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Sample records for leopard frog rana

  1. EVIDENCE OF PHYLOGENETICALLY DISTINCT LEOPARD FROGS (RANA ONCA) FROM THE BORDER REGION OF NEVADA, UTAH, AND ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remnant populations of leopard frogs within the Virgin River drainage and adjacent portions of the Colorado River (Black Canyon) in northwestern Arizona and southern Nevada either represent the reportedly extinct taxon Rana onca or northern, disjunct Rana yavapaiensis. To determi...

  2. Skin peptides protect juvenile leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) against chytridiomycosis.

    PubMed

    Pask, James D; Cary, Tawnya L; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2013-08-01

    One issue of great concern for the scientific community is the continuing loss of diverse amphibian species on a global scale. Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing serious losses due to the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This pathogen colonizes the skin, leading to the disruption of ionic balance and eventual cardiac arrest. In many species, antimicrobial peptides secreted into the mucus are thought to contribute to protection against colonization by skin pathogens. Although it is generally thought that antimicrobial peptides are an important component of innate immune defenses against B. dendrobatidis, much of the current evidence relies on correlations between effective antimicrobial peptide defenses and species survival. There have been few studies to directly demonstrate that antimicrobial peptides play a role. Using the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens, we show here that injection of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) brings about a long-term depletion of skin peptides (initial concentrations do not recover until after day 56). When peptide stores recovered, the renewed peptides were similar in composition to the initial peptides as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and in activity against B. dendrobatidis as determined by growth inhibition assays. Newly metamorphosed froglets depleted of their peptide stores and exposed to B. dendrobatidis died more rapidly than B. dendrobatidis-exposed froglets with their peptides intact. Thus, antimicrobial peptides in the skin mucus appear to provide some resistance to B. dendrobatidis infections, and it is important for biologists to recognize that this defense is especially important for newly metamorphosed frogs in which the adaptive immune system is still immature. PMID:23580715

  3. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 on green frog (Rana clamitans) and leopard frog (Rana pipiens) hatching success, development, and metamorphosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenshield, M.L.; Jofre, M.B.; Karasov, W.H.

    1999-11-01

    Although increasing evidence links plana chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), to decreases in survival and reproduction of fish, mammals, and birds near Green Bay, Wisconsin, and the Great Lakes, USA, relatively little is known of their bioaccumulation or of their possible effects in amphibians. The authors exposed embryos and larvae of two ranid species commonly occurring in the Green Bay ecosystem, the green frog (Rana clamitans) and the leopard frog (Rana pipiens), to PCB 126, a model coplanar PCB compound. Nominal concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 50 {micro}g/L, and exposure lasted through metamorphosis. Tissue concentrations of PCB 126 in tadpoles that did not metamorphose by the end of the experiment ranged from 1.2 to 9,600 ng/g wet mass. No significant mortality of embryos occurred before hatching; however, survival of larvae was significantly reduced at the highest concentration for both species. Few deformities were observed, but the incidence of edema was significantly higher in tadpoles exposed to 50 {micro}g/L. Swimming speed and growth of tadpoles was also significantly reduced in this treatment. The percent of tadpoles that reached metamorphosis was significantly lower in green frogs at the highest concentration, and no leopard frogs survived past day 47 of the experiment in this treatment. At high concentrations, PCB 126 affected both ranid species; however, sublethal effects were not apparent for the parameters the authors measured at concentrations that occur in water in the Green Bay ecosystem.

  4. Distribution and postbreeding environmental relationships of Northern leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] pipiens) in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germaine, S.S.; Hays, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] pipiens) are considered sensitive, threatened, or endangered in all western states and western Canadian provinces. Historically present in eastern Washington in 6 major river drainages, leopard frogs are now only known to occur at 2 localized areas in the Crab Creek drainage in Grant County. During the summers of 2002-2005, we surveyed both areas to document extent of leopard frog distributions and to describe habitat and vertebrate community characteristics associated with leopard frog site occupancy. At Gloyd Seeps, 2 juvenile leopard frogs were observed in a total of 8.2 person-days of searching along a 5-km stream reach. At Potholes Reservoir, we surveyed 243 wetland sites in 7 management units known to have been occupied by leopard frogs during the 1980s. We confirmed leopard frog presence at only 87 sites (36%) in 4 management units. Site occupancy models for individual ponds indicated that, compared to unoccupied sites, occupied sites had slightly greater pond depths, less tall emergent vegetation, more herbaceous vegetative cover, and fewer neighboring ponds containing nonnative predatory fish. Models developed at the 1-km2 scale indicated that occupied areas had greater average midsummer pond depths, fewer ponds occupied by bullfrogs (Rana [Lithobates] catesbeiana) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), and more herbaceous vegetation surrounding ponds. The Gloyd Seeps population now appears defunct, and the Potholes Reservoir population is in sharp decline. Unless management actions are taken to reduce nonnative fish and bullfrogs and to enhance wetland vegetation, leopard frogs may soon be extirpated from both sites and possibly, therefore, from Washington.

  5. EVIDENCE FOR PHYLOGENETICALLY DISTINCT LEOPARD FROGS (RANA ONCA) FROM THE BORDER REGION OF NEVADA, UTAH, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Remnant populations of leopard frogs exist within the Virgin River drainage and adjacent portions of the Colorado River (Black Canyon) in northwestern Arizona and southern Nevada. These populations either represent the reportedly extinct taxa Rana onca or northern, disjunct R...

  6. POPULATION STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION OF A DECIMATED AMPHIBIAN, THE RELICT LEOPARD FROG (RANA ONCA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relict leopard frog (Rana onca) was once thought to be extinct, but has recently been shown to comprise a valid taxon with extant populations. We delineate the minimum historical range of the species, and report results of surveys at 12 historical and 54 other localities to d...

  7. The Developmental Effects Of A Municipal Wastewater Effluent On The Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater effluents are complex mixtures containing a variety of anthropogenic compounds, many of which are known endocrine disruptors. In order to characterize the development and behavorial effects of such a complex mixture, northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, were e...

  8. Effects of predatory fish on survival and behavior of larval gopher frogs (Rana capito) and Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, D.R.; Gunzburger, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, are habitat generalists occurring in virtually all freshwater habitats within their geographic range, whereas Gopher Frogs, Rana capito, typically breed in ponds that do not normally contain fish. To evaluate the potential for predation by fish to influence the distribution of these species, we conducted a randomized factorial experiment. We examined the survival rate and behavior of tadpoles when exposed to Warmouth Sunfish, Lepomis gulosus, Banded Sunfish, Enneacanthus obesus, and Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We also conducted a choice experiment to examine the survival rate of the two species of tadpoles when a predator is given a choice of both species simultaneously. Lepomis gulosus consumed the most tadpoles and ate significantly more tadpoles of R. capito than R. sphenocephala. Gambusia holbrooki injured the most tadpoles, especially R. capito. Enneacanthus obesus did not have an effect on behavior or survival of either anuran species. Tadpoles of both anurans increased hiding when in the presence of L. gulosus and G. holbrooki, but a greater proportion of R. capito hid than did R. sphenocephala. Our results suggest that R. capito are more vulnerable to predation by fish than are R. sphenocephala. The introduction of fish may play a role in population declines of certain anurans breeding in normally fish-free wetlands, and even small fish, such as mosquitofish, may have significant negative effects on the tadpoles of R. capito. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study or Amphibians and Reptiles.

  9. Photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens)

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, P.D.; Call, D.J.; Cox, D.A.; Liber, K.; Ankley, G.T.

    1999-02-01

    Rana pipiens larvae were exposed for 48 h in a flow-through system to clean water or five concentrations of the phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fluoranthene. Following this uptake period, the larvae were divided into four groups: one for immediate tissue residue analysis, a second for residue analysis following 48 h of depuration in clean water, and two for a 48-h exposure in clean water to ultraviolet (UV) light at two different levels. At the highest treatment, mean intensity was 8.12 {+-} 0.19 {times} 10{sup 2} {micro}W/cm{sup 2}, whereas at a lower treatment the UVA intensity was 4.45 {+-} 0.05 {times} 10{sup 2} {micro}W/cm{sup 2}. Larval frogs bioaccumulated fluoranthene in direct proportion to the water exposure concentrations, with initial whole-body PAH concentrations of 1.48, 3.53, 4.85, 11.3, and 18.7 {micro}g/g at the five treatment levels. No mortality of the animals occurred during the 48-h uptake phase. When the frogs were placed in clean water, the fluoranthene was rapidly depurated, with up to 80% lost in 48 h. Exposure to UV light following fluoranthene exposure significantly enhanced toxicity of the PAH. Median time to death decreased as the product of UVA light intensity and fluoranthene body residue increased. For larval R. Pipiens, sufficient tissue residues of fluoranthene were bioaccumulated within 48 h, at water exposure concentrations in the range of 2 to 10 {micro}g/L, to be lethal when combined with a UVA exposure simulating a fraction of summertime, midday sunlight in northern latitudes.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  11. Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed Central

    Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1982-01-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs were slightly less than those from the other two groups of frogs. Another group of 14 summer frogs, after treatment to induce hibernation, showed a drop in bacterial counts accompanied by a change in the composition of the flora. In most frogs, Bacteroides was the dominant organism. Other bacteria repeatedly isolated at high dilutions were strict anaerobes, including butyrigenic and acetogenic helically coiled bacteria; fusobacteria; and acetogenic, small, gram-positive bacilli. These data indicate that the intestinal flora of frogs is similar to that of mammals and birds and that this flora can be maintained at temperatures close to freezing. PMID:6982025

  12. De novo Assembly and Analysis of the Northern Leopard Frog Rana pipiens Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Christenson, Matthew K.; Trease, Andrew J.; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Jezewski, Andrew J.; Davis, Vincent M.; Knight, Lindsey A.; Kolok, Alan S.; Davis, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    The northern leopard frog Rana (Lithobates) pipiens is an important animal model, being used extensively in cancer, neurology, physiology, and biomechanical studies. R. pipiens is a native North American frog whose range extends from northern Canada to southwest United States, but over the past few decades its populations have declined significantly and is now considered uncommon in large portions of the United States and Canada. To aid in the study and conservation of R. pipiens, this paper describes the first R. pipiens transcriptome. The R. pipiens transcriptome was annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG). Differential expression analysis revealed universal and tissue specific genes, and endocrine-related genes were identified. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download. PMID:25371763

  13. Contribution of eye retraction to swallowing performance in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert P; Monroy, Jenna A; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2004-03-01

    Most anurans retract and close their eyes repeatedly during swallowing. Eye retraction may aid swallowing by helping to push food back toward the esophagus, but this hypothesis has never been tested. We used behavioral observations, cineradiography, electromyography and nerve transection experiments to evaluate the contribution of eye retraction to swallowing in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Behavioral observations of frogs feeding on 1.5 cm long crickets reveal a high degree of variability in eye retraction and swallowing. Eye retraction can occur bilaterally or unilaterally, and both swallowing movements and eye retraction can occur separately as well as together. During swallowing, cineradiography shows that the eyes and associated musculature retract well into the oropharynx and appear to make contact with the prey item. This contact appears to help push the prey toward the esophagus, and it may also serve to anchor the prey for tongue-based transport. Electromyographic recordings confirm strong activity in the retractor bulbi muscles during eye retraction. After bilateral denervation of the retractor bulbi, frogs maintain the ability to swallow but show a 74% increase in the number of swallows required per cricket (from a mean of 2.3 swallows to a mean of 4.0 swallows per cricket). Our results indicate that, in Rana pipiens feeding on medium-sized crickets, eye retraction is an accessory swallowing mechanism that assists the primary tongue-based swallowing mechanism.

  14. Evaluation of metomidate hydrochloride as an anesthetic in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed

    Doss, Grayson A; Nevarez, Javier G; Fowlkes, Natalie; da Cunha, Anderson F

    2014-03-01

    Metomidate hydrochloride is an imidazole-based, nonbarbiturate hypnotic drug primarily used as an immersion sedation and anesthetic agent in freshwater and marine finfish. To the authors' knowledge, there is no documentation in the literature of its use in amphibians. In this study, 7 male and 4 female leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were induced with metomidate hydrochloride via immersion bath at a concentration of 30 mg/L for 60 min. The pH of the induction solution ranged from 7.63 to 7.75. Each frog was then removed from the induction solution, rinsed, and recovered in 26.6 degrees C amphibian Ringer's solution. After 210 min in the Ringer's solution, the frogs were transferred to moist paper towels for recovery. Heart rate, gular and abdominal respiration rates, righting reflex, superficial and deep pain withdrawal reflexes, corneal and palpebral reflexes, and escape response were monitored and recorded at defined intervals during both induction and recovery. The average time to loss of righting reflex and escape response was 17.36 min and 17.82 min, respectively. Metomidate produced clinical sedation in all frogs (n = 11). Surgical anesthesia was achieved in only 27% (3/11), with an anesthetic duration that ranged from 9 to 20 min. Recovery times were extremely prolonged and varied, with a range from 313 min to longer than 600 min. The findings of this study indicate that metomidate hydrochloride is unsuitable as a sole anesthetic agent in leopard frogs, and further research is needed to evaluate its suitability in other amphibians. PMID:24712162

  15. Sublethal effects of chronic exposure to an organochlorine compound on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Glennemeler, K A; Denver, R J

    2001-01-01

    Global contamination with organochlorine compounds (OCs) has posed developmental and reproductive problems in wildlife worldwide. However, little is known about the impact of OCs or other pollutants on amphibians, despite mounting concerns about amphibian population declines and developmental deformities in the wild. Wildlife populations may be affected critically by sublethal impacts of anthropogenic disturbances, yet little research has focused on such effects in amphibians. In the current study, northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles were chronically exposed to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 77-TCB, and effects on behavior, morphology, competitive performance, and corticosterone content were determined. R. pipiens activity levels and feeding rates were decreased by 77-TCB exposure, but morphology of mouthparts and body proportions were unaffected. 77-TCB enhanced growth and altered competitive interactions between R. pipiens and wood frog (Rana sylvatica) tadpoles. R. pipiens tadpoles exposed to 77-TCB showed decreased whole-body corticosterone content compared to controls both before and after injection with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). All of the factors examined in the current study play critical roles in tadpole development, growth, survivorship, and eventual reproductive success, suggesting negative population-level consequences for amphibians in PCB-contaminated habitats.

  16. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates

  17. Potential endocrine disruption of sexual development in free ranging male northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) from areas of intensive row crop agriculture.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Tana V; Martin, Pamela A; Struger, John; Sherry, Jim; Marvin, Chris H; McMaster, Mark E; Clarence, Stacey; Tetreault, Gerald

    2008-07-30

    Intensive row crop agriculture (IRCA) for corn and soybean production is predominant in eastern and central North America. IRCA relies heavily on pesticide and nutrient inputs to maximize production under conventional systems. In 2003-2005, we assessed the occurrence of a suite of potential endocrine effects in amphibians inhabiting farm ponds and agricultural drains in IRCA areas of southwestern Ontario. Effects were compared to amphibians from two agricultural reference sites as well as four non-agricultural reference sites. Pesticide and nutrient concentrations were also determined in water samples from those sites. Atrazine and metolachlor were detected in most samples, exceeding 1 microg L(-1) at some sites. Blood samples were taken from northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) for analysis of circulating sex steroids and vitellogenin-like protein (Vtg-lp), a biomarker of exposure to environmental estrogens. Gonads were histologically examined for evidence of abnormalities. Some evidence of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds was apparent from the data. The occurrence of testicular ovarian follicles (TOFS) in male R. pipiens was significantly higher (42%; p<0.05) at agricultural sites, particularly those in Chatham county compared to frogs from reference sites (7%). There was no difference in circulating sex steroid levels between frogs from agricultural and reference sites and sex steroid levels did not correlate with pesticide concentrations in the environment. No differences were detected in the gonadosomatic indices or stage of spermatogenesis between frogs from agricultural and non-agricultural regions (p>0.05). Plasma Vtg-lp was detected in only one male R. pipiens from an agricultural site. Neither gonad size, gonad maturity nor sex steroid levels differed between normal males and those with testicular oocytes. Although the proportion of testicular oocytes did not correlate directly with atrazine concentrations, it

  18. Directionality of the pressure-difference receiver ears in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens pipiens.

    PubMed

    Ho, Calvin C K; Narins, Peter M

    2006-04-01

    We studied the directional response of the coupled-eardrum system in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens pipiens. Eardrum behavior closely approximates a linear time-invariant system, with a highly correlated input-output relationship between the eardrum pressure difference and the eardrum velocity. Variations in the eardrum transfer function at frequencies below 800 Hz indicate the existence of an extratympanic sound transmission pathway which can interfere with eardrum motions. The eardrum velocity was shown to shift in phase as a function of sound incident angle, which was a direct result of the phase-shift of the eardrum pressure difference. We used two laser-Doppler vibrometers to measure the interaural vibration time difference (IVTD) and the interaural vibration amplitude difference (IVAD) between the motions of the two eardrums. The coupled-eardrum system enhanced the IVTD and IVAD by a factor of 3 and 3 dB, respectively, when compared to an isolated-eardrum system of the same size. Our findings are consistent with the time-delay sensitivity of other coupled-eardrum systems such as those found in crickets and flies.

  19. Lethal and sublethal effects of chronic cadmium exposure on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Gross, Jackson A; Chen, Te-Hao; Karasov, William H

    2007-06-01

    Data on the chronic effects of cadmium on amphibians are lacking in spite of widespread anthropogenic contamination of terrestrial and aquatic systems. We exposed embryos and tadpoles of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) to Cd (control, 0.25, 5.0, and 20.0 microg/L as CdCl2, nominal concentrations) in a static renewal system from embryonic stages to complete tail resorption. Survival of embryos (Gosner stage [GS] 17-25) was greater than 97% in all treatments. Tadpole survival was negatively correlated with dose and was significantly reduced in the 5.0 and 20.0 microg/L treatments compared with controls. Tadpole survival was greater than 80% through GS 42, forelimb emergence, for all other treatments. Tadpoles exposed to 0.25 and 5.0 microg/L exhibited increased growth by week 11; tadpoles exposed to 5.0 microg/L were significantly younger at forelimb emergence. Whole-tadpole body burdens of Cd were positively correlated with increasing Cd treatments. Cadmium was shown to alter growth and development in a native amphibian species at ecologically relevant concentrations. The existing chronic water quality criterion for Cd appears to be protective of amphibians. However, additional studies with other chemicals are needed to further explore the potential for adverse effects of contaminants on the complex life cycle of amphibians.

  20. Toxic effects of endrin and toxaphene on the southern leopard frog Rana sphenocephala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Swineford, D.

    1980-01-01

    Eggs, larvae and sub-adults of the southern leopard frog Rana sphenocephala were exposed to endrin and toxaphene. Exposure was in water by a continuous-flow technique, following standards that have been used successfully in the study of fish and invertebrates. R. sphenocephala is more sensitive to both pesticides than are higher vertebrates but is slightly less sensitive than fish. Eggs seem to be resistant to the effects of both pesticides and are probably poor indicators of environmental hazard. The toxic level of endrin is about equal in larvae and transformed frogs (LC50, 0?005-0?015 ppm). Toxaphene is less toxic to sub-adults (LC50, 0?37-0?790 ppm) than to larvae (LC50, 0?032-0?054 ppm). Delayed mortality, behavioural aberrations and effects on growth have been seen in toxaphene-dosed larvae observed over 30-day periods. Behavioural effects are more severe than those reported in other groups of animals. Effects on growth resulting from a 96-h exposure begin in the 0?013-0?018 ppm range. The maximum accumulation of residues observed for each chemical represented bioconcentration factors of about 100. Endrin residues are apparently lost more readily than toxaphene residues; relative depuration rates correlate well with the time course of toxic action in each chemical. Although less sensitive to these pesticides than fish, amphibians may not be protected in their natural habitats. Future studies of the effects of toxicants on amphibians should employ larvae if only one stage can be tested, should expose subjects for at least 96 h and should continue observations for a total of at least 30 days.

  1. Temporal occurrence and community structure of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala, from north central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Vhora, M Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-03-01

    Currently, little information is available about the temporal recruitment of helminth communities in amphibian hosts. We examined the helminth community structure and temporal recruitment of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala. Specifically, we were interested in how host life history such as habitat, age and/or size, diet, sex, and temporal variation in abiotic factors (precipitation and temperature) were important in determining monthly infection patterns of helminth populations and communities in southern leopard frogs. From May to September 2011, 74 southern leopard frogs were collected from Teal Ridge in Stillwater Payne County, OK, USA. Sixty-nine (93 %) of 74 frogs were infected with 1 or more helminth species. During our collecting period, the average monthly temperature was lowest in May and highest in July, and monthly precipitation was highest in May and lowest during the first week of September. The component community consisted of 11 species of helminth, including 1 larval and 1 adult cestode, 2 larval and 3 adult trematodes, and 1 juvenile and 3 adult nematodes. Of the 1790 helminths recovered, 51 % (911) were nematodes, 47 % (842) were cestodes, and 2 % (37) were trematodes. There were significant differences in the total abundance and mean species richness of helminths acquired by skin contact or through frog diet in monthly component communities of southern leopard frogs. A positive correlation existed for percentage of all helminths acquired by skin contact and monthly precipitation (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Conversely, a negative correlation existed for monthly precipitation and percentage of helminths acquired by diet (r = -0.94, P < 0.01). Our results indicate that abiotic conditions such as precipitation have a major influence on the avenues for and constraints on the transmission of helminths with life cycles associated with water/moisture or terrestrial intermediate/paratenic hosts and are important in structuring

  2. Exposure of leopard frogs to a pesticide mixture affects life history characteristics of the lungworm Rhabdias ranae.

    PubMed

    Gendron, A D; Marcogliese, D J; Barbeau, S; Christin, M-S; Brousseau, P; Ruby, S; Cyr, D; Fournier, M

    2003-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of leopard frogs ( Rana pipiens) to agricultural pesticides can affect the infection dynamics of a common parasite of ranid frogs, the lungworm Rhabdias ranae. After a 21-day exposure to sublethal concentrations of a pesticide mixture composed of atrazine, metribuzin, aldicarb, endosulfan, lindane and dieldrin, or to control solutions (water, dimethyl sulfoxide), parasite-free juvenile frogs were challenged with 30 infective larvae of R. ranae. Approximately 75% of the larvae penetrated the skin and survived in both exposed and control animals, suggesting that pesticides did not influence host recognition or penetration components of the transmission process. Rather, we found that the migration of R. ranae was significantly accelerated in hosts exposed to the highest concentrations of pesticides, leading to the establishment of twice as many adult worms in the lungs of frogs 21 days post-infection. Pesticide treatment did not influence the growth of lungworms but our results indicate that they matured and reproduced earlier in pesticide-exposed frogs compared to control animals. Such alterations in life history characteristics that enhance parasite transmission may lead to an increase in virulence. Supporting evidence shows that certain components of the frog immune response were significantly suppressed after exposure to the pesticide mixture. This suggests that the immune system of anurans exerts a control over lungworm migration and maturation and that agricultural contaminants can interfere with these control mechanisms. Our results also contribute to the ongoing debate regarding the role that anthropogenic factors could play in the perplexing disease-related die-offs of amphibians observed in several parts of the world.

  3. Mycobacterium marinum causes both long-term subclinical infection and acute disease in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, L; Valdivia, R H; McKerrow, J H; Falkow, S

    1997-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum grows at an optimal temperature of 33 degrees C, far lower than that for M. tuberculosis. Consequently, M. marinum infection of mammals is restricted largely to the cooler surfaces of the body, such as the extremities, but it causes a systemic infection in a large number of poikilothermic animals. Here, we describe a laboratory animal model for M. marinum disease in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens), a natural host species. M. marinum causes a chronic granulomatous, nonlethal disease in immunocompetent frogs. Immunosuppression of the frogs with hydrocortisone results in an acute, fulminant, lethal disease. This animal model, in which a spectrum of tuberculosis-like disease can be produced, will be useful for the dissection of the genetic basis of mycobacterial pathogenesis. PMID:9009340

  4. Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

  5. STATUS OF THE RELICT LEOPARD FROG (RANA ONCA): OUR LIMITED UNDERSTANDING OF THE DISTRIBUTION, SIZE, AND DYNAMICS OF EXTANT AND RECENTLY EXTINCT POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relict leopard frog (Rana onca) was once thought to be extinct, but has recently been shown to comprise a valid taxon with extant populations. Here, we discuss research from several studies, conducted between 1991 and 200 1, that represent the basis for our understanding of t...

  6. Extinction of montane populations of the northern leopard frog (Rana pippins) in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Fogleman, James C.

    1984-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1982 nine populations of the northern leopard frog in the Red Feather Lakes region of Larimer County, Colorado, failed in reproduce. These failures all resulted in extinction of the populations. One area formerly supporting a population was recolonized in 1980, but no frogs were observed at any of the nine sites in 1981 or 1982. Six of the populations went extinct because the breeding ponds dried up. The remaining populations were small enough to be susceptible to random events, but the nature of these events is unknown.

  7. Prevalence of the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in an endangered population of northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Emerging infectious diseases threaten naïve host populations with extinction. Chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians, is caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and has been linked to global declines in amphibians. Results We monitored the prevalence of Bd for four years in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens, which is critically imperiled in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The prevalence of Bd initially increased and then remained constant over the last three years of the study. Young of the year emerging from breeding ponds in summer were rarely infected with Bd. Some individuals cleared their Bd infections and the return rate between infected and uninfected individuals was not significantly different. Conclusions The BC population of R. pipiens appears to have evolved a level of resistance that allows it to co-exist with Bd. However, this small population of R. pipiens remains vulnerable to extinction. PMID:20202208

  8. Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): laboratory and field evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Tyrone; Haston, Kelly; Tsui, Mable; Hoang, Anhthu; Haeffele, Cathryn; Vonk, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the United States and probably the world. Atrazine contamination is widespread and can be present in excess of 1.0 ppb even in precipitation and in areas where it is not used. In the current study, we showed that atrazine exposure (> or = to 0.1 ppb) resulted in retarded gonadal development (gonadal dysgenesis) and testicular oogenesis (hermaphroditism) in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Slower developing males even experienced oocyte growth (vitellogenesis). Furthermore, we observed gonadal dysgenesis and hermaphroditism in animals collected from atrazine-contaminated sites across the United States. These coordinated laboratory and field studies revealed the potential biological impact of atrazine contamination in the environment. Combined with reported similar effects in Xenopus laevis, the current data raise concern about the effects of atrazine on amphibians in general and the potential role of atrazine and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides in amphibian declines. PMID:12676617

  9. Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): laboratory and field evidence.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Tyrone; Haston, Kelly; Tsui, Mable; Hoang, Anhthu; Haeffele, Cathryn; Vonk, Aaron

    2003-04-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the United States and probably the world. Atrazine contamination is widespread and can be present in excess of 1.0 ppb even in precipitation and in areas where it is not used. In the current study, we showed that atrazine exposure (> or = to 0.1 ppb) resulted in retarded gonadal development (gonadal dysgenesis) and testicular oogenesis (hermaphroditism) in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Slower developing males even experienced oocyte growth (vitellogenesis). Furthermore, we observed gonadal dysgenesis and hermaphroditism in animals collected from atrazine-contaminated sites across the United States. These coordinated laboratory and field studies revealed the potential biological impact of atrazine contamination in the environment. Combined with reported similar effects in Xenopus laevis, the current data raise concern about the effects of atrazine on amphibians in general and the potential role of atrazine and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides in amphibian declines.

  10. Atrazine is an immune disruptor in adult northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed

    Brodkin, Marc A; Madhoun, Hareth; Rameswaran, Muthuramanan; Vatnick, Itzick

    2007-01-01

    Atrazine, the most widely used herbicide in the United States, has been shown in several studies to be an endocrine disruptor in adult frogs. Results from this study indicate that atrazine also functions as an immune disruptor in frogs. Exposure to atrazine (21 ppb for 8 d) affects the innate immune response of adult Rana pipiens in similar ways to acid exposure (pH 5.5), as we have previously shown. Atrazine exposure suppressed the thioglycollate-stimulated recruitment of white blood cells to the peritoneal cavity to background (Ringer exposed) levels and also decreased the phagocytic activity of these cells. Unlike acid exposure, atrazine exposure did not cause mortality. Our results, from a dose-response study, indicate that atrazine acts as an immune disruptor at the same effective doses that it disrupts the endocrine system.

  11. Representation of the visual field in the anterior thalamus of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Skorina, Laura K; Recktenwald, Eric W; Dudkin, Elizabeth A; Saidel, William M; Gruberg, Edward R

    2016-05-16

    We used physiological and anatomical methods to elucidate how the visual field is represented in the part of the dorsal anterior thalamus of the leopard frog that receives direct retinal projections. We recorded extracellularly while presenting visual stimuli, and characterized a physiologically defined region that encompasses the retinal projections as well as an extended zone beyond them. We probed the area systematically to determine if the zone is organized in a visuotopic map: we found that it is not. We found that units in this region respond only to stimuli in the contralateral half of the visual field, which is similar to what is seen in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in mammals. When we backfilled retinal ganglion cells from application of HRP to the anterior thalamus, we found labeled cells only in those parts of the retina corresponding to the contralateral hemifield, confirming our physiological observations. PMID:27064110

  12. Small frogs get their worms first: the role of nonodonate arthropods in the recruitment of Haematoloechus coloradensis and Haematoloechus complexus in newly metamorphosed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, and woodhouse's toads, Bufo woodhousii.

    PubMed

    Bolek, Matthew G; Janovy, John

    2007-04-01

    Studies on the life cycles and epizootiology of North American frog lung flukes indicate that most species utilize odonates as second intermediate hosts; adult frogs become infected by ingesting odonate intermediate hosts. Newly metamorphosed frogs are rarely infected with these parasites, predominantly because they are gape-limited predators that cannot feed on large intermediate hosts such as dragonflies. We examined the role of the frog diet and potential intermediate hosts in the recruitment of the frog lung fluke, Haematoloechus coloradensis, to metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii), and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from western Nebraska. Because of the uncertain validity of H. coloradensis as a distinct species from Haematoloechus complexus, morphological characters of both species were reevaluated and the life cycles of both species were completed in the laboratory. The morphological data on H. coloradensis and H. coimplexus indicate that they differ in their oral sucker to pharynx ratio, uterine loop distribution, and placement of vitelline follicles. However, in terms of their life cycles, both species are quite similar in their use of physid snails as first intermediate hosts, a wide range of nonodonate and odonate arthropods as second intermediate hosts, and leopard frogs and toads as definitive hosts. These results indicate that H. coloradensis and H. complexus are generalists at the second intermediate host level and might be able to infect newly metamorphosed leopard frogs and toads by using small nonodonate arthropods more commonly than other frog lung fluke species. Comparisons of population structure of adult flukes in newly metamorphosed leopard frogs indicate that the generalist nature of H. coloradensis metacercariae enables it to colonize young of the year leopard frogs more commonly than other Haematoloechus spp. that only use odonates as second intermediate hosts. In this respect, the

  13. Resurrecting an Extinct Species: Archival DNA, Taxonomy, and Conservation of the Vegas Valley Leopard Frog

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suggestions that the extinct Vegas Valley leopard frog (Rana fisheri = Lithobates fisheri) may have been synonymous with one of several declining species has complicated recovery planning for imperiled leopard frogs in southwestern North America. To address this concern, we recon...

  14. Long-term effects of pesticide exposure at various life stages of the southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Amphibian larvae are commonly exposed to low levels of pesticides during their development. Chronic studies generally examine the effects of long-term exposure, but they often disregard the importance of the individual life stage at which tadpoles are exposed. I determined the point during development at which carbaryl effects are manifested by exposing southern leopard frog tadpoles (Rana sphenocephala) to the pesticide carbaryl at five different times during development. Metamorphs exposed throughout the tadpole stage and throughout development (egg, embryo, tadpole) experienced significant mortality at all chemical levels. Although the length of the larval period was the same for all experimental groups, metamorphs exposed during the egg stage were smaller than their corresponding controls, independent of whether they were exposed at any other stage. Nearly 18% of individuals exposed to carbaryl during development exhibited some type of developmental deformity (including both visceral and limb malformities), compared to a single deformed (< 1%) control tadpole, demonstrating that a chemical hypothesis for amphibian deformities remains viable. Because exposure to nonpersistent chemicals may last for only a short period of time, it is important to examine the long-term effects that short-term exposure has on larval amphibians and the existence of any sensitive life stage. Any delay in metamorphosis or decrease in size at metamorphosis can impact demographic processes of the population, potentially leading to declines or local extinction.

  15. Genetic variation in insecticide tolerance in a population of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala): Implications for amphibian conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, conservation efforts are devoted to determining the extent and the causes of the decline of many amphibian species worldwide. Human impacts frequently degrade amphibian habitat and have been implicated in many declines. Because genetic variance is critical in determining the persistence of a species in a changing environment, we examined the amount of genetic variability present in a single population for tolerance to an environmental stressor. We examined the amount of genetic variability among full- and half-sib families in a single population of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) with respect to their tolerance to lethal concentrations of the agricultural chemical, carbaryl. Analysis of time-to-death data indicated significant differences among full-sib families and suggests a large amount of variability present in the responses to this environmental stressor. Significant differences in responses among half-sib families indicated that there is additive genetic variance. These data suggest that this population may have the ability to adapt to environmental stressors. It is possible that declines of amphibian populations in the western United States may be attributed to low genetic variability resulting from limited migration among populations and small population sizes.

  16. Growth and developmental effects of coal combustion residues on Southern Leopard Frog (Rana sphenocephala) tadpoles exposed throughout metamorphosis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2008-09-15

    The effects of aquatic deposition of coal combustion residues (CCRs) on amphibian life histories have been the focus of many recent studies. In summer 2005, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate (approximately 1 cm deep within plastic bins) and documented effects of sediment type on oral disc condition, as well as time to, mass at, and total body length at key developmental stages, including metamorphosis (Gosner stages (GS) 37, 42, and 46). We found no significant difference in mortality between the two treatments and mortality was relatively low (eight of 48 in the control group and four of 48 in the CCR group). Ninety percent of exposed tadpoles displayed oral disc abnormalities, while no control individuals displayed abnormalities. Tadpoles raised on CCR-contaminated sediment had decreased developmental rates and weighed significantly less at all developmental stages, on average, when compared to controls. The CCR treatment group was also significantly shorter In length than controls at the completion of metamorphosis (GS 46). Collectively, these findings are the most severe sub-lethal effects noted for any amphibian exposed to CCRs to date. More research is needed to understand how these long term effects may contribute to the dynamics of local amphibian populations.

  17. Dietary exposure to low pesticide doses causes long-term immunosuppression in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed

    Albert, Anathea; Drouillard, Ken; Haffner, G Douglas; Dixon, Brian

    2007-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between dietary exposure of pesticides, DDT, and dieldrin and immunosuppression in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). Immune function was measured before, during, and after a 10-week exposure period with the use of both adaptive and innate immunity responses. Exposure to low doses (75 ng/g body wt DDT or 2.1 ng/g dieldrin total dose over the 10 weeks) resulted in significant suppressive effects on antibody production and secondary delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). The high doses (750 ng/g DDT and 21 ng/g dieldrin), however, did not affect antibody production, DTH, or oxidative burst in a predictable dose-response manner. The differences in magnitude and direction of the effects of the two dosing regimes were likely due to differences in chemical exposure on the basis of feeding and effectiveness of chemical uptake. The low dose results demonstrated that moderate concentrations of pesticides, frequently observed in the environment, are able to weaken the immune response of R. pipiens.

  18. Long-term effects of pesticide exposure at various life stages of the southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala).

    PubMed

    Bridges, C M

    2000-07-01

    Amphibian larvae are commonly exposed to low levels of pesticides during their development. Chronic studies generally examine the effects of long-term exposure, but they often disregard the importance of the individual life stage at which tadpoles are exposed. I determined the point during development at which carbaryl effects are manifested by exposing southern leopard frog tadpoles (Rana sphenocephala) to the pesticide carbaryl at five different times during development. Metamorphs exposed throughout the tadpole stage and throughout development (egg, embryo, tadpole) experienced significant mortality at all chemical levels. Although the length of the larval period was the same for all experimental groups, metamorphs exposed during the egg stage were smaller than their corresponding controls, independent of whether they were exposed at any other stage. Nearly 18% of individuals exposed to carbaryl during development exhibited some type of developmental deformity (including both visceral and limb malformities), compared to a single deformed (< 1%) control tadpole, demonstrating that a chemical hypothesis for amphibian deformities remains viable. Because exposure to nonpersistent chemicals may last for only a short period of time, it is important to examine the long-term effects that short-term exposure has on larval amphibians and the existence of any sensitive life stage. Any delay in metamorphosis or decrease in size at metamorphosis can impact demographic processes of the population, potentially leading to declines or local extinction.

  19. Partial life-cycle toxicity and bioconcentration modeling of perfluorooctanesulfonate in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed

    Ankley, Gerald T; Kuehl, Douglas W; Kahl, Michael D; Jensen, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Brian C; Nichols, John W

    2004-11-01

    A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer manufactured in the United States, the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need to understand its potential ecological effects. Presently, little is known concerning toxicity of PFOS in chronic exposures with aquatic species. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of PFOS on survival and development of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) from early embryogenesis through complete metamorphosis. Exposures were conducted via water at measured PFOS concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 10 mg/L. Animals exposed to 10 mg/L began dying within approximately two weeks of test initiation. Survival was not affected by PFOS at lower concentrations; however, time to metamorphosis was delayed and growth reduced in the 3-mg/L treatment group. Tadpoles readily accumulated PFOS directly from water. Using a one-compartment bioaccumulation model, growth was shown to have a modest impact on steady-state PFOS concentrations. Variability in observed growth rates and the possible contribution of a size-dependent decrease in PFOS elimination rate contributed uncertainty to modeling efforts. Nevertheless, fitted uptake and elimination rate constants were comparable to those determined in earlier studies with juvenile rainbow trout. Overall, our studies suggest that R. pipiens is not exceptionally sensitive to PFOS in terms of either direct toxicity or bioconcentration potential of the chemical.

  20. Frog lysozyme. I. Its identification, occurrence as isozymes, and quantitative distribution in tissues of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, D S; Snyder, J A; Iwata, T; Izaka, K I; Maglott, D S; Nace, G W

    1976-02-01

    In the course of examining the etiology of the Lucké renal adenocarcinoma of the frog, Rana pipiens, it was found that organs of the normal adult contain bacteriolytic enzymes. These enzymes all satisfied the six criteria for the identification of lysozymes and at least eight forms were separable by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Their qualitative and quantitative distribution was organ-specific. All eight isozymes were found in normal kidney, while liver and spleen contained seven forms; skin, six; ovarian egg, five; and serum, two. In quantitative assays using a radial diffusion test, spleen had the greatest lysozyme concentration, followed in descending order by kidney, liver, skin, and ovary. Serum contained very low amounts. In terms of enzyme activity per animal, ovary was the highest ranking organ. As such a large number of lysozyme isozymes has not been reported in any other organism, their origins and functions are considered in the context of their presence in an ectotherm.

  1. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF RANA YAVAPAIENSIS AND RANA ONCA: PRELIMINARY FINDINGS WITH CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The closely related aridland frogs Rana onca (Relict Leopard Frog) and Rana yavapaiensis (Lowland Leopard Frog) have both experienced dramatic population declines. Rana onca currently occurs naturally at only 6 disjunct sites in southern Nevada. Rana yavapaiensis is present acros...

  2. PHOTOINDUCED TOXICITY OF FLUORANTHENE TO LARVAE OF THE LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPENS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rana pipiens larvae (96-118 hr old) were exposed to in a flow-through diluter system to five concentrations of fluoranthene for 48 hr. Following the uptake period the exposed larvae were divided into three groups: one for tissue residue analysis, a second for residue analysis fo...

  3. Metabolic fate of lactate after vigorous activity in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Fournier, P A; Guderley, H

    1992-02-01

    Although the ability of isolated frog muscle to synthesize glycogen from lactate has long been known, it has never been demonstrated that this metabolic activity occurs in the intact frog. Our results clearly indicate that lactate glycogenesis in frog muscle occurs to a significant extent in vivo. During recovery from strenuous exercise, most of the lactate accumulated by frogs seems to be recycled into muscle glycogen because the lactate that disappears during recovery could account nearly stoichiometrically for the glycogen that accumulates in muscle. Furthermore, the decrease in body lactate and the increase in muscle glycogen follow corresponding time courses, suggesting a precursor-product relationship between lactate and glycogen. During recovery from intense exercise, hepatectomized and normal frogs have nearly identical extents of lactate elimination and glycogen synthesis. This suggests that muscle is the main tissue responsible for the recycling of lactate into muscle glycogen and that liver plays a negligible role in lactate disposal. The negligible hepatic contribution to lactate recycling results in part from the liver's incapacity to produce glucose from lactate. In support of this proposition, we show that frog liver perfused in vitro is unable to incorporate any detectable labeled lactate into glucose despite its excellent physiological integrity. Changes in dietary status, training state, season at which the experiments were done, exercise status, and composition of the perfusion media (pH, hormonal composition, physiological saline vs. culture medium) did not give rise to lactate gluconeogenesis. Because frog liver contains all the regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway, its inability to synthesize glucose from lactate is not due to an absence of pyruvate carboxylase. A limited ability for lactate uptake may explain why frog liver cannot produce glucose from lactate. PMID:1539733

  4. The pattern of catecholamine response to burst activity in leopard frogs, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Fournier, P A; Nadeau, A; Guderley, H

    1994-07-01

    It is well known that burst activity causes a rapid breakdown of muscle glycogen and extensive accumulation of lactate in frogs. During recovery, it has been shown that lactate is nearly totally recycled into muscle glycogen. Since catecholamines are likely to play some role in the regulation of postexercise repletion of muscle glycogen, the pattern of catecholamine response was assessed in frogs during intense physical activity and the ensuing recovery period. Chronically cannulated frogs were forced to swim until exhaustion, and serial blood samples were taken at regular time intervals for the measurements of catecholamines. The pattern of changes in plasma and muscle lactate and glucose and muscle glycogen during and after burst activity is similar to that reported in previous studies using noncannulated frogs, a result which indicates that the animals recover well from the surgical trauma associated with cannulation. The concentrations of plasma catecholamines in frogs at rest are comparable to those measured in other amphibians, and the levels of plasma epinephrine in resting frogs are much higher than those of norepinephrine. Burst activity causes a marked increase in plasma catecholamines, with higher levels reached by epinephrine. During recovery, the concentration of plasma catecholamines returns to normal within 30 min. Although this pattern of catecholamine response to intense physical activity may be favorable to the repletion of muscle glycogen postexercise, it remains to be clarified how critical the low levels and fast reduction in plasma catecholamines are for optimum glycogen resynthesis. PMID:7926648

  5. Vitellogenin of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): development of an ELISA assay and evaluation of induction after immersion in xenobiotic estrogens.

    PubMed

    Selcer, Kyle W; Verbanic, Jodi D

    2014-10-01

    An immunoassay for leopard frog (Rana pipiens) vitellogenin was developed for studying endocrine disruption. Male frogs were injected with estradiol-17β to stimulate vitellogenin for purification. SDS-PAGE revealed high amounts of a 170-180 kDa protein, which was confirmed to be vitellogenin by Western blotting. Vitellogenin was purified by DEAE chromatography and used to generate a polyclonal antibody. A competitive ELISA was developed for leopard frog vitellogenin with a detection limit of 6.0 ng mL(-1) and a working range of 20-1000 ng mL(-1). The intra-assay coefficient of variation averaged 5.47% for control sera and 9.71% for estrogen-treated sera. The inter-assay coefficient of variation averaged 8.21% for control sera and 9.93% for estrogen-treated sera. Recovery of purified vitellogenin averaged 95.2%. Vitellogenin was measured in male frogs immersed in the estrogenic compound diethylstilbestrol (DES) for various times and doses. Serum vitellogenin was detected within five days after immersion in 1.0 mg L(-1) DES and levels continued to increase through 20 d. In a 20-day dose-response experiment, serum vitellogenin was detected in frogs immersed in 0.01 mg L(-1) DES and vitellogenin concentration increased with dose. Immersion of frogs in one of several xenobiotic estrogens (nonylphenol, octylphenol, bisphenol-A) for 20 d did not increase vitellogenin for any treatment, suggesting that this frog may be less sensitive than fish to endocrine disruptors. Vitellogenin induction in R.pipiens may be a useful amphibian model system for field studies of endocrine disruption, due to its broad geographic range. PMID:25048926

  6. Octylphenol and UV-B radiation alter larval development and hypothalamic gene expression in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Douglas; Lean, David; Trudeau, Vance L

    2002-01-01

    We assessed octylphenol (OP), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical, and UV-B radiation, a known stressor in amphibian development, for their effects on hypothalamic gene expression and premetamorphic development in the leopard frog Rana pipiens. Newly hatched tadpoles were exposed for 10 days to OP alone at two different dose levels; to subambient UV-B radiation alone; and to two combinations of OP and UV-B. Control animals were exposed to ethanol vehicle (0.01%) exposure, a subset of tadpoles from each treatment group was raised to metamorphosis to assess differences in body weight and time required for hindlimb emergence. Tadpoles from one of the OP/UV-B combination groups had greater body weight and earlier hindlimb emergence (p < 0.05), but neither OP nor UV-B alone produced significant changes in body weight or hindlimb emergence, indicating a potential mechanism of interaction between OP and UV-B. We hypothesized that the developing hypothalamus might be a potential environmental sensor for neurotoxicologic studies because of its role in the endocrine control of metamorphosis. We used a differential display strategy to identify candidate genes differentially expressed in the hypothalamic region of the exposed tadpoles. Homology cloning was performed to obtain R. pipiens glutamate decarboxylases--GAD65 and GAD67, enzymes involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). cDNA expression profiles revealed that OP and UV-B affected the levels of several candidate transcripts in tadpole (i.e., Nck, Ash, and phospholipase C gamma-binding protein 4 and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-3) and metamorph (i.e., GAD67, cytochrome C oxidase, and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-2 and -3) brains. This study represents a novel approach in toxicology that combines physiologic and molecular end points and indicates that levels of OP commonly found in the environment and subambient levels of UV-B alter the expression of important hypothalamic

  7. Octylphenol and UV-B radiation alter larval development and hypothalamic gene expression in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed

    Crump, Douglas; Lean, David; Trudeau, Vance L

    2002-03-01

    We assessed octylphenol (OP), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical, and UV-B radiation, a known stressor in amphibian development, for their effects on hypothalamic gene expression and premetamorphic development in the leopard frog Rana pipiens. Newly hatched tadpoles were exposed for 10 days to OP alone at two different dose levels; to subambient UV-B radiation alone; and to two combinations of OP and UV-B. Control animals were exposed to ethanol vehicle (0.01%) exposure, a subset of tadpoles from each treatment group was raised to metamorphosis to assess differences in body weight and time required for hindlimb emergence. Tadpoles from one of the OP/UV-B combination groups had greater body weight and earlier hindlimb emergence (p < 0.05), but neither OP nor UV-B alone produced significant changes in body weight or hindlimb emergence, indicating a potential mechanism of interaction between OP and UV-B. We hypothesized that the developing hypothalamus might be a potential environmental sensor for neurotoxicologic studies because of its role in the endocrine control of metamorphosis. We used a differential display strategy to identify candidate genes differentially expressed in the hypothalamic region of the exposed tadpoles. Homology cloning was performed to obtain R. pipiens glutamate decarboxylases--GAD65 and GAD67, enzymes involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). cDNA expression profiles revealed that OP and UV-B affected the levels of several candidate transcripts in tadpole (i.e., Nck, Ash, and phospholipase C gamma-binding protein 4 and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-3) and metamorph (i.e., GAD67, cytochrome C oxidase, and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-2 and -3) brains. This study represents a novel approach in toxicology that combines physiologic and molecular end points and indicates that levels of OP commonly found in the environment and subambient levels of UV-B alter the expression of important hypothalamic

  8. Helminth community structure of sympatric eastern American toad, Bufo americanus americanus, northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens, and blue-spotted salamander, Ambystoma laterale, from southeastern Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Bolek, Matthew G; Coggins, James R

    2003-08-01

    One-hundred twelve amphibians, including 51 blue-spotted salamanders, Ambystoma laterale, 30 eastern American toads, Bufo americanus americanus, and 31 northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, were collected during April-October 1996 from Waukesha County, Wisconsin and examined for helminth parasites. The helminth compound community of this amphibian assemblage consisted of at least 10 species: 9 in American toads, 8 in leopard frogs, and 3 in blue-spotted salamanders. American toads shared 7 species with leopard frogs, and 2 species occurred in all 3 host species. Although there was a high degree of helminth species overlap among these sympatric amphibians, statistically significant differences were found among host species and percent of indirect or direct-life cycle parasites of amphibian species individual component communities (chi2 = 1,015, P < 0.001). American toads had a higher relative abundance of nematodes, 59%, than larval cestodes, 31%, and larval and adult trematodes, 10%, whereas leopard frogs had a higher relative abundance of larval cestodes, 71.3%, and larval and adult trematodes, 25.3%, than nematodes 3.4%. This is related to ecological differences in habitat and dietary preferences between these 2 anuran species. Helminth communities of blue-spotted salamanders were depauperate and were dominated by larval trematodes, 94%, and few nematodes, 6%. Low helminth species richness in this host species is related to this salamander's relatively small host body size, smaller gape size, lower vagility, and more fossorial habitat preference than the other 2 anuran species. Adult leopard frogs and toads had significantly higher mean helminth species richness than metamorphs, but there was no significant difference in mean helminth species richness among adult and metamorph blue-spotted salamanders. Considering adult helminths, the low species richness and low vagility of caudatans as compared with anurans suggest that local factors may be more important in

  9. Effects of exposure to ultraviolet light on the development of Rana pipiens, the northern leopard frog

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.J.; Wofford, H.W.

    1996-10-01

    The increase in ultraviolet light intensity levels due to ozone depletion recently has been linked to the decline in amphibian population. In this experiment, eggs and larvae of Rana pipiens were subjected to differing amounts of ultraviolet radiation to determine the effects of ultraviolet light on the development of amphibian tadpoles. The total length, length of body without tail, and maximum width of each specimen was recorded for a month of the tadpoles` development, including several measurements after the ultraviolet exposures were concluded. It was found that ultraviolet exposure significantly reduced the size of the organisms in comparison with the control group in all three measured areas. Ultraviolet radiation altered the health and appearance of the exposed organisms and was lethal at large amounts. This experiment showed that ultraviolet radiation could cause many problems in developing amphibians. By slowing their development and physically weakening predation, thus contributing to a decline in overall population levels.

  10. Leopard frog and wood frog reproduction in Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Livo, Lauren J.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1988, we recorded reproductive information from populations of ranid frogs in Colorado and Wyoming. Egg masses from five plains and montane populations of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) contained 645-6272 eggs (x̄ = 3045, N = 68 egg masses). In two montane populations of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) numbers of eggs per egg mass varied from 711-1248 (x̄ = 876, N = 15) and probably were equal to total clutch size. Mean hatching success was 90% in egg masses from one R. sylvatica population and ranged from 70% to 99% in R. pipiens egg masses. Rana pipiens egg masses from one location were assigned to three overlapping size distributions, which we believe reflects the underlying age structure of female frogs.

  11. Growth of the pectoral girdle of the Leopard frog, Rana pipiens (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Shearman, Rebecca M

    2005-04-01

    This article describes the growth of the anuran pectoral girdle of Rana pipiens and compares skeletal development of the shoulder to that of long bones. The pectoral girdle chondrifies as two halves, each adjacent to a developing humerus. In each, the scapula and coracoid form as single foci of condensed chondrocytes that fuse, creating a cartilaginous glenoid bridge articulating with the humerus. Based on histological sections, both the dermal clavicle and cleithrum begin to ossify at approximately the same time as the periosteum forms around the endochondral bones. The dermal and endochondral bones of the girdle form immobile joints with neighboring girdle elements; however, the cellular organization and growth pattern of the scapula and coracoid closely resemble those of a long bone. Similar to a long bone epiphysis, distal margins of both endochondral elements have zones of hyaline, stratified, and hypertrophic cartilages. As a result, fused elements of the girdle can grow without altering the glenoid articulation with the humerus. Comparisons of anuran long bone and pectoral girdle growth suggest that different bones can have similar histology and development regardless of adult morphology.

  12. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-W.; Melancon, M.J.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 in corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3 and 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD) and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD and PROD were not elevated at doses ? 0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05), but were significantly increased at doses ? 2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). The increased activity of these four enzymes ranged from 3to 6.4fold relative to control levels. The increased activities were maintained for at least four weeks. Due to a lack of induction at low doses of PCB 126, which were still relatively high compared to currentlyknown environmental concentrations, we suspect that EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD activities are not sensitive biomarkers for coplanar PCB exposure in leopard frogs.

  13. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-08-01

    In the past decade, biochemical and physiological characteristics such as hepatic detoxifying system. DNA adducts, thyroid malfunction, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition have been used extensively as biomarkers for contaminant exposure. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 m corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD), and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD were not elevated at doses {le}0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05) but were significantly increased at doses {ge}2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). The increased activities of these four enzymes were 3 to 6.4 times those in the control groups. The increased activities were maintained for at least 4 weeks. Because of a lack of induction at low doses of PCB 126, which were still relatively high compared to currently known environmental concentration, the authors suspect that EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD activities are not sensitive biomarkers for coplanar PCB exposure in leopard frogs.

  14. Variations in the expressed antimicrobial peptide repertoire of northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) populations suggest intraspecies differences in resistance to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Tennessen, Jacob A.; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Chaurand, Pierre; Reinert, Laura K.; Billheimer, Dean; Shyr, Yu; Caprioli, Richard M.; Blouin, Michael S.; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    The northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens or Lithobates pipiens) is historically found in most of the provinces of Canada and the northern and southwest states of the United States. In the last 50 years, populations have suffered significant losses, especially in the western regions of the species range. Using a peptidomics approach, we show that the pattern of expressed antimicrobial skin peptides of frogs from three geographically separated populations are distinct, and we report the presence of four peptides (brevinin-1Pg, brevinin-1Pl, ranatuerin-2Pb, and ranatuerin-2Pc) that have not previously been found in skin secretions. The differences in expressed peptides reflect differences in the distribution of alleles for the newly described Brevinin1.1 locus in the three populations. When enriched peptide mixtures were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of the pathogenic amphibian chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis), peptides from Minnesota or Vermont frogs were more effective that peptides from Michigan frogs. Four of the purified peptides were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of two bacterial pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and B. dendrobatidis. Three of the four were effective inhibitors of B. dendrobatidis and S. epidermidis, but none inhibited A. hydrophila. We interpret these differences in expression and activity of antimicrobial peptides as evidence to suggest that each population may have been selected to express a suite of peptides that reflects current and past encounters with skin microbes. PMID:19622371

  15. The effects of four arthropod diets on the body and organ weights of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, during vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lehman, G C

    1978-12-01

    Wild-caught adult Rana pipiens females were captured in midsummer and fed diets of crickets, flies sowbugs or wax moth larvae during a three-month period of active vitellogenesis. The cricket diet supported the most extensive body weight gain during this time and promoted a prolonged period of weight increase in an additional long-term study. Synchronous growth of the oocytes occurred in all four groups, but the ovaries and oviducts of cricket-fed animals were significantly larger than those of frogs on the other three diets. The significantly higher liver weights of frogs fed wax moth larvae may have reflected an augmentation of hepatic energy stores. Fat body weights were also highest in this group of animals. Frogs fed crickets and wax moth larvae possessed larger fat bodies than did the midsummer control animals killed immediately after their arrival in the laboratory. In contrast, frogs fed flies and sowbugs had smaller fat bodies than did the initial controls, suggesting that animals on these diets had utilized fat body lipid during vitellogenesis. Gastrocnemius and final body weights were lowest in frogs fed wax moth larvae. These findings may have reflected the nutritional content of the diet or the reduction in appetite frequently noted in these animals during observations of feeding behavior.

  16. Influence of Ribeiroia ondatrae (Trematoda: Digenea) infection on limb development and survival of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): effects of host stage and parasite-exposure level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Koehler, Anson V.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that infection by larvae of the trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae accounts for a significant proportion of limb malformations currently observed in amphibian populations of North America. However, the effects of R. ondatrae infection on northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), one of the species most frequently reported with malformations, have not been adequately explored. Moreover, the risk factors associated with R. ondatrae-induced malformations have not been clearly identified. We examined the effects of timing of infection on tadpole survival and limb development. Rana pipiens tadpoles were individually exposed to R. ondatrae cercariae at the pre-limb-bud (Gosner stages 24 and 25), limb-bud (Gosner stages 27 and 28), or paddle (Gosner stages 31–33) stages of development and monitored through metamorphosis. The effects of infection were stage-specific. Infections acquired at the pre-limb-bud stage resulted in a high mortality rate (47.5–97.5%), whereas tadpoles infected at the limb-bud stage displayed a high malformation rate (16% overall), and the magnitude of effects increased with the level of exposure to cercariae. In contrast, infections acquired at the paddle stage had no effect on limb development or tadpole survival, which suggests that the timing of R. ondatrae infection in relation to the stage structure of tadpole populations in the wild is an important determinant of the degree to which populations are affected by R. ondatrae.

  17. Impacts of agriculture on the parasite communities of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) in southern Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    King, K C; McLaughlin, J D; Gendron, A D; Pauli, B D; Giroux, I; Rondeau, B; Boily, M; Juneau, P; Marcogliese, D J

    2007-12-01

    Given that numerous amphibians are suffering population declines, it is becoming increasingly important to examine the relationship between disease and environmental disturbance. Indeed, while many studies relate anthropogenic activity to changes in the parasitism of snails and fishes, little is known of the impact on the parasites of amphibians, particularly from agriculture. For 2 years, the parasite communities of metamorphic northern leopard frogs from 7 agricultural wetlands were compared with those from 2 reference wetlands to study differences in parasite community diversity and abundance of various species under pristine conditions and 3 categories of disturbance: only agricultural landscape, only pesticides, and agricultural landscape with pesticides. Agricultural (and urban) area was negatively related to species richness, and associated with the near absence of adult parasites and species that infect birds or mammals. We suggest that agriculture and urbanization may hinder parasite transmission to frogs by limiting access of other vertebrate hosts of their parasites to wetlands. The only parasite found at all localities was an unidentified echinostome infecting the kidneys. This parasite dominated communities in localities surrounded by the most agricultural land, suggesting generalist parasites may persist in disrupted habitats. Community composition was associated with dissolved organic carbon and conductivity, but few links were found with pesticides. Pollution effects may be masked by a strong impact of land use on parasite transmission. PMID:17672926

  18. Impacts of agriculture on the parasite communities of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) in southern Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    King, K C; McLaughlin, J D; Gendron, A D; Pauli, B D; Giroux, I; Rondeau, B; Boily, M; Juneau, P; Marcogliese, D J

    2007-12-01

    Given that numerous amphibians are suffering population declines, it is becoming increasingly important to examine the relationship between disease and environmental disturbance. Indeed, while many studies relate anthropogenic activity to changes in the parasitism of snails and fishes, little is known of the impact on the parasites of amphibians, particularly from agriculture. For 2 years, the parasite communities of metamorphic northern leopard frogs from 7 agricultural wetlands were compared with those from 2 reference wetlands to study differences in parasite community diversity and abundance of various species under pristine conditions and 3 categories of disturbance: only agricultural landscape, only pesticides, and agricultural landscape with pesticides. Agricultural (and urban) area was negatively related to species richness, and associated with the near absence of adult parasites and species that infect birds or mammals. We suggest that agriculture and urbanization may hinder parasite transmission to frogs by limiting access of other vertebrate hosts of their parasites to wetlands. The only parasite found at all localities was an unidentified echinostome infecting the kidneys. This parasite dominated communities in localities surrounded by the most agricultural land, suggesting generalist parasites may persist in disrupted habitats. Community composition was associated with dissolved organic carbon and conductivity, but few links were found with pesticides. Pollution effects may be masked by a strong impact of land use on parasite transmission.

  19. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  20. Steroid-induced changes in the morphology of GnRH neurons in the male leopard frog, Rana pipiens: correlation with plasma gonadotropin and gonadal size.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-San; Jones, Jeremy T

    2005-04-01

    Previously, we reported that hypothalamic explants isolated from male leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) implanted with 17beta-estradiol (E2), but not 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), released significantly higher levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in response to a veratridine challenge. In this study, we measured changes in GnRH soma size, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), and gonadosomatic index (GSI) in response to these two steroid hormones to further assess the impact of these hormones on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Sexually mature male R. pipiens were implanted with silastic capsules containing cholesterol (Ch; control), E2, or DHT for 20 days. GnRH immunocytochemistry (ICC) revealed that both E2 and DHT significantly enlarged GnRH soma size without affecting the total number of GnRH neurons in the forebrain. The effects of E2 and DHT were specific, since neither hormone altered the soma size of tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the dorsomedial posterior tuberculum. Circulating LH levels were significantly reduced in animals treated with both steroid hormones, with E2 exerting the most potent inhibitory effect. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the GSI and GnRH soma size in Ch controls, suggesting animals with larger GnRH neurons tended to have smaller gonads. Overall, our results showed that both steroid hormones induced the accumulation of GnRH and ultimately the swelling of the GnRH soma. Further, larger GnRH neurons were associated with smaller gonads and lower circulating levels of LH, suggesting a link between enlarged GnRH neurons and an overall decrease in the reproductive activity of R. pipiens.

  1. Peptides with antimicrobial activity from four different families isolated from the skins of the North American frogs Rana luteiventris, Rana berlandieri and Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Goraya, J; Wang, Y; Li, Z; O'Flaherty, M; Knoop, F C; Platz, J E; Conlon, J M

    2000-02-01

    The skins of frogs of the genus Rana synthesize a complex array of antimicrobial peptides that may be grouped into eight families on the basis of structural similarity. A total of 24 peptides with differential growth-inhibitory activity towards the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the yeast Candida albicans were isolated from extracts of the skins of three closely related North American frogs, Rana luteiventris (spotted frog), Rana berlandieri (Rio Grande leopard frog) and Rana pipiens (Northern leopard frog). Structural characterization of the antimicrobial peptides demonstrated that they belonged to four of the known families: the brevinin-1 family, first identified in skin of the Asian frog Rana porosa brevipoda; the esculentin-2 family, first identified in the European frog Rana esculenta; the ranatuerin-2 family, first identified in the North American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana; and the temporin family, first identified in the European frog Rana temporaria. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-2, ranalexin, esculentin-1 and ranatuerin-1 families were not identified in the extracts. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship between the various species of Ranid frogs, the distribution and amino-acid sequences of the antimicrobial peptides produced by each species are highly variable and species-specific, suggesting that they may be valuable in taxonomic classification and molecular phylogenetic analysis.

  2. The Classroom Animal: The Leopard Frog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Describes the natural history of the leopard frog and factors which make it appropriate for short-term study in the classroom. Information on the frog's habits, life cycle, housing, care, and health is included. (DH)

  3. Development of antimicrobial peptide defenses of southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala, against the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Holden, Whitney M; Reinert, Laura K; Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian species face the growing threat of extinction due to the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes the disease chytridiomycosis. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced in granular glands of the skin are an important defense against this pathogen. Little is known about the ontogeny of AMP production or the impact of AMPs on potentially beneficial symbiotic skin bacteria. We show here that Rana (Lithobates) sphenocephala produces a mixture of four AMPs with activity against B. dendrobatidis, and we report the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of synthesized replicates of these four AMPs tested against B. dendrobatidis. Using mass spectrometry and protein quantification assays, we observed that R. sphenocephala does not secrete a mature suite of AMPs until approximately 12 weeks post-metamorphosis, and geographically disparate populations produce a different suite of peptides. Use of norepinephrine to induce maximal secretion significantly reduced levels of culturable skin bacteria.

  4. Semi-automated identification of leopard frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Dijana; Edwards, Aaron; Chiasson, John; Chollet, Gérard; Pilliod, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is used to implement a semi-automatic recognition system to identify recaptured northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given. The presented algorithm is shown to provide accurate identification of 209 individual leopard frogs from a total set of 1386 images.

  5. Leopard frog PCB levels and evaluation of EROD as a biomarker in Green Bay ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    The induction of mixed function oxidases has been shown to be a promising biomarker in many taxa of wildlife, though not yet tested for amphibians. The three hypotheses tested in this study were (1) activities of hepatic EROD of leopard frog (Rana pipiens) are induced following exposure to planar chlorinated PCBs, (2) tissue PCB residue levels of leopard frogs are positively correlated with their wetland sediment PCB levels, and (3) EROD activities are positively correlated with tissue PCB concentrations and sediment PCB. In the laboratory, EROD was increased 2--3 times seven days after i.p. injection with PCB 126 at doses {ge} 2.3 ppm (wet mass basis). Leopard frogs from seven sites along the Lower Fox River and Green Bay in 1994--1995 were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and total PCB levels in carcasses. Tissue PCB levels ranged from 3 to 152 ppb (including coplanar congeners) and were highest from sites with higher sediment PCB. EROD activity in frogs collected in August--September was not significantly correlated with frog body mass and was similar among sites with one exception. There was no significant correlation between EROD activity and tissue PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB levels compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory. The authors conclude that EROD activity is not a sensitive biomarker of PCB exposure in leopard frogs in this ecosystem.

  6. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Catherine E.; Feinberg, Jeremy A.; Rissler, Leslie J.; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp = 1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap = 99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described. PMID:22321689

  7. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Newman, Catherine E; Feinberg, Jeremy A; Rissler, Leslie J; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2012-05-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp=1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap=99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described.

  8. Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus frog) and Rana sylvatica (wood frog) chytridiomycosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rittman, S.E.; Muths, E.; Green, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a known pathogen of anuran amphibians, and has been correlated with amphibian die-offs worldwide (Daszak et. al. 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5:735-748). In Colorado, B. dendrobatidis has infected Boreal toads (Bufo boreas) (Muths et. al., in review) and has been identified on museum specimens of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) (Carey et. al. 1999. Develop. Comp. Immunol. 23:459-472). We report the first verified case of chytrid fungus in chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in the United States. We collected seven P. triseriata, and two adult and two juvenile R. sylvatica in the Kawuneeche Valley in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) during June 2001. These animals were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) as part of an amphibian health evaluation in RMNP. Chorus frogs were shipped in one container. Wood frog adults and juveniles were shipped in two separate containers. Histological examinations of all chorus frogs and 3 of 4 wood frogs were positive for chytrid fungus infection. The fourth (adult) wood frog was too decomposed for meaningful histology. Histological findings consisted of multifocally mild to diffusely severe infections of the epidermis of the ventrum and hindlimb digital skin. Chytrid thalli were confined to the thickened epidermis (hyperkeratosis), were spherical to oval, and occasional thalli contained characteristic discharge pores or zoospores (Green and Kagarise Sherman 1999. J. Herpetol 35:92-103; Fellers et al. 2001. Copeia 2001:945-953). We cannot confirm that all specimens carried the fungus at collection, because infection may have spread from one individual to all other individuals in each container during transport. Further sampling of amphibians in Kawuneeche Valley is warranted to determine the rate of infection and mortality in these populations.

  9. Metabolic effects of dehydration on an aquatic frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Churchill, T A; Storey, K B

    1995-01-01

    Cellular responses to dehydration were analyzed in six organs of leopard frogs Rana pipiens. Frogs at 5 degrees C endured the loss of up to 50% of their total body water content but water contents of individual organs were strongly defended. Skeletal muscle water content was strongly affected by dehydration, dropping from 80.7% of wet mass in controls to 67.2% in frogs that had lost 50% of their total body water. However, water contents of internal organs dropped by only 3-8% of their wet masses. Water contents of all organs except skeletal muscle were fully restored by 24h of rehydration in water at 5 degrees C. Dehydration had no consistent effect on the protein content of five organs but in a sixth, the kidney, protein levels were elevated (by 60-72%) at the higher levels of dehydration and during rehydration. Dehydration led to a rapid increase in glucose concentration in the liver; compared with control values of 13 +/- 2 nmol mg-1 protein, levels were doubled by 12.2% dehydration and continued to increase to a maximum of 307 +/- 44 nmol mg-1 protein (20 mumol g-1 wet mass) in 50% dehydrated frogs. Glucose accumulation was supported by a decrease in liver glycogen content and a parallel rise in glucose 6-phosphate levels, but not in the levels of other glycolytic intermediates, confirming that glycogenolytic flux was being directed into glucose synthesis. Blood glucose levels also increased as a function of increasing dehydration, reaching values 13.8 times higher than controls, but only the kidney and brain showed a significant accumulation of glucose over the course of dehydration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7891032

  10. Phylogeography of declining relict and lowland leopard frogs in the desert Southwest of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olah-Hemmings, V.; Jaeger, J.R.; Sredl, M.J.; Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Jennings, R.D.; Drost, C.A.; Bradford, D.F.; Riddle, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog Rana onca (=Lithobates onca) and lowland leopard frog Rana yavapaiensis (=Lithobates yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of south-western North America. We used sequence data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to assess 276 individuals representing 30 sites from across current distributions. Our analysis supports a previously determined phylogenetic break between these taxa, and we found no admixing of R. onca and R. yavapaiensis haplotypes within our extensive sampling of sites. Our phylogeographic assessment, however, further divided R. yavapaiensis into two distinct mtDNA lineages, one representing populations across Arizona and northern Mexico and the other a newly discovered population within the western Grand Canyon, Arizona. Estimates of sequence evolution indicate a possible Early Pleistocene divergence of R. onca and R. yavapaiensis, followed by a Middle Pleistocene separation of the western Grand Canyon population of R. yavapaiensis from the main R. yavapaiensis clade. Phylogeographic and demographic analyses indicate population or range expansion for R. yavapaiensis within its core distribution that appears to predate the latest glacial maximum. Species distribution models under current and latest glacial climatic conditions suggest that R. onca and R. yavapaiensis may not have greatly shifted ranges.

  11. Pesticide distributions and population declines of California alpine frogs, Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospherically deposited pesticides from the intensively cultivated Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the frogs, Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae at high elevation in the Sierra Nevada moun...

  12. Pesticide Distributions and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs, Rana Muscosa and Rana Sierrae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospherically deposited pesticides from the intensively cultivated Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the frogs Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae at high elevation in th...

  13. The disappearing northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens): conservation genetics and implications for remnant populations in western Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Serena D; Peacock, Mary M

    2012-01-01

    Global amphibian declines suggest a major shift in the amount and quality of habitat for these sensitive taxa. Many species that were once widespread are now experiencing declines either in part of or across their historic range. The northern leopard frog (Rana [Lithobates] pipiens] has undergone significant declines particularly in the western United States and Canada. Leopard frog population losses in Nevada are largely due to habitat fragmentation and the introduction of nonnative fish, amphibian, and plant species. Only two populations remain in the Truckee and Carson River watersheds of western Nevada which represents the western boundary of this species range. We used sequence data for an 812 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) gene to support a native origin for western Nevada populations. All frogs had a single haplotype (W07) from the distinct western North America ND1 haplotype clade. Data from seven polymorphic microsatellite loci show that Truckee and Carson River populations are highly differentiated from each other and from leopard frogs collected from eastern Nevada sites. Lack of gene flow among and distinct color morphs among the western Nevada populations likely predates the current geographical isolation. Comparisons with other peripheral L. pipiens populations show western Nevada populations have similar levels of gene diversity despite their contemporary isolation (HE 0.411, 0.482). Restoration of leopard frog populations in these watersheds will be challenging given well-entrenched nonnative bullfrog populations and major changes to the riparian zone over the past century. Declines of once common amphibian species has become a major conservation concern. Contemporary isolation of populations on a species range periphery such as the leopard frog populations in the Truckee and Carson rivers further exacerbate extirpation risk as these populations are likely to have fewer genetic resources to adaptively respond to

  14. Field evidence for linking Altosid applications with increased amphibian deformities in southern leopard frogs [abstract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    During the summer of 1997 we repeatedly sprayed Altosid, a formulation of 4% methoprene used for mosquito control, on six constructed macrocosms. Six additional macrocosms were sprayed with Abate4E, containing the organophosphate pesticide temephos, and six were sprayed with water (controls). The wetlands were created on an impermeable foundation for research purposes and averaged 215 m2 in area and 0.5 m deep. Application rates and frequency of Abate4E and Altosid followed label directions and mimicked procedures for mosquito control in National Wildlife Refuges. In early September juvenile frogs and metamorphing tadpoles were collected with dip nets from each pond and examined for deformities. In all, 91 juveniles and metamorph southern leopard frogs (Rana utricularia) were collected from Altosid sprayed wetlands with 14 (15%) demonstrating deformities. Seventyseven juveniles and metamorphs were collected from control wetlands with three (4%) showing deformities. Only six juveniles and metamorphs were collected from Abate4E wetlands and none showed deformities. Deformities included missing or deformed hind limbs (9 of 10 involving only the right hind limb), missing eyes, and abnormal color. The differences in rate of deformities was dependent on treatment (X2=6.44, p< 0.02). The number of leopard frogs caught per unit effort (tadpoles and juveniles) differed among treatments (p=0.032) with Abate4E wetlands producing fewer individuals per capture effort than either Altosid or control wetlands.

  15. Helminths of the two mountain frogs, banded frog, Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886 and Uludağ frog Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Anura: Ranidae), collected from the Antalya province.

    PubMed

    Düşen, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two mountain frogs (Rana camerani and Rana macrocnemis) were collected in the Antalya Province in south-western Turkey during 2001 and 2002 and were examined for helminths. Out of 15 Rana camerani, 10 (66.7%) were infected with 1 or more helminths and out of 20 Rana macrocnemis, 17 (85%) were infected with 1 or more helminths. The helminth fauna of Rana camerani included 4 species of which were 3 trematode species (Haplometra cylindracea, Pleurogenoides medians, Opisthioglyphe rastellus), and 1 nematode species (Cosmocerca ornata). The helminth fauna of Rana macrocnemis included 3 species with 1 trematode species (H. cylindracea), 1 nematode species (C. ornata), and 1 acanthocephalan species (Acanthocephalus ranae). H. cylindracea and C. ornata were observed in both of the mountain frogs.

  16. Population status and population genetics of northern leopard frogs in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theimer, Tad C.; Drost, Charles A.; O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Mock, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing isolation of populations by habitat fragmentation threatens the persistence of many species, both from stochastic loss of small isolated populations, and from inbreeding effects in populations that have become genetically isolated. In the southwestern United States, amphibian habitat is naturally patchy in occurrence because of the prevailing aridity of the region. Streams, rivers, and other wetlands are important both as habitat and as corridors that connect populations. However, populations of some species have become more fragmented and isolated by habitat degradation and loss. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) have experienced serious declines in the Southwest. We conducted an extensive survey across the known range of northern leopard frogs in Arizona to determine the current distribution and abundance of the species. From a range that once spanned much of the northern and central part of the State, northern leopard frogs have been reduced to three or four widely separated populations, near Lyman Lake in east-central Arizona, in the Stoneman Lake area south of Flagstaff, along Truxton Wash near Peach Springs, and a population of uncertain extent on Navajo Nation lands. The Lyman Lake and Truxton Wash populations are small and extremely isolated. The Stoneman Lake population, however, is an extensive metapopulation spread across several stream drainages, including numerous ponds, wetlands, and artificial tanks. This is the only population in Arizona that is increasing in extent and numbers, but there is concern about the apparent introduction of nonnative genetic stock from eastern North America into this area. We analyzed genetic diversity within and genetic divergence among populations of northern leopard frogs, across both extant and recently extirpated populations in Arizona. We also analyzed mitochondrial DNA to place these populations into a larger phylogenetic framework and to determine whether any populations contained genetic material

  17. Density dependent growth in adult brown frogs Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria - A field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loman, Jon; Lardner, Björn

    2009-11-01

    In species with complex life cycles, density regulation can operate on any of the stages. In frogs there are almost no studies of density effects on the performance of adult frogs in the terrestrial habitat. We therefore studied the effect of summer density on the growth rate of adult frogs during four years. Four 30 by 30 m plots in a moist meadow were used. In early summer, when settled after post-breeding migration, frogs ( Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria that have a very similar ecology and potentially compete) were enclosed by erecting a fence around the plots. Frogs were captured, measured, marked and partly relocated to create two high density and two low density plots. In early autumn the frogs were again captured and their individual summer growth determined. Growth effects were evaluated in relation to two density measures: density by design (high/low manipulation), and actual (numerical) density. R. arvalis in plots with low density by design grew faster than those in high density plots. No such effect was found for R. temporaria. For none of the species was growth related to actual summer density, determined by the Lincoln index and including the density manipulation. The result suggests that R. arvalis initially settled according to an ideal free distribution and that density had a regulatory effect (mediated through growth). The fact that there were no density effects on R. temporaria (and a significant difference in its response to that of R. arvalis) suggests it is a superior competitor to R. arvalis during the terrestrial phase. There were no density effects on frog condition index, suggesting that the growth rate modifications may actually be an adaptive trait of R. arvalis. The study demonstrates that density regulation may be dependent on resources in frogs' summer habitat.

  18. The wood frog (Rana sylvatica): a technical conservation assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Rittmann, S.; Irwin, J.; Keinath, D.; Scherer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Overall, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) is ranked G5, secure through most of its range (NatureServe Explorer 2002). However, it is more vulnerable in some states within the USDA Forest Service Region 2: S3 (vulnerable) in Colorado, S2 (imperiled) in Wyoming, and S1 (critically imperiled in South Dakota (NatureServe Explorer 2002); there are no records for wood frogs in Kansas or Nebraska. Primary threats to wood frog populations are habitat fragmentation (loss of area, edge effects, and isolation) and habitat loss due to anthropogenic causes (e.g., wetland draining, grazing) and natural changes as habitat succession occurs. Wood frogs are most conspicuous at breeding sites early in the spring, when snow and ice are often still present at pond margins. They tolerate frezzing and hibernate terrestrially in shallow depressions, under leaf litter, grasses, logs, or rocks (Bagdonas 1968, Bellis 1961a); there are no reports of aquatic hibernation for this species (Licht 1991, Pinder et al. 1992). Wood frogs require semi-permanent and temporary pools of natural origin and adjacent wet meadows, and landscape alterations that shorten the hydroperiod of ponds can result in catastrophic tadpole mortality. Plant communities utilized by wood frogs in the Rocky Mountains are hydric to mesic and include sedge and grass meadows, willow hummocks, aspen groves, lodgepole pine forests, and woodlands with leaf litter and/or herbaceous understory (Maslin 1947, Bellis 1961a, Roberts and Lewin 1979, Haynes and Aird 1981). Wood frogs are likely to disperse into surrounding marsh and woodlands soon after oviposition (Heatwole 1961, Haynes and Aird 1981). In the arly fall, wood frogs begin to seek hibernacula at or just below the ground surface, generally in upland forest habitat (Regosin et al. 2003). Licht (1991) demonstrated shelter-seeking behavior at 1.5 [degrees] C. Once they have concealed themselves for hibernation, wood frogs are very difficult to detecta?|

  19. Efferent system in the retina of the frog, Rana catesbiana.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, K; Tsukahara, Y; Watanabe, M

    1978-12-01

    Single units were recorded through glass microelectrodes placed on the optic disk or on the retina of the opened eye of the frog (Rana catesbiana). Units were classified as A-, B-, and C-fibers according to conduction velocities. By the method of collision between naturally elicited and electrically elicited impulses, many of the B-fibers and some A- and C-fibers, which showed unusual behavior to photic stimulation, were found to be efferent fibers. Retinal effects of the efferent nerves were studied by repetitive stimulation and cooling of the optic nerve. The effects were found to be both inhibitory and excitatory. PMID:314669

  20. Pesticide distributions and population declines of California, USA, alpine frogs, Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae.

    PubMed

    Bradford, David F; Knapp, Roland A; Sparling, Donald W; Nash, Maliha S; Stanley, Kerri A; Tallent-Halsell, Nita G; McConnell, Laura L; Simonich, Staci M

    2011-03-01

    Atmospherically deposited pesticides from the intensively cultivated Central Valley of California, USA, have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the frogs Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae at high elevation in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Previous studies on these species have relied on correlations between frog population status and either a metric for amount of upwind pesticide use or limited measurements of pesticide concentrations in the field. The present study tested the hypothesis that pesticide concentrations are negatively correlated with frog population status (i.e., fraction of suitable water bodies occupied within 2 km of a site) by measuring pesticide concentrations in multiple media twice at 28 sites at high elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada. Media represented were air, sediment, and Pseudacris sierra tadpoles. Total cholinesterase (ChE), which has been used as an indicator for organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure, was also measured in P. sierra tadpoles. Results do not support the pesticide-site occupancy hypothesis. Among 46 pesticide compounds analyzed, nine were detected with ≥ 30% frequency, representing both historically and currently used pesticides. In stepwise regressions with a chemical metric and linear distance from the Central Valley as predictor variables, no negative association was found between frog population status and the concentration of any pesticide or tadpole ChE activity level. By contrast, frog population status showed a strong positive relationship with linear distance from the Valley, a pattern that is consistent with a general west-to-east spread across central California of the amphibian disease chytridiomycosis observed by other researchers.

  1. Antimicrobial peptide defenses of the Tarahumara frog, Rana tarahumarae.

    PubMed

    Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Miera, Verma; Conlon, J Michael

    2002-09-20

    Populations of the Tarahumara frog Rana tarahumarae have decreased markedly in recent years in the northern part of their range. Infection by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in these declines. To determine whether antimicrobial peptides in the skin provide protection against this pathogen, norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of B. dendrobatidis in vitro. After concentration, crude mixtures of skin peptides inhibited the growth of the chytrid in a concentration-dependent manner. Proteomic analysis led to the identification and characterization of three peptides belonging to the brevinin-1 family of antimicrobial peptides and three belonging to the ranatuerin-2 family. The two most abundant peptides, ranatuerin-2TRa (GIMDSIKGAAKEIAGHLLDNLKCKITGC) and brevinin-1TRa (FLPVIAGIAANVLPKLFCKLTKRC), were active against B. dendrobatidis (MIC of 50 microM for ranatuerin-2TRa and 12.5 microM for brevinin-1TRa against zoospores). These data clearly show that antimicrobial peptides in the skin secretions of the Tarahumara frog are active against B. dendrobatidis and should provide some protection against infection. Therefore, the observed susceptibility of these frogs to this pathogen in the wild may be due to the effects of additional environmental factors that impair this innate defense mechanism, leading to the observed population declines.

  2. ASYMMETRICAL EFFECTS OF INTRODUCED BULLFROGS (RANA CATESBEIANA) ON NATIVE RANID FROGS IN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have become widely established in the Pacific Northwest over the last century and are throught to be an important predator of native amphibians throughout the western United States. The Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora aurora...

  3. Humoral immune responses in Rana catesbiana frogs and tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Pross, S H; Rowlands, D T

    1976-07-01

    Rana catesbiana adult frogs and tadpoles were immunized with the bacteriophage F2, 0X-174, and T4 and the haptens 2,4 dinitrophenyl (DNP) and fluorescein (FTC). The haptens were conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine gamma globulin (BGG), or horsehoe crab hemocyanin (Hycn). Sera were obtained from immunized animals at invervals up to six months after immunization. The antibody activities were measured by bacteriophage neutralization techniques. Sucrose density gradients were used to separate the antibody classes. Both adults and tadpoles responded to each of the antigens tested. High molecular weight antibodies were predominant in both groups of animals. Low molecular weight antibody activity was not found in adults until nine weeks post immunization but, thereafter, this fraction increased throughout the immune response. Low molecular weight antibodies could also be identified in serum of tadpoles, but only under certain conditions. PMID:59790

  4. Induction of photolyase activity in wood frog (Rana sylvatica) embryos.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Kapron, C M; Berrill, M

    2000-10-01

    Rising ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-320 nm) radiation has been proposed as a factor which may explain nonnormal amphibian population declines. Accordingly research has been directed toward estimating the photolyase activity of several amphibian species in order to predict a species' resilience to UV damage. Unfortunately, in spite of published research which demonstrated that the activity of one of the principal photorepair enzymes, photolyase, can be induced, these estimates did not address the potential for in vivo induction by environmental factors present in situ. We show here that wood frog (Rana sylvatica) embryos exposed to periods of ambient solar radiation (1) displayed significantly different photolyase activities from embryos exposed to equivalent periods of dark; and (2) were positively correlated with the UVB fluence received in vivo. Such results suggest that previous conclusions regarding the relationship between photorepair and population decline must be reevaluated. Estimating amphibian photorepair is a complicated process, and caution must be exercised when interpreting such data. PMID:11045732

  5. Primary structures of skin antimicrobial peptides indicate a close, but not conspecific, phylogenetic relationship between the leopard frogs Lithobates onca and Lithobates yavapaiensis (Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationship between the relict leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) onca (Cope, 1875) and the lowland leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) yavapaiensis (Platz and Frost, 1984) is unclear. Chromatographic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from L. onca led to the identification of six peptides with antimicrobial activity. Determination of their primary structures indicated that four of the peptides were identical to brevinin-1Ya, brevinin-1Yb, brevinin-1Yc and ranatuerin-2Ya previously isolated from skin secretions of L. yavapaiensis. However, a peptide belonging to the temporin family (temporin-ONa: FLPTFGKILSGLF.NH(2)) and an atypical member of the ranatuerin-2 family containing a C-terminal cyclic heptapeptide domain (ranatuerin-2ONa: GLMDTVKNAAKNLAGQMLDKLKCKITGSC) were isolated from the L. onca secretions but were not present in the L. yavapaiensis secretions. Ranatuerin-2ONa inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (MIC=50muM) and Candida albicans (MIC=100muM ) and showed hemolytic activity (LC(50)=90muM) but was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus. The data indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between L. onca and L. yavapaiensis but suggest that they are not conspecific species.

  6. Primary structures of skin antimicrobial peptides indicate a close, but not conspecific, phylogenetic relationship between the leopard frogs Lithobates onca and Lithobates yavapaiensis (Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationship between the relict leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) onca (Cope, 1875) and the lowland leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) yavapaiensis (Platz and Frost, 1984) is unclear. Chromatographic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from L. onca led to the identification of six peptides with antimicrobial activity. Determination of their primary structures indicated that four of the peptides were identical to brevinin-1Ya, brevinin-1Yb, brevinin-1Yc and ranatuerin-2Ya previously isolated from skin secretions of L. yavapaiensis. However, a peptide belonging to the temporin family (temporin-ONa: FLPTFGKILSGLF.NH(2)) and an atypical member of the ranatuerin-2 family containing a C-terminal cyclic heptapeptide domain (ranatuerin-2ONa: GLMDTVKNAAKNLAGQMLDKLKCKITGSC) were isolated from the L. onca secretions but were not present in the L. yavapaiensis secretions. Ranatuerin-2ONa inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (MIC=50muM) and Candida albicans (MIC=100muM ) and showed hemolytic activity (LC(50)=90muM) but was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus. The data indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between L. onca and L. yavapaiensis but suggest that they are not conspecific species. PMID:20044030

  7. Atrazine increases the sodium absorption in frog (Rana esculenta) skin.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Giuseppe; Bellantuono, Vito; Ardizzone, Concetta; Lippe, Claudio

    2006-02-01

    The presence of atrazine in agricultural sites has been linked to the decline in amphibian populations. The efforts of the scientific community generally are directed toward investigating the long-term effect of atrazine on complex functions (reproduction or respiration), but in the present study, we investigated the short-term effect on the short-circuit current (I(sc)), a quantitative measure of the ion transport operated by frog (Rana esculenta) skin. Treatment with 5 microM atrazine (1.08 mg/L) does not affect the transepithelial outfluxes of [14C]mannitol or [14C]urea; therefore, atrazine does not damage the barrier properties of frog skin. Atrazine causes a dose-dependent increase in the short-circuit current, with a minimum of 4.64 +/- 0.76 microA/cm2 (11.05% +/- 1.22%) and a maximum of 12.7 +/- 0.7 microA/cm2 (35% +/- 2.4%) measured at 10 nM and 5 microM, respectively. An increase in Isc also is caused by 5 microM ametryne, prometryn, simazine, terbuthylazine, or terbutryn (other atrazine derivatives). In particular, atrazine increases the transepithelial 22Na+ influx without affecting the outflux. Finally, stimulation of Isc by atrazine is suppressed by SQ 22536, H89, U73122, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and W7 (blockers of adenylate cyclase, protein kinase A, phospholipase C, intracellular Ca2+ increase, and calmodulin, respectively), whereas indomethacin and calphostin C (inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and protein kinase C, respectively) have no effect.

  8. Predation by Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) on Western toads (Bufo boreas) in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Hayes, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toads of the genus Bufo co-occur with true frogs (family Ranidae) throughout their North American ranges. Yet, Bufo are rarely reported as prey for ranid frogs, perhaps due to dermal toxins that afford them protection from some predators. We report field observations from four different localities demonstrating that Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) readily consume juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) at breeding sites in Oregon. Unpalatability thought to deter predators of selected taxa and feeding mode may not protect juvenile stages of western toads from adult Oregon spotted frogs. Activity of juvenile western toads can elicit ambush behavior by Oregon spotted frog adults. Our review of published literature suggests that regular consumption of toadlets sets Oregon spotted frogs apart from most North American ranid frogs. Importance of the trophic context of juvenile western toads as a seasonally important resource to Oregon spotted frogs needs critical investigation.

  9. Individual voice recognition in a territorial frog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Bee, Mark A; Gerhardt, H Carl

    2002-07-22

    Some territorial animals display low levels of aggression towards a familiar territorial neighbour in its usual territory, but exhibit high levels of aggression towards neighbours in novel locations and unfamiliar individuals. Here, we report results from a field playback study that investigated whether territorial males of the North American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) could discriminate between the acoustic signals of simulated neighbours and strangers in the absence of contextual cues associated with a specific location. Following repeated exposures to synthetic bullfrog calls from a particular location, subjects responded significantly less aggressively to a familiar call, compared with an unfamiliar one, when both calls were broadcast from familiar and novel locations, indicating that bullfrogs could recognize a neighbour's calls independently of the contextual cues provided by the direction of the neighbour's territory. Subjects responded equally aggressively to unfamiliar calls broadcast from either a familiar or a novel location, which indicates that they could perceive unfamiliar calls as those of a stranger, regardless of where the stranger was encountered. Together, these two results provide evidence that a frog possesses a capacity for individual voice recognition.

  10. Leopard frog priorities in choosing between prey at different locations.

    PubMed

    Dudkin, Elizabeth A; Peiffer, Teri; Burkitt, Benjamin; Neeb, Christopher N; Gruberg, Edward R

    2011-01-01

    Frogs are able to respond to a prey stimulus throughout their 360° ground-level visual field as well as in the superior visual field. We compared the likelihood of frogs choosing between a more nasally located, ground-level prey versus a more temporally located ground-level prey, when the prey at the nasal location is further away from the frog. Two crickets were presented simultaneously at 9 pairs of angles that included both crickets in the binocular visual field, both crickets in the monocular visual field, or one cricket in the binocular field and one in the monocular field. Frogs chose the more nasally located prey at least 71% of the time when the more temporal prey was in the monocular field; and 64% of the time when both prey were in the binocular field. Frogs tended to choose the more nasally located prey, even though it takes the frog longer to reach the prey. In addition, when given a choice between a prey located at ground level versus a prey located in the superior field, frogs tend to choose the prey at ground-level. These results suggest that there is a neural mechanism that biases frogs' responses to prey stimuli.

  11. Efficient induction of spawning of Northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) during and outside the natural breeding season

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amphibian declines are now recognized globally. It is also well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity, especially when held over long periods, or if they require hibernation before breeding. A simple method to induce spawning and subsequent development of large numbers of healthy tadpoles is therefore required to meet research and conservation goals. Methods The method is based on simultaneous injection of both female and male leopard frogs, Lithobates pipiens (formerly called Rana pipiens) with a cocktail of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) and a dopamine antagonist. We call this the AMPHIPLEX method, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. Following injection, the animals are thereby induced, and perform amplexus and natural fertilization under captive conditions. Results We tested combinations of a GnRH agonist with 2 different dopamine antagonists in L. pipiens in the breeding season. The combination of des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-NHEt9-GnRH (0.4 micrograms/g body weight; GnRH-A) with metoclopramide hydrochloride (10 micrograms/g body weight; MET) or domperidone (DOM) were equally effective, producing 89% and 88% successful spawning, respectively. This yielded more than 44,000 eggs for the 16/18 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+MET group, and more than 39,000 eggs for the 15/17 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+DOM group. We further tested the GnRH-A+MET in frogs collected in the wild in late autumn and hibernated for a short period under laboratory conditions, and report a low spawning success (43%). However, GnRH-A priming 24 hours prior to injections of the GnRH-A+MET cocktail in animals hibernated for 5–6 weeks produced out-of-season spawning (89%) and fertilization (85%) comparable to those we observed for in-season spawning. Assessment of age and weight at metamorphosis indicated that L. pipiens tadpoles resulting from out-of-season spawning grew normally and

  12. A reference system for animal biometrics: application to the northern leopard frog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrovska-Delacretaz, D.; Edwards, A.; Chiasson, J.; Chollet, G.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Reference systems and public databases are available for human biometrics, but to our knowledge nothing is available for animal biometrics. This is surprising because animals are not required to give their agreement to be in a database. This paper proposes a reference system and database for the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Both are available for reproducible experiments. Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two brown frogs, Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    We first determined complete mitochondrial genomes of Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae). The mitogenomic lengths of R. dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis were 18,864 and 18,808 bp, respectively. The two mitogenomes have similar gene compositions including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Rana dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis mitogenomes displayed same gene order arrangements and similar base compositions with an A + T bias. Mitogenomic data of the two species contributed to provide molecular marker for their conservative genetics and clarified their phylogenetic position under mitogenome-based phylogeny of the genus Rana.

  14. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from minnesota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schotthoefer, A.M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, R.A.; Beasley, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  15. Asymmetrical Effects of Introduced Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) on Native Ranid Frogs in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, C.A.; Adams, M.J.; Bury, R.B.; McCreary, B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have become widely established in the Pacific Northwest over the last century and are thought to be an important predator of native amphibians throughout the western United States. The Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora aurora) and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) historically coexisted in portions of the Pacific Northwest now invaded by R. catesbeiana, but R. pretiosa has declined more severely than R. a. aurora. We investigated whether microhabitat and behavioral differences that facilitate sympatric coexistence of the natives predict which species is more susceptible to predation by introduced R. catesbeiana. Our laboratory experiments demonstrate that R. catesbeiana adults prefer aquatic microhabitats, that R. pretiosa juveniles are more aquatic than R. a. aurora, and that adult R. catesbeiana consume more R. pretiosa than R. a. aurora juveniles. Mean and maximum jump distances of R. pretiosa were shorter than equally sized R. a. aurora, and the difference between these two species increased with larger frog sizes. Our examination of field survey data indicates that R. pretiosa coexist with R. catesbeiana less frequently than R. a. aurora. We conclude that R. catesbeiana is a greater threat to survival of R. pretiosa than to R. a. aurora and suggest that microhabitat use and escape abilities of native ranid frogs may be linked to this asymmetrical effect. Analysis of behavioral and microhabitat differences among related native species may be a useful tool in predicting the effects of introduced predators on amphibians and can assist in developing conservation priorities for these species.

  16. Asymmetrical effects of introduced Rana catesbeiana on native ranid frogs in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Bury, R. Bruce; McCreary, B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have become widely established in the Pacific Northwest over the last century and are thought to be an important predator of native amphibians throughout the western United States. The Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora aurora) and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) historically coexisted in portions of the Pacific Northwest now invaded by R. catesbeiana, but R. pretiosa has declined more severely than R. a. aurora. We investigated whether microhabitat and behavioral differences that facilitate sympatric coexistence of the natives predict which species is more susceptible to predation by introduced R. catesbeiana. Our laboratory experiments demonstrate that R. catesbeiana adults prefer aquatic microhabitats, that R. pretiosa juveniles are more aquatic than R. a. aurora, and that adult R. catesbeiana consume more R. pretiosa than R. a. aurora juveniles. Mean and maximum jump distances of R. pretiosa were shorter than equally sized R. a. aurora, and the difference between these two species increased with larger frog sizes. Our examination of field survey data indicates that R. pretiosa coexist with R. catesbeiana less frequently than R. a. aurora. We conclude that R. catesbeiana is a greater threat to survival of R. pretiosa than to R. a. aurora and suggest that microhabitat use and escape abilities of native ranid frogs may be linked to this asymmetrical effect. Analysis of behavioral and microhabitat differences among related native species may be a useful tool in predicting the effects of introduced predators on amphibians and can assist in developing conservation priorities for these species.

  17. Population estimates for the Toiyabe population of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), 2004–10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Michael J.; Mellison, Chad; Galvan, Stephanie K.

    2013-01-01

    The Toiyabe population of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris, hereafter "Toiyabe frogs") is a geographically isolated population located in central Nevada (fig. 1). The Toiyabe population is part of the Great Basin Distinct Population Segment of Columbia spotted frogs, and is a candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The cluster of breeding sites in central Nevada represents the southernmost extremity of the Columbia spotted frogs' known range (Funk and others, 2008). Toiyabe frogs are known to occur in seven drainages in Nye County, Nevada: Reese River, Cow Canyon Creek, Ledbetter Canyon Creek, Cloverdale Creek, Stewart Creek, Illinois Creek, and Indian Valley Creek. Most of the Toiyabe frog population resides in the Reese River, Indian Valley Creek, and Cloverdale Creek drainages (fig. 1; Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2003). Approximately 90 percent of the Toiyabe frogs' habitat is on public land. Most of the public land habitat (95 percent) is managed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), while the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages the remainder. Additional Toiyabe frog habitat is under Yomba Shoshone Tribal management and in private ownership (Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2003). The BLM, USFS, Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW), Nevada Natural Heritage Program (NNHP), Nye County, and U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) have monitored the Toiyabe population since 2004 using mark and recapture surveys (Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2004). The USFWS contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to produce population estimates using these data.

  18. IMPLICATIONS OF THE DISCOVERY OF RANA YAVAPAIENSIS IN THE WESTERN GRAND CANYON TO THE CONSERVATION STRATEGY FOR RANA ONCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The minimum historical range of the relict leopard frog, Rana onca, comprises the drainages of the Virgin and Colorado rivers from the vicinity ofHurricane, Utah, to Black Canyon below Lake Mead, in Nevada and Arizona. Extant populations are known near only the Black Canyon and O...

  19. Dynamics of testis-ova in a wild population of Japanese pond frogs, Rana nigromaculata.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Sugishima, Tomomi; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies have reported the occurrence of testis-ova in wild frog populations, the origin and trigger of testis-ova differentiation/development remain unclear. A high frequency of testis-ova has been previously reported for wild populations of the Japanese pond frog, Rana nigromaculata (cf. Iwasawa and Asai, '59). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the dynamics of testis-ova in this frog species, including the origin and artificial induction of testis-ova. Testis-ova were observed in both mature frogs and puberty-stage frogs (i.e., 0- and 1-year-old frogs). However, the early stages of testis-ova (~pachytene stage) were mostly observed in puberty-stage male frogs at the onset of spermatogenesis. The early stages of testis-ova were observed in the cysts of early secondary spermatogonia and the single cysts of the primary spermatogonium. This finding indicates that testis-ova differentiation occurs during spermatogonial proliferation and that it is correlated with the initiation of spermatogenesis. We also examined whether estrogen exposure induced testis-ova differentiation and how it is correlated with the progression of spermatogenesis. When 1-year-old frogs were exposed to estradiol-17β during spring (i.e., when spermatogenesis was initiated), testis-ova differentiation was induced in a dose-dependent manner. However, this phenomenon did not occur in 1-year-old frogs during summer, (i.e., when the transition from spermatogonia to spermatocytes mainly occurs). These results present the first evidence that testis-ova of the Japanese pond frog are derived from primary and early secondary spermatogonia, and that estrogen exposure induces testis-ova differentiation accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis.

  20. Complex spatial dynamics maintain northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) genetic diversity in a temporally varying landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Chen, Yongjiu; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to most local amphibian populations, northeastern populations of the Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) have displayed uncharacteristically high levels of genetic diversity that have been attributed to large, stable populations. However, this widely distributed species also occurs in areas known for great climatic fluctuations that should be reflected in corresponding fluctuations in population sizes and reduced genetic diversity. To test our hypothesis that Northern Leopard Frog genetic diversity would be reduced in areas subjected to significant climate variability, we examined the genetic diversity of L. pipiens collected from 12 sites within the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota. Despite the region's fluctuating climate that includes periods of recurring drought and deluge, we found unexpectedly high levels of genetic diversity approaching that of northeastern populations. Further, genetic structure at a landscape scale was strikingly homogeneous; genetic differentiation estimates (Dest) averaged 0.10 (SD = 0.036) across the six microsatellite loci we studied, and two Bayesian assignment tests (STRUCTURE and BAPS) failed to reveal the development of significant population structure across the 68 km breadth of our study area. These results suggest that L. pipiens in the Prairie Pothole Region consists of a large, panmictic population capable of maintaining high genetic diversity in the face of marked climate variability.

  1. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  2. Range-wide phylogeographic analysis of the spotted frog complex (Rana luteiventris and Rana pretiosa) in northwestern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W.C.; Pearl, C.A.; Draheim, H.M.; Adams, M.J.; Mullins, T.D.; Haig, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic geological and climatic history of northwestern North America has made it a focal region for phylogeography. We conducted a range-wide phylogeographic analysis of the spotted frog complex (Rana luteiventris and Rana pretiosa) across its range in northwestern North America to understand its evolutionary history and the distribution of clades to inform conservation of R. pretiosa and Great Basin R. luteiventris, candidates for listing under the US Endangered Species Act. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from a segment of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 308 R. luteiventris and R. pretiosa from 96 sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed one main R. pretiosa clade and three main R. luteiventris clades, two of which overlapped in southeastern Oregon. The three R. luteiventris clades were separated from each other by high levels of sequence divergence (average of 4.75-4.97%). Two divergent clades were also uncovered within the Great Basin. Low genetic variation in R. pretiosa and the southeastern Oregon clade of R. luteiventris suggests concern about their vulnerability to extinction. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  3. California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) movement and habitat use: Implications for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, G.M.; Kleeman, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Nonbreeding habitats are critically important for Rana draytonii, especially for individuals that breed in temporary bodies of water. We radiotracked 123 frogs to evaluate seasonal habitat use. Individual frogs were continuously tracked for up to 16 months. Some individuals remained at breeding ponds all year, but 66% of female and 25% of male frogs moved to nonbreeding areas, even when the breeding site retained water. Frogs at our main study site moved 150 m (median), roughly the distance to the nearest suitable nonbreeding area. The greatest straight-line distance traveled was 1.4 km, although the presumed distance traveled was 2.8 km. Females were more likely than males to move from permanent ponds (38% of females, 16% of males), but among dispersing frogs, males and females did not differ in distance moved. Some frogs left breeding sites shortly after oviposition (median = 12 days for females, 42.5 days for males), but many individuals remained until the site was nearly dry. Fog provided moisture for dispersal or migration throughout the summer. Our data demonstrate that maintaining populations of pond-breeding amphibians requires that all essential habitat components be protected; these include (1) breeding habitat, (2) nonbreeding habitat, and (3) migration corridors. In addition, a buffer is needed around all three areas to ensure that outside activities do not degrade any of the three habitat components. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  4. Diet of introduced bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): Predation on and diet overlap with native frogs on Daishan Island, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhengjun; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Adams, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined diet of introduced Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and three native frog species (Rana limnocharis, Rana nigromaculata, and Bufo bufo gargarizans) co-occurring at a group of ponds on Daishan Island, east of China, to gain insight into the nature of potential interactions between Bullfrogs and native frog species. For postmetamorphic Bullfrogs, aquatic prey items dominated volumetrically. Prey size, diet volume and volumetric percentage of native frogs in diet increased with Bullfrog body size. The number and volumetric percentage of native frogs in the diet were not different for female and male Bullfrogs, and both were higher for adults than for juveniles. Diet overlap between males and juveniles was higher than that between males and females and between females and juveniles. Diet overlap with each native frog species of male Bullfrogs was lower than that of female Bullfrogs and juvenile Bullfrogs. We did not exam effects of Bullfrogs on native frogs but our results suggest that the primary threat posed by juvenile Bullfrogs to native frogs on Daishan Island is competition for food, whereas the primary threat posed by male Bullfrogs is direct predation. Female Bullfrogs may threaten native frogs by both competition and predation. These differences among Bullfrog groups may be attributed to differences in body size and microhabitat use.

  5. Surveys for presence of Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa): background information and field methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Clayton, David; Turner, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is the most aquatic of the native frogs in the Pacific Northwest. The common name derives from the pattern of black, ragged-edged spots set against a brown or red ground color on the dorsum of adult frogs. Oregon spotted frogs are generally associated with wetland complexes that have several aquatic habitat types and sizeable coverage of emergent vegetation. Like other ranid frogs native to the Northwest, Oregon spotted frogs breed in spring, larvae transform in summer of their breeding year, and adults tend to be relatively short lived (3-5 yrs). Each life stage (egg, tadpole, juvenile and adult) has characteristics that present challenges for detection. Breeding can be explosive and completed within 1-2 weeks. Egg masses are laid in aggregations, often in a few locations in large areas of potential habitat. Egg masses can develop, hatch, and disintegrate in <2 weeks during warm weather. Tadpoles can be difficult to identify, have low survival, and spend most of their 3-4 months hidden in vegetation or flocculant substrates. Juveniles and adults are often difficult to capture and can spend summers away from breeding areas. Moreover, a substantial portion of extant populations are of limited size (<100 breeding adults), and field densities of all life stages are often low. An understanding of the biology of the species and use of multiple visits are thus important for assessing presence of Oregon spotted frogs. This report is meant to be a resource for USDA Region 6 Forest Service (FS) and OR/WA Bureau of Land Management (BLM) personnel tasked with surveying for the presence of Oregon spotted frogs. Our objective was to summarize information to improve the efficiency of field surveys and increase chances of detection if frogs are present. We include overviews of historical and extant ranges of Oregon spotted frog. We briefly summarize what is known of Oregon spotted frog habitat associations and review aspects of behavior and

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae): comparison of R. chosenica and R. plancyi.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2011-06-01

    Here, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae), which is known as a Korean endemic species. It is listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN Red List and also an endangered species in South Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica consists of 18,357 bp. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with those of other Rana frogs. We compared the mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica with that of the Peking frog Rana plancyi that has been known closely related to R. chosenica. Nucleotide sequence similarity between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 95.7%, and the relatively low similarity seems to indicate that the two species are distinctly separated on the species level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two species was discussed in detail.

  7. Lead concentrations in bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and green frog R. clamitans tadpoles inhabiting highway drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdsall, C.W.; Grue, C.E.; Anderson, A.

    1986-01-01

    Lead concentrations were determined in sediment and tadpoles of bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans from drainages along highways with different daily average traffic volumes (range, 4272 to I08,800 vehicles day-I) and from ponds >0.4 km from the nearest highway. Lead concentrations (mg kg--I dry weight) in sediment (7-8 to 940) were usually greater (4-5 times) than those in the tadpoles (bullfrog, 0,07 to 270; green frog, 0,90 to 240 mg kg-I). Lead concentrations in sediment (r =0.63) and in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = 0.69; green frog, r = 0.57) were positively correlated with average daily traffic volume. Lead concentrations in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = (). 76: green frog, r = 0.75) were also positively correlated with lead concentrations in sediment. At sites where both bullfrog and green frog tadpoles were collected. lead concentrations in the two species were closely related (r = 0.84). Lead concentrations in tadpoles living near highways may contribute to the elevated lead levels reported in wildlife that are potential tadpole predators. Dietary lead concentrations similar to those in our tadpoles have been associated with physiological and reproductive effects in some species of birds and mammals. However, additional data are needed to determine the hazards to predators of lead concentrations in tadpoles.

  8. Characterization of gene expression endpoints during postembryonic development of the northern green frog (Rana clamitans melanota).

    PubMed

    Hammond, S Austin; Veldhoen, Nik; Kobylarz, Marek; Webber, Nicholas R; Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Boone, Michelle D; Helbing, Caren C

    2013-05-01

    Postembryonic development of a larval tadpole into a juvenile frog involves the coordinated action of thyroid hormone (TH) across a diversity of tissues. Changes in the frog transcriptome represent a highly sensitive endpoint in the detection of developmental progression, and for the identification of environmental chemical contaminants that possess endocrine disruptive properties. Unfortunately, in contrast with their vital role as sentinels of environmental change, few gene expression tools currently exist for the majority of native North American frog species. We have isolated seven expressed gene sequences from the Northern green frog (Rana clamitans melanota) that encode proteins associated with TH-mediated postembryonic development and global stress response, and established a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. We also obtained three additional species-specific gene sequences that functioned in the normalization of the expression data. Alterations in mRNA abundance profiles were identified in up to eight tissues during R. clamitans postembryonic development, and following exogenous administration of TH to premetamorphic tadpoles. Our results characterize tissue distribution and sensitivity to TH of select mRNA of a common North American frog species and support the potential use of this qPCR assay in identification of the presence of chemical agents in aquatic environments that modulate TH action. PMID:23647014

  9. Nutritional composition of frog (Rana esculanta) waste meal.

    PubMed

    Tokur, Bahar; Gürbüz, R Devrim; Ozyurt, Gülsün

    2008-03-01

    In the present study, the waste obtained from the frozen frog leg industry was used for the production of frog waste meal, and its proximate, amino acids, fatty acids, mineral and vitamin compositions were evaluated to determine the nutritional quality. In addition, the total bacterial count, Salmonella, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, mgN/100g) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA, mg malonaldehyde/kg) were also measured to determine the microbiological and chemical quality of frog waste meal (FWM). The crude protein, fat and ash content of FWM on a dry weight basis were 68.6%, 17.0% and 13.2%, respectively. The amino acid profiles were found to be fairly close to those of fish meal in terms of protein sources and rich in the glutamic acid, glycine, proline, arginine, and methionine. The proportions of fatty acid composition in FWM were analysed and findings were 26.7% for total saturated fatty acid (SFA), 42.5% for total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), 17.0% for total n - 6 and 3.3% for n - 3 ratio. The major SFA, MUFA and PUFA in FWM were palmitic acid (19.1%), oleic acid (26.0%) and linoleic acid (16.7%), respectively. FWM was found to be high in mineral content, especially Zn, K, Cu, Mn, and Mg and high level of some vitamins such as folic acids and thiamin. The total bacterial count was found to be 2.9x10(4) CFU/g, and Salmonella was not observed. TVB-N and TBA in FWM was determined to be 157.4+/-5.8 mg N/100g and 1.2+/-0.1 mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively.

  10. Catecholamine innervation of the forebrain in the bull frog, Rana catesbiana.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, M; Yamamoto, K; Satoh, K; Sakumoto, T; Shimizu, N

    1977-01-01

    The innervation of forebrain catecholamine (CA) were experimentally investigated with use of sensitive fluorescence method of glyoxylic acid formaldehyde in the brain of the bull frog, Rana catesbiana. The CA of the olfactory bulb is supplied by CA neurons situated in olfactory bulb. And CA neurons in the hypothalamus contribute the main source for the forebrain CA except olfactory bulb. The hypothalamic CA neurons also give rise to long descending axons to innervate the brain stem. Judging from their anatomical aspects it seems that the structure homologous to mammalian nigro-neostriatal dopamine or mesolimbic dopamine system is not present in amphibian brain. PMID:303652

  11. Use of femur bone density to segregate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii).

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu Hui; Huang, Xiao Ming; Xia, Rui; Xu, Yan Chun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2011-04-15

    Wildlife has been utilized by humans throughout history and demand continues to grow today. Farming of wildlife can supplement the supply of wild-harvested wildlife products and, in theory, can reduce pressure on free-ranging populations. However, poached wildlife products frequently enter legal markets where they are fraudulently sold as farmed wildlife products. To effectively close this illegal trade in wild-captured wildlife, there is a need to discriminate wild products from farmed products. Because of the strong market demand for wild-captured frog meat and the resulting strong downward pressure on wild populations, we undertook research to develop a method to discriminate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on femur bone density. We measured femur bone density (D(f)) as the ratio of bone mass to bone volume. D(f) of wild frogs revealed a slightly increasing linear trend with increasing age (R(2)=0.214 in males and R(2)=0.111 in females, p=0.000). Wild males and wild females of age classes from 2 to ≥ 5 years had similar D(f) values. In contrast, 2-year-old farmed frogs showed significantly higher D(f) values (p=0.000) among males (mean D(f)=0.623 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=32) than females (mean D(f)=0.558 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=27). For both sexes, D(f) of wild frogs was significantly higher than that of farmed frogs (p=0.000). Among males, 87.5% (28 of 32 individuals) of farmed frogs were correctly identified as farmed frogs and 86.3% (69 of 80 individuals) of wild frogs were correctly identified as wild frogs. These results suggest that femur bone density is one reliable tool for discriminating between wild and farmed Dybowski's frog. This study also highlights a novel strategy with explicit forensic potential to discriminate wild from captive bred wildlife species.

  12. Calcium channel inactivation in frog (Rana pipiens and Rana moctezuma) skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Cota, G; Nicola Siri, L; Stefani, E

    1984-01-01

    The decay of the Ca2+ current (ICa) during a maintained depolarization was studied in intact twitch skeletal muscle fibres of Rana pipiens and Rana moctezuma with the three-micro-electrode voltage-clamp technique. ICa was recorded at 23 degrees C, after blocking K+ currents, in TEA methanesulphonate saline with 10 mM-Ca2+ made hypertonic by adding 350 mM-sucrose. In two-pulse experiments, ICa during the test pulse was reduced to about 80% (R. pipiens) or 50% (R. moctezuma) of the control value, without any detectable inward ICa during 7 s conditioning pre-pulses. The experimental points of the steady-state inactivation curve (h infinity) were fitted to h infinity = (1 + exp [Em - Vh)/kh]-1, where Em is the membrane potential and with Vh = -33 +/- 3 mV and kh = 6 +/- 1 mV for R. pipiens, and Vh = -44 +/- 3 mV and kh = 9.5 +/- 1.0 mV for R. moctezuma. The rate constant of decay for inactivated currents (range -8 to -47 mA cm-3) and for control currents (range -23 to -62 mA cm-3), was independent of ICa amplitude. The average rate constant of decay at 0 mV was 1.18 +/- 0.02 s-1 (66). These results indicate that in intact fibres under hypertonic solution ICa decay can be explained by a voltage-dependent inactivation process and not by depletion of tubular Ca2+. The absence of depletion could be due to a large fractional tubular volume or to the presence of a Ca2+ pump in the tubular system. PMID:6090655

  13. Characteristics of Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) oviposition sites in northeastern Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, C.A.; Adams, M.J.; Wente, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Several western ranid frogs possess a unique strategy of breeding communally over a short temporal window and reusing oviposition sites between years. However, little is published on the characteristics of oviposition sites selected by these explosive breeders. The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) is native to northwestern North America and is of conservation concern in the southern portions of its range. As part of a study examining relationships between livestock grazing and R. luteiventris habitat, we assessed characteristics of the species' oviposition sites in 25 fishless ponds in northeastern Oregon. Oviposition sites were generally in shallow water (<25 cm) close to shore and tended to be in the northeastern portion of ponds. Oviposition sites were found more frequently over heavily vegetated substrates and in areas of less substrate slope and shade than random points in littoral zones. We did not quantify temperature differences within ponds, but the patterns we documented are consistent with preferential use of warmer microhabitats for oviposition.

  14. Post-Wildfire Sedimentation in Saguaro National Park, Rincon Mountain District, and Effects on Lowland Leopard Frog Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Rincon Mountain District of Saguaro National Park occupies about 272 square kilometers of mountains, canyons, and alluvial fans in southeastern Arizona just east of Tucson. The park contains some of the last remaining habitat in the Tucson Basin of the lowland leopard frog that lives in the bedrock pools called tinajas in canyons at elevations between 850 and 1,800 meters. Those tinajas that contain water year-round are critical winter habitat for tadpoles, and the breeding success of the leopard frogs depends on these features. In recent years, many tinajas that previously had provided habitat for the leopard frogs have been buried beneath large volumes of coarse sandy gravel that resulted from severe, stand-replacing wildfires in the watersheds above them. The U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a study in 2004-06 to determine critical sediment-source areas, and the mechanisms of sediment delivery from hillslopes to stream channels to areas of leopard frog habitat and to estimate the increase in rates of sedimentation resulting from wildfires. Spatial data of watershed characteristics, as well as historical data, including photographs, monitoring surveys, precipitation and stream discharge records, were used in conjunction with field observations conducted between spring 2004 and fall 2005. The Helens II fire in 2003, the fifth largest wildfire to burn in the Rincon Mountains since 1989, offered an opportunity to observe mechanisms of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition in the immediate post-fire environment. Reduction of the forest canopy, understory vegetation, and organic litter on the ground surface in severe burn areas caused increased surface runoff in the Joaquin Canyon watershed that led to intensified erosion of hillslopes. An initial flush of fine material, mostly ash, was transported to lower channel reaches with the first significant precipitation event following the fire. Subsequently, the main

  15. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Lysozyme in Renal Proximal Tubules of the Frog Rana Temporaria

    PubMed Central

    Seliverstova, E.V.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endo-somes), and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intra-cellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals. PMID:26150156

  16. Isolation of ice-nucleating active bacteria from the freeze-tolerant frog, Rana sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R; Lee, R E; Strong-Gunderson, J M; Minges, S R

    1995-08-01

    Ice-nucleating active (INA) bacteria were isolated from the gut of field-collected freeze-tolerant wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) collected in winter. Thirteen strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, four strains of Pseudomonas putida, and two strains of Enterobacter agglomerans had ice-nucleating activity. Each of the INA pseudomonad strains was psychrophilic. P. putida strains were differentiated from P. fluorescens strains by gelatinase, lecithinase, and lipase production. The maximum nucleation temperatures (Tmax) of aqueous suspensions (10(9) bacteria/ml) of the four INA P. putida strains ranged from -1.6 to -3.0 degrees C, which places this INA species among the most potent known biological nucleators. Ingestion of INA P. putida isolated from R. sylvatica by another freeze-tolerant frog. Pseudacris crucifer, decreased the capacity of this frog to supercool and remain unfrozen at -2 degrees C. This is the first report of INA bacteria isolated from a vertebrate, and suggests that, as part of the gut flora in some posthibernation freeze-tolerant wood frogs, these bacteria may play a role in enhancing winter survival by promoting ice nucleation at high subzero temperatures (ca. -2 degrees C). PMID:7656570

  17. Effects of host species and life stage on the helminth communities of sympatric northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in the Sheyenne National Grasslands, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Newman, Robert A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2013-08-01

    We studied helminth communities in sympatric populations of leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and assessed the effects of host species and life stage on helminth community composition and helminth species richness. We examined 328 amphibians including 218 northern leopard frogs and 110 wood frogs collected between April and August of 2009 and 2010 in the Sheyenne National Grasslands of southeastern North Dakota. Echinostomatid metacercariae were the most common helminths found, with the highest prevalence in metamorphic wood frogs. Host species significantly influenced helminth community composition, and host life stage significantly influenced the component community composition of leopard frogs. In these sympatric populations, leopard frogs were common hosts for adult trematodes whereas wood frogs exhibited a higher prevalence of nematodes with direct life cycles. Metamorphic frogs were commonly infected with echinostomatid metacercariae and other larval trematodes whereas juvenile and adult frogs were most-frequently infected with directly transmitted nematodes and trophically transmitted trematodes. Accordingly, helminth species richness increased with the developmental life stage of the host.

  18. Reactivity of metallothioneins of frog Rana ridibunda treated by copper and zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Falfushynska, H I; Romanchuk, L D; Stoliar, O B

    2010-01-01

    The metal-buffering and stress proteins metallothioneins (MTs) of frog are characterised by unusually high content of copper as for vertebrate animals and instability that was shown in our previous studies. They easily lost copper and especially zinc under unfavourable conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the reactivity of SH groups in the MTs from the liver of frog Rana ridibunda after the effect of Cu2+ (0.01 mg/l) and Zn2+ (0.1 mg/l) ions on the organism during 14 days. The alpha- and beta-domains of MTs with molecular weights of about 4 kDa were separated by the size-exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Unlike higher vertebrates, frogs demonstrated higher reactivity of alpha-domain than beta-domain with the Ellman's reagent (DTNB). The signs of partial oxidations in beta-domain included the creation of by-products with molecular weight about 12 kDa, low reactivity of SH-groups, and typical of -S-S-bonds peculiarities of UV-spectra. The effect of both metal ions on frog provoked the elevation of SH-groups reactivity in a-domain with the appearance of by-product with molecular weight of 16 kDa and its reduction in beta-domain. The incubation of MTs of control animals with 0.5 and 5.0 mM of H2O2 did not affect its chromatographic characteristics. In the frogs loaded by Cu2+ and Zn2+ the effect of 5.0 mM H2O2 on MTs provoked the release of 4 kDa product. So the alpha-domain is responsible for the increased release of metals from injured MTs in frogs, whereas extremely high oxidizability of beta-domain makes its participation in the exchange of metals elusive and provokes the aggregation of MTs. PMID:21323122

  19. Annual morphological cycles of testis and thumb pad of the male frog (Rana ridibunda).

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Engin; Murathanoğlu, Osman

    2008-09-01

    In this study, Rana ridibunda was used as samples because of their wide use in Turkey. Male frogs were collected in the East Marmara region each month throughout 1 year. Frogs from every monthly collection were used to analyze structural components of the thumb pads and testes. Spermatogenetic activity of Rana ridibunda living in the East Marmara region was determined to be "potentially continuous" type. Generally, the increase in the number and the size of nuclei of Leydig cells was inversely proportional to the fluctuation of spermatogenetic activity. The lumen of the seminiferous tubules in testes contained, in addition to the spermatogenic cells, a Periodic-acid Schiff-positive granular material. The amount of this material varied throughout the year, and that finding suggested a function related to spermiation. The components of thumb pads exhibited structural changes with respect to the activities of Leydig cells. During the periods where the Leydig cells were active, mucus glands (also called breeding glands) of thumb pads were also developed. On the other hand, we observed mixed glands with unknown function, which as first reported by us, and were poison glands in the thumb pads. The results suggest structural changes in the thumb pads are linked to changes in the testes. PMID:18509874

  20. Ovarian opioids and the reproductive cycle of the frog Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, F; Genazzani, A R; Pestarino, M; Vallarino, M; Pierantoni, R; Fasano, S; D'Antonio, M; Carnevali, O; Mosconi, G; Polzonetti-Magni, A

    1992-01-01

    In mammals, proopiomelanocortin-related peptides are involved in reproductive processes both at the hypothalamo-pituitary and ovarian levels. Using immunocytochemical, biochemical and physiological "in vitro" studies, we provide here evidence for a diffuse POMC-related opioid system in the frog Rana esculenta. Ovarian beta-endorphin (beta-EP) is expressed in thecal cells and changes during the reproductive cycle in an inverse relationship with follicular development. Seasonal changes in the ovary are different to those in the brain or in the pituitary. The ratio of acetylated vs native beta-EP in the ovary also changes over the reproductive period, affecting the biological activity of the peptide. During both the reproductive spring period and the summer post-reproductive phase pMol amounts of beta-EP stimulate follicular androgen secretion in vitro, in a naloxone-reversible way. In either period, an inhibition of estradiol, possibly mediated via other factors, is the result of opioid action. In conclusion, these data demonstrate for the first time the widespread presence of beta-EP-related peptides in the frog Rana esculenta. Both immunocytochemical and biochemical evidence, as well as in vitro responses, support a physiological role for beta-EP in ovarian seasonality during the reproductive cycle of this amphibian.

  1. Modeling habitat connectivity to inform reintroductions: a case study with the Chiricahua Leopard Frog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarchow, Christopher J; Hossack, Blake R.; Sigafus, Brent H.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Managing species with intensive tools such as reintroduction may focus on single sites or entire landscapes. For vagile species, long-term persistence will require colonization and establishment in neighboring habitats. Therefore, both suitable colonization sites and suitable dispersal corridors between sites are required. Assessment of landscapes for both requirements can contribute to ranking and selection of reintroduction areas, thereby improving management success. Following eradication of invasive American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) from most of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR; Arizona, United States), larval Chiricahua Leopard Frogs (Lithobates chiricahuensis) from a private pond were reintroduced into three stock ponds. Populations became established at all three reintroduction sites followed by colonization of neighboring ponds in subsequent years. Our aim was to better understand colonization patterns by the federally threatened L. chiricahuensis which could help inform other reintroduction efforts. We assessed the influence of four landscape features on colonization. Using surveys from 2007 and information about the landscape, we developed a habitat connectivity model, based on electrical circuit theory, that identified potential dispersal corridors after explicitly accounting for imperfect detection of frogs. Landscape features provided little insight into why some sites were colonized and others were not, results that are likely because of the uniformity of the BANWR landscape. While corridor modeling may be effective in more-complex landscapes, our results suggest focusing on local habitat will be more useful at BANWR. We also illustrate that existing data, even when limited in spatial or temporal resolution, can provide information useful in formulating management actions.

  2. Experimental exposure of adult San Marcos salamanders and larval leopard frogs to the cercariae of Centrocestus formosanus.

    PubMed

    Huston, D C; Cantu, V; Huffman, D G

    2014-04-01

    The gill parasite Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) is an exotic parasite of concern in Texas because it has been shown to infect multiple threatened and endangered fish species. The purpose of this study was to determine if C. formosanus could present a threat to larval anurans, as well as threatened neotenic salamanders endemic to the spring-fed systems of Texas. We exposed adults of the San Marcos salamander Eurycea nana (Caudata: Plethodontidae) and tadpoles of the Rio Grande leopard frog Lithobates berlandieri (Anura: Ranidae) to the cercariae of C. formosanus . The San Marcos salamander showed no signs of metacercarial infection, suggesting that E. nana may be refractory to C. formosanus cercariae. Centrocestus formosanus readily infects the gills of leopard frog tadpoles, but the metacercariae apparently died prior to reaching maturity in our tadpoles.

  3. Cryptic Diversity in Metropolis: Confirmation of a New Leopard Frog Species (Anura: Ranidae) from New York City and Surrounding Atlantic Coast Regions

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Jeremy A.; Newman, Catherine E.; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J.; Schlesinger, Matthew D.; Zarate, Brian; Curry, Brian R.; Shaffer, H. Bradley; Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data) and south to North Carolina (based on call data). PMID:25354068

  4. Cryptic diversity in metropolis: confirmation of a new leopard frog species (Anura: Ranidae) from New York City and surrounding Atlantic coast regions.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Jeremy A; Newman, Catherine E; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Schlesinger, Matthew D; Zarate, Brian; Curry, Brian R; Shaffer, H Bradley; Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data) and south to North Carolina (based on call data).

  5. Widespread occurrence of the chytrid fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on oregon spotted frogs (rana pretiosa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, C.A.; Bowerman, J.; Adams, M.J.; Chelgren, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with amphibian declines in multiple continents, including western North America. We investigated Bd prevalence in Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa), a species that has declined across its range in the Pacific Northwest. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of skin swabs indicated that Bd was prevalent within populations (420 of 617 juvenile and adults) and widespread among populations (36 of 36 sites) where we sampled R. pretiosa in Oregon and Washington. We rarely detected Bd in R. pretiosa larvae (2 of 72). Prevalence of Bd in postmetamorphic R. pretiosa was inversely related to frog size. We found support for an interactive effect of elevation and sampling date on Bd: prevalence of Bd generally increased with date, but this effect was more pronounced at lower elevations. We also found evidence that the body condition of juvenile R. pretiosa with Bd decreased after their first winter. Our data indicate that some Oregon spotted frog populations are currently persisting with relatively high Bd prevalence, but the risk posed by Bd is unknown. ?? 2010 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  6. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in the European edible frog (Rana esculenta): spectral details and temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, P; Wit, H P; Segenhout, J M

    1989-11-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were recorded in 41 ears of 29 European edible frogs (Rana esculenta). Emission frequencies ranged from 450 to 1350 Hz. The distribution of frequencies shows two distinct populations: one above and one below 1 kHz. With one exception, a maximum number of two emissions were recorded per ear, each in a different population. An amplitude distribution of a frog emission was sampled, from which it was concluded that the emission is generated by an active oscillator. The spectral width of an emission ranged from 1 to 200 Hz (average 38 Hz). There was negative correlation between sound pressure level of an emission and spectral width. In 4 frogs the dependence of emission power and frequency on temperature was investigated. An emission could be 'switched on and off' within a few degrees centigrade. At temperatures below the switching interval no emission was recorded; for higher temperatures emission power showed no dependence on temperature. Frequency increased with temperature (Q10 = 1.1 to 1.3). This yields a mismatch with temperature dependence of best frequencies of auditory fibers. The consequences of this mismatch are discussed. PMID:2691473

  7. Pathophysiology in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) during a chytridiomycosis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Voyles, Jamie; Vredenburg, Vance T; Tunstall, Tate S; Parker, John M; Briggs, Cheryl J; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2012-01-01

    The disease chytridiomycosis is responsible for declines and extirpations of amphibians worldwide. Chytridiomycosis is caused by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) that infects amphibian skin. Although we have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology from laboratory experiments, many mechanistic details remain unresolved and it is unknown if disease development is similar in wild amphibian populations. To gain a better understanding of chytridiomycosis pathophysiology in wild amphibian populations, we collected blood biochemistry measurements during an outbreak in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. We found that pathogen load is associated with disruptions in fluid and electrolyte balance, yet is not associated with fluctuations acid-base balance. These findings enhance our knowledge of the pathophysiology of this disease and indicate that disease development is consistent across multiple species and in both laboratory and natural conditions. We recommend integrating an understanding of chytridiomycosis pathophysiology with mitigation practices to improve amphibian conservation.

  8. Morphological variations among output neurons of the olfactory bulb in the frog (Rana ridibunda).

    PubMed

    Jiang, T; Holley, A

    1992-06-01

    Morphological properties of putative output cells have been studied in detail in the olfactory bulb of frogs (Rana ridibunda). Intracellular injection of Lucifer Yellow was used to reconstruct individual neurons. Ten different anatomical features related to cell shape and position were studied quantitatively. The results show that output cells, generally considered to be a homogeneous group in the olfactory bulb of amphibians, are, in fact, quite different in their morphology. Using multidimensional analysis to examine differences among the output neurons, we found that they might be divided into at least two groups. In one group, the cell somata were located near the glomerular layer and the dendrites lay at large angles with respect to each other. In the other group, the cell somata were farther from the glomerular layer and their dendrites lay at smaller angles. From their morphology, these two cell groups appear to be homologous, respectively, to the superficial/middle tufted cells and deep tufted/mitral cells of mammals.

  9. Description of a new brown frog from Tsushima Island, Japan (Anura: Ranidae: Rana).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-09-01

    Because all available evidence from allozymes, mtDNA sequences, and artificial hybridization suggests presence of high genetic differentiation between populations of East Asian brown frogs currently assigned to Rana dybowskii Günther, 1876, I compared morphological characters between specimens from Tsushima Island of Japan and Maritime territory of Russia. The population from Tsushima is slightly, but significantly different from R. dybowskii from Russia, including the holotype. I therefore consider the Tsushima population to be specifically distinct, and describe it as a new species R. uenoi. The new species also occurs in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent islands, but the distributional relationships with R. dybowskii are unclear, as detailed distribution in northern Korea is lacking.

  10. Pathophysiology in Mountain Yellow-Legged Frogs (Rana muscosa) during a Chytridiomycosis Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Voyles, Jamie; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Tunstall, Tate S.; Parker, John M.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2012-01-01

    The disease chytridiomycosis is responsible for declines and extirpations of amphibians worldwide. Chytridiomycosis is caused by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) that infects amphibian skin. Although we have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology from laboratory experiments, many mechanistic details remain unresolved and it is unknown if disease development is similar in wild amphibian populations. To gain a better understanding of chytridiomycosis pathophysiology in wild amphibian populations, we collected blood biochemistry measurements during an outbreak in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. We found that pathogen load is associated with disruptions in fluid and electrolyte balance, yet is not associated with fluctuations acid-base balance. These findings enhance our knowledge of the pathophysiology of this disease and indicate that disease development is consistent across multiple species and in both laboratory and natural conditions. We recommend integrating an understanding of chytridiomycosis pathophysiology with mitigation practices to improve amphibian conservation. PMID:22558145

  11. Oral chytridiomycosis in the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, G.M.; Green, D.E.; Longcore, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was originally reported in wild frog populations in Panama and Australia, and from captive frogs in the U.S. National Zoological Park (Washington, DC). This recently described fungus affects the keratinized epidermis of amphibians and has been implicated as a causative factor in the declines of frog populations. We report here the presence of B. dendrobatidis in larval and recently metamorphosed mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in or near the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, an area where declines have been documented in all five species of native anurans. Forty-one percent (158 of 387) of larval R. muscosa examined in the field with a hand lens and 18% (14 of 79) of preserved larvae had abnormalities of the oral disc. Twenty-eight larvae were collected from 10 sites where tadpoles had been observed with missing or abnormally keratinized mouthparts, and 24 of these were examined for infection. Sixty-seven percent (16 of 24) of these tadpoles were infected with B. dendrobatidis. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was cultured from both tadpoles and recent metamorphs from one of these sites. Tadpoles with mouthpart abnormalities or confirmed chytrid fungus infections were collected at 23 sites spanning a distance of > 440 km and an elevational range from 1658a??3550 m. Life-history traits of R. muscosa may make this species particularly susceptible to infection by Batrachochytrium. We recommend that biologists examine tadpoles for oral disc abnormalities as a preliminary indication of chytridiomycosis. Further, we believe that biologists should take precautions to prevent spreading this and other amphibian diseases from one site to another.

  12. Oral chytridiomycosis in the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, G.M.; Green, E.D.; Longcore, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was originally reported in wild frog populations in Panama and Australia, and from captive frogs in the U.S. National Zoological Park (Washington, DC). This recently described fungus affects the keratinized epidermis of amphibians and has been implicated as a causative factor in the declines of frog populations. We report here the presence of B. dendrobatidis in larval and recently metamorphosed mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in or near the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, an area where declines have been documented in all five species of native anurans. Forty-one percent (158 of 387) of larval R. muscosa examined in the field with a hand lens and 18% (14 of 79) of preserved larvae had abnormalities of the oral disc. Twenty-eight larvae were collected from 10 sites where tadpoles had been observed with missing or abnormally keratinized mouthparts, and 24 of these were examined for infection. Sixty-seven percent (16 of 24) of these tadpoles were infected with B. dendrobatidis. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was cultured from both tadpoles and recent metamorphs from one of these sites. Tadpoles with mouthpart abnormalities or confirmed chytrid fungus infections were collected at 23 sites spanning a distance of > 440 km and an elevational range from 1658-3550 m. Life-history traits of R. muscosa may make this species particularly susceptible to infection by Batrachochytrium. We recommend that biologists examine tadpoles for oral disc abnormalities as a preliminary indication of chytridiomycosis. Further, we believe that biologists should take precautions to prevent spreading this and other amphibian diseases from one site to another.

  13. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of western North American frogs of the Rana boylii species group.

    PubMed

    Macey, J R; Strasburg, J L; Brisson, J A; Vredenburg, V T; Jennings, M; Larson, A

    2001-04-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among frogs of the genus Rana from western North America are investigated using 2013 aligned bases of mitochondrial DNA sequence from the genes encoding ND1 (subunit one of NADH dehydrogenase), tRNA(Ile), tRNA(Gln), tRNA(Met), ND2, tRNA(Trp), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr), and COI (subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase), plus the origin for light-strand replication (O(L)) between the tRNA(Asn) and tRNA(Cys) genes. The aligned sequences contain 401 phylogenetically informative characters. A well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis in which the Rana boylii species group (R. aurora, R. boylii, R. cascadae, R. muscosa, and R. pretiosa) is monophyletic is obtained. Molecular sequence divergence suggests that the R. boylii species group is approximately 8 million years old. The traditional hypothesis showing monophyly of the yellow-legged frogs (R. boylii and R. muscosa) is statistically rejected in favor of a hypothesis in which R. aurora, R. cascadae, and R. muscosa form a clade. Reanalyses of published nuclear ribosomal DNA restriction-site data and allozymic data support a monophyletic R. boylii group, but do not effectively resolve relationships among species within this group. Eight populations of R. muscosa form two major clades separated by a biogeographic break in the Sierra Nevada of California. This biogeographic break is broadly concordant with breaks found in four other amphibian and reptilian taxa. The two major clades within R. muscosa are estimated to have diverged approximately 2.2 million years before present. Each of these major clades contains two subgroups showing approximately 1.5 million years divergence, implicating climatic effects of Pleistocene glaciation in vicariance. The four distinct subgroups of R. muscosa separated by at least 1.4 million years of evolutionary divergence are suggested as potential units for conservation.

  15. Spatiotemporal Diversification of the True Frogs (Genus Rana): A Historical Framework for a Widely Studied Group of Model Organisms.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xin; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Chen, Hong-Man; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Chou, Wen-Hao; Matzke, Nicholas J; Iizuka, Koji; Min, Mi-Sook; Kuzmin, Sergius L; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Cannatella, David C; Hillis, David M; Che, Jing

    2016-09-01

    True frogs of the genus Rana are widely used as model organisms in studies of development, genetics, physiology, ecology, behavior, and evolution. Comparative studies among the more than 100 species of Rana rely on an understanding of the evolutionary history and patterns of diversification of the group. We estimate a well-resolved, time-calibrated phylogeny from sequences of six nuclear and three mitochondrial loci sampled from most species of Rana, and use that phylogeny to clarify the group's diversification and global biogeography. Our analyses consistently support an "Out of Asia" pattern with two independent dispersals of Rana from East Asia to North America via Beringian land bridges. The more species-rich lineage of New World Rana appears to have experienced a rapid radiation following its colonization of the New World, especially with its expansion into montane and tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, and South America. In contrast, Old World Rana exhibit different trajectories of diversification; diversification in the Old World began very slowly and later underwent a distinct increase in speciation rate around 29-18 Ma. Net diversification is associated with environmental changes and especially intensive tectonic movements along the Asian margin from the Oligocene to early Miocene. Our phylogeny further suggests that previous classifications were misled by morphological homoplasy and plesiomorphic color patterns, as well as a reliance primarily on mitochondrial genes. We provide a phylogenetic taxonomy based on analyses of multiple nuclear and mitochondrial gene loci. [Amphibians; biogeography; diversification rate; Holarctic; transcontinental dispersal. PMID:27288482

  16. Spatiotemporal Diversification of the True Frogs (Genus Rana): A Historical Framework for a Widely Studied Group of Model Organisms.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xin; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Chen, Hong-Man; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Chou, Wen-Hao; Matzke, Nicholas J; Iizuka, Koji; Min, Mi-Sook; Kuzmin, Sergius L; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Cannatella, David C; Hillis, David M; Che, Jing

    2016-09-01

    True frogs of the genus Rana are widely used as model organisms in studies of development, genetics, physiology, ecology, behavior, and evolution. Comparative studies among the more than 100 species of Rana rely on an understanding of the evolutionary history and patterns of diversification of the group. We estimate a well-resolved, time-calibrated phylogeny from sequences of six nuclear and three mitochondrial loci sampled from most species of Rana, and use that phylogeny to clarify the group's diversification and global biogeography. Our analyses consistently support an "Out of Asia" pattern with two independent dispersals of Rana from East Asia to North America via Beringian land bridges. The more species-rich lineage of New World Rana appears to have experienced a rapid radiation following its colonization of the New World, especially with its expansion into montane and tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, and South America. In contrast, Old World Rana exhibit different trajectories of diversification; diversification in the Old World began very slowly and later underwent a distinct increase in speciation rate around 29-18 Ma. Net diversification is associated with environmental changes and especially intensive tectonic movements along the Asian margin from the Oligocene to early Miocene. Our phylogeny further suggests that previous classifications were misled by morphological homoplasy and plesiomorphic color patterns, as well as a reliance primarily on mitochondrial genes. We provide a phylogenetic taxonomy based on analyses of multiple nuclear and mitochondrial gene loci. [Amphibians; biogeography; diversification rate; Holarctic; transcontinental dispersal.

  17. Unlikely Remedy: Fungicide Clears Infection from Pathogenic Fungus in Larval Southern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates sphenocephalus)

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Shane M.; Kerby, Jacob L.; Parris, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations. Two of these, pesticides and pathogens, are linked to declines in both amphibian health and population viability. Many studies have examined the separate effects of such perturbations; however, few have examined the effects of simultaneous exposure of both to amphibians. In this study, we exposed larval southern leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus) to the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM) at 0.6 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The experiment was continued until all larvae completed metamorphosis or died. Overall, TM facilitated increases in tadpole mass and length. Additionally, individuals exposed to both TM and Bd were heavier and larger, compared to all other treatments. TM also cleared Bd in infected larvae. We conclude that TM affects larval anurans to facilitate growth and development while clearing Bd infection. Our findings highlight the need for more research into multiple perturbations, specifically pesticides and disease, to further promote amphibian heath. PMID:22912890

  18. Size-sex variation in survival rates and abundance of pig frogs, Rana grylio, in northern Florida wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, K.V.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Hines, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1991-1993, we conducted capture-recapture studies on pig frogs, Rana grylio, in seven study locations in northcentral Florida. Resulting data were used to test hypotheses about variation in survival probability over different size-sex classes of pig frogs. We developed multistate capture-recapture models for the resulting data and used them to estimate survival rates and frog abundance. Tests provided strong evidence of survival differences among size-sex classes, with adult females showing the highest survival probabilities. Adult males and juvenile frogs had lower survival rates that were similar to each other. Adult females were more abundant than adult males in most locations at most sampling occasions. We recommended probabilistic capture-recapture models in general, and multistate models in particular, for robust estimation of demographic parameters in amphibian populations.

  19. Short-term occupancy and abundance dynamics of the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) across its core range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) occupies only a fraction of its original range and is listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We surveyed 93 sites in a rotating frame design (2010–13) in the Klamath and Deschutes Basins, Oregon, which encompass most of the species’ core extant range. Oregon spotted frogs are declining in abundance and probability of site occupancy. We did not find an association between the probability that Oregon spotted frogs disappear from a site (local extinction) and any of the variables hypothesized to affect Oregon spotted frog occupancy. This 4-year study provides baseline data, but the 4-year period was too short to draw firm conclusions. Further study is essential to understand how habitat changes and management practices relate to the status and trends of this species.

  20. Growth and development of larval green frogs (Rana clamitans) exposed to multiple doses of an insecticide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Bridges, C.M.; Rothermel, B.B.

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to determine how green frogs (Rana clamitans) are affected by multiple exposures to a sublethal level of the carbamate insecticide, carbaryl, in outdoor ponds. Tadpoles were added to 1,000-1 ponds at a low or high density which were exposed to carbaryl 0, 1, 2, or 3 times. Length of the larval period, mass, developmental stage, tadpole survival, and proportion metamorphosed were used to determine treatment effects. The frequency of dosing affected the proportion of green frogs that reached metamorphosis and the developmental stage of tadpoles. Generally, exposure to carbaryl increased rates of metamorphosis and development. The effect of the frequency of carbaryl exposure on development varied with the density treatment; the majority of metamorphs and the most developed tadpoles came from high-density ponds exposed to carbaryl 3 times. This interaction suggests that exposure to carbaryl later in the larval period stimulated metamorphosis, directly or indirectly, under high-density conditions. Our study indicates that exposure to a contaminant can lead to early initiation of metamorphosis and that natural biotic factors can mediate the effects of a contaminant in the environment.

  1. Effects of carbaryl on green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles: Timing of exposure versus multiple exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Bridges, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of studies on pesticide impacts have evaluated the effects of single exposures. However, multiple exposures to a pesticide may be more prevalent. The objective of our study was to determine how multiple exposures versus single exposure at different times during development affected survival to metamorphosis, tadpole survival, tadpole mass, and tadpole developmental stage of green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles reared at low and high density in outdoor cattle tank ponds. Tadpoles were exposed to carbaryl zero, one, two, or three times at 14-d intervals. We applied single doses of carbaryl at one of three times, specifically during early, mid, or late development. Overall, we found that multiple exposures had a greater impact than single exposures during development. More individuals reached metamorphosis in ponds exposed to multiple doses of carbaryl compared with controls, indicating that the presence of carbaryl stimulated metamorphosis. The presence of carbaryl in the aquatic environment also resulted in more developed tadpoles compared with controls. Tadpoles in control ponds did not reach metamorphosis and were less developed than individuals exposed to carbaryl; this effect indicates that, under ideal conditions, green frogs could overwinter in ponds so that greater size could be attained before metamorphosis in the following spring or summer. Our study demonstrated the importance of including realistic application procedures when evaluating the effects of a pesticide and that multiple exposures to a short-lived pesticide are more likely to affect an amphibian population.

  2. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hangjun; Cai, Chenchen; Shi, Cailei; Cao, Hui; Han, Ziliu; Jia, Xiuying

    2012-10-15

    This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd(2+) solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P<0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5-7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P<0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a scientific basis accounting for the global population decline in amphibian species. PMID:22728207

  3. Antimicrobial peptide defenses of the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa).

    PubMed

    Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Woodhams, Douglas C; Reinert, Laura K; Vredenburg, Vance T; Briggs, Cheryl J; Nielsen, Per F; Conlon, J Michael

    2006-01-01

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) inhabits high elevation lakes in California that are largely undisturbed by human activities. In spite of this habitation in remote sites, populations continue to decline. Although predation by non-native fish is one cause for declines, some isolated populations in fishless lakes are suffering new declines. One possible cause of the current wave of declines is the introduction of the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) which invades the adult skin to cause chytridiomycosis. In many amphibian species, the skin is protected by antimicrobial peptides secreted into the mucous. Here we show that R. muscosa produces three previously unknown antimicrobial peptides belonging to the ranatuerin-2 and temporin-1 families of antimicrobial peptides. These three peptides, along with bradykinin, are the most abundant peptides in the skin secretions detected by mass spectrometry. Natural mixtures of peptides and individual purified peptides strongly inhibit chytrid growth. The concentration of total peptides recovered from the skin of frogs following a mild norepinephrine induction is sufficient to inhibit chytrid growth in vitro. A comparison of the species susceptibility to chytridiomycosis and the antichytrid activity of peptides between R. muscosa and R. pipiens suggest that although R. muscosa produces more total skin peptides, it appears to be more vulnerable to B. dendrobatidis in nature. Possible differences in the antimicrobial peptide repertoires and life history traits of the two species that may account for differences in susceptibility are discussed.

  4. Effects of atrazine on metamorphosis, growth, and gonadal development in the green frog (Rana clamitans).

    PubMed

    Coady, Katherine; Murphy, Margaret; Villeneuve, Daniel; Hecker, Markus; Jones, Paul; Carr, James; Solomon, Keith; Smith, Ernest; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Kendall, Ronald; Giesy, John

    2004-06-25

    Embryos of the green frog (Rana clamitans) were collected from the field and exposed to 1 of 6 water-borne treatments for 273 d (mid July 2001 to mid April 2002). The treatments were 0, 10, or 25 microg/L atrazine, 0.005% ethanol (EtOH), or 0.1 mg/L estradiol or dihydrotestosterone carried in 0.005% EtOH. Treatments were applied in a static renewal system with a 50% test solution replacement approximately every 3 d. Following the exposure period, tadpoles were reared in freshwater until metamorphosis or until study termination (at d 506). Time to initiate and complete metamorphosis, stage-specific mortality, length and weight at metamorphosis, and gross morphology and histology of the gonads were examined. At environmentally relevant concentrations, atrazine did not consistently affect growth or metamorphosis. Compared to controls, the length of the larval period was greater in tadpoles exposed to 10 microg/L atrazine. However, the length of the larval period was not markedly different between tadpoles in the control and 25 microg/L atrazine treatments. Neither gross gonadal morphology nor histopathology of the gonads in postmetamorphic frogs was significantly altered in response to atrazine exposure. This study provides evidence that environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine do not adversely affect the growth or reproductive development of R. clamitans.

  5. Low detection of ranavirus DNA in wild postmetamorphic green frogs, Rana (Lithobates) clamitans, despite previous or concurrent tadpole mortality.

    PubMed

    Forzán, María J; Wood, John

    2013-10-01

    Ranavirus (Iridoviridae) infection is a significant cause of mortality in amphibians. Detection of infected individuals, particularly carriers, is necessary to prevent and control outbreaks. Recently, the use of toe clips to detect ranavirus infection through PCR was proposed as an alternative to the more frequently used lethal liver sampling in green frogs (Rana [Lithobates] clamitans). We attempted reevaluate the use of toe clips, evaluate the potential use of blood onto filter paper and hepatic fine needle aspirates (FNAs) as further alternatives, and explore the adequacy of using green frogs as a target-sampling species when searching for ranavirus infection in the wild. Samples were obtained from 190 postmetamorphic (≥1-yr-old) green frogs from five ponds on Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Three of the ponds had contemporary or recent tadpole mortalities due to Frog Virus 3 (FV3) ranavirus. PCR testing for ranavirus DNA was performed on 190 toe clips, 188 blood samples, 72 hepatic FNAs, and 72 liver tissue samples. Only two frogs were ranavirus-positive: liver and toe clip were positive in one, liver only was positive in the other; all blood and FNAs, including those from the two positive frogs, were negative. Results did not yield a definitive answer on the efficacy of testing each type of sample, but resemble what is found in salamanders infected with Ambystoma tigrinum (rana)virus. Findings indicate a low prevalence of FV3 in postmetamorphic green frogs on PEI (≤2.78%) and suggest that green frogs are poor reservoirs (carriers) for the virus.

  6. [The underwater EOG of the frog Rana temporaria to stimulation of the olfactory receptors with solutions of fragrances and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Kruzhalov, N B

    1991-01-01

    Studies have been made on the effectiveness of 16 amino acids and 9 odorants in olfactory perception of the frog Rana temporaria. It was shown that the effectiveness of amino acids is close to that of odorants. Basic amino acids and cysteine were more effective than other amino acids. Sensitivity of the olfactory receptors to amino acids in frogs is lower than in fishes.

  7. Highly complex mitochondrial DNA genealogy in an endemic Japanese subterranean breeding brown frog Rana tagoi (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi; Sugahara, Takahiro; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2012-10-01

    The endemic Japanese frog Rana tagoi is unique among Holarctic brown frogs in that it breeds in small subterranean streams. Using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes, we investigated genealogical relationships among geographic samples of this species together with its relative R. sakuraii, which is also a unique stream breeder. These two species together form a monophyletic group, within which both are reciprocally paraphyletic. Rana tagoi is divided into two major clades (Clade A and B) that are composed of 14 genetic groups. Rana sakuraii is included in Clade A and split into two genetic groups, one of which forms a clade (Subclade A-2) with sympatric R. tagoi. This species-level paraphyly appears to be caused by incomplete taxonomy, in addition to introgressive hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Rana tagoi strongly differs from other Japanese anurans in its geographic pattern of genetic differentiation, most probably in relation to its unique reproductive habits. Taxonomically, R. tagoi surely includes many cryptic species.

  8. Experimental Repatriation of Mountain Yellow-legged Frogs (Rana muscosa) in the Sierra Nevada of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, Gary M.; Bradford, David F.; Pratt, David; Wood, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1970s, Rana muscosa (mountain yellow-legged frog) was common in the Tableland area of Sequoia National Park, California where it was possible to find hundreds of tadpoles and adults around many of the ponds and lakes. Surveys in 1993-1995 demonstrated that R. muscosa was absent from more than half of all suitable habitat within the park, including the Tableland area. At that same time, R. muscosa was still common at Sixty Lake Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, 30 km to the northeast. To evaluate the potential causes for the extirpation, we repatriated R. muscosa eggs, tadpoles, subadults, and adult frogs from Sixty Lake Basin to four sites in the Tableland area in 1994 and 1995. We subsequently surveyed each release site and the surrounding area 2 - 3 times per week in 1994-1995, and intermittently in 1996-1997, to monitor the survival of all life history stages, and to detect dispersal of adults and subadults. We also monitored predation, water quality, weather, and water temperature. Our techniques for capturing, holding, transporting, and releasing R. muscosa were refined during the study, and during 1995 resulted in high initial survival rates of all life history stages. Adult frogs were anaesthetized, weighed, measured, tagged, and held in plastic boxes with wet paper towels. Tadpoles were collected and held in fiberglass screen cages set in the water at the edge of a pond. This resulted in relatively natural conditions with less crowding and good water circulation. Frogs, tadpoles, and eggs were placed in Ziploc bags for transport to the Tableland by helicopter. Short-term survival of tadpoles, subadults, and adults was high at all four release sites, tadpoles reached metamorphosis, and adult frogs were still present. However, we detected no evidence of reproduction at three sites (e.g., no new eggs or small tadpoles) and nearly all life history stages disappeared within 12 months. At the fourth site, there was limited reproduction, but it was

  9. Mountain Yellow-legged Frogs (Rana muscosa) did not Produce Detectable Antibodies in Immunization Experiments with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Poorten, Thomas J; Stice-Kishiyama, Mary J; Briggs, Cheryl J; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2016-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is a devastating infectious disease of amphibians caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). A growing number of studies have examined the role of amphibian adaptive immunity in response to this pathogen, with varying degrees of immune activation reported. Here we present immunologic data for the mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa, and the Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog, Rana sierrae, which are two endangered and ecologically important species experiencing Bd-inflicted declines. Previous studies on these species that examined transcriptional response during Bd infection, and the effective of immunization, provided little evidence of immune activation to Bd. However, the studies did not directly assay immune effectors in the frog hosts. We performed experiments to examine antibody production, which is a hallmark of systemic adaptive immune activation. We used controlled laboratory experiments and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to examine the antibody response to Bd immunization and live Bd exposure. Rana muscosa and R. sierrae individuals did not produce detectable antibodies with the capacity to bind to denatured Bd antigens under our experimental conditions. While we cannot rule out antibody response to Bd in these species, our results suggest weak, poor, or inefficient production of antibodies to denatured Bd antigens. Our findings are consistent with susceptibility to chytridiomycosis in these species and suggest additional work is needed to characterize the potential for adaptive immunity.

  10. DDTs in rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from an agricultural site, South China: tissue distribution, biomagnification, and potential toxic effects assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-04-01

    Contamination with agricultural pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), is among several proposed stressors contributing to the global declines in amphibian populations and species biodiversity. These chemicals were examined in insects and in the muscle, liver, and eggs of rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from the paddy fields of an agricultural site in South China. The ΣDDT (sum of DDT, DDE, and DDD) concentrations ranged from 154 to 915, 195 to 1,400, and 165 to 1,930 ng/g lipid weight in the muscle, liver, and eggs, respectively. All the DDTs (DDT, DDE, and DDD) showed higher affinity for the liver relative to muscle tissue and can be maternally transferred to eggs in female frogs. The average biomagnification factors for DDTs ranged from 1.6 to 1.9 and 1.5 to 2.9 in female and male frogs, respectively, providing clear evidence of their biomagnification from insects to frogs. Compared with the reported DDT levels demonstrated to have toxic effects on frogs, DDTs in the present frogs are unlikely to constitute an immediate health risk. However, the adverse impacts of high DDT residues in eggs on the hatching success and their potential toxicity to the newly metamorphosed larval frogs should be assessed further.

  11. Interactive effects of competition and predator cues on immune responses of leopard frogs at metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Groner, Maya L; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Hempel, John; Bier, Mark E; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-02-01

    Recent hypotheses suggest that immunosuppression, resulting from altered environmental conditions, may contribute to the increased incidence of amphibian disease around the world. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in amphibian skin are an important innate immune defense against fungal, viral and bacterial pathogens. Their release is tightly coupled with release of the stress hormone noradrenaline (norepinephrine). During metamorphosis, AMPs may constitute the primary immune response in the skin of some species because acquired immune functions are temporarily suppressed in order to prevent autoimmunity against new adult antigens. Suppression of AMPs during this transitional stage may impact disease rates. We exposed leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens) to a factorial combination of competitor and caged-predator environments and measured their development, growth and production of hydrophobic skin peptides after metamorphosis. In the absence of predator cues, or if the exposure to predator cues was late in ontogeny, competition caused more than a 250% increase in mass-standardized hydrophobic skin peptides. Predator cues caused a decrease in mass-standardized hydrophobic skin peptides when the exposure was late in ontogeny under low competition, but otherwise had no effect. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the skin peptides showed that they include six AMPs in the brevinin and temporin families and at least three of these peptides are previously uncharacterized. Both of these peptide families have previously been shown to inhibit harmful microbes including Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the fungal pathogen associated with global amphibian declines. Our study shows that amphibians may be able to adjust their skin peptide defenses in response to stressors that are experienced early in ontogeny and that these effects extend through an important life-history transition. PMID:24115058

  12. Interactive effects of competition and predator cues on immune responses of leopard frogs at metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Groner, Maya L; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Hempel, John; Bier, Mark E; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-02-01

    Recent hypotheses suggest that immunosuppression, resulting from altered environmental conditions, may contribute to the increased incidence of amphibian disease around the world. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in amphibian skin are an important innate immune defense against fungal, viral and bacterial pathogens. Their release is tightly coupled with release of the stress hormone noradrenaline (norepinephrine). During metamorphosis, AMPs may constitute the primary immune response in the skin of some species because acquired immune functions are temporarily suppressed in order to prevent autoimmunity against new adult antigens. Suppression of AMPs during this transitional stage may impact disease rates. We exposed leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens) to a factorial combination of competitor and caged-predator environments and measured their development, growth and production of hydrophobic skin peptides after metamorphosis. In the absence of predator cues, or if the exposure to predator cues was late in ontogeny, competition caused more than a 250% increase in mass-standardized hydrophobic skin peptides. Predator cues caused a decrease in mass-standardized hydrophobic skin peptides when the exposure was late in ontogeny under low competition, but otherwise had no effect. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the skin peptides showed that they include six AMPs in the brevinin and temporin families and at least three of these peptides are previously uncharacterized. Both of these peptide families have previously been shown to inhibit harmful microbes including Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the fungal pathogen associated with global amphibian declines. Our study shows that amphibians may be able to adjust their skin peptide defenses in response to stressors that are experienced early in ontogeny and that these effects extend through an important life-history transition.

  13. Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) movement and demography at Dilman Meadow: implications for future monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, Nathan D.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bowerman, Jay; Adams, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is a highly aquatic frog that has been extirpated from a large portion of its historic range in the Pacific Northwest, and remaining populations are reduced and isolated (Hayes 1997, Pearl and Hayes 2005). Loss and alteration of marsh habitat, predation and competition from exotic fish and bullfrogs, and degraded water quality from agriculture and livestock grazing are implicated in their decline (Hayes 1997, Pearl and Hayes 2005). In 2001, an interagency team translocated a population of frogs from a site that was to be eliminated by the renovation of the dam impounding Wickiup Reservoir, to newly created ponds at Dilman Meadow (121i?? 39' 52" W, 43i?? 41' 58" N), 2.5 km from the original site in central Oregon, USA. We monitored Oregon spotted frog demography and movements at Dilman Meadow for > 4 yr to assess the efficacy of these mitigation efforts, determine metrics for long-term monitoring, and inform future management at the site. More broadly, many aspects of Oregon spotted frog life history are poorly known, so understanding demography and movement patterns is likely to be useful in its conservation. Although wildlife translocations have been attempted extensively as conservation means, few such projects have been sufficiently monitored for demographic rates to understand the causes for the translocation's success or failure (Dodd and Seigel 1991). Our objective here is to document demographic and movement patterns in the population of Oregon spotted frog at Dilman Meadow so that this information will be available to guide management decisions. To better evaluate amphibian population responses to management actions it is important to consider the contribution of each life history stage and both genders to the balance of reproduction and mortality. Population growth or contraction occurs as a complicated function of the probability of breeding, fecundity, and survival during multiple life history stages

  14. The precarious persistence of the endangered Sierra Madre yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa in southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Backlin, Adam R.; Hitchcock, Cynthia J.; Gallegos, Elizabeth A.; Yee, Julie L.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted surveys for the Endangered Sierra Madre yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa throughout southern California to evaluate the current distribution and status of the species. Surveys were conducted during 2000–2009 at 150 unique streams and lakes within the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and Palomar mountains of southern California. Only nine small, geographically isolated populations were detected across the four mountain ranges, and all tested positive for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Our data show that when R. muscosa is known to be present it is easily detectable (89%) in a single visit during the frog's active season. We estimate that only 166 adult frogs remained in the wild in 2009. Our research indicates that R. muscosa populations in southern California are threatened by natural and stochastic events and may become extirpated in the near future unless there is some intervention to save them.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of oocyte-specific Pat1a in Rana rugosa frogs.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoriko; Iwasaki, Takehiro; Umei, Yosuke; Saotome, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Yukiko; Kitahara, Shoichi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Matsuda, Yoichi; Oike, Akira; Kodama, Maho; Nakamura, Masahisa

    2015-10-01

    The Pat1 gene is expressed in the immature oocytes of Xenopus, and is reportedly involved in regulating the translation of maternal mRNAs required for oocyte-maturation. However, it is still unknown when Pat1a first appears in the differentiating ovary of amphibians. To address this issue, we isolated the full-length Pat1a cDNA from the frog Rana rugosa and examined its expression in the differentiating ovary of this frog. Among eight different tissues examined, the Pat1a mRNA was detectable in only the ovary. When frozen sections from the ovaries of tadpoles at various stages of development were immunostained for Vasa-a germ cell-specific protein-and Pat1a, Vasa-immunopositive signals were observed in all of the germ cells, whereas Pat1a signals were confined to the growing oocytes (50-200 μm in diameter), and absent from small germ cells (<50 μm in diameter). Forty days after testosterone injection into tadpoles to induce female-to-male sex-reversal, Pat1a-immunoreactive oocytes had disappeared completely from the sex-reversed gonad, but Vasa-positive small germ cells persisted. Thus, Pat1a would be a good marker for identifying the sexual status of the sex-reversing gonad in amphibians. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed Pat1a to have an autosomal locus, suggesting that Pat1a transcription is probably regulated by a tissue-specific transcription factor in R. rugosa.

  16. Conditions controlling the onset of breeding migration of the Japanese mountain stream frog, Rana sakuraii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Tokio

    2007-07-01

    I studied the conditions controlling the timing of breeding migration of the Japanese mountain stream frog Rana sakuraii, an explosive breeder, over 9 years (1992, 1993 and 1999-2005). I analysed two factors: the daily cumulative temperature (DCT) during hibernation and the triggering temperature on the day of migration onset. Frogs hibernated in shallow running water in streams in December. A total of 53,155 breeding migrating adults were captured by traps. Every year, breeding migration was induced by a rise in daily maximum water temperature to about 5°C. However, its date was limited to 1 February at the earliest, and the onset needed a DCT (from 20 January, using 3°C as the threshold for daily effective temperature) of at least about 15°C. Earlier (e.g. in mid- or late January), even if the maximum temperature rose to 5-8°C, migration did not begin. Moreover, even in early February, if the maximum temperature rose to 5°C, if it had been too cold in January and the DCT was low, migration would not begin until mid- or late February. Thus, the earliest date of readiness for migration varied from 1 February to mid-February, depending on the winter DCT. Logistic regression analyses showed that both factors, the DCT and the daily temperature, were significant. I propose that in temperate-zone amphibian explosive breeders, both the passing of an essential number of days and an essential DCT during hibernation are prerequisites for the onset of breeding migration before the daily temperature rises to the threshold.

  17. Chilled frogs are hot: hibernation and reproduction of the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santana, Frank E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Clark, Rulon W.

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the sixth great extinction crisis, it is imperative to establish effective breeding protocols for amphibian conservation breeding programs. Captive efforts should not proceed by trial and error, nor should they jump prematurely to assisted reproduction techniques, which can be invasive, difficult, costly, and, at times, counterproductive. Instead, conservation practitioners should first look to nature for guidance, and replicate key conditions found in nature in the captive environment, according to the ecological and behavioral requirements of the species. We tested the effect of a natural hibernation regime on reproductive behaviors and body condition in the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa. Hibernation had a clear positive effect on reproductive behavior, manifesting in vocal advertisement signaling, female receptivity, amplexus, and oviposition. These behaviors are critical components of courtship that lead to successful reproduction. Our main finding was that captive R. muscosa require a hibernation period for successful reproduction, as only hibernated females produced eggs and only hibernated males successfully fertilized eggs. Although hibernation also resulted in a reduced body condition, the reduction appeared to be minimal with no associated mortality. The importance of hibernation for reproduction is not surprising, since it is a major component of the conditions that R. muscosa experiences in the wild. Other amphibian conservation breeding programs can also benefit from a scientific approach that tests the effect of natural ecological conditions on reproduction. This will ensure that captive colonies maximize their role in providing genetic reservoirs for assurance and reintroduction efforts.

  18. Effect of temperature on host response to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa).

    PubMed

    Andre, Sara E; Parker, John; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2008-07-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in declines of amphibian populations throughout the world, including declines and extinctions of local populations of mountain yellow-legged frogs, Rana muscosa, in the California Sierra Nevada. Previous studies have shown B. dendrobatidis achieves its maximum growth rate in culture in the temperature range of 17-25 C, and exposure to very high temperatures can clear frogs of B. dendrobatidis infection. Here we present the results of a laboratory experiment in which experimentally infected R. muscosa tadpoles were followed through metamorphosis at temperatures of 17 and 22 C. All infected animals developed clinical disease within a similar time frame. However, frogs housed at 22 C exhibited a significantly lower mortality than those housed at 17 C. Within 35 days after metamorphosis, 50% of the frogs housed at 22 C died, while 95% of the frogs housed at 17 C died. Clinical signs subsided in the surviving frogs at 22 C, despite persistent infection. Because both temperatures are within the optimal thermal range for growth of B. dendrobatidis, we propose that the difference in outcome indicates the effect of temperature on the host's resistance to chytridiomycosis, rather than an effect on the fungus alone.

  19. Pesticides in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) from the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA.

    PubMed

    Fellers, Gary M; McConnell, Laura L; Pratt, David; Datta, Seema

    2004-09-01

    In 1997, pesticide concentrations were measured in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) from two areas in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. One area (Sixty Lakes Basin, Kings Canyon National Park) had large, apparently healthy populations of frogs. A second area (Tablelands, Sequoia National Park) once had large populations, but the species had been extirpated from this area by the early 1980s. The Tablelands is exposed directly to prevailing winds from agricultural regions to the west. When an experimental reintroduction of R. muscosa in 1994 to 1995 was deemed unsuccessful in 1997, the last 20 (reintroduced) frogs that could be found were collected from the Tablelands, and pesticide concentrations in both frog tissue and the water were measured at both the Tablelands and at reference sites at Sixty Lakes. In frog tissues, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentration was one to two orders of magnitude higher than the other organochlorines (46+/-20 ng/g wet wt at Tablelands and 17+/-8 Sixty Lakes). Both gamma-chlordane and trans-nonachlor were found in significantly greater concentrations in Tablelands frog tissues compared with Sixty Lakes. Organophosphate insecticides, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were observed primarily in surface water with higher concentrations at the Tablelands sites. No contaminants were significantly higher in our Sixty Lakes samples.

  20. Pesticides in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) from the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, G.M.; McConnell, L.L.; Pratt, D.; Datta, S.

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, pesticide concentrations were measured in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) from two areas in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. One area (Sixty Lakes Basin, Kings Canyon National Park) had large, apparently healthy populations of frogs. A second area (Tablelands, Sequoia National Park) once had large populations, but the species had been extirpated from this area by the early 1980s. The Tablelands is exposed directly to prevailing winds from agricultural regions to the west. When an experimental reintroduction of R. muscosa in 1994 to 1995 was deemed unsuccessful in 1997, the last 20 (reintroduced) frogs that could be found were collected from the Tablelands, and pesticide concentrations in both frog tissue and the water were measured at both the Tablelands and at reference sites at Sixty Lakes. In frog tissues, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentration was one to two orders of magnitude higher than the other organochlorines (46 ?? 20 ng/g wet wt at Tablelands and 17 ?? 8 Sixty Lakes). Both ??-chlordane and trans-nonachlor were found in significantly greater concentrations in Tablelands frog tissues compared with Sixty Lakes. Organophosphate insecticides, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were observed primarily in surface water with higher concentrations at the Tablelands sites. No contaminants were significantly higher in our Sixty Lakes samples.

  1. [Morpho-functional changes in small intestine epithelium of frog Rana temporaria during hibernation].

    PubMed

    Seliverstova, E V; Prutskova, N P

    2012-01-01

    Structure and function of small intestinal epithelium were studied in overwintering frogs Rana temporaria at various stages of hibernation. In the process of testing of absorption of arginine vasotocin (AVT) in experiments in vitro it is established that at the period of hibernation there is preserved the capability of the epithelium for absorption of this nonapeptide without hydrolysis. However, as compared with October-December, in January-February and later, a decrease of the AVT absorption takes place, which is the most pronounced in March-April. Changes in epithelial structures appear by the middle of winter and are progressing by spring. In April-May, as compared with the beginning of hibernation, the height of enterocytes, the length of microvilli, and the number of microvilli decrease by 33 %, 40 %, and 57 %, respectively. The absence of features of destruction indicates an adaptive character of the observed changes. Dynamics of the studied parameters indicates morphological plasticity of the small intestine epithelium of R. temporaria at the period of hibernation.

  2. Is body size of the water frog Rana esculenta complex responding to climate change?

    PubMed

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim; Rybacki, Mariusz; Berger, Leszek

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies on climate responses in ectothermic (cold-blooded) vertebrates have been few in number and focussed on phenology rather than morphology. According to Bergmann's rule, endothermic (warm-blooded) vertebrates from cooler climates tend to be larger than congeners from warmer regions. Although amphibians are ectothermic vertebrates, weather and climatic conditions may also impact on their morphology, and thereby affect their survival rates and population dynamics. In this paper, we show, in a unique long-term study during the period 1963-2003 in an agricultural landscape in western Poland, that the body length of two water frog parental species (males of both Rana ridibunda and R. lessonae) increased significantly. However, their hybridogenetic hybrid R. esculenta did not show similar changes. A significant relationship with a large-scale climatic factor, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index, was found positive for R. ridibunda males and R. lessonae females, and negative for R. esculenta females. Our findings, the first for amphibians, are consistent with other studies reporting that recent climate change has affected the morphology of animals. However, we also show that changes in amphibian phenotype linked to climate may vary independently between (even very similar) species.

  3. Comparison of nitrate tolerance between different populations of the common frog, Rana temporaria.

    PubMed

    Johansson, M; Räsänen, K; Merilä, J

    2001-09-01

    Euthrophication-associated changes in the physical and biological environment of lakes and ponds are potentially a source of major stress for many aquatic organisms. In Scandinavia, the nitrate concentrations in lakes and ponds decrease towards north due to a naturally lower productivity of the habitats, but also due to lower supplementation of anthropogenic nitrogen. A chronic experiment using ecologically relevant concentrations of sodium nitrate (0-5000 micro gl(-1)) was used to test whether common frog (Rana temporaria L.) larvae from northern parts of Scandinavia are less well adapted to cope with high nitrate concentrations than those from the southern parts. Slight, but significant differences in nitrate tolerance, as measured in terms of growth rate and size at metamorphosis, between the two regions were found. High concentrations of nitrate reduced the growth rates and metamorphic size in north, but not in south. However, there was no clear-cut impact of high nitrate concentrations on developmental rate or on mortality until metamorphosis. The general lack of large effects of nitrate treatment on the response variables suggests that nitrates per se do not pose any significant threat to the development of R. temporaria tadpoles under a natural range of concentrations. This was confirmed in an acute test where results suggest that ammonia and nitrite, compounds seldom found in high concentrations in Fennoscandian lakes, are possibly responsible for the larger negative effects of "nitrate" observed in previous studies of amphibians.

  4. Characterization of antimicrobial peptides isolated from the skin of the Chinese frog, Rana dybowskii.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li-Li; Li, Qiang; Song, Shu-Sen; Feng, Kai; Zhang, Dian-Bao; Wang, Qiu-Yu; Chen, Yu-Hua

    2009-10-01

    The skins of amphibians secrete small antimicrobial peptides that fight infection and are being explored as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics. In this study we combined mass spectrometry with cDNA sequencing to examine antimicrobial peptides in skin secretions from the Chinese frog Rana dybowskii. Thirteen peptides having precursor sequences that resemble known antimicrobial peptides from this genus were identified, ten of which were members of previously described peptide families based on their primary structures; i.e., brevinin-1, Japonicin-1, brevinin-2 and temporin. The other three peptides from R. dybowskii, which were named dybowskin-1CDYa, dybowskin-2 CDYa and dybowskin-2CDYb, had different amino acid compositions and little sequence similarity to known antimicrobial peptides. The carboxyl terminus of dybowskin-1CDY lacked amidation and is therefore clearly distinct from temporin peptides, whereas dybowskin-2CDYa and dybowskin-2CDYb consisted of 18 amino acids and were rich in Arg residues. Chemically synthesized peptides corresponding to mature dybowskin-1CDYa and dybowskin-2CDYa had strong antimicrobial activity and caused little hemolysis of human erythrocytes, suggesting they may serve as interesting templates for the development of novel antibiotics. PMID:19539775

  5. Is body size of the water frog Rana esculenta complex responding to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim; Rybacki, Mariusz; Berger, Leszek

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies on climate responses in ectothermic (cold-blooded) vertebrates have been few in number and focussed on phenology rather than morphology. According to Bergmann’s rule, endothermic (warm-blooded) vertebrates from cooler climates tend to be larger than congeners from warmer regions. Although amphibians are ectothermic vertebrates, weather and climatic conditions may also impact on their morphology, and thereby affect their survival rates and population dynamics. In this paper, we show, in a unique long-term study during the period 1963-2003 in an agricultural landscape in western Poland, that the body length of two water frog parental species (males of both Rana ridibunda and R. lessonae) increased significantly. However, their hybridogenetic hybrid R. esculenta did not show similar changes. A significant relationship with a large-scale climatic factor, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index, was found positive for R. ridibunda males and R. lessonae females, and negative for R. esculenta females. Our findings, the first for amphibians, are consistent with other studies reporting that recent climate change has affected the morphology of animals. However, we also show that changes in amphibian phenotype linked to climate may vary independently between (even very similar) species.

  6. Hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of cadmium in the frog Rana ridibunda.

    PubMed

    Loumbourdis, Nikolaos S

    2005-08-01

    Histological and histochemical alterations in the liver and kidneys of the frog Rana ridibunda, which was exposed to 200 ppm aqueous solutions of cadmium for 4, 10 and 30 days, respectively were investigated. In both the liver and kidneys, essential changes appeared after 10 days' exposure, the maximum changes being apparent after 30 days of exposure. In the liver, what was very characteristic was an increase in the area occupied by Kupffer cells, with the area in the animals exposed to cadmium for 30 days being the largest observed. What was also apparent was karyomegaly, polyploidy and infiltration. In addition with regard the kidneys, Hyaline Globules (HG) and apoptotic bodies occurred at a higher rate. At 30 days' exposure, most of the above changes were enhanced. In comparison with 10 days' exposure, fibrosis around the blood vessels and between hepatocytes, as well as Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) reactivity and apoptotic bodies increased lightly in the liver. In the kidneys, the most pronounced changes were the increase in numbers of apoptotic bodies, PCNA reactivity and hyaline globules. It was concluded that the variability in positive reactions for various proteins in the hyaline globules may be an indication that these (and possibly other) proteins are synthesized by tumor cells, but, most probably, that they may represent liver damage, progressive nephropathy, or progressive glomerulonephropathy.

  7. Cytonuclear discordance and historical demography of two brown frogs, Rana tagoi and R. sakuraii (Amphibia: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies of mitochondrial genomic variation reveal that the Japanese brown frog Rana tagoi comprises a complex of cryptic species lineages, and that R. sakuraii arose from within this complex. Neither species forms a monophyletic group on the mitochondrial haplotype tree, precluding a simple explanation for the evolutionary origins of R. sakuraii. We present a more complete sampling of mitochondrial haplotypic variation (from the ND1 and 16S genes) plus DNA sequence variation for five nuclear loci (from the genes encoding NCX1, NFIA, POMC, SLC8A3, and TYR) to resolve the evolutionary histories of these species. We test hypotheses of population assignment (STRUCTURE) and isolation-with-migration (IM) using the more slowly evolving nuclear markers. These demographic analyses of nuclear genetic variation confirm species-level distinctness and integrity of R. sakuraii despite its apparent polyphyly on the mitochondrial haplotype tree. Divergence-time estimates from both the mitochondrial haplotypes and nuclear genomic markers suggest that R. sakuraii originated approximately one million years ago, and that incomplete sorting of mitochondrial haplotype lineages best explains non-monophyly of R. sakuraii mitochondrial haplotypes. Cytonuclear discordance elsewhere in R. tagoi reveals a case of mitochondrial introgression between two species lineages on Honshu. The earliest phylogenetic divergence within this species group occurred approximately four million years ago, followed by cladogenetic events in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene yielding 10-13 extant species lineages, including R. sakuraii as one of the youngest.

  8. Multiple sublethal chemicals negatively affect tadpoles of the green frog, Rana clamitans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, Michelle D.; Bridges, Christine M.; Fairchild, James F.; Little, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Many habitats may be exposed to multiple chemical contaminants, particularly in agricultural areas where fertilizer and pesticide use are common; however, the singular and interactive effects of contaminants are not well understood. The objective of our study was to examine how realistic, sublethal environmental levels of ammonium nitrate fertilizer (0, 10, 20 mg/L and ammonium chloride control) and the common insecticide carbaryl (0 or 2.5 mg/L) individually and interactively affect the development, size, and survival of green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles. We reared tadpoles for 95 d in outdoor 1,000-L polyethylene ponds. We found that the combination of carbaryl and nitrate had a negative effect on development and mass of tadpoles compared to the positive effect that either contaminant had alone. Presence of carbaryl was generally associated with short-term increases in algal resources, including ponds exposed to both carbaryl and nitrate. However, with exposure to nitrate and carbaryl, tadpole mass and development were not positively affected as with one chemical stressor alone. The combination of these sublethal contaminants may reduce the ability of amphibians to benefit from food-rich environments or have metabolic costs. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering multiple stressors when evaluating population-level responses.

  9. The effects of purine compounds on the isolated aorta of the frog Rana temporaria.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, G. E.; Burnstock, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. In the isolated aorta of the frog, Rana temporaria, adenosine concentration-dependently, endothelium-independently relaxed adrenaline pre-constricted vessels. None of the adenosine analogues including D-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide) adenosine (NECA), R- and S-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl) adenosine (R-and S-PIA) and 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA), or the more selective A1, A2 and A3 agonists cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), CGS 21680 and N6-(3-iodobenzyl) adenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide (IB-MECA) respectively, had any effect. 2. The non-selective adenosine antagonist, 8-p-sulphophenyl-theophylline (8-pSPT; 30 microM) failed to inhibit adenosine relaxations, as did NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 0.1 mM) and indomethacin (30 microM). 3. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), alpha, beta-methylene ATP (alpha, beta-MeATP), beta, gamma-methylene ATP (beta, gamma-MeATP), 2-methylthio ATP (2-MeSATP) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) all concentration-dependently contracted the frog aorta. ATP and alpha, beta-MeATP were equipotent and more potent than UTP and beta, gamma-MeATP; 2-MeSATP had little activity. 4. The P2-purinoceptor antagonist, suramin (0.1 mM) inhibited contractions to alpha, beta-MeATP but not to ATP. Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS; 30 microM) also inhibited contractions to alpha, beta-MeATP but not to ATP. Contractions to ATP were, however, inhibited by indomethacin (30 microM). 5. In conclusion, in the frog aorta there appears to be a novel subclass of P1-purinoceptor mediating vasodilatation, although like the A3 subclass it is not blocked by methylxanthines; a P2-purinoceptor mediates vasconstriction which resembles a P2x subtype, based on the agonist potency of alpha, beta-MeATP being more potent than 2-MeSATP (UTP has moderate activity) and PPADS is an effective antagonist. There is no evidence for the presence of a P2y-purinoceptor, mediating vasodilatation, in this preparation. PMID:8851504

  10. Falcaustra lowei n. sp. and other helminths from the Tarahumara frog, Rana tarahumarae (Anura: Ranidae), from Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bursey, C R; Goldberg, S R

    2001-04-01

    Seventy-four specimens of Falcaustra lowei n. sp. were recovered from the intestines of 9 of 42 (21%) Tarahumara frogs. Rana tarahumarae, from Sonora, Mexico. F. lowei is the 14th Nearctic species to be described and belongs to that group of species possessing a pseudosucker, namely F. catesbeianae, F. chabaudi, F. chelydrae, F. mexicana, and F. wardi. The new species can be readily differentiated from these by the arrangement of caudal papillae and length of spicules. Priority description of F. affinis is established and F. concinnae is removed from synonymy with F. affinis. In addition to F. lowei, 3 species of Digenea, Glypthelmins quieta, Haematoloechus breviplexus, Langeronia macrocirra; 1 species of Eucestoda, Ophiotaenia magna; 7 species of Nematoda, F. inglisi, Foleyellides striatus, Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Rhabdias ranae, Subulascaris falcaustriformis, Physaloptera sp. (larvae): and 1 species of Acanthocephala, an unidentified oligacanthorhynchid cystacanth, were found.

  11. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuri; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2013-01-01

    The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping) behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  12. Demography and movement in a relocated population of Oregon Spotted Frogs (Rana pretiosa): Influence of season and gender

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, N.D.; Pearl, C.A.; Adams, M.J.; Bowerman, J.

    2008-01-01

    We used five years of recapture data and Bayesian estimation to assess seasonal survival, movement, and growth of Oregon Spotted Frogs (Rana pretiosa) relocated into created ponds at Dilman Meadow in Oregon, USA. We evaluate hypotheses specific to the relocation and elucidate aspects of R. pretiosa life history that are poorly known. The odds of survival of relocated individuals during the first year following relocation were 0.36 times the survival odds of relocated and non-relocated frogs after one year since the relocation. Survival rate was higher for large frogs. After accounting for frog size, we found little variation in survival between ponds at Dilman Meadow. Survival was lowest for males during the breeding/post-breeding redistribution period, suggesting a high cost of breeding for males. The highest survival rates occurred during winter for both genders, and one small spring was used heavily during winter but was used rarely during the rest of the year. Individual growth was higher in ponds that were not used for breeding, and increased with increasing pond age. Our study supports other evidence that R. pretiosa use different habitats seasonally and are specific in their overwintering habitat requirements. Because frogs were concentrated during winter, predator-free overwintering springs are likely to be of particular value for R. pretiosa populations. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  13. Odorous and Non-Fatal Skin Secretion of Adult Wrinkled Frog (Rana rugosa) Is Effective in Avoiding Predation by Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Yuri; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2013-01-01

    The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes’ responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping) behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes. PMID:24278410

  14. Response of the Italian agile frog (Rana latastei) to a Ranavirus, frog virus 3: a model for viral emergence in naïve populations.

    PubMed

    Pearman, Peter B; Garner, Trenton W J; Straub, Monika; Greber, Urs F

    2004-10-01

    Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) is a genus of pathogens of poikilotherms, and some ranaviruses may play a role in widespread mortality of amphibians. Ecology of viral transmission in amphibians is poorly known but can be addressed through experimentation in the laboratory. In this study, we use the Ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3) as an experimental model for pathogen emergence in naive populations of tadpoles. We simulated emerging disease by exposing tadpoles of the Italian agile frog (Rana latastei), to the North American Ranavirus FV3. We demonstrated that mortality occurred due to viral exposure, exposure of tadpoles to decreasing concentrations of FV3 in the laboratory produced dose-dependent survival rates, and cannibalism of virus-carrying carcasses increased mortality due to FV3. These experiments suggest the potential for ecological mechanisms to affect the level of exposure of tadpoles to Ranavirus and to impact transmission of viral pathogens in aquatic systems.

  15. [The correlation of the ecological niches of the common (Rana temporaria L.) and of the moor (Rana arvalis Nilss.) frogs (Anura, Amphibia)].

    PubMed

    Severtsov, A S; Liapkov, S M; Surova, G S

    1998-01-01

    During 25 years ecology and population dynamic of two brown frog species (Rana temporaria and R. arvalis) were studied in Moscow region, Solovki island and South Ural. We compared life cycles characteristics, namely biotope preferences, diet, migration, enemies, hibernation places using own and available literature data. Then we analyse how these parameters are changed among the species area and ecological niches were compared. We found that these two species do not compete in any stage of life cycle. Ecological niches are very closed and differences are determined generally by abiotic factors. So, R. temporaria prefers more wet biotope and more sensitive to acidity (low pH value). Differences in spawning time do not associate with interference in spawning places. We conclude that interspecific competition did not take place neither in the past nor in present and the reason of differences in ecological niches are determined by separate ways of evolutionary development of these species.

  16. Immunomodulation in post-metamorphic northern leopard frogs, Lithobates pipiens, following larval exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether.

    PubMed

    Cary, Tawnya L; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Karasov, William H

    2014-05-20

    Pollutants and disease are factors implicated in amphibian population declines, and it is hypothesized that these factors exert a synergistic adverse effect, which is mediated by pollutant-induced immunosuppression. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous pollutants that can exert immunotoxicity, making them of interest to test effects on amphibian immune function. We orally exposed Lithobates (Rana) pipiens tadpoles to environmentally realistic levels (0-634 ng/g wet diet) of a pentabromodiphenyl ether mixture (DE-71) from as soon as they became free-swimming through metamorphic climax. To assess adaptive immune response in juvenile frogs, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure specific IgY production following immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Specific KLH antibody response was significantly decreased in juvenile frogs that had been exposed to PBDEs as tadpoles. When assessing innate immune responses, we found significantly different neutrophil counts among treatments; however, phagocytic activity of neutrophils was not significantly different. Secretion of antimicrobial skin peptides (AMPs) nonsignificantly decreased with increasing PBDE concentrations, and no significant effect of PBDE treatment was observed on efficacy of AMPs to inhibit chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) growth. Our findings demonstrate that environmentally realistic concentrations of PBDEs are able to alter immune function in frogs; however, further research is needed to determine how these alterations impact disease susceptibility in L. pipiens.

  17. Independent degeneration of W and Y sex chromosomes in frog Rana rugosa.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ikuo; Ohtani, Hiromi; Ogata, Mitsuaki

    2012-01-01

    The frog Rana rugosa uniquely possesses two different sex-determining systems of XX/XY and ZZ/ZW, separately in the geographic populations. The sex chromosomes of both types share the same origin at chromosome 7, and the structural differences between X and Y or Z and W were evolved through two inversions. In order to ascertain the mechanisms of degeneration of W and Y chromosomes, we gynogenetically produced homozygous diploids WW and YY and examined their viability. Tadpoles from geographic group N (W(N)W(N)) containing three populations died of edema at an early developmental stage within 10 days after hatching, while tadpoles from the geographic group K (W(K)W(K)) that contained two populations died of underdeveloped growth at a much later stage, 40-50 days after fertilization. On the contrary, W(N)W(K) and W(K)W(N) hybrid embryos were viable, successfully passed the two lethal stages, and survived till the attainment of adulthood. The observed survival implies that the lethal genes of the W chromosomes are not shared by the two groups and thus demonstrates their independent degeneration histories between the local groups. In sharp contrast, a sex-linked gene of androgen receptor gene (AR) from the W chromosome was down-regulated in expression in both the groups, suggesting that inactivation of the W-AR allele preceded divergence of the two groups and appearance of the lethal genes. Besides, the YY embryos died of cardiac edema immediately after hatching. The symptom of lethality and the stage of developmental arrest differed from those for either of WW lethal embryos. We therefore conclude that the W and Y chromosomes involve no evolutionary common scenario for degeneration.

  18. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Shirane, T.

    1982-10-10

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

  19. Variation in UV sensitivity among common frog Rana temporaria populations along an altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Olivier; Miaud, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can be harmful for developing amphibians. As the UV-B dose increases with altitude, it has been suggested that high-altitude populations may have an increased tolerance to high levels of UV-B radiation as compared to lowland populations. We tested this hypothesis with the common frog (Rana temporaria) by comparing populations from nine altitudes (from 333 to 2450m above sea level). Eggs collected in the field were used for laboratory experiments, i.e., exposed to high levels of artificial UV-B radiation. Eggs were reared at 14+/-2 degrees C and exposed to UV treatments until hatching. Embryonic developmental rates increased strongly and linearly with increasing altitude, suggesting a genetic capacity for faster development in highland than lowland eggs. Body length at hatching varied significantly with UV-B treatments, being lower when eggs developed under direct UV-B exposure. Body length at hatching also increased as the altitude of populations increased, but UV-B exposure times were shorter as altitude of population increased. However, the body length difference between exposed and non-exposed individuals in each population decreased as altitude of populations increased, suggesting a costly effect of UV exposure on growth. Type of UV exposure did not influence the mean rates of embryonic mortality and deformity, but both mortality and deformity rates increased as the altitude of populations increased (while UV-B exposure duration decreased). The effect of UV-B on body length at hatching, mortality, and deformities suggests that the sensitivity to UV-B varied among populations along the altitudinal gradient. These results are discussed in evolutionary terms, specifically the potential of R. temporaria high-altitude populations to develop local genetic adaptation to high levels of UV-B. PMID:18495447

  20. Radically different phylogeographies and patterns of genetic variation in two European brown frogs, genus Rana.

    PubMed

    Vences, Miguel; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Künzel, Sven; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Vieites, David R; Nieto-Roman, Sandra; Haas, Sabrina; Laugsch, Clara; Gehara, Marcelo; Bruchmann, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Ludewig, Ann-Kathrin; Rudert, Dirk; Angelini, Claudio; Borkin, Leo J; Crochet, Pierre-André; Crottini, Angelica; Dubois, Alain; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Galán, Pedro; Geniez, Philippe; Hachtel, Monika; Jovanovic, Olga; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Ohler, Annemarie; Smirnov, Nazar A

    2013-09-01

    We reconstruct range-wide phylogeographies of two widespread and largely co-occurring Western Palearctic frogs, Rana temporaria and R. dalmatina. Based on tissue or saliva samples of over 1000 individuals, we compare a variety of genetic marker systems, including mitochondrial DNA, single-copy protein-coding nuclear genes, microsatellite loci, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of transcriptomes of both species. The two focal species differ radically in their phylogeographic structure, with R. temporaria being strongly variable among and within populations, and R. dalmatina homogeneous across Europe with a single strongly differentiated population in southern Italy. These differences were observed across the various markers studied, including microsatellites and SNP density, but especially in protein-coding nuclear genes where R. dalmatina had extremely low heterozygosity values across its range, including potential refugial areas. On the contrary, R. temporaria had comparably high range-wide values, including many areas of probable postglacial colonization. A phylogeny of R. temporaria based on various concatenated mtDNA genes revealed that two haplotype clades endemic to Iberia form a paraphyletic group at the base of the cladogram, and all other haplotypes form a monophyletic group, in agreement with an Iberian origin of the species. Demographic analysis suggests that R. temporaria and R. dalmatina have genealogies of roughly the same time to coalescence (TMRCA ~3.5 mya for both species), but R. temporaria might have been characterized by larger ancestral and current effective population sizes than R. dalmatina. The high genetic variation in R. temporaria can therefore be explained by its early range expansion out of Iberia, with subsequent cycles of differentiation in cryptic glacial refugial areas followed by admixture, while the range expansion of R. dalmatina into central Europe is a probably more recent event.

  1. Effects of six chemical deicers on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Harless, Meagan L; Huckins, Casey J; Grant, Jacqualine B; Pypker, Thomas G

    2011-07-01

    Widespread and intensive application of road deicers, primarily road salt (NaCl), in North America threatens water quality and the health of freshwater ecosystems. Intensive use of NaCl can be harmful to sensitive members of freshwater ecosystems such as amphibians. Detection of negative effects of NaCl application has prompted the search for alternative chemical deicers with lower environmental impacts. We conducted a series of 96-h acute toxicity tests to determine the negative sensitivity of larval wood frogs (Rana [Lithobates] sylvatica) to six deicing chemicals: urea (CH(4) N(2) O), sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl(2) ), potassium acetate (CH(3) COOK), calcium chloride (CaCl(2) ), and calcium magnesium acetate (C(8) H(12) CaMgO(8) ). Acetates are sometimes touted as environmentally friendly alternatives to NaCl but have not been examined in enough detail to warrant this designation. When exposed to a range of environmentally realistic concentrations of these chemicals, larvae were least sensitive (i.e., had the lowest mortality rate) to CH(4) N(2) O, NaCl, and MgCl(2) and most sensitive to acetates (C(8) H(12) CaMgO(8) , CH(3) COOK) and CaCl(2) . Our observed median lethal concentration estimates (LC50(96-h) ) for NaCl were over two times higher than values presented in previous studies, which suggests variability in tolerance among R. sylvatica populations. The deicers varied greatly in their toxicity, and further research is warranted to examine the differential effects of this suite of deicers on other species.

  2. Clinical signs, pathology and dose-dependent survival of adult wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, inoculated orally with frog virus 3 Ranavirus sp., Iridoviridae.

    PubMed

    Forzn, Mara J; Jones, Kathleen M; Vanderstichel, Raphal V; Wood, John; Kibenge, Frederick S B; Kuiken, Thijs; Wirth, Wytamma; Ariel, Ellen; Daoust, Pierre-Yves

    2015-05-01

    Amphibian populations suffer massive mortalities from infection with frog virus 3 FV3, genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae, a pathogen also involved in mortalities of fish and reptiles. Experimental oral infection with FV3 in captive-raised adult wood frogs, Rana sylvatica Lithobates sylvaticus, was performed as the first step in establishing a native North American animal model of ranaviral disease to study pathogenesis and host response. Oral dosing was successful LD50 was 10(2.93 2.423.44) p.f.u. for frogs averaging 35mm in length. Onset of clinical signs occurred 614days post-infection p.i. median 11 days p.i. and time to death was 1014 days p.i. median 12 days p.i.. Each tenfold increase in virus dose increased the odds of dying by 23-fold and accelerated onset of clinical signs and death by approximately 15. Ranavirus DNA was demonstrated in skin and liver of all frogs that died or were euthanized because of severe clinical signs. Shedding of virus occurred in faeces 710 days p.i. 34.5days before death and skin sheds 10 days p.i. 01.5days before death of some frogs dead from infection. Most common lesions were dermal erosion and haemorrhages haematopoietic necrosis in bone marrow, kidney, spleen and liver and necrosis in renal glomeruli, tongue, gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder mucosa. Presence of ranavirus in lesions was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies probably viral were present in the bone marrow and the epithelia of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, renal tubules and urinary bladder. Our work describes a ranaviruswood frog model and provides estimates that can be incorporated into ranavirus disease ecology models.

  3. Landscape resistance to frog movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Desrochers, A.

    2005-01-01

    An animal's capacity to recolonize a patch depends on at least two components: its ability to detect the patch and its ability to reach it. However, the disruption of such processes by anthropic disturbances could explain low animal abundance patterns observed by many investigators in certain landscapes. Through field experiments, we compared the orientation and homing success of northern green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota Rafinesque, 1820) and northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens Schreber, 1782) translocated across disturbed or undisturbed surfaces. We also monitored the path selected by individuals when presented with a choice between a short distance over a disturbed surface and a longer, undisturbed route. Finally, we measured the water loss and behaviour of frogs on substrates resulting from anthropogenic disturbances and a control. When presented with a choice, 72% of the frogs avoided disturbed surfaces. Although able to orient towards the pond of capture when translocated on disturbed surfaces, frogs had a lower probability of homing successfully to the pond than when translocated at a similar distance on an undisturbed surface. Frogs lost the most water on substrates associated with disturbance and in the absence of cover. Our data illustrate that anthropically disturbed areas devoid of cover, such as mined peatlands and agricultural fields, disrupt the ability of frogs to reach habitat patches and are likely explanations to their reduced abundance patterns in such environments. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  4. The expression of prostaglandin-E2 and its receptor in the oviduct of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii).

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruiqi; Xi, Liqin; Cao, Qing; Yang, Rui; Liu, Yuning; Sheng, Xia; Han, Yingying; Yuan, Zhengrong; Guo, Yan; Weng, Qiang; Xu, Meiyu

    2016-07-01

    The Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) has one special physiological phenomenon, which is that its oviduct expands prior to hibernation rather than in the breeding period. In this study, we investigated the immunolocalization and expression levels of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, as well as one of its receptor subtypes 4 (EP4) in the oviduct of Rana dybowskii during the pre-hibernation and breeding period. PGE2, COX-1, COX-2 and EP4 have been observed in glandular and epithelial cells in the breeding period, whereas only in the epithelial cells during the pre-hibernation. Consistently, the protein levels of COX-2 and EP4 were higher in the pre-hibernation as compared to the breeding period, but the diversity of COX-1 was not obvious. In addition, oviductal PGE2 concentration was also significantly higher in the pre-hibernation. These results suggested that prostaglandin-E2 may play an important autocrine or paracrine role in oviductal cell proliferation and differentiation of Rana dybowskii during pre-hibernation. PMID:27246901

  5. Host defense peptides in skin secretions of the Oregon spotted frog Rana pretiosa: implications for species resistance to chytridiomycosis.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Ahmed, Eman; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Leprince, Jérôme; Vaudry, Hubert; Hayes, Marc P; Padgett-Flohr, Gretchen

    2011-06-01

    Population declines due to chytridiomycosis among frogs belonging to the Amerana (Rana boylii) species group from western North America have been particularly severe. Norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from the Oregon spotted frog Rana pretiosa Baird and Girard, 1853 were collected from individuals that had been previously infected with the causative agent Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis but had proved resistant to developing chytridiomycosis. These secretions contained a more diverse array of antimicrobial peptides than found in other species from the Amerana group and 14 peptides were isolated in pure form. Determination of their primary structures identified the peptides as esculentin-2PRa and -2PRb; ranatuerin-2PRa, -2PRb, -2PRc, -2PRd, and -2PRe; brevinin-1PRa, -1PRb, -1PRc, and -1PRd; and temporin-PRa, -PRb, and -PRc. The strongly cationic ranatuerin-2PRd and the esculentin-2 peptides, which have not been identified in the secretions of other Amerana species except for the closely related R. luteiventris, showed the highest growth inhibitory potency against microorganisms. The strongly hydrophobic brevinin-1PRd was the most cytotoxic to erythrocytes. Although no clear correlation exists between production of dermal antimicrobial peptides by a species and its resistance to fatal chytridiomycosis, the diversity of these peptides in R. pretiosa may be pivotal in defending the species against environmental pathogens such as B. dendrobatidis. PMID:21295070

  6. Terrestrial activity and conservation of adult California red-legged frogs Rana aurora draytonii in coastal forests and grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulger, J.B.; Scott, N.J.; Seymour, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The federally threatened California red-legged frog Rana aurora draytonii occupies both aquatic and terrestrial habitats in its adult life stage. The terrestrial activities of this species are not well known and require documentation to assist in the development of appropriate levels of protection under the US Endangered Species Act. We studied the terrestrial activities of radio-tagged red-legged frogs (n = 8-26) inhabiting a coastal watershed in Santa Cruz County, California, during 1997-1998. In particular, we investigated (1) the use of terrestrial habitats by non-migrating adults in relation to season, breeding chronology, and precipitation, and (2) adult migration behavior, including seasonal timing, duration, distances traveled, and the use of corridors. Non-migrating red-legged frogs occupied terrestrial habitats briefly (median = 4-6 days) following infrequent summer rains, but resided nearly continuously on land (median = 20-30 days) from the onset of the winter wet-season until breeding activities commenced 1-2 months later. All of the non-migrating frogs remained within 130 m of their aquatic site of residence (median <25 m). Intervals spent on land were again brief during mid/late winter (median = 1-4 days), despite frequent and copious rainfall. Adult migration to and from breeding sites occurred from late October through mid-May (wet season). We monitored 25 migration events between aquatic sites that were 200-2800 m apart. Short distance movements ( <300 m) were completed in 1-3 days, longer movements required up to 2 months. Most migrating frogs moved overland in approximately straight lines to target sites without apparent regard to vegetation type or topography. Riparian corridors were neither essential nor preferred as migration routes. Frogs traveling overland occurred in upland habitats as far as 500 m from water. Approximately 11-22% of the adult population was estimated to migrate to and from breeding sites annually, whereas the bulk of the

  7. Protein kinase C in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: reassessing the tissue-specific regulation of PKC isozymes during freezing

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, survives whole-body freezing and thawing each winter. The extensive adaptations required at the biochemical level are facilitated by alterations to signaling pathways, including the insulin/Akt and AMPK pathways. Past studies investigating changing tissue-specific patterns of the second messenger IP3 in adapted frogs have suggested important roles for protein kinase C (PKC) in response to stress. In addition to their dependence on second messengers, phosphorylation of three PKC sites by upstream kinases (most notably PDK1) is needed for full PKC activation, according to widely-accepted models. The present study uses phospho-specific immunoblotting to investigate phosphorylation states of PKC—as they relate to distinct tissues, PKC isozymes, and phosphorylation sites—in control and frozen frogs. In contrast to past studies where second messengers of PKC increased during the freezing process, phosphorylation of PKC tended to generally decline in most tissues of frozen frogs. All PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting decreased in phosphorylation levels in hind leg skeletal muscle and hearts of frozen frogs. Most PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected in livers and kidneys also declined; the only exceptions were the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641) antibody, which remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. Changes in brains of frozen frogs were unique; no decreases were observed in the phosphorylation levels of any of the PKC isozymes and/or specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting. Rather, increases were observed for the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641), phospho-PKCδ (Thr505), and phospho-PKCθ (Thr538) antibodies; all other isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected in brain remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. The results of this study

  8. Behavioural and physiological adaptations to low-temperature environments in the common frog, Rana temporaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extreme environments can impose strong ecological and evolutionary pressures at a local level. Ectotherms are particularly sensitive to low-temperature environments, which can result in a reduced activity period, slowed physiological processes and increased exposure to sub-zero temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the behavioural and physiological responses that facilitate survival in low-temperature environments. In particular, we asked: 1) do high-altitude common frog (Rana temporaria) adults extend the time available for larval growth by breeding at lower temperatures than low-altitude individuals?; and 2) do tadpoles sampled from high-altitude sites differ physiologically from those from low-altitude sites, in terms of routine metabolic rate (RMR) and freeze tolerance? Breeding date was assessed as the first day of spawn observation and local temperature recorded for five, paired high- and low-altitude R. temporaria breeding sites in Scotland. Spawn was collected and tadpoles raised in a common laboratory environment, where RMR was measured as oxygen consumed using a closed respiratory tube system. Freeze tolerance was measured as survival following slow cooling to the point when all container water had frozen. Results We found that breeding did not occur below 5°C at any site and there was no significant relationship between breeding temperature and altitude, leading to a delay in spawning of five days for every 100 m increase in altitude. The relationship between altitude and RMR varied by mountain but was lower for individuals sampled from high- than low-altitude sites within the three mountains with the highest high-altitude sites (≥900 m). In contrast, individuals sampled from low-altitudes survived freezing significantly better than those from high-altitudes, across all mountains. Conclusions Our results suggest that adults at high-altitude do not show behavioural adaptations in terms of breeding at lower temperatures. However

  9. Anti-apoptotic response during anoxia and recovery in a freeze-tolerant wood frog (Rana sylvatica)

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Victoria E.M.; Wijenayake, Sanoji

    2016-01-01

    The common wood frog, Rana sylvatica, utilizes freeze tolerance as a means of winter survival. Concealed beneath a layer of leaf litter and blanketed by snow, these frogs withstand subzero temperatures by allowing approximately 65–70% of total body water to freeze. Freezing is generally considered to be an ischemic event in which the blood oxygen supply is impeded and may lead to low levels of ATP production and exposure to oxidative stress. Therefore, it is as important to selectively upregulate cytoprotective mechanisms such as the heat shock protein (HSP) response and expression of antioxidants as it is to shut down majority of ATP consuming processes in the cell. The objective of this study was to investigate another probable cytoprotective mechanism, anti-apoptosis during oxygen deprivation and recovery in the anoxia tolerant wood frog. In particular, relative protein expression levels of two important apoptotic regulator proteins, Bax and p-p53 (S46), and five anti-apoptotic/pro-survival proteins, Bcl-2, p-Bcl-2 (S70), Bcl-xL, x-IAP, and c-IAP in response to normoxic, 24 Hr anoxic exposure, and 4 Hr recovery stages were assessed in the liver and skeletal muscle using western immunoblotting. The results suggest a tissue-specific regulation of the anti-apoptotic pathway in the wood frog, where both liver and skeletal muscle shows an overall decrease in apoptosis and an increase in cell survival. This type of cytoprotective mechanism could be aimed at preserving the existing cellular components during long-term anoxia and oxygen recovery phases in the wood frog. PMID:27042393

  10. Anti-apoptotic response during anoxia and recovery in a freeze-tolerant wood frog (Rana sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Gerber, Victoria E M; Wijenayake, Sanoji; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-01-01

    The common wood frog, Rana sylvatica, utilizes freeze tolerance as a means of winter survival. Concealed beneath a layer of leaf litter and blanketed by snow, these frogs withstand subzero temperatures by allowing approximately 65-70% of total body water to freeze. Freezing is generally considered to be an ischemic event in which the blood oxygen supply is impeded and may lead to low levels of ATP production and exposure to oxidative stress. Therefore, it is as important to selectively upregulate cytoprotective mechanisms such as the heat shock protein (HSP) response and expression of antioxidants as it is to shut down majority of ATP consuming processes in the cell. The objective of this study was to investigate another probable cytoprotective mechanism, anti-apoptosis during oxygen deprivation and recovery in the anoxia tolerant wood frog. In particular, relative protein expression levels of two important apoptotic regulator proteins, Bax and p-p53 (S46), and five anti-apoptotic/pro-survival proteins, Bcl-2, p-Bcl-2 (S70), Bcl-xL, x-IAP, and c-IAP in response to normoxic, 24 Hr anoxic exposure, and 4 Hr recovery stages were assessed in the liver and skeletal muscle using western immunoblotting. The results suggest a tissue-specific regulation of the anti-apoptotic pathway in the wood frog, where both liver and skeletal muscle shows an overall decrease in apoptosis and an increase in cell survival. This type of cytoprotective mechanism could be aimed at preserving the existing cellular components during long-term anoxia and oxygen recovery phases in the wood frog. PMID:27042393

  11. Species boundaries, phylogeography and conservation genetics of the red-legged frog (Rana aurora/draytonii) complex.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, H Bradley; Fellers, G M; Voss, S Randal; Oliver, J C; Pauly, Gregory B

    2004-09-01

    The red-legged frog, Rana aurora, has been recognized as both a single, polytypic species and as two distinct species since its original description 150 years ago. It is currently recognized as one species with two geographically contiguous subspecies, aurora and draytonii; the latter is protected under the US Endangered Species Act. We present the results of a survey of 50 populations of red-legged frogs from across their range plus four outgroup species for variation in a phylogenetically informative, approximately 400 base pairs (bp) fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our mtDNA analysis points to several major results. (1) In accord with several other lines of independent evidence, aurora and draytonii are each diagnosably distinct, evolutionary lineages; the mtDNA data indicate that they do not constitute a monophyletic group, but rather that aurora and R. cascadae from the Pacific northwest are sister taxa; (2) the range of the draytonii mtDNA clade extends about 100 km further north in coastal California than was previously suspected, and corresponds closely with the range limits or phylogeographical breaks of several codistributed taxa; (3) a narrow zone of overlap exists in southern Mendocino County between aurora and draytonii haplotypes, rather than a broad intergradation zone; and (4) the critically endangered population of draytonii in Riverside County, CA forms a distinct clade with frogs from Baja California, Mexico. The currently available evidence favours recognition of aurora and draytonii as separate species with a narrow zone of overlap in northern California. PMID:15315679

  12. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun

    2014-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations.

  13. Acid-shock, aluminium, and presence of Sphagnum aurantiacum: effect on embryological development in the common frog, Rana temporaria and the moor frog, Rana arvalis

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, M.; Hogstrand, C.; Dahlberg, A.; Berglind, S.A.

    1987-07-01

    During the last two decades, several effects of acidification have been shown, e.g., enhanced leaching of metals from sediments and soil. Furthermore, an increased growth of Sphagnum aurantiacum frequently occurs in acidified waters. The aim of the present study is to investigate some effects of acidification on the embryological development on two Anurans. The toxicity of aluminium is thought to vary with pH. The highest toxicity of aluminium in the hydroxyl form have been found at pH 5. In the present study a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the toxicity of Al to frog embryos in water with pH 5.0. In acidified waters Sphagnum and especially S. aurantiacum, is competitive and quickly become established. It has been indicated that frog spawn deposited on Sphagnum show an unusually high mortality and questions have been raised if Sphagnum reinforces the detrimental effects of acidification on Anuran reproduction.

  14. The quantitative genetic basis of adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis) and its implications for gene flow.

    PubMed

    Hangartner, S; Laurila, A; Räsänen, K

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on the relative contribution of direct genetic, maternal and environmental effects to adaptive divergence is important for understanding the drivers of biological diversification. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) shows adaptive divergence in embryonic and larval fitness traits along an acidification gradient in south-western Sweden. To understand the quantitative genetic basis of this divergence, we performed reciprocal crosses between three divergent population pairs and reared embryos and larvae at acid and neutral pH in the laboratory. Divergence in embryonic acid tolerance (survival) was mainly determined by maternal effects, whereas the relative contributions of maternal, additive and nonadditive genetic effects in larval life-history traits differed between traits, population pairs and rearing environments. These results emphasize the need to investigate the quantitative genetic basis of adaptive divergence in multiple populations and traits, as well as different environments. We discuss the implications of our findings for maintenance of local adaptation in the context of migrant and hybrid fitness.

  15. Expression of P450arom and Estrogen Receptor Alpha in the Oviduct of Chinese Brown Frog (Rana dybowskii) during Prehibernation

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ji; Liu, Yuning; Xu, Ying; Hu, Ruiqi; Zhang, Haolin; Sheng, Xia; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Weng, Qiang; Xu, Meiyu

    2015-01-01

    One specific physiological phenomenon of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) is that its oviduct expands prior to hibernation instead of expanding during the breeding period. In this study, we investigated the expression of P450arom and estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) in the oviduct of Rana dybowskii during the breeding period and prehibernation. The results of the present study showed that there were significant differences in both oviductal weight and size with values markedly higher in prehibernation than in the breeding period. P450arom was observed in stromal tissue in both the breeding period and prehibernation. ERα was expressed in stromal tissue and epithelial cells in both periods, whereas ERβ could not be detected. The mean protein and mRNA levels of P450arom and ERα were significantly higher in prehibernation as compared to the breeding period. Besides, oviductal content of 17β-estradiol was also higher in prehibernation than in the breeding period. These results suggested that estrogen may play autocrine/paracrine roles mediated by ERα in regulating the oviductal hypertrophy during prehibernation. PMID:25802518

  16. Susceptibility of the European common frog Rana temporaria to a panel of ranavirus isolates from fish and amphibian hosts.

    PubMed

    Bayley, Amanda E; Hill, Barry J; Feist, Stephen W

    2013-04-11

    Ranaviruses are an emerging group of viruses and have been implicated in an increase of epidemics in susceptible species. They have a wide host range, infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles, with some isolates able to infect multiple species from different animal classes. Whilst some information exists on the pathogenicity of ranaviruses to novel hosts, there is none on the pathogenicity of fish ranaviruses to amphibians; this information is needed to develop measures to prevent the further spread of ranaviral disease in the aquatic environment. We undertook bath infection trials to assess the susceptibility of the European common frog Rana temporaria to 9 ranavirus isolates comprising doctor fish virus (DFV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), guppy virus 6 (GV6), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV) and short-finned eel ranavirus (SERV) from fish hosts, and Bohle iridovirus (BIV), frog virus 3 (FV3) and Rana esculenta virus 282/I02 (REV) from amphibians. Animals were challenged as tadpoles at 15 and 20°C and as recent metamorphs at room temperature (20 ± 1°C) to investigate the effect of temperature and amphibian developmental stage on virus pathogenicity. Tadpoles were susceptible to FV3, PPIV and REV, but refractory to the other ranaviruses. Post-metamorphs were susceptible to FV3 and REV but refractory to BIV (the other ranaviruses were not tested). Significant mortality occurred in post-metamorphs and in tadpoles challenged at 20°C but was low in tadpoles challenged at 15°C. This study presents the first evidence of mortality in an amphibian species after challenge with ranavirus originally isolated from fish.

  17. Juvenile frogs compensate for small metamorph size with terrestrial growth: Overcoming the effects of larval density and insecticide exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    I reared four species of anurans (Rana sphenocephala [Southern Leopard Frog], Rana blairi [Plains Leopard Frog], Rana clamitans [Green Frog], and Bufo woodhousii [Woodhouse's Toad]) for seven to 12 months in small, outdoor terrestrial enclosures (1 x 2 m) to examine the consequences of larval competition (via density) and contaminant exposure (via the insecticide carbaryl). I added six Rana clamitans, eight Rana sphenocephala, eight Rana blairi, and 10 Bufo woodhousii to terrestrial enclosures shortly after metamorphosis and recaptured them during the following spring. All anurans from low-density ponds were significantly larger than those from high-density ponds, but these size differences did not significantly affect survival to or size at spring emergence. However, R. sphenocephala, R. blairi, and R. clamitans that survived to spring had been larger at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive; in contrast, B. woodhousii that survived the winter were smaller at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive. Carbaryl exposure affected mass at metamorphosis of R. clamitans and B. woodhousii that were added to enclosures, but this difference disappeared or did not increase by spring emergence. Overall, exposure to carbaryl during the larval period did not have any apparent effects on survival or growth during the terrestrial phase. In my study, anurans were able to offset small size at metamorphosis with terrestrial growth, although there was a trend of reduced overwinter survival for ranid species that metamorphosed at a smaller size. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of a brown frog, Rana kunyuensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Yin, Wei; Xia, Rong; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Rana sensu stricto (sensu Frost, 2013) was determined using Rana kunyuensis as a representative species. The mitogenome was 22,255 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and duplicated control regions. The mitogenome of R. kunyuensis showed novel gene order arrangement with a translocation of tRNA(Leu)((CUN)) and ND5 in comparison with published anuran mitogenomes to date. This mitogenome should contribute to understand the evolution of anuran mitochondrial gene order arrangements.

  19. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  20. [Analysis of helminthofauna of common spaedfoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) and moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842 (Amphibia: Anura) at their joint habitation].

    PubMed

    Ruchin, A B; Chikhliaev, I V; Lukiianov, S V

    2009-01-01

    The helminths fauna of common spaedfoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) and moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842 has been studied at their joint habitation. The stuff was collected in 1998-2002, 2004-2006 years in several regions (republic Mordovia, Samara and Saratov areas). The processing of a stuff is conducted by a method of full helmintologic dissecting. The fauna of helminths considerably differs. For common spaedfoot only 13 species of helminths was detected which also parasitized moor frog (for moor frog 23 species) are detected. The index Jaccar demonstrated mean resemblance structure of helminths and varied from 0.25 till 0.69, and the index Morisite--from 44.58 of % till 74.51 of %. The communities of parasites of common spaedfoot was characterized by low values of an index of Shannon, but the high indexes of an index Simpson, whereas for moor frog tracked the return tendence.

  1. Combined effects of malathion and nitrate on early growth, abnormalities, and mortality of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, S V; Smith, G R

    2011-08-01

    Use of pesticides and other agro-chemicals adversely influence amphibians either directly by killing them or by inducing sublethal, chronic effects. Many studies have investigated the effect of mixtures of pesticides or fertilizers. We studied the combined effects of nitrate and malathion ([(dimethoxy phosphino thioyl] butanediotae) on the early growth, expression of abnormalities, and mortality of Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica) tadpoles in a laboratory experiment. Tadpoles were treated with factorial combinations of 0, 8, and 16 mg NO(3)-N l(-1) and 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 μg malathion l(-1) for a period of 14 days. Feeding behaviour, total length, mean tadpole mass, frequencies of abnormalities, and survivorship in each treatment were recorded. Malathion showed a significant negative influence on all parameters and strongly influenced the frequencies of morphological anomalies. In contrast, nitrate alone did not produce any significant effects on behavior, total length, tadpole mass, or the frequency of abnormalities during the experiment. Malathion and nitrate had an interactive effect on tadpole length and mass, but did not affect any other parameters. Our results suggest that exposure to malathion, even at relatively low concentrations can have serious negative consequences for Wood Frog tadpoles. In addition, our results also indicate that there was little synergistic interaction between malathion and nitrate exposure under laboratory conditions. PMID:21533775

  2. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota in Italian Stream Frogs (Rana italica) Infected and Uninfected by a Cutaneous Parasitic Disease.

    PubMed

    Federici, Ermanno; Rossi, Roberta; Fidati, Laura; Paracucchi, Romina; Scargetta, Silvia; Montalbani, Elena; Franzetti, Andrea; La Porta, Gianandrea; Fagotti, Anna; Simonceli, Francesca; Cenci, Giovanni; Di Rosa, Ines

    2015-01-01

    In human and wildlife populations, the natural microbiota plays an important role in health maintenance and the prevention of emerging infectious diseases. In amphibians, infectious diseases have been closely associated with population decline and extinction worldwide. Skin symbiont communities have been suggested as one of the factors driving the different susceptibilities of amphibians to diseases. The activity of the skin microbiota of amphibians against fungal pathogens, such as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been examined extensively, whereas its protective role towards the cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the cutaneous microbiota of the Italian stream frog (Rana italica) and characterized the microbial assemblages of frogs uninfected and infected by Amphibiocystidium using the Illumina next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 629 different OTUs belonging to 16 different phyla were detected. Bacterial populations shared by all individuals represented only one fifth of all OTUs and were dominated by a small number of OTUs. Statistical analyses based on Bray-Curtis distances showed that uninfected and infected specimens had distinct cutaneous bacterial community structures. Phylotypes belonging to the genera Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium were more abundant, and sometimes almost exclusively present, in uninfected than in infected specimens. These bacterial populations, known to exhibit antifungal activity in amphibians, may also play a role in protection against cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites. PMID:26370166

  3. Heavy metals alter the survival, growth, metamorphosis, and antipredatory behavior of Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, H; Meguire, R A; Wilson, L H; Ettinger, W F

    1998-10-01

    Amphibian populations appear to be declining around the world. Although there is no single cause, one factor may be pollution from heavy metals. As a result of mining in the Silver Valley of Idaho, heavy metals have been released into habitats containing many species of sensitive organisms, including spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris). While the gross extent of pollution has been well documented, the more subtle behavioral effects of heavy metals such as lead, zinc, and cadmium are less well studied. We tested the effects of heavy metals on the short-term survival (LC50) of spotted frog tadpoles. Compared to single metals, metals presented together were toxic at lower doses. We also raised the tadpoles in outdoor mini-ecosystems containing either a single heavy metal or soil from an EPA Superfund site in the Silver Valley known to be composed of numerous heavy metals. Exposure to Silver Valley soil resulted in delayed metamorphosis. We tested the ability of metal-exposed tadpoles to detect and respond to chemical cues emanating from predacious rainbow trout. We found that high levels of Silver Valley soil, medium levels of zinc, and medium and high levels of lead resulted in a decreased fright response. Low levels of cadmium, zinc, and lead did not cause a significant effect, but low levels of soil did result in a decreased fright response. Heavy metals may alter interactions between tadpoles and their predators. PMID:9732476

  4. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota in Italian Stream Frogs (Rana italica) Infected and Uninfected by a Cutaneous Parasitic Disease.

    PubMed

    Federici, Ermanno; Rossi, Roberta; Fidati, Laura; Paracucchi, Romina; Scargetta, Silvia; Montalbani, Elena; Franzetti, Andrea; La Porta, Gianandrea; Fagotti, Anna; Simonceli, Francesca; Cenci, Giovanni; Di Rosa, Ines

    2015-01-01

    In human and wildlife populations, the natural microbiota plays an important role in health maintenance and the prevention of emerging infectious diseases. In amphibians, infectious diseases have been closely associated with population decline and extinction worldwide. Skin symbiont communities have been suggested as one of the factors driving the different susceptibilities of amphibians to diseases. The activity of the skin microbiota of amphibians against fungal pathogens, such as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been examined extensively, whereas its protective role towards the cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the cutaneous microbiota of the Italian stream frog (Rana italica) and characterized the microbial assemblages of frogs uninfected and infected by Amphibiocystidium using the Illumina next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 629 different OTUs belonging to 16 different phyla were detected. Bacterial populations shared by all individuals represented only one fifth of all OTUs and were dominated by a small number of OTUs. Statistical analyses based on Bray-Curtis distances showed that uninfected and infected specimens had distinct cutaneous bacterial community structures. Phylotypes belonging to the genera Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium were more abundant, and sometimes almost exclusively present, in uninfected than in infected specimens. These bacterial populations, known to exhibit antifungal activity in amphibians, may also play a role in protection against cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites.

  5. Growth, size and age at maturity of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) in an Iberian Peninsula population.

    PubMed

    Sarasola-Puente, Vanessa; Gosá, Alberto; Oromí, Neus; Madeira, María José; Lizana, Miguel

    2011-06-01

    The mean age of a population of agile frogs (Rana dalmatina) from the Iberian Peninsula was estimated using mark and recapture and skeletochronology. Life-history parameters, including growth rate, body length, age and size at maturity, sexual dimorphism and longevity, were studied. The regression between age and snout-vent length (SVL) was highly significant in both sexes. Males reached sexual maturity at two years of age, although sometimes they can reach it at only one year of age. The average SVL at maturity was 51.75 mm (standard error (SE)=0.71; n=45). Females reached sexual maturity at two years of age with an average SVL of 62.14 mm (SE=2.20; n=14). A subset of the female population reached sexual maturity at three years of age. Growth was rapid until sexual maturity was reached. There was an overlap of SVL between different age classes. Growth was continuous, fulfilling the conditions of Von Bertalanffy's model. The growth coefficient (K) was 0.840 in males and 0.625 in females. The maximum SVL was greater in females (73.00 mm) than in males (59.50mm). Sexual dimorphism was significantly biased towards females in all age classes. The maximum longevity observed was 6 years in females and 8 years in males. Management strategies for agile frogs should take into account factors such as these life-history characteristics.

  6. The quality and fertility of sperm collected from European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses refrigerated for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Natalia V; Uteshev, Viktor K; Sirota, Nikolai P; Kuznetsova, Elena A; Kaurova, Svetlana A; Browne, Robert K; Gakhova, Edith N

    2013-01-01

    There is a catastrophic decrease in the biodiversity of amphibians coupled with the loss of genetic variation. The perpetuation of amphibian biodiversity demands a multifaceted approach, including the use of reproduction technologies (RTs), to enable efficient reproduction in captivity and to prevent the loss of genetic variation. Reproduction technologies for the storage of amphibian sperm for days to weeks, when refrigerated at 4°C, or for millennia when cryopreserved have recently undergone rapid development. Sperm from amphibians may be obtained through excision and maceration of testes; however, this is sometimes not possible with rare or endangered species. Alternate methods of obtaining sperm are through hormonal induction, or as spermatozoa from the carcasses of recently dead amphibians. The use of sperm from carcasses of recently dead amphibians is particularly valuable when sampled from genetically important founders in conservation breeding programs, or where catastrophic mortality is occurring in natural population. Sperm harvested over a period of 7 days from the testes of European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses stored in a refrigerator were assessed for percentage and progressive motility, cell membrane integrity, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and fertilizing ability. In addition, the survival of resulting embryos to hatch was recorded. Results indicated that some sperm of R. temporaria remain motile and fertile when harvested from frog carcasses refrigerated up to 7 days post-mortem, and resulting embryos can develop to hatch. PMID:23609917

  7. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota in Italian Stream Frogs (Rana italica) Infected and Uninfected by a Cutaneous Parasitic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Ermanno; Rossi, Roberta; Fidati, Laura; Paracucchi, Romina; Scargetta, Silvia; Montalbani, Elena; Franzetti, Andrea; La Porta, Gianandrea; Fagotti, Anna; Simonceli, Francesca; Cenci, Giovanni; Di Rosa, Ines

    2015-01-01

    In human and wildlife populations, the natural microbiota plays an important role in health maintenance and the prevention of emerging infectious diseases. In amphibians, infectious diseases have been closely associated with population decline and extinction worldwide. Skin symbiont communities have been suggested as one of the factors driving the different susceptibilities of amphibians to diseases. The activity of the skin microbiota of amphibians against fungal pathogens, such as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been examined extensively, whereas its protective role towards the cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the cutaneous microbiota of the Italian stream frog (Rana italica) and characterized the microbial assemblages of frogs uninfected and infected by Amphibiocystidium using the Illumina next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 629 different OTUs belonging to 16 different phyla were detected. Bacterial populations shared by all individuals represented only one fifth of all OTUs and were dominated by a small number of OTUs. Statistical analyses based on Bray-Curtis distances showed that uninfected and infected specimens had distinct cutaneous bacterial community structures. Phylotypes belonging to the genera Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium were more abundant, and sometimes almost exclusively present, in uninfected than in infected specimens. These bacterial populations, known to exhibit antifungal activity in amphibians, may also play a role in protection against cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites. PMID:26370166

  8. Emerging Pathogen in Wild Amphibians and Frogs (Rana catesbeiana) Farmed for International Trade

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Rolando; Daszak, Peter; Apolo, Ada; Perdomo, Eugenio; Speranza, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is an emerging disease responsible for global decline and extinction of amphibians. We report the causative agent, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) farmed for the international restaurant trade. Our findings suggest that international trade may play a key role in the global dissemination of this and other emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. PMID:12967500

  9. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in three species of wild frogs on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Forzán, M J; Vanderstichel, R; Hogan, N S; Teather, K; Wood, J

    2010-09-01

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has resulted in the decline or extinction of approximately 200 frog species worldwide. It has been reported throughout much of North America, but its presence on Prince Edward Island (PEI), on the eastern coast of Canada, was unknown. To determine the presence and prevalence of Bd on PEI, skin swabs were collected from 115 frogs from 18 separate sites across the province during the summer of 2009. The swabs were tested through single round end-point PCR for the presence of Bd DNA. Thirty-one frogs were positive, including 25/93 (27%) green frogs Lithobates (Rana) clamitans, 5/20 (25%) northern leopard frogs L. (R.) pipiens, and 1/2 (50%) wood frogs L. sylvaticus (formerly R. sylvatica); 12 of the 18 (67%) sites had at least 1 positive frog. The overall prevalence of Bd infection was estimated at 26.9% (7.2-46.7%, 95% CI). Prevalence amongst green frogs and leopard frogs was similar, but green frogs had a stronger PCR signal when compared to leopard frogs, regardless of age (p < 0.001) and body length (p = 0.476). Amongst green frogs, juveniles were more frequently positive than adults (p = 0.001). Green frogs may be the most reliable species to sample when looking for Bd in eastern North America. The 1 wood frog positive for Bd was found dead from chytridiomycosis; none of the other frogs that were positive for Bd by PCR showed any obvious signs of illness. Further monitoring will be required to determine what effect Bd infection has on amphibian population health on PEI.

  10. Muscle: the predominant glucose-producing organ in the leopard frog during exercise.

    PubMed

    Fournier, P A; Guderley, H

    1993-02-01

    Although liver is thought to be the major glucose-producing organ in vertebrates, it is not the major source responsible for the accumulation of glucose in frogs during burst activity. This is indicated by the absence of significant changes in liver glycogen levels during exercise, the inability of the maximal reported rate of hepatic glucose production in vitro to account for the increase in the glucose content of the frog, and from the observation that hepatectomized and normal frogs accumulate similar amounts of glucose in their muscles and body during exercise. We conclude that most glucose that accumulates in the body during exercise originates in muscle because two-thirds of body glucose is found in muscle and because the intracellular levels of muscle glucose rise well above plasma levels. The glucose that accumulates outside muscle is also likely to originate in muscle. The most likely metabolic source of the glucose produced by muscle is the glycogen hydrolyzed by amylo-1,6-glucosidase. PMID:8447479

  11. Helminth parasites of the leopard frog Lithobates sp. Colima (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Colima, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Garrido-Olvera, Lorena; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2010-08-01

    The helminth fauna inhabiting Lithobates sp. Colima from Ticuizitán, Colima, Mexico, comprises 10 species: 4 digeneans ( Clinostomum sp., Glypthelmins quieta , Haematoloechus sp., and Langeronia macrocirra ), 5 nematodes ( Aplectana itzocanensis , Cosmocerca podicipinus , Foleyellides striatus , Oswaldocruzia subauricularis , and Rhabdias sp.), and 1 cestode (Cyclophyllidea). Glypthelmins quieta , L. macrocirra , and A. itzocanensis represent new host records. These observations, added to previous records from Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, indicate that the helminth fauna of Lithobates sp. from Colima comprises 25 taxa. Frogs are being parasitized by 3 infection routes: ingestion of intermediate host, skin penetration by larval forms, and transmission by vectors. Species of Aplectana , Cosmocerca , Foleyellides , and Oswaldocruzia occurred in high prevalence in Colima, similar to a previous study on the same frog species from Guerrero. In Colima, Glypthelmins , Haematoloechus , and Rhabdias also occurred in high prevalence. Haematoloechus species reached the highest mean intensity in both localities. The semiaquatic habits of this species of frog and the availability of particular feeding resources appear to determine the helminth composition and infection levels; however, co-speciation events also play an important role structuring these helminth communities.

  12. Species boundaries, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the red-legged frog (Rana aurora/draytonii) complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, H. Bradley; Fellers, Gary M.; Voss, S. Randal; Oliver, J. C.; Pauly, Gregory B.

    2004-01-01

    The red-legged frog, Rana aurora, has been recognized as both a single, polytypic species and as two distinct species since its original description 150 years ago. It is currently recognized as one species with two geographically contiguous subspecies, aurora and draytonii; the latter is protected under the US Endangered Species Act. We present the results of a survey of 50 populations of red-legged frogs from across their range plus four outgroup species for variation in a phylogenetically informative, ∼400 base pairs (bp) fragment of the mitochondrial cytochromeb gene. Our mtDNA analysis points to several major results. (1) In accord with several other lines of independent evidence, aurora and draytonii are each diagnosably distinct, evolutionary lineages; the mtDNA data indicate that they do not constitute a monophyletic group, but rather that aurora and R. cascadae from the Pacific northwest are sister taxa; (2) the range of thedraytonii mtDNA clade extends about 100 km further north in coastal California than was previously suspected, and corresponds closely with the range limits or phylogeographical breaks of several codistributed taxa; (3) a narrow zone of overlap exists in southern Mendocino County between aurora and draytonii haplotypes, rather than a broad intergradation zone; and (4) the critically endangered population of draytonii in Riverside County, CA forms a distinct clade with frogs from Baja California, Mexico. The currently available evidence favours recognition of auroraand draytonii as separate species with a narrow zone of overlap in northern California.

  13. Regulation of cell cycle components during exposure to anoxia or dehydration stress in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Roufayel, Rabih; Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2011-10-01

    The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) exhibits a well-developed natural anoxia and dehydration tolerance. The degree of stress tolerance depends on numerous biochemical adaptations, including stress-induced hypometabolism that helps to preserve long-term viability by reducing ATP demand. We hypothesized that the mechanisms involved in cell cycle control could act to aid in the establishment of the hypometabolic state required for stress survival. Selected proteins involved in the proliferation of cells were evaluated using immunoblotting in liver and skeletal muscle of wood frogs comparing controls with animals subjected to either 24-hr anoxia exposure under a nitrogen gas atmosphere or dehydration to 40% of total body water lost (all at 5°C). Levels of cyclins (type A, B, D, and E) decreased significantly under both stresses in liver and skeletal muscle. Similar reductions were seen for Cyclin-dependant kinases (Cdk) types 2, 4, and 6 in both liver and skeletal muscle; however, an increase in the relative amount of phosphorylated inactive p-Cdk (Thr14/Tyr15) was observed in liver under both stresses. Levels of positive regulators of Cdk activity (Cdc25 type A and C) were significantly reduced in both tissues under both stresses, whereas negative regulators of Cdk activity (p16(INK4a) and p27(KIP1) ) increased significantly in liver under both anoxia and dehydration stress (but not in muscle). This study provides the first report of differential regulation of cell cycle components in an anoxia and dehydration tolerant vertebrate, the wood frog, suggesting that cell cycle suppression is an active part of stress resistance and life extension in hypometabolic states.

  14. Antimicrobial properties of two purified skin peptides from the Mink Frog (Rana septentrionalis) against bacteria isolated from the natural habitat

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Jonathan W.; Zalinger, Zachary B.; Bevier, Catherine R.; Fekete, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Numerous peptides exhibiting antimicrobial properties have been isolated from the skins of many amphibian species. These peptides offer an innate chemical defense system against various microbial agents that exist in the amphibian's environment. Amphibian skin peptides are typically tested for antimicrobial activity against microbial strains that are pathogenic to humans, but not on potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria that exist in the organism's habitat. Two peptides, a brevinin-2 related peptide and temporin-1SPb previously isolated from secretions of the Mink Frog, Rana septentrionalis, were tested for antimicrobial activity on bacterial isolates endemic to the frog's habitat. Ten isolates were identified, using 16S rRNA sequencing techniques, in the genera Pseudomonas, Serratia, Bacillus, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Microbacterium, and Delftia. Bacterial isolates were tested with peptides at concentrations ranging from 0.8 μM to 1000 μM to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to inhibit growth. Growth of four of the isolates was inhibited by temporin-1SPb at the concentrations used, but all of the isolates were inhibited by the brevinin-2 related within the range of peptide concentrations used. This demonstrates the efficacy of both peptides as a component of the frog's innate chemical defense system. PMID:17499556

  15. Genetic relationships among Korean brown frog species (Anura, Ranidae), with special reference to evolutionary divergences between two allied species Rana dybowskii and R. huanrenensis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Bum; Min, Mi-Sook; Yang, Suh-Yung; Matsui, Masafumi

    2002-03-01

    Allozyme analysis for 41 populations of brown frog species, Rana dybowskii, R. huanrenensis, and R. amurensis from Korea and three reference species (Chinese R. chensinensis and Japanese R. dybowskii and R. tsushimensis), were performed to clarify taxonomic status of Korean brown frogs. The level of average genetic differentiation (Nei's D) among local populations of each species in Korea was very low (D<0.01 2) and Korean and Japanese R. dybowskii also showed conspecific level of differentiation (D=0.070). Whereas, much larger, discrete genetic differences were detected in the interspecific comparisons (D>0.370). In the genetic relationships among five species examined, the 24 chromosome brown frogs (R. dybowskii, R. huanrenensis, and R. chensinensis) did not form a monophyletic group. Rana dybowskii with the chromosome number of 2n=24 was grouped together with R. amurensis with the chromosome number of 2n=26. The hypothesis of reversal change from 24 to 26 in Korean R. amurensis seems to better explain the phylogenetic relationships of east Asian brown frogs than the assumption of parallel reduction in chromosome number from 2n=26 to 24 in R. dybowskii and in the common ancestor of R. huanrenensis and R. chensinensis. The genetic, morphological, and reproductive divergences between Korean R. dybowskii and R. huanrenensis were compared.

  16. The tactile-stimulated startle response of tadpoles: acceleration performance and its relationship to the anatomy of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Eidietis, Laura

    2006-04-01

    I described the tactile-stimulated startle response (TSR) of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. One purpose was to rank species in terms of maximum acceleration performance. Also, I tested whether anatomical indicators of performance potential were predictive of realized performance. TSRs were elicited in a laboratory setting, filmed at 250 Hz, and digitally analyzed. TSRs began with two, initial body curls during which tadpoles showed a broad spectrum of movement patterns. TSR performance was quantified by maximum linear acceleration and maximum rotational acceleration of the head/body, both of which tended to occur immediately upon initiation of motion (< 0.012 sec into the response). Bullfrog tadpoles had higher maximum acceleration than the other species, but other interspecific differences were not significant. The species' rank order for the anatomical indicator of linear acceleration potential was bullfrog > wood frog > American toad. The species' rank order for the anatomical indicator of rotational acceleration potential was bullfrog > wood frog = American toad. Thus, the anatomical indicators roughly predicted the rank order of interspecific average performance. However, the anatomical indicators did not correlate with individual tadpole performance. Variability in behavioral patterns may obscure the connection between anatomy and performance. This is seen in the current lack of intraspecific correlation between a morphological indicator of acceleration capacity and acceleration performance. PMID:16493644

  17. The tactile-stimulated startle response of tadpoles: acceleration performance and its relationship to the anatomy of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Eidietis, Laura

    2006-04-01

    I described the tactile-stimulated startle response (TSR) of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. One purpose was to rank species in terms of maximum acceleration performance. Also, I tested whether anatomical indicators of performance potential were predictive of realized performance. TSRs were elicited in a laboratory setting, filmed at 250 Hz, and digitally analyzed. TSRs began with two, initial body curls during which tadpoles showed a broad spectrum of movement patterns. TSR performance was quantified by maximum linear acceleration and maximum rotational acceleration of the head/body, both of which tended to occur immediately upon initiation of motion (< 0.012 sec into the response). Bullfrog tadpoles had higher maximum acceleration than the other species, but other interspecific differences were not significant. The species' rank order for the anatomical indicator of linear acceleration potential was bullfrog > wood frog > American toad. The species' rank order for the anatomical indicator of rotational acceleration potential was bullfrog > wood frog = American toad. Thus, the anatomical indicators roughly predicted the rank order of interspecific average performance. However, the anatomical indicators did not correlate with individual tadpole performance. Variability in behavioral patterns may obscure the connection between anatomy and performance. This is seen in the current lack of intraspecific correlation between a morphological indicator of acceleration capacity and acceleration performance.

  18. Rangewide phylogeography and landscape genetics of the Western U.S. endemic frog Rana boylii (Ranidae): Implications for the conservation of frogs and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, A.J.; Spinks, P.Q.; Fellers, G.M.; Shaffer, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data are increasingly being used in conservation planning for declining species. We sampled both the ecological and distributional limits of the foothill yellow-legged frog, Rana boylii to characterize mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in this declining, riverine amphibian. We evaluated 1525 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b and ND2 fragments for 77 individuals from 34 localities using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. We constructed gene trees using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, and quantified genetic variance (using AMOVA and partial Mantel tests) within and among hydrologic regions and river basins. Several moderately supported, geographically-cohesive mtDNA clades were recovered for R. boylii. While genetic variation was low among populations in the largest, most inclusive clade, samples from localities at the edges of the geographic range demonstrated substantial genetic divergence from each other and from more central populations. Hydrologic regions and river basins, which represent likely dispersal corridors for R. boylii, accounted for significant levels of genetic variation. These results suggest that both rivers and larger hydrologic and geographic regions should be used in conservation planning for R. boylii. ?? 2010 US Government.

  19. Ameliorative effects of sodium chloride on acute copper toxicity among Cope's gray tree frog (Hyla chrysoscelis) and green frog (Rana clamitans) embryos.

    PubMed

    Brown, Maria G; Dobbs, Emily K; Snodgrass, Joel W; Ownby, David R

    2012-04-01

    Urban stormwater runoff is composed of a mixture of components, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, deicing agents, and many others. The fate of these chemicals is often in stormwater detention ponds that are used by amphibians for breeding. Among aquatic organisms, the toxic mechanism for many metals involves interference with active Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake. Addition of cations has been shown to reduce the toxicity of metals among some aquatic organisms through competitive inhibition, but no studies have investigated the interaction between NaCl and Cu among amphibian embryos and larvae. To determine the degree to which NaCl may ameliorate the toxicity of Cu to amphibian embryos and larvae, the authors exposed Hyla chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrogs) and Rana (Lithobates) clamitans (green frogs) to seven levels of Cu and NaCl in fully factorial experiments. When exposure was in artificial hard water, Cu was highly toxic to both species (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 44.7 µg/L and 162.6 µg/L for H. chrysoscelis and R. clamitans, respectively). However, approximately 500 mg/L of NaCl eliminated Cu toxicity over the range of Cu concentrations used in the experiments (maximum 150 µg Cu/L for H. chrysoscelis and 325 µg Cu/L for R. clamitans). The current results suggest that NaCl is likely responsible for the toxic effects of NaCl and metal mixtures that might be typical of runoff from road surfaces in northern latitudes.

  20. Chemopreventive Effect of Cinnamon Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Physiological Changes in the Frog, Rana ridibunda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    The present study examined the preventive influences of an aqueous extract of cinnamon on carbon tetrachloride-induced some physiological alterations in the frog, Rana ridibunda. The experimental animals were divided into five batches. The first batch was untreated and served as control. The other batches were treated for 6 weeks with carbon tetrachloride, cinnamon extract plus carbon tetrachloride, cinnamon and corn oil, respectively. Haematological, biochemical and hepatosomatic index indices were chosen as physiological indicators. These parameters were evaluated at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. In comparison with control and cinnamon plus CCl4 batches, significant decreases of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and increases of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase values were noted in CCl4-exposed batch at all experimental periods. Also, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and hepatosomatic index levels were significantly elevated, while mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were decreased at second and last periods. Mean cell volume values were only increased at the first period. In comparison with control batch, significant decreases of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, and increases of glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase and hepatosomatic index values were observed in frogs treated with cinnamon plus CCl4 at 2 and 6 weeks. Mean cell volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were statistically elevated at second period. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration values were declined at last period. Moreover, the percentage changes of these parameters in cinnamon plus CCl4 batch tended to be lower than CCl4 treated the experimental animals. In addition, it is conceivable therefore, that the cinnamon aqueous extract exhibits a protective influence against carbon tetrachloride-induced some physiological changes, probably mediated

  1. Parathyroid hormone-related protein in tissues of the emerging frog (Rana temporaria): immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation

    PubMed Central

    DANKS, J. A.; McHALE, J. C.; MARTIN, T. J.; INGLETON, P. M.

    1997-01-01

    Using antiserum to human parathyroid hormone-related protein (1–16) [PTHrP(1–16)] we have examined tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria) for the presence of immunoreactive PTHrP (irPTHrP) at the stage of emergence from water to land. irPTHrP was detected in dorsal and ventral stratum granulosum of the skin, in the developing ovary, striated muscle and the choroid plexus epithelium of the brain as well as in the olfactory gland epithelium and olfactory lobe neurons of the brain. In the pituitary and hypothalamus irPTHrP protein could be demonstrated in the median eminence, infundibular stem and principally in the neural lobe and pars distalis of the pituitary with weak reaction in the pars intermedia. In situ hybridisation of the same tissues with an oligonucleotide probe to chicken PTHrP 55–65 clearly showed the presence of mRNA for PTHrP-like molecule in all the tissues containing irPTHrP. There was a major inconsistency in the pituitary in that the highest level of gene expression, assessed by in situ hybridisation, was found in the pars intermedia with only very low expression in the pars distalis and neural lobe and undetectable levels in the infundibular stem and median eminence. These observations suggest that tissues of the frog synthesise a PTHrP-like molecule but that in the pituitary the pars intermedia cells may export the protein to cells in other regions of the pituitary and hypothalamus. PMID:9061446

  2. Hepatic metallothioneins in molecular responses to cobalt, zinc, and their nanoscale polymeric composites in frog Rana ridibunda.

    PubMed

    Falfushynska, Halina; Gnatyshyna, Lesya; Fedoruk, Olga; Mitina, Natalia; Zaichenko, Alexander; Stoliar, Oksana; Stoika, Rostyslav

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies suggesting a dramatic decline of amphibians, the biochemical mechanisms of adaptation in these animals to polluted environment are poorly studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the ability to release cobalt (Co) and zinc (Zn) from their nanoscale complexes (NCs) derived from the polymeric substance of N-vinylpyrrolidone (PS) in the liver of amphibian (Rana ridibunda). Frog males were subjected to 14days exposure to waterborne Co(2+) (50μg/L), Zn(2+) (100μg/L), as well as corresponding concentrations of Co-NC, Zn-NC or PS. Main attention was paid to MT's interrelations with indices of stress and toxicity. Only Co(2+) and Zn(2+) caused elevation of the correspondent metal in MTs. Co(2+) caused down-regulation of cathepsin D activity, while Zn(2+), Zn-NC and the PS up-regulated this activity. Zn(2+) provoked 1.6 times increase of metal-bounded form of the MT (MT-Me), while all other exposures caused the elevation of the ratio of MT total protein concentration (MT-SH) and concentrations of the MT-Me and/or immunoreactive (MTi) form (up to ~10 times) accompanied by a decrease in the levels of oxyradicals. The increased DNA fragmentation and down-regulation of caspase-3 activity in relation to the redox state of glutathione and/or lactate/pyruvate were shown at all exposures. These data indicate the vulnerability of the redox state of cellular thiols and inability to release Co and Zn from NCs in frog's liver.

  3. Water flow across the walls of single muscle capillaries in the frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Curry, F E; Frøkjaer-Jensen, J

    1984-05-01

    Individual capillaries of the transilluminated frog muscle cutaneous pectoris were perfused with suspensions of human red cells in frog Ringer solution containing 1 g/dl bovine serum albumin. The modified Landis technique (Michel, Mason, Curry & Tooke, 1974) was used to measure hydraulic conductivities of the capillary wall. Sucrose osmotic reflexion coefficients of the capillary wall were measured in four capillaries when the superfusate contained 100 mM-sucrose. All experiments were made at 22-24 degrees C. The hydraulic conductivity of arterial capillaries varied from 0.3 to 1.26 X 10(-7) cm/(s cmH2O) with a mean of 0.79 X 10(-7) cm/(s cmH2O) (six capillaries). The hydraulic conductivities of mid-capillaries varied from 0.43 to 1.86 X 10(-7) cm/(s cmH2O) with a mean value of 0.72 X 10(-7) cm/(s cmH2O) (six capillaries). The mean reflexion coefficient to sucrose was 0.12 +/- 0.05 (S.D.). The measured reflexion coefficients to sucrose conform to the hypothesis that 90% of the transcapillary water flow crosses the capillary wall via the principal hydrophilic pathway. The remaining 10% crosses via an exclusive water pathway. The distribution of water flow is similar to that previously described in frog mesenteric capillaries. The mean value of the hydraulic conductivity of frog muscle capillaries is about one-seventh the mean value of the hydraulic conductivity of frog mesenteric capillaries measured at the same temperature. The result conforms to the hypothesis that only a small fraction (mean 10%) of the area of junctional contact between adjacent endothelial cells is available for water and solute exchange in frog muscle capillaries. The hydraulic and diffusional conductances per unit length of open junction appear to be very similar when muscle capillaries are compared to mesenteric capillaries in the frog. Our results lead us to speculate that structures within the intercellular junctions determine the extent of open junction and may modulate the hydraulic

  4. Water flow across the walls of single muscle capillaries in the frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, F E; Frøkjaer-Jensen, J

    1984-01-01

    Individual capillaries of the transilluminated frog muscle cutaneous pectoris were perfused with suspensions of human red cells in frog Ringer solution containing 1 g/dl bovine serum albumin. The modified Landis technique (Michel, Mason, Curry & Tooke, 1974) was used to measure hydraulic conductivities of the capillary wall. Sucrose osmotic reflexion coefficients of the capillary wall were measured in four capillaries when the superfusate contained 100 mM-sucrose. All experiments were made at 22-24 degrees C. The hydraulic conductivity of arterial capillaries varied from 0.3 to 1.26 X 10(-7) cm/(s cmH2O) with a mean of 0.79 X 10(-7) cm/(s cmH2O) (six capillaries). The hydraulic conductivities of mid-capillaries varied from 0.43 to 1.86 X 10(-7) cm/(s cmH2O) with a mean value of 0.72 X 10(-7) cm/(s cmH2O) (six capillaries). The mean reflexion coefficient to sucrose was 0.12 +/- 0.05 (S.D.). The measured reflexion coefficients to sucrose conform to the hypothesis that 90% of the transcapillary water flow crosses the capillary wall via the principal hydrophilic pathway. The remaining 10% crosses via an exclusive water pathway. The distribution of water flow is similar to that previously described in frog mesenteric capillaries. The mean value of the hydraulic conductivity of frog muscle capillaries is about one-seventh the mean value of the hydraulic conductivity of frog mesenteric capillaries measured at the same temperature. The result conforms to the hypothesis that only a small fraction (mean 10%) of the area of junctional contact between adjacent endothelial cells is available for water and solute exchange in frog muscle capillaries. The hydraulic and diffusional conductances per unit length of open junction appear to be very similar when muscle capillaries are compared to mesenteric capillaries in the frog. Our results lead us to speculate that structures within the intercellular junctions determine the extent of open junction and may modulate the hydraulic

  5. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria).

    PubMed

    Strong, Rebecca J; Halsall, Crispin J; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-06-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles collected from ponds with differing water quality. Small differences in spectral signatures were revealed between a rural agricultural pond and an urban pond receiving wastewater and landfill run-off; these were limited to the liver and heart, although large differences in body size were apparent, surprisingly with tadpoles from the urban site larger than those from the rural site. Large differences in liver spectra were found between tadpoles from the pesticide and nutrient impacted pond compared to the rural agricultural pond, particularly in regions associated with lipids. Liver mass and hepatosomatic indices were found to be significantly increased in tadpoles from the site impacted by pesticides and trace organic chemicals, suggestive of exposure to environmental contamination. Significant alterations were also found in muscle tissue between tadpoles from these two ponds in regions associated with glycogen, potentially indicative of a stress response. This study highlights the use of IR spectroscopy, a low-cost, rapid and reagent-free technique in the biomonitoring of a class of organisms susceptible to environmental degradation. PMID:26925755

  6. Accumulation and pharmacokinetics of estrogenic chemicals in the pre- and post-hatch embryos of the frog Rana rugosa.

    PubMed

    Takase, Minoru; Shinto, Hideaki; Takao, Yuji; Iguchi, Taisen

    2012-01-01

    Amphibian eggs spawned in water are exposed immediately to various chemicals present in their water. The present study aimed to investigate the accumulation and pharmacokinetics of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE(2)), bisphenol A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP), as well as 17β-estradiol (E(2)), in the pre-hatch and post-hatch embryos of the frog Rana rugosa. Fertilized eggs were exposed to chemicals at a final concentration of 500 nM in breeding water for two days, then the embryos with jelly coats were reared in fresh-breeding water without supplementation of the xenoestrogens for six more days. All exogenous chemicals were concentrated in the embryo body at two days after fertilization, whereas their concentrations in the jelly coat were the same as those in the breeding water. The bioconcentration factors for E(2), EE(2), BPA, and NP were 217.9, 170.2, 382.3, and 289.1, respectively, suggesting that the estrogenic chemicals were concentrated in the embryo body through the jelly coat.

  7. Thermal acclimation of metabolic rate may be seasonally dependent in the subtropical anuran Latouche's frog (Rana latouchii, Boulenger).

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Mou; Lucy Hou, Ping-Chun

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the lack of metabolic thermal acclimation ability in tropical and subtropical amphibians is dependent on season and investigated the effects of body size, sex, time of day, and season on metabolic rates in Rana latouchii. The males were acclimated at 15 degrees, 20 degrees, and 25 degrees C, and their oxygen consumption was measured at 15 degrees, 20 degrees, 25 degrees, and 30 degrees C in all four seasons, with the exception that we did not measure oxygen consumption at 30 degrees C in winter frogs. We also acclimated the males at 30 degrees C in summer for investigating diel variation of metabolic rate. The females were acclimated at 20 degrees and 25 degrees C, and their oxygen consumption was measured at 15 degrees , 20 degrees , 25 degrees , and 30 degrees C in summer. Our results showed that metabolic rates of R. latouchii differed by time of day, season, and acclimation temperature but did not differ by sex if the results were adjusted for differences in body mass. Summer males exhibited a 26%-48% increase in metabolic rates from the lowest values in the seasons. There was a trend of increased oxygen consumption in cold-acclimated males, but it was significant only at 15 degrees and 25 degrees C in summer, autumn, and winter. These results support the hypothesis that thermal acclimation of metabolism is seasonally dependent, which has not been reported in other tropical and subtropical amphibians.

  8. Evolutionary dynamics of a rapidly receding southern range boundary in the threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Barr, Kelly R.; Backlin, Adam R.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Populations forming the edge of a species range are often imperiled by isolation and low genetic diversity, with proximity to human population centers being a major determinant of edge stability in modern landscapes. Since the 1960s, the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) has undergone extensive declines in heavily urbanized southern California, where the range edge has rapidly contracted northward while shifting its cardinal orientation to an east-west trending axis. We studied the genetic structure and diversity of these frontline populations, tested for signatures of contemporary disturbance, specifically fire, and attempted to disentangle these signals from demographic events extending deeper into the past. Consistent with the genetic expectations of the ‘abundant-center’ model, we found that diversity, admixture, and opportunity for random mating increases in populations sampled successively further away from the range boundary. Demographic simulations indicate that bottlenecks in peripheral isolates are associated with processes extending tens to a few hundred generations in the past, despite the demographic collapse of some due to recent fire-flood events. While the effects of recent disturbance have left little genetic imprint on these populations, they likely contribute to an extinction debt that will lead to continued range contraction unless management intervenes to stall or reverse the process.

  9. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis).

    PubMed

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-04-01

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes. PMID:24552840

  10. Sodium arsenite induced changes in survival, growth, metamorphosis and genotoxicity in the Indian cricket frog (Rana limnocharis).

    PubMed

    Singha, Utsab; Pandey, Neelam; Boro, Freeman; Giri, Sarbani; Giri, Anirudha; Biswas, Somava

    2014-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of the environment is a matter of great concern. Understanding the effects of arsenic on aquatic life will act as biological early warning system to assess how arsenic could shape the biodiversity in the affected areas. Rapid decline in amphibian population in recent decades is a cause of major concern. Over the years, amphibians have been recognized as excellent bio-indicators of environmental related stress. In the present study, we examined the toxic and genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite in the tadpoles of the Indian cricket frog (Rana limnocharis). Sodium arsenite at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg L(-1)) neither induced lethality nor significantly altered body weight at metamorphosis. However, it accelerated the rate of metamorphosis at higher concentrations, reduced body size (snout-vent length) and induced developmental deformities such as loss of limbs. Besides, at concentration ranges between 100 and 400 μg L(-1), sodium arsenite induced statistically significant genotoxicity at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of the exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. However, it did not show time effects as the highest frequency was found between 48 and 72 h which remained steady subsequently. The genotoxicity was confirmed by comet assay in the whole blood cells. These findings suggest that arsenic at environmentally relevant concentrations has significant sub-lethal effects on R.limnocharis, which may have long-term fitness consequence to the species and may have similar implications in other aquatic life too.

  11. Conservation genetics of evolutionary lineages of the endangered mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa (Amphibia: Ranidae), in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoville, Sean D.; Tustall, Tate S.; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Severe population declines led to the listing of southern California Rana muscosa (Ranidae) as endangered in 2002. Nine small populations inhabit watersheds in three isolated mountain ranges, the San Gabriel, San Bernardino and San Jacinto. One population from the Dark Canyon tributary in the San Jacinto Mountains has been used to establish a captive breeding population at the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. Because these populations may still be declining, it is critical to gather information on how genetic variation is structured in these populations and what historical inter-population connectivity existed between populations. Additionally, it is not clear whether these populations are rapidly losing genetic diversity due to population bottlenecks. Using mitochondrial and microsatellite data, we examine patterns of genetic variation in southern California and one of the last remaining populations of R. muscosa in the southern Sierra Nevada. We find low levels of genetic variation within each population and evidence of genetic bottlenecks. Additionally, substantial population structure is evident, suggesting a high degree of historical isolation within and between mountain ranges. Based on estimates from a multi-population isolation with migration analysis, these populations diversified during glacial episodes of the Pleistocene, with little gene flow during population divergence. Our data demonstrate that unique evolutionary lineages of R. muscosa occupy each mountain range in southern California and should be managed separately. The captive breeding program at Dark Canyon is promising, although mitigating the loss of neutral genetic diversity relative to the natural population might require additional breeding frogs.

  12. Status of the California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii) in the State of Baja California, México

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peralta-Garcia, Anny; Hellingsworth, Bradford D.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Valdez-Villavicencio, Jorge H.; Ruiz-Campos, Gorgonio; Fisher, Robert N.; Cruz-Hernandez, Pedro; Galina-Tessaro, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii) is a threatened species in the United States that has undergone population declines, especially in southern California. Due to the lack of information on the status of Mexican populations, we surveyed for the presence of R. draytonii in Baja California and assessed possible threats to population persistence. Our study area extended from the U.S.-Mexican border to the southern end of the distribution of the species in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir. We found R. draytonii at six of 15 historical sites, none at five proxy sites (i.e., alternative sites chosen because the historical record lacked precise locality data), and four at 24 additional sites. The 10 occupied sites are within three watersheds in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (two sites at Arroyo San Rafael, two sites at Arroyo San Telmo, and six sites at Arroyo Santo Domingo). We did not detect R. draytonii at 60% of historical sites, including the highest elevation site at La Encantada and multiple low-elevation coastal drainages, suggesting the species has declined in Baja California. The threats we noted most frequently were presence of exotic aquatic animal species, water diversion, and cattle grazing. Management of remaining populations and local education is needed to prevent further declines.

  13. Removal of nonnative fish results in population expansion of a declining amphibian (mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Roland A; Boiano, Daniel M; Vredenburg, Vance T

    2007-02-01

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) was once a common inhabitant of the Sierra Nevada (California, USA), but has declined precipitously during the past century due in part to the introduction of nonnative fish into naturally fishless habitats. The objectives of the current study were to describe (1) the effect of fish removal from three lakes (located in two watersheds) on the small, remnant R. muscosa populations inhabiting those lakes, and (2) the initial development of metapopulation structure in each watershed as R. muscosa from expanding populations in fish-removal lakes dispersed to adjacent habitats. At all three fish-removal lakes, R. muscosa population densities increased significantly following the removal of predatory fish. The magnitude of these increases was significantly greater than that observed over the same time period in R. muscosa populations inhabiting control lakes that remained in their natural fishless condition. Following these population increases, R. muscosa dispersed to adjacent suitable (but unoccupied) sites, moving between 200 and 900 m along streams or across dry land. Together, these results suggest that large-scale removal of introduced fish could result in at least partial reversal of the decline of R. muscosa. Continued monitoring of R. muscosa at the fish-removal sites will be necessary to determine whether the positive effects of fish eradication are sustained over the long-term, especially in light of the increasingly important role played by an emerging infectious disease (chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in influencing R. muscosa populations. PMID:17396156

  14. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis).

    PubMed

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-04-01

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes.

  15. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria).

    PubMed

    Strong, Rebecca J; Halsall, Crispin J; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-06-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles collected from ponds with differing water quality. Small differences in spectral signatures were revealed between a rural agricultural pond and an urban pond receiving wastewater and landfill run-off; these were limited to the liver and heart, although large differences in body size were apparent, surprisingly with tadpoles from the urban site larger than those from the rural site. Large differences in liver spectra were found between tadpoles from the pesticide and nutrient impacted pond compared to the rural agricultural pond, particularly in regions associated with lipids. Liver mass and hepatosomatic indices were found to be significantly increased in tadpoles from the site impacted by pesticides and trace organic chemicals, suggestive of exposure to environmental contamination. Significant alterations were also found in muscle tissue between tadpoles from these two ponds in regions associated with glycogen, potentially indicative of a stress response. This study highlights the use of IR spectroscopy, a low-cost, rapid and reagent-free technique in the biomonitoring of a class of organisms susceptible to environmental degradation.

  16. Alterations of biochemical parameters in malformed Indian rice frogs, Rana limnocharis from Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Wu, Jui-Pin; Huang, Da-Ji

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that cause malformed frogs in upstream Kaoping river (KP site) and Tungkang river (T site) of Southern Taiwan. In this experiment, the activities of monooxygenase (MO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AchE) as well as the concentration of vitellogenin (Vg) in the liver were measured. Results show that activities of MO, GST and AchE, and Vg levels in normal frogs (male/female) were 0.09 +/- 0.02/0.09+/-0.01 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 0.12 +/- 0.04/0.13 +/- 0.04 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 6.13 +/- 2.69/6.01 +/- 2.09 U mg(-1) protein and 0.87 +/- 0.42/2.18 +/- 0.50 microg mg(-1) protein, respectively. Activities of MO, GST and AchE, and Vg levels in malformed frogs (male/female) were 0.15 +/- 0.04/0.21 +/- 0.07 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 0.27 +/- 0.08/0.30 +/- 0.12 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 4.59 +/- 2.71/5.19 +/- 3.74 U mg(-1) protein and 1.46 +/- 0.61/3.15 +/- 0.88 microg mg(-1) protein, respectively in KP site, and were 0.16 +/- 0.69/0.1 +/- 80.07 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 0.21 +/- 0.07/0.24 +/- 0.08 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 5.13 +/- 4.58/3.94 +/- 1.33 U mg(-1) protein and 2.23 +/- 1.47/4.11 +/- 1.63 microg mg(-1) protein, respectively in T site. These results indicate that male and female malformed frogs in both rivers upstream are found with higher activities. No significant difference in AchE activity was found between normal and malformed frogs in this investigation. It is therefore reasonable to speculate that the organic chemicals released from agricultural activities are presumable the main factors that lead to the malformation of frogs.

  17. Effects of herbicides and the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on the health of post-metamorphic northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens).

    PubMed

    Paetow, Linda J; Daniel McLaughlin, J; Cue, Roger I; Pauli, Bruce D; Marcogliese, David J

    2012-06-01

    Effects of exposure to contaminants such as pesticides along with exposure to pathogens have been listed as two major contributors to the global crisis of declining amphibian populations. These two factors have also been linked in explanations of the causes of these population declines. We conducted a combined exposure experiment to test the hypothesis that exposure to two agricultural herbicides would increase the susceptibility of post-metamorphic northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) to the amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We assessed the independent and interactive effects of these exposures on the health and survival of the frogs. Wild-caught frogs underwent a 21-day exposure to a nominal concentration of either 2.1 μg/L atrazine (Aatrex(®) Liquid 480) or 100 μg a.e./L glyphosate (Roundup(®) Original), followed by Bd, and then were observed until 94 days post-initial exposure to the herbicides. Actual levels of atrazine were between 4.28 ± 0.04 μg/L and 1.70 ± 0.26 μg/L while glyphosate degraded from 100 μg a.e./L to approximately 7 μg a.e./L within 6 days of initial exposure to the herbicides. Compared to controls, the glyphosate formulation reduced the snout-vent length of frogs during the pesticide exposure (at Day 21), and the atrazine formulation reduced gain in mass up to Day 94. No treatment affected survival, splenosomatic or hepatosomatic indices, the densities and sizes of hepatic and splenic melanomacrophage aggregates, the density and size of hepatic granulomas, proportions of circulating leucocytes, the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes, or the ratio of leucocytes to erythrocytes. Histological assessment of samples collected at Day 94 revealed no evidence of Bd infection in any Bd-exposed frogs, while real-time PCR detected only one case of light infection in a single atrazine- and Bd-exposed frog. Frogs exposed to Bd shed their skin significantly more frequently than Bd-unexposed frogs, which may

  18. Peptidomics and genomics analysis of novel antimicrobial peptides from the frog, Rana nigrovittata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufang; Liu, Cunbao; Liu, Xiuhong; Wu, Jing; Yang, Hailong; Wang, Yipeng; Li, Jianxu; Yu, Haining; Lai, Ren

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has been paid on amphibian peptides for their wide-ranging pharmacological properties, clinical potential, and gene-encoded origin. More than 300 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from amphibians have been studied. Peptidomics and genomics analysis combined with functional test including microorganism killing, histamine-releasing, and mast cell degranulation was used to investigate antimicrobial peptide diversity. Thirty-four novel AMPs from skin secretions of Rana nigrovittata were identified in current work, and they belong to 9 families, including 6 novel families. Other three families are classified into rugosin, gaegurin, and temporin family of amphibian AMP, respectively. These AMPs share highly conserved preproregions including signal peptides and spacer acidic peptides, while greatly diversified on mature peptides structures. In this work, peptidomics combined with genomics analysis was confirmed to be an effective way to identify amphibian AMPs, especially novel families. Some AMPs reported here will provide leading molecules for designing novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:19778602

  19. Comparison of diet, reproductive biology, and growth of the pig frog (Rana grylio) from harvested and protected areas of the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ugarte, C.A.; Rice, K.G.; Donnelly, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Distinct differences in body size exist among three Rana grylio populations in areas of the Florida Everglades that differ in frog harvest pressure and hydroperiod. Frogs from two populations are harvested regularly throughout the year, while those in the third are protected from harvest. We compared seasonal and sex differences in diet, reproduction, and growth across these populations to examine life-history patterns. By volume, crayfish and anurans were the most abundant prey items for all adults across sites. Frogs from drier sites consumed more crayfish than frogs from the wettest site. Anurans were abundant in the diet during the wet season, while crayfish and fish were abundant during the dry season. More frogs with empty stomachs were captured during the wet season than the dry season. Feeding, growth, and fat deposition were greatest during the dry season across all sites. Although females were found in all reproductive stages throughout the year, the highest percentage of females had mature ova during the late dry season and spent ovaries during the early wet season. Individual patterns of growth were similar across all sites and matched historical growth data from the 1950s. Differences in body size among sites were most likely attributable to differential mortality (i.e., harvest pressure, predation) rather than to differences in food access or growth. ?? 2007 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  20. Analysis of skin and secretions of Dybowski's frogs (Rana dybowskii) exposed to Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli identifies immune response proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiang-Hong; Miao, Hui-Min; Xu, Yi-Gang; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Chai, Long-Hui; Xu, Jia-Jia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate responses in Dybowski's frogs (Rana dybowskii) exposed to bacteria, using proteomic and transcriptomic approaches. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were used as representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively, in an infectious challenge model. Frog skin and skin secretions were collected and protein expression in infected frogs compared to control frogs by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, silver staining, and image analysis. Proteins that demonstrated differential expression were analysed by mass spectrometry and identified by searching protein databases. More than 180 protein spots demonstrated differential expression in E. coli- or S. aureus-challenged groups and, of these, more than 55 spots were up- or down-regulated at least sixfold, post-infection. Proteins with a potential function in the immune response were identified, such as stathmin 1a, annexin A1, superoxide dismutase A, C-type lectin, lysozyme, antimicrobial peptides, cofilin-1-B, mannose receptor, histone H4, prohormone convertase 1, carbonyl reductase 1 and some components of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling pathway. These molecules are potential candidates for further investigation of immune mechanisms in R. dybowskii; in particular, TLR-mediated responses, which might be activated in frogs exposed to pathogenic bacteria as part of innate immune defence, but which might also impact on adaptive immunity to infection.

  1. Evidence that the genes encoding the melittin-related peptides in the skins of the Japanese frogs Rana sakuraii and Rana tagoi are not orthologous to bee venom melittin genes: developmental- and tissue-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroe; Conlon, J Michael; Iwamuro, Shawichi

    2007-10-01

    The antimicrobial melittin-related peptides (MRPs) isolated from skin extracts of the Japanese frogs, Rana sakuraii and Rana tagoi, show amino acid sequence similarity with melittin from the venom of honeybees but the evolutionary relationship between the amphibian and insect peptides is unknown. cDNA clones encoding the MRP precursor (preproMRP) were obtained from R. sakuraii and R. tagoi skin total RNA. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the clones indicated that the preproMRPs are organized like typical amphibian antimicrobial peptide precursors, with a highly conserved signal peptide, a more variable intervening sequence, and a hypervariable mature peptide region. This organization is markedly different from that of prepromelittin, in which the melittin sequence is flanked by multiple Xaa-Pro and Xaa-Ala dipeptides. The data indicate, therefore, that the genes encoding frog skin MRPs are not orthologous to the genes encoding melittins from bee venom. In adult R. sakuraii specimens, preproMRP gene transcripts were detected in total RNA from skeletal muscle as well as skin but not from heart, stomach, small intestine, or liver. In R. tagoi, preproMRP mRNA was not detected in skin prior to the onset of metamorphosis, but its level increased markedly during metamorphosis reaching a maximum at the stages of metamorphic climax. PMID:17826868

  2. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Pond Use and Recruitment in Florida Gopher Frogs (Rana Capito aesopus)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, C.H.

    2000-05-16

    We examined spatio-temporal dynamics of the Florida Gopher frog breeding and juvenile recruitment. Ponds were situated in a hardwood or pine-savanna matrix of upland forest. Movement was monitored from 1994-1999. Adult pond use was low but relatively constant. Juvenile recruitment was higher in the upland savanna matrix. Body size was negatively correlated with the number of juveniles exiting the pond in only one year suggesting intraspecific competition is one of many factors. Most immigration occurred in May through August and was unrelated to rainfall.

  3. Changes in nuclear volume of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of the water frog (Rana Esculenta L.) in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Dziubek, K; Lach, H; Krawczyk, S

    1980-01-01

    In sexually mature female and male Rana esculenta L. frogs directly from natural habitat, in six characteristic periods of their life cycle, nuclear volume in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum was determined. Nuclear volume in Purkinje cells changed distinctly in the course of the year. Nuclear volume was greatest in females in the breeding period (3rd decade of May), and in males in the middle of the period of active life (2nd decade of July). Nuclear volume was the smallest at the beginning of hibernation (3rd decade of October).

  4. Distribution of extracellular matrix macromolecules in the vestibular nuclei and cerebellum of the frog, Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Gaál, B; Rácz, É; Juhász, T; Holló, K; Matesz, C

    2014-01-31

    The axons of transected and re-apposed vestibulocochlear nerve of the frog, in contrast to mammalian species, regenerate and establish functional contacts within their original termination areas of the vestibular nuclear complex and the cerebellum. The lack of regenerative capability of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is partially attributed to various extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) and tenascin-R (TN-R), which exert inhibition on axon regeneration. In contrast to these molecules, hyaluronan (HA) was reported to be permissive for CNS regeneration. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, we investigated the distribution pattern of these molecules in the medial (MVN), lateral (LVN), superior and descending vestibular nuclei and the cerebellum of the frog and detected regional differences in the organization of the ECM. In the vestibular nuclear complex, pericellular condensation of the ECM, the perineuronal nets (PNNs) were recognizable in the LVN and MVN and were positive only for HA. The neuropil of the vestibular nuclei showed either a diffuse appearance with varying intensity of reactions, or dots and ring-like structures, which may represent the perinodal ECM of the vestibular fibers. In the cerebellum, indistinct PNNs that were only labeled for HA were present in the granular layer. Our findings suggest that the HA-rich, but CSPG and TN-R-free PNNs may be associated with the high degree of plasticity and regenerative potential of the amphibian vestibular system.

  5. [The formation of new characteristics in life cycle of the marsh frog (Rana ridibunda) in thermal pond conditions].

    PubMed

    Fominykh, A S; Liapkov, S M

    2011-01-01

    Using mark and recapture approach, the long-term population dynamics in the marsh frog (Rana ridibunda) was studied. Group-marking of metamorphs was conducted in a small thermal pond serving as a sedimentation basin for discharged waters from Nizhny Tagil metallurgic works. Depending on the time of metamorphosis, three groups of individuals could be singled out, namely: early ones (group I), middle ones (group II), and late ones that overwinter as tadpoles and complete metamorphosis in May of the next year (group III). Upon metamorphosis completion, individuals of group I were found to be significantly larger than those of group II, and individuals of both these groups to be significantly smaller than those of group III. After first wintering, immature individuals from group I were significantly larger than either individuals from group II or metamorphs from group III, though a growth rate of the latter was significantly higher than in groups I and II. These discrepancies were observed both between immature and adult individuals. Over the period from metamorphosis completion to the first wintering ending, survivorship in group I was significantly higher and did not differ between groups II and III. In adult frogs, maximum survivorship was registered in group III and minimum one in group II; the detected differences recurred in each age class till the fourth wintering. However, in age classes that overwintered 4 and 5 times, maximum survivorship was observed in group II, which can be treated as a compensation for rather low survivorship of this group at younger ages. All the events of tadpoles of this species overwintering (except in other thermal water bodies) that are described in literature, correspond to rare deviations from normal ontogenesis. Therefore, the revealed formation of a numerous group of overwintering tadpoles in successive generations should be considered as a new adaptation which sense is a decrease of competition between tadpole groups when using

  6. Effect of mercuric chloride on fertilization and larval development in the River Frog, Rana heckscheri (Wright) (Anura: Ranidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Punzo, F. )

    1993-10-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, lead and mercury can act as systemic toxicants in many species of wildlife. Although numerous studies have emphasized the effects of metals and pesticides on metabolism, growth, survivorship, neural processes and reproduction in a number of taxa, little information is available on the effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on the reproductive physiology of amphibians. Industrial processes and mining activities can release substantial concentrations of heavy metals such as mercury into aquatic habitats. Since most amphibians have obligate aquatic larval stages, they are exposed to pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment. Amphibians can act as accumulators of heavy metals and their larval stages are useful indicators of pollution levels in the field. What little data are available, indicate that metals can significantly reduce viability in amphibians through their actions on metabolism, development and gametogenesis. The recent concerns over worldwide declines in amphibian populations and the susceptibility of amphibian populations to environmental toxicants, led me to assess the effect of mercuric chloride, one of the most common and persistent toxicants in aquatic environments, on fertilization and larval development in the river frog, Rana heckscheri (Wright). Although there is some information on fish, very little data are available on the effects of mercury on fertilization in amphibians generally, and no published data exist for R. heckscheri. This species is a conspicuous component of the aquatic fauna of parts of the southeastern United States where mercury levels have increased significantly over the last two decades. 22 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. A de novo Assembly of the Common Frog (Rana temporaria) Transcriptome and Comparison of Transcription Following Exposure to Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Price, Stephen J; Garner, Trenton W J; Balloux, Francois; Ruis, Chris; Paszkiewicz, Konrad H; Moore, Karen; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing global declines and extinctions, with infectious diseases representing a major factor. In this study we examined the transcriptional response of metamorphic hosts (common frog, Rana temporaria) to the two most important amphibian pathogens: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Ranavirus. We found strong up-regulation of a gene involved in the adaptive immune response (AP4S1) at four days post-exposure to both pathogens. We detected a significant transcriptional response to Bd, covering the immune response (innate and adaptive immunity, complement activation, and general inflammatory responses), but relatively little transcriptional response to Ranavirus. This may reflect the higher mortality rates found in wild common frogs infected with Ranavirus as opposed to Bd. These data provide a valuable genomic resource for the amphibians, contribute insight into gene expression changes after pathogen exposure, and suggest potential candidate genes for future host-pathogen research.

  8. A de novo Assembly of the Common Frog (Rana temporaria) Transcriptome and Comparison of Transcription Following Exposure to Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    PubMed Central

    Price, Stephen J.; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Balloux, Francois; Ruis, Chris; Paszkiewicz, Konrad H.; Moore, Karen; Griffiths, Amber G. F.

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing global declines and extinctions, with infectious diseases representing a major factor. In this study we examined the transcriptional response of metamorphic hosts (common frog, Rana temporaria) to the two most important amphibian pathogens: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Ranavirus. We found strong up-regulation of a gene involved in the adaptive immune response (AP4S1) at four days post-exposure to both pathogens. We detected a significant transcriptional response to Bd, covering the immune response (innate and adaptive immunity, complement activation, and general inflammatory responses), but relatively little transcriptional response to Ranavirus. This may reflect the higher mortality rates found in wild common frogs infected with Ranavirus as opposed to Bd. These data provide a valuable genomic resource for the amphibians, contribute insight into gene expression changes after pathogen exposure, and suggest potential candidate genes for future host-pathogen research. PMID:26111016

  9. Epidermal laser stimulation of action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, Nichole M.; Goddard, Douglas; Imholte, Michelle; Thomas, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of laser-stimulated action potentials in the sciatic nerve of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) are made using two infrared lasers. The dorsal sides of the frog's hind limbs are exposed to short-pulsed 1540- and 1064-nm wavelengths at three separate spot sizes: 2, 3, and 4 mm. Energy density thresholds are determined for eliciting an action potential at each experimental condition. Results from these exposures show similar evoked potential thresholds for both wavelengths. The 2-mm-diam spot sizes yield action potentials at radiant exposure levels almost double that seen with larger beam sizes.

  10. Effects of nitrate and atrazine on larval development and sexual differentiation in the northern leopard frog Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Orton, Frances; Carr, James A; Handy, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Pollution from agrochemicals may be contributing to the global decline in amphibian populations. Environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate and/or atrazine on anuran development and gonadal differentiation were tested. Four replicates of 20 tadpoles per tank (80/treatment) were exposed from Taylor-Kollros stage 2 to 3 to stage 23 to 34 to either 10 mg/L nitrate, 10 microg/L atrazine, a combined exposure of 10 mg/L nitrate plus 10 microg/L atrazine, or untreated controls. No treatment-dependent effects on weight, snout-vent or hind limb length, or time to forelimb emergence were observed. The proportions of females increased in all treatments compared to the controls, especially in the combined treatment (chi2 = 17.90, df = 6, p = 0.0065, combined = 66.4% female, control = 41% female). The frequency of intersex was low in all treatments. No treatment-related effects on the total number of spermatogenic cells were observed, but the ratio of cell types differed in that testes from animals in the treated groups exhibited more spermatogonia, fewer spermatocytes, and more spermatids than the control (significantly different, Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). Ovaries from animals treated with nitrate or atrazine exhibited larger immature (previtellogenic) and mature (vitellogenic) follicles, but ovaries from the combined treatment had larger immature follicles only. Testicular oocytes were observed in the nitrate-only and atrazine-only treatments, and the control treatment, but not the combined treatment. Overall, this study has demonstrated changes in sex ratios that are more marked in response to combined nitrate/atrazine exposure than with these chemicals alone. Histological evidence suggests that premature maturation of gonad may occur as a result of nitrate and/or atrazine exposure during larval development.

  11. PARTIAL LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION MODELLING OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPIENS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer manufactured in the U.S., the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need ...

  12. Alteration of mitochondrial efficiency affects oxidative balance, development and growth in frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Salin, Karine; Luquet, Emilien; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien; Voituron, Yann

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are known to play a central role in life history processes, being the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which promote oxidative constraint. Surprisingly, although the main role of the mitochondria is to produce ATP, the plasticity of mitochondrial ATP generation has received little attention in life history studies. Yet, mitochondrial energy transduction represents the physiological link between environmental resources and energy allocated to animal performance. Studying both facets of mitochondrial functioning (ATP and ROS production) would allow better understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying life history. We have experimentally modulated the mitochondrial capacity to generate ROS and ATP during larval development of Rana temporaria tadpoles, via chronic exposure (34 days) to a mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol, dNP). The aim was to better understand the impact of mitochondrial uncoupling on both responses in terms of oxidative balance, energy input (oxygen and feeding consumption) and energy output (growth and development of the tadpole). Exposure to 2,4-dNP reduced mitochondrial ROS generation, total antioxidant defences and oxidative damage in treated tadpoles compared with controls. Despite the beneficial effect of dNP on oxidative status, development and growth rates of treated tadpoles were lower than those in the control group. Treatment of tadpoles with 2,4-dNP promoted a mild mitochondrial uncoupling and enhanced metabolic rate. These tadpoles did not increase their food consumption, and thus failed to compensate for the energy loss elicited by the decrease in the efficiency of ATP production. These data suggest that the cost of ATP production, rather than the oxidative balance, is the parameter that constrains growth/development of tadpoles, highlighting the central role of energy transduction in larval performance. PMID:22323209

  13. Assessment of heavy metals and metalloids in tissues of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis from industrial city Sialkot, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Kashif, Zeshan; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Su, Xiaomei; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ullah, Kalim; Hu, Jinxing; Dawood, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations of Ni, Fe, Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Mn, and Cr in selected body tissues (liver, stomach, kidney, heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles) of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis captured from industrial wastewater of Sialkot city known worldwide for its tanning industry. The both frog species had darker appearance, distinctively different wet body weight, and snout-vent length. The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations were high in the samples collected from industrial sites as compared to non-industrial sites. The different tissues of R. tigrina and E. cyanophlyctis exhibited little significant differences from two sites. The concentrations of heavy metals were more in tissues of R. tigrina as compared to E. cyanophlyctis. Mean concentration of Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Cr was comparatively greater in R. tigrina, whereas Pb and Co were higher in E. cyanophlyctis. The concentration of Cu and Cd in the liver and kidney were relatively more in both species as compared to other organs. Further, the results indicated that frogs collected from industrial sites showed decreased body length and weight, and greater metal accumulation. The results will help the authorities for the conservation of these frog species which are under the influence of heavy metal contamination.

  14. Assessment of heavy metals and metalloids in tissues of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis from industrial city Sialkot, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Kashif, Zeshan; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Su, Xiaomei; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ullah, Kalim; Hu, Jinxing; Dawood, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations of Ni, Fe, Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Mn, and Cr in selected body tissues (liver, stomach, kidney, heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles) of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis captured from industrial wastewater of Sialkot city known worldwide for its tanning industry. The both frog species had darker appearance, distinctively different wet body weight, and snout-vent length. The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations were high in the samples collected from industrial sites as compared to non-industrial sites. The different tissues of R. tigrina and E. cyanophlyctis exhibited little significant differences from two sites. The concentrations of heavy metals were more in tissues of R. tigrina as compared to E. cyanophlyctis. Mean concentration of Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Cr was comparatively greater in R. tigrina, whereas Pb and Co were higher in E. cyanophlyctis. The concentration of Cu and Cd in the liver and kidney were relatively more in both species as compared to other organs. Further, the results indicated that frogs collected from industrial sites showed decreased body length and weight, and greater metal accumulation. The results will help the authorities for the conservation of these frog species which are under the influence of heavy metal contamination. PMID:25966879

  15. Production of endolymph in the semicircular canal of the frog Rana esculenta.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, C; Ferrary, E; Sterkers, O

    1986-01-01

    The mechanisms of secretion of endolymph were studied in vitro in the isolated inner ear of the frog. Prior to in vitro experiments, the composition of perilymph was evaluated in vivo and compared to that of plasma. Composition of perilymph resembled that of an extracellular fluid, although Na and Cl concentrations were higher and K concentration was lower in perilymph than in plasma water. No difference in Ca and Mg concentrations was observed between these two fluids. Osmolality averaged 227 mosmol/kg H2O in perilymph and 183 mosmol/kg H2O in plasma. Endolymph in frog inner ear corresponded in chemical pattern to mammalian endolymph. K and Na concentrations in endolymph collected from the ampulla of the posterior vertical semicircular canal averaged 121.1 mM and 2.5 mM, respectively. Osmolality of endolymph was 237 mosmol/kg H2O. K and Na concentrations were unaltered when inner ears were incubated for 24 h either at 15 degrees C or at 4 degrees C. Addition of ouabain (10(-4) M) to the perilymph-like bathing solution altered greatly Na and K composition of endolymph after incubation for 3 h at 15 degrees C. The Na and K concentration gradients between endolymph and the bath were abolished after incubation for 24 h. Ligatures of the posterior vertical semicircular canal were performed at different sites to isolate some parts of the canal, i.e. the ampulla and the non-ampullar duct. K concentration in the ampulla after incubation for 24 h remained as high as 20 times that in the bath. This K gradient was abolished in the presence of ouabain (10(-4) M). High K concentration could be maintained in the non-ampullar part of the semicircular canal only if the latter communicated with the ampulla. It is concluded that endolymph is actively secreted into the ampulla of the semicircular canal. Na+-K+-activated ATPase in the ampullar dark cells may energize the ouabain sensitive ionic transports that are involved in the production of endolymph. Endolymph secreted into the

  16. A family of brevinin-2 peptides with potent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the skin of the Hokkaido frog, Rana pirica.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Sonnevend, Agnes; Patel, Mahrendra; Al-Dhaheri, Khawla; Nielsen, Per F; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert; Iwamuro, Shawichi; Pál, Tibor

    2004-05-15

    Nine peptides displaying varying degrees of antimicrobial activity were extracted from the skin of the Hokkaido frog, Rana pirica. Five structurally related peptides were identified as members of the brevinin-2 family. These peptides were active against reference strains of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Gram-positive (Staphlococcus aureus) bacteria but displayed relatively low hemolytic activity. The most abundant peptide, brevinin-2PRa (680 nmol/g weight of dry skin) showed high potency [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 6 and 12 microM] against a range of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. In addition, activity was unaffected by NaCl concentrations up to 200 mM. Cladistic analysis based on the primary structures of brevinin-2 peptides supports a close phylogenetic relationship between R. pirica and Japanese mountain brown frog Rana ornativentris. One peptide of the ranatuerin-2 family and one strongly hemolytic peptide of the brevinin-1 family were also isolated from the extract along with two members of the temporin family, temporin-1PRa (ILPILGNLLNGLL.NH(2)) and temporin-1PRb (ILPILGNLLNSLL.NH(2)) that atypically lacked basic amino acid residues and showed only very weak antimicrobial and hemolytic activity.

  17. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Sanzo, Domenico; Hecnar, Stephen J

    2006-03-01

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2,636 and 5,109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1,030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted.

  18. Natural stressors and ranavirus susceptibility in larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Reeve, Brooke C; Crespi, Erica J; Whipps, Christopher M; Brunner, Jesse L

    2013-06-01

    Chronic exposure to stressors has been shown to suppress immune function in vertebrates, making them more susceptible to pathogens. It is less clear, however, whether many natural stressors are immunosuppressive. Moreover, whether stressors make disease more likely or more severe in populations is unclear because animals respond to stressors both behaviorally and physiologically. We tested whether chronic exposure to three natural stressors of wood frog tadpoles-high-densities, predator-cues, and low-food conditions-influence their susceptibility to a lethal ranavirus both individually in laboratory experiments, and collectively in outdoor mesocosms. Prior to virus exposure, we observed elevated corticosterone only in low-food treatments, although other treatments altered rates of growth and development as well as tadpole behavior. None of the treatments, however, increased susceptibility to ranavirus as measured by the proportion of tadpoles that became infected or died, or the time to death compared to controls. In fact, mortality in the mesocosms was actually lower in the high-density treatment even though most individuals became infected, largely because of increased rates of metamorphosis. Overall we find no support for the hypothesis that chronic exposure to common, ecologically relevant challenges necessarily elevates corticosterone levels in a population or leads to more severe ranaviral disease or epidemics. Conditions may, however, conspire to make ranavirus infection more common in metamorphosing amphibians.

  19. Sex-chromosome differentiation and ‘sex races’ in the common frog (Rana temporaria)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Nicolas; Vuille, Yvan; Loman, Jon; Perrin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Sex-chromosome differentiation was recently shown to vary among common frog populations in Fennoscandia, suggesting a trend of increased differentiation with latitude. By rearing families from two contrasted populations (respectively, from northern and southern Sweden), we show this disparity to stem from differences in sex-determination mechanisms rather than in XY-recombination patterns. Offspring from the northern population display equal sex ratios at metamorphosis, with phenotypic sexes that correlate strongly with paternal LG2 haplotypes (the sex chromosome); accordingly, Y haplotypes are markedly differentiated, with male-specific alleles and depressed diversity testifying to their smaller effective population size. In the southern population, by contrast, a majority of juveniles present ovaries at metamorphosis; only later in development do sex ratios return to equilibrium. Even at these later stages, phenotypic sexes correlate only mildly with paternal LG2 haplotypes; accordingly, there are no recognizable Y haplotypes. These distinct patterns of gonadal development fit the concept of ‘sex races’ proposed in the 1930s, with our two populations assigned to the ‘differentiated’ and ‘semi-differentiated’ races, respectively. Our results support the suggestion that ‘sex races’ differ in the genetic versus epigenetic components of sex determination. Analysing populations from the ‘undifferentiated race’ with high-density genetic maps should help to further test this hypothesis. PMID:25833852

  20. Residues of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in frogs (Rana limnocharis) from a contaminated site, South China: tissue distribution, biomagnification, and maternal transfer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ying; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Guan, Yun-Tao; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2009-07-15

    Environmental pollutants are suspected to be a cause of global declines in amphibian populations, but few data are available on the bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in amphibians. To examine the tissue distribution, biomagnification potential, and maternal transfer of PBDEs in frogs, eighteen PBDE congeners were measured in the muscle, liver, and egg tissues of rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) and insects collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China. PBDE levels in the frogs ranged from 0.63 to 11.6, 4.57 to 56.2, and 10.7 to 125 ng/g wet wt in the muscles, livers, and eggs, respectively. The frogs exhibited a unique congener profile, compared to those in aquatic and terrestrial species, with BDEs 99, 153, 183, 209, and 47 as the dominant congeners, intermediating between aquatic and terrestrial species. Most of the PBDE congeners in general showed higher affinity to liver than to muscle tissue. Except for BDEs 28, 47, 66, 138, and 206, the average biomagnification factors (BMFs) for all PBDE congeners were greater than 1.0, providing clear evidence of their biomagnification from insects to frogs. A parabolic relationship between log BMFs and bromine atom numbers or log Kow of PBDEs was observed, with the maximum BMF values for PBDEs with 6 bromine atoms (or at a log K(ow) of approximately 8.0). Relatively higher levels of 3-MeO-BDE 47 were found in male frogs, suggesting that male frogs in the present study might have higher metabolic capacity for PBDEs compared to female frogs. The ratio of levels in egg/female liver, indicating mother-to-egg transfer capacity, increased with increasing bromine atom numbers up to 7 and then declined as the bromine atom numbers rose. This indicated that the physicochemical properties of the congeners (e.g., K(ow), molecular sizes, and structures), resulting in different affinities to transport proteins, might impact their maternal transfer in frogs.

  1. Plasma sex steroid and thyroid hormones profile in male water frogs of the Rana esculenta complex from agricultural and pristine areas.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, G; Di Rosa, I; Bucci, S; Morosi, L; Franzoni, M F; Polzonetti-Magni, A M; Pascolini, R

    2005-07-01

    Some chemical compounds used in intensive agriculture have been found to induce estrogenic effects; therefore a histological analysis of the testes and an evaluation of plasma levels of sex steroid, thyroid hormones, and vitellogenin were carried out in adult male water frogs of two coexisting taxa (Rana lessonae and the hemiclonal hybrid Rana esculenta) sampled in agricultural and pristine areas. Differences in seasonal profiles of hormones were found in water frogs living in the agricultural area where the presence of endocrine disrupting compounds was suspected on the basis of a previous study. In R. esculenta, sampled in the pristine area, high androgen levels were found in May; the opposite trend was found for R. esculenta sampled in agricultural areas in which the highest androgen levels were found in September, significantly lower compared with those found in R. esculenta sampled in the pristine area. Low androgen levels were also recorded in R. lessonae males sampled both in pristine and agricultural areas, while the highest levels were found in September. Regarding the trend of estradiol-17beta, an increase of this hormone was found in July both in esculenta and lessonae sampled in the agricultural area, and in the same month an estradiol-17beta peak, even though lower, was also found both in esculenta and lessonae males captured in the pristine area; detectable vitellogenin was found neither in males captured in the agricultural area, nor in those sampled in the pristine one. Moreover, while no significant changes of thyroid hormones were found either in the esculenta or lessonae males sampled in the pristine area, increased T3 and T4 titers were found in July in both esculenta and lessonae captured in the agricultural area. Morphological differences of the testes in males of parental species captured in the agricultural area were also observed. These findings indicate alterations in endocrine and reproductive function in frogs in the agricultural area

  2. Effects of chronic aluminum and copper exposure on growth and development of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) larvae.

    PubMed

    Peles, John D

    2013-09-15

    Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) were exposed to aluminum (Al; 10, 100, 500, 1000, or 2000 μgL(-1)) or copper (Cu; 1, 10, 50, 100, 200 μgL(-1)) at a pH of 4.70 from the beginning of the larval period through the completion of metamorphosis (range=43-102 days). Observations on mortality, malformation, time to reach specific developmental stages, body mass at these stages, and metamorphic success were made throughout the larval developmental period. Only one case of malformation was observed and mortality was ≤ 10% at all concentrations except the highest Cu concentration where the rate was 33%. All larvae that survived the experiment successfully completed metamorphosis, but significant effects on growth and development occurred for both metals and these were most prominent for Cu. At the highest Al concentration (2000 μgL(-1)), body mass of larvae was significantly lower (reduced by 17% compared to the control) at 20 days post hatching (DPH) and the time to reach the hind-limb (HL), front-limb (FL), and tail resorption (TR) stages was significantly increased (9-10 days longer than the control). Body mass of larvae exposed to the three highest concentrations of Cu (50, 100, 200 μgL(-1)) was reduced by 30-34% at 20 DPH. Exposure to these concentrations also resulted in increased time to reach the HL, FL, and TR stages with larvae in the highest concentration taking 21-29 days longer to reach these stages. Larvae exposed to 10 μgL(-1) Cu also took longer to reach the FL and TR stages of development, and exposure to all Cu concentrations increased tail resorption time by more than two days compared to the control. Although the only observed effects of Al were for a concentration that is probably not ecologically relevant, results demonstrate that environmentally-realistic levels of Cu may have significant biological effects that could influence individual fitness and population-level processes.

  3. Water uptake by the crab-eating frog Rana cancrivora, as affected by osmotic gradients and by neurohypophysial hormones.

    PubMed

    Dicker, S E; Elliott, A B

    1970-03-01

    1. The rate of water uptake across the skin was investigated in live Rana cancrivora, an euryhaline frog which has been reported to tolerate sea water. When they were exposed to distilled water at 29 degrees C, the rate of water uptake was 8.4 +/- 0.4 mul./cm(2).hr; when bathed in solutions ranging from 30 to 570 m-osmole/l., irrespective of whether the solute was sucrose, urea or NaCl, the rate of fluid uptake during the first day was inversely related to the osmolarity of the solution. No appreciable fluid movement was observed when the bathing solution had an osmolar concentration of 270 m-osmole/l.2. The rate of fluid uptake was not affected by injections of vasopressin, oxytocin or of extracts of amphibian or rat pituitary glands, irrespective of whether R. cancrivora were bathed in distilled water or in solutions of NaCl or sucrose.3. In Bufo melanostictus, in contrast with R. cancrivora, injections of neurohypophysial extracts produced a marked increase of the rate of fluid uptake.4. In the laboratory, R. cancrivora could be acclimatized stepwise to tolerate NaCl solutions up to 700 m-osmole/l. for 7 days.5. After 24 hr exposure either to distilled water or to NaCl solutions from 100 to 670 m-osmole/l., the osmolar concentration of the plasma of R. cancrivora was always higher than that of the bathing fluid. In R. pipiens or R. temporaria plasma osmolar concentration was higher than that of the bathing fluid only when the latter did not exceed 300 m-osmole/l.6. Under all conditions investigated, the osmolar concentration of the urine of R. cancrivora was always lower than that of the plasma.7. The amounts of pressor and oxytocic activities of pituitary glands of R. cancrivora kept in distilled water or in NaCl solutions up to 300 m-osmole/l. were 8.9 +/- 0.8 and 1.8 +/- 0.3 m-u./gland, irrespective of sex or body weight within the range 30-50 g. After 3 days exposure to hypertonic NaCl solutions, the amounts of pressor and oxytocic activities were 14.7 +/- 1

  4. Don't get the blues: conspicuous nuptial colouration of male moor frogs (Rana arvalis) supports visual mate recognition during scramble competition in large breeding aggregations.

    PubMed

    Sztatecsny, Marc; Preininger, Doris; Freudmann, Anita; Loretto, Matthias-Claudio; Maier, Franziska; Hödl, Walter

    2012-12-01

    Conspicuous male colouration is expected to have evolved primarily through selection by female choice. In what way conspicuous colours could be advantageous to males scrambling for mates remains largely unknown. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) belongs to the so-called explosive breeders in which spawning period is short; intrasexual competition is strong, and males actively search and scramble for females. During breeding, male body colouration changes from a dull brown (similar to females) to a conspicuous blue, and we wanted to test if male blueness influences mating success or facilitates male mate recognition. To do so, we first measured the colour of mated and non-mated males using a spectrophotometer. In an experiment, we then analysed interactions of actual male moor frogs in natural spawning aggregations with a brown (resembling a female or a non-breeding male) and a blue model frog. Mated and non-mated males did not differ in colouration, suggesting that female choice based on colour traits was unlikely. In our behavioural experiment, male moor frogs spent significantly more time in contact and in amplexus with the brown model than with the blue model. Our results suggest that the nuptial colouration in moor frogs can act as a new type of visual signal in anurans evolved to promote instantaneous mate recognition allowing males to quickly move between rivals while scrambling for females. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-012-1412-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  5. Effects of Evans Blue and amiloride on anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)-induced sodium transport across frog (Rana hexadactyla) skin.

    PubMed

    Jared, Silviya Rajakumari; Rao, Jonakuty Prakasa

    2013-05-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has four subunits, namely α (alpha), β (beta), γ (gamma) and δ (delta). The functional ENaC is formed by the combination of either αβγ or δβγ subunits. The aim of the present study is to determine the combination of ENaC subunits predominant on the apical side of the frog skin, and the effect of ADH on sodium transport though these two ENaCs subunit combinations. The ventral abdominal skin of the frog, Rana hexadactyla was mounted in an Ussing-type chamber. The voltage-clamp method was performed to measure the ionic transport across the frog skin with normal Ringer solution (NR) on both sides. Evans blue (300 µM) and amiloride (100 µM) were added to the NR on the apical side and ADH (40 nM) was added on the serosal side. Statistical significance was analyzed by Student's paired t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.05 was considered significant. This study suggests that the ENaC of the frog skin consist of both αβγ and δβγ subunit combinations on the apical side. Though both types of subunit combination are present, the αβγ type was found to be more common than δβγ. ADH increases the sodium transport across the frog skin. The effect of ADH on sodium transport is achieved through the combination of δ-subunits, not through the combination of a-subunits in the skin of Pana hexadactyla.

  6. European phylogeography of the common frog (Rana temporaria): routes of postglacial colonization into the British Isles, and evidence for an Irish glacial refugium.

    PubMed

    Teacher, A G F; Garner, T W J; Nichols, R A

    2009-05-01

    We use phylogenetic techniques to investigate the postglacial re-population of Europe by the common frog and, in particular, the colonization of Ireland. Three main hypotheses have been proposed for the re-establishment of the Irish fauna after the last ice age: arrival across a late-glacial land bridge from Britain; expansion from a glacial refuge in the south of Ireland and, for some species, re-introduction by humans from Iberia. We examined the phylogeographic structure of 52 populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria) throughout Europe using 476-bp mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. Our data replicate earlier studies in showing substantial sequence divergence (3%) between Eastern and Western European common frog haplotypes. However, we uncover a new evidence that these haplotypes co-exist in Spain, Switzerland and France, and infer an expansion of the eastern clade along the Mediterranean coastal corridor. All the British samples fall within the Western European clade, but the Irish data imply a different history. Genetically distinct haplotypes occur in populations from the south-west of Ireland. This local genetic differentiation may be a consequence of a local glacial refuge, possibly combined with natural colonization or introduction from Western Europe. PMID:19156165

  7. The absence of the long 3'-non-translated region in mRNA coding for eye lens alpha A2-crystallin of the frog (Rana temporaria).

    PubMed

    Tomarev, S I; Zinovieva, R D; Dolgilevich, S M; Krayev, A S; Skryabin, K G; Gause, G G

    1983-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a cloned cDNA (clone pRt(1)297; GENE (1982) 17, 131) coding for a 18 kDa polypeptide of the frog eye lens has been determined. The sequence, 791 nucleotide in length has only one long open reading frame (447 nucleotides). The derived amino acid sequence in this frame has greater than 90% homology with the region 25-173 of alpha A2-crystallin amino acid sequence from a related frog species Rana pipiens. The 5'-terminal part of mRNA corresponding to the first 24 amino acids of alpha A2-crystallin has been lost in cloning and substituted by an artefactual sequence. The 3'-terminal part appears to be intact as follows from the presence of the universal poly(A) addition site and poly(A) tract. The 3'-nontranslated region present in frog alpha A2-crystallin mRNA (130 nucleotides) is about 4-times shorter than in mammalian alpha A2-crystallin mRNA. Intact alpha A2-crystallin mRNA with a size of about 700 nucleotides as determined by Northern blot hybridization is about twice smaller than corresponding mammalian mRNAs.

  8. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Rana pipiens and on its resistance to parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Christin, Marie-Soleil; Gendron, Andrée D; Brousseau, Pauline; Ménard, Lucie; Marcogliese, David J; Cyr, Daniel; Ruby, Sylvia; Fournier, Michel

    2003-05-01

    In the past 30 years, many amphibian species have suffered population declines throughout the world. Mass mortality have been frequently reported, and in several instances, infectious diseases appear to be the cause of death. The role that contaminants could play in these die-offs through immunotoxic effects has been poorly investigated. In this study, juvenile leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were exposed for 21 d to a mixture of six pesticides (atrazine, metribuzin, aldicarb, endosulfane, lindane, and dieldrin) and subsequently challenged with a parasitic nematode, Rhabdias ranae. Exposure to the mixture at environmentally realistic concentrations significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferation. Three weeks after the end of the exposure, lymphocyte proliferation had recovered and was stimulated in frogs challenged with parasites with the exception of those previously exposed to the highest concentration. No pesticide effects on phagocytosis and splenocyte numbers were detectable at the end of the exposure period, but these two parameters were diminished 21 d after the infection challenge in frogs previously exposed to the highest levels of pesticides. In these animals, the prevalence of lung infection by R. ranae also tended to be higher. These results suggest that agricultural pesticides can alter the immune response of frogs and affect their ability to deal with parasitic infection.

  9. Diverse families of antimicrobial peptides isolated from skin secretions of three species of East Asian frogs, Babina daunchina, Babina adenopleura, and Rana omeimontis (Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuhong; Xu, Shiqi; Hu, Yonghong; Guo, Chao; Meng, Hao; Li, Jing; Liu, Jingze; Wang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    Twenty-two novel cDNAs encoding 22 peptide precursors for 19 mature peptides including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified from East Asian frog species Babina daunchina, Babina adenopleura, and Rana omeimontis skin-derived cDNA libraries. Two atypical members of the brevinin-1 family AMPs, named brevinin-1AN1 (FLTGVLKLASKIPSVLCAVLKTC) and brevinin-1DN1(FLKGVINLASKIPSMLCAVLKTC), were purified from the skin secretions of B. adenopleura and B. daunchina, respectively. A member of the ranatuerin-2 family AMP named ranatuerin-2DN1 (GLFDSITQGLKDTAVKLLDKIKCKLSACPPA) was also purified from the skin secretion of B. daunchina. One AMP named japonicin-2OM1 (FIVPSIFLLKKAFCIALKKNC) was purified from the skin secretion of R. omeimontis. The antimicrobial tests showed that brevinin-1DN1, brevinin-1DN2, brevinin-1AN1, and japonicin-2OM1 possess higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. Colonization of frog Rana temporaria L. urinary bladder by Gram-negative bacteria leads to decreased effect of arginine-vasotocin on water reabsorption from the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Fock, Ekaterina; Lavrova, Elena; Parnova, Rimma

    2013-11-01

    In frogs and toads the urinary bladder is very important for the maintenance of water balance due to its ability to store water which can be reabsorbed under the action of arginine-vasotocin (AVT). The usage of isolated bladders as a model for studying the osmotic water permeability (OWP) regulation has a disadvantage which relates to high variability of AVT effect among individuals, some showing insensitivity to the hormone. We hypothesized that the response of the bladder to AVT could depend on the colonization of the mucosal epithelium by Gram-negative bacteria. To test this, paired hemibladders of the frog Rana temporaria were used for measurement of OWP and for analysis of Gram-negative bacteria in the bladder tissue or isolated epithelial cells. Among the 206 frogs studied, 41% were infected by different Enterobacteriaceae, with prevalence of Hafnia alvei and Escherichia coli. In infected bladders the basal level of OWP was unchanged, whereas OWP stimulated by AVT was reduced (non-infected: 2.53 ± 0.13, n = 59, infected: 1.21 ± 0.17 µL min(-1)  cm(-2), n = 38, for the 15 min of AVT action, P < 0.001). In the sample, 100% of hemibladders that responded to AVT very weakly (OWP <0.5 µL min(-1)  cm(-2)) had a bacterial infection. Overnight treatment of hemibladders with mucosal lipopolysaccharide E. coli decreased OWP induced by AVT, forskolin, or IBMX lowering basal and stimulated level of cAMP. The data obtained indicate that the frog bladder epithelium could be colonized by Gram-negative bacteria, probably of cloacal origin, leading to reduction of sensitivity to AVT and to impairment of the urinary bladder to provide osmoregulation. PMID:23836531

  11. Observations of Interspecific amplexus between western North American ranid frogs and the introduced American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and an hypothesis concerning breeding interference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Hayes, M.P.; Haycock, Russ; Engler, Joseph D.; Bowerman, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Introduced American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) come in contact with native amphibians on four continents and are well established in lowlands of western North America. To date, research on the effects of introduced bullfrogs on native frogs has focused on competition and predation, and is based largely on larval interactions. We present observations of interspecific amplexus between bullfrogs and two native ranid frogs (R. aurora and R. pretiosa) from six sites across the Pacific Northwest that imply that this interaction is more widespread than currently recognized. Our observations indicate that R. catesbeiana juveniles and subadults in this region are of appropriate size to elicit marked amplectic responses from males of both native species. Our literature review suggests that greater opportunity may exist for pairings between R. catesbeiana and native R. aurora or R. pretiosa than among syntopic native ranids in western North America. We hypothesize that interspecific amplexus with introduced R. catesbeiana could result in reproductive interference with negative demographic consequences in native ranid populations that have been reduced or altered by other stressors.

  12. Characterization of the composition of the aqueous humor and the vitreous body of the eye of the frog Rana temporaria L.

    PubMed

    Panova, Ina G; Sharova, Natalia P; Dmitrieva, Svetlana B; Levin, Peter P; Tatikolov, Alexander S

    2008-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the aqueous humor (AH) and the vitreous body (VB) of the eye of the adult frog Rana temporaria L. as a representative species of amphibians, which lead a semi-terrestrial life. The presence of collagen, albumin, uric acid and electron donors was shown in both media; however, there are slight differences in their concentrations. To determine collagen, a spectral-fluorescent probe, cyanine dye, was used. The presence of collagen in AH of the frog was found at the first time. The total content of electron donors (ascorbic and uric acids, tryptophan, and tyrosine) in VB and HA was roughly estimated at approximately 1.5x10(-4) mol/L. Both VB and AH absorb light in similar UV regions. The total protein and albumin contents in AH were found to be somewhat higher than those in VB. The uric acid content was at an equally low level in both intraocular media. It is supposed that the similarity of VB and AH compositions shown in this work is due to some exchange between VB and AH contents in the course of accommodation. The role of intraocular fluids in physiological functions of the eye and in protecting the retina against UV light is discussed. PMID:18793742

  13. An integrative study of the temperature dependence of whole animal and muscle performance during jumping and swimming in the frog Rana temporaria.

    PubMed

    Navas, C A; James, R S; Wakeling, J M; Kemp, K M; Johnston, I A

    1999-12-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze individual variation in frog locomotor performance, (2) to compare the thermal sensitivity of jumping and swimming, and (3) to contrast whole animal versus muscle fiber performance at different temperatures. The jumping and swimming performance of Rana temporaria was analyzed at 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees C. Muscle fiber bundles were isolated from lateral gastrocnemius and subjected to the length and activation patterns thought to occur in vivo. As temperature increased, locomotor performance in R. temporaria improved with a Q10 of 1.2 for both jump take-off velocity and mean swimming velocity. The slope of the relationship between performance and temperature (TE) was similar for both locomotor parameters and was described by the equation z-scores of locomotor performance = 0.127 x TE - 1.585. Although some frogs performed better than others relative performance was affected by locomotor type and temperature. Locomotor performance improved with temperature as the power required during take-off and the mean muscle power output increased with Q10 values of 1.7 and 1.6 respectively. The mean muscle power output during take-off was only 34% of the calculated requirements for the whole animal, suggesting the involvement of elastic strain energy storage mechanisms.

  14. The yellow mutation in the frog Rana rugosa: pigment organelle deformities in the three types of chromatophore.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Y; Ohtani, H; Miura, I

    2001-08-01

    Crossing experiments revealed that a single recessive gene mutation (yellow) gives rise to the yellow phenotype of Rana rugosa in Japan. Ultrastructural observation of dermal chromatophores showed that the pigment organelles; melanosomes, pterinosomes, and reflecting platelets, all had structural deformities. This suggests that the yellow gene acts at the level of a primordial pigment organelle common to the three types of chromatophore.

  15. Biosensor, ELISA, and frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX) analysis of water associated with frog malformations in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, Eric A. E.; Erb, Judith L.; Downward, James G.; Priuska, Eric M.; Wittliff, James L.; Feng, Wenke; Magner, Joseph; Larsen, Gerald L.

    2001-03-01

    Between 1995 and 1997 over 62% of the counties in Minnesota reported the presence of malformed frogs. While most sites have recently shown a decline in malformed frog populations, one site in northeastern Minnesota with no prior history of containing malformed frogs was recently discovered to contain > 67% malformed Rana pipiens (northern leopard frogs). As part of an effort to study the presence of hormonally active agents in fresh water sources, water samples were collected from lakes in Minnesota containing malformed frogs and analyzed for the presence of hormonally active compounds using a novel evanescent field fluorometric biosensor and the frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX) bioassay. The waveguide based biosensor developed by ThreeFold Sensors (TFS biosensor, Ann Arbor, MI) detects the presence of estrogenic compounds capable of interacting with free human ER-a and by inhibiting binding to an immobilized estrogen. The FETAX bioassay is a developmental assay, which measures teratogenicity, mortality, and inhibition of growth during the first 96 hours of organogenesis and thereby provides a universal screen for endocrine disruptors. TFS biosensor and FETAX screening of the water samples suggest a relationship between estrogenic activity, mineral supplementation, and the occurrence of malformed frogs.

  16. The crab-eating frog, Rana cancrivora, up-regulates hepatic carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I activity and tissue osmolyte levels in response to increased salinity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patricia; Anderson, Paul; Weng, Lei; Frick, Natasha; Wong, Wei Peng; Ip, Yuen Kwong

    2004-07-01

    The crab-eating frog Rana cancrivora is one of only a handful of amphibians worldwide that tolerate saline waters. They typically inhabit brackish water of mangrove forests of Southeast Asia, but live happily in freshwater and can be acclimated to 75% seawater (25 ppt) or higher. We report here that after transfer of juvenile R. cancrivora from freshwater (1 ppt) to brackish water (10 -->20 or 20 -->25 ppt; 4-8 d) there was a significant increase in the specific activity of the key hepatic ornithine urea cycle enzyme (OUC), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPSase I). At 20 ppt, plasma, liver and muscle urea levels increased by 22-, 21-, and 11-fold, respectively. As well, muscle total amino acid levels were significantly elevated by 6-fold, with the largest changes occurring in glycine and beta-alanine levels. In liver, taurine levels were 5-fold higher in frogs acclimated to 20 ppt. There were no significant changes in urea or ammonia excretion rates to the environment. As well, the rate of urea influx (J(in) (urea)) and efflux (J(out) (urea)) across the ventral pelvic skin did not differ between frogs acclimated to 1 versus 20 ppt. Taken together, these findings suggest that acclimation to saline water involves the up-regulation of hepatic urea synthesis, which in turn contributes to the dramatic rise in tissue urea levels. The lack of change in urea excretion rates, despite the large increase in tissue-to-water gradients further indicates that mechanisms must be in place to prevent excessive loss of urea in saline waters, but these mechanisms do not include cutaneous urea uptake. Also, amino acid accumulation may contribute to an overall rise in the osmolarity of the muscle tissue, but relative to urea, the contribution is small. PMID:15229866

  17. Bioavailability and tissue distribution of Dechloranes in wild frogs (Rana limnocharis) from an e-waste recycling area in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Wang, Wenyue; Lv, Quanxia; Ben, Yujie; Li, Xinghong

    2014-03-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP), a flame retardant used as an alternative to decabromodiphenylether, has been frequently detected in organisms, indicating its bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential in aquatic and terrestrial species. However, little data is available on the bioaccumulation of DP in amphibians. Dechlorane Plus and its analogs (DPs) were detected in the liver, muscle and brain tissues of wild frogs (Rana limnocharis), which were collected from an e-waste recycling site, Southeast China. DP, Mirex, Dec 602 and a dechlorinated compound of DP (anti-Cl11-DP) varied in the range of 2.01-291, 0.650-179, 0.260-12.4, and not detected (nd)-8.67 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. No difference of tissue distribution was found for syn-DP, Mirex and Dec 602 between the liver and muscle tissue (liver/muscle concentration ratio close to 1, p > 0.05). However, higher retention was observed for anti-DP and anti-Cl11-DP in the frog muscle relative to the liver tissue (liver/muscle concentration ratio < 1, p < 0.05). Additionally, the blood-brain barrier was found to work efficiently to suppress these compounds entering brain tissues in this species (liver/brain concentration ratio > 1, p < 0.05), and the molecular weight was a key factor impacting the extent of the blood-brain barrier. Compared to levels in the muscle and brain tissue, a preferential enrichment of syn-DP was observed in the liver tissue, suggesting the occurrence of stereo-selective bioaccumulation in the wild frog.

  18. LEOPARD syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    LEOPARD syndrome is a very rare inherited disorder in which there are problems with the skin, face, ... LEOPARD syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. This means the person only needs the abnormal ...

  19. Rhabdias esculentarum n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from green frogs of the Rana esculenta species complex in Italy: molecular evidence, morphological description and genetic differentiation from its congeners in frogs and toads.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Paolo; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Santoro, Mario; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    A new taxon, Rhabdias esculentarum n. sp., is described based on DNA sequence analysis at multiple loci (i.e. mtDNA cox-1, 12S rRNA, ITS-1 and partial ITS-2 regions of the nuclear rDNA) and morphometric analysis carried out on specimens collected from the green frogs of the Rana esculenta species complex in Italy (i.e. R. lessonae Camerano and R. esculenta Linnaeus, identified genetically by diagnostic allozyme loci). Rhabdias esculentarum n. sp. was differentiated genetically, at both mitochondrial and nuclear levels, from Rh. bufonis (Schrank, 1788) (sensu Hartwich, 1972) and Rh. sphaerocephala Goodey, 1924 recovered from the toad Bufo bufo Linnaeus collected sympatrically with the specimens of Rana lessonae and R. esculenta examined in the present study. Moreover, the new taxon proved to be different from the other species of Rhabdias from anurans, which had previously been sequenced using the same genes and deposited in GeneBank. Phylogenetic analyses (MP and ML) inferred from mitochondrial (mtDNA cox-1 and 12S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (ITS-1 and ITS-2 of the rDNA regions) sequences datasets were congruent in depicting Rh. esculentarum n. sp. as forming a highly supported clade distinct from the sympatric species Rh. bufonis, as well as from Rh. sphaerocephala, characterised on the basis of the same loci. Morphometric analysis and the differential diagnosis of genetically characterised specimens of the new species have revealed differences in several features in comparison with the type-species, Rh. bufonis. Material of the latter species included voucher specimens from Germany deposited by Hartwich (1972) and other specimens collected from B. bufo in Italy. Among the diagnostic characters, the particular cup-shaped buccal capsule characterising Rh. esculentarum is clearly different from the tear-shaped buccal capsule observed in material of R. bufonis obtained from Berlin Museum and collected in the same geographical area as the green frogs under study. Rh

  20. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-09-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

  1. Copper and nickel effects on survival and growth of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles in field-collected smelting effluent water.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Joël; Echaubard, Pierre; Trudeau, Vance; Lesbarrères, David

    2016-03-01

    Trace metals can have subtle yet chronic impacts on organisms by inducing physiological stress that reduces their survival or impedes their ability to tolerate additional environmental stressors. The toxicity literature indicates, however, that aquatic organisms react differently to trace metals depending on the environments in which they reside. The objective of the present study was to understand the response of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) larvae to ionic copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and their combination within an effluent water collected downstream of a tailings wetland area. Tadpoles were assigned randomly to 1 of 8 Cu concentrations (8-200 μg/L), 7 Ni concentrations (160-1200 μg/L), or 8 Cu and Ni combined concentrations (8:160-200:1200 μg/L) and showed significant differences in survival and life history traits among treatments. In the Cu and Cu and Ni combined treatments, tadpole survival decreased with increased Cu exposure starting at Cu = 160 μg/L and in the Ni treatment, tadpole survival decreased with increased Ni exposure starting at Ni = 650 μg/L. All Cu-exposed treatments induced a growth increase as the concentration increased, whereas the tadpoles showed a significant decrease in growth rate in Ni treatments. These contrasting outcomes suggest a plastic response to trace metals whereby tadpoles allocate energy reserves toward either escaping or coping with stress. Finally, the authors' argue that future studies will benefit from examining the impacts of multiple stressors in aquatic ecosystems to provide better environmental mitigation. PMID:26329298

  2. Copper and nickel effects on survival and growth of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles in field-collected smelting effluent water.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Joël; Echaubard, Pierre; Trudeau, Vance; Lesbarrères, David

    2016-03-01

    Trace metals can have subtle yet chronic impacts on organisms by inducing physiological stress that reduces their survival or impedes their ability to tolerate additional environmental stressors. The toxicity literature indicates, however, that aquatic organisms react differently to trace metals depending on the environments in which they reside. The objective of the present study was to understand the response of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) larvae to ionic copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and their combination within an effluent water collected downstream of a tailings wetland area. Tadpoles were assigned randomly to 1 of 8 Cu concentrations (8-200 μg/L), 7 Ni concentrations (160-1200 μg/L), or 8 Cu and Ni combined concentrations (8:160-200:1200 μg/L) and showed significant differences in survival and life history traits among treatments. In the Cu and Cu and Ni combined treatments, tadpole survival decreased with increased Cu exposure starting at Cu = 160 μg/L and in the Ni treatment, tadpole survival decreased with increased Ni exposure starting at Ni = 650 μg/L. All Cu-exposed treatments induced a growth increase as the concentration increased, whereas the tadpoles showed a significant decrease in growth rate in Ni treatments. These contrasting outcomes suggest a plastic response to trace metals whereby tadpoles allocate energy reserves toward either escaping or coping with stress. Finally, the authors' argue that future studies will benefit from examining the impacts of multiple stressors in aquatic ecosystems to provide better environmental mitigation.

  3. Artificial Warming Facilitates Growth but Not Survival of Plateau Frog (Rana kukunoris) Tadpoles in Presence of Gape-Limited Predatory Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiyan; Yang, Yangheshan; Xi, Xinqiang; Zhang, Changbing; Sun, Shucun

    2014-01-01

    Background Global warming has been frequently demonstrated to increase growth rate in larval amphibians that have considerable phenotypic plasticity; this may lead to an increase in larval survival because large larvae are less likely to be captured by gape-limited predators. This study is to test whether warming could improve tadpole growth and thereby enhance the tadpole survival in plateau frog Rana kukunoris. Methodology We conducted an experiment involving growing tadpoles under two contrasting temperatures, i.e. ambient temperature vs. warming by 3.8°C, with and without their major predators – the gape-limited predaceous diving beetles Agabus sp. in eastern Tibetan Plateau, in a factorial arrangement. We recorded the survival and measured body fresh weight and morphological characteristics of the tadpoles. Principal Findings Warming significantly increased body fresh weight in the presence of predators after three weeks of treatments. However, the predators imposed significant and similar effects on the survival of tadpoles under both ambient and elevated temperatures, with the effects mostly occurring in the first three weeks of the experiment. Changes in the body form, i.e. the greater whole length at a given fresh weight and the longer tail at a given body length, could have acted as mechanisms of defense and escape for the tadpoles. Conclusions/Significance Warming did not increase tadpole survival with or without presence of predators. Moreover, an increased growth rate (due to warming in the presence of predators) was not a major factor contributing to the tadpole survival. We postulate that even if warming increases the tadpole growth rate in the plateau frog, it does not necessarily improve their survival in the presence of gape-limited predators. PMID:24905846

  4. Mass mortality associated with a frog virus 3-like Ranavirus infection in farmed tadpoles Rana catesbeiana from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Rolando; de Mesquita, Albenones José; Fleury, Luiz Fernando F.; de Brito, Wilia Marta Elsner Diederichsen; Nunes, Iolanda A.; Robert, Jacques; Morales, Heidi; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Barthasson, Denise Leão; Galli, Leonardo; Catroxo, Marcia H. B.

    2010-01-01

    Ranviruses (Iridoviridae) are increasingly associated with mortality events in amphibians, fish, and reptiles. They have been recently associated with mass mortality events in Brazilian farmed tadpoles of the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana Shaw. 1802. The objectives of the present study were to further characterize the virus isolated from sick R. catesbeiana tadpoles and confirm the etiology in these outbreaks. Sick tadpoles were collected in 3 farms located in Goiás State, Brazil, from 2003 to 2005 and processed for virus isolation and characterization, microbiology, histopathology, and parasitology. The phylogenetic relationships of Rana catesbeiana ranavirus (RCV-BR) with other genus members was investigated by PCR with primers specific for the major capsid protein gene (MCP) and the RNA polymerase DNA-dependent gene (Pol II). Sequence analysis and multiple alignments for MCP products showed >99% amino acid identity with other ranaviruses, while Pol II products showed 100% identity. Further diagnostics of the pathology including histology and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the viral etiology of these mass deaths. As for as we know, this is the first report of a ranaviral infection affecting aquatic organisms in Brazil. Additionally, our results suggest that American bullfrogs may have served as a vector of transmission of this virus, which highlights the potential threat of amphibian translocation in the world distribution of pathogens. PMID:20066953

  5. Mass mortality associated with a frog virus 3-like Ranavirus infection in farmed tadpoles Rana catesbeiana from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Rolando; de Mesquita, Albenones José; Fleury, Luiz Fernando F; de Brito, Wilia Marta Elsner Diederichsen; Nunes, Iolanda A; Robert, Jacques; Morales, Heidi; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Barthasson, Denise Leão; Galli, Leonardo; Catroxo, Marcia H B

    2009-11-01

    Ranaviruses (Iridoviridae) are increasingly associated with mortality events in amphibians, fish, and reptiles. They have been recently associated with mass mortality events in Brazilian farmed tadpoles of the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802. The objectives of the present study were to further characterize the virus isolated from sick R. catesbeiana tadpoles and confirm the etiology in these outbreaks. Sick tadpoles were collected in 3 farms located in Goiás State, Brazil, from 2003 to 2005 and processed for virus isolation and characterization, microbiology, histopathology, and parasitology. The phylogenetic relationships of Rana catesbeiana ranavirus (RCV-BR) with other genus members was investigated by PCR with primers specific for the major capsid protein gene (MCP) and the RNA polymerase DNA-dependent gene (Pol II). Sequence analysis and multiple alignments for MCP products showed >99% amino acid identity with other ranaviruses, while Pol II products showed 100% identity. Further diagnostics of the pathology including histology and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the viral etiology of these mass deaths. As far as we know, this is the first report of a ranaviral infection affecting aquatic organisms in Brazil. Additionally, our results suggest that American bullfrogs may have served as a vector of transmission of this virus, which highlights the potential threat of amphibian translocation in the world distribution of pathogens. PMID:20066953

  6. Mass mortality associated with a frog virus 3-like Ranavirus infection in farmed tadpoles Rana catesbeiana from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Rolando; de Mesquita, Albenones José; Fleury, Luiz Fernando F; de Brito, Wilia Marta Elsner Diederichsen; Nunes, Iolanda A; Robert, Jacques; Morales, Heidi; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Barthasson, Denise Leão; Galli, Leonardo; Catroxo, Marcia H B

    2009-11-01

    Ranaviruses (Iridoviridae) are increasingly associated with mortality events in amphibians, fish, and reptiles. They have been recently associated with mass mortality events in Brazilian farmed tadpoles of the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802. The objectives of the present study were to further characterize the virus isolated from sick R. catesbeiana tadpoles and confirm the etiology in these outbreaks. Sick tadpoles were collected in 3 farms located in Goiás State, Brazil, from 2003 to 2005 and processed for virus isolation and characterization, microbiology, histopathology, and parasitology. The phylogenetic relationships of Rana catesbeiana ranavirus (RCV-BR) with other genus members was investigated by PCR with primers specific for the major capsid protein gene (MCP) and the RNA polymerase DNA-dependent gene (Pol II). Sequence analysis and multiple alignments for MCP products showed >99% amino acid identity with other ranaviruses, while Pol II products showed 100% identity. Further diagnostics of the pathology including histology and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the viral etiology of these mass deaths. As far as we know, this is the first report of a ranaviral infection affecting aquatic organisms in Brazil. Additionally, our results suggest that American bullfrogs may have served as a vector of transmission of this virus, which highlights the potential threat of amphibian translocation in the world distribution of pathogens.

  7. Immunoreactivities of IL-1β and IL-1R in oviduct of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) during pre-hibernation and the breeding period.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruiqi; Liu, Yuning; Deng, Yu; Ma, Sihui; Sheng, Xia; Weng, Qiang; Xu, Meiyu

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) has one special physiological phenomenon, which is that its oviduct goes through expansion prior to hibernation instead of during the breeding period. In this study, we investigated the localization and expression level of interleukin-1 (IL-1β) and its functional membrane receptor type I (IL1R1) proteins in the oviduct of R. dybowskii during pre-hibernation and the breeding period. There were significant differences in both oviductal weight and pipe diameter, with values markedly higher in pre-hibernation than in the breeding period. Histologically, epithelium cells, glandular cells and tubule lumen were identified in the oviduct during pre-hibernation and the breeding period, while sizes of both cell types are larger in the pre-hibernation than those of the breeding period. IL-1β was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of epithelial and glandular cells in both periods, whereas IL-1R1 was observed in the membrane of epithelial and glandular cells in the breeding period, whereas only in epithelial cells during pre-hibernation. Consistently, the protein levels of IL-1β and IL-1R1 were higher in pre-hibernation as compared to the breeding period. These results suggested that IL-1β may play an important autocrine or paracrine role in oviductal cell proliferation and differentiation of R. dybowskii.

  8. An X-linked body color gene of the frog Rana rugosa and its application to the molecular analysis of gonadal sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Miura, I; Kitamoto, H; Koizumi, Y; Ogata, M; Sasaki, K

    2011-01-01

    We identified a sex-linked, recessive body color gene, presently designated w (whitish-yellow), in the frog Rana rugosa from the Iwakuni population in Western Japan. This is the first time a sex-linked body color gene was found in amphibians so far. In this population of R. rugosa, males are the heterogametic sex, but the sex chromosomes are still homomorphic. When heterozygous males (Ww), which were produced by crossing a whitish-yellow female (ww) found in the field and a wild-type male (WW) of the same population, were backcrossed to the homozygous whitish-yellow female (ww), the resultant male offspring were all wild-type, whereas the females were all whitish-yellow. This result definitely indicates that w is recessive and X-linked, and its wild-type allele W is located on the Y chromosome. Using this strain (X(w)X(w) female and X(w)Y(W) male), we found that expression of Dmrt1 and Rspo1, which are involved in testicular and ovarian differentiation in vertebrates, was higher in males and females, respectively, prior to the onset of the sexually dimorphic expression of Cyp17 and Cyp19, which are involved in biosynthesis of sex steroids and are critical markers of gonadal sex differentiation.

  9. Quantifying the disease transmission function: effects of density on Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis transmission in the mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa.

    PubMed

    Rachowicz, Lara J; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2007-07-01

    1. Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has been implicated recently in population declines and possible extinctions throughout the world. 2. The transmission rate of this pathogen was quantified in the mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa through laboratory and field experiments, and a maximum likelihood approach was used to determine the form of the transmission function that was best supported by the experimental data. 3. The proportion of R. muscosa tadpole hosts that became infected increased with the number of previously infected R. muscosa tadpoles to which they were exposed, as would be expected in an infectious disease. 4. The laboratory experiment revealed some support for a transmission function in which the transmission rate levels off as the density of infected individuals increases. However, there was not enough power to distinguish between a frequency-dependent form and several other asymptotic forms of the transmission function. 5. The impacts of crowding and temperature on transmission were also investigated; however, neither of these factors significantly affected the transmission rate.

  10. Isolation of peptides of the brevinin-1 family with potent candidacidal activity from the skin secretions of the frog Rana boylii.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J M; Sonnevend, A; Patel, M; Davidson, C; Nielsen, P F; Pál, T; Rollins-Smith, L A

    2003-11-01

    The emergence of strains of the human pathogen Candida albicans with resistance to commonly used antibiotics has necessitated a search for new types of antifungal agents. Six peptides with antimicrobial activity were isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from the foothill yellow-legged frog Rana boylii. Brevinin-1BYa (FLPILASLAA10KFGPKLF CLV20TKKC) was particularly potent against C. albicans [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3 microm] and also active against Escherichia coli (MIC = 17 microm) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 2 microm), but its therapeutic potential for systemic use is limited by its strong hemolytic activity (HC50 = 4 microm). The single amino acid substitution (Phe12 --> Leu) in brevinin-1BYb resulted in a fourfold lower potency against C. albicans and the additional amino acid substitutions (Lys11 --> Thr, Phe17 --> Leu and Val20 --> Ile) in brevinin-1BYc resulted in a ninefold decrease in activity. Two members of the ranatuerin-2 family and one member of the temporin family were also isolated from the secretions but showed relatively low potency against the three microorganisms tested.

  11. Adaptive divergence in moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient: inferences from Q(st) -F(st) correlations.

    PubMed

    Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2012-03-01

    Microevolutionary responses to spatial variation in the environment seem ubiquitous, but the relative role of selection and neutral processes in driving phenotypic diversification remain often unknown. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) shows strong phenotypic divergence along an acidification gradient in Sweden. We here used correlations among population pairwise estimates of quantitative trait (P(ST) or Q(ST) from common garden estimates of embryonic acid tolerance and larval life-history traits) and neutral genetic divergence (F(ST) from neutral microsatellite markers), as well as environmental differences (pond pH, predator density, and latitude), to test whether this phenotypic divergence is more likely due to divergent selection or neutral processes. We found that trait divergence was more strongly correlated with environmental differences than the neutral marker divergence, suggesting that divergent natural selection has driven phenotypic divergence along the acidification gradient. Moreover, pairwise P(ST) s of embryonic acid tolerance and Q(ST) s of metamorphic size were strongly correlated with breeding pond pH, whereas pairwise Q(ST) s of larval period and growth rate were more strongly correlated with geographic distance/latitude and predator density, respectively. We suggest that incorporating measurements of environmental variation into Q(ST) -F(ST) studies can improve our inferential power about the agents of natural selection in natural populations.

  12. Relative number of cells projecting from contralateral and ipsilateral nucleus isthmi to loci in the optic tectum is dependent on visuotopic location: horseradish peroxidase study in the leopard frog.

    PubMed

    Dudkin, E A; Gruberg, E R

    1999-11-15

    The leopard frog optic tectum is the principal target of the contralateral retina. The retinal terminals form a topographic map of the visual field. The tectum also receives bilateral topographic input from a midbrain structure called nucleus isthmi. In this study we determined the relative strength of n. isthmi projections to different loci in the tectum. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was applied at single superficial tectal locations in a series of leopard frogs. The application sites were distributed across the tectum. Retrogradely filled cells were counted in ipsilateral and contralateral nucleus isthmi. Although all regions of the tectum receive input from both n. isthmi, the relative number of labeled cells in the two n. isthmi is dependent on visuotopic location. Input to the rostromedial tectum representing the visual field ipsilateral to the labeled tectum comes primarily from the contralateral n. isthmi. Input to the caudolateral tectum representing the visual field contralateral to the labeled tectum originates mostly from the ipsilateral n. isthmi. Tectal application sites representing the visual midline had approximately equal numbers of labeled cells in the two n. isthmi. The results are similar at postapplication survival times ranging from 2 to 14 days. Using application of HRP to rostral tectum and application of nuclear yellow to caudal tectum, we show that the anisotropy in isthmi labeling is not due to take up of these labels by isthmotectal fibers passing through the application sites that terminate elsewhere.

  13. Diseases of frogs and toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents information on infectious diseases of free-living frogs and toads that have completed metamorphosis. The diseases discussed in this chapter pertain principally to sub-adult and adult frogs and toads that are at least 60-90 days removed from completion of metamorphosis. The main emphasis of this chapter is the diseases found in amphibians of Canada and the United States. Diseases of recent metamorphs, larvae and amphibian eggs are presented in the chapters Diseases of Amphibian Eggs and Embryos and Diseases of Tadpoles. The smallest disease agents (viruses and bacteria) are presented first, followed by fungi, protozoa, helminths and ectoparasites. Diseases presented in this chapter are Ranaviral (iridovirus) infection Lucke frog herpesvirus (kidney cancer) Frog erythrocytic virus West Nile virus Red-leg disease (bacterial septicemia) Salmonellosis Chytrid fungal infection Basidiobolus fungi Dermosporidiosis Ichthyophoniasis Dermocystidium & Dermomycoides Myxozoa Ribeiroia flukes and Amphibian malformations Clinostomum metacercaria Aspects of each disease are presented to assist the biologist with recognition of diseases in the field. Hence, the major emphases for identification of diseases are the epizootiological aspects (host species, life stage, casualty numbers, etc) and gross findings ('lesions'). Descriptions of the microscopical, ultrastructural and cultural characteristics of each infectious agent were considered beyond the scope of this text. Detailed cultural and microscopical features of these disease agents are available in other reviews (Taylor et al., 2001; Green, 2001). Some diseases, while common in captive and zoo amphibians, are exceptionally rare in free-living frogs and toads, and therefore are omitted from this review. Among the diseases not presented are infections by chlamydia and mycobacteria, which occur principally in captive colonies of African clawed frogs (Xenopus, Hymenochirus, et al.) and northern leopard frogs

  14. LEOPARD Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Majumdar, Biswajit; Rudra, Olympia; Chakraborty, Sougat

    2015-10-01

    LEOPARD syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited or sporadic disorder of variable penetrance and expressivity. The acronym LEOPARD stands for its cardinal clinical features including Lentigines, Electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormalities of genitalia, Retardation of growth, and Deafness. We present herein a patient with LEOPARD syndrome and distinctive features. It was noteworthy that our patient presented with the concern of generalized lentiginosis and subsequent evaluation revealed that the patient had LEOPARD syndrome. In this report we would like to highlight the importance of detailed clinical examination and appropriate imaging in patients with multiple lentigines.

  15. Distribution of somatostatin in the frog brain, Rana catesbiana, in relation to location of catecholamine-containing neuron system.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, S; Shiosaka, S; Takatsuki, K; Sakanaka, M; Takagi, H; Senba, E; Matsuzaki, T; Tohyama, M

    1981-10-10

    The distribution of somatostatin (SRIF)-immunoreactive structures in the central nervous system of the bull frog (both with and without treatment of colchicine) was studied, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique of Coons and co-workers (Coons, '58). SRIF-containing cells were observed in more than ten areas including the spinal cord. These SRIF-positive cells showed segmental distribution, in that SRIF-positive neurons were identified in various areas at various brain levels. An extensive network of SRIF-positive fibers was found in most parts of the central nervous system. The distribution of a catecholamine (CA)-containing neuron system in the frog brain is also presented in this study. The possible interactions between SRIF and CA neurons systems are briefly discussed. PMID:6116726

  16. [Effect of monochromatic light on the growth and development of larva of the brown frog Rana temporaria L].

    PubMed

    Ruchin, A B

    2003-01-01

    Acceleration of the growth and development of R. temporaria larvae under the effect of short-wavelength light was observed in experiments. However, the highest linear and weight parameters of postmetamorphic juveniles were recorded upon exposure to yellow and green light, and the lowest parameters, upon exposure to blue light. The red zone of the light spectrum had no apparent effect on the development of tadpoles and juvenile frogs.

  17. [The effect of vasotocin and mesotocin on the suprarenal gland of the frog Rana temporaria in vivo and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Luk'ianenko, E O; Belen'kiĭ, M A; Prozorovskaia, M P; Polenov, A L

    1993-01-01

    Biochemical and morphometric analyses have been made of the effects of nonapeptide neurohormones, vasotocin and mesotocin, on the chromaffin tissue of the adrenal gland of the frog, both in vivo and in vitro experiments. It was shown that vasotocin exerts stimulating effect on the suprarenal gland whereas mesotocin inhibits the latter. In vitro experiments revealed that adrenalin may abolish the effect of nonapeptides on the suprarenal gland.

  18. Inbreeding and road effect zone in a Ranidae: the case of Agile frog, Rana dalmatina Bonaparte, 1840.

    PubMed

    Lesbarrères, David; Pagano, Alain; Lodé, Thierry

    2003-08-01

    Inbreeding has often been invoked in the extinction of local populations. In eleven western France populations of Agile frog studied, observed heterozygosity was significantly lower than expected in all cases, giving new evidence of such a depression in small populations. It especially occurred in ponds located near an highway rather than in undisturbed populations (FIS = 0.544 and 0.315, respectively). Thus, our results argue for a "road effect zone". Discussing about road distance and conservation policies, we propose that roads are directly involved in inbreeding and in local extinction. Thus, road construction ought to consider conservation management.

  19. Ontogeny of B cells expressing IgM in embryonic and larval tissues of the American grass frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Zettergren, L D

    2000-06-01

    Affinity-purified, fluorochrome-tagged F(ab')(2) antibody fragments specific for heavy (mu) chains of Rana pipiens IgM were prepared from hyperimmune rabbit sera. By using two-color immunofluorescent procedures we observed that (1) the first cells expressing IgM, termed pre-B cells, lack detectable quantities of membrane or surface IgM but contain detectable quantities of cytoplasmic IgM (smu(-)/cmu(+)), (2) sIgM(+) B cells were the second type of IgM containing cell to appear in development, and (3) plasma cells, which contain copious quantities of cIgM, were the final phenotype to appear in the development of B cells expressing IgM. These cells were first observed in the pronephros of the developing urogenital system. Shortly after their appearance in the pronephros, cells in B lineages were observed in the liver. These observations (1) are consistent with recent studies of B lymphopoiesis in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in endothermic vertebrates, including mice, (2) suggest that there are fundamental ontogenetic and phylogenetic similarities between cells and tissues of developing vertebrate immune systems, and (3) evoke questions concerning the possible function(s) of lymphocytes in developing anurans up to metamorphosis and beyond.

  20. Combined effects of UV-B, nitrate, and low pH reduce the survival and activity level of larval cascades frogs (Rana cascadae).

    PubMed

    Hatch, A C; Blaustein, A R

    2000-11-01

    We investigated interactions between low pH, high nitrate level, and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light on the survival and activity level of larval Cascades frogs (Rana cascadae). We used a fully factorial experimental design, with pH levels of 5 and 7; initial "pulse" nitrate exposure levels of 0, 5, and 20 mg/L; and UV-B present or absent. After a 3-week laboratory exposure, we measured survival and activity level of the larvae. The experiment was repeated two times, in two separate years. Similar effects on survival and activity level were observed in both experiments. R. cascadae survival was not significantly reduced in treatments with individual factors alone (i.e., UV-B control, pH 5 control, or high nitrate level without pH or UV-B). However, in experiments from both years, survival and activity levels of larval R. cascadae were significantly reduced in the treatment with low pH, high nitrate, and UV-B together. In both years, analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that pH and nitrate had the greatest effect on survival and that UV-B and nitrate had the greatest effect on activity level. Additional effects were observed in the 1998 experiment on both survival and activity level. In 1998, UV radiation and the interaction term between pH and nitrate (pH x nitrate) had a significant effect on survival. Also in the 1998 experiment, activity level was significantly reduced in treatments at neutral pH with UV, at initial nitrate doses of 5 and 20 mg/L and at neutral pH without UV at an initial nitrate dose of 20 mg/L. We suggest that the adverse effects were due to the multiple stressors acting together. PMID:11031310

  1. Population declines lead to replicate patterns of internal range structure at the tips of the distribution of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Backlin, Adam R.; Tatarian, Patricia J.; Solvesky, Ben G.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic declines and increased isolation of peripheral populations of the threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) have led to the formation of internal range boundaries at opposite ends of the species’ distribution. While the population genetics of the southern internal boundary has been studied in some detail, similar information is lacking for the northern part of the range. In this study, we used microsatellite and mtDNA data to examine the genetic structuring and diversity of some of the last remaining R. draytonii populations in the northern Sierra Nevada, which collectively form the northern external range boundary. We compared these data to coastal populations in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the species is notably more abundant and still exists throughout much of its historic range. We show that ‘external’ Sierra Nevada populations have lower genetic diversity and are more differentiated from one another than their ‘internal’ Bay Area counterparts. This same pattern was mirrored across the distribution in California, where Sierra Nevada and Bay Area populations had lower allelic variability compared to those previously studied in coastal southern California. This genetic signature of northward range expansion was mirrored in the phylogeography of mtDNA haplotypes; northern Sierra Nevada haplotypes showed greater similarity to haplotypes from the south Coast Ranges than to the more geographically proximate populations in the Bay Area. These data cast new light on the geographic origins of Sierra Nevada R. draytonii populations and highlight the importance of distinguishing the genetic effects of contemporary demographic declines from underlying signatures of historic range expansion when addressing the most immediate threats to population persistence. Because there is no evidence of contemporary gene flow between any of the Sierra Nevada R. draytonii populations, we suggest that management activities should focus on

  2. Combined effects of cadmium and ultraviolet radiation on mortality and mineral content in common frog (Rana temporaria) larvae.

    PubMed

    Formicki, Grzegorz; Stawarz, Robert; Lukac, Norbert; Putała, Aldona; Kuczkowska, Anna

    2008-08-01

    The combined effects of UV with Cd(2 +) exposure on the mortality and mineral content of common frog larvae was investigated. Tadpoles were raised in increasing concentrations of Cd(2 +) (0-2000 microg x L(-1)). Additionally the larvae were exposed to biologically effective doses of UV-A (0.24 kJ x m(- 2)) and UV-B (2.71 kJ x m(- 2)). Parallel groups were grown in the same ionic concentrations in the absence of UV. In the second experiment larvae were exposed to sublethal doses of Cd(2 +) (1000 microg x L(-1)) for 3 days. Then the larvae were submitted to 4 weeks of recovery in clean water. Cd, Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K contents and Na/K ratio were measured. In tadpoles exposed exclusively to Cd(2 +) the 96 h LC50 = 3155 microg x L(-1). By contrast in tadpoles exposed to Cd(2 +) and UV for 96 hours the LC50 = 710 microg x L(-1). More cadmium was accumulated in UV-exposed tadpoles. On the other hand tadpoles exposed to UV radiation removed cadmium more efficiently than non-irradiated larvae. Cu, Na, and K were positively correlated with Cd content while Mg was negatively correlated with Cd. Animals exposed to combined stressors had lower Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, Zn contents, lower Na/K ratio and higher Cu and K contents than animals exposed exclusively to cadmium. Our studies indicate that cadmium ions combined with UV significantly increase mortality of common frog tadpoles. This may be related to higher cadmium uptake, disturbances in the content of essential metals and ionic imbalance. PMID:18584433

  3. Atrazine concentrations, gonadal gross morphology and histology in ranid frogs collected in Michigan agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M B; Hecker, M; Coady, K K; Tompsett, A R; Jones, P D; Du Preez, L H; Everson, G J; Solomon, K R; Carr, J A; Smith, E E; Kendall, R J; Van Der Kraak, G; Giesy, J P

    2006-03-10

    The triazine herbicide atrazine has been suggested to be a potential disruptor of normal sexual development in male frogs. The goals of this study were to collect native ranid frogs from sites in agricultural and non-agricultural areas and determine whether hypothesised atrazine effects on the gonads could be observed at the gross morphological and histological levels. Juvenile and adult green frogs (Rana clamitans), bullfrogs (R. catesbeiana) and leopard frogs (R. pipiens) were collected in the summers of 2002 and 2003. Atrazine concentrations were below the limit of quantification at non-agricultural sites, and concentrations did not exceed 2 microg/L at most agricultural sites. One concentration greater than 200 microg atrazine/L was measured once at one site in 2002. Hermaphroditic individuals with both male and female gonad tissue in either one or both gonads, were found at a low incidence at both non-agricultural and agricultural sites, and in both adults and juveniles. Testicular oocytes (TO) were found in male frogs at most of the sites, with the greatest incidence occurring in juvenile leopard frogs. TO incidence was not significantly different between agricultural and non-agricultural sites with the exception of juveniles collected in 2003. Atrazine concentrations were not significantly correlated with the incidence of hermaphroditism, but maximum atrazine concentrations were correlated with TO incidence in juvenile frogs in 2003. However, given the lack of a consistent relationship between atrazine concentrations and TO incidence, it is more likely the TOs observed in this study result from natural processes in development rather than atrazine exposure.

  4. The genetic contribution to sex determination and number of sex chromosomes vary among populations of common frogs (Rana temporaria).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, N; Vuille, Y; Brelsford, A; Merilä, J; Perrin, N

    2016-07-01

    The patterns of sex determination and sex differentiation have been shown to differ among geographic populations of common frogs. Notably, the association between phenotypic sex and linkage group 2 (LG2) has been found to be perfect in a northern Swedish population, but weak and variable among families in a southern one. By analyzing these populations with markers from other linkage groups, we bring two new insights: (1) the variance in phenotypic sex not accounted for by LG2 in the southern population could not be assigned to genetic factors on other linkage groups, suggesting an epigenetic component to sex determination; (2) a second linkage group (LG7) was found to co-segregate with sex and LG2 in the northern population. Given the very short timeframe since post-glacial colonization (in the order of 1000 generations) and its seemingly localized distribution, this neo-sex chromosome system might be the youngest one described so far. It does not result from a fusion, but more likely from a reciprocal translocation between the original Y chromosome (LG2) and an autosome (LG7), causing their co-segregation during male meiosis. By generating a strict linkage between several important genes from the sex-determination cascade (Dmrt1, Amh and Amhr2), this neo-sex chromosome possibly contributes to the 'differentiated sex race' syndrome (strictly genetic sex determination and early gonadal development) that characterizes this northern population. PMID:27071845

  5. Sediment TCDD-EQs and EROD and MROD activities in Ranid frogs from agricultural and nonagricultural sites in Michigan (USA).

    PubMed

    Murphy, M B; Hecker, M; Coady, K K; Tompsett, A R; Jones, P D; Newsted, J L; Wong, H L; du Preez, L H; Solomon, K R; Carr, J A; Smith, E E; Kendall, R J; Van der Kraak, G; Giesy, J P

    2006-10-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated atrazine-mediated induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. EROD is an enzyme active in the metabolism of many compounds, including many xenobiotics. These studies have suggested that atrazine may affect reproductive function by altering steroid metabolism. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships could be detected between measured atrazine concentrations in surface waters and the liver-somatic index (LSI) and EROD and 7-methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities in the livers of ranid frogs. In addition, sediment dioxin toxic equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined using the H4IIE-luc cell bioassay. Adult and juvenile green frogs (Rana clamitans), bullfrogs (R. catesbeiana), and Northern leopard frogs (R. pipiens) were collected from areas with extensive corn cultivation and areas where there was little agricultural activity in south central Michigan in the summer of 2003. Atrazine concentrations at nonagricultural sites ranged from less than the limit of quantification (0.17 microg atrazine/L) to 0.23 microg atrazine/L and did not exceed 1.2 microg atrazine/L at agricultural sites. Sediment TCDD-EQs were measurable only at one agricultural site. Of the measured parameters, only LSI values in adult male frogs differed significantly between agricultural and nonagricultural sites, with greater values observed at agricultural sites. In green frogs, EROD and MROD activities were measurable in both adult and juvenile frogs and were similar among sites. Median EROD activities ranged from 13 to 21 pmol/min/mg protein in adult male green frogs and from 5 to 13 pmol/min/mg protein in adult female green frogs. Juvenile frogs had greater EROD and MROD activities than adult frogs. Bullfrogs and leopard frogs had greater activities than did green frogs. Atrazine concentrations were significantly and negatively correlated with MROD activity in adult male green frogs (Spearman R = -0.800). LSI and

  6. Prevalence of skeletal and eye malformations in frogs from north-central United States: estimations based on collections from randomly selected sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoff, P.K.; Johnson, C.M.; Schotthoefer, A.M.; Murphy, J.E.; Lieske, C.; Cole, R.A.; Johnson, L.B.; Beasley, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal malformation rates for several frog species were determined in a set of randomly selected wetlands in the north-central USA over three consecutive years. In 1998, 62 sites yielded 389 metamorphic frogs, nine (2.3%) of which had skeletal or eye malformations. A subset of the original sites was surveyed in the following 2 yr. In 1999, 1,085 metamorphic frogs were collected from 36 sites and 17 (1.6%) had skeletal or eye malformations, while in 2000, examination of 1,131 metamorphs yielded 16 (1.4%) with skeletal or eye malformations. Hindlimb malformations predominated in all three years, but other abnormalities, involving forelimb, eye, and pelvis were also found. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) constituted the majority of collected metamorphs as well as most of the malformed specimens. However, malformations were also noted in mink frogs (R. septentrionalis), wood frogs (R. sylvatica), and gray tree frogs (Hyla spp.). The malformed specimens were found in clustered sites in all three years but the cluster locations were not the same in any year. The malformation rates reported here are higher than the 0.3% rate determined for metamorphic frogs collected from similar sites in Minnesota in the 1960s, and thus, appear to represent an elevation of an earlier baseline malformation rate.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION TO AMPHIBIANS. 1) DOSE-DEPENDENT INDUCTION OF HINDLIMB MALFORMATIONS IN THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPIENS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of environmental stressors have been hypothesized as responsible for seeming increases in limb malformations in several species of North American amphibians. The purpose of this study was to generate dose-response data suitable for assessing the potential role of solar u...

  8. The affinity and activity of compounds related to nicotine on the rectus abdominis muscle of the frog (Rana pipiens)

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, R. B.; Thompson, G. M.

    1969-01-01

    1. Series of pyridylalkyl- and substituted phenylalkyl-trimethylammonium salts, triethylammonium salts, diethylamines and di-n-propylamines have been made. The substituents in the benzene ring were nitro, chloro, bromo, methoxy, hydroxy and amino groups and the alkyl residues had one, two, or three methylene groups separating the aromatic nucleus from the cationic head. 2. Most of the trimethylammonium compounds caused a contracture of the frog rectus muscle, but some were partial agonists and a few were antagonists. The di-n-propylamines were all antagonists, as were most of the diethylamines and triethylammonium compounds, though some of these were partial agonists and a few triethylammonium compounds were agonists. The affinities of the antagonists and partial agonists for the receptors stimulated by β-pyridylmethyltrimethylammonium (and by nicotine) were measured. The equipotent molar ratios of all the agonists were measured relative to β-pyridylmethyltrimethylammonium. 3. The dissociation constants of the pyridylmethyldiethylamines and substituted benzyldiethylamines were measured. The effects of substituents on the pKa of benzyldiethylamine were similar to their effects on the pKa of aniline, though there were differences with some of the o-substituted compounds, which could be attributed to internal hydrogen-bond formation. 4. There is no obvious correlation between the effects of a substituent on the pKa of benzyldiethylamine and its effects on affinity. Although increasing the size of the cationic group usually increased affinity, it did not always do so. The compounds with the highest affinity, p-hydroxybenzyldiethylamine (log K, 5·90) had about half the affinity of (+)-tubocurarine (log K, 6·11), but the triethylammonium analogue (log K, 4·17) had only about one-fiftieth of the affinity of the tertiary base. The binding of the drug to the receptor appears to involve many factors which include the size of the groups as well as their electron

  9. The effect of the gamma-subunit of the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase of bovine and frog (Rana catesbiana) retinal rod outer segments on the kinetic parameters of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, M M; Bitensky, M W; Takemoto, D J

    1990-01-01

    Rod-outer-segment cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) (subunit composition alpha beta gamma 2) contains catalytic activity in alpha beta. The gamma-subunits are inhibitors. Removal of the gamma-subunits increases Vmax. without affecting the Km. The inhibitory effect of a single gamma-subunit (alpha beta gamma) on the Vmax. of alpha beta is much greater in bovine than in frog (Rana catesbiana) PDE. Bovine PDE in the alpha beta gamma 2 state has a Vmax. that is 2.6 +/- 0.4% of the Vmax. of alpha beta. The removal of one gamma-subunit to give alpha beta gamma results in a Vmax. 5.2 +/- 1% of that for maximal activity. Frog alpha beta gamma 2 has a Vmax. 10.8 +/- 2%, and alpha beta gamma has a Vmax. 50 +/- 18%, of the Vmax. of alpha beta. These data suggest that a single gamma-subunit can inhibit the catalytic activity of active sites on both alpha- and beta-subunits in bovine, but not in frog, rod-outer-segment PDE. PMID:2154965

  10. The effect of the gamma-subunit of the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase of bovine and frog (Rana catesbiana) retinal rod outer segments on the kinetic parameters of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Whalen, M M; Bitensky, M W; Takemoto, D J

    1990-02-01

    Rod-outer-segment cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) (subunit composition alpha beta gamma 2) contains catalytic activity in alpha beta. The gamma-subunits are inhibitors. Removal of the gamma-subunits increases Vmax. without affecting the Km. The inhibitory effect of a single gamma-subunit (alpha beta gamma) on the Vmax. of alpha beta is much greater in bovine than in frog (Rana catesbiana) PDE. Bovine PDE in the alpha beta gamma 2 state has a Vmax. that is 2.6 +/- 0.4% of the Vmax. of alpha beta. The removal of one gamma-subunit to give alpha beta gamma results in a Vmax. 5.2 +/- 1% of that for maximal activity. Frog alpha beta gamma 2 has a Vmax. 10.8 +/- 2%, and alpha beta gamma has a Vmax. 50 +/- 18%, of the Vmax. of alpha beta. These data suggest that a single gamma-subunit can inhibit the catalytic activity of active sites on both alpha- and beta-subunits in bovine, but not in frog, rod-outer-segment PDE. PMID:2154965

  11. Effects of wetland vs. landscape variables on parasite communities of Rana pipiens: links to anthropogenic factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Rohr, Jason R.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Koehler, Anson V.; Johnson, Catherine M.; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Beasley, Val R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of several diseases affecting amphibian populations worldwide has prompted investigations into determinants of the occurrence and abundance of parasites in frogs. To understand the spatial scales and identify specific environmental factors that determine risks of parasitism in frogs, helminth communities in metamorphic frogs of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined in relation to wetland and landscape factors at local (1 km) and regional (10 km) spatial extents in an agricultural region of Minnesota (USA) using regression analyses, ordination, and variance partitioning techniques. Greater amounts of forested and woody wetland habitats, shorter distances between woody wetlands, and smaller-sized open water patches in surrounding landscapes were the most consistently positive correlates with the abundances, richness, and diversity of helminths found in the frogs. Wetland and local landscape variables were suggested as most important for larval trematode abundances, whereas local and regional landscape variables appeared most important for adult helminths. As previously reported, the sum concentration of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine, was the strongest predictor of larval trematode communities. In this report, we highlight the additional influences of landscape factors. In particular, our data suggest that anthropogenic activities that have resulted in the loss of the availability and connectivity of suitable habitats in the surrounding landscapes of wetlands are associated with declines in helminth richness and abundance, but that alteration of wetland water quality through eutrophication or pesticide contamination may facilitate the transmission of certain parasite taxa when they are present at wetlands. Although additional research is needed to quantify the negative effects of parasitism on frog populations, efforts to reduce inputs of agrochemicals into wetlands to limit larval trematode infections may be warranted

  12. Effects of wetland vs. landscape variables on parasite communities of Rana pipiens: links to anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Schotthoefer, Anna M; Rohr, Jason R; Cole, Rebecca A; Koehler, Anson V; Johnson, Catherine M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Beasley, Val R

    2011-06-01

    The emergence of several diseases affecting amphibian populations worldwide has prompted investigations into determinants of the occurrence and abundance of parasites in frogs. To understand the spatial scales and identify specific environmental factors that determine risks of parasitism in frogs, helminth communities in metamorphic frogs of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined in relation to wetland and landscape factors at local (1 km) and regional (10 km) spatial extents in an agricultural region of Minnesota (USA) using regression analyses, ordination, and variance partitioning techniques. Greater amounts of forested and woody wetland habitats, shorter distances between woody wetlands, and smaller-sized open water patches in surrounding landscapes were the most consistently positive correlates with the abundances, richness, and diversity of helminths found in the frogs. Wetland and local landscape variables were suggested as most important for larval trematode abundances, whereas local and regional landscape variables appeared most important for adult helminths. As previously reported, the sum concentration of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine, was the strongest predictor of larval trematode communities. In this report, we highlight the additional influences of landscape factors. In particular, our data suggest that anthropogenic activities that have resulted in the loss of the availability and connectivity of suitable habitats in the surrounding landscapes of wetlands are associated with declines in helminth richness and abundance, but that alteration of wetland water quality through eutrophication or pesticide contamination may facilitate the transmission of certain parasite taxa when they are present at wetlands. Although additional research is needed to quantify the negative effects of parasitism on frog populations, efforts to reduce inputs of agrochemicals into wetlands to limit larval trematode infections may be warranted

  13. Conservation in the Teaching Laboratory--Substitution of Xenopus for Rana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhart, David M; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports on experimental comparisons between the leopard frog, currently captured for laboratory use, and the African clawed frog, raised specifically for research. Except for the increased longevity of isolated nerve axons in the clawed frog, no other significant differences were established. Recommends laboratory use of clawed frogs as…

  14. Potential for Loss of Breeding Habitat for Imperiled Mountain Yellow-legged Frog ( Rana muscosa) in High Sierra Nevada Mountain Water Bodies due to Reduced Snowpack: Interaction of Climate Change and an Introduced Predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacan, I.; Matthews, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Year to year variation in snowpack (20-200% average) and summer rain create large fluctuations in the volume of water in ponds and small lakes of the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada. These water bodies are critical habitat for the imperiled mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa, which has decreased in abundance by 90% during the past century, due in part to the loss of suitable habitat and introduction of a fish predator (trout, Oncorhynchus spp.). Climate change is predicted to reduce the amount of snowpack, potentially impacting amphibian habitats throughout the Sierra Nevada by further reducing the lake and pond water levels and resulting in drying of small lakes during the summer. Mountain yellow-legged frogs are closely tied to water during all life stages, and are unique in having a three- to four-year tadpole phase. Thus, tadpole survival and future recruitment of adult frogs requires adequate water in lakes and ponds throughout the year, but larger lakes are populated with fish that prey on frogs and tadpoles. Thus, most successful frog breeding occurs in warm, shallow, fishless ponds that undergo wide fluctuations in volume. These water bodies would be most susceptible to the potential climate change effects of reduced snowpack, possibly resulting in lower tadpole survival. This study explores the link between the changes in water availability -- including complete pond drying -- and the abundance and recruitment of mountain yellow-legged frog in Dusy Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA. We propose using the low-snowpack years (1999, 2002, 2004) as comparative case studies to predict future effects of climate change on aquatic habitat availability and amphibian abundance and survival. To quantify the year to year variation and changes in water volume available to amphibians, we initiated GPS lake mapping in 2002 to quantify water volumes, water surface area, and shoreline length. We tracked these changes by repeated mapping of

  15. Triazines facilitate neurotransmitter release of synaptic terminals located in hearts of frog (Rana ridibunda) and honeybee (Apis mellifera) and in the ventral nerve cord of a beetle (Tenebrio molitor).

    PubMed

    Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Zafeiridou, Georgia; Topoglidi, Aglaia; Chaleplis, George; Zografou, Stella; Theophilidis, George

    2003-07-01

    Three triazine herbicides, atrazine, simazine and metribuzine, and some of their major metabolites (cyanuric acid and 6-azauracil) were investigated for their action on synaptic terminals using three different isolated tissue preparations from the atria of the frog, Rana ridibunda, the heart of the honeybee, Apis mellifera macedonica, and the ventral nerve cord of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The results indicate that triazines facilitate the release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals, as already reported for the mammalian central nervous system. The no observed effect concentration, the maximum concentration of the herbicide diluted in the saline that has no effect on the physiological properties of the isolated tissue, was estimated for each individual preparation. According to their relative potency, the three triazines tested can be ranked as follows: atrazine (cyanuric acid), simazine>metribuzine (6-azauracil). The action of these compounds on the cholinergic (amphibians, insects), adrenergic (amphibian) and octopaminergic (insects) synaptic terminals is discussed.

  16. Intraerythrocytic development of species of Hepatozoon infecting ranid frogs: evidence for convergence of life cycle characteristics among apicomplexans.

    PubMed

    Smith, T G; Kim, B; Hong, H; Desser, S S

    2000-06-01

    Intraerythrocytic development of the adeleorin apicomplexans Hepatozoon clamatae and Hepatozoon catesbianae were investigated in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, the green frog, Rana clamitans melanota, and the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Merozoites emerging from hepatic meronts penetrated erythrocytes and underwent 1-3 rounds of binary fission to produce 2-8 merozoites. Following their release from infected erythrocytes, individual merozoites entered new cells and transformed into gamonts. Although this is the first report of intraerythrocytic development for a fully described species of Hepatozoon, a phylogenetic reanalysis of 11 species of Hepatozoon, 6 species representative of the 5 other hemogregarine taxa, 2 species of dactylosomatids, and 2 species of piroplasms, indicates that asexual reproduction of parasites within blood cells of vertebrates has arisen at least 3 times in the apicomplexan lineage that includes adeleorins and piroplasms. This method of asexual development, which is also observed in species of hemospororin genera such as Plasmodium, is discussed in the context of the evolution of apicomplexan life cycles. In addition to supporting the paraphyly of the genus Hepatozoon determined in an earlier study, this phylogenetic analysis featured a monophyletic group, consisting of the sister taxa Hemolivia and Karyolysus, that was the sister group to a clade consisting of the more derived hemogregarines, the dactylosomatids, and the piroplasms.

  17. Landscape associations of frog and toad species in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Olsen, D.A.; Mossman, M.J.; Hemesath, L.M.; Lannoo, M.J.; Kaiser, Hinrich; Casper, Gary S.; Bernstein, Neil P.

    2000-01-01

    Landscape habitat associations of frogs and toads in Iowa and Wisconsin were tested to determine whether they support or refute previous general habitat classifications. We examined which Midwestern species shared similar habitats to see if these associations were consistent across large geographic areas (states). Rana sylvatica (wood frog), Hyla versicolor (eastern gray treefrog), Pseudacris crucifer (spring peeper), and Acris crepitans (cricket frog) were identified as forest species, P. triseriata (chorus frog), H. chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrog), R. pipiens (leopard frog), and Bufo americanus (American toad) as grassland species, and R. catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), R. palustris (pickerel frog), and R. septentrionalis (mink frog) as lake or stream species. The best candidates to serve as bioindicators of habitat quality were the forest species R. sylvatica, H. versicolor, and P. crucifer, the grassland species R. pipiens and P. triseriata, and a cold water wetland species, R. palustris. Declines of P. crucifer, R. pipiens, and R. palustris populations in one or both states may reflect changes in habitat quality. Habitat and community associations of some species differed between states, indicating that these relationships may change across the range of a species. Acris crepitans may have shifted its habitat affinities from open habitats, recorded historically, to the more forested habitat associations we recorded. We suggest contaminants deserve more investigation regarding the abrupt and widespread declines of this species. Interspersion of different habitat types was positively associated with several species. A larger number of wetland patches may increase breeding opportunities and increase the probability of at least one site being suitable. We noted consistently negative associations between anuran species and urban development. Given the current trend of urban growth and increasing density of the human population, declines of

  18. What's the Difference between Frogs and Toads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herrick

    2004-01-01

    The difference between frogs and toads can be determined scientifically but is based in the historic use of the terms frog and toad. These are Old English words for the common frog, "Rana temporaria," and the common toad, "Bufo bufo," both inhabitants of the British Isles. In the process of describing a new anuran species, scientists refer to it…

  19. Icosiella turgeocauda n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) and Seuratascaris numidica (Nematoda: Ascarididae), parasites of the frog, Rana cancrivora (Anura: Ranidae), from Luzon, Republic of the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Telford, Sam R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2003-04-01

    Icosiella turgeocauda n. sp. from the intestinal mesenteries of Rana cancrivora collected at Luzon, Republic of the Philippines, is described and illustrated. Icosiella turgeocauda n. sp. represents the ninth species to be assigned to the genus and is easily differentiated from all the previously described species by the position of the vulva and the presence of bilateral umbos on the caudal end of the male. Seuratascaris numidica also was found. The Philippines represents a new location record for S. numidica.

  20. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in American bullfrog and southern leopard frog larvae from wetlands on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Peterson, John D; Wood, Maranda B; Hopkins, William A; Unrine, Jason M; Mendonça, Mary T

    2007-07-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, an aquatic fungus, has been linked to recent amphibian population declines. Few surveys have assessed B. dendrobatidis infections in areas where the disease is suggested to be less virulent and population declines have not been observed, such as southeastern North America. Although adult Rana catesbeiana and Rana sphenocephala from the Savannah River Site, South Carolina collected in 1979 and 1982 were identified as having B. dendrobatidis, it is unknown whether the fungus is currently present at the site or if susceptibility to infection varies among species or wetlands with different histories of environmental contamination. From 15 May through 15 August 2004, we collected R. catesbeiana and R. sphenocephala tadpoles from three wetlands with differing contamination histories on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. We found B. dendrobatidis in only one of the wetlands we surveyed. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection was identified in 64% of the R. catesbeiana tadpoles sampled and histologically assessed (n=50) from a wetland contaminated with mercury, copper, and zinc. No R. sphenocephala tadpoles from this site (n=50) were infected. In combination with a recently published report, our data suggest that B. dendrobatidis has been present at the Savannah River Site for over 25 yr but has not caused any apparent population declines. This time period is similar to the known presence of 30 yr of B. dendrobatidis in northeastern North America. Our data suggest that R. sphenocephala larvae might be resistant to infection, even when occupying the same wetland as the infected R. catesbeiana. Our survey did not clarify the effects of environmental contamination on infection severity, but our study stresses the importance of additional field surveys to document how this pathogen is affecting amphibians globally. PMID:17699083

  1. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in American bullfrog and southern leopard frog larvae from wetlands on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Peterson, John D; Wood, Maranda B; Hopkins, William A; Unrine, Jason M; Mendonça, Mary T

    2007-07-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, an aquatic fungus, has been linked to recent amphibian population declines. Few surveys have assessed B. dendrobatidis infections in areas where the disease is suggested to be less virulent and population declines have not been observed, such as southeastern North America. Although adult Rana catesbeiana and Rana sphenocephala from the Savannah River Site, South Carolina collected in 1979 and 1982 were identified as having B. dendrobatidis, it is unknown whether the fungus is currently present at the site or if susceptibility to infection varies among species or wetlands with different histories of environmental contamination. From 15 May through 15 August 2004, we collected R. catesbeiana and R. sphenocephala tadpoles from three wetlands with differing contamination histories on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. We found B. dendrobatidis in only one of the wetlands we surveyed. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection was identified in 64% of the R. catesbeiana tadpoles sampled and histologically assessed (n=50) from a wetland contaminated with mercury, copper, and zinc. No R. sphenocephala tadpoles from this site (n=50) were infected. In combination with a recently published report, our data suggest that B. dendrobatidis has been present at the Savannah River Site for over 25 yr but has not caused any apparent population declines. This time period is similar to the known presence of 30 yr of B. dendrobatidis in northeastern North America. Our data suggest that R. sphenocephala larvae might be resistant to infection, even when occupying the same wetland as the infected R. catesbeiana. Our survey did not clarify the effects of environmental contamination on infection severity, but our study stresses the importance of additional field surveys to document how this pathogen is affecting amphibians globally.

  2. Comparative anatomy of the locus coeruleus. II. Organization and projection of the catecholamine containing neurons in the upper rhombencephalon of the frog, Rana catesbiana.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, M; Maeda, T; Shimizu, N

    1976-01-01

    The organization and projection of the catecholamine (CA) containing neurons in the upper rhombencephalon were experimentally investigated with histofluorescence method in the brain of the bullfrog, Rana catesbiana. A small number of catecholamine containing neurons are located in the upper rhombencephalon. These neurons do not send ascending fibers to contribute CA projection to the forebrain, but give rise to relatively short axons to innervate the cerebellum and neighbouring reticular formation. Judging from their anatomical aspects, it seems that the structure homologous to the mammalian locus coeruleus is not present in the amphibian brain. PMID:1085783

  3. Water molds of the genera Saprolegnia and Leptolegnia are pathogenic to the North American frogs Rana catesbeiana and Pseudacris crucifer, respectively.

    PubMed

    Ruthig, Gregory R

    2009-04-27

    Water molds are commonly associated with amphibian mortality. Since water molds often act as saprophytes, it is important to test their effects on amphibians to determine whether they can also act as pathogens. In controlled experiments, the eggs of 2 amphibian species, the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and the spring peeper Pseudacris crucifer, suffered higher mortality when they were exposed to zoospores of water molds of the genera Saprolegnia and Leptolegnia, respectively. Water molds are important pathogens in many amphibian systems, yet their ecological impact on amphibians remains mostly unknown. PMID:19565694

  4. Number of mast cells in the harderian gland of the green frog, Rana esculenta: the annual cycle and its relation to environmental and hormonal factors.

    PubMed Central

    Chieffi Baccari, G; Minucci, S; Marmorino, C; Vitiello Izzo, I

    1991-01-01

    The Harderian gland of the green frog contains mast cells. Their number shows annual variations, being more numerous in the winter months. The increase of mast cell number (MCN) is matched by a marked degranulation. No sex differences are found throughout the year. Manipulations of the photoperiod and temperature, either in winter or in summer, suggest that only the latter is responsible for the annual variations. Exposure to higher temperatures causes a decrease in the MCN in the winter frogs, while exposure of the summer frogs to low temperatures provokes the opposite effect. The pituitary gland also influences MCN. Hypophysectomy causes a decrease of MCN, with a return to normal following replacement therapy with homologous pars distalis homogenate. Among pituitary hormones, only ACTH mimics the effect of pars distalis homogenate. However, a possible link seems to exist between environmental (temperature) and hormonal (pituitary) factors, since hypophysectomy prevents the increase of MCN in the summer frogs exposed to low temperatures. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1817144

  5. Phylogeographic analyses of the southern leopard frog: the impact of geography and climate on the distribution of genetic lineages vs. subspecies.

    PubMed

    Newman, Catherine E; Rissler, Leslie J

    2011-12-01

    The southeastern United States is a major phylogeographic break hotspot for amphibians, but the processes underlying this hotspot remain to be explicitly tested. We test the correlation of genetic lineages with subspecies breaks in the southeastern United States and the association of such breaks with climate, using Rana sphenocephala as a case study, and place our results in the broader context of the Alabama-Appalachian suture zone (AL-Appalachian SZ). We use genetic and ecological methods to (i) determine whether genetic lineages are coincident with the AL-Appalachian SZ or the subspecies and (ii) test the correlation of major climatic breaks with genetic structure and morphological variation in R. sphenocephala. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the ND1 mtDNA gene and microsatellite cluster analyses revealed two distinct lineages with over 4% sequence divergence. The geographic distributions of the two lineages are concordant with the AL-Appalachian SZ but do not correspond to the ranges of the subspecies based on morphology. Mantel tests revealed that isolation by distance and historical barriers to gene flow, rather than climate, are the major drivers of genetic divergence at neutral loci. Examination of climate breaks across the Southeast revealed a pattern incongruent with suture zone hotspots, suggesting that phylogenetic structure has been driven primarily by historical factors, such as isolation, the Appalachian Mountains and the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint River Basin. However, climate breaks are consistent with the geographic distribution of the subspecies of R. sphenocephala, suggesting that environmental pressures may be driving divergence in morphological traits that outpaces molecular evolution. PMID:22066968

  6. Phylogeographic analyses of the southern leopard frog: the impact of geography and climate on the distribution of genetic lineages vs. subspecies.

    PubMed

    Newman, Catherine E; Rissler, Leslie J

    2011-12-01

    The southeastern United States is a major phylogeographic break hotspot for amphibians, but the processes underlying this hotspot remain to be explicitly tested. We test the correlation of genetic lineages with subspecies breaks in the southeastern United States and the association of such breaks with climate, using Rana sphenocephala as a case study, and place our results in the broader context of the Alabama-Appalachian suture zone (AL-Appalachian SZ). We use genetic and ecological methods to (i) determine whether genetic lineages are coincident with the AL-Appalachian SZ or the subspecies and (ii) test the correlation of major climatic breaks with genetic structure and morphological variation in R. sphenocephala. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the ND1 mtDNA gene and microsatellite cluster analyses revealed two distinct lineages with over 4% sequence divergence. The geographic distributions of the two lineages are concordant with the AL-Appalachian SZ but do not correspond to the ranges of the subspecies based on morphology. Mantel tests revealed that isolation by distance and historical barriers to gene flow, rather than climate, are the major drivers of genetic divergence at neutral loci. Examination of climate breaks across the Southeast revealed a pattern incongruent with suture zone hotspots, suggesting that phylogenetic structure has been driven primarily by historical factors, such as isolation, the Appalachian Mountains and the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint River Basin. However, climate breaks are consistent with the geographic distribution of the subspecies of R. sphenocephala, suggesting that environmental pressures may be driving divergence in morphological traits that outpaces molecular evolution.

  7. Genetic structure of a Japanese brown frog (Rana japonica) population implies severe restriction of gene flow caused by recent urbanization in a satoyama landscape.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Soh; Abe, Seiya; Matsuki, Rikyu

    2013-12-01

    Rapid urbanization is one of the major pressures on amphibian species. Elucidating changes in genetic structure will be useful in evaluating the effects of urbanization on amphibian populations. Our study focused on Rana japonica, which is common in complex agricultural landscapes known as satoyama, which are also under intense development pressure. We conducted landscape genetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies of 13 breeding sites in a rapidly urbanizing area of Japan. We found several breeding sites had significantly higher F(st) values, and we also identified the barriers to gene flow between these sites. Observation of past aerial photographs revealed that these barriers coincided with the construction of man-made structures in the last few decades, suggesting that urbanization has restricted gene flow in R. japonica. Our results show that landscape genetic approaches are useful in conservation planning where rapid habitat degradation has taken place.

  8. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

  9. The weak link: do muscle properties determine locomotor performance in frogs?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas J; Abbott, Emily M; Azizi, Emanuel

    2011-05-27

    Muscles power movement, yet the conceptual link between muscle performance and locomotor performance is poorly developed. Frog jumping provides an ideal system to probe the relationship between muscle capacity and locomotor performance, because a jump is a single discrete event and mechanical power output is a critical determinant of jump distance. We tested the hypothesis that interspecific variation in jump performance could be explained by variability in available muscle power. We used force plate ergometry to measure power produced during jumping in Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis), leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and cane toads (Bufo marinus). We also measured peak isotonic power output in isolated plantaris muscles for each species. As expected, jump performance varied widely. Osteopilus septentrionalis developed peak power outputs of 1047.0 ± 119.7 W kg(-1) hindlimb muscle mass, about five times that of B. marinus (198.5 ± 54.5 W kg(-1)). Values for R. pipiens were intermediate (543.9 ± 96.2 W kg(-1)). These differences in jump power were not matched by differences in available muscle power, which were 312.7 ± 28.9, 321.8 ± 48.5 and 262.8 ± 23.2 W kg(-1) muscle mass for O. septentrionalis, R. pipiens and B. marinus, respectively. The lack of correlation between available muscle power and jump power suggests that non-muscular mechanisms (e.g. elastic energy storage) can obscure the link between muscle mechanical performance and locomotor performance.

  10. Premitotic DNA synthesis in the brain of the adult frog (Rana esculenta L. ): An autoradiographic sup 3 H-thymidine study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernocchi, G.; Scherini, E.; Giacometti, S.; Mares, V. )

    1990-12-01

    Replicative synthesis of DNA in the brain of the adult frog was studied by light microscope autoradiography. Animals collected during the active period (May-June) and in hibernation (January) were used. In active frogs, 3H-thymidine labelling occurred mainly in the ependymal cells which line the ventricles. The mean labelling index (LI%) was higher in the ependyma of the lateral and fourth ventricles than in the ependyma of the lateral diencephalon and tectal parts of the mesencephalon. In the recessus infundibularis and preopticus the number of labelled cells (LCs) was several times greater than in the lateral parts of the third ventricle. LCs were seen subependymally only occasionally. The incidence of LCs in the parenchyma of the brain was much lower in most regions than in the ventricular ependyma; LCs were mainly small and, from their nuclear morphology, they were glial cells. The LI% reached the highest value in the septum hippocampi and in the nucleus entopeduncularis. In these locations, LCs were larger and closer in size to the nerve cells of these regions. From comparison with data obtained earlier in the brain of mammals, it is evident that the distribution of proliferating cells in the olfactory and limbic system is phylogenetically conservative. The occurrence of pyknotic cells in the same areas which contain LCs, suggests that cell division reflects in part the process of cell renewal observed in mammals. However, proliferating cells could also be linked to the continuous growth observed in non-mammalian vertebrates. In hibernating frogs, LCs and pyknoses were not seen or were found occasionally, which further indicates the functional significance of both processes.

  11. Morphological correlates of aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in a semi-aquatic frog, Rana esculenta: no evidence for a design conflict.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Ramsay, Jason; Aerts, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Semi-aquatic frogs are faced with an unusual locomotory challenge. They have to swim and jump using the same apparatus, i.e. the hind limbs. Optimization of two tasks that require mutually incompatible morphologies or physiologies cannot occur simultaneously. In such cases, natural selection will result in some compromise, i.e. an intermediate phenotype that can perform both tasks reasonably well, but its performance will never match that of a specialized phenotype. We found no direct evidence for a trade-off between jumping and swimming performance nor for a coupled optimization. This could be due to the importance of overall quality, as suggested by the fact that some frogs possess greater overall muscularity than others, irrespective of their body size. Another explanation could be that some morphological characteristics have a positive effect on both locomotor modes and others show a trade-off effect. The net effect of these characteristics could result in an overall absence of correlation between the two locomotor performances. Size has a great influence on the morphological data and on jumping performance, but not if performance is expressed as velocity. The body shape of an anuran is conservative and scales mostly isometrically.

  12. Morphological correlates of aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in a semi-aquatic frog, Rana esculenta: no evidence for a design conflict

    PubMed Central

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Ramsay, Jason; Aerts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Semi-aquatic frogs are faced with an unusual locomotory challenge. They have to swim and jump using the same apparatus, i.e. the hind limbs. Optimization of two tasks that require mutually incompatible morphologies or physiologies cannot occur simultaneously. In such cases, natural selection will result in some compromise, i.e. an intermediate phenotype that can perform both tasks reasonably well, but its performance will never match that of a specialized phenotype. We found no direct evidence for a trade-off between jumping and swimming performance nor for a coupled optimization. This could be due to the importance of overall quality, as suggested by the fact that some frogs possess greater overall muscularity than others, irrespective of their body size. Another explanation could be that some morphological characteristics have a positive effect on both locomotor modes and others show a trade-off effect. The net effect of these characteristics could result in an overall absence of correlation between the two locomotor performances. Size has a great influence on the morphological data and on jumping performance, but not if performance is expressed as velocity. The body shape of an anuran is conservative and scales mostly isometrically. PMID:17331179

  13. Density-dependent growth and metamorphosis in the larval bronze frog Rana temporalis is influenced by genetic relatedness of the cohort.

    PubMed

    Girish, S; Saidapur, S K

    2003-06-01

    Effects of density and kinship on growth and metamorphosis in tadpoles of Rana temporalis were studied in a 2 4 factorial experiment. Fifteen egg masses were collected from streams in the Western Ghat region of south India. The tadpoles were raised as siblings or in groups of non-siblings at increasing density levels, viz. 15, 30, 60 and 120/5 l water. With an increase in density level from 15 to 120 tadpoles/5 l water, duration of the larval stage increased and fewer individuals metamorphosed irrespective of whether they belonged to sibling or non-sibling groups by day 100 when the experiments were terminated. The size of individuals at metamorphosis declined significantly with increase in the density of rearing. However, at higher densities (60 and 120 tadpoles/5 l water) sibling group tadpoles performed better compared to mixed groups and took significantly less time to metamorphose. Also, more individuals of sibling groups metamorphosed compared to non-sibling groups at a given density. Mixed rearing retarded growth rates, prolonged larval duration resulting in a wider spectrum of size classes, and lowered the number of individuals recruited to terrestrial life. The study shows that interference competition occurred more strongly in cohorts of mixed relatedness than in sibling groups.

  14. River islands, refugia and genetic structuring in the endemic brown frog Rana kukunoris (Anura, Ranidae) of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiwei; Yan, Fang; Fu, Jinzhong; Wu, Shifang; Murphy, Robert W; Che, Jing; Zhang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Frequently, Pleistocene climatic cycling has been found to be the diver of genetic structuring in populations, even in areas that did not have continental ice sheets, such as on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Typically, species distributed on the plateau have been hypothesized to re-treat to south-eastern refugia, especially during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We evaluated sequence variation in the mitochondrial DNA gene Cytb and the nuclear DNA gene RAG-1 in Rana kukunoris, a species endemic to the QTP. Two major lineages, N and S, were identified, and lineage N was further subdivided into N1 and N2. The geographical distribution and genealogical divergences supported the hypothesis of multiple refugia. However, major lineages and sublineages diverged prior to the LGM. Demographical expansion was detected only in lineage S and sublineage N2. Sublineage N1 might have survived several glacial cycles in situ and did not expand after the LGM because of the absence of suitable habitat; it survived in river islands. Genetic analysis and environment modelling suggested that the north-eastern edge of QTP contained a major refugium for R. kukunoris. From here, lineage S dispersed southwards after the LGM. Two microrefugia in northern Qilian Mountains greatly contributed to current level of intraspecific genetic diversity. These results were found to have important implications for the habitat conservation in Northwest China.

  15. Effects of dibutyl phthalate as an environmental endocrine disruptor on gonadal sex differentiation of genetic males of the frog Rana rugosa.

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, H; Miura, I; Ichikawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    To examine the effects of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on gonadal sex differentiation, genetically male tadpoles of Rana rugosa were exposed to dilute solutions of DBP at concentrations of 0.1, 1, or 10 microM during days 19-23 after fertilization, which is the critical period of gonadal sex differentiation in R. rugosa. Tadpoles were necropsied on day 40. The genetically male tadpoles were produced from crossings between males (ZZ) of one local population, in which females are the heterogametic sex, and females (XX) of another local population, in which males are the heterogametic sex. As positive control groups, tadpoles were exposed to dilute solutions of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) at concentrations of 0. 01, 0.1, or 1 microM during the same period. The internal structure of the gonads was histologically examined in a total of 30 control tadpoles, 86 E(2)-treated tadpoles, and 90 DBP-treated tadpoles. The gonads of the control tadpoles all showed the typical structure of testes. In contrast, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 microM E(2) treatments caused the undifferentiated gonads of 18, 63, and 100% of the tadpoles, respectively, to develop into gonads of complete or partial ovarian structure. After 0.1, 1, and 10 microM DBP treatment, 0, 7, and 17% of tadpoles, respectively, were similarly affected. These findings suggest that DBP was about 1,000-fold less potent than E(2). Nevertheless, DBP is an environmentally dangerous hormone that disrupts the pathways of testicular differentiation in genetically male animals. PMID:11133400

  16. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment on Rana sphenocephala tadpoles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Krest, S.K.; Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.

    2006-01-01

    We exposed larval southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to lead-contaminated sediments to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of this metal. Tadpoles were laboratory-raised from early free-swimming stage through metamorphosis at lead concentrations of 45, 75, 180, 540, 2360, 3940, 5520, and 7580 mg/kg dry weight in sediment. Corresponding pore water lead concentrations were 123, 227, 589, 1833, 8121, 13,579, 19,038, and 24,427 ug/L. Tadpoles exposed to lead concentrations in sediment of 3940 mg/kg or higher died within 2 to 5 days of exposure. At lower concentrations, mortality through metamorphosis ranged from 3.5% at 45 mg/kg lead to 37% at 2360 mg/kg lead in sediment. The LC50 value for lead in sediment was 3728 mg/kg (95% CI=1315 to 72,847 mg/kg), which corresponded to 12,539 ug/L lead in pore water (95% CI= 4000 to 35,200 ug/L). Early growth and development were depressed at 2,360 mg/kg lead in sediment (8100 ug/L in pore water) but differences were not evident by the time of metamorphosis. The most obvious effect of lead was its pronounced influence on skeletal development. Whereas tadpoles at 45 mg/kg lead in sediment did not display permanent abnormalities, skeletal malformations increased in frequency and severity at all higher lead concentrations. By 2360 mg/kg, 100% of surviving metamorphs displayed severe spinal problems, reduced femur and humerus lengths, deformed digits, and other bone malformations. Lead concentrations in tissues correlated positively with sediment and pore water concentrations.

  17. 75 FR 8733 - Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances; Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With... (CCAA) for the least chub (Iotichthys phlegethontis) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana lutreiventris..., least chub and Columbia spotted frog inhabited a variety of aquatic habitat types throughout...

  18. INFLUENCE OF RIBEIROIA ONDATRAE (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) INFECTION ON LIMB DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF NORTHERN LEOPARD FROGS (RANA PIPIENS): EFFECTS OF HOST STAGE AND PARASITE-EXPOSURE LEVEL. (R825867)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. A fatal leopard attack.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr

    2010-05-01

    A rare case of a big cat fatal attack is presented. A male leopard that had escaped from its unlocked cage attacked a 26-year-old male zoo worker. The man sustained penetrating injuries to the neck with consequent external bleeding. The man died while being transported to the hospital as a result of the injuries sustained. The wounds discovered on the victim's body corresponded with the known methods of leopard attacks and with findings on the carcasses of animals killed by leopards in the wild. The conclusion of the medicolegal investigation was that the underlying cause of death was a bite wound to the neck which lacerated the left internal jugular vein, the two main branches of the left external carotid artery, and the cervical spine. The cause of death was massive external bleeding. Special attention is paid to the general pattern of injuries sustained from big cat attacks.

  20. LEOPARD on a personal computer

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    The LEOPARD code is very widely used to produce four- or two-group cross sections for water reactors. Although it is heavily used it had not been downloaded to the PC. This paper has been written to announce the completion of downloading LEOPARD. LEOPARD can now be run on anything from the early PC to the most advanced 80386 machines. The only requirements are 512 Kbytes of memory (LEOPARD actually only needs 235, but with buffers, 256 Kbytes may not be enough) and two disk rives (preferably, one is a hard drive). The run times for various machines and configurations are summarized. The accuracy of the PC-LEOPARD results are documented.

  1. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations, aromatase activities and GSI in ranid frogs collected from agricultural and non-agricultural sites in Michigan (USA).

    PubMed

    Murphy, M B; Hecker, M; Coady, K K; Tompsett, A R; Higley, E B; Jones, P D; Du Preez, L H; Solomon, K R; Carr, J A; Smith, E E; Kendall, R J; Van Der Kraak, G; Giesy, J P

    2006-05-01

    The triazine herbicide atrazine has been hypothesized to disrupt sexual development in frogs by up-regulating aromatase activity, resulting in greater estradiol (E2) concentrations and causing feminization in males. The goal of this study was to collect native ranid frogs from atrazine-exposed ponds and determine whether relationships exist between measured atrazine concentrations and the gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), E2 or 11-ketotestosterone (KT), or with aromatase activity. In the summer of 2002 and 2003, adult and juvenile green frogs (Rana clamitans), bullfrogs (R. catesbeiana) and Northern leopard frogs (R. pipiens) were collected from areas with extensive corn cultivation and areas where there was little agricultural activity in south-central Michigan. Atrazine concentrations were below the limit of quantification at non-agricultural sites. Atrazine concentrations did not exceed 2 microg/L at most agricultural sites, but a concentration of 250 microg atrazine/L was measured in one sample from one site in 2002. Plasma steroid concentrations varied among locations. Aromatase activity was measurable in less than 11% of testes in adult males, and in less than 4% of testes in juvenile males. Median aromatase activities in ovaries of adult females ranged from 3 to 245 pmol/h/mg protein, and maximum activities were 2.5-fold greater in juveniles than in adults. Atrazine concentrations were not significantly correlated with any of the parameters measured in this study. These results indicate that atrazine does not up-regulate aromatase in green frogs in the wild, and does not appear to affect plasma steroid hormone concentrations.

  2. The weak link: do muscle properties determine locomotor performance in frogs?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas J.; Abbott, Emily M.; Azizi, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    Muscles power movement, yet the conceptual link between muscle performance and locomotor performance is poorly developed. Frog jumping provides an ideal system to probe the relationship between muscle capacity and locomotor performance, because a jump is a single discrete event and mechanical power output is a critical determinant of jump distance. We tested the hypothesis that interspecific variation in jump performance could be explained by variability in available muscle power. We used force plate ergometry to measure power produced during jumping in Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis), leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and cane toads (Bufo marinus). We also measured peak isotonic power output in isolated plantaris muscles for each species. As expected, jump performance varied widely. Osteopilus septentrionalis developed peak power outputs of 1047.0 ± 119.7 W kg−1 hindlimb muscle mass, about five times that of B. marinus (198.5 ± 54.5 W kg−1). Values for R. pipiens were intermediate (543.9 ± 96.2 W kg−1). These differences in jump power were not matched by differences in available muscle power, which were 312.7 ± 28.9, 321.8 ± 48.5 and 262.8 ± 23.2 W kg−1 muscle mass for O. septentrionalis, R. pipiens and B. marinus, respectively. The lack of correlation between available muscle power and jump power suggests that non-muscular mechanisms (e.g. elastic energy storage) can obscure the link between muscle mechanical performance and locomotor performance. PMID:21502120

  3. Unmasking Rana okinavana Boettger, 1895 from the Ryukyus, Japan (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi

    2007-02-01

    Examination of the lectotype and a paralectotype of Rana okinavana Boettger, 1895 revealed that the species is not a brown frog of the subgenus Rana, occurring in the middle group of the Ryukyu Archipelago, but is identical with a frog of the subgenus Nidirana from the southern group of the Archipelago and Taiwan, now called R. psaltes Kuramoto, 1985. The type locality of R. okinavana given in the original description, Okinawa of the middle Ryukyus, is highly doubtful and should be somewhere in the Yaeyama Islands of the southern Ryukyus. The name R. psaltes is relegated to a subjective junior synonym of R. okinavana Boettger, 1895, while the brown frog of the subgenus Rana from the northern Ryukyus requires a replacement name.

  4. Mitotic activity in dorsal epidermis of Rana pipiens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Arce, H.; Mizell, S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of statistically significant rhythms of mitotic division in dorsal epidermis of frogs, Rana pipiens, exposed to a 12:12 light:dark environment for 14 days. The results include the findings that (1) male animals have a primary period of 22 hr in summer and 18 hr in winter, (2) female animals have an 18 hr period, and (3) parapinealectomy and blinding abolish the rhythm.

  5. Toxicity of the conventional energetics TNT and RDX relative to new insensitive munitions constituents DNAN and NTO in Rana pipiens tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Biedenbach, James M; Chappell, Pornsawan; Gust, Kurt A

    2015-04-01

    An initiative within the US military is targeting the replacement of traditional munitions constituents with insensitive munitions to reduce risk of accidental detonation. The purpose of the present study was to comparatively assess toxicity of the traditional munitions constituents 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) with the new insensitive munitions constituents 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO). The following exposure durations were performed with Rana pipiens (leopard frog) tadpoles: TNT and DNAN, 96 h and 28 d; RDX, 10 d and 28 d; NTO, 28 d. The 96-h 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values and 95% confidence intervals for TNT and DNAN were 4.4 mg/L (4.2 mg/L, 4. 7 mg/L) and 24.3 mg/L (21.3 mg/L, 27.6 mg/L), respectively. No significant impacts on survival were observed in the 10-d exposure to RDX up to 25.3 mg/L. Effects on tadpole swimming distance were observed with a lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) of 5.9 mg/L RDX. In the 28-d exposures, the LOECs for survival for TNT, DNAN, and NTO were 0.003 mg/L, 2.4 mg/L, and 5.0 mg/L, respectively. No significant mortality was observed in the RDX chronic 28-d exposure up to the highest treatment level tested of 28.0 mg/L. Neither tadpole developmental stage nor growth was significantly affected in any of the 28-d exposures. Rana pipiens were very sensitive to chronic TNT exposure, with an LOEC 3 orders of magnitude lower than those for insensitive munitions constituents DNAN and NTO.

  6. Bioaccumulation kinetics of the conventional energetics TNT and RDX relative to insensitive munitions constituents DNAN and NTO in Rana pipiens tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Guilherme R; Biedenbach, James M; Sims, Jerre G; Chappell, Pornsawan; Stanley, Jacob K; Gust, Kurt A

    2015-04-01

    The manufacturing of explosives and their loading, assembling, and packing into munitions for use in testing on training sites or battlefields has resulted in contamination of terrestrial and aquatic sites that may pose risk to populations of sensitive species. The bioaccumulative potential of the conventional explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and of the insensitive munitions (i.e., less shock sensitive) compound 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) were assessed using the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Trinitrotoluene entering the organism was readily biotransformed to aminodinitrotoluenes, whereas no transformation products were measured for RDX or DNAN. Uptake clearance rates were relatively slow and similar among compounds (1.32-2.19 L kg(-1) h(-1) ). Upon transfer to uncontaminated water, elimination rate was very fast, resulting in the prediction of fast time to approach steady state (5 h or less) and short elimination half-lives (1.2 h or less). A preliminary bioconcentration factor of 0.25 L kg(-1) was determined for the insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-trizole-5-one (NTO) indicating negligible bioaccumulative potential. Because of the rapid elimination rate for explosives, tadpoles inhabiting contaminated areas are expected to experience harmful effects only if under constant exposure conditions given that body burdens can rapidly depurate preventing tissue concentrations from persisting at levels that may cause detrimental biological effects.

  7. Exposure to coal combustion residues during metamorphosis elevates corticosterone content and adversely affects oral morphology, growth, and development in Rana sphenocephala

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2009-01-15

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs) are documented to negatively impact oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. It is currently unclear what physiological mechanisms may mediate these effects. Corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone, is a likely mediator because when administered exogenously it, like CCRs, also negatively influences oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. In an attempt to identify if corticosterone mediates these effects, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate and documented effects of sediment type on whole body corticosterone, oral morphology, and time to and mass at key metamorphic stages. Coal combustion residue treated tadpoles contained significantly more corticosterone than controls throughout metamorphosis. However, significantly more oral abnormalities occurred early in metamorphosis when differences in corticosterone levels between treatments were minimal. Overall, CCR-treated tadpoles took significantly more time to transition between key stages and gained less mass between stages than controls, but these differences between treatments decreased during later stages when corticosterone differences between treatments were greatest. Our results suggest endogenous increase in corticosterone content and its influence on oral morphology, growth and development is more complex than previously thought.

  8. Climatic oscillations triggered post-Messinian speciation of Western Palearctic brown frogs (Amphibia, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Veith, M; Kosuch, J; Vences, M

    2003-02-01

    Oscillating glacial cycles over the past 2.4 million years are proposed to have had a major impact on the diversity of contemporary species communities. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to infer phylogenetic relationships within Western Palearctic brown frogs and to test the influence of Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic changes on their evolution. We sequenced 1976bp of the mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and cytochrome b and of the nuclear rhodopsin gene for all current species and subspecies. Based on an established allozyme clock for Western Palearctic water frogs and substitution rate constancy among water frogs and brown frogs, we calibrated a molecular clock for 1425bp of the 16S and rhodopsin genes. We applied this clock to date speciation events among brown frogs. Western Palearctic brown frogs underwent a basal post-Messinian radiation about 4 million years ago (mya) into five major clades: three monotypic lineages (Rana dalmatina, Rana latastei, Rana graeca), an Anatolian lineage, and a lineage comprising Rana italica, Rana arvalis, and all Iberian taxa. Polytypic lineages radiated further in concordance with the onset of climatic oscillations ca. 3.2, 2.0, and 1.0-0.6 mya, respectively. The dated fossil record corroborates our paleobiogeographic scenario. We conclude that drastic climatic changes followed by successive temperature oscillations "trapped" most brown frog species in their southern European glacial refugia with enough time to speciate. Substantial dispersal was only possible during extensive interglacial periods of a constant subtropical climate.

  9. Leopard predation and primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Zuberbühler, Klaus; Jenny, David

    2002-12-01

    Although predation is an important driving force of natural selection its effects on primate evolution are still not well understood, mainly because little is known about the hunting behaviour of the primates' various predators. Here, we present data on the hunting behaviour of the leopard (Panthera pardus), a major primate predator in the Tai; forest of Ivory Coast and elsewhere. Radio-tracking data showed that forest leopards primarily hunt for monkeys on the ground during the day. Faecal analyses confirmed that primates accounted for a large proportion of the leopards' diet and revealed in detail the predation pressure exerted on the eight different monkey and one chimpanzee species. We related the species-specific predation rates to various morphological, behavioural and demographic traits that are usually considered adaptations to predation (body size, group size, group composition, reproductive behaviour, and use of forest strata). Leopard predation was most reliably associated with density, suggesting that leopards hunt primates according to abundance. Contrary to predictions, leopard predation rates were not negatively, but positively, related to body size, group size and the number of males per group, suggesting that predation by leopards did not drive the evolution of these traits in the predicted way. We discuss these findings in light of some recent experimental data and suggest that the principal effect of leopard predation has been on primates' cognitive evolution.

  10. Tyzzer's disease in snow leopards.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R E; Eisenbrandt, D L; Hubbard, G B

    1984-01-01

    Tyzzer's disease was diagnosed histologically in 2 litters of newborn snow leopard kittens. The gross and histological lesions were similar to those reported in domestic cats and other animals. No signs of illness was noted in either of the snow leopard dams.

  11. Tyzzer's disease in snow leopards.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R E; Eisenbrandt, D L; Hubbard, G B

    1984-01-01

    Tyzzer's disease was diagnosed histologically in 2 litters of newborn snow leopard kittens. The gross and histological lesions were similar to those reported in domestic cats and other animals. No signs of illness was noted in either of the snow leopard dams. PMID:6699226

  12. a Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Water Diffusion in Frog Muscle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidorn, Douglas Bruce

    The microscopic structure and dynamics of cytoplasmic water in the cells of organs and tissues are not well-understood. Much work has been done using various experimental techniques to study the properties of water in living systems, yet there is no generally accepted model describing the interaction of water with cellular constituents. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS) is a technique capable of a spatial resolution of 1-10 (ANGSTROM) and a frequency resolution of 10('9) to 10('13) sec('-1) which is suitable for the study of the diffusive motion of water in biological systems. A monochromatic beam of 0.95 THz neutrons was used to obtain QNS spectra within an energy window of (+OR -)0.2 THz for momentum transfer values in the ranges of 0.5 (ANGSTROM)('-1) to 1.9 (ANGSTROM)('-1). We have obtained QNS spectra for water in sartorius and gracilis major muscles of green leopard frogs (Rana pipiens pipiens) at 30(DEGREES)C and comparison spectra for a .15 molar solution of KCl at 3(DEGREES)C. The spectra were interpreted with a jump-diffusion model for translational water motion in both systems and a bound-free model for water in the muscle. The measured diffusion parameters of these two systems indicate that the water motion is more restricted in the frog muscle than in the aqueous KCl solution. We estimate the bound fraction of water in muscle to be 15.0 (+OR-) 4.1%. Our results for the bound water fraction in muscle and diffusion coefficients and correlation times of water in muscle and in a .15 m KCl solution agree well with the QNS and NMR results of others.

  13. Serum chemistry and hematology values for anesthetized American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Cathers, T; Lewbart, G A; Correa, M; Stevens, J B

    1997-06-01

    Samples taken from seven male and seven female adult American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) were evaluated by complete blood count and serum chemistry to establish baseline data on commercially available frogs destined for laboratory use. Differences between sexes were analyzed and females had higher plasma protein, calcium, and sodium levels.

  14. Periodontal status in snow leopards.

    PubMed

    Cook, R A; Stoller, N H

    1986-11-01

    Periodontal examinations were performed on ten 1- to 22-year-old snow leopards (6 males and 4 females), using dentistry methods for determining the plaque and gingival indices. All tooth surfaces were probed, and alveolar bone attachment loss was determined. After subgingival plaque removal, plaque specimens were examined for differential bacterial morphotypes. The small number of leopards evaluated precluded definitive statistical analysis. However, the progression from gingival health to gingivitis to periodontitis was similar to that seen in man. Therefore, the use of plaque index, gingival index, alveolar bone attachment loss, and differential bacterial morphotypes can be used to determine the dental health of snow leopards. PMID:3505932

  15. Spontaneous larval Gnathostoma nipponicum infection in frogs.

    PubMed

    Oyamada, T; Hirata, T; Hara, M; Kudo, M; Oyamada, T; Yoshikawa, H; Yoshikawa, T; Suzuki, N

    1998-09-01

    From June 1993 to September 1997, a survey was carried out for the prevalence of larval Gnathostoma nipponicum infection in several kinds of frogs, toads, and their tadpoles collected from an endemic area of this nematode in Aomori Prefecture. Two frog species, one of 436 (0.2%) Rana nigromaculata and 51 of 147 (34.7%) R. catesbeiana were infected, and a total of 446 advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) of G. nipponicum were recovered. These results confirmed that two frog species which can serve as the second intermediate and/or paratenic hosts in the life cycle of G. nipponicum exist in nature. This report is the first record of spontaneous infection of frogs with AdL3 of G. nipponicum.

  16. Pesticides and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured ...

  17. AIRBORNE PESTICIDES AND POPULATION DECLINES OF A CALIFORNIA ALPINE FROG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distribution and temporal variation of ...

  18. 76 FR 45602 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow Creek Ranch, San Luis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Service's Safe Harbor Policy published in the Federal Register on June 17, 1999 (64 FR 32717), the Service... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow... the Federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii), under the Endangered Species...

  19. Body size affects the predatory interactions between introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and native anurans in China: An experimental study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Guo, Z.; Pearl, C.A.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have established breeding populations in several provinces in China since their introduction in 1959. Although Bullfrogs are viewed as a potentially important predator of Chinese native anurans, their impacts in the field are difficult to quantify. We used two experiments to examine factors likely to mediate Bullfrog predation on native anurans. First, we examined effects of Bullfrog size and sex on daily consumption of a common Chinese native (Rana limnocharis). Second, we examined whether Bullfrogs consumed similar proportions of four Chinese natives: Black-Spotted Pond Frog (Rana nigromaculata), Green Pond Frog (Rana plancyi plancyi), Rice Frog (R. limnocharis), and Zhoushan Toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans). We found that larger Rana catesbeiana consumed more R. limnocharis per day than did smaller R. catesbeiana, and that daily consumption of R. limnocharis was positively related to R. catesbeiana body size. When provided with adults of four anurans that differed significantly in body size, R. catesbeiana consumed more individuals of the smallest species (R. limnocharis). However, when provided with similarly sized juveniles of the same four species, R. catesbeiana did not consume any species more than expected by chance. Our results suggest that body size plays an important role in the predatory interactions between R. catesbeiana and Chinese native anurans and that, other things being equal, smaller species and individuals are at greater risk of predation by R. catesbeiana. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  20. Combining visual information from the two eyes: the relationship between isthmotectal cells that project to ipsilateral and to contralateral optic tectum using fluorescent retrograde labels in the frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Dudkin, Elizabeth A; Sheffield, Joel B; Gruberg, Edward R

    2007-05-01

    The frog nucleus isthmi (homolog of the mammalian parabigeminal nucleus) is a visually responsive tegmental structure that is reciprocally connected with the ipsilateral optic tectum; cells in nucleus isthmi also project to the contralateral optic tectum. We investigated the location of the isthmotectal cells that project ipsilaterally and contralaterally using three retrograde fluorescent label solutions: Alexa Fluor 488 10,000 mw dextran conjugate; Rhodamine B isothiocyanate; and Nuclear Yellow. Dye solutions were pressure-injected into separate sites in the superficial optic tectum. Following a 6-day survival, brains were fixed, sectioned, and then photographed. Injection of the different labels at separate, discrete locations in the optic tectum result in retrograde filling of singly labeled clusters of cells in both the ipsilateral and contralateral nucleus isthmi. Generally, ipsilaterally projecting cells are dorsal to the contralaterally projecting cells, but there is a slight overlap between the two sets of cells. Nonetheless, when different retrograde labels are injected into opposite tecta, there is no indication that individual cells project to both tecta. The set of cells that project to the ipsilateral tectum and the set of cells that project to the contralateral tectum form a visuotopic map in a roughly vertical, transverse slab. Our results suggest that nucleus isthmi can be separated into two regions with cells in the dorsolateral portion projecting primarily to the ipsilateral optic tectum and cells in the ventrolateral nucleus isthmi projecting primarily to the contralateral optic tectum.

  1. Nephrotoxic effects of lead nitrate in Rana ridibunda.

    PubMed

    Loumbourdis, N S

    2003-09-01

    The impact of lead (Pb) on kidney histopathology of the frog Rana ridibunda was investigated. Female frogs were exposed for 4, 10 and 30 days to 14 ppm lead (as lead nitrate). All the lead concentrations and many histological changes were time dependent. Light microscopy of kidney revealed morphological changes mainly in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells. The most severe changes such as vacuolation, Perl's stained material, infiltration, brush border destruction and proximal tubule damage were detected in the animals exposed for 10 and 30 days. Karyomegaly was highest at 10-days exposure, probably as a result of intense stress caused by the lead. Some PCT in the 30-days-exposed animals were von Kossa's method positive, suggesting the presence of calcium. The possibility is discussed that some of these changes, such as karyomegaly and intranuclear inclusions, might be preneoplastic if lead was supplied at high concentrations and for long time.

  2. The first see-through frog created by breeding: description, inheritance patterns, and dermal chromatophore structure.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Masayuki; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Igawa, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furukawa, Yukari; Sano, Naomi; Fujii, Tamotsu; Yoshizaki, Norio

    2016-04-15

    We have succeeded in creating see-through frogs from natural color mutants of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, which usually possesses an ochre or brown back; this coloration enables the organs, blood vessels, and eggs to be observed through the skin without performing dissection. We crossed two kinds of recessive color mutant (black-eyed and gray-eyed) frogs through artificial insemination, and F2 offspring produced frogs whose skin is translucent throughout the life cycle. Three kinds of dermal chromatophores--xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores--are observed in a layered arrangement in the skin of wild-type frogs, but few chromatophores were present in the skin of the see-through frogs. The translucent skin enables observation of organ growth and cancer formation and progression in the animal, which can be monitored over its entire life without the need for dissection. See-through frogs thus provide a useful animal model for environmental, medical, and biological research.

  3. A new cascade frog of the subgenus Odorrana from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Jaafar, Ibrahim

    2006-07-01

    We describe a new species of cascade frog of the genus Rana, from west Malaysia. Rana monjerai, new species is a medium-sized frog of the subgenus Odorrana (SVL of males, 38-43 mm; of one female, 75 mm), and is distinguished from all other members of this subgenus by the combination of: white lip stripe, dorsolateral fold, full web on the fourth toe, vomerine teeth, gular vocal pouch and relatively large tympanum in males, no dorsal marking, no clear light spots on rear of thigh, first finger subequal to second, finely tuberculated dorsum, and unpigmented ova. The significance of finding this species from peninsular Malaysia is discussed.

  4. Effects of hypoxia on embryonic development in two Ambystoma and two Rana species.

    PubMed

    Mills, N E; Barnhart, M C

    1999-01-01

    Oxygen available to amphibian embryos fluctuates widely and is often very low. We investigated the effects of oxygen partial pressure (1. 3-16.9 kPa) on embryonic development and hatching of two salamander (Ambystoma) and two frog (Rana) species. In Ambystoma, chronic hypoxia resulted in slowed development, delayed hatching, and embryos that were less developed at the time of hatching. Although hypoxia was not lethal to embryos, temporary developmental abnormalities were observed in Ambystoma at oxygen partial pressures of 3.8 kPa and below. Posthatching survival decreased below 3.3 kPa. In Rana, hypoxia did not affect developmental rate, presumably because hatching occurs at a very early stage of development relative to Ambystoma. However, Rana embryos hatched sooner in hypoxia than in normoxia, resulting in less developed embryos at the time of hatching. The results suggest that embryonic hypoxia may negatively affect survival and fitness in these species. PMID:10068621

  5. Frequency-Selective Response of the Tectorial Membrane in the Frog Basilar Papilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoffelen, R. L. M.; Segenhout, J. M.; van Dijk, P.

    2009-02-01

    The frog's basilar papilla is a useful study object for cochlear mechanics, because of it's relatively simple anatomy and functionality. We investigated the displacement amplitudes of the basilar papilla's tectorial membrane in response to stimulation of the oval window at various frequencies within the auditory range of the Northern leopard frog. From our measurement data we find that the tectorial membrane exhibits a frequency selective response. The peak response was found to occur at 1500Hz in correspondence with known data for the response of auditory nerve fibers from the organ. From these data we conclude that mechanical tuning contributes significantly to the frequency selectivity of the frog's basilar papilla

  6. Breeding phenology in Rana temporaria. Local variation is due to pond temperature and population size.

    PubMed

    Loman, Jon

    2016-09-01

    Frog breeding phenology in temperate zones is usually compared to progress of spring temperatures at a regional scale. However, local populations may differ substantially in phenology. To understand this, local climate and other aspects must be studied. In this study, breeding phenology of the common frog, Rana temporaria, in a set of ponds in southern Sweden is analyzed. There was within year a variation of up to 3 weeks in start of breeding among local populations. Water temperature was measured in the ponds, and breeding tended to be earlier in warmer ponds (surprise!). Breeding was also earlier in ponds with a large breeding congregation. Alternative reasons for these patterns are suggested and discussed. There was a large residual variation. The common frog has a wide range of acceptable wintering sites, and I hypothesize that the particular choice by a local population may explain part of this residual variation. PMID:27648237

  7. Frog Hollow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCardell, Bonnie

    1979-01-01

    The Vermont State Craft Center, Frog Hollow, in Middlebury, Vermont, provides studio space and instruction to students from two elementary schools, a day-care center, the county school for the mentally retarded, and an area kindergarten. Described are the programs offered to each of these groups of students. (Author/KC)

  8. Fantastic Frogs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kym

    2002-01-01

    Number rhymes can be used in many exciting and different ways to support the early learning goals for mathematics. The rhyme "five little speckled frogs" provides the theme for this display, which was set up in Lewisham's professional development center. It provides a range of ideas which would help develop young children's mathematical learning…

  9. Peatlands and green frogs: A relationship regulated by acidity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of site acidification on amphibian populations have been thoroughly addressed in the last decades. However, amphibians in naturally acidic environments, such as peatlands facing pressure from the peat mining industry, have received little attention. Through two field studies and an experiment, I assessed the use of bog habitats by the green frog (Rana clamitans melanota), a species sensitive to various forestry and peat mining disturbances. First, I compared the occurrence and breeding patterns of frogs in bog and upland ponds. I then evaluated frog movements between forest and bog habitats to determine whether they corresponded to breeding or postbreeding movements. Finally, I investigated, through a field experiment, the value of bogs as rehydrating areas for amphibians by offering living Sphagnum moss and two media associated with uplands (i.e., water with pH ca 6.5 and water-saturated soil) to acutely dehydrated frogs. Green frog reproduction at bog ponds was a rare event, and no net movements occurred between forest and bog habitats. However, acutely dehydrated frogs did not avoid Sphagnum. Results show that although green frogs rarely breed in bogs and do not move en masse between forest and bog habitats, they do not avoid bog substrates for rehydrating, despite their acidity. Thus, bogs offer viable summering habitat to amphibians, which highlights the value of these threatened environments in terrestrial amphibian ecology.

  10. Prevalence of malformed frogs in Kaoping and Tungkang river basins of southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Ji; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Yin

    2010-05-01

    In this study we found many amphibians with bizarre appearances, known as malformations in Pingtung County southern Taiwan. For this investigation we collected frogs inhabiting the Kaoping and Tungkang river watersheds between February 2006 and June 2007. Among the total number of 10,909 normal frogs (i.e., anurans) collected during the investigation period, the Indian rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) account for the greatest number next is the Chinese bullfrog (Rana rugulosa). Of all the 244 captured malformed frogs, the Indian rice frog account for the greatest proportion. These malformed frogs have their main distribution in upstream areas of these two rivers. Our result indicates that the appearance rate of malformed frogs is 1.8% in the upstream reaches of the Kaoping River and 2.6%, and 0.8%, respectively in the upstream and midstream reaches of the Tungkang river. The most-commonly-found malformation is the lack of palms, followed by the lack of appendages, exostosis, and a malformed appendicular. It is, therefore, reasonable to speculate that the causes for the malformation may be related to the increased organic pollutants and agricultural chemicals used in the upstream reaches of these two rivers.

  11. RANA CATESBEIANA (AMERICAN BULLFROG) DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically
    from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash
    located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  12. Toxicity of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in larval and adult forms of Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Beatty, P W; Holscher, M A; Neal, R A

    1976-11-01

    Varying doses of TCDD ranging from 25 to 1000 mug/kg were administered to the larval and adult forms of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Doses of TCDD as high as 1 mg/kg failed to have any significant effect upon survival or completion of metamorphosis in tadpole and doses of up to 500 mug/kg had no effect on survival of adult frogs. Histopathological examination of various tissues from the metamorphosed tadpoles and adult frogs failed to show any abnormalities.

  13. Fundamental Experiment to Determine Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Agricultural Canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi

    Frogs often drown in agricultural canals with deep concrete walls, which are installed commonly in paddy fields after land improvement projects in Japan, because they cannot escape after falling into the canal. Therefore, countermeasures that enable frogs to escape from canals are required in some rural areas. An experimental canal with partially sloped walls was used as an escape countermeasure to investigate the preferable angle of slope for the walls, water depth and flow velocity that enables Tokyo Daruma Pond Frogs (Rana porosa porosa), which have no adhesive discs, to easily escape. Walls with slopes of 30-45 degrees allowed 50-60% of frogs to escape from the experimental canals, frogs especially easily climbed the 30 degree sloped walls. When the water depth was 5 cm or flow velocity was greater than 20 cm/s, approximately 80% of the frogs moved downstream and reached the sloped walls because the frogs' toes did not reach the bottom of the canal. However, if the depth was 2 cm and the flow velocity was 5 cm/s, only 4% of the frogs climbed the sloped walls because they could move freely. The frogs appeared to not be good at long-distance swimming and could not remain a long-time under running water. Therefore, walls sloped less than 30 degrees and control of both water depth and flow velocity appears important for enabling frogs to easily escape from canals.

  14. The role of habitat in structuring Halipegus occidualis metapopulations in the green frog.

    PubMed

    Zelmer, D A; Wetzel, E J; Esch, G W

    1999-02-01

    The transmission dynamics of the trematode Halipegus occidualis in its definitive host, Rana clamitans, have been examined over a 5-yr period in a North Carolina pond. The breeding season of green frogs coincides with the period of worm recruitment, during which time male frogs are territorial and females show strong site fidelity. This site fidelity allows inferences to be made regarding the suitability of a particular habitat for worm transmission based on frog infection intensities within that habitat. Four foci of infection were identified in the pond by plotting worm infrapopulation size against site of host capture. Sites within infection foci are characterized by shallow water and emergent vegetation, factors favorable for overlapping distributions of the 4 hosts in the life cycle of H. occidualis. Consistent year-to-year worm prevalences and intensities, despite fluctuations in frog population size, are thought to be the result of a relatively constant proportion of the frog population being present in infection foci each year. Removal of worms from heavily infected frogs in the fifth year resulted in further heavy worm recruitment by treated frogs suggesting that site selection can predispose a frog to heavy infection. Further, the sum of removed parasites and those recruited after parasite removal by treated frog hosts was higher than worm infrapopulations observed in previous years, indicating that worm density regulates parasite infrapopulation size in heavily infected frogs.

  15. Distribution and localization of galectin purified from Rana catesbeiana oocytes.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, H; Komazaki, S; Oyama, M; Matsui, T; Ozeki, Y

    1997-12-01

    Galectins are a family of lectins that recognize beta-D-galactosides independently of calcium ions, and are widely distributed in animals. To characterize a galectin previously purified from oocytes of Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog), we studied its distribution and localization in several tissues from this frog. Hemagglutination assay and western blotting showed that this lectin is present in many tissues including the liver, skin, kidney, skeletal muscle, and sciatic nerve, but is particularly concentrated in the ovary. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry showed that this lectin is localized in such places as cell-cell junctions, basement membranes, extracellular matrix, or secretory substances in several organs, indicating that this galectin is mainly distributed extracellularly. However, in the ovary, light microscopy showed that this lectin is present in or associated with the yolk platelet. Electron microscopy further revealed that it is localized in the periphery of the yolk platelet (the yolk plasm), but not in the cortical granule. These results indicate that Rana oocytes contain abundant galectin in their yolk platelets in contrast to Xenopus laevis oocytes, which have been found not to contain galectins but other classes of lectins in their yolk platelets and cortical granules.

  16. Ranatuerins: antimicrobial peptides isolated from the skin of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Goraya, J; Knoop, F C; Conlon, J M

    1998-09-29

    Nine peptides, termed ranatuerins 1-9, with antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, were isolated from an extract of the skin of the adult American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. In common with other cytolytic peptides from Ranid frogs, (e.g. ranalexin, gaegurins, brevinins), ranatuerins 1 and 4 contain an intramolecular disulfide bridge forming a heptapeptide ring whereas in ranatuerins 2 and 3 the disulfide bridge forms a hexapeptide ring. The structurally related ranatuerins 5-9 comprise 12 - 14 amino acids and show sequence similarity towards the hemolytic peptides A1 and B9 previously isolated from the skin of Rana esculenta. Of the peptides purified, ranatuerin 1 (SMLSVLKNLGKVGLG FVACKINKQC) showed the broadest spectrum of antimicrobial action with inhibitory activity against S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

  17. Distribution, structure and projections of the frog intracardiac neurons.

    PubMed

    Batulevicius, Darius; Skripkiene, Gertruda; Batuleviciene, Vaida; Skripka, Valdas; Dabuzinskiene, Anita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2012-05-21

    Histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase was used to determine the distribution of intracardiac neurons in the frog Rana temporaria. Seventy-nine intracardiac neurons from 13 frogs were labelled iontophoretically by the intracellular markers Alexa Fluor 568 and Lucifer Yellow CH to determine their structure and projections. Total neuronal number per frog heart was (Mean ± SE) 1374 ± 56. Largest collections of neurons were found in the interatrial septum (46%), atrioventricular junction (25%) and venal sinus (12%). Among the intracellularly labelled neurons, we found the cells of unipolar (71%), multipolar (20%) and bipolar (9%) types. Multiple processes originated from the neuron soma, hillock and proximal axon. These processes projected onto adjacent neuron somata and cardiac muscle fibers within the interatrial septum. Average total length of the processes from proximal axon was 348 ± 50 μm. Average total length of processes from soma and hillock was less, 118 ± 27 μm and 109 ± 24 μm, respectively. The somata of 59% of neurons had bubble- or flake-shaped extensions. Most neurons from the major nerves in the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the ventricle. In contrast, most neurons from the ventral part of the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the atria. Our findings contradict to a view that the frog intracardiac ganglia contain only non-dendritic neurons of the unipolar type. We conclude that the frog intracardiac neurons are structurally complex and diverse. This diversity may account for the complicated integrative functions of the frog intrinsic cardiac ganglia.

  18. Spatial Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in the Alpine Habitat of a Declining California Amphibian, The Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa complex) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distributions and conce...

  19. Airborne Pesticides as an Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured...

  20. Spatial Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in the Alpine Habitat of a Declining Calfornia Amphibian, The Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa complex) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distributions and conce...

  1. Differential block of nicotinic synapses on B versus C neurones in sympathetic ganglia of frog by α-conotoxins MII and ImI

    PubMed Central

    Tavazoie, Sohail F; Tavazoie, Masoud F; McIntosh, J Michael; Olivera, Baldomero M; Yoshikami, Doju

    1997-01-01

    The effects of two new acetylcholine receptor antagonists, α-conotoxin MII and α-conotoxin ImI, on nicotinic synaptic transmission in the 10th paravertebral sympathetic ganglion of the leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined. The preganglionic nerve was electrically stimulated (at low frequency, ⩽1 min−1, to avoid use-dependent changes) while compound action potentials of B and C neurones were monitored from the postganglionic nerve.α-Conotoxins MII and ImI, at low micromolar concentrations, reversibly blocked both B and C waves. α-Conotoxin MII blocked the C wave more effectively than the B wave, whereas the potency of α-conotoxin ImI was opposite that of MII. The observation that nicotinic antagonists can differentially block synaptic transmission of B versus C neurones with opposite selectivities strongly suggests that these neurones possess distinct nicotinic receptors.In addition to fast and slow B waves described by others, C waves with two temporally distinguishable components were present in our recordings. Each α-conotoxin affected fast and slow B waves similarly. Likewise, toxins did not discriminate between the two components of C waves. This suggests that all neurones within each major class (B or C) may have the same nicotinic receptors.Synthetic forms of α-conotoxins MII and ImI were used in the present study. Their ease of synthesis and their specificities should make these toxins useful probes to investigate the various subtypes of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:9134208

  2. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  3. Co-infection by alveolate parasites and frog virus 3-like ranavirus during an amphibian larval mortality event in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, Jan H; Kiryu, Yasunari; Tabuchi, Maki; Waltzek, Thomas B; Enge, Kevin M; Reintjes-Tolen, Sarah; Preston, Asa; Pessier, Allan P

    2013-07-22

    A multispecies amphibian larval mortality event, primarily affecting American bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus, was investigated during April 2011 at the Mike Roess Gold Head Branch State Park, Clay County, Florida, USA. Freshly dead and moribund tadpoles had hemorrhagic lesions around the vent and on the ventral body surface, with some exhibiting a swollen abdomen. Bullfrogs (100%), southern leopard frogs L. sphenocephalus (33.3%), and gopher frogs L. capito (100%) were infected by alveolate parasites. The intensity of infection in bullfrog livers was high. Tadpoles were evaluated for frog virus 3 (FV3) by histology and PCR. For those southern leopard frog tadpoles (n = 2) whose livers had not been obscured by alveolate spore infection, neither a pathologic response nor intracytoplasmic inclusions typically associated with clinical infections of FV3-like ranavirus were noted. Sequencing of a portion (496 bp) of the viral major capsid protein gene confirmed FV3-like virus in bullfrogs (n = 1, plus n = 6 pooled) and southern leopard frogs (n = 1, plus n = 4 pooled). In July 2011, young-of-the-year bullfrog tadpoles (n = 7) were negative for alveolate parasites, but 1 gopher frog tadpole was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed mortality event for amphibians in Florida associated with FV3-like virus, but the extent to which the virus played a primary role is uncertain. Larval mortality was most likely caused by a combination of alveolate parasite infections, FV3-like ranavirus, and undetermined etiological factors.

  4. Co-infection by alveolate parasites and frog virus 3-like ranavirus during an amphibian larval mortality event in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, Jan H; Kiryu, Yasunari; Tabuchi, Maki; Waltzek, Thomas B; Enge, Kevin M; Reintjes-Tolen, Sarah; Preston, Asa; Pessier, Allan P

    2013-07-22

    A multispecies amphibian larval mortality event, primarily affecting American bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus, was investigated during April 2011 at the Mike Roess Gold Head Branch State Park, Clay County, Florida, USA. Freshly dead and moribund tadpoles had hemorrhagic lesions around the vent and on the ventral body surface, with some exhibiting a swollen abdomen. Bullfrogs (100%), southern leopard frogs L. sphenocephalus (33.3%), and gopher frogs L. capito (100%) were infected by alveolate parasites. The intensity of infection in bullfrog livers was high. Tadpoles were evaluated for frog virus 3 (FV3) by histology and PCR. For those southern leopard frog tadpoles (n = 2) whose livers had not been obscured by alveolate spore infection, neither a pathologic response nor intracytoplasmic inclusions typically associated with clinical infections of FV3-like ranavirus were noted. Sequencing of a portion (496 bp) of the viral major capsid protein gene confirmed FV3-like virus in bullfrogs (n = 1, plus n = 6 pooled) and southern leopard frogs (n = 1, plus n = 4 pooled). In July 2011, young-of-the-year bullfrog tadpoles (n = 7) were negative for alveolate parasites, but 1 gopher frog tadpole was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed mortality event for amphibians in Florida associated with FV3-like virus, but the extent to which the virus played a primary role is uncertain. Larval mortality was most likely caused by a combination of alveolate parasite infections, FV3-like ranavirus, and undetermined etiological factors. PMID:23872853

  5. Comparison of the morphology of the inner ear between newts and frogs in relation to their locomotory capability.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yasuo; Kasuga, Sigeo; Tamura, Souichiro

    2002-05-01

    The ultrastructural differences between the inner ears of Japanese red-bellied newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster) and black-spotted pond frogs (Rana nigromaculata) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic observations showed apparent morphological differences in the shape of the ampulla cristae and the localization of the striola in the saccular macula. There were differences in the length of the kinocilia of the sensory hairs in each sensory region. In addition, the diameters of the bundles of stereocilia differed between the two species: the bundles of stereocilia in the semicircular cristae were thicker in frogs than in newts, while those of the utricular and lagenal maculae were thicker in newts than in frogs.

  6. [Ploidy and genetic structure of hybrid populations of water frogs Pelophylax esculentus (L., 1758) complex (Amphibia, Ranidae) of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Mezhzherin, S V; Morozov-Leonov, S Iu; Rostovskaia, O V; Shabanov, D A; Sobolenko, L Iu

    2010-01-01

    The present study of green frog hybrid populations of Ukraine, including analysis of allozyme variability and planimetric analysis oferythrocytes size has confirmed that the unique region in this area is the Severski Donets basin The allopolyploid individuals there are met very frequently (5.7% of all investigated frogs). In other areas of Ukraine only two polyploid hybrids have been recorded. Beside that, one frog was defined as triploid Rana ridibundus. According to our investigations, all triploid hybrids from the Severski Donets basin are identified as P. esculentu (=lessonae)--2 ridibundus males.

  7. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in alandscape dominated by agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin L.; Vandever, Mark; Battaglin, William A.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Pierce, Clay L.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and

  8. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in a landscape dominated by agriculture.

    PubMed

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin; Vandever, Mark; Battaglin, William A; Hladik, Michelle L; Pierce, Clay L

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1,500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and implementing

  9. Evidence from the primary structures of dermal antimicrobial peptides that Rana tagoi okiensis and Rana tagoi tagoi (Ranidae) are not conspecific subspecies.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Leprince, Jérôme; Vaudry, Hubert; Iwamuro, Shawichi

    2010-01-01

    Morphological evidence and data from comparisons of nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial genes demonstrate considerable intraspecies variation among populations of the Japanese brown frog Rana tagoi Okada 1928 (Tago's brown frog). Five peptides with antimicrobial activity were isolated from an extract of the skins of specimens of Rana tagoi okiensis collected on the Oki Islands, Japan. Determination of their primary structures demonstrated that two peptides belong to the ranatuerin-2 family, two peptides to the temporin family, and one peptide to the brevinin-1 family. Ranatuerin-2 peptides were not previously identified in the skin of specimens of R. t. tagoi collected in Chiba Prefecture, Japan and the structures of the temporin peptides from R. t. okiensis (temporin-TOa: FLPILGKLLSGFL.NH(2) and temporin-TOb: FLPILGKLLSGLL.NH(2)) are different from temporin-TGa (FLPILGKLLSGIL.NH(2)) isolated from R. t. tagoi. Similarly, the acyclic C-terminally alpha-amidated brevinin-1 peptide from R. t. okiensis (Brevinin-1TOa, GIGSILGVIAKGLPTLISWIKNR.NH(2)) shows three amino acid substitutions (Gly(1)-->Ala, Val(8)-->Ala, Ile(9)-->Leu) compared to the ortholog from R. t. tagoi. In addition, bradykinin, identical to the mammalian peptide, is present in high concentration in the skin of R. t. okiensis but not R. t. tagoi. The data provide evidence to support the proposal that R. t. tagoi and R. t. okiensis should be regarded as separate species (R. tagoi and R. okiensis) rather than conspecific subspecies. PMID:19799928

  10. The effects of solar UV-B radiation on embryonic mortality and development in three boreal anurans (Rana temporaria, Rana arvalis and Bufo bufo).

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, J; Pasanen, S; Kukkonen, J V

    2001-07-01

    Many species of amphibians have experienced population and range reductions. It has been hypothesized that sensitivity to UV-B may contribute to the population declines of some amphibian species. We performed field experiments to measure the effects of solar UV-B on the hatching success of three Finnish anuran species, the common frog (Rana temporaria), moor frog (Rana arvalis) and common toad (Bufo bufo). Further, the effects of natural UV-B radiation on survival of the tadpoles of the same three species of anurans were tested. A significant percentage of R. temporaria and B. bufo embryos survived when exposed to and protected from solar UV-B and hatching success was not affected by solar radiation. Elimination of solar UV-B significantly increased the hatching success of R. arvalis, but embryonic mortality was high in both treatments. The data indicates that under natural conditions, solar UV-B radiation influences embryo survival in R. arvalis, but has no effect on R. temporaria and B. bufo. Solar UV-B radiation had no effect on R. temporaria and R. arvalis tadpoles, but elimination of UV-B significantly increased survival of B. bufo tadpoles. It seems that ambient UV-radiation levels have no effect on R. temporaria but may affect R. arvalis and B. bufo at different developmental stages. PMID:11459149

  11. Role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Wang, Dajun; Yin, Hang; Zhaxi, Duojie; Jiagong, Zhala; Schaller, George B; Mishra, Charudutt; McCarthy, Thomas M; Wang, Hao; Wu, Lan; Xiao, Lingyun; Basang, Lamao; Zhang, Yuguang; Zhou, Yunyun; Lu, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the rugged mountains in 12 countries of Central Asia, including the Tibetan Plateau. Due to poaching, decreased abundance of prey, and habitat degradation, it was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1972. Current conservation strategies, including nature reserves and incentive programs, have limited capacities to protect snow leopards. We investigated the role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation in the Sanjiangyuan region in China's Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau. From 2009 to 2011, we systematically surveyed snow leopards in the Sanjiangyuan region. We used the MaxEnt model to determine the relation of their presence to environmental variables (e.g., elevation, ruggedness) and to predict snow leopard distribution. Model results showed 89,602 km(2) of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan region, of which 7674 km(2) lay within Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve's core zones. We analyzed the spatial relation between snow leopard habitat and Buddhist monasteries and found that 46% of monasteries were located in snow leopard habitat and 90% were within 5 km of snow leopard habitat. The 336 monasteries in the Sanjiangyuan region could protect more snow leopard habitat (8342 km(2) ) through social norms and active patrols than the nature reserve's core zones. We conducted 144 household interviews to identify local herders' attitudes and behavior toward snow leopards and other wildlife. Most local herders claimed that they did not kill wildlife, and 42% said they did not kill wildlife because it was a sin in Buddhism. Our results indicate monasteries play an important role in snow leopard conservation. Monastery-based snow leopard conservation could be extended to other Tibetan Buddhist regions that in total would encompass about 80% of the global range of snow leopards.

  12. Role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Wang, Dajun; Yin, Hang; Zhaxi, Duojie; Jiagong, Zhala; Schaller, George B; Mishra, Charudutt; McCarthy, Thomas M; Wang, Hao; Wu, Lan; Xiao, Lingyun; Basang, Lamao; Zhang, Yuguang; Zhou, Yunyun; Lu, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the rugged mountains in 12 countries of Central Asia, including the Tibetan Plateau. Due to poaching, decreased abundance of prey, and habitat degradation, it was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1972. Current conservation strategies, including nature reserves and incentive programs, have limited capacities to protect snow leopards. We investigated the role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation in the Sanjiangyuan region in China's Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau. From 2009 to 2011, we systematically surveyed snow leopards in the Sanjiangyuan region. We used the MaxEnt model to determine the relation of their presence to environmental variables (e.g., elevation, ruggedness) and to predict snow leopard distribution. Model results showed 89,602 km(2) of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan region, of which 7674 km(2) lay within Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve's core zones. We analyzed the spatial relation between snow leopard habitat and Buddhist monasteries and found that 46% of monasteries were located in snow leopard habitat and 90% were within 5 km of snow leopard habitat. The 336 monasteries in the Sanjiangyuan region could protect more snow leopard habitat (8342 km(2) ) through social norms and active patrols than the nature reserve's core zones. We conducted 144 household interviews to identify local herders' attitudes and behavior toward snow leopards and other wildlife. Most local herders claimed that they did not kill wildlife, and 42% said they did not kill wildlife because it was a sin in Buddhism. Our results indicate monasteries play an important role in snow leopard conservation. Monastery-based snow leopard conservation could be extended to other Tibetan Buddhist regions that in total would encompass about 80% of the global range of snow leopards. PMID:23992599

  13. Itraconazole treatment reduces Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and increases overwinter field survival in juvenile Cascades frogs.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Bennett M; Pope, Karen L; Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-01-15

    The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth.

  14. Oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, proton conductance and reactive oxygen species production of liver mitochondria correlates with body mass in frogs.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Damien; Salin, Karine; Dumet, Adeline; Romestaing, Caroline; Rey, Benjamin; Voituron, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Body size is a central biological parameter affecting most biological processes (especially energetics) and the mitochondrion is a key organelle controlling metabolism and is also the cell's main source of chemical energy. However, the link between body size and mitochondrial function is still unclear, especially in ectotherms. In this study, we investigated several parameters of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of three closely related species of frog (the common frog Rana temporaria, the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus and the bull frog Lithobates catesbeiana). These particular species were chosen because of their differences in adult body mass. We found that mitochondrial coupling efficiency was markedly increased with animal size, which led to a higher ATP production (+70%) in the larger frogs (L. catesbeiana) compared with the smaller frogs (R. temporaria). This was essentially driven by a strong negative dependence of mitochondrial proton conductance on body mass. Liver mitochondria from the larger frogs (L. catesbeiana) displayed 50% of the proton conductance of mitochondria from the smaller frogs (R. temporaria). Contrary to our prediction, the low mitochondrial proton conductance measured in L. catesbeiana was not associated with higher reactive oxygen species production. Instead, liver mitochondria from the larger individuals produced significantly lower levels of radical oxygen species than those from the smaller frogs. Collectively, the data show that key bioenergetics parameters of mitochondria (proton leak, ATP production efficiency and radical oxygen species production) are correlated with body mass in frogs. This research expands our understanding of the relationship between mitochondrial function and the evolution of allometric scaling in ectotherms.

  15. Drainage ditches facilitate frog movements in a hostile landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Ditches are common in landscapes influenced by agricultural, forestry, and peat mining activities, and their value as corridors remains unassessed. Pond-breeding amphibians can encounter hostile environments when moving between breeding, summering, or hibernation sites, and are likely to benefit from the presence of ditches in the landscape. Within a system consisting of ditch networks in bogs mined for peat in eastern New Brunswick, Canada, I quantified the breeding, survival, and movements of green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota) in drainage ditches and also surveyed peat fields. Frogs rarely ventured on peat fields and most individuals frequented drainage ditches containing water, particularly in late summer. Though frogs did not breed in ditches, their survival rate in ditches was high (88%). Ditches did not hinder frog movements, as frogs moved independently of the current. Results indicate that drainage ditches containing water enable some movements between habitats isolated by peat mining, in contrast to peat surfaces, and suggest they function as amphibian movement corridors. Thus, such drainage ditches may mitigate the effects of peat extraction on amphibian populations. At the very least, these structures provide an alternative to hostile peat surfaces. This study highlights that small-scale corridors are potentially valuable in population dynamics. ?? Springer 2005.

  16. Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand.

  17. Frog eat frog: exploring variables influencing anurophagy.

    PubMed

    Measey, G John; Vimercati, Giovanni; de Villiers, F André; Mokhatla, Mohlamatsane M; Davies, Sarah J; Edwards, Shelley; Altwegg, Res

    2015-01-01

    Background. Frogs are generalist predators of a wide range of typically small prey items. But descriptions of dietary items regularly include other anurans, such that frogs are considered to be among the most important of anuran predators. However, the only existing hypothesis for the inclusion of anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs postulates that it happens more often in bigger frogs. Moreover, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. Methods. We reviewed the literature on frog diet in order to test the size hypothesis and determine whether there are other putative explanations for anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs. In addition to size, we recorded the habitat, the number of other sympatric anuran species, and whether or not the population was invasive. We controlled for taxonomic bias by including the superfamily in our analysis. Results. Around one fifth of the 355 records included anurans as dietary items of populations studied, suggesting that frogs eating anurans is not unusual. Our data showed a clear taxonomic bias with ranids and pipids having a higher proportion of anuran prey than other superfamilies. Accounting for this taxonomic bias, we found that size in addition to being invasive, local anuran diversity, and habitat produced a model that best fitted our data. Large invasive frogs that live in forests with high anuran diversity are most likely to have a higher proportion of anurans in their diet. Conclusions. We confirm the validity of the size hypothesis for anurophagy, but show that there are additional significant variables. The circumstances under which frogs eat frogs are likely to be complex, but our data may help to alert conservationists to the possible dangers of invading frogs entering areas with threatened anuran species. PMID:26336644

  18. Frog eat frog: exploring variables influencing anurophagy

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Giovanni; de Villiers, F. André; Mokhatla, Mohlamatsane M.; Davies, Sarah J.; Edwards, Shelley; Altwegg, Res

    2015-01-01

    Background. Frogs are generalist predators of a wide range of typically small prey items. But descriptions of dietary items regularly include other anurans, such that frogs are considered to be among the most important of anuran predators. However, the only existing hypothesis for the inclusion of anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs postulates that it happens more often in bigger frogs. Moreover, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. Methods. We reviewed the literature on frog diet in order to test the size hypothesis and determine whether there are other putative explanations for anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs. In addition to size, we recorded the habitat, the number of other sympatric anuran species, and whether or not the population was invasive. We controlled for taxonomic bias by including the superfamily in our analysis. Results. Around one fifth of the 355 records included anurans as dietary items of populations studied, suggesting that frogs eating anurans is not unusual. Our data showed a clear taxonomic bias with ranids and pipids having a higher proportion of anuran prey than other superfamilies. Accounting for this taxonomic bias, we found that size in addition to being invasive, local anuran diversity, and habitat produced a model that best fitted our data. Large invasive frogs that live in forests with high anuran diversity are most likely to have a higher proportion of anurans in their diet. Conclusions. We confirm the validity of the size hypothesis for anurophagy, but show that there are additional significant variables. The circumstances under which frogs eat frogs are likely to be complex, but our data may help to alert conservationists to the possible dangers of invading frogs entering areas with threatened anuran species. PMID:26336644

  19. Ecology: the proximate cause of frog declines?

    PubMed

    Di Rosa, Ines; Simoncelli, Francesca; Fagotti, Anna; Pascolini, Rita

    2007-05-31

    Pounds et al. argue that global warming contributes to amphibian declines by encouraging outbreaks of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Although our findings agree with the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis, this pathogen is probably not the only proximate factor in such cases: in the Trasimeno Lake area of Umbria in central Italy, for example, the water frog Rana lessonae first declined in the late 1990s, yet chytridiomycosis was not observed until 2003 (refs 5, 6). Here we show that the chytrid was common there throughout 1999-2002, in a previously unknown form that did not cause disease. We therefore think that the focus by Pounds et al. on a single pathogen is hard to justify because the host-parasite ecology is at present so poorly understood.

  20. Rana catesbeiana virus Z (RCV-Z): a novel pathogenic ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Majji, Sai; LaPatra, Scott; Long, Scott M; Sample, Robert; Bryan, Locke; Sinning, Allan; Chinchar, V Gregory

    2006-11-21

    A virus, designated Rana catesbeiana virus Z (RCV-Z), was isolated from the visceral tissue of moribund tadpoles of the North American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) analysis of viral proteins and sequence analysis of the amino terminal end of the major capsid protein showed that RCV-Z was similar to frog virus 3 (FV3) and other ranaviruses isolated from anurans and fish. However, analysis of restriction fragment profiles following digestion of viral genomic DNA with XbaI and BamHI indicated that RCV-Z was markedly different from FV3. Moreover, in contrast to FV3, RCV-Z contained a full-length copy of the viral homolog of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF-2alpha). Experimental infection of bullfrog tadpoles with FV3 and RCV-Z demonstrated that RCV-Z was much more pathogenic than FV3, and that prior infection with FV3 protected them from subsequent RCV-Z induced mortality. Collectively, these results suggest that RCV-Z may represent a novel species of ranavirus capable of infecting frogs and that possession of a viral eIF-2alpha homolog (vIF-2alpha) correlates with enhanced virulence. PMID:17240747

  1. Rana catesbeiana virus Z (RCV-Z): a novel pathogenic ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Majji, Sai; LaPatra, Scott; Long, Scott M; Sample, Robert; Bryan, Locke; Sinning, Allan; Chinchar, V Gregory

    2006-11-21

    A virus, designated Rana catesbeiana virus Z (RCV-Z), was isolated from the visceral tissue of moribund tadpoles of the North American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) analysis of viral proteins and sequence analysis of the amino terminal end of the major capsid protein showed that RCV-Z was similar to frog virus 3 (FV3) and other ranaviruses isolated from anurans and fish. However, analysis of restriction fragment profiles following digestion of viral genomic DNA with XbaI and BamHI indicated that RCV-Z was markedly different from FV3. Moreover, in contrast to FV3, RCV-Z contained a full-length copy of the viral homolog of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF-2alpha). Experimental infection of bullfrog tadpoles with FV3 and RCV-Z demonstrated that RCV-Z was much more pathogenic than FV3, and that prior infection with FV3 protected them from subsequent RCV-Z induced mortality. Collectively, these results suggest that RCV-Z may represent a novel species of ranavirus capable of infecting frogs and that possession of a viral eIF-2alpha homolog (vIF-2alpha) correlates with enhanced virulence.

  2. [The life cycle of the trematode Pneumonoeces nanchangensis major (Plagiorchidae)--a parasite of the lungs in frogs in the Maritime Territory].

    PubMed

    Besprozvannykh, V V

    2000-01-01

    The life cycle of the trematode Pneumonoeces nanchangensis major includes three hosts: primary intermediate host (molluscs Helicorbis sujfunensis, Polypylis semiglobosa), secondary intermediate host (larvae of the dragonfly genus Lestes), and final host (frogs Rana nigrimaculata, R. semiplicata). Descriptions and measurements of cercariae and metacercariae are proposed.

  3. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF AIRBORNE PESTICIDES IN THE ALPINE ENVIRONMENT OF A DECLINING CALIFORNIA AMPHIBIAN, THE MOUNTAIN YELLOW-LEGGED FROG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distribution and temporal variation of...

  4. The role of gamont entry into erythrocytes in the specificity of Hepatozoon species (Apicomplexa: Adeleida) for their frog hosts.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Cory M; Ogbuah, Christopher T; Smith, Todd G

    2013-12-01

    Hepatozoon species are apicomplexan parasites that infect blood cells and viscera of terrestrial vertebrates. One species, Hepatozoon clamatae, primarily infects green frogs, Rana clamitans , whereas another, Hepatozoon catesbianae, primarily infects bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana , although both species of parasite are capable of infecting either species of frog. The aim of this study was to determine whether the basis for this partial host specificity is manifested at the gamont, or intraerythrocytic, stage of the parasite's life cycle. Blood was drawn from infected frogs and treated in vitro with a saline solution to induce intracellular gamonts to emerge from host erythrocytes. This treated blood was added to in vitro samples of uninfected blood of green frogs and bullfrogs. After 1 hr, samples were analyzed to determine the level of re-entry of the parasites into uninfected erythrocytes. Results obtained using multiple combinations of donor and recipient frogs indicate that extracellular gamonts of both parasite species do not exhibit preference for erythrocytes of 1 frog species over those of another. These results suggest that the basis for the observed host specificity is not determined at the gamont stage and is more likely dependent on another stage in the parasite life cycle.

  5. The role of gamont entry into erythrocytes in the specificity of Hepatozoon species (Apicomplexa: Adeleida) for their frog hosts.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Cory M; Ogbuah, Christopher T; Smith, Todd G

    2013-12-01

    Hepatozoon species are apicomplexan parasites that infect blood cells and viscera of terrestrial vertebrates. One species, Hepatozoon clamatae, primarily infects green frogs, Rana clamitans , whereas another, Hepatozoon catesbianae, primarily infects bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana , although both species of parasite are capable of infecting either species of frog. The aim of this study was to determine whether the basis for this partial host specificity is manifested at the gamont, or intraerythrocytic, stage of the parasite's life cycle. Blood was drawn from infected frogs and treated in vitro with a saline solution to induce intracellular gamonts to emerge from host erythrocytes. This treated blood was added to in vitro samples of uninfected blood of green frogs and bullfrogs. After 1 hr, samples were analyzed to determine the level of re-entry of the parasites into uninfected erythrocytes. Results obtained using multiple combinations of donor and recipient frogs indicate that extracellular gamonts of both parasite species do not exhibit preference for erythrocytes of 1 frog species over those of another. These results suggest that the basis for the observed host specificity is not determined at the gamont stage and is more likely dependent on another stage in the parasite life cycle. PMID:23829695

  6. The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) exhibits differential cardiovascular responses to LTC4 after short- and long-term cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Herman, C A

    1995-02-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) responses to leukotriene (LT)C4 have been studied in warm (W-A) and cold-acclimated (C-A) America bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, but nothing is known about how the length of cold treatment affects the response to LTC4 or how responses are affected by return to room temperature following cold exposure. In this study, two groups of frogs were placed at 5 degrees either for 30 days (C-A) or for 1 day (W-C) and LTC4 dose-response curves obtained at 5 degrees. After the frogs were removed from cold, the baseline MAP and HR were monitored for 120 min, and dose-response curves were repeated at 2, 24, and 48 hr. The LTC4 dose-response curves were also obtained during the three experimental days on frogs which had never been placed at cold temperature (W-A). C-A frogs showed greater MAP response than W-C frogs at 5 degrees, and also showed the greatest MAP response of the three groups 48 hr after the animals were removed from cold temperature. These data suggest that up regulation of LTC4 receptors may have occurred in C-A frogs. Cold exposure alone eliminated reflex HR response to LTC4 in both C-A and W-C groups. Longer duration of action was also observed in these groups. The results demonstrate that short-term cold exposure can affect the response to LTC4 in frogs, but that physiological adjustments occur in frogs undergoing long-term exposure.

  7. Status of the Leopard Laser Project in Nevada Terawatt Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiewior, Piotr P.; Astanovitskiy, A.; Aubry, G.; Batie, S.; Caron, J.; Chalyy, O.; Cowan, T.; Haefner, C.; Le Galloudec, B.; Le Galloudec, N.; Macaulay, D.; Nalajala, V.; Pettee, G.; Samek, S.; Stepanenko, Y.; Vesco, J.

    2009-06-01

    Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) currently operates a high-intensity laser system—Leopard. NTF already operates a powerful z-pinch device, called Zebra, for plasma and High Energy Density physics research. The unique research opportunities arise from the combination of NTF's terawatt Zebra z-pinch with 50-terawatt-class Leopard laser. This combination also provides opportunities to address fundamental physics of inertial fusion and high energy density physics with intense laser beam. We report on the status, design and architecture of the Leopard laser project. A first experiments carried out with Leopard will be also briefly mentioned.

  8. Gonadal abnormalities in frogs (Lithobates spp.) collected from managed wetlands in an agricultural region of Nebraska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Schwarz, Matt S.; Mena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) provides important wetland habitat for North American migratory birds. Concern exists that pesticide and nutrient runoff from surrounding row-crops enters wetlands degrading water quality and adversely affecting birds and wildlife. Frogs may be especially vulnerable. Plains leopard (Lithobates blairi) metamorphs from RWB wetlands with varying concentrations of pesticides were evaluated for a suite of biomarkers of exposure to endocrine active chemicals. Froglets had ovarian dysgenesis, high rates of testicular oocytes, and female-biased sex ratios however, there was no clear statistical association between pesticide concentrations and biomarkers. Data interpretation was hindered because timing and duration of exposures were unknown and due to an incomplete understanding of L. blairi sexual development. Emphasis is on describing the complex developmental biology of closely-related leopard frogs, how this understanding can explain RWB L. blairi anomalies, and the need for sampling at the appropriate life stage.

  9. Gonadal abnormalities in frogs (Lithobates spp.) collected from managed wetlands in an agricultural region of Nebraska, USA.

    PubMed

    Papoulias, Diana M; Schwarz, Matt S; Mena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) provides important wetland habitat for North American migratory birds. Concern exists that pesticide and nutrient runoff from surrounding row-crops enters wetlands degrading water quality and adversely affecting birds and wildlife. Frogs may be especially vulnerable. Plains leopard (Lithobates blairi) metamorphs from RWB wetlands with varying concentrations of pesticides were evaluated for a suite of biomarkers of exposure to endocrine active chemicals. Froglets had ovarian dysgenesis, high rates of testicular oocytes, and female-biased sex ratios however, there was no clear statistical association between pesticide concentrations and biomarkers. Data interpretation was hindered because timing and duration of exposures were unknown and due to an incomplete understanding of L. blairi sexual development. Emphasis is on describing the complex developmental biology of closely-related leopard frogs, how this understanding can explain RWB L. blairi anomalies, and the need for sampling at the appropriate life stage.

  10. The first see-through frog created by breeding: description, inheritance patterns, and dermal chromatophore structure

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Masayuki; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Igawa, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furukawa, Yukari; Sano, Naomi; Fujii, Tamotsu; Yoshizaki, Norio

    2016-01-01

    We have succeeded in creating see-through frogs from natural color mutants of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, which usually possesses an ochre or brown back; this coloration enables the organs, blood vessels, and eggs to be observed through the skin without performing dissection. We crossed two kinds of recessive color mutant (black-eyed and gray-eyed) frogs through artificial insemination, and F2 offspring produced frogs whose skin is translucent throughout the life cycle. Three kinds of dermal chromatophores—xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores—are observed in a layered arrangement in the skin of wild-type frogs, but few chromatophores were present in the skin of the see-through frogs. The translucent skin enables observation of organ growth and cancer formation and progression in the animal, which can be monitored over its entire life without the need for dissection. See-through frogs thus provide a useful animal model for environmental, medical, and biological research. PMID:27080918

  11. Chasing maximal performance: a cautionary tale from the celebrated jumping frogs of Calaveras County.

    PubMed

    Astley, H C; Abbott, E M; Azizi, E; Marsh, R L; Roberts, T J

    2013-11-01

    Maximal performance is an essential metric for understanding many aspects of an organism's biology, but it can be difficult to determine because a measured maximum may reflect only a peak level of effort, not a physiological limit. We used a unique opportunity provided by a frog jumping contest to evaluate the validity of existing laboratory estimates of maximum jumping performance in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). We recorded video of 3124 bullfrog jumps over the course of the 4-day contest at the Calaveras County Jumping Frog Jubilee, and determined jump distance from these images and a calibration of the jump arena. Frogs were divided into two groups: 'rental' frogs collected by fair organizers and jumped by the general public, and frogs collected and jumped by experienced, 'professional' teams. A total of 58% of recorded jumps surpassed the maximum jump distance in the literature (1.295 m), and the longest jump was 2.2 m. Compared with rental frogs, professionally jumped frogs jumped farther, and the distribution of jump distances for this group was skewed towards long jumps. Calculated muscular work, historical records and the skewed distribution of jump distances all suggest that the longest jumps represent the true performance limit for this species. Using resampling, we estimated the probability of observing a given jump distance for various sample sizes, showing that large sample sizes are required to detect rare maximal jumps. These results show the importance of sample size, animal motivation and physiological conditions for accurate maximal performance estimates.

  12. The first see-through frog created by breeding: description, inheritance patterns, and dermal chromatophore structure.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Masayuki; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Igawa, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furukawa, Yukari; Sano, Naomi; Fujii, Tamotsu; Yoshizaki, Norio

    2016-01-01

    We have succeeded in creating see-through frogs from natural color mutants of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, which usually possesses an ochre or brown back; this coloration enables the organs, blood vessels, and eggs to be observed through the skin without performing dissection. We crossed two kinds of recessive color mutant (black-eyed and gray-eyed) frogs through artificial insemination, and F2 offspring produced frogs whose skin is translucent throughout the life cycle. Three kinds of dermal chromatophores--xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores--are observed in a layered arrangement in the skin of wild-type frogs, but few chromatophores were present in the skin of the see-through frogs. The translucent skin enables observation of organ growth and cancer formation and progression in the animal, which can be monitored over its entire life without the need for dissection. See-through frogs thus provide a useful animal model for environmental, medical, and biological research. PMID:27080918

  13. Schrodinger Leopards in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.

    2008-03-01

    We present the complex quantum dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well via exact diagonalization of a discretized Hamiltonian. When the barrier is high, vortices evolve into macroscopic superposition (NOON) states of a vortex in either well -- a Schrodinger cat with spots. Such Schrodinger leopard states are more robust than previously proposed NOON states, which only use two single particle modes of the double well potential.

  14. Inner ear morphological correlates of ultrasonic hearing in frogs.

    PubMed

    Arch, Victoria S; Simmons, Dwayne D; Quiñones, Patricia M; Feng, Albert S; Jiang, Jianping; Stuart, Bryan L; Shen, Jun-Xian; Blair, Chris; Narins, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Three species of anuran amphibians (Odorrana tormota, Odorrana livida and Huia cavitympanum) have recently been found to detect ultrasounds. We employed immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to examine several morphometrics of the inner ear of these ultrasonically sensitive species. We compared morphological data collected from the ultrasound-detecting species with data from Rana pipiens, a frog with a typical anuran upper cut-off frequency of ∼3 kHz. In addition, we examined the ears of two species of Lao torrent frogs, Odorrana chloronota and Amolops daorum, that live in an acoustic environment approximating those of ultrasonically sensitive frogs. Our results suggest that the three ultrasound-detecting species have converged on small-scale functional modifications of the basilar papilla (BP), the high-frequency hearing organ in the frog inner ear. These modifications include: 1. reduced BP chamber volume, 2. reduced tectorial membrane mass, 3. reduced hair bundle length, and 4. reduced hair cell soma length. While none of these factors on its own could account for the US sensitivity of the inner ears of these species, the combination of these factors appears to extend their hearing bandwidth, and facilitate high-frequency/ultrasound detection. These modifications are also seen in the ears of O. chloronota, suggesting that this species is a candidate for high-frequency hearing sensitivity. These data form the foundation for future functional work probing the physiological bases of ultrasound detection by a non-mammalian ear.

  15. Antimicrobial peptides from the skins of North American frogs.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    North America is home to anuran species belonging to the families Bufonidae, Eleutherodactylidae, Hylidae, Leiopelmatidae, Ranidae, and Scaphiopodidae but antimicrobial peptides have been identified only in skin secretions and/or skin extracts of frogs belonging to the Leiopelmatidae ("tailed frogs") and Ranidae ("true frogs"). Eight structurally-related cationic alpha-helical peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, termed ascaphins, have been isolated from specimens of Ascaphus truei (Leiopelmatidae) occupying a coastal range. Characterization of orthologous antimicrobial peptides from Ascaphus specimens occupying an inland range supports the proposal that this population should be regarded as a separate species A. montanus. Ascaphin-8 shows potential for development into a therapeutically valuable anti-infective agent. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-1, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, palustrin-1, palustrin-2, ranacyclin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2, and temporin families have been isolated from North American ranids. It is proposed that "ranalexins" represent brevinin-1 peptides that have undergone a four amino acid residue internal deletion. Current taxonomic recommendations divide North American frogs from the family Ranidae into two genera: Lithobates and Rana. Cladistic analysis based upon the amino acid sequences of the brevinin-1 peptides provides strong support for this assignment.

  16. Overwintered Bullfrog tadpoles negatively affect Salamanders and Anurans in native amphibian communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the interactive effects of overwintered Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles and pond hydroperiod on a community of larval amphibians in outdoor mesocosms including American Toads (Bufo americanus), Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala), and Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) - species within the native range of Bullfrogs. Spotted Salamanders and Southern Leopard Frogs were negatively influenced by the presence of overwintered Bullfrogs. Spotted Salamanders had shorter larval periods and slightly smaller masses at metamorphosis, and Southern Leopard Frogs had smaller masses at metamorphosis when reared with Bullfrogs than without. Presence of overwintered Bullfrogs, however, did not significantly affect American Toads. Longer pond hydroperiods resulted in greater survival, greater size at metamorphosis, longer larval periods, and later time until emergence of the first metamorphs for Southern Leopard Frog tadpoles and Spotted Salamander larvae. Our study demonstrated that overwintered Bullfrog tadpoles can respond to changing pond hydroperiods and can negatively impact metamorphosis of native amphibians.

  17. Erythrocyte differentiation during the metamorphic hemoglobin switch of Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, A R; Broyles, R H

    1982-01-01

    Anurans (frogs and toads) switch from tadpole to adult hemoglobin synthesis during metamorphosis. A number of workers have attempted to determine whether tadpole and adult Hb types are expressed in the same or different erythroid cells during the switch. If the different Hb types are found in different cells during the transition, the switch in globin gene expression occurs at an early stage of cellular differentiation. Previous studies, in which immunocytochemical techniques were used to approach this question, are in conflict in regard to the metamorphic Hb switch of the North American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. We have purified newly differentiating erythroid cells from the blood of metamorphosing tadpoles by using Percoll gradients. These new cells have an immature morphology, are very active in the synthesis of adult Hb, and contain no detectable tadpole Hb. The tadpole cells have no detectable adult Hb, are synthetically inactive, increase in density during the switch, and are then cleared from the circulation. Thus, only adult Hb expression is detected in newly differentiating erythroid cells during metamorphosis. Images PMID:6182567

  18. Erythrocyte differentiation during the metamorphic hemoglobin switch of Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Dorn, A R; Broyles, R H

    1982-09-01

    Anurans (frogs and toads) switch from tadpole to adult hemoglobin synthesis during metamorphosis. A number of workers have attempted to determine whether tadpole and adult Hb types are expressed in the same or different erythroid cells during the switch. If the different Hb types are found in different cells during the transition, the switch in globin gene expression occurs at an early stage of cellular differentiation. Previous studies, in which immunocytochemical techniques were used to approach this question, are in conflict in regard to the metamorphic Hb switch of the North American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. We have purified newly differentiating erythroid cells from the blood of metamorphosing tadpoles by using Percoll gradients. These new cells have an immature morphology, are very active in the synthesis of adult Hb, and contain no detectable tadpole Hb. The tadpole cells have no detectable adult Hb, are synthetically inactive, increase in density during the switch, and are then cleared from the circulation. Thus, only adult Hb expression is detected in newly differentiating erythroid cells during metamorphosis.

  19. Motor planning modulates sensory-motor control of collision avoidance behavior in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Hideki; Nishida, Yuuya

    2012-01-01

    Summary In this study, we examined the collision avoidance behavior of the frog, Rana catesbeiana to an approaching object in the upper visual field. The angular velocity of the frog's escape turn showed a significant positive correlation with the turn angle (r2 = 0.5741, P<0.05). A similar mechanism of velocity control has been known in head movements of the owl and in human saccades. By analogy, this suggests that the frog planned its escape velocity in advance of executing the turn, to make the duration of the escape behavior relatively constant. For escape turns less than 60°, the positive correlation was very strong (r2 = 0.7097, P<0.05). Thus, the frog controlled the angular velocity of small escape turns very accurately and completed the behavior within a constant time. On the other hand, for escape turns greater than 60°, the same correlation was not significant (r2 = 0.065, P>0.05). Thus, the frog was not able to control the velocity of the large escape turns accurately and did not complete the behavior within a constant time. In the latter case, there was a small but significant positive correlation between the threshold angular size and the angular velocity (r2 = 0.1459, P<0.05). This suggests that the threshold is controlled to compensate for the insufficient escape velocity achieved during large turn angles, and could explain a significant negative correlation between the turn angle and the threshold angular size (r2 = 0.1145, P<0.05). Thus, it is likely that the threshold angular size is also controlled by the turn angle and is modulated by motor planning. PMID:23213389

  20. Changes in ovarian follicular kinetics in intact blinded and parietal shielded frogs exposed to different spectra of light.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B N; Udaykumar, K

    1998-03-01

    Ovarian follicular kinetics and gravimetric changes in the ovary and oviduct were studied in intact, blinded (BL), and parietal shielded (PS) skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis exposed to different light spectra. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) increased (P < 0.01) in intact and PS frogs, held in green, yellow, and red light. The maximum increase was in red light followed by yellow and green. The GSI of BL frogs also increased (P < 0.001) in white, green, yellow, and red light. However, the GSI of blinded and parietal shielded (BLPS) frogs increased (P < 0.001) in white and all the colored lights compared with controls. The percentage changes of oviductal weights were similar to the ovarian weights. Data on follicular kinetics revealed a decrease in previtellogenic oocytes in intact and PS frogs placed in blue, green, yellow, and red lights. The previtellogenic oocytes of BL and BLPS frogs decreased in white light, while their number did not vary significantly in other spectra. The vitellogenic oocytes of intact and PS frogs increased in all the spectra, with a maximum increase in red. The vitellogenic oocyte count increased in both BL and BLPS frogs held in white light. The green, yellow, and red spectra stimulated vitellogenic oocyte count of BL frogs. The response of BPLS frogs was similar except for a slightly decreased oocyte count in red light. The pattern of vitellogenic oocyte counts in general exhibited a negative correlation with previtellogenic oocyte counts in all the frogs. The atretic follicular numbers did vary significantly in all of the groups. Red light stimulated ovarian activity maximally, followed by yellow and green. As the ovary exhibited varied response to the different spectra of light even in BL frogs, it may be concluded that extraretinal perception of colored light occurs in this species.

  1. A spotlight on snow leopard conservation in China.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Justine S; Zhang, Chengcheng; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2016-07-01

    China holds the greatest proportion of the snow leopard's (Panthera uncia) global range and is central to their conservation. The country is also undergoing unprecedented economic growth, which increases both the threats to the snow leopard and the opportunities for its conservation. In this paper we aim to review published literature (from 1950 to 2014) in English and Mandarin on snow leopard ecology and conservation in China in order to identify thematic and geographic research gaps and propose research priorities. We first retrieved all published items that considered snow leopards in China (n = 106). We extracted from these papers 274 reports of snow leopard presence in China. We then reviewed a subset of papers (n = 33) of this literature, which specifically focused on snow leopard ecology and conservation within China. We introduced a thematic framework that allows a structured and comprehensive assessment of findings. This framework recognizes 4 critical and interrelated topics underpinning snow leopard ecology and conservation: habitat (distribution and protected area coverage); prey (distribution and abundance, predator-prey relationships); human interactions (hunting and trade, livestock interactions and conflicts); and the underlying policy context. Significant gains in knowledge as well as research gaps and priorities are discussed with reference to our framework. The modest quantity and limited scope of published research on the snow leopard in China calls for a continued and intensified effort to inform and support national conservation policies.

  2. A spotlight on snow leopard conservation in China.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Justine S; Zhang, Chengcheng; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2016-07-01

    China holds the greatest proportion of the snow leopard's (Panthera uncia) global range and is central to their conservation. The country is also undergoing unprecedented economic growth, which increases both the threats to the snow leopard and the opportunities for its conservation. In this paper we aim to review published literature (from 1950 to 2014) in English and Mandarin on snow leopard ecology and conservation in China in order to identify thematic and geographic research gaps and propose research priorities. We first retrieved all published items that considered snow leopards in China (n = 106). We extracted from these papers 274 reports of snow leopard presence in China. We then reviewed a subset of papers (n = 33) of this literature, which specifically focused on snow leopard ecology and conservation within China. We introduced a thematic framework that allows a structured and comprehensive assessment of findings. This framework recognizes 4 critical and interrelated topics underpinning snow leopard ecology and conservation: habitat (distribution and protected area coverage); prey (distribution and abundance, predator-prey relationships); human interactions (hunting and trade, livestock interactions and conflicts); and the underlying policy context. Significant gains in knowledge as well as research gaps and priorities are discussed with reference to our framework. The modest quantity and limited scope of published research on the snow leopard in China calls for a continued and intensified effort to inform and support national conservation policies. PMID:27135283

  3. Arterial supply of the choriocapillaris of anuran amphibians (Rana temporaria, Rana esculenta). Scanning electron-microscopic (SEM) study of microcorrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Miodoński, A J; Bär, T

    1987-07-01

    The pattern of the vascular supply to the choroid of the frog eye was studied in toto with the use of the injection-replication-SEM technique. The choroid of anuran amphibians is composed mainly of the choriocapillaris. In both species studied (Rana temporaria, Rana esculenta), an independent arterial supply to the choriocapillaris supplemented that from the ciliary arteries. This additional vascular route arises from the optic artery, a separate branch of the arteria infundibularis superficialis. The optic artery, accompanied by its vein within the vascular sheath of the optic nerve, joins the rich arterial capillary network of the choriocapillaris and supplies the posterior pole of the ocular bulb. The superficial capillary network displays a dense collar around the entrance of the optic nerve into the eye and is composed of a circular meshwork of small capillaries, several layers deep. More peripherally, however, it becomes a single layered. This capillary network, as a whole, establishes numerous connections with the adjacent choriocapillaris at the posterior pole of the ocular bulb. In anuran amphibians the complex arrangement of both arterial systems supporting the choriocapillaris may be regarded as a more complete equivalent of the short posterior ciliary arteries of mammals.

  4. Reciprocal subsidies in ponds: does leaf input increase frog biomass export?

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2012-12-01

    Reciprocal subsidies occur when ecosystems are paired, both importing and exporting resources to each other. The input of subsidies increases reciprocal subsidy export, but it is unclear how this changes with other important factors, such as ambient resources. We provide a conceptual framework for reciprocal subsidies and empirical data testing this framework using a pond-forest system in Missouri, USA. Our experiment used in situ pond mesocosms and three species of anurans: wood frogs, American toads, and southern leopard frogs. We predicted that increases in ambient resources (primary productivity) and detrital subsidy input (deciduous tree leaves) into pond mesocosms would increase reciprocal export (frog biomass) to the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem. In contrast, we found that increases in primary productivity consistently decreased frog biomass, except with leaf litter inputs. With leaf inputs, primary productivity did not affect the export of frogs, indicating that leaf detritus and associated microbial communities may be more important than algae for frog production. We found that subsidy inputs tended to increase reciprocal exports, and thus partial concordance with our conceptual framework.

  5. Evolution of the functional properties of pyruvate kinase isozymes: pyruvate kinase L from Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Fournier, P; Guderley, H

    1986-01-01

    The regulatory properties of type L pyruvate kinase from Rana pipiens are intermediate between those of the mammalian K and L isozymes. As with mammalian type L, the levels of the frog isozyme are affected by the animal's nutritional state. The mammalian and amphibian isozymes show similar sensitivities to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate activation and amino acid inhibition. By contrast, the frog L isozyme shares several properties of the K class: i.e. irreversible inactivation by oxidized glutathione and lack of response to a cyclic AMP stimulated phosphorylation. Furthermore, as for some mammalian K isozymes, frog type L shows a high PEP affinity and a low cooperativity of PEP binding. Insofar as the properties of this present day enzyme reflect those of its counterpart in the amphibian ancestor of higher vertebrates, our results suggest that at its first expression, the type L resembled the type K. Many important regulatory properties of the L isozyme, especially the sensitivity to phosphorylation, were acquired more recently perhaps in association with an increased importance of constant blood glucose. PMID:3489743

  6. Infestation of Wild-caught American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) by Multiple Species of Metazoan Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Laura B; Dronen, Norman; Fox, James G; Nambiar, Prashant R

    2008-01-01

    The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is an aquatic, carnivorous member of the family Ranidae that is used extensively in physiology education programs and in various physiology, toxicology, sensorineural, and genetics research. Eleven bullfrogs purchased from a vendor distributing wild-caught frogs for use in a physiology research protocol were emaciated but otherwise showed no apparent clinical signs of illness. Necropsies performed on selected emaciated frogs indicated heavy infestation with multiple species of endoparasites. Identified helminths included Gorgodera amplicava, Haematolechus breviplexus, Clinostomum spp, Contracaecum spp, Cosmocercoides dukae, and Eustrongyloides spp. Grossly, parasitized bullfrogs showed encysted trematode larvae within skeletal muscle, nematode impaction of the intestinal tract, and lack of coelemic fat stores. Histopathologic lesions were restricted primarily to the gastrointestinal tract and consisted of parasitic granulomas associated with Contracaecum spp. The parasitic lesions may have been associated with the poor body condition of the bullfrogs. Food crickets maintained in-house were negative for parasite larvae or ova. Heavy parasitism of wild-caught bullfrogs may confound research protocols and markedly impair animal health. We encourage researchers to purchase laboratory-bred and -reared bullfrogs and to routinely monitor the parasite status of colony frogs. PMID:18459712

  7. Plasma pharmacokinetics of selamectin after a single topical administration in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Jennifer J; West, Gary; Boothe, Dawn M; Jayanna, Prashanth K; Snider, Timothy; Hoover, John P

    2007-03-01

    Parasitism is common in wild and captive amphibians; however, pharmacologic data are lacking for anthelmintic drugs. This study was developed to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of selamectin after topical administration in bullfrogs. Thirty-two adult American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) were randomly assigned into eight groups of four with each group representing a different collection time point. Seven groups received selamectin (6 mg/ kg) topically and the remaining group served as the untreated control group. One group of frogs was euthanized and blood samples immediately collected on days 0 (control), 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for selamectin using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Individual samples were analyzed, then data were reported as the mean of the four frogs at each time point. A histologic evaluation of the lung, liver, kidney, and skin tissues was performed and none of the frogs showed histologic evidence of toxicity due to selamectin administration. The mean peak plasma concentration was 162.5 +/- 42.3 ng/ml, area under the curve was 2,856 ng day/ml, mean residence time was 12.2 days, and disappearance half-life was 1.87 days. Based on the plasma pharmacokinetics, bullfrogs appear to absorb selamectin very efficiently, concentrations reach high levels in the plasma, and there were no apparent histologic effects from single dose administration. PMID:17469275

  8. Infestation of wild-caught American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) by multiple species of metazoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Laura B; Dronen, Norman; Fox, James G; Nambiar, Prashant R

    2008-05-01

    The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is an aquatic, carnivorous member of the family Ranidae that is used extensively in physiology education programs and in various physiology, toxicology, sensorineural, and genetics research. Eleven bullfrogs purchased from a vendor distributing wild-caught frogs for use in a physiology research protocol were emaciated but otherwise showed no apparent clinical signs of illness. Necropsies performed on selected emaciated frogs indicated heavy infestation with multiple species of endoparasites. Identified helminths included Gorgodera amplicava, Haematolechus breviplexus, Clinostomum spp, Contracaecum spp, Cosmocercoides dukae, and Eustrongyloides spp. Grossly, parasitized bullfrogs showed encysted trematode larvae within skeletal muscle, nematode impaction of the intestinal tract, and lack of coelemic fat stores. Histopathologic lesions were restricted primarily to the gastrointestinal tract and consisted of parasitic granulomas associated with Contracaecum spp. The parasitic lesions may have been associated with the poor body condition of the bullfrogs. Food crickets maintained in-house were negative for parasite larvae or ova. Heavy parasitism of wild-caught bullfrogs may confound research protocols and markedly impair animal health. We encourage researchers to purchase laboratory-bred and -reared bullfrogs and to routinely monitor the parasite status of colony frogs. PMID:18459712

  9. Infestation of wild-caught American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) by multiple species of metazoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Laura B; Dronen, Norman; Fox, James G; Nambiar, Prashant R

    2008-05-01

    The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is an aquatic, carnivorous member of the family Ranidae that is used extensively in physiology education programs and in various physiology, toxicology, sensorineural, and genetics research. Eleven bullfrogs purchased from a vendor distributing wild-caught frogs for use in a physiology research protocol were emaciated but otherwise showed no apparent clinical signs of illness. Necropsies performed on selected emaciated frogs indicated heavy infestation with multiple species of endoparasites. Identified helminths included Gorgodera amplicava, Haematolechus breviplexus, Clinostomum spp, Contracaecum spp, Cosmocercoides dukae, and Eustrongyloides spp. Grossly, parasitized bullfrogs showed encysted trematode larvae within skeletal muscle, nematode impaction of the intestinal tract, and lack of coelemic fat stores. Histopathologic lesions were restricted primarily to the gastrointestinal tract and consisted of parasitic granulomas associated with Contracaecum spp. The parasitic lesions may have been associated with the poor body condition of the bullfrogs. Food crickets maintained in-house were negative for parasite larvae or ova. Heavy parasitism of wild-caught bullfrogs may confound research protocols and markedly impair animal health. We encourage researchers to purchase laboratory-bred and -reared bullfrogs and to routinely monitor the parasite status of colony frogs.

  10. Plasma pharmacokinetics of selamectin after a single topical administration in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Jennifer J; West, Gary; Boothe, Dawn M; Jayanna, Prashanth K; Snider, Timothy; Hoover, John P

    2007-03-01

    Parasitism is common in wild and captive amphibians; however, pharmacologic data are lacking for anthelmintic drugs. This study was developed to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of selamectin after topical administration in bullfrogs. Thirty-two adult American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) were randomly assigned into eight groups of four with each group representing a different collection time point. Seven groups received selamectin (6 mg/ kg) topically and the remaining group served as the untreated control group. One group of frogs was euthanized and blood samples immediately collected on days 0 (control), 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for selamectin using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Individual samples were analyzed, then data were reported as the mean of the four frogs at each time point. A histologic evaluation of the lung, liver, kidney, and skin tissues was performed and none of the frogs showed histologic evidence of toxicity due to selamectin administration. The mean peak plasma concentration was 162.5 +/- 42.3 ng/ml, area under the curve was 2,856 ng day/ml, mean residence time was 12.2 days, and disappearance half-life was 1.87 days. Based on the plasma pharmacokinetics, bullfrogs appear to absorb selamectin very efficiently, concentrations reach high levels in the plasma, and there were no apparent histologic effects from single dose administration.

  11. Rana computatrix to human language: towards a computational neuroethology of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Arbib, Michael A

    2003-10-15

    Walter's Machina speculatrix inspired the name Rana computatrix for a family of models of visuomotor coordination in the frog, which contributed to the development of computational neuroethology. We offer here an 'evolutionary' perspective on models in the same tradition for rat, monkey and human. For rat, we show how the frog-like taxon affordance model provides a basis for the spatial navigation mechanisms that involve the hippocampus and other brain regions. For monkey, we recall two models of neural mechanisms for visuomotor coordination. The first, for saccades, shows how interactions between the parietal and frontal cortex augment superior colliculus seen as the homologue of frog tectum. The second, for grasping, continues the theme of parieto-frontal interactions, linking parietal affordances to motor schemas in premotor cortex. It further emphasizes the mirror system for grasping, in which neurons are active both when the monkey executes a specific grasp and when it observes a similar grasp executed by others. The model of human-brain mechanisms is based on the mirror-system hypothesis of the evolution of the language-ready brain, which sees the human Broca's area as an evolved extension of the mirror system for grasping. PMID:14599323

  12. Rana computatrix to human language: towards a computational neuroethology of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Arbib, Michael A

    2003-10-15

    Walter's Machina speculatrix inspired the name Rana computatrix for a family of models of visuomotor coordination in the frog, which contributed to the development of computational neuroethology. We offer here an 'evolutionary' perspective on models in the same tradition for rat, monkey and human. For rat, we show how the frog-like taxon affordance model provides a basis for the spatial navigation mechanisms that involve the hippocampus and other brain regions. For monkey, we recall two models of neural mechanisms for visuomotor coordination. The first, for saccades, shows how interactions between the parietal and frontal cortex augment superior colliculus seen as the homologue of frog tectum. The second, for grasping, continues the theme of parieto-frontal interactions, linking parietal affordances to motor schemas in premotor cortex. It further emphasizes the mirror system for grasping, in which neurons are active both when the monkey executes a specific grasp and when it observes a similar grasp executed by others. The model of human-brain mechanisms is based on the mirror-system hypothesis of the evolution of the language-ready brain, which sees the human Broca's area as an evolved extension of the mirror system for grasping.

  13. Yet More Frogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Extending a recent paper by Derek Holton, we show how to represent the algorithm for the Frog Problem diagrammatically. This diagrammatic representation suggests a simpler proof of the symmetrical case (equal numbers of frogs of each colour) by allowing the even and odd cases to be treated together. It also provides a proof in the asymmetrical…

  14. Yet more frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2011-06-01

    Extending a recent paper by Derek Holton, we show how to represent the algorithm for the Frog Problem diagrammatically. This diagrammatic representation suggests a simpler proof of the symmetrical case (equal numbers of frogs of each colour) by allowing the even and odd cases to be treated together. It also provides a proof in the asymmetrical case (unequal numbers of frogs) as an extension of the symmetrical case. The issue of whether frogs of a given colour should be allowed to move in either direction is discussed. While it is possible to restrict to the case of movement in a single direction, results for bi-directional movement can be obtained by making the correspondence between the algorithm and its diagrammatic representation more concrete. The Frog Problem then becomes a form of constrained shortest path problem around the diagram, and from this point of view optimality of the algorithm becomes much clearer.

  15. Enzymatic Regulation of Glycogenolysis in a Subarctic Population of the Wood Frog: Implications for Extreme Freeze Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, M. Clara F.; Lee, Richard E.; Costanzo, Jon P.

    2013-01-01

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, from Interior Alaska survives freezing at –16°C, a temperature 10–13°C below that tolerated by its southern conspecifics. We investigated the hepatic freezing response in this northern phenotype to determine if its profound freeze tolerance is associated with an enhanced glucosic cryoprotectant system. Alaskan frogs had a larger liver glycogen reserve that was mobilized faster during early freezing as compared to conspecifics from a cool-temperate region (southern Ohio, USA). In Alaskan frogs the rapid glucose production in the first hours of freezing was associated with a 7-fold increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog levels, and the activity of this enzyme was higher than that of frozen Ohioan frogs. Freezing of Ohioan frogs induced a more modest (4-fold) increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog values. Relative to the Ohioan frogs, Alaskan frogs maintained a higher total protein kinase A activity throughout an experimental freezing/thawing time course, and this may have potentiated glycogenolysis during early freezing. We found populational variation in the activity and protein level of protein kinase A which suggested that the Alaskan population had a more efficient form of this enzyme. Alaskan frogs modulated their glycogenolytic response by decreasing the activity of glycogen phosphorylase after cryoprotectant mobilization was well under way, thereby conserving their hepatic glycogen reserve. Ohioan frogs, however, sustained high glycogen phosphorylase activity until early thawing and consumed nearly all their liver glycogen. These unique hepatic responses of Alaskan R. sylvatica likely contribute to this phenotype’s exceptional freeze tolerance, which is necessary for their survival in a subarctic climate. PMID:24236105

  16. Spontaneous heterosis in larval life-history traits of hemiclonal frog hybrids.

    PubMed

    Hotz, H; Semlitsch, R D; Gutmann, E; Guex, G D; Beerli, P

    1999-03-01

    European water frog hybrids Rana esculenta (Rana ridibunda x Rana lessonae) reproduce hemiclonally, transmitting only their ridibunda genome to gametes. We compared fitness-related larval life-history traits of natural R. esculenta from Poland with those of the two sympatric parental species and of newly generated F1 hybrids. Compared with either parental species, F1 hybrid offspring had higher survival, higher early growth rates, a more advanced developmental stage by day 49, and earlier metamorphosis, but similar mass at metamorphosis. R. esculenta from natural lineages had trait values intermediate between those of F1 offspring and of the two parental species. The data support earlier observations on natural R. esculenta that had faster larval growth, earlier metamorphosis, and higher resistance to hypoxic conditions compared with either parental species. Observing larval heterosis in F1 hybrids in survival, growth rate, and time to metamorphosis, however, at an even higher degree than in hybrids from natural lineages, demonstrates that heterosis is spontaneous and results from hybridity per se rather than from subsequent interclonal selection; in natural lineages the effects of hybridity and of clonal history are confounded. This is compelling evidence for spontaneous heterosis in hybrid clonals. Results on hemiclonal fish hybrids (Poeciliopsis) showed no spontaneous heterosis; thus, our frog data are not applicable to all hybrid clonals. Our data do show, however, that heterosis is an important potential source for the extensively observed ecological success of hybrid clonals. We suggest that heterosis and interclonal selection together shape fitness of natural R. esculenta lineages.

  17. Cranial muscle development in frogs with different developmental modes: direct development versus biphasic development.

    PubMed

    Ziermann, Janine M; Diogo, Rui

    2014-04-01

    Normal development in anurans includes a free swimming larva that goes through metamorphosis to develop into the adult frog. We have investigated cranial muscle development and adult cranial muscle morphology in three different anuran species. Xenopus laevis is obligate aquatic throughout lifetime, Rana(Lithobates) pipiens has an aquatic larvae and a terrestrial adult form, and Eleutherodactylus coqui has direct developing juveniles that hatch from eggs deposited on leaves (terrestrial). The adult morphology shows hardly any differences between the investigated species. Cranial muscle development of E. coqui shows many similarities and only few differences to the development of Rana (Lithobates) and Xenopus. The differences are missing muscles of the branchial arches (which disappear during metamorphosis of biphasic anurans) and a few heterochronic changes. The development of the mandibular arch (adductor mandibulae) and hyoid arch (depressor mandibulae) muscles is similar to that observed in Xenopus and Rana (Lithobates), although the first appearance of these muscles displays a midmetamorphic pattern in E. coqui. We show that the mix of characters observed in E. coqui indicates that the larval stage is not completely lost even without a free swimming larval stage. Cryptic metamorphosis is the process in which morphological changes in the larva/embryo take place that are not as obvious as in normal metamorphosing anurans with a clear biphasic lifestyle. During cryptic metamorphosis, a normal adult frog develops, indicating that the majority of developmental mechanisms towards the functional adult cranial muscles are preserved.

  18. Frog decline, frog malformations, and a comparison of frog and human health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M M

    2001-11-22

    The decline in frog populations and the increase in the frequency of frog malformations are discussed. Topics considered for analysis include chytridiomycosis, retinoids, UV-B radiation, chemical contaminants, environmental threats, introduced invasive species and predation, unsustainable use, and enigmatic decline. Care must be taken to distinguish between hypotheses, laboratory experiments, and the findings in feral frog populations. Clearly, the causes of population decline and malformations are heterogeneous. The subject of frogs and humans is addressed under three subheadings: the importance of frogs to human societies, medical implications of frog studies, and a comparison of frog and human disease factors. PMID:11746038

  19. Personality assessment in snow leopards (Uncia uncia).

    PubMed

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of individual personality is a useful tool in animal husbandry and can be used effectively to improve welfare. This study assessed personality in snow leopards (Uncia uncia) by examining their reactions to six novel objects and comparing them to personality assessments based on a survey completed by zookeepers. The objectives were to determine whether these methods could detect differences in personality, including age and sex differences, and to assess whether the two methods yielded comparable results. Both keeper assessments and novel object tests identified age, sex, and individual differences in snow leopards. Five dimensions of personality were found based on keepers' ratings: Active/Vigilant, Curious/Playful, Calm/Self-Assured, Timid/Anxious, and Friendly to Humans. The dimension Active/Vigilant was significantly positively correlated with the number of visits to the object, time spent locomoting, and time spent in exploratory behaviors. Curious/Playful was significantly positively correlated with the number of visits to the object, time spent locomoting, and time spent in exploratory behaviors. However, other dimensions (Calm/Self-Assured, Friendly to Humans, and Timid/Anxious) did not correlate with novel-object test variables and possible explanations for this are discussed. Thus, some of the traits and behaviors were correlated between assessment methods, showing the novel-object test to be useful in assessing an animal's personality should a keeper be unable to, or to support a keeper's assessment. PMID:21455952

  20. LEOPARD Syndrome: Clinical Features and Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Quintana, E.; Rodríguez-González, F.

    2012-01-01

    The RAS/MAPK pathway proteins with germline mutations in their respective genes are associated with some disorders such as Noonan, LEOPARD (LS), neurofibromatosis type 1, Costello and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndromes. LEOPARD is an acronym, mnemonic for the major manifestations of this disorder, characterized by multiple lentigines, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonic stenosis, abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth, and sensorineural deafness. Though it is not included in the acronym, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequent cardiac anomaly observed, representing a potentially life-threatening problem in these patients. PTPN11, RAF1 and BRAF are the genes known to be associated with LS, identifying molecular genetic testing of the 3 gene mutations in about 95% of affected individuals. PTPN11 mutations are the most frequently found. Eleven different missense PTPN11 mutations (Tyr279Cys/Ser, Ala461Thr, Gly464Ala, Thr468Met/Pro, Arg498Trp/Leu, Gln506Pro, and Gln510Glu/Pro) have been reported so far in LS, 2 of which (Tyr279Cys and Thr468Met) occur in about 65% of the cases. Here, we provide an overview of clinical aspects of this disorder, the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and major genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:23239957

  1. Trichinella britovi in a leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Marucci, Gianluca; Mobedi, Iraj; Zahabiioon, Farzaneh; Mirjalali, Hamed; Pozio, Edoardo

    2009-10-14

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a cosmopolitan distribution. In Iran, these parasites have mainly been detected in carnivorous mammals, yet information on the Trichinella taxa circulating in this country date back to a time when biochemical and molecular tests were not available. We describe the first detection of Trichinella larvae in a leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Asia and its identification at the species level. The larvae recovered from the leopard muscles were identified as Trichinella britovi using multiplex PCR. The detection of Trichinella infection in a leopard confirms literature data on the high prevalence of infection in carnivorous mammals in Iran.

  2. Patterns of Cranial Development in Larval Rana macrocnemis: Chondrocranial Size and Shape Relationship With Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Elıf; Kaya, Uğur

    2016-06-01

    Notwithstanding the abundance of amphibians, there are few descriptions about ranid cranial development. Herein, larval chondrocranial development of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis (Boulenger, 1885), is described on cleared and double-stained specimens. Descriptions are related with the ontogeny of the chondrocranium and osteogenesis of the cranial skeleton. The larval chondrocranial development of R. macrocnemis is compared to those of Rana and Pelophylax larvae (Pelophylax bedriagae, Rana pipiens, R. palustris, R. sphenocephala, R. catesbeiana, R. clamitans and R. sylvatica). In R. macrocnemis, the first bones to ossify are the parasphenoid and exoccipital (Stage 33), followed by the frontoparietal and prootic (stages 35 and 40, respectively). The major reconstruction of the chondrocranium begins at Stage 41. The ossification sequence of R. macrocnemis is distinguished from other ranids. Adult cranial osteology of R. macrocnemis is compared to that of P. bedriagae. Osteologically, R. macrocnemis is different from P. bedriagae by the shape and size of the vomer and number of teeth. Additionally, geometric morphometric methods are used to analyze chondrocranial size and shape changes of ranid larva of R. macrocnemis and P. bedriagae. Anat Rec, 299:711-721, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Changes in activity of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis in the annual cycle in Rana temporaria.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, S; Dziubek, K; Lach, H

    1978-01-01

    In 70 sexually mature male and femal Rana temporaria frogs captured in natural habitat, mean nuclear volumes for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) were determined in seven characteristic stages in life. The mean nuclear volume for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the OVLT showed distinct annual fluctuation. Maximum nuclear volume of the cells in both investigated parts of the OVLT were observed during the breeding period (Ist decade of April), and minimum volume of the nuclei of the pars ependymalis at the beginning of hibernation (IIIrd decade of October), and in the pars parenchymalis near the end of active life (Ist decade of September).

  4. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii.

    PubMed

    Sparling, D W; Fellers, G

    2007-06-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations.

  5. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced immune function predicts disease susceptibility in frogs infected with a deadly fungal pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Anna E.; Terrell, Kimberly A.; Gratwicke, Brian; Mattheus, Nichole M.; Augustine, Lauren; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between amphibian immune function and disease susceptibility is of primary concern given current worldwide declines linked to the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We experimentally infected lowland leopard frogs (Lithobates yavapaiensis) with Bd to test the hypothesis that infection causes physiological stress and stimulates humoral and cell-mediated immune function in the blood. We measured body mass, the ratio of circulating neutrophils to lymphocytes (a known indicator of physiological stress) and plasma bacterial killing ability (BKA; a measure of innate immune function). In early exposure (1–15 days post-infection), stress was elevated in Bd-positive vs. Bd-negative frogs, whereas other metrics were similar between the groups. At later stages (29–55 days post-infection), stress was increased in Bd-positive frogs with signs of chytridiomycosis compared with both Bd-positive frogs without disease signs and uninfected control frogs, which were similar to each other. Infection decreased growth during the same period, demonstrating that sustained resistance to Bd is energetically costly. Importantly, BKA was lower in Bd-positive frogs with disease than in those without signs of chytridiomycosis. However, neither group differed from Bd-negative control frogs. The low BKA values in dying frogs compared with infected individuals without disease signs suggests that complement activity might signify different immunogenetic backgrounds or gene-by-environment interactions between the host, Bd and abiotic factors. We conclude that protein complement activity might be a useful predictor of Bd susceptibility and might help to explain differential disease outcomes in natural amphibian populations. PMID:27293759

  7. Reduced immune function predicts disease susceptibility in frogs infected with a deadly fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Savage, Anna E; Terrell, Kimberly A; Gratwicke, Brian; Mattheus, Nichole M; Augustine, Lauren; Fleischer, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between amphibian immune function and disease susceptibility is of primary concern given current worldwide declines linked to the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We experimentally infected lowland leopard frogs (Lithobates yavapaiensis) with Bd to test the hypothesis that infection causes physiological stress and stimulates humoral and cell-mediated immune function in the blood. We measured body mass, the ratio of circulating neutrophils to lymphocytes (a known indicator of physiological stress) and plasma bacterial killing ability (BKA; a measure of innate immune function). In early exposure (1-15 days post-infection), stress was elevated in Bd-positive vs. Bd-negative frogs, whereas other metrics were similar between the groups. At later stages (29-55 days post-infection), stress was increased in Bd-positive frogs with signs of chytridiomycosis compared with both Bd-positive frogs without disease signs and uninfected control frogs, which were similar to each other. Infection decreased growth during the same period, demonstrating that sustained resistance to Bd is energetically costly. Importantly, BKA was lower in Bd-positive frogs with disease than in those without signs of chytridiomycosis. However, neither group differed from Bd-negative control frogs. The low BKA values in dying frogs compared with infected individuals without disease signs suggests that complement activity might signify different immunogenetic backgrounds or gene-by-environment interactions between the host, Bd and abiotic factors. We conclude that protein complement activity might be a useful predictor of Bd susceptibility and might help to explain differential disease outcomes in natural amphibian populations.

  8. Reduced immune function predicts disease susceptibility in frogs infected with a deadly fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Savage, Anna E; Terrell, Kimberly A; Gratwicke, Brian; Mattheus, Nichole M; Augustine, Lauren; Fleischer, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between amphibian immune function and disease susceptibility is of primary concern given current worldwide declines linked to the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We experimentally infected lowland leopard frogs (Lithobates yavapaiensis) with Bd to test the hypothesis that infection causes physiological stress and stimulates humoral and cell-mediated immune function in the blood. We measured body mass, the ratio of circulating neutrophils to lymphocytes (a known indicator of physiological stress) and plasma bacterial killing ability (BKA; a measure of innate immune function). In early exposure (1-15 days post-infection), stress was elevated in Bd-positive vs. Bd-negative frogs, whereas other metrics were similar between the groups. At later stages (29-55 days post-infection), stress was increased in Bd-positive frogs with signs of chytridiomycosis compared with both Bd-positive frogs without disease signs and uninfected control frogs, which were similar to each other. Infection decreased growth during the same period, demonstrating that sustained resistance to Bd is energetically costly. Importantly, BKA was lower in Bd-positive frogs with disease than in those without signs of chytridiomycosis. However, neither group differed from Bd-negative control frogs. The low BKA values in dying frogs compared with infected individuals without disease signs suggests that complement activity might signify different immunogenetic backgrounds or gene-by-environment interactions between the host, Bd and abiotic factors. We conclude that protein complement activity might be a useful predictor of Bd susceptibility and might help to explain differential disease outcomes in natural amphibian populations. PMID:27293759

  9. D-Asp: a new player in reproductive endocrinology of the amphibian Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Raucci, Franca; Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the involvement of D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) on ovarian and testicular morphology of the green frog, Rana esculenta, and its effect on the testosterone production. The study has been performed throughout the reproductive cycle. In both ovary and testis a substantial amount of D-Asp is endogenously present and its concentration varies as function of reproduction. In the frog, D-Asp content is differently correlated with gonadal and plasmatic levels of testosterone, depending on the sex. In fact, the amount of the D-Asp is inversely linked with that of the testosterone in the ovary, while this correlation directly matched in the testis. In vivo short-term experiments, consisting of a single intra-peritoneal injection of D-Asp (2.0 μmol/g body weight), demonstrated that the enantiomer is significantly accumulated by both the ovary and testis, reaching after 3 h the highest uptake and thereafter decreasing to baseline values within 24 h. Furthermore, D-Asp influences the synthesis and/or the release of testosterone, causing a decrease of its level in the female, and an increase in the male, respectively. In vivo long-term experiments, D-Asp, chronically administered to the frogs of both sexes, enhances the maturation of both gonads, determining in the oocytes an higher accumulation of carbohydrate yolk plates in the ooplasm, and stimulating the spermatogenesis in the testis. Taken altogether, our results show that D-Asp operates differently in female and male frog gonads, indicating that it has different targets in the reproductive machinery depending on the sex.

  10. Pond and landscape determinants of Rana dalmatina population sizes in a Romanian rural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartel, Tibor; Nemes, Szilárd; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Öllerer, Kinga; Moga, Cosmin Ioan; Lesbarrères, David; Demeter, László

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians are good indicators of human impact, declining steadily worldwide. We explored the relationships between the ponds and nearby landscape parameters and population size of the Agile Frog ( Rana dalmatina), estimated from the number of egg masses, in a cultural landscape within the central section of Târnava Mare Basin, Romania. Forty-three permanent ponds were surveyed in a 2600 km 2 area. The average number of egg masses per pond was 211.13 (SD = 426.41). The egg mass number was significantly and positively related to the emergent aquatic macrophyte cover (its effect peaks at around 50%) and the green connecting corridors between the ponds and forests, and negatively related to the extent of nearby urban areas. The proximity of the forest (positive effect) and the presence of high traffic roads (negative effect) were highly correlated with green corridors and further eliminated from the model due to multicollinearity. Both these variables had significant effects when incorporated in univariate models and multivariate models without green corridors. Since a large part of our study area was currently declared as Natura 2000 site, there is an increased need for management proposals and conservation applications for biodiversity, including amphibians. Rana dalmatina is an important species for monitoring because it is common in the studied area and is suited for short surveys.

  11. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  12. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs.

    PubMed

    Yahnke, Amy E; Grue, Christian E; Hayes, Marc P; Troiano, Alexandra T

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  13. Spatial Heterogeneity of Rana boylii Habitat: Quantification and Ecological Meaningfulness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnell, S. M.

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of the heterogeneity of stream habitat and how biological communities respond to that complexity are fundamental components of ecosystem analysis that are often inadequately addressed in watershed assessments and restoration practices. Many aquatic species, such as the Foothill Yellow-legged Frog (Rana boylii), known to associate with certain physical habitats at various times throughout their lifecycle may require some degree of habitat complexity at a larger reach scale for a population to persist. Recent research in the field of landscape ecology has expanded the use of spatial heterogeneity indices to other fields of ecology as an objective method to quantify variability in habitat. Provided that indices are used in an appropriate context and are shown to be ecologically meaningful, they provide a potentially useful tool for quantifying the variability in riverine habitat for aquatic species such as R. boylii. This study evaluated whether stream reaches with a high heterogeneity of geomorphic features, as measured by several key spatial heterogeneity indices, correlated with a greater relative abundance of R. boylii. R. boylii habitat associations were quantified throughout a single season to obtain further insight into the local hydraulic and geomorphic conditions preferred by each lifestage. The two best predictors of habitat associations by lifestage were velocity and substrate size, two key characteristics of geomorphic units such as riffles and pools. The heterogeneity of geomorphic units was then quantified and measured at the reach scale using a variety of spatial indices. Indices of spatial composition, such as Shannon's Diversity Index, were found to correlate well with frog abundance, while indices of spatial configuration, such as Contagion, were not significant. These findings indicate R. boylii may select stream reaches with increased geomorphic complexity that potentially provide habitats suitable to each lifestage with multiple functions

  14. Failure of tetracycline as a biomarker in batch-marking juvenile frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatfield, J.S.; Henry, P.F.P.; Olsen, G.H.; Paul, M.M.; Hammerschlag, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent widespread amphibian declines call for better techniques to assess population dynamics. Tetracycline as a biomarker in capture-recapture studies is one technique used successfully in fish, reptiles, and mammals. A two-phase experimental study was conducted to evaluate tetracycline as a biomarker in green frogs (Rana clamitans) and pickerel frogs (Rana palustris). In the first experimental phase tadpoles were exposed to water containing either 250 mg/l or 500 mg/l tetracycline for a period of 24 hr. During the second phase, juvenile frogs were exposed to tetracycline in water at 500 mg/l or given injections of tetracycline at the dose rate of 100 mg/kg body weight. At selected times several weeks later, under tricaine methanesulfonate anesthesia, a toe was surgically excised from each animal, sectioned and viewed under an ultraviolet microscope. No significant differences were found between the various treatments and control animals (untreated). Therefore, the use of tetracycline as a biomarker in anurans using these techniques is not recommended.

  15. Gastroesophageal intussusception in a leopard (Panthera pardus).

    PubMed

    Hettlich, Bianca F; Hobson, H Phil; Snakard, Eileen P; Johnson, James H

    2010-09-01

    An 8-yr-old male leopard (Panthera pardus) was presented with a 4-day history of lethargy, vomiting, and anorexia. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs revealed a soft-tissue mass cranial to the diaphragm and atypical appearance of the gastric fundus. Esophagoscopy revealed gastric mucosa in the lumen of the esophagus, which confirmed gastroesophageal intussusception. An exploratory celiotomy with manual reduction of the intussusception was performed. Reduction was verified by intraoperative esophagoscopy and gastroscopy. An incisional fundic gastropexy to the left abdominal wall was performed to reduce the chance of a recurrence of the intussusception. No postoperative complications related to the surgery were observed, and the animal resumed eating within 48 hr of surgery. A subsequent recurrence of clinical signs was not noted by the owner.

  16. Cell proliferation and death in the brain of active and hibernating frogs

    PubMed Central

    Cerri, Silvia; Bottiroli, Giovanni; Bottone, Maria Grazia; Barni, Sergio; Bernocchi, Graziella

    2009-01-01

    ‘Binomial’ cell proliferation and cell death have been studied in only a few non-mammalian vertebrates, such as fish. We thought it of interest to map cell proliferation/apoptosis in the brain of the frog (Rana esculenta L.) as this animal species undergoes, during the annual cycle, physiological events that could be associated with central nervous system damage. Therefore, we compared the active period and the deep underground hibernation of the frog. Using western blot analysis for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), we revealed a positive 36 kDa band in all samples and found higher optical density values in the hibernating frogs than in active frogs. In both active and hibernating frogs, we found regional differences in PCNA-immunoreactive cells and terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labelling apoptotic cells in the ventricular zones and parenchyma areas of the main encephalon subdivisions. During the active period of the frogs, the highest concentration of PCNA-immunoreactive cells was found in the ventricle dorsal zone of the cerebral hemispheres but only some of the cells were apoptotic. By contrast, the tectal and cerebellar ventricular zones had a small or medium amount of PCNA-immunoreactive cells, respectively, and a higher number of apoptotic cells. During hibernation, an increased PCNA-immunoreactive cell number was observed in both the brain ventricles and parenchyma compared with active frogs. This increase was primarily evident in the lateral ventricles, a region known to be a proliferation ‘hot spot’. Although differences existed among the brain areas, a general increase of apoptotic cell death was found in hibernating frogs, with the highest number of apoptotic cells being detected in the parenchyma of the cerebral hemispheres and optic tectum. In particular, the increased number of apoptotic cells in the hibernating frogs compared with active frogs in the parenchyma of these brain areas occurred when cell proliferation was higher in

  17. Cell proliferation and death in the brain of active and hibernating frogs.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Silvia; Bottiroli, Giovanni; Bottone, Maria Grazia; Barni, Sergio; Bernocchi, Graziella

    2009-08-01

    'Binomial' cell proliferation and cell death have been studied in only a few non-mammalian vertebrates, such as fish. We thought it of interest to map cell proliferation/apoptosis in the brain of the frog (Rana esculenta L.) as this animal species undergoes, during the annual cycle, physiological events that could be associated with central nervous system damage. Therefore, we compared the active period and the deep underground hibernation of the frog. Using western blot analysis for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), we revealed a positive 36 kDa band in all samples and found higher optical density values in the hibernating frogs than in active frogs. In both active and hibernating frogs, we found regional differences in PCNA-immunoreactive cells and terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labelling apoptotic cells in the ventricular zones and parenchyma areas of the main encephalon subdivisions. During the active period of the frogs, the highest concentration of PCNA-immunoreactive cells was found in the ventricle dorsal zone of the cerebral hemispheres but only some of the cells were apoptotic. By contrast, the tectal and cerebellar ventricular zones had a small or medium amount of PCNA-immunoreactive cells, respectively, and a higher number of apoptotic cells. During hibernation, an increased PCNA-immunoreactive cell number was observed in both the brain ventricles and parenchyma compared with active frogs. This increase was primarily evident in the lateral ventricles, a region known to be a proliferation 'hot spot'. Although differences existed among the brain areas, a general increase of apoptotic cell death was found in hibernating frogs, with the highest number of apoptotic cells being detected in the parenchyma of the cerebral hemispheres and optic tectum. In particular, the increased number of apoptotic cells in the hibernating frogs compared with active frogs in the parenchyma of these brain areas occurred when cell proliferation was higher in the

  18. Environmentally induced mechanical feedback in locomotion: frog performance as a model.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Peter; Nauwelaerts, Sandra

    2009-12-01

    At first glance, the strategy for generating propulsive impulses for both jumping and swimming in frogs is quite similar. Both modes rely on powerful extension of the hind limbs. However, in Rana esculenta (the semi-aquatic green frog), propulsive impulses for jumping were found to be much larger than those generated during swimming [Nauwelaerts and Aerts, 2003. Propulsive impulses as a covarying performance measure in the comparison of the kinematics of swimming and jumping in frogs. J. Exp. Biol. 206, 4341-4351]. The hypothesis that differences in propulsive impulse between swimming and jumping are largely caused by specific environmental constraints rather than being due to changes in motor control is tested in the present study. To assess this question, the actuator of a simple mathematical model, mimicking a frog with symmetrically kicking hind limbs, is first tuned to perform frog-like jumps. Next, the same actuator activation is applied to drive the model in an 'aquatic environment'. Despite the entirely identical activation, the resulting in silico propulsive swimming impulse was less than half that produced during jumping, just as observed in vivo. Although duration of limb extension is similar for both locomotor modes (both in vivo and in silico), this conspicuous difference in model behaviour is entirely explained by the actuator working at different positions along its force-velocity curve. These findings suggest that the same environmentally induced effects are also involved in real swimming and jumping as well, thus explaining the apparent difference in performance level.

  19. Urea loading enhances freezing survival and postfreeze recovery in a terrestrially hibernating frog.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E

    2008-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that urea, an osmolyte accumulated early in hibernation, functions as a cryoprotectant in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Relative to saline-treated, normouremic (10 micromol ml(-1)) frogs, individuals rendered hyperuremic (70 micromol ml(-1)) by administration of an aqueous urea solution exhibited significantly higher survival (100% versus 64%) following freezing at -4 degrees C, a potentially lethal temperature. Hyperuremic frogs also had lower plasma levels of intracellular proteins (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hemoglobin), which presumably escaped from damaged cells, and more quickly recovered neurobehavioral functions following thawing. Experimental freezing-thawing did not alter tissue urea concentrations, but did elevate glucose levels in the blood and organs of all frogs. When measured 24 h after thawing commenced, glucose concentrations were markedly higher in urea-loaded frogs as compared to saline-treated ones, possibly because elevated urea retarded glucose clearance. Like other low-molecular-mass cryoprotectants, urea colligatively reduces both the amount of ice forming within the body and the osmotic dehydration of cells. In addition, by virtue of certain non-colligative properties, it may bestow additional protection from freeze-thaw damage not afforded by glucose.

  20. Elevated temperature as a treatment for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in captive frogs.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Matthew W H; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L

    2011-05-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in amphibian declines worldwide. In vitro laboratory studies and those done on wild populations indicate that Bd grows best at cool temperatures between 17 and 25 degrees C. In the present study, we tested whether moderately elevating the ambient temperature to 30 degrees C could be an effective treatment for frogs infected with Bd. We acquired 35 bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana from breeding facilities and 36 northern cricket frogs Acris crepitans from the wild and acclimated them to either 23 or 26 degrees C for 1 mo. Following the acclimation period, frogs were tested for the presence of Bd using qPCR TaqMan assays. The 12 R. catesbeiana and 16 A. crepitans that tested positive for Bd were subjected to 30 degrees C for 10 consecutive days before returning frogs to their starting temperatures. Post-treatment testing revealed that 27 of the 28 frogs that had tested positive were no longer infected with Bd; only a single A. crepitans remained infected following treatment. This result indicates that elevating ambient temperature to a moderate 30 degrees C can be effective as a treatment for Bd infection in captive amphibians, and suggests that heat may be a superior alternative to antifungal drugs.

  1. Legacy of road salt: Apparent positive larval effects counteracted by negative postmetamorphic effects in wood frogs.

    PubMed

    Dananay, Kacey L; Krynak, Katherine L; Krynak, Timothy J; Benard, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Road salt runoff has potentially large effects on wetland communities, but is typically investigated in short-term laboratory trials. The authors investigated effects of road salt contamination on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) by combining a field survey with 2 separate experiments. The field survey tested whether wood frog larval traits were associated with road salt contamination in natural wetlands. As conductivity increased, wood frog larvae were less abundant, but those found were larger. In the first experiment of the present study, the authors raised larvae in outdoor artificial ponds under 4 salt concentrations and measured larval vital rates, algal biomass, and zooplankton abundance. Salt significantly increased larval growth, algal biomass, and decreased zooplankton abundance. In the second experiment, the authors raised larvae to metamorphosis in the presence and absence of salt contamination and followed resulting juvenile frogs in terrestrial pens at high and low densities. Exposure to road salt as larvae caused juvenile frogs to have greater mortality in low-density terrestrial environments, possibly because of altered energy allocation, changes in behavior, or reduced immune defenses. The present study suggests that low concentrations of road salt can have positive effects on larval growth yet negative effects on juvenile survival. These results emphasize the importance of testing for effects of contaminants acting through food webs and across multiple life stages as well as the potential for population-level consequences in natural environments.

  2. Consequences of intraspecific niche variation: phenotypic similarity increases competition among recently metamorphosed frogs.

    PubMed

    Benard, Michael F; Middlemis Maher, Jessica

    2011-07-01

    Phenotype is often correlated with resource use, which suggests that as phenotypic variation in a population increases, intraspecific competition will decrease. However, few studies have experimentally tested the prediction that increased intraspecific phenotypic variation leads to reduced competitive effects (e.g., on growth rate, survival or reproductive rate). We investigated this prediction with two experiments on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). In the first experiment, we found that a frog's size was positively correlated with the size of its preferred prey, indicating that the feeding niche of the frogs changed with size. In the second experiment, we used an experimental design in which we held the initial mass of "focal" frogs constant, but varied the initial mass of their competitors. We found a significant quadratic effect of the average mass of competitors: focal frog growth was lowest when raised with similar-sized competitors, and highest when raised with competitors that were larger or smaller. Our results demonstrate that growth rates increase (i.e., competitive intensity decreases) when individuals are less similar to other members of the population and exhibit less overlap in resource use. Thus, changes in the amount of phenotypic variation in a population may ultimately affect population-level processes, such as population growth rate and extinction risk.

  3. Legacy of road salt: Apparent positive larval effects counteracted by negative postmetamorphic effects in wood frogs.

    PubMed

    Dananay, Kacey L; Krynak, Katherine L; Krynak, Timothy J; Benard, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Road salt runoff has potentially large effects on wetland communities, but is typically investigated in short-term laboratory trials. The authors investigated effects of road salt contamination on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) by combining a field survey with 2 separate experiments. The field survey tested whether wood frog larval traits were associated with road salt contamination in natural wetlands. As conductivity increased, wood frog larvae were less abundant, but those found were larger. In the first experiment of the present study, the authors raised larvae in outdoor artificial ponds under 4 salt concentrations and measured larval vital rates, algal biomass, and zooplankton abundance. Salt significantly increased larval growth, algal biomass, and decreased zooplankton abundance. In the second experiment, the authors raised larvae to metamorphosis in the presence and absence of salt contamination and followed resulting juvenile frogs in terrestrial pens at high and low densities. Exposure to road salt as larvae caused juvenile frogs to have greater mortality in low-density terrestrial environments, possibly because of altered energy allocation, changes in behavior, or reduced immune defenses. The present study suggests that low concentrations of road salt can have positive effects on larval growth yet negative effects on juvenile survival. These results emphasize the importance of testing for effects of contaminants acting through food webs and across multiple life stages as well as the potential for population-level consequences in natural environments. PMID:26033303

  4. DNA repair and resistance to UV-B radiation in western spotted frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blaustein, A.R.; Hays, J.B.; Hoffman, P.D.; Chivers, D.P.; Kiesecker, J.M.; Leonard, W.P.; Marco, A.; Olson, D.H.; Reaser, J.K.; Anthony, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    We assessed DNA repair and resistance to solar radiation in eggs of members of the western spotted frog complex (Rana pretiosa and R. luteiventris), species whose populations are suffering severe range reductions and declines. Specifically, we measured the activity of photoreactivating enzyme (photolyase) in oocytes of spotted frogs. In some species, photoreactivation is the most important mechanism for repair of UV-damaged DNA. Using field experiments, we also compared the hatching success of spotted frog embryos at natural oviposition sites at three elevations, where some embryos were subjected to ambient levels of UV-B radiation and others were shielded from UV-B radiation. Compared with other amphibians, photolyase activities in spotted frogs were relatively high. At all sites, hatching success was unaffected by UV-B. Our data support the interpretation that amphibian embryos with relatively high levels of photolyase are more resistant to UV-B radiation than those with lower levels of photolyase. At the embryonic stage, UV-B radiation does not presently seem to be contributing to the population declines of spotted frogs.

  5. [Reabsorption of yellow fluorescent protein in the Rana temporaria kidney by receptor-mediated endocytosis].

    PubMed

    Seliverstova, E V; Prutskova, N P

    2014-01-01

    The absorption of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and the expression of the endocytic receptors, megalin and cubilin, were investigated in the renal proximal tubules (PT) in frogs Rana temporaria after parenteral YFP injections. The methods of confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry were used. The dynamics of YFP absorption was analyzed 2 h after injection. The logarithmic time dependence of the accumulation of YFP-containing endocytic vesicles in PT cells and the completion of absorption process 90-120 min after injection were shown. Unlike substantial megalin and cubilin expression 15-30 min after YFP introduction, immunolabeled endocytic receptors were not detected in PT cells after 2 h. The re-injection of YFP led to the appearance of apical endocytic vesicles containing megalin or cubilin colocalized with YFP. At the same time, the decrease of YFP uptake associated with reduction in the number of receptor-containing vesicles was demonstrated, suggesting a failure of megalin and cubilin expression. The decrease of absorption capacity of PT cells after YFP re-injection was similar to that found previously under conditions of the competitive absorption of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and YFP injected in different sequences. The data are the further demonstration of the proposed mechanism limiting the tubular protein absorption in the frog kidney and suggest the involvement of megalin and cubilin in uptake and vesicular transport of YFP.

  6. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Christin, M S; Ménard, L; Gendron, A D; Ruby, S; Cyr, D; Marcogliese, D J; Rollins-Smith, L; Fournier, M

    2004-03-30

    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections.

  7. The role of tadpoles and frogs as paratenic hosts in the life cycle of Dracunculus insignis (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea).

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Brandt, F H

    1995-10-01

    The possibility exists that paratenic hosts play a role in the life cycle of various Dracunculus species. In the present study, we established that tadpoles of 2 genera of frogs (Xenopus and Rana) were capable of ingesting copepods infected with third-stage larvae (L3) of Dracunculus insignis. Once ingested, the L3s migrated from the gut to the somatic tissues of the tadpoles. In Xenopus, the dracunculid larvae persisted through the metamorphosis of the tadpoles into adult frogs. These observations confirm the concept that paratenic hosts, such as tadpoles or frogs, may be important means of transporting infective larvae of Dracunculus species up the food chain and facilitate transmission to the definitive hosts.

  8. Amphibian ocular malformation associated with frog virus 3.

    PubMed

    Burton, Elizabeth C; Miller, Debra L; Styer, Eloise L; Gray, Matthew J

    2008-09-01

    During an on-going amphibian ecology study, a free-ranging American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) metamorph was captured in a pitfall trap adjacent to a constructed farm pond at the Plateau Research and Education Center (PREC) on the Cumberland Plateau near Crossville, Tennessee, USA. Grossly, the right eye was approximately 50% the size of the left. Stereo and light microscopic examination revealed two granulomas within the orbit. Electron microscopic examination revealed virus particles scattered throughout one structure but mostly aggregated toward the center. Subsequent PCR and sequencing (GenBank accession Number EF175670) confirmed frog virus 3 (FV3). This represents the first report of a malformation in an anuran associated with FV3. PMID:17604194

  9. Food supply modifies the trade-off between past and future reproduction in a sexual parasite-host system (Rana esculenta, Rana lessonae).

    PubMed

    Waelti, Marc Olivier; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2007-06-01

    Life history theory is concerned with the costs of survival, growth and reproduction under different ecological conditions and the allocation of resources to meet these costs. Typical approaches used to address these topics include manipulation of food resources, followed by measures of subsequent reproductive traits, and measures of the relationship between current and future reproductive investment. Rarely, however, do studies test for the interaction of past investment, present resource availability and future investment simultaneously. Here, we investigate this interaction in females of a sexual parasite-host system consisting of the hybridogenetic frog Rana esculenta (E) and one of its parental species Rana lessonae (L). We kept females from each of two groups (with or without previous reproduction) under two food treatments (low or high) and regularly recorded their growth as well as their body condition and hormone titres as measures of future reproductive condition. After keeping them in hibernation until the following spring, we exposed the females to males, recorded whether they spawned or not and related this response to their condition in the previous autumn. Past reproduction negatively affected growth during summer and condition during autumn which, in turn, reduced the following year's reproductive output. These costs of previous reproduction were less pronounced under the high than under the low food treatment and lower in R. lessonae than in R. esculenta. Increasing food supply improved reproductive condition more in L than in E females. These species differences in reproductive costs and food requirements provide a mechanistic explanation for why E females skip annual reproduction almost twice as often as L females. Since R. esculenta is a sexual parasite that depends on R. lessonae for successful reproduction, these species-specific life history patterns not only affect individual fitness but also the spatial structure and temporal dynamics of

  10. Jan Swammerdam's frogs

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Having discussed insect metamorphosis at length, Jan Swammerdam's Bybel der Natuure (1679/1737) reached its climax with a substantial description of the generation and muscular activity of frogs. This paper explores the rhetorical role of frogs in Swammerdam's ‘great work’, showing how they were the Archimedean point from which he aimed to reorder all of creation—from insects to humans—within one glorious, God-ordained natural history and philosophy. Swammerdam linked insects to frogs through a demonstration that all underwent epigenesis; and frogs were then linked to humans through a demonstration of their identical muscular activity. The success of Swammerdam's strategy required a theological reconstruction of the frog, traditionally an ungodly creature, such that trustworthy knowledge could be obtained from its body. Perhaps surprisingly, this act of theological cleansing is shown to be somewhat prefigured in the distinctly non-experimental natural history of Edward Topsell (1608). The paper also examines Swammerdam's interactions with the mystic Antoinette Bourignon, and his challenges in reconciling a spirituality of meletetics with a material epistemology in natural philosophy. Differences are revealed between the natural analogies given by Swammerdam in his published and unpublished writings, undermining to a certain extent the triumphal insect–frog–human rhetorical structure of the Bybel.

  11. Cryoprotectants and Extreme Freeze Tolerance in a Subarctic Population of the Wood Frog

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, Jon P.; Reynolds, Alice M.; do Amaral, M. Clara F.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Lee, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) exhibit marked geographic variation in freeze tolerance, with subarctic populations tolerating experimental freezing to temperatures at least 10-13 degrees Celsius below the lethal limits for conspecifics from more temperate locales. We determined how seasonal responses enhance the cryoprotectant system in these northern frogs, and also investigated their physiological responses to somatic freezing at extreme temperatures. Alaskan frogs collected in late summer had plasma urea levels near 10 μmol ml-1, but this level rose during preparation for winter to 85.5 ± 2.9 μmol ml-1 (mean ± SEM) in frogs that remained fully hydrated, and to 186.9 ± 12.4 μmol ml-1 in frogs held under a restricted moisture regime. An osmolality gap indicated that the plasma of winter-conditioned frogs contained an as yet unidentified osmolyte(s) that contributed about 75 mOsmol kg-1 to total osmotic pressure. Experimental freezing to –8°C, either directly or following three cycles of freezing/thawing between –4 and 0°C, or –16°C increased the liver’s synthesis of glucose and, to a lesser extent, urea. Concomitantly, organs shed up to one-half (skeletal muscle) or two-thirds (liver) of their water, with cryoprotectant in the remaining fluid reaching concentrations as high as 0.2 and 2.1 M, respectively. Freeze/thaw cycling, which was readily survived by winter-conditioned frogs, greatly increased hepatic glycogenolysis and delivery of glucose (but not urea) to skeletal muscle. We conclude that cryoprotectant accrual in anticipation of and in response to freezing have been greatly enhanced and contribute to extreme freeze tolerance in northern R. sylvatica. PMID:25688861

  12. Cryoprotectants and extreme freeze tolerance in a subarctic population of the wood frog.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Reynolds, Alice M; do Amaral, M Clara F; Rosendale, Andrew J; Lee, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) exhibit marked geographic variation in freeze tolerance, with subarctic populations tolerating experimental freezing to temperatures at least 10-13 degrees Celsius below the lethal limits for conspecifics from more temperate locales. We determined how seasonal responses enhance the cryoprotectant system in these northern frogs, and also investigated their physiological responses to somatic freezing at extreme temperatures. Alaskan frogs collected in late summer had plasma urea levels near 10 μmol ml-1, but this level rose during preparation for winter to 85.5 ± 2.9 μmol ml-1 (mean ± SEM) in frogs that remained fully hydrated, and to 186.9 ± 12.4 μmol ml-1 in frogs held under a restricted moisture regime. An osmolality gap indicated that the plasma of winter-conditioned frogs contained an as yet unidentified osmolyte(s) that contributed about 75 mOsmol kg-1 to total osmotic pressure. Experimental freezing to -8°C, either directly or following three cycles of freezing/thawing between -4 and 0°C, or -16°C increased the liver's synthesis of glucose and, to a lesser extent, urea. Concomitantly, organs shed up to one-half (skeletal muscle) or two-thirds (liver) of their water, with cryoprotectant in the remaining fluid reaching concentrations as high as 0.2 and 2.1 M, respectively. Freeze/thaw cycling, which was readily survived by winter-conditioned frogs, greatly increased hepatic glycogenolysis and delivery of glucose (but not urea) to skeletal muscle. We conclude that cryoprotectant accrual in anticipation of and in response to freezing have been greatly enhanced and contribute to extreme freeze tolerance in northern R. sylvatica. PMID:25688861

  13. Tissue distribution, elimination and metabolism of [3H]-leukotriene C4 in the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, C A; Furilla, R A; Gronert, K; Goss, D D; Romig, K E; Herman, C A

    1993-03-01

    Tissue distribution, elimination, and metabolism of [3H]-leukotriene C4 were studied at 2.5 hours after injection in the conscious and anesthetized American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Conscious frogs were injected via the dorsal lymph sac or the sciatic vein. Anesthetized frogs were injected via the abdominal vein. The organs containing the greatest percent of injected radioactivity at 2.5 hours after injection were liver, small intestine and kidney. Route of injection and anesthesia appears to alter distribution and elimination of leukotrienes. [3H]-leukotrienes were eliminated into bladder water and bile. In addition, 7.8 +/- 2.2 and 5.2 +/- 2.5 percent of the injected radioactivity was found in the pan water bathing the ventral surface of the venously and dorsally injected conscious frogs, respectively, suggesting transfer of radioactivity across the skin. At 2.5 hours, polar metabolites represented 50% of the radioactivity found in liver, bile, and bladder water. These polar metabolites were determined to be 18-carboxy-19,20-dinor-leukotriene E4, 20-carboxy-leukotriene E4, and 20-hydroxy-leukotriene E4. Of the non-oxidized leukotrienes, bile contained mainly LTD4 while bladder water contained primarily LTE4. N-acetyl LTE4 was not detected in any samples. The tissue distribution, elimination and metabolism of leukotrienes in the bullfrog was similar to mammalian studies and suggests evolutionary conservation of leukotriene processing.

  14. Implications of spatial genetic patterns for conserving African leopards.

    PubMed

    Ropiquet, Anne; Knight, Andrew T; Born, Céline; Martins, Quinton; Balme, Guy; Kirkendall, Lawrence; Hunter, Luke; Senekal, Charl; Matthee, Conrad A

    2015-11-01

    The leopard (Panthera pardus) is heavily persecuted in areas where it predates livestock and threatens human well-being. Attempts to resolve human-leopard conflict typically involve translocating problem animals; however, these interventions are rarely informed by genetic studies and can unintentionally compromise the natural spatial genetic structure and diversity, and possibly the long-term persistence, of the species. No significant genetic discontinuities were definable within the southern African leopard population. Analysis of fine-scale genetic data derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed that the primary natural process shaping the spatial genetic structure of the species is isolation-by-distance (IBD). The effective gene dispersal (σ) index can inform leopard translocations and is estimated to be 82 km for some South African leopards. The importance of adopting an evidence-based strategy is discussed for supporting the integration of genetic data, spatial planning and social learning institutions so as to promote collaboration between land managers, government agency staff and researchers. PMID:26321316

  15. Implications of spatial genetic patterns for conserving African leopards.

    PubMed

    Ropiquet, Anne; Knight, Andrew T; Born, Céline; Martins, Quinton; Balme, Guy; Kirkendall, Lawrence; Hunter, Luke; Senekal, Charl; Matthee, Conrad A

    2015-11-01

    The leopard (Panthera pardus) is heavily persecuted in areas where it predates livestock and threatens human well-being. Attempts to resolve human-leopard conflict typically involve translocating problem animals; however, these interventions are rarely informed by genetic studies and can unintentionally compromise the natural spatial genetic structure and diversity, and possibly the long-term persistence, of the species. No significant genetic discontinuities were definable within the southern African leopard population. Analysis of fine-scale genetic data derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed that the primary natural process shaping the spatial genetic structure of the species is isolation-by-distance (IBD). The effective gene dispersal (σ) index can inform leopard translocations and is estimated to be 82 km for some South African leopards. The importance of adopting an evidence-based strategy is discussed for supporting the integration of genetic data, spatial planning and social learning institutions so as to promote collaboration between land managers, government agency staff and researchers.

  16. Molecular evidence for species-level distinctions in clouded leopards.

    PubMed

    Buckley-Beason, Valerie A; Johnson, Warren E; Nash, Willliam G; Stanyon, Roscoe; Menninger, Joan C; Driscoll, Carlos A; Howard, JoGayle; Bush, Mitch; Page, John E; Roelke, Melody E; Stone, Gary; Martelli, Paolo P; Wen, Ci; Ling, Lin; Duraisingam, Ratna K; Lam, Phan V; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2006-12-01

    Among the 37 living species of Felidae, the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is generally classified as a monotypic genus basal to the Panthera linea