8% was obtained for the total number of samples summed over all strains and treatments. In contrast, 99.2% of the samples frozen without cryoprotectant were recovered. The recovery of frozen mycelia was delayed with respect to a control group, which was not frozen. However, no difference was observed in percent recovery and mycelial diameter when a new series of spawn was prepared from mycelia that had been previously frozen. Results obtained from this experiment demonstrate that an adequate recovery of mycelia can be obtained without using a cryoprotectant. This capacity might enable large quantities of commercial mushroom strains to be handled at reduced production costs. It is suggested that the mycelia survived freezing without cryoprotectants because they were embedded and protected within the sorghum seeds used to elaborate the spawn.

  8. The Unexplored Anticaries Potential of Shiitake Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Avinash, J.; Vinay, S.; Jha, Kunal; Das, Diptajit; Goutham, B. S.; Kumar, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    Keeping an eye the escalating costs of dental services, the treatment cost of the consequences of dental caries can be reduced to manageable proportions by preventive measures aimed at decreasing the prevalence. One such measure is by increasing the consumption of caries preventive foods. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a healthy food but also as a caries preventive food. The most common type of mushroom, Lentinula edodes also called as shiitake, is studied in-depth for its oral health benefits. The cultivation of shiitake dates way back to 1100 A.D. during the rule of Sung dynasty which is replaced by more modern and efficient sawdust substrate log cultures lately. Shiitake mushroom extract can be isolated in various forms such as freeze dried, oil, and ethyl acetate extracts. Various biologically active compounds such as erythritol, copalic acid, adenosine, carvacrol, and many more are responsible for this mushroom's antimicrobial activity. Anticariogenicity can be attributed to the induction of the detachment of cariogenic microorganisms from hydroxyapatite, changes in cell surface hydrophobicity, bactericidal activity, and disruption of signal transduction in Streptococcus mutans as proved through various in vivo and in vitro studies. Apart from these benefits, it has tremendous potential to be used as an antioxidant, anticancer, antigingivitis, antifungal, and antiviral agent. The one and only known adverse reaction due to shiitake mushroom consumption is the eruption of pruritic erythematous papules termed as shiitake dermatitis. This review highlights the unexplored anticaries potential of one such useful bioactive metabolite-shiitake mushroom. PMID:28082791

  9. Secondary structure and molecular evolution of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA in Agaricales (Euagarics clade, Homobasidiomycota).

    PubMed

    Barroso, Gérard; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Mouhamadou, Bello; Labarère, Jacques

    2003-10-01

    The complete sequences and secondary structures of the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNAs of both mostly cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus (1930 nt) and Lentinula edodes (2164 nt) were achieved. These secondary structures and that of Schizophyllum commune (1872 nt) were compared to that previously established for Agrocybe aegerita. The four structures are near the model established for Archae, Bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria; particularly the helices 23 and 37, described as specific to bacteria, are present. Within the four Agaricales (Homobasidiomycota), the SSU-rRNA "core" is conserved in size (966 to 1009 nt) with the exception of an unusual extension of 40 nt in the H17 helix of S. commune. The four core sequences possess 76% of conserved positions and a cluster of C in their 3' end, which could constitute a signal involved in the RNA maturation process. Among the nine putative variable domains, three (V3, V5, V7) do not show significant length variations and possess similar percentages of conserved positions (69%) than the core. The other six variable domains show important length variations, due to independent large size inserted/deleted sequences, and higher rates of nucleotide substitutions than the core (only 31% of conserved positions between the four species). Interestingly, the inserted/deleted sequences are located in few preferential sites (hot spots for insertion/deletion) where they seem to arise or disappear haphazardly during evolution. These sites are located on the surface of the tertiary structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit, at the beginning of hairpin loops; the insertions lead to a lengthening of existing hairpins or to branching loops bearing up to five additional helices.

  10. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) Immune Response in Mice by an Extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

  11. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) immune response in mice by an extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) mushroom.

    PubMed

    Ike, Kazunori; Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4(+) spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator.

  12. Isolation and Physicochemical Characterization of Laccase from Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1 Isolated from Its Native Habitat in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prabin; Joshi, Bishnu; Joshi, Jarina; Malla, Rajani; Sreerama, Lakshmaiah

    2016-01-01

    At present, few organisms are known to and capable of naturally producing laccases and white rot fungi are one such group. In the present study, three fungal species, namely, Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1, Ganoderma japonicum, and Lentinula edodes, isolated from their native habitat in Nepal were screened for laccase production, and G. lucidum-CDBT1 was found to express highest levels of enzyme (day 10 culture media showed 0.92 IU/mg total protein or 92 IU/mL laccase activity with ABTS as substrate). Lignin extracted from rice straw was used in Olga medium for laccase production and isolation from G. lucidum-CDBT1. Presence of lignin (5 g/L) and copper sulfate (30 μM) in the media increased the extracellular laccase content by 111% and 114%, respectively. The laccase enzyme produced by G. lucidum-CDBT1 was fractionated by ammonium sulfate and purified by DEAE Sepharose anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to have a molecular mass of 43 kDa and exhibits optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 30°C. The isolated laccase was thermally stable for up to 70°C for 1 h and exhibited broad pH stability. The kinetic constants, Km , Vmax, and Kcat, determined using 2,2'-azinobis-(-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as substrate were found to be 110 μM, 36 μmol/min/mg, and 246 min(-1), respectively. The isolated thermostable laccase will be used in future experiments for delignification process.

  13. A monograph of Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and their pycnidial, sporodochial, and synnematous anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.; Lechat, C.; Chaverri, P.

    2012-01-01

    large perithecia are immersed, large ascospores, and peculiar anamorphs that form pycnidia or sporodochia either on their natural substrate or in culture. In this study the evolution of species, morphology, and ecology of the three genera, Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria, are discussed based on the phylogenetic analyses. In addition, descriptions, illustrations, and keys for identification are presented for the 56 species in Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria. Taxonomic novelties: New species: Nectria argentinensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Nectria berberidicola Hirooka, Lechat, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria himalayensis Hirooka, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria magnispora Hirooka, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria mariae Hirooka, Fournier, Lechat, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria pyriformis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria boothii Hirooka, Rossman & Chaverri, Pleonectria clavatispora Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria ilicicola Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria okinawensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria pseudomissouriensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria quercicola Hirooka, Checa, Areual, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria strobi Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri. New combinations: Cosmospora proteae (Marinc., M.J. Wingf. & Crous) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Nectricladiella viticola (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Neocosmospora guarapiensis (Speg.) Hirooka, Samuels, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Neocosmospora rehmiana (Kirschstein) Hirooka, Samuels, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria aquifolii (Fr.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria aurigera (Berk. & Rav.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria chlorinella (Cooke) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria coryli (Fuckel) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria cucurbitula (Tode: Fr.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria lonicerae (Seeler) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria rosellinii (Carestia

  14. Interaction forces between red cells agglutinated by antibody. IV. Time and force dependence of break-up.

    PubMed

    Tees, D F; Coenen, O; Goldsmith, H L

    1993-09-01

    We report on an extension of a previously described method to measure the hydrodynamic force to separate doublets of fixed, sphered and swollen red cells cross-linked by antibody (S. P. Tha, J. Shuster, and H. L. Goldsmith. 1986. Biophys. J. 50:1117-1126). With a traveling microtube apparatus, doublets are tracked and videotaped in a slowly accelerating Poiseuille flow in 150-microns-diameter tubes, and the hydrodynamic normal force at break-up, Fn, is computed from the measured doublet velocity and radial position. Previous results showed a large range of Fn, the mean of which increased with [antiserum], and an absence of clustering at discrete values of Fn. Since it was assumed that the cells separate the instant a critical force to break all crossbridges was reached, lack of clustering could have been due to the use of a polyclonal antiserum. We therefore studied the effect of monoclonal IgM or IgA antibody on the distribution of Fn. The results showed that the data are as scattered as ever, with Fn varying from 2 to 200 pN, and exhibit no evidence of clustering. However, the scatter in Fn could be due to the stochastic nature of intercellular bonds (E. Evans, D. Berk, and A. Leung. 1991a. Biophys. J. 59:838-848). We therefore studied the force dependence of the time to break-up under constant shear stress (Fn from 30 to 200 pN), both in Poiseuille and Couette flow, the latter by using a counter-rotating cone and plate rheoscope. When 280 doublets were rapidly accelerated in the traveling microtube and then allowed to coast in steady flow for up to 180 s, 91% survived into the constant force region; 16% of these broke up after time intervals, tP, of 2-30s. Of 340 doublets immediately exposed to constant shear in the rheoscope, 37% broke after time intervals, tc, from < 1 to 10 s. Thus, doublets do indeed break up under a constant shear stress, if given time. The average time to break-up decreased significantly with increasing force, while the fraction of

  15. A New Antifungal Isocoumarin from The Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma Sp. 09 of Myoporum bontioides A. Gray

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wensheng; Xu, Jiaxin; Li, Fenqi; Xu, Li; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myoporum bontioides A. Gray is a commonly used medicinal plant in China. Recently, the chemical and bioactive investigations to the endophytic fungi of this plant have led to several new compounds with antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. To find out more active molecules, the metabolites of an endophytic fungus, Trichoderma sp. 09 from the root of Myoporum bontioides were investigated. Materials and Methods: The metabolites were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis[one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Mass spectrometry (MS)], and by comparison with the published data. The dilution method was used for the evaluation of antifungal activity. Results: Four metabolites were isolated and identified as: dichlorodiaportinolide (1), dichlorodiaportin (2), diaportinol (3), and diaportin (4). Compounds 1 and 2 showed weak to high antifungal activities against Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and M. A. Curtis) Arx and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, as compared with the positive control. Conclusions: Compound 1 was a new isocoumarin being worthy of consideration for the development and research of antifungal agents. SUMMARY A new isocoumarin named dichlorodiaportinolide, along with dichlorodiaportin, diaportinol, and diaportin were isolated from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 09 of the root of Myoporum bontioides.Dichlorodiaportinolide and dichlorodiaportin showed weak to high antifungal activities against musae and R. solani (MIC values from 6.25 to 150 μg/mL).Dichlorodiaportinolide and dichlorodiaportin were inactive to P. italic and F. graminearum (MIC values > 200 μg/mL). Abbreviations used: IR: Infrared Radiation, HR-ESI-MS: High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, LCMS-IT-TOF: Liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy-Ion trap-Time-of-flight, UV: Ultraviolet-visible, HMBC: Heteronuclear multiple bond correlation

  16. Enhancing well-being at work: The role of emotion regulation skills as personal resources.

    PubMed

    Buruck, Gabriele; Dörfel, Denise; Kugler, Joachim; Brom, Sarah Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with negative emotions is a crucial work demand, particularly for employees in health care. Job resources (e.g., autonomy, social support, or reward) but also personal resources (such as emotion regulation strategies) might reduce job stress and support well-being. Following this, the present study focused on strengthening emotion regulation as 1 way of dealing with high job demands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized emotion regulation training (Affect Regulation Training [ART]; Berking, 2010) to improve emotion regulation skills and well-being of employees in elderly health care. Therefore, 96 elderly care workers filled out an established questionnaire of emotion regulation skills as well as a measure of well-being at pretreatment, posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. The findings show that the ART fosters emotion regulation skills. In particularly, acceptance, tolerance, and modification of negative emotions was enhanced in the training groups in comparison to a control-group. Modification, meaning the ability to actively change emotions, improved even more over the follow-up-period. Simultaneously, well-being of participants increased over all measurement time points in the ART-group compared with the control-group. Additionally, the improvement in emotion regulation skills from pre to posttreatment was related to well-being at follow-up. In summary, our results support the ART as an effective intervention for dealing with negative emotions and to enhance well-being among employees in elderly care. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Do patients with bipolar disorder and subsyndromal symptoms benefit from functional remediation? A 12-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Bonnín, Caterina; González-Pinto, Ana; Amann, Benedikt L; Solé, Brisa; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; Arango, Celso; Jimenez, Esther; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Garcia-Portilla, M Paz; Ibáñez, Angela; Crespo, Jose Manuel; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Vieta, Eduard; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Torrent, Carla

    2017-01-23

    We analyzed the efficacy of functional remediation, in a sample of patients with bipolar disorder who presented with subsyndromal symptoms. From a total sample of 239 patients with bipolar I and II disorder, according to DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, entering a randomized clinical trial, those patients who presented with subsyndromal symptoms were selected based on a method already described by Berk and colleagues was applied. It consists of using the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar version (CGI-BP) to establish the scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) that correspond with 1 in the CGI-BP. Functional outcome and mood symptoms were assessed at 6 and at 12-month follow-up. A total of 99 patients were selected for this post-hoc analysis, allocated as follows: functional remediation (n=33); psychoeducation (n=37) and treatment as usual (TAU,n=29). The repeated-measures analyses at 12-month follow-up revealed a significant group x time interaction in favour of the patients who received functional remediation when compared to psychoeducation and TAU (F=2.93; p=0.02) at improving psychosocial functioning. Finally, mood symptoms did not significantly change in any of the three groups at any time of follow-up, as shown by the non-significant group x time interaction effect in HAM-D scores (F=1.57; p=0.18) and YMRS scores (F=1.51; p=0.20). Bipolar patients with subsyndromal symptoms improve their functional outcome when exposed to functional remediation regardless of the persistence of mood symptomatology.

  18. Effects of UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation on the morphogenesis of the edible terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan-Na; Zhang, Zhong-Chun; Feng, Jun-Li; Qiu, Bao-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    The terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme Berk. et M. A. Curtis has been a popular food and herbal ingredient for hundreds of years. To meet great market demand and protect the local ecosystem, for decades researchers have tried to cultivate N. flagelliforme but have failed to get macroscopic filamentous thalli. In this study, single trichomes with 50 to 200 vegetative cells were induced from free-living cells by low light and used to investigate the morphogenesis of N. flagelliforme under low UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation. Low-fluence-rate UV-B (0.1 W m(-2)) did not inhibit trichome growth; however, it significantly increased the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides and mycosporine-like amino acids and promoted sheath formation outside the trichomes. Under low UV-B radiation, single trichomes developed into filamentous thalli more than 1 cm long after 28 days of cultivation, most of which grew separately in liquid BG11 medium. With periodic desiccation treatment, the single trichomes formed flat or banded thalli that grew up to 2 cm long after 3 months on solid BG11 medium. When trichomes were cultivated on solid BG11 medium with alternate treatments of low UV-B and periodic desiccation, dark and scraggly filamentous thalli that grew up to about 3 cm in length after 40 days were obtained. In addition, the cultivation of trichomes on nitrogen-deficient solid BG11 medium (BG11(0)) suggested that nitrogen availability could affect the color and lubricity of newly developed thalli. This study provides promising techniques for artificial cultivation of N. flagelliforme in the future.

  19. Simulating VIIRS Observed Gas Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    VIIRS Nightfire (VNF) had been proved being able to effectively detect gas flares at night, and characterize their temperature and source size. [1] However, limited access to generally confidential gas flare operation measurements made it difficult to verify the output. Although flared gas volume is occasionally available, it is not common to log the temperature and flames size which directly links to VNF output. To understand the mechanism of gas flare and how VIIRS perceives the event, a platform is proposed to simulate the gas flare being observed by VIIRS. The methodology can be described in three steps. (1) Use CFD simulation software ISIS-3D to simulate a simple gas flare. [2] Scalar fields of temperature and species concentration related to combustion are extracted from the simulation. The instantaneous scalar can be determined from time-averaging or guess by stochastic time and space series (TASS) from single-point statistics [3]. (2) Model spectral radiance intensity of simulated gas flare using RADCAL. [4] RADCAL developed by NIST can accurately model the spectral radiance emitted on the direction of lineof-sight given the spatial profile of temperature and concentration of species. (3) Use radiative transfer modeling to calculate the energy propagated to VIIRS. The modeled radiation will then be weighted by the MODTRAN [5] modeled transmissivity over predefined atmosphere to the satellite, with geometrical effects considered. Such platform can help understanding how exactly VNF is measuring gas flares, and thus lead to more precise characterization of combustion events. [1] C. D. Elvidge et al, Remote Sensing, 2013[2] IRSN ISIS-3D[3] M. E. Kounalakis et al, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 1991 [4] W. L. Grosshandler, NIST Technical Note 1402, 1993 [5] A. Berk et al, MODTRAN 5.2.0.0 User's Manual

  20. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  1. Study of systematic trends in electronic and optical properties within ZnM2O4 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) family by FPLAPW method with PBE and TB-mBJ potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Saurabh

    2015-07-01

    The systematic trends for electronic and optical properties for the family of spinel oxides ZnM2O4 depending on the type of M element (M = Co, Rh, Ir) have been investigated using full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method based on the density functional theory. Calculations have been performed by alternative form of generalized gradient approximation proposed by Perdew, Berke and Erzzehof (GGA-PBE) and by orbital independent Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potentials as coupled with GGA. The optimized unit cell length, a0, and internal parameter, u, calculated are in agreement with experimental data. TB-mBJ scheme shows a significant improvement in bandgaps over PBE value and are closer to the experimental data. By analyzing density of states (DOS), we find that more pronounced splitting of M-d states splitting is responsible for larger band gap in TB-mBJ scheme for ZnM2O4 compounds. It also shows valence band dispersion is reduced in the TB-mBJ scheme compared to the PBE. Optical properties have been calculated for the energy range 0-14 eV. The values of calculated reflectivity stays low till 3.5 eV which is consistent with energy gap. The results are analyzed on the basis of band to band transitions. We also present the analysis of frequency dependent refractive index, n (ω), and extinction coefficient, k (ω), of ZnM2O4 using PBE and TB-mBJ schemes.

  2. Reproductive success of bromadiolone-resistant rats in absence of anticoagulant pressure.

    PubMed

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Leirs, Herwig; Siegismund, Hans R

    2006-09-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) is associated with pleiotropic effects, notably with an increased dietary vitamin K requirement. Owing to this disadvantage, resistance is believed to be selected against if anticoagulant selection is absent. In small experimental populations of wild brown rats, an investigation was carried out to establish whether tolerance to anticoagulant exposure changed over a period of 2 years. In the same populations, DNA microsatellite markers were used to infer parentage, and this made it possible to estimate reproductive success of sensitive and resistant rats and estimate effective population size, Ne. Even though there was evidence for a selection against resistant rats with high vitamin K requirement, anticoagulant tolerance was not seen to be significantly influenced in the absence of bromadiolone selection. As the population size under investigation was small, random genetic drift may have played a role in this. In the presence of bromadiolone selection, however, the tolerance was significantly increased, suggesting that continuous selection will increase the proportion of highly resistant rats in the population. It was found that, for both males and females, surprisingly few individuals contributed to the next generation with numerous offspring, and most breeders contributed with none or a single offspring. The expected higher reproductive success and consequent increase in proportional numbers of sensitive rats in the absence of anticoagulant selection could not be observed. Among the resistant rats, moderately resistant females were found to be better breeders than highly resistant breeders, but for resistant males the reverse was true. This could be explained by the fact that the increased vitamin K requirement results in sex differential selection; in highly resistant males the selection presumably takes place at the immature stage, whereas in females the vitamin K requirement

  3. Correction of murine sickle cell disease using gamma-globin lentiviral vectors to mediate high-level expression of fetal hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Pestina, Tamara I; Hargrove, Phillip W; Jay, Dennis; Gray, John T; Boyd, Kelli M; Persons, Derek A

    2009-02-01

    Increased levels of red cell fetal hemogloblin, whether due to hereditary persistence of expression or from induction with hydroxyurea therapy, effectively ameliorate sickle cell disease (SCD). Therefore, we developed erythroid-specific, gamma-globin lentiviral vectors for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-targeted gene therapy with the goal of permanently increasing fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production in sickle red cells. We evaluated two different gamma-globin lentiviral vectors for therapeutic efficacy in the BERK sickle cell mouse model. The first vector, V5, contained the gamma-globin gene driven by 3.1 kb of beta-globin regulatory sequences and a 130-bp beta-globin promoter. The second vector, V5m3, was identical except that the gamma-globin 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) was replaced with the beta-globin 3'-UTR. Adult erythroid cells have beta-globin mRNA 3'-UTR-binding proteins that enhance beta-globin mRNA stability and we postulated this design might enhance gamma-globin expression. Stem cell gene transfer was efficient and nearly all red cells in transplanted mice expressed human gamma-globin. Both vectors demonstrated efficacy in disease correction, with the V5m3 vector producing a higher level of gamma-globin mRNA which was associated with high-level correction of anemia and secondary organ pathology. These data support the rationale for a gene therapy approach to SCD by permanently enhancing HbF using a gamma-globin lentiviral vector.

  4. Effects of UV-B Radiation and Periodic Desiccation on the Morphogenesis of the Edible Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yan-Na; Zhang, Zhong-Chun; Feng, Jun-Li

    2012-01-01

    The terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme Berk. et M. A. Curtis has been a popular food and herbal ingredient for hundreds of years. To meet great market demand and protect the local ecosystem, for decades researchers have tried to cultivate N. flagelliforme but have failed to get macroscopic filamentous thalli. In this study, single trichomes with 50 to 200 vegetative cells were induced from free-living cells by low light and used to investigate the morphogenesis of N. flagelliforme under low UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation. Low-fluence-rate UV-B (0.1 W m−2) did not inhibit trichome growth; however, it significantly increased the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides and mycosporine-like amino acids and promoted sheath formation outside the trichomes. Under low UV-B radiation, single trichomes developed into filamentous thalli more than 1 cm long after 28 days of cultivation, most of which grew separately in liquid BG11 medium. With periodic desiccation treatment, the single trichomes formed flat or banded thalli that grew up to 2 cm long after 3 months on solid BG11 medium. When trichomes were cultivated on solid BG11 medium with alternate treatments of low UV-B and periodic desiccation, dark and scraggly filamentous thalli that grew up to about 3 cm in length after 40 days were obtained. In addition, the cultivation of trichomes on nitrogen-deficient solid BG11 medium (BG110) suggested that nitrogen availability could affect the color and lubricity of newly developed thalli. This study provides promising techniques for artificial cultivation of N. flagelliforme in the future. PMID:22865081

  5. Explosive attractor solutions to a universal cubic delay equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Orozco, David

    2016-10-01

    This presentation describes new explosive attractor solutions to the universal cubic delay equation found in both the fluid and (for a kinetic system) in the plasma literature. Our results will be explained in the notation of the plasma problem, where a cubic delay equation describes the evolution of a wave in a kinetic system, and is characterized by a control parameter ϕ (its value is determined by the linear properties of the kinetic response). The linear eigenvalues do not exist in absence of the kinetic response (with exceptions for ϕ = 0 or π) but with the kinetic contribution, marginally unstable modes emerge when the kinetic drive is at a critical level. The simulation of the temporal evolution reveals the development of an explosive mode, i.e. a mode growing without bound in a finite time. The two main features of the response are: (1) a well-known explosive envelope (t0 - t) - 5 / 2, with t0 the blow-up time of the amplitude; (2) a spectrum with ever-increasing oscillation frequencies that is critically-dependent upon the parameter ϕ. A code has been constructed that resolves these oscillations over many periods by calculating their Fourier transform with respect to the pseudo-time x = - ln (t0 - t) . In addition, our analytic modeling explains the results and quantitatively nearly replicates the attractor solutions found in the simulations. A physical result of these solutions is the development of frequency chirping of the observed wave. This effect continues beyond the applicability of the cubic delay equation, and thus the attractor solutions that we study represent precursors to long-lived phenomena that may be used in an experimental situation to understand the nature of a system's equilibrium. Dr. Herbert L. Berk.

  6. rDNA-targeted PCR primers and FISH probe in the detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis hyphae and conidia.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Peng, Qingyun; Qi, Lili; Lei, Wei; Liu, Xin

    2010-11-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sung, Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora (syn. Cordyceps sinensis) one of the entomopathogenic fungi, is a rare Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods are necessary to identify the mycelia or spores of O. sinensis from its habitat and to monitor its dispersal, colonization and infectivity. To develop both primers and probe specific to O. sinensis, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplified with universal primers from O. sinensis genomic DNA and seven closely related fungi were sequenced. According to these sequences, the upper and lower primers (OsT-F and OsT-R) were designed within internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and flanked by universal primers ITS5 and ITS4, respectively. The designed primers were used for general PCR, touchdown PCR, or both together with the universal primers for nested-touchdown PCR. The results showed that only the extracted DNA of O. sinensis was specifically amplified. The sensitivity of nested-touchdown PCR with extracted DNA of O. sinensis is as low as 10(-14)g (10 fg) and at least 1000 times higher than the other PCR methods. In addition, Cy5-labeled probe (OsLSU) for cytoplasmic LSU rRNA was hybridized with the ascospores of O. sinensis. It showed a strong red fluorescence throughout the whole cell but did not cross-react with other entomopathogenic fungi. Taken together, these methods were useful for studying the biology and ecology of O. sinensis.

  7. General and species-specific transcriptional responses to downy mildew infection in a susceptible (Vitis vinifera) and a resistant (V. riparia) grapevine species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood. Results Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways. Conclusions Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola. PMID:20167053

  8. Elimination of Bisphenol A and Triclosan Using the Enzymatic System of Autochthonous Colombian Forest Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Arboleda, Carolina; Cabana, H.; De Pril, E.; Jones, J. Peter; Jiménez, G. A.; Mejía, A. I.; Agathos, S. N.; Penninckx, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) are known or suspected potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may pose a risk to human health and have an environmental impact. Enzyme preparations containing mainly laccases, obtained from Ganoderma stipitatum and Lentinus swartzii, two autochthonous Colombian forest white rot fungi (WRF), previously identified as high enzyme producers, were used to remove BPA and TCS from aqueous solutions. A Box-Behnken factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and duration of treatment were significant model terms for the elimination of BPA and TCS. Our results demonstrated that these EDCs were extensively removed from 5 mg L−1 solutions after a contact time of 6 hours. Ninety-four percent of TCS and 97.8% of BPA were removed with the enzyme solution from G. stipitatum; 83.2% of TCS and 88.2% of BPA were removed with the L. swartzii enzyme solution. After a 6-hour treatment with enzymes from G. stipitatum and L. swartzii, up to 90% of the estrogenic activity of BPA was lost, as shown by the yeast estrogen screen assay. 2,2-Azino-bis-(3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) was used as a mediator (laccase/mediator system) and significantly improved the laccase catalyzed elimination of BPA and TCS. The elimination of BPA in the absence of a mediator resulted in production of oligomers of molecular weights of 454, 680, and 906 amu as determined by mass spectra analysis. The elimination of TCS in the same conditions produced dimers, trimers, and tetramers of molecular weights of 574, 859, and 1146 amu. Ecotoxicological studies using Daphnia pulex to determine lethal concentration (LC50) showed an important reduction of the toxicity of BPA and TCS solutions after enzymatic treatments. Use of laccases emerges thus as a key alternative in the development of innovative wastewater treatment technologies. Moreover, the exploitation of local biodiversity appears as a potentially promising approach for identifying new efficient

  9. Statistics of regional surface temperatures post year 1900. Long-range versus short-range dependence, and significance of warming trends.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvsletten, Ola; Rypdal, Martin; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate

    2015-04-01

    -range dependence. Four different data products, HADCRUT4, NOAA mlost, GISS and Berkely Earth, are analyzed in this project, with similar results in all cases.

  10. Rheological evaluation of petroleum jelly as a base material in ointment and cream formulations: steady shear flow behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Ki-Won

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically characterize a nonlinear rheological behavior of petroleum jelly (petrolatum) in steady shear flow fields correspondent to the spreading condition onto the human body. With this aim, using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available petroleum jelly have been measured at 37 degrees C (body temperature) over a wide range of shear rates. In this article, the shear rate dependence of steady shear flow behavior was reported from the experimentally obtained data. In particular, the existence of a yield stress and a non-Newtonian flow behavior were discussed in depth with a special emphasis on their importance in actual application onto the human body. In addition, several inelastic-viscoplastic flow models including a yield stress parameter were employed to make a quantitative description of the steady shear flow behavior, and then the applicability of these models was examined in detail. Main findings obtained from this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Petroleum jelly exhibits a finite magnitude of yield stress. The appearance of a yield stress is attributed to its three-dimensional network structure that can show a resistance to flow and plays an important role in determining a storage stability and sensory feature of the product. (2) Petroleum jelly demonstrates a pronounced non-Newtonian shear-thinning flow behavior which is well described by a power-law equation and may be interpreted by the disruption of a crystalline network under the influence of mechanical shear deformation. This rheological feature enhances sensory qualities of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products in which petroleum jelly is used as a base material during their actual usage. (3) The Casson, Mizrahi-Berk, Heinz-Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models are all applicable and have almost an equivalent ability to quantitatively describe the steady shear flow behavior of petroleum jelly whereas the

  11. Curative potential of foremost mitogen applications.

    PubMed

    Wimer, Bruce M

    2003-12-01

    This paper is presented as a sequel to the Mitogen Information Summaries article, representing a condensation of salient features involved with facilitating the curative potential of the more important mitogen applications. Following is a resumé of the critical attributes of mitogen therapy relative to the management of malignant tumors: (1) An inherent capability to recognize and destroy mutated or damaged tissues without altering those that are normal; (2) The capacity to induce global immunostimulation by the nonspecific activation of CD4+/- and CD8+/- cells with balanced production of a variety of cytokines able to stimulate B cell, NK cell, and macrophage pathways, at the same time augmenting myeloproliferation; (3) The ability to afford protection and accelerated recovery from the immunosuppressive and myelosuppressive effects of tumors, infections, GvH reactions, and autoimmune states along with the surgery, irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, and suppressive factors used in their management; (4) Berke's in vitro data from the lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (LDCC) system showing that systemic administration of mitogens such as PHA-L4 should indeed prove destructive to virtually any type of malignancy, leaving normal tissues undamaged; and (5) The potential of these activities to reconstitute the immune competence so vital to lasting cures. The potential role of L4 immunotherapy for infections may be defined by the following criteria: those, including drug-resistant infections, not satisfactorily treatable otherwise; those in which a rapid response is essential; those that are subclinical, latent, recurrent, chronic, persistent, highly lethal, or opportunistic; those in patients with impaired immune responses; and most importantly, those that are not likely to be adversely affected by immunostimulation. Certain paths of administration such as the intralesional (for granulomas), intrapleural (for pleurisy, empyema), and intraperitoneal

  12. Rectification at graphene-semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebard, Arthur

    2013-03-01

    power conversion efficiencies approaching 9%. Collaborators: S. Tongay, X. Miao, K. Berke, M. K. Petterson, A. G. Rinzler, M. Lemaitre, B. Gila and B. R. Appleton. Work supported by the ONR under Contract Number 00075094 and by the NSF under Contract Number 1005301.

  13. Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-07-20

    This report summarizes work carried out by the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Team for the period of January 1, 2011 through June 30, 2011. It discusses highlights, overall progress, period goals, and collaborations and lists papers and presentations. To learn more about our project, please visit our UV-CDAT website (URL: http://uv-cdat.org). This report will be forwarded to the program manager for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), national and international collaborators and stakeholders, and to researchers working on a wide range of other climate model, reanalysis, and observation evaluation activities. The UV-CDAT executive committee consists of Dean N. Williams of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Dave Bader and Galen Shipman of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Phil Jones and James Ahrens of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Claudio Silva of Polytechnic Institute of New York University (NYU-Poly); and Berk Geveci of Kitware, Inc. The UV-CDAT team consists of researchers and scientists with diverse domain knowledge whose home institutions also include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the University of Utah. All work is accomplished under DOE open-source guidelines and in close collaboration with the project's stakeholders, domain researchers, and scientists. Working directly with BER climate science analysis projects, this consortium will develop and deploy data and computational resources useful to a wide variety of stakeholders, including scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Members of this consortium already collaborate with other institutions and universities in researching data discovery, management, visualization, workflow analysis, and provenance. The UV-CDAT team will address the following high-level visualization requirements: (1) Alternative parallel streaming statistics and analysis pipelines - Data

  14. The human erythrocyte has developed the biconcave disc shape to optimise the flow properties of the blood in the large vessels.

    PubMed

    Uzoigwe, Chika

    2006-01-01

    The human erythrocyte adopts a distinctive biconcave disc form in vivo. The question as to why the red blood cell should have this particular profile remains unresolved. It has been suggested that this shape maximises the surface area to volume ratio and thus expedites diffusion. This hypothesis, however does not stand up to examination. Maximal diffusion occurs in the small vessels. In order to pass through the microvasculature the erythrocyte becomes distorted and deviates from the biconcave disc shape [Branemark PI, Lindstrom J. The shape of circulating blood corpuscles. Biorheology 1963;1:139; Guest MM, Bond TP, Cooper RG, Derrick JR. Red blood cells: change in capillaries. Science 1963;142:1319-21]. Here, it is suggested the haemodynamic factors have dictated the peculiar shape of the discocyte. The deleterious nature of turbulent flow on the cardiovascular system suggests that the biconcave disc form has evolved out of a necessity to maximise laminar flow, minimise platelet scatter which in turn suppress atherogenic activity in the large vessels [Yoshizumi M, Abe J, Tsuchiya K, Berk BC, Tamaki T. Stress and vascular responses: athero-protective effect of laminar fluid shear stress in endothelial cells: possible and mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Pharmacol Sci 2003;9:172-6]. The biconcave profile of the discocyte means that much of the mass is distributed in the periphery. This increases the moment of inertia of the cell and subsequently renders the erythrocyte less prone to rotation during flow in the large vessels. Here it is suggest that this reduction in rotation promotes laminar flow and discourages platelet scattering by minimising the "Eddy currents" and it thus anti-atherogenic. A number of pathological mutations result in the red blood cell adopting a spherical shape as opposed to the biconcave disc profile. The sphere has a smaller moment of inertia when compared to the discocyte, as much of the mass is distributed round the centre. The

  15. Drift wave stability and transport in tandem mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Jane Lillian

    In recent years experimental advances at the GAMMA-10 facility in Tsukuba, Japan have shown that tandem mirrors should remain an important subject for theoretical study. The absence of toroidal curvature and relatively weak internal plasma parallel currents in a tandem mirror gives the mirror system strongly favorable stability and transport properties compared with toroidal systems. GAMMA-10 experiments (T. Cho et al. PRL (97), 2006) demonstrate that sheared plasma rotation suppresses turbulent radial losses by controlling radial potential profiles. Achievements of the GAMMA-10 include 2.5 keV ion confining potentials and electron temperatures approaching 1 keV (T. Cho, Private correspondence, Dec 24th, 2006). Total energy confinement times for the GAMMA-10 experiment are significantly larger than corresponding empirical confinement times in toroidal devices. At the temperatures currently achieved in the GAMMA-10, the end loss rate tau∣∣ ≃ 100 ms so that radial losses determine the energy confinement time tauE, as intended in tandem mirror reactor designs (R. F. Post, T.K. Fowler, et al., Fusion Science and Technology, (47), 2005). The most current measurements of tauE are on the order of 72 ms. Tandem mirrors exhibit a qualitatively different type of drift wave transport than do toroidal devices, as we have shown by developing confinement time scaling predictions (J. Pratt and W. Horton, Phys. Plasmas (13), 2006. W. Horton, J. Pratt, H.L. Berk, M. Hirata. Proceedings of the Open Magnetic Systems For Plasma Confinement Conference. Tsukuba, Japan, July 17-21, 2006). These predictions use a variety of standard transport models, e.g., Bohm, gyro-Bohm, and electron-temperature gradient models. We analyze electrostatic drift wave eigenmodes for the electrostatic potential and the magnetic perturbation in the GAMMA-10. We use teraFLOPS speed, large scale parallel computers to integrate the orbits in models of the drift wave losses in the GAMMA-10. We extrapolate

  16. Bird flu, influenza and 1918: the case for mutant Avian tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Influenza is Italian for "influence", Latin: influentia. It used to be thought that the disease was caused by a bad influence from the heavens. Influenza was called a virus long, long before it was proven to be one. In 2005, an article in the New England Journal of Medicine estimated that a recurrence of the 1918 influenza epidemic could kill between 180 million and 360 million people worldwide. A large part of the current bird-flu hysteria is fostered by a distrust among the lay and scientific community regarding the actual state of our knowledge regarding the bird flu or H5N1 and the killer "Influenza" Pandemic of 1918 that it is compared to. And this distrust is not completely unfounded. Traditionally, "flu" does not kill. Experts, including Peter Palese of the Mount School of Medicine in Manhattan, remind us that even in 1992, millions in China already had antibodies to H5N1, meaning that they had contracted it and that their immune system had little trouble fending it off. Dr. Andrew Noymer and Michel Garenne, UC Berkely demographers, reported in 2000 convincing statistics showing that undetected tuberculosis may have been the real killer in the 1918 flu epidemic. Aware of recent attempts to isolate the "Influenza virus" on human cadavers and their specimens, Noymer and Garenne summed that: "Frustratingly, these findings have not answered the question why the 1918 virus was so virulent, nor do they offer an explanation for the unusual age profile of deaths". Bird flu would certainly be diagnosed in the hospital today as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Roger and others favor suspecting tuberculosis in all cases of acute respiratory failure of unknown origin. By 1918, it could be said, in so far as tuberculosis was concerned, that the world was a supersaturated sponge ready to ignite and that among its most vulnerable parts was the very Midwest where the 1918 unknown pandemic began. It is theorized that the lethal pig epidemic that began in Kansas

  17. Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no

  18. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: A Health Economic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Thiart, Hanne; Ebert, David Daniel; Lehr, Dirk; Nobis, Stephanie; Buntrock, Claudia; Berking, Matthias; Smit, Filip; Riper, Heleen

    2016-01-01

    ://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00004700. Identifier: DRKS00004700. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1767. Citation: Thiart H, Ebert DD, Lehr D, Nobis S, Buntrock C, Berking M, Smit F, Riper H. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a health economic evaluation. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1769–1778. PMID:27450686

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC AND GENETIC TOOLS FOR FOXTAIL MILLET, AND USE OF THESE TOOLS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION FOR BIOENERGY CROPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xinlu; Zale, Janice; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-22

    expression efficiency. Throughout these analyses, using plasmids with the hygromycin selectable marker, it was determined that 1.5 mg l-1 hygromycin was the optimal dose for genetic transformation of foxtail millet. In contrast, the nptII selectable marker appeared to yield many escapes. Three methods of transformation were employed in an attempt to produce stable transformants. An in planta transformation experiment, similar to the floral dip method used in Arabidopsis, which utilized a red fluorescent protein pporRFP from coral Porites porites and the hygromycin selectable marker, was tested using immature inflorescences. Although several plants were PCR positive using endpoint and Real-Time PCR and there was transient expression using pporRFP and GUS reporters, no plants were positive on Southern blot. Dipping in Agrobacterium may damage the anther or the pistil because seed production was significantly reduced. Agrobacterium transformation using embryogenic calli was also tested. Although hundreds of plants were regenerated from selection, none were positive using PCR. The third method was to wound germinated seeds with an Agrobacterium coated needle, but none of the plants were PCR positive. Although the Yugu1 genotype was recalcitrant to genetic transformation, several avenues of future research should be considered for foxtail millet. Calli from different foxtail millet genotypes should be screened and selected for regeneration potential, and some genotypes may be more amenable to transformation. Additional selectable markers should also be tested as hygromycin appears to be too stringent and there are too many escapes with nptII. This project has provided training for the following personnel: Dr. Xinlu Chen (postdoc), Xiaomei Liu (postdoc), Jayashree Desai (postdoc) and Kyle Berk (Undergraduate researcher). Conference presentations and peer-reviewed journal articles partly supported by this grant includes the following: 1. Baxter H., Equi R., Chen X, Berk K. and Zale

  20. Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast

  1. The Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror: A Magnetic Mirror Concept Game Changer Magnet Mirror Status Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T; Cohen, R; Correll, D; Fowler, K; Post, D; Berk, H; Horton, W; Hooper, E B; Fisch, N; Hassam, A; Baldwin, D; Pearlstein, D; Logan, G; Turner, B; Moir, R; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Ivanov, A A; Kesner, J; Cohen, B; McLean, H; Tamano, T; Tang, X Z; Imai, T

    2008-10-24

    experiments have confirmed the physics of effluent plasma stabilization predicted by theory. The plasma had a mean ion energy of 10 keV and a density of 5e19m-3. If successful, the axisymmetric tandem mirror extension of the GDT idea could lead to a Q {approx} 10 power plant of modest size and would yield important applications at lower Q. In addition to the GDT method, there are four other ways to augment stability that have been demonstrated; including: plasma rotation (MCX), diverter coils (Tara), pondermotive (Phaedrus & Tara), and end wall funnel shape (Nizhni Novgorod). There are also 5 stabilization techniques predicted, but not yet demonstrated: expander kinetic pressure (KSTM-Post), Pulsed ECH Dynamic Stabilization (Post), wall stabilization (Berk), non-paraxial end mirrors (Ryutov), and cusp ends (Kesner). While these options should be examined further together with conceptual engineering designs. Physics issues that need further analysis include: electron confinement, MHD and trapped particle modes, analysis of micro stability, radial transport, evaluation and optimization of Q, and the plasma density needed to bridge to the expansion-region. While promising all should be examined through increased theory effort, university-scale experiments, and through increased international collaboration with the substantial facilities in Russia and Japan The conventional wisdom of magnetic mirrors was that they would never work as a fusion concept for a number of reasons. This conventional wisdom is most probably all wrong or not applicable, especially for applications such as low Q (DT Neutron Source) aimed at materials testing or for a Q {approx} 3-5 fusion neutron source applied to destroying actinides in fission waste and breeding of fissile fuel.

  2. The Status of Research Regarding Magnetic Mirrors as a Fusion Neutron Source or Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T

    2008-12-23

    experiments have confirmed the physics of effluent plasma stabilization predicted by theory. The plasma had a mean ion energy of 10 keV and a density of 5e19m-3. If successful, the axisymmetric tandem mirror extension of the GDT idea could lead to a Q {approx} 10 power plant of modest size and would yield important applications at lower Q. In addition to the GDT method, there are four other ways to augment stability that have been demonstrated; including: plasma rotation (MCX), diverter coils (Tara), pondermotive (Phaedrus & Tara), and end wall funnel shape (Nizhni Novgorod). There are also 5 stabilization techniques predicted, but not yet demonstrated: expander kinetic pressure (KSTM-Post), Pulsed ECH Dynamic Stabilization (Post), wall stabilization (Berk), non-paraxial end mirrors (Ryutov), and cusp ends (Kesner). While these options should be examined further together with conceptual engineering designs. Physics issues that need further analysis include: electron confinement, MHD and trapped particle modes, analysis of micro stability, radial transport, evaluation and optimization of Q, and the plasma density needed to bridge to the expansion-region. While promising all should be examined through increased theory effort, university-scale experiments, and through increased international collaboration with the substantial facilities in Russia and Japan The conventional wisdom of magnetic mirrors was that they would never work as a fusion concept for a number of reasons. This conventional wisdom is most probably all wrong or not applicable, especially for applications such as low Q (DT Neutron Source) aimed at materials testing or for a Q {approx} 3-5 fusion neutron source applied to destroying actinides in fission waste and breeding of fissile fuel.

  3. “The Marshall Rosenbluth International Summer School – 2007: Plasma Thermonuclear Fusion and Plasma Astrophysics – 2007”

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Vladislav Alexander

    2007-10-01

    Contents: H. Berk: Frequency Sweeping Due to Phase Space Structure Formation in Plasmas M. Campbell : The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of the Laser Fusion Program in the United States J. Candy: Gyrokinetic Simulations of Fusion Plasmas P. Diamond: The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in Magnetic Confinement Theory G-Y. Fu: Nonlinear Hybrid Simulations of Multiple Energetic Particle Driven Alfven Modes in Toroidal Plasmas O. Gurcan: Theory of Intrinsic Rotation and Momentum Transport V. L. Jacobs: Kinetic and Spectral Descriptions for Atomic Processes in Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas C. F. Kennel: Marshall Rosenbluth and Roald Sagdeev in Trieste:The Birth of Modern Space Plasma N. A. Krall: The Contribution of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of Plasma Drift Wave and Universal Instability Theories C. S. Liu: The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in Laser-Plasma Interaction Research N. Rostoker: Plasma Physics Research With Marshall Rosenbluth - My Teacher R. Z. Sagdeev: The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in Plasma Physics V. Alexander Stefan A Note on the Rosenbluth Paper: Phys. Rev. Letters, 29, 565 (1972), and the Research in Parametric Plasma Theory Thereupon J. W. Van Dam: The Role of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of the Thermonuclear Fusion Program in the U.S.A. E. P. Velikhov: Problems in Plasma Astrophysics R. White: The Role of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of the Particle and MHD Interaction in Plasmas X. Xu: Edge Gyrokinetic Theory and Continuum Simulations Marshall Nicholas ROSENBLUTH (A Brief Biography) b. February 5,1927 - Albany, New York. d. September 28, 2003 - San Diego, California. M. N. Rosenbluth, a world-acclaimed scientist, is one of the ultimate authorities in plasma and thermonuclear fusion research, often indicated by the sobriquet the "Pope of Plasma Physics." His theoretical contributions have been central to the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion. In the 1950s his pioneering work in

  4. Selected Ground-Water-Quality Data in Pennsylvania - 1979-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Chichester, Douglas C.; Zarr, Linda F.

    2009-01-01

    program. Summary data tables by source agency or program provide information on the number of wells and springs and samples collected for each of the 35 watersheds and analyte groups. The number of wells and springs sampled for ground-water-quality data varies considerably across Pennsylvania. Of the 24,772 wells and springs sampled, the greatest concentration of wells and springs is in the southeast (Berks, Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Lancaster, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties) and in the northwest (Erie County). The number of wells and springs sampled is relatively sparse in north-central (Cameron, Elk, Forest, McKean, Potter, and Warren Counties) Pennsylvania. Little to no data are available for approximately one-fourth of the state. Nutrients and water characteristics were the most frequently sampled major analyte groups - 43,025 and 30,583 samples, respectively. Minor ions and major ions were the next most frequently sampled major analyte groups-26,972 and 13,115 samples, respectively. For the remaining 10 major analyte groups, the number of samples collected ranged from a low of 24 samples (antibiotic compounds) to a high of approximately 4,674 samples (microorganisms). The number of samples that exceeded a maximum contaminant level (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) by major analyte group also varied. Of the 4,674 samples in the microorganism analyte group, 50.2 percent had water that exceeded an MCL. Of the 4,528 samples collected and analyzed for volatile organic compounds, 23.5 percent exceeded an MCL. Other major analyte groups that frequently exceeded MCLs or SMCLs included major ions (18,343 samples and a 27.7 percent exceedence), minor ions (26,972 samples, 44.7 percent exceedence), pesticides (4,868 samples, 0.7 percent exceedence), water characteristics (30,583 samples, 19.3 percent exceedence), and radiochemicals (1,866 samples, 9.6 percent exceedence). Samples collected and analyzed for antibiotics (24 samples), fungicide

  5. Quality-assurance design applied to an assessment of agricultural pesticides in ground water from carbonate bedrock aquifers in the Great Valley of eastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breen, Kevin J.

    2000-01-01

    Assessments to determine whether agricultural pesticides are present in ground water are performed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania under the aquifer monitoring provisions of the State Pesticides and Ground Water Strategy. Pennsylvania?s Department of Agriculture conducts the monitoring and collects samples; the Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) Laboratory analyzes the samples to measure pesticide concentration. To evaluate the quality of the measurements of pesticide concentration for a groundwater assessment, a quality-assurance design was developed and applied to a selected assessment area in Pennsylvania. This report describes the quality-assurance design, describes how and where the design was applied, describes procedures used to collect and analyze samples and to evaluate the results, and summarizes the quality assurance results along with the assessment results. The design was applied in an agricultural area of the Delaware River Basin in Berks, Lebanon, Lehigh, and Northampton Counties to evaluate the bias and variability in laboratory results for pesticides. The design?with random spatial and temporal components?included four data-quality objectives for bias and variability. The spatial design was primary and represented an area comprising 30 sampling cells. A quality-assurance sampling frequency of 20 percent of cells was selected to ensure a sample number of five or more for analysis. Quality-control samples included blanks, spikes, and replicates of laboratory water and spikes, replicates, and 2-lab splits of groundwater. Two analytical laboratories, the PaDEP Laboratory and a U.S. Geological Survey Laboratory, were part of the design. Bias and variability were evaluated by use of data collected from October 1997 through January 1998 for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, simazine, pendimethalin, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos. Results of analyses of field blanks indicate that collection, processing, transport, and laboratory

  6. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2008-01-01

    To begin, I would like to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors a successful and happy 2008 and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2007. I took over the editorship of Nuclear Fusion in January, and the year has been one in which the community as a whole has been busier than ever with a variety of duties associated with the ITER project. It was with pride that we published the Progress in the ITER Physics Basis in the June issue of the journal (stacks.iop.org/NF/47/i=6). The task undertaken by the coordinators, authors and referees was a daunting one but one which led to an outstandingly successful issue. The response from readers has been phenomenal and there were in the region of 10 000 downloads of papers in the first month following publication. Looking to 2008 and beyond, the journal will endeavour to continue to support the work of the fusion community. Refereeing As we have done since January 2005, we would like to thank our top ten most loyal referees who have helped the journal with its double-referee peer-review procedure in the past year. At the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Office we are fully aware of the load we put on the shoulders of our referees. At the end of 2004 the Editorial Board decided that a gesture of gratitude should be made to our most loyal referees. We offer them a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. To select the top referees we have adopted the criterion that a researcher should have acted as a referee or adjudicator for at least three different manuscripts during the period from summer 2006 to the end of 2007. We have excluded our Board members and those referees who were already listed in the top ten in the last two years. According to our records the following people met this criterion. Congratulations and many, many thanks! H.L. Berk (Texas University, USA) J.S. DeGrassie (GAT, USA) C. Deutsch (Paris University, France) N. Hayashi (JAEA

  7. Perception and response to gravity in higher fungi--a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Moore, D

    1991-01-01

    hymenophore (gill, tube or tooth) is positively gravitropic and responds independently of the stem. Bracket polypores do not show tropisms but exhibit gravimorphogenetic responses such that gross disturbance leads to renewal of growth to produce and entirely new fruiting structure suitably reoriented to the new spatial position. One experiment performed on an orbiting space station suggests that, in the absence of a light stimulus, gravity may be required for initiation of fruiting in Polyporus brumalis. Otherwise, the indications from both clinostat and space-borne experiments are that the basic form of the mushroom (overall tissue arrangement of stem, cap, gills, hymenium, veil) in agaric and polypore alike is established independently of the gravity vector. Abnormal stem growth has been observed in clinostat cultures of Panus (= Lentinus) tigrinus and Polyporus brumalis, but the morphogenetic event which seems most dependent on gravity is sporulation (in the broadest sense). Cultures of P. brumalis on orbiting space craft fail to produce the poroid hymenophore and in clinostat experiments on the ground even karyogamy was rare in similar cultures. Coprinus cinereus grown on the clinostat was able to produce apparently normal fruit body primordia which failed to produce spores and then aborted, forming a new flush of primordia on the old. Taken together with the clear association between observation of gravitropism and the onset of sporulation, the implication is that commitment to the meiosis-sporulation pathway both requires the gravity vector and couples it in some way to fruit-body growth. There is no convincing evidence for a graviperception mechanism in fungi. There is no evidence for any organised means of communicating the gravitropic stimulus once it has been perceived. Reports of three different experimental studies reveal the authors' conviction that the apparently coordinated expression of gravitropic response is in truth a common, but independent, response by

  8. Sizing up Septoria

    PubMed Central

    Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Quaedvlieg, Verkley, W.J. Swart & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria calamagrostidis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria neosaccardoi Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New combinations - Parastagonospora avenae (A.B. Frank) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phaeosphaeria papayae (Speg.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudocercospora domingensis (Petr. & Cif.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Ruptoseptoria unedonis (Roberge ex Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septorioides pini-thunbergii (S. Kaneko) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina abeliceae (Hiray.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina azaleae (Voglino) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina berberidis (Niessl) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina betulae (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina cercidis (Fr.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina menispermi (Thüm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina musiva (Peck) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina oxyacanthae (Kunze & J.C. Schmidt) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina patriniae (Miura) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina populicola (Peck) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina quercicola (Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina rhabdoclinis (Butin) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stromatoseptoria castaneicola (Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous. Typifications: Epitypifications - Phaeosphaeria oryzae I. Miyake, Phaeoseptoria papayae Speg.; Neotypification - Hendersonia paludosa Sacc. & Speg. PMID:24014902

  9. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.

    2010-08-01

    subsequent meetings (Aspenäs (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), and JET/Abingdon (1997)) were entitled `Alpha Particles in Fusion Research'. During the JET/Abingdon meeting in 1997 it was decided to extend the topic by including other suprathermal particles, in particular accelerated electrons, and rename the meetings accordingly. The subsequent meetings with the current name `Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems' were held in Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005) and Kloster Seeon (2007). The most recent meeting in this series was held in Kyiv, Ukraine, in September 2009. This was an anniversary meeting, 20 years after the first meeting. Like the first meeting, it was hosted by the Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. It was attended by about 80 researchers from 18 countries, ITER, and EC. The program of the meeting consisted of 78 presentations, including 12 invited talks, 16 oral contributed talks, and 50 posters, which were selected by the International Advisory Committee (IAC). The IAC consisted of 11 people representing EC (L.-G. Eriksson), Germany (S. Günter), Italy (F. Zonca), Japan (K. Shinohara and K. Toi), Switzerland (A. Fasoli), UK (S. Sharapov), Ukraine (Ya. Kolesnichenko—IAC Chair), USA (H. Berk, W. Heidbrink, and R. Nazikian). The meeting program covered a wide range of physics issues concerning energetic ions in toroidal fusion facilities—tokamaks, stellarators, and spherical tori. Many new interesting and practically important results of both experimental and theoretical studies were reported. The research presented covered topics such as instabilities driven by energetic ions, transport of energetic ions caused by plasma microturbulence and destabilized eigenmodes, non-linear phenomena induced by the instabilities, classical transport processes, effects of runaway electrons, diagnostics of energetic ions and plasmas, and aspects of ITER physics. In addition to these

  10. Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013) Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.

    2014-10-01

    In magnetic fusion plasmas, a significant fraction of the kinetic pressure is contributed by superthermal charged particles produced by auxiliary heating (fast ions and electrons) and fusion reactions (a-particles). Since these energetic particles are often far away from thermal equilibrium due to their non-Maxwellian distribution and steep pressure gradients, the free energy can excite electromagnetic instabilities to intensity levels well above the thermal fluctuations. The resultant electromagnetic turbulence could induce large transport of energetic particles, which could reduce heating efficiency, degrade overall plasma confinement, and damage fusion devices. Therefore, understanding and predicting energetic particle confinement properties are critical to the success of burning plasma experiments such as ITER since the ignition relies on plasma self-heating by a-particles. To promote international exchanges and collaborations on energetic particle physics, the biannual conference series under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were help in Kyiv (1989), Aspenas (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007), Kyiv (2009), and Austin (2011). The papers in this special section were presented at the most recent meeting, the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was hosted by the Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing, China (17-20 September 2013). The program of the meeting consisted of 71 presentations, including 13 invited talks, 26 oral contributed talks, 30 posters, and 2 summary talks, which were selected by the International Advisory Committee (IAC). The IAC members include H. Berk, L.G. Eriksson, A. Fasoli, W. Heidbrink, Ya. Kolesnichenko, Ph. Lauber, Z. Lin, R. Nazikian, S. Pinches, S. Sharapov, K. Shinohara, K. Toi, G. Vlad, and X.T. Ding. The conference program

  11. Pesticides in ground water in selected agricultural land-use areas and hydrogeologic settings in Pennsylvania, 2003-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loper, Connie A.; Breen, Kevin J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Clune, John W.

    2009-01-01

    absence of bacteria only for the 10 wells representing the Blue Ridge crystalline and Triassic Lowland siliciclastic setting. Results of Spearman’s rank test showed strong positive correlations in the Devonian-Silurian carbonate setting between 1) the number of pesticides above the MRLs and nitrate concentration, and 2) concentrations of atrazine and nitrate. Atrazine concentration and nitrate concentration also showed a statistically significant positive correlation in the Great Valley siliciclastic setting. An additional component of baseline monitoring was to evaluate changes in pesticide concentration in water from wells representing hydrogeologic settings most vulnerable to contamination from pesticides. In 2003, 16 wells originally sampled in the 1990s were resampled—4 each in the Appalachian Mountain carbonate, Triassic Lowland siliciclastic, Great Valley carbonate, and Piedmont carbonate settings. Nine of these wells, where pesticide concentrations from 1993 and 2003 were analyzed at the NWQL, were chosen for a paired-sample analysis using concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor. A statistically significant decrease in atrazine concentration was identified using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p = 0.004); significant temporal changes in metolachlor concentrations were not observed (p = 0.625). Monitoring in three areas of special ground-water protection, where selected pesticide concentrations in well water were at or above the PPGWS action levels, was done at wells BE 1370 (Berks County, Oley Township), BA 437 (Blair County, North Woodbury Township), and LN 1842 (Lancaster County, Earl Township). Co-occurrence of pesticide-degradation products with parent compounds was documented for the first time in ground-water samples collected from these three wells. Degradation products of atrazine, cyanazine, acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor were commonly at larger concentrations than the parent compound in the same water sample. Pesticide occurrence in water