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Sample records for lepidoptera nymphalidae heliconiinae

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of butterflies of the tribe Acraeini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) and the evolution of host plant use.

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Wahlberg, Niklas; Francini, Ronaldo Bastos; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Brown, Keith S; Paluch, Márlon; Lees, David C; Freitas, André V L

    2008-02-01

    The tribe Acraeini (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) is believed to comprise between one and seven genera, with the greatest diversity in Africa. The genera Abananote, Altinote, and Actinote (s. str.) are distributed in the Neotropics, while the genera Acraea, Bematistes, Miyana, and Pardopsis have a Palaeotropical distribution. The monotypic Pardopsis use herbaceous plants of the family Violaceae, Acraea and Bematistes feed selectively on plants with cyanoglycosides belonging to many plant families, but preferentially to Passifloraceae, and all Neotropical species with a known life cycle feed on Asteraceae only. Here, a molecular phylogeny is proposed for the butterflies of the tribe Acraeini based on sequences of COI, EF-1alpha and wgl. Both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analyses showed that the tribe is monophyletic, once the genus Pardopsis is excluded, since it appears to be related to Argynnini. The existing genus Acraea is a paraphyletic group with regard to the South American genera, and the species of Acraea belonging to the group of "Old World Actinote" is the sister group of the Neotropical genera. The monophyly of South American clade is strongly supported, suggesting a single colonization event of South America. The New World Actinote (s. str.) is monophyletic, and sister to Abananote+Altinote (polyphyletic). Based on the present results it was possible to propose a scenario for the evolution in host plant use within Acraeini, mainly concerning the use of Asteraceae by the South American genera.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Triphysa phryne (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gan, Shanshan; Zuo, Ni; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Ying; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Triphysa phryne (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) was determined in this study. The mitogenome is 15,143 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 putative protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene content and order are identical to those of other lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI gene which uses CGA as its start codon. Nine PCGs terminate in the common stop TAA, whereas the COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 genes end with single T. All tRNA genes showed typical secondary cloverleaf structures except for the tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which has a simple loop with the absence of its DHU stem. The 316 bp AT-rich region contains several features common to the other lepidopterans, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 19-bp poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (TA)8(AT) and (TA)4 elements preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Melanargia asiatica (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Dunyuan; Hao, Jiasheng; Zhang, Wei; Su, Tianjuan; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Melanargia asiatica (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). The entire closed circular molecule is 15,142 bp long, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with the typical start codons ATN, with the exception of cox1, which uses CGA instead. Nine PCGs use the conventional stop codons (TAA) and the other four genes (cox1, cox2, nad4 and nad5) use a single T as the stop codon. All tRNA genes display typical secondary cloverleaf structures, except for trnS1 (AGN), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is replaced by a simple loop, as observed in all other lepidopterans. The AT-rich region is 319 bp in length and contains some features characteristic of lepidopterans, such as the ATAGA motif followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like repeat of (TA)6T(TA) preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Callerebia suroia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Qinghui; Zhang, Wei; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Callerebia suroia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) was determined and analyzed in this paper. The circular genome is 15,208 bp long, including 37 typical mitochondrial genes and one non-coding AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) started with ATN, except for COI gene with CGA(R), which is often found in other butterflies; nine PCGs harbor the typical stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 end with a single T. All tRNA genes display typical secondary clover-leaf structures, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is replaced by a simple loop. The lrRNA and srRNA genes are 1,347 bp and 753 bp in length, with their AT contents of 84.4% and 85.4%, respectively. The 417 bp AT-rich region contains non repetitive sequences, but harbor several features common to the lepidopterans, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Shan-Shan; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Gai, Yong-Hua; Hao, Jia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae) was determined. The 15,236 bp long genome encodes 13 putative proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 tRNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene arrangement pattern is identical to most of other lepidopteran species. All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon with the exception of COI gene which uses CGA as its initial codon; all PCGs terminate in the common stop TAA or TAG, except COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 which use single T as their stop codons. A total of 102 bp intergenic spacers and a total of 33 bp overlapping sequences are interspersed throughout the whole genome. The mitogenome harbors 22 txRNAs as those of most insect species and all tRNA genes evidence the typical clover leaf secondary structures with the exception of tRNAser (AGN) who loses its dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The lrRNA and srRNA genes are 1339 and 783 bp, with the AT contents of 84.1 and 84.8%, respectively. The non-coding AT-rich region is 418 bp long, and contains the motif ATAGA followed by a 21-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)9 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  6. A new species of solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from caterpillars of toxic butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Scott R; Jones, Guinevere Z

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae.

  7. Chromosomal evolution in the South American Nymphalidae.

    PubMed

    Brown, Keith S; Freitas, André Victor Lucci; Wahlberg, Niklas; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O; Saura, Anssi

    2007-09-01

    We give the chromosome numbers of about 80 species or subspecies of Biblidinae as well as of numbers of neotropical Libytheinae (one species), Cyrestinae (4) Apaturinae (7), Nymphalinae (about 40), Limenitidinae (16) and Heliconiinae (11). Libytheana has about n=32, the Biblidinae, Apaturinae and Nymphalinae have in general n=31, the Limenitidinae have n=30, the few Argynnini n=31 and the few species of Acraeni studied have also mostly n=31. The results agree with earlier data from the Afrotropical species of these taxa. We supplement these data with our earlier observations on Heliconiini, Danainae and the Neotropical Satyroid taxa. The lepidopteran modal n=29-31 represents clearly the ancestral condition among the Nymphalidae, from which taxa with various chromosome numbers have differentiated. The overall results show that Neotropical taxa have a tendency to evolve karyotype instability, which is in stark contrast to the otherwise stable chromosome numbers that characterize both Lepidoptera and Trichoptera.

  8. Light habitats and the role of polarized iridescence in the sensory ecology of neotropical nymphalid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jonathan M; Cronin, Thomas W; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2007-03-01

    The exploitation of polarized light may increase perceived visual contrast independent of spectrum and intensity and thus have adaptive value in forest habitats, where illumination varies greatly in brightness and spectral properties. Here we investigate the extent to which Costa Rican butterflies of the family Nymphalidae exhibit polarized wing reflectance and evaluate the types of habitats in which the trait is commonly found. We also examine the degree of polarized reflectance of wing patterns in representative species belonging to the nymphalid subfamilies Charaxinae, Heliconiinae, Morphinae and Nymphalinae. Polarized reflectance was evaluated using museum specimens illuminated with a light source that simulated the spectrum of ambient sunlight and viewed through a polarized filter. Of the 144 species examined, 75 species exhibited polarized reflectance patterns. These species were significantly more likely to occupy forest habitats than open habitats. A concentrated changes test performed on a phylogeny of the Nymphalidae, with the Papilionidae as an outgroup, provides further support for the correlated evolution of polarized iridescence and life in a forest light environment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the production and detection of polarized light may have adaptive communicative value in those species inhabiting forest habitats with complex light conditions. The potential utility of polarized iridescence and iridescent wing coloration within differing ambient spectral environments is discussed to provide a basis for future investigation of the polarized light ecology of butterflies.

  9. The “Taygetis ypthima species group” (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae): taxonomy, variation and description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Zacca, Thamara; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Freitas, André Victor Lucci; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d’Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided. PMID:24363572

  10. That awkward age for butterflies: insights from the age of the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Niklas

    2006-10-01

    The study of the historical biogeography of butterflies has been hampered by a lack of well-resolved phylogenies and a good estimate of the temporal span over which butterflies have evolved. Recently there has been surge of phylogenetic hypotheses for various butterfly groups, but estimating ages of divergence is still in its infancy for this group of insects. The main problem has been the sparse fossil record for butterflies. In this study I have used a surprisingly good fossil record for the subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) to estimate the ages of diversification of major lineages using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. I have investigated the effects of varying priors on posterior estimates in the analyses. For this data set, it is clear that the prior of the rate of molecular evolution at the ingroup node had the largest effect on the results. Taking this into account, I have been able to arrive at a plausible history of lineage splits, which appears to be correlated with known paleogeological events. The subfamily appears to have diversified soon after the K/T event about 65 million years ago. Several splits are coincident with major paleogeological events, such as the connection of the African and Asian continents about 21 million years ago and the presence of a peninsula of land connecting the current Greater Antilles to the South American continent 35 to 33 million years ago. My results suggest that the age of Nymphalidae is older than the 70 million years speculated to be the age of butterflies as a whole.

  11. [Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo Sabaté, David; Luis Martínez, Moisés Armando

    2013-09-01

    Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas. Butterflies constitute an useful group to investigate biodiversity patterns in specific geographic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the altitudinal patterns distribution and to recognize the main grouping factors of these families. We conducted a comparative study between the butterfly fauna (Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae) of five Mexican mountain ranges (Sierra de Manantlán, Sierra de Atoyac de Alvarez, Loxicha Region, Teocelo-Xalapa and Sierra de Juárez), that included 34 sites of altitudinal ranges from 100 to 2 820m. Data was obtained from the Zoology Museum of the National University of Mexico, and comprised more than 60 000 butterfly records of 398 taxa (subspecies level) proceeding during the last 35 years. Fauna similarity between localities were analyzed using a cluster analysis by Sorensen similarity coefficient. Species richness showed a general tendency to decrease with altitude; the main difference was found between the locality with higher altitude and the rest of the sites. The principal factors affecting the identified clusters followed this order: the location in Pacific or Atlantic slope, and location on a particular mountain range. Three altitudinal levels (low elevations, up to 1 200m; intermediate elevations, from 1200 to 1800 m; and high elevations, from 1800 to 2500 m) were described in accordance to their main characteristic taxa. While Neartic elements were common in the highest altitudinal floor, Neotropical taxa were common in the lowest one. It was more difficult to characterize the intermediate level in which a high number of localities were clustered; this intermediate level was characterized by the presence of some endemic species. The results suggest that historical factors are preeminent in butterfly fauna composition in these areas. Future studies may include other Mexican mountain areas to obtain

  12. A new species of Parapanteles Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) parasitic on Charaxes athamas (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Khot, Rahul; Chorge, Sachin

    2014-07-01

    A new species of gregarious endoparasitoid, Parapanteles athamasae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitising caterpillars of Charaxes athamas (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on the host plant Senegalia catechu (=Acacia catechu) (L.f.) Hurter & Mabb., is described from Maharashtra, India. Diagnostic characters of the new species include: propodeum with areola 0.93× longer than wide, legs yellow, hind tibia 4.30× as long as ovipositor, ovipositor sheaths exerted, first metasomal tergal plate 1.24× longer than wide, with coarse sculpture merging with longitudinal striations at 3/4 of the apical region. This is the first time a species of the family Nymphalidae Rafinesque is recorded in association with Parapanteles Ashmead, 1900. A key to the Indian species of Parapanteles based on females is also provided.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Common Evening Brown, Melanitis leda Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Qing-Hui; Zhao, Fang; Hao, Jia-Sheng; Yang, Qun

    2013-10-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Melanitis leda (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) is a circular molecule of 15,122 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 control region, known in insects as the AT-rich region. Its gene content and order are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other butterfly species. A total of 97 bp of intergenic spacers are interspersed in 11 regions, ranging in size from 1 to 45 bp. The 314-bp-long AT-rich region is the smallest of all the butterfly corresponding regions available and contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other butterfly mitogenomes, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)6 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sasakia funebris (Leech) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and comparison with other Apaturinae insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju Ping; Cao, Tian Wen; Xuan, Shan Bin; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Min; Ma, En bo

    2013-09-10

    Sasakia funebris, a member of the lepidopteran family, Nymphalidae (superfamily Papilionoidea) is a rare species and is found only in some areas of South China. In this study, the 15,233 bp long complete mitochondrial genome of S. funebris was determined, and harbors the gene arrangement identical to all other sequenced lepidopteran insects. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A+T biased, accounting for 81.2%. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with typical ATN codons, except for COI which begins with the CGA codon. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for tRNASer(AGN), the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of which forms a simple loop. The S. funebris A+T-rich region of 370 bp contains several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch, and two tandem repeats consisting of 18 bp repeat units and 14 bp repeat units. The phylogenetic analyses of Apaturinae based on mitogenome sequences showed: (S. funebris+Sasakia charonda)+(Apatura metis+Apatura ilia). This result is consistent with the morphological classification.

  15. Genetic structure of Proclossiana eunomia populations at the regional scale (Lepidoptera, nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Nève, G; Barascud, B; Descimon, H; Baguette, M

    2000-06-01

    Populations of Proclossiana eunomia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) occur in middle Europe in patchy habitats of hay meadows along valleys or peat bogs. Samples of P. eunomia populations from the Ardennes region (northern France and southern Belgium) were analysed by allozyme electrophoresis. Patches isolated by more than 2 km of mature forests proved genetically distinct from their neighbouring populations. Mantel tests and regression analysis showed that the degree of genetic differentiation between the 26 studied populations is related to the geographical distances between them. Autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I ) showed that allele frequencies are positively correlated for populations up to 13 km apart and that the genetic neighbourhood of individuals is in the range of 0.9 km, which is in accordance with movement studies in this species conducted in the same area. Analysis using Wright's F-statistics revealed that the highest differentiation occurs between populations of the same subregion, whereas the whole Ardennes region is not genetically partitioned into subregions. This is probably because the connectivity of the network of suitable habitats has significantly weakened only since the 1950s, and thus subregional differentiation has not yet occurred.

  16. Red & black or black & white? Phylogeny of the Araschnia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and evolution of seasonal polyphenism.

    PubMed

    Fric, Z; Konvicka, M; Zrzavy, J

    2004-03-01

    Phylogeny of the butterfly genera Araschnia, Mynes, Symbrenthia and Brensymthia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalini) is reconstructed, based on 140 morphological and ecological characters. The resulting tree shows that Araschnia is a sister group of the clade including Symbrenthia, Mynes and Brensymthia (Symbrenthia is paraphyletic in the respect of remaining genera; Symbrenthia hippalus is a derived species of Mynes). The species-level relationships within Araschnia are robustly supported as follows: (A. davidis (prorsoides ((zhangi doris) (dohertyi (levana burejana))))). Analysis of the wing colour-pattern characters linked with the seasonal polyphenism in the Araschnia species suggests that the black and white coloration of the long-day (summer) generation is apomorphic. Biogeographically, the origin of polyphenism in Araschnia predates the dispersal of some Araschnia species towards the Palaearctic temperate zone, and the ecological cause of the polyphenism itself is then probably not linked with thermoregulation. The possible mimetic/cryptic scenarios for the origin of Araschnia polyphenism are discussed.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the gut metagenome of overwintering monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae).

    PubMed

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-12-01

    We present a 15,314 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence from monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico. The complete mitogenome was generated by next generation sequencing techniques and was reconstructed by iterative assembly of reads from a metagenomic study of pooled butterfly gut DNA. The mitogenome codes for 13 putative protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, the large and small rRNA genes, and contains the A + T-rich sequence corresponding to the control region. The consensus sequence presented here has a depth of coverage of 142-fold and only three putative single nucleotide polymorphisms could be detected. The recovered D. plexippus mitogenome represents the second analyzed for the subfamily Danainae and accordingly, the closest available sequenced mitogenome was found to be the one corresponding to Euploea mulciber (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae).

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Euripus nyctelius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Xuan, Shanbin; Song, Fan; Cao, Liangming; Wang, Juping; Li, Hu; Cao, Tianwen

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the butterfly, Euripus nyctelius, was determined in the present study. The mitogenome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 15,417 bp, containing 37 genes and a putative control region. Thirteen protein-coding genes all initiate with ATN codons and mostly terminate with TAA or TAG codons except for COII, ND4 and ND5 use a single T residue as the termination codon. All tRNAs have the classic clover-leaf structure, except that the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNA(Ser(AGN)) forms a simple loop. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses support the monophyly of butterflies and recover high supports for the following family level relationships: (Papilionidae + (Hesperioidea +(Pieridae (Lycaenidae + Nymphalidae)))). Euripus nycteliusis is placed as sister to the genus Sasakia within Nymphalidae.

  19. The South Temperate Pronophilina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae): a phylogenetic hypothesis, redescriptions and revisionary notes.

    PubMed

    Matz, Jess; Brower, Andrew V Z

    2016-06-15

    Phylogenetic analysis of the south-temperate members of Pronophilina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) using mitochondrial and nuclear gene data corroborated monophyly of the clade and provided a framework for its systematic revision based on morphology. Of the 19 genera, 8 have been synonymized with 16 new combinations: Cosmosatyrus stelligera n. comb., C. dubii n. comb., Neomaenas tristis n. comb., Neosatyrus boisduvalii n. comb., N. humilis n. comb., N. schajovskoii n. comb., N. vesagus n. comb., Punargentus chiliensis n. comb., P. lamna cuzcoensis n. comb., P. monticolens n. comb., P. tandilensis n. comb., Pampasatyrus edmondsii n. comb., P. gustavi n. comb., Tetraphlebia eleates n. comb.,T. leucoglene n. comb., and T. patagonica n. comb. Neomaenas poliozona eustephanos nom. nov., stat. nov. has been raised to a valid subspecies. Neomaenas monachus limonias and Pampasatyrus gustavi penai have been demoted to subspecies and Auca nycteropus and A. pales have been synonymized with A. coctei. The phylogenetic placement of Neomaniola euripides, not formally revised here, is discussed.

  20. Complete genome sequence and structural characterization of a novel iflavirus isolated from Opsiphanes invirae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonardo A; Ardisson-Araujo, Daniel M P; Tinoco, Ricardo S; Fernandes, Odair A; Melo, Fernando L; Ribeiro, Bergmann M

    2015-09-01

    Opsiphanes invirae (Lepidopera: Nymphalidae) is a common pest of the African oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) in Brazil. Dead larvae were collected in canopy of oil palm trees cultivated in the amazon region (Para State) and analyzed for viral infection. Electron microscopy of caterpillar extracts showed an icosahedral picorna-like virus particle with 30nm in diameter. Total RNA extracted from partially purified virus particles was sequenced. A contig of 10,083 nucleotides (nt) was identified and showed to encode one single predicted polyprotein with 3185 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the new virus was closely related to another lepidopteran infective virus Spodoptera exigua iflavirus 1(SeIV-1), with 35% amino acid pairwise identity. The novel virus fulfils all ICTV requirements for a new iflavirus species and was named Opsiphanes invirae Iflavirus 1 (OilV-1).

  1. Complete mitogenome of the Lesser Purple Emperor Apatura ilia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Apaturinae) and comparison with other nymphalid butterflies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Tian, Li-Li; Shi, Qing-Hui; Cao, Tian-Wen; Hao, Jia-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Apatura ilia (GenBank accession no. JF437925) was determined as a circular DNA molecule of 15 242 bp, with common genes of 13 putative proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs and of the same gene arrangement as in other sequenced lepidopterans. All protein-coding genes had the typical start codon ATN, except for the COI's using CGA as its start codon as previously demonstrated in other lepidopteran species. The comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the A. ilia mitogenome with ten other Nymphalidae species showed nearly identical gene orientation and arrangement, with only a few alterations in non-coding fragments. The nucleotide composition and codon frequency all fell into the range estimated for the order Lepidoptera. The A. ilia mitochondrial genome had the canonical set of 22 tRNA genes folded in the typical cloverleaf structure, with an unique exception of tRNA(Ser) (AGN). The mitochondrial genes from A. ilia were overlapped in a total of 33 bp at 9 locations, as well as interleaved with a total of 155 bp intergenic spacers, spread over 12 regions with the size ranging from 1 to 49 bp. Furthermore, the spacer between ND6 and Cyt b harbored a microsatellite-like repeat (TA)(23) not found in other completely sequenced nymphalid genomes. The 403 bp AT-rich region harbored two conserved motifs (ATAGA, ATTTA), a 21 bp polyT stretch, a 10 bp poly-A region, along with two microsatellite-like repeats ( (TA)(10) and (TA)(7)), as detected in other nymphalid butterflies.

  2. Geographical variation in larval host-plant use by Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and consequences for adult life history.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, D; Moreira, G R P

    2002-05-01

    Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae) used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Aguas Belas Experimental Station-Viamão County), one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park-Itapuã County) and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station-Maquiné County). Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this character is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.

  3. Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.

    PubMed

    Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, André Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

    2014-04-01

    The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Apatura metis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Nie, Xinping; Cao, Tianwen; Wang, Juping; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xiaonan; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo; Zhong, Yang

    2012-06-01

    As an important pest in the Slender Leaved Willow (Salix alba), Apatura metis is called Freyer's purple emperor, and its mitochondrial genome is 15,236 bp long. The encoded genes for 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA (rrnL and rrnS) genes, and 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and a control region in the A. metis mitochondria are highly homologous to other lepidopteran species. The mitochondrial genome of A. metis is biased toward a high A + T content (A + T = 80.5%). All protein-coding genes, except for COI begins with the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans, start with a typical ATN initiation codon. All tRNAs show the classic clover-leaf structure, except that the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNA(Ser(AGN)) forms a simple loop. The A. metis A + T-rich region contains some conserved structures including a structure combining the motif 'ATAGA' and 19 bp poly (T) stretch, which is similar to those found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analyses of lepidopterans based on mitogenomes sequences demonstrate that each of the six superfamilies is monophyletic, and the relationship among them is (((Noctuoidea + (Geometroidea + Bombycoidea)) + Pyraloidea) + Papilionoidea) + Tortricoidea. In Papilionoidea group, our conclusion argues that ((Lycaenidae + Pieridae) + Nymphalidae) + Papilionidae.

  5. Phylogenetic utility of ribosomal genes for reconstructing the phylogeny of five Chinese satyrine tribes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA) and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb). We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa. PMID:25878526

  6. Systematic revision and review of the extant and fossil snout butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Libytheinae).

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y

    2013-01-01

    Extant and fossil genera and species in the Libytheinae (Nymphalidae) are revised and reviewed. The Libytheinae includes two genera: Libythea Fabricius and Libytheana Michener. Fifteen species and an additional 24 subspecies are recognized and 41 names are synonymized. Species recognized are: Libythea celtis (Laicharting), L. collenettei Riley, L. cinyras Trimen revised status, L. geoffroyi Godart, L. labdaca Westwood, L. laius Trimen, L. lepita Moore, L. myrrha Godart, L. narina Godart, Libytheana carinenta (Cramer), L. florissanti (Scudder), L. fulvescens (Lathy), L. motya (Hübner), L. terena (Godart), and L. vagabunda (Scudder). New synonymies that are established for Libythea celtis (Laicharting [1782]) include: Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. obscura Millière 1879 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis f. denudata Dannehl 1925 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis f. separata Dannehl 1925 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis livida Saggara 1926 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. albonervulata Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. latefulva Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. obscurenervulata Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. pallida Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. pygmaea Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. rubescens Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. subochracea Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. violacea Verity 1950 syn. nov.; and Libythea celtis platooni Korb 2005 syn. nov. Synonyms of Libythea geoffroyi geoffroyi Godart 1822 include: Libythea antipoda Boisduval, 1859 syn. nov.; Libythea orientalis Godman and Salvin, 1888 syn. nov.; Libythea hauxwelli Moore, 1901 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) geoffroy var. sumbensis Pagenstecher, 1901 syn. nov.; Libythea geoffroy deminuta Fruhstorfer, 1909 syn. nov.; and Libythea geoffroy maenia Fruhstorfer, 1909 syn. nov. Libythea batchiana Wallace 1869 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea geoffroyi ceramensis Wallace 1869

  7. Comparisons of genetic diversity in captive versus wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.; Pratt, Gordon F.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Captive populations can play a significant role in threatened and endangered species management. An important consideration when developing and managing captive populations, however, is the maintenance of genetic diversity to ensure that adequate variation exists to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding. In this investigation, we compared genetic diversity patterns within captive and wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]), a taxon with a restricted distribution to chaparral and sage shrublands within Riverside and San Diego counties, California. Our analyses revealed that medium to high-frequency alleles from the wild populations were also present in the captive populations. While there was no significant difference in genetic diversity as quantified by expected heterozygosity, the captive populations showed tendencies toward significantly lower allelic richness than their wild counterparts. Given that alleles from the wild populations were occasionally not detected in captive populations, periodic incorporation of new wild specimens into the captive population would help ensure that allelic diversity is maintained to the extent possible. If performed in advance, genetic surveys of wild populations may provide the clearest insights regarding the number of individuals needed in captivity to adequately reflect wild populations.

  8. Description of a New Species of the Andean Butterfly Genus Forsterinaria Gray (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Considerations on an Apparently New Structure in Male Genitalia.

    PubMed

    Zubek, A; Pyrcz, T W; Boyer, P

    2014-02-01

    The butterfly genus Forsterinaria Gray is the only strictly montane representative of the diverse Neotropical subtribe Euptychiina (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), with 24 described species. Recent research in some of the most isolated and highly diverse Andean regions, such as central Peru, show that its total species richness is still underestimated. An example is the new species described here, Forsterinaria emo n. sp., which is particularly interesting because of an unusual structure discovered in its male genitalia which consists of a bunch of bristle-like processes, composing a fringe-like formation on the dorsum of the tegumen. No similar, homologous structure was found in any congener, nor indeed, in any species of diurnal Lepidoptera. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed that the microstructure of the processes resembles a membrane lining the tegumen. Its function is unknown but two hypotheses are discussed based on a comparative study with other genital structures of butterflies. We argue that it may help stabilizing the partners in the process of mating or it may serve as a 'mating plug', preventing the female from multiple copulations.

  9. Morphological characters are compatible with mitogenomic data in resolving the phylogeny of nymphalid butterflies (lepidoptera: papilionoidea: nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Qing-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yun-Liang; Hao, Jia-Sheng; Yang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Nymphalidae is the largest family of butterflies with their phylogenetic relationships not adequately approached to date. The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of 11 new nymphalid species were reported and a comparative mitogenomic analysis was conducted together with other 22 available nymphalid mitogenomes. A phylogenetic analysis of the 33 species from all 13 currently recognized nymphalid subfamilies was done based on the mitogenomic data set with three Lycaenidae species as the outgroups. The mitogenome comparison showed that the eleven new mitogenomes were similar with those of other butterflies in gene content and order. The reconstructed phylogenetic trees reveal that the nymphalids are made up of five major clades (the nymphaline, heliconiine, satyrine, danaine and libytheine clades), with sister relationship between subfamilies Cyrestinae and Biblidinae, and most likely between subfamilies Morphinae and Satyrinae. This whole mitogenome-based phylogeny is generally congruent with those of former studies based on nuclear-gene and mitogenomic analyses, but differs considerably from the result of morphological cladistic analysis, such as the basal position of Libytheinae in morpho-phylogeny is not confirmed in molecular studies. However, we found that the mitogenomic phylogeny established herein is compatible with selected morphological characters (including developmental and adult morpho-characters).

  10. Morphological Characters Are Compatible with Mitogenomic Data in Resolving the Phylogeny of Nymphalid Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea: Nymphalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qing-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yun-Liang; Hao, Jia-Sheng; Yang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Nymphalidae is the largest family of butterflies with their phylogenetic relationships not adequately approached to date. The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of 11 new nymphalid species were reported and a comparative mitogenomic analysis was conducted together with other 22 available nymphalid mitogenomes. A phylogenetic analysis of the 33 species from all 13 currently recognized nymphalid subfamilies was done based on the mitogenomic data set with three Lycaenidae species as the outgroups. The mitogenome comparison showed that the eleven new mitogenomes were similar with those of other butterflies in gene content and order. The reconstructed phylogenetic trees reveal that the nymphalids are made up of five major clades (the nymphaline, heliconiine, satyrine, danaine and libytheine clades), with sister relationship between subfamilies Cyrestinae and Biblidinae, and most likely between subfamilies Morphinae and Satyrinae. This whole mitogenome-based phylogeny is generally congruent with those of former studies based on nuclear-gene and mitogenomic analyses, but differs considerably from the result of morphological cladistic analysis, such as the basal position of Libytheinae in morpho-phylogeny is not confirmed in molecular studies. However, we found that the mitogenomic phylogeny established herein is compatible with selected morphological characters (including developmental and adult morpho-characters). PMID:25860387

  11. Effect of Bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the Peacock butterfly (Inachis io) (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Felke, Martin; Langenbruch, Gustav-Adolf; Feiertag, Simon; Kassa, Adane

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years after registration of the first Bt maize cultivar in Europe, there still exists a remarkable lack of data on effects on Lepidoptera which would be necessary for a complete and comprehensive environmental risk assessment. So far only very few European butterfly species have been tested in this aspect. In our study the effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize pollen (event Bt-176) on the development and survival of neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly, Inachis io (L.) was for the first time shown. The results of our study suggest that the Peacock butterfly may serve as a model organism for assessing potential side effects of new developed transgenic Bt crops on non-target butterflies in a GMO environmental risk assessment. The study was done under laboratory conditions by exposing larvae of the Peacock butterfly to various pollen doses of transgenic maize event Bt-176 (cv. PACTOL CB) or the conventional isogenic maize (cv. PACTOL) using a no-choice test. Larvae feeding for 48 h on nettle plants (Urtica dioica) that were contaminated with higher pollen concentrations from Bt-176 maize (205 and 388 applied pollen.cm⁻²) suffered a significantly higher mortality rate (68 and 85% respectively) compared to larvae feeding on leaves with no pollen (11%), or feeding on leaves with pollen from conventional maize (6 to 25%). At lower Bt maize pollen doses (23-104 applied pollen.cm⁻²),mortality ranged from 11-25% and there were no apparent differences among treatments. The corresponding LC₅₀-and LC₉₀-values for neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly were 187 and 448 applied pollen grains.cm⁻² of Bt-176, respectively.Weight of larvae surviving consumption of Bt-176 maize pollen declined between 10 and 81% with increased pollen doses (r = -0.95). The highest weight reduction (81%) corresponded to the highest pollen concentration (388 pollen grains applied.cm⁻²). Ingestion of pollen from the conventional maize hybrid did not

  12. Effect of Bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the Peacock butterfly (Inachis io) (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Felke, Martin; Langenbruch, Gustav-Adolf; Feiertag, Simon; Kassa, Adane

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years after registration of the first Bt maize cultivar in Europe, there still exists a remarkable lack of data on effects on Lepidoptera which would be necessary for a complete and comprehensive environmental risk assessment. So far only very few European butterfly species have been tested in this aspect. In our study the effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize pollen (event Bt-176) on the development and survival of neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly, Inachis io (L.) was for the first time shown. The results of our study suggest that the Peacock butterfly may serve as a model organism for assessing potential side effects of new developed transgenic Bt crops on non-target butterflies in a GMO environmental risk assessment. The study was done under laboratory conditions by exposing larvae of the Peacock butterfly to various pollen doses of transgenic maize event Bt-176 (cv. PACTOL CB) or the conventional isogenic maize (cv. PACTOL) using a no-choice test. Larvae feeding for 48 h on nettle plants (Urtica dioica) that were contaminated with higher pollen concentrations from Bt-176 maize (205 and 388 applied pollen.cm⁻²) suffered a significantly higher mortality rate (68 and 85% respectively) compared to larvae feeding on leaves with no pollen (11%), or feeding on leaves with pollen from conventional maize (6 to 25%). At lower Bt maize pollen doses (23-104 applied pollen.cm⁻²),mortality ranged from 11-25% and there were no apparent differences among treatments. The corresponding LC₅₀-and LC₉₀-values for neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly were 187 and 448 applied pollen grains.cm⁻² of Bt-176, respectively.Weight of larvae surviving consumption of Bt-176 maize pollen declined between 10 and 81% with increased pollen doses (r = -0.95). The highest weight reduction (81%) corresponded to the highest pollen concentration (388 pollen grains applied.cm⁻²). Ingestion of pollen from the conventional maize hybrid did not

  13. Species richness and relative species abundance of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in three forests with different perturbations in the North-Central Caribbean of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Carolyn; Sánchez, Ragde

    2014-09-01

    Measurements of species richness and species abundance can have important implications for regulations and conservation. This study investigated species richness and abundance of butterflies in the family Nymphalidae at undisturbed, and disturbed habitats in Tirimbina Biological Reserve and Nogal Private Reserve, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Traps baited with rotten banana were placed in the canopy and the understory of three habitats: within mature forest, at a river/forest border, and at a banana plantation/forest border. In total, 71 species and 487 individuals were caught and identified during May and June 2011 and May 2013. Species richness and species abundance were found to increase significantly at perturbed habitats (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). The edge effect, in which species richness and abundance increase due to greater complementary resources from different habitats, could be one possible explanation for increased species richness and abundance. PMID:25412524

  14. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  15. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-06

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  16. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    SciTech Connect

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  17. Greater host breadth still not associated with increased diversification rate in the Nymphalidae-A response to Janz et al.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Christopher A; Fordyce, James A

    2016-05-01

    In their technical comment, Janz et al. take issue with our recent study examining the association between host breadth and diversification rates in the brush-footed butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) (Hamm and Fordyce 2015). Specifically, they are concerned that we misrepresent their "oscillation hypothesis" (OH) (Janz et al. 2006; Janz and Nylin 2008) and that one of our models was inadequate to test hypotheses regarding host breadth and diversification rate. Given our mutual interests in the macroevolutionary patterns of herbivorous insects, we appreciate the opportunity to respond to their concerns.

  18. Greater host breadth still not associated with increased diversification rate in the Nymphalidae-A response to Janz et al.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Christopher A; Fordyce, James A

    2016-05-01

    In their technical comment, Janz et al. take issue with our recent study examining the association between host breadth and diversification rates in the brush-footed butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) (Hamm and Fordyce 2015). Specifically, they are concerned that we misrepresent their "oscillation hypothesis" (OH) (Janz et al. 2006; Janz and Nylin 2008) and that one of our models was inadequate to test hypotheses regarding host breadth and diversification rate. Given our mutual interests in the macroevolutionary patterns of herbivorous insects, we appreciate the opportunity to respond to their concerns. PMID:27061297

  19. The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ahola, Virpi; Lehtonen, Rainer; Somervuo, Panu; Salmela, Leena; Koskinen, Patrik; Rastas, Pasi; Välimäki, Niko; Paulin, Lars; Kvist, Jouni; Wahlberg, Niklas; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Hornett, Emily A.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Luo, Shiqi; Cao, Zijuan; de Jong, Maaike A.; Duplouy, Anne; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Vogel, Heiko; McCoy, Rajiv C.; Qian, Kui; Chong, Wong Swee; Zhang, Qin; Ahmad, Freed; Haukka, Jani K.; Joshi, Aruj; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wheat, Christopher W.; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hughes, Daniel; Katainen, Riku; Pitkänen, Esa; Ylinen, Johannes; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Turunen, Mikko; Vähärautio, Anna; Ojanen, Sami P.; Schulman, Alan H.; Taipale, Minna; Lawson, Daniel; Ukkonen, Esko; Mäkinen, Veli; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri; Frilander, Mikko J.; Hanski, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths. PMID:25189940

  20. Cautery-induced colour patterns in Precis coenia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Nijhout, H F

    1985-04-01

    Cautery of the dorsal hindwing in the butterfly, Precis coenia, induces the formation of a concentric colour pattern around the site of injury. The induced pattern is identical in pigmentation to the eyespots that normally develop on this wing surface. This response to cautery also occurs, though much less dramatically, on the ventral forewing. In addition to the peculiar response to cautery, the dorsal hindwing of Precis also develops a series of unique pattern aberrations in response to coldshock. These consist of irregular elongation of the anterior eyespot along the proximodistal axis of the wing. In the most dramatic aberrations the eyespot field covers the entire anterior half of the wing surface. An analysis is presented that attempts to reconcile the effects of cautery on the Precis hindwing with the very different morphological effects of cautery on the colour pattern of Ephestia kühniella, described by Kühn & Von Engelhardt. Computer simulations reveal that the finding presented in this paper, as well as the classical work on Ephestia, can both be explained by assuming that the site of cautery becomes a sink for one of the morphogens involved in colour pattern determination. The experimental findings furthermore indicate that minor perturbations of the wing epidermis can evoke the physiological conditions that attend normal eyespot determination. It is shown that this interpretation also helps to explain the unusual pattern modifications following coldshock. PMID:4031740

  1. What is Lethe hyrania (Kollar, 1844) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)?

    PubMed

    Lang, Song-Yun; Lamas, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Known for a long time as "Lethe insana [sic] (Kollar, 1844)" (e.g. Fruhstorfer, 1911; D'Abrera, 1985), Lethe hyrania (Kollar, 1844) is a common, sexually-dimorphic, satyrine butterfly, found in the Sino-Himalayan region. Kollar (1844) described simultaneously both Satyrus isana and S. hyrania, as separate but closely related species, from northwestern India. Kollar (1844) spelt the name of the former in two different ways, as isana in the text (pp. 448, 449, 585), and as jsana in the legend for plate 16. Westwood (1851) maintained isana and hyrania as separate species but transferred them to the genus Debis Doubleday, whereas both Butler (1868) and Kirby (1871) assigned them to the genus Lethe Hübner, synonymizing isana under L. rohria (Fabricius). Moore (1882) was the first author to regard isana and hyrania as conspecific, the former representing the female sex and the latter the male, though he misspelt isana as "isania". Acting as First Reviser, Article 24.2 of ICZN (1999), Moore (1882) gave precedence to hyrania, thus the valid name for the species is Lethe hyrania. Later, Marshall & Nicéville (1883), Nicéville (1886), Doherty (1886), Elwes (1888), and Moore (1892) followed Moore's (1882) opinion, though afterwards Mackinnon & Nicéville (1897) argued that isana had priority over hyrania, based on "page precedence", ignoring Moore's (1882) previous action. Bingham (1905) was the first author to introduce the incorrect subsequent spelling "insana" and, apparently following Mackinnon & Nicéville (1897), also gave precedence to "insana" over hyrania. Most subsequent authors followed Bingham's (1905) error, and used Lethe "insana" for this species (for instance, Fruhstorfer, 1911; Evans, 1923, 1927; Gaede, 1931; Talbot, [1949]; Lesse, 1957; D'Abrera, 1985, 1990; Bozano, 1999). Except for Bozano (1999), who listed both hyrania and "insana" as valid species, without further comment, the name hyrania has been forgotten for over a hundred years. PMID:27395935

  2. What is Lethe hyrania (Kollar, 1844) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)?

    PubMed

    Lang, Song-Yun; Lamas, Gerardo

    2016-02-02

    Known for a long time as "Lethe insana [sic] (Kollar, 1844)" (e.g. Fruhstorfer, 1911; D'Abrera, 1985), Lethe hyrania (Kollar, 1844) is a common, sexually-dimorphic, satyrine butterfly, found in the Sino-Himalayan region. Kollar (1844) described simultaneously both Satyrus isana and S. hyrania, as separate but closely related species, from northwestern India. Kollar (1844) spelt the name of the former in two different ways, as isana in the text (pp. 448, 449, 585), and as jsana in the legend for plate 16. Westwood (1851) maintained isana and hyrania as separate species but transferred them to the genus Debis Doubleday, whereas both Butler (1868) and Kirby (1871) assigned them to the genus Lethe Hübner, synonymizing isana under L. rohria (Fabricius). Moore (1882) was the first author to regard isana and hyrania as conspecific, the former representing the female sex and the latter the male, though he misspelt isana as "isania". Acting as First Reviser, Article 24.2 of ICZN (1999), Moore (1882) gave precedence to hyrania, thus the valid name for the species is Lethe hyrania. Later, Marshall & Nicéville (1883), Nicéville (1886), Doherty (1886), Elwes (1888), and Moore (1892) followed Moore's (1882) opinion, though afterwards Mackinnon & Nicéville (1897) argued that isana had priority over hyrania, based on "page precedence", ignoring Moore's (1882) previous action. Bingham (1905) was the first author to introduce the incorrect subsequent spelling "insana" and, apparently following Mackinnon & Nicéville (1897), also gave precedence to "insana" over hyrania. Most subsequent authors followed Bingham's (1905) error, and used Lethe "insana" for this species (for instance, Fruhstorfer, 1911; Evans, 1923, 1927; Gaede, 1931; Talbot, [1949]; Lesse, 1957; D'Abrera, 1985, 1990; Bozano, 1999). Except for Bozano (1999), who listed both hyrania and "insana" as valid species, without further comment, the name hyrania has been forgotten for over a hundred years.

  3. Cautery-induced colour patterns in Precis coenia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Nijhout, H F

    1985-04-01

    Cautery of the dorsal hindwing in the butterfly, Precis coenia, induces the formation of a concentric colour pattern around the site of injury. The induced pattern is identical in pigmentation to the eyespots that normally develop on this wing surface. This response to cautery also occurs, though much less dramatically, on the ventral forewing. In addition to the peculiar response to cautery, the dorsal hindwing of Precis also develops a series of unique pattern aberrations in response to coldshock. These consist of irregular elongation of the anterior eyespot along the proximodistal axis of the wing. In the most dramatic aberrations the eyespot field covers the entire anterior half of the wing surface. An analysis is presented that attempts to reconcile the effects of cautery on the Precis hindwing with the very different morphological effects of cautery on the colour pattern of Ephestia kühniella, described by Kühn & Von Engelhardt. Computer simulations reveal that the finding presented in this paper, as well as the classical work on Ephestia, can both be explained by assuming that the site of cautery becomes a sink for one of the morphogens involved in colour pattern determination. The experimental findings furthermore indicate that minor perturbations of the wing epidermis can evoke the physiological conditions that attend normal eyespot determination. It is shown that this interpretation also helps to explain the unusual pattern modifications following coldshock.

  4. DNA barcoding Satyrine butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingsheng; Zhai, Qing; Yang, Zhaofu; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of the standard 648 bp mitochondrial COI barcode region in discriminating among Satyrine species from China. A total of 214 COI sequences were obtained from 90 species, including 34 species that have never been barcoded. Analyses of genetic divergence show that the mean interspecific genetic divergence is about 16-fold higher than within species, and little overlap occurs between them. Neighbour-joining (NJ) analyses showed that 48 of the 50 species with two or more individuals, including two cases with deep intraspecific divergence (>3%), are monophyletic. Furthermore, when our sequences are combined with the conspecific sequences sampled from distantly geographic regions, the "barcoding gap" still exists, and all related species are recovered to be monophyletic in NJ analysis. Our study demonstrates that COI barcoding is effective in discriminating among the satyrine species of China, and provides a reference library for their future molecular identification.

  5. The mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Polyura schreiber (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Song, Fan; Cao, Tianwen; Cao, Liangming; Li, Hu; Wang, Juping; Xuan, Shanbin

    2016-09-01

    The nearly complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the butterfly, Polyura schreiber, was determined. The sequenced mitogenome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 15 320 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 21 tRNA genes, and a putative control region. tRNA(Phe) was failed to sequence, which was presumed to be located between tRNA(Glu) and ND5. Protein-coding genes all initiate with ATN codons and terminate with TAA codons except for COII and ND5 use a single T residue as the termination codon. All tRNAs have the clover-leaf structure except for the tRNA(Ser(AGN)) and the length of them range from 65 to 71 bp. The control region is 412 bp long with an A + T content of 90.5%. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered the sister-group relationship between Charaxinae and Satyrinae.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Heliconius pachinus (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhao-Hui; Dai, Pan-Feng; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Heliconius pachinus has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The circular genome is 15,369 bp in length, and comprises the typical components: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. PCGs are mostly initiated with either the ATN codons (COII, COIII, Cytb, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, ND6, ATP6 & ATP8) or the TTG codon (ND1); the COI gene may use the unusual CGA as its initiation codon, as suggested for other lepidopteran species. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND3) or incomplete termination codon T (COI, COII & ND4), while the others use TAA as their termination codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.2% A, 42.0% T, 7.7% G, 11.1% C) with an overall GC content of 18.8%.

  7. Biology and External Morphology of the Immature Stages of the Butterfly Callicore pygas eucale, with Comments on the Taxonomy of the Genus Callicore (Nymphalidae: Biblidinae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The biology and the external morphology of the immature stages of Callicore pygas eucale (Fruhstorfer, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae) are described. Immatures were collected on Allophylus edulis (Radlkofer) (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, and reared in the laboratory. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are given based on observations through electronic, stereoscopic, and optic microscopes, the latter two attached to a camera lucida. Results are compared and discussed with the immature stages of other species of the subtribe Callicorina. Immature stages data provide further evidence that Callicore is paraphyletic and that generic limits within the Callicorina need revision. PMID:25368047

  8. Biology and external morphology of the immature stages of the butterfly Callicore pygas eucale, with comments on the taxonomy of the genus Callicore (Nymphalidae: Biblidinae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The biology and the external morphology of the immature stages of Callicore pygas eucale (Fruhstorfer, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae) are described. Immatures were collected on Allophylus edulis (Radlkofer) (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, and reared in the laboratory. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are given based on observations through electronic, stereoscopic, and optic microscopes, the latter two attached to a camera lucida. Results are compared and discussed with the immature stages of other species of the subtribe Callicorina. Immature stages data provide further evidence that Callicore is paraphyletic and that generic limits within the Callicorina need revision.

  9. Cyanogenesis-a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera?

    PubMed

    Witthohn, K; Naumann, C M

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and β-cyano-L-ala-nine synthase. We consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of β-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood. PMID:24302389

  10. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed.

  11. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed. PMID:24206568

  12. Diversification of the silverspot butterflies (Nymphalidae) in the Neotropics inferred from multi-locus DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Massardo, Darli; Fornel, Rodrigo; Kronforst, Marcus; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a diverse group of butterflies distributed throughout the Neotropics, which has been studied extensively, in particular the genus Heliconius. However, most of the other lineages, such as Dione, which are less diverse and considered basal within the group, have received little attention. Basic information, such as species limits and geographical distributions remain uncertain for this genus. Here we used multilocus DNA sequence data and the geographical distribution analysis across the entire range of Dione in the Neotropical region in order to make inferences on the evolutionary history of this poorly explored lineage. Bayesian time-tree reconstruction allows inferring two major diversification events in this tribe around 25mya. Lineages thought to be ancient, such as Dione and Agraulis, are as recent as Heliconius. Dione formed a monophyletic clade, sister to the genus Agraulis. Dione juno, D. glycera and D. moneta were reciprocally monophyletic and formed genetic clusters, with the first two more close related than each other in relation to the third. Divergence time estimates support the hypothesis that speciation in Dione coincided with both the rise of Passifloraceae (the host plants) and the uplift of the Andes. Since the sister species D. glycera and D. moneta are specialized feeders on passion-vine lineages that are endemic to areas located either within or adjacent to the Andes, we inferred that they co-speciated with their host plants during this vicariant event. PMID:25300455

  13. Diversification of the silverspot butterflies (Nymphalidae) in the Neotropics inferred from multi-locus DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Massardo, Darli; Fornel, Rodrigo; Kronforst, Marcus; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a diverse group of butterflies distributed throughout the Neotropics, which has been studied extensively, in particular the genus Heliconius. However, most of the other lineages, such as Dione, which are less diverse and considered basal within the group, have received little attention. Basic information, such as species limits and geographical distributions remain uncertain for this genus. Here we used multilocus DNA sequence data and the geographical distribution analysis across the entire range of Dione in the Neotropical region in order to make inferences on the evolutionary history of this poorly explored lineage. Bayesian time-tree reconstruction allows inferring two major diversification events in this tribe around 25mya. Lineages thought to be ancient, such as Dione and Agraulis, are as recent as Heliconius. Dione formed a monophyletic clade, sister to the genus Agraulis. Dione juno, D. glycera and D. moneta were reciprocally monophyletic and formed genetic clusters, with the first two more close related than each other in relation to the third. Divergence time estimates support the hypothesis that speciation in Dione coincided with both the rise of Passifloraceae (the host plants) and the uplift of the Andes. Since the sister species D. glycera and D. moneta are specialized feeders on passion-vine lineages that are endemic to areas located either within or adjacent to the Andes, we inferred that they co-speciated with their host plants during this vicariant event.

  14. Towards a mitogenomic phylogeny of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Lees, David C; Simonsen, Thomas J

    2014-10-01

    The backbone phylogeny of Lepidoptera remains unresolved, despite strenuous recent morphological and molecular efforts. Molecular studies have focused on nuclear protein coding genes, sometimes adding a single mitochondrial gene. Recent advances in sequencing technology have, however, made acquisition of entire mitochondrial genomes both practical and economically viable. Prior phylogenetic studies utilised just eight of 43 currently recognised lepidopteran superfamilies. Here, we add 23 full and six partial mitochondrial genomes (comprising 22 superfamilies of which 16 are newly represented) to those publically available for a total of 24 superfamilies and ask whether such a sample can resolve deeper lepidopteran phylogeny. Using recoded datasets we obtain topologies that are highly congruent with prior nuclear and/or morphological studies. Our study shows support for an expanded Obtectomera including Gelechioidea, Thyridoidea, plume moths (Alucitoidea and Pterophoroidea; possibly along with Epermenioidea), Papilionoidea, Pyraloidea, Mimallonoidea and Macroheterocera. Regarding other controversially positioned higher taxa, Doidae is supported within the new concept of Drepanoidea and Mimallonidae sister to (or part of) Macroheterocera, while among Nymphalidae butterflies, Danainae and not Libytheinae are sister to the remainder of the family. At the deepest level, we suggest that a tRNA rearrangement occurred at a node between Adeloidea and Ditrysia+Palaephatidae+Tischeriidae.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-10-10

    To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C. Longicellana is the longest in sequenced lepidopterans. C. Longicellana has the same gene order as all lepidopteran species currently available in GenBank. There are 5 overlapping regions ranging from 1bp to 8bp and 14 intergenic spacers ranging from 1bp to 48bp. In addition, there are four similar tandem macro-satellite regions with the lengths of 101bp, 98bp, 92bp, and 92bp respectively in the A+T-rich regions of C. longicellana. We sampled 89 species representing 13 superfamilies, and reconstructed their relationship among Lepidoptera by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analysis. The topology of the two phylogenetic analysis trees is identical roughly, except for Cossoidea in different locations, the positions of Cossoidea, Copromorphoidea, Gelechioidea, Zygaenoidea were not determined based the limited sampling. (Geometroidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea)) form the Macrolepidoptera "core". Pyraloidea group with the "core" Macrolepidoptera. Papilionoidea are not Macrolepidoptera. The Hesperiidae (represent Hesperioidea) is nested in the Papilionoidea, and closely related to Pieridae and Papilionidae. The well-known relationship of (Nymphalidae+(Riodinidae+Lycaenidae)) is recovered in this paper. PMID:27390085

  16. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration.

  17. Description of a new genus for Euptychia hilara (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Shinichi; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Based on external morphology, food plant records for caterpillars, and molecular analysis, Euptychia hilara (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867) is removed from Euptychia Hübner 1818. A new genus, Inbio Nakahara & Espeland gen. nov., is proposed for this taxon. Inbio hilara comb. nov. is a member of a monophyletic clade containing Cyllopsis Felder, 1869, Paramacera Butler, 1868, and Atlanteuptychia Freitas, Barbosa & Mielke, 2013, although it can be morphologically distinguished from these genera. Lectotypes for Neonympha hilara C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867 and Euptychia anacleta Butler, 1877 (a synonym of E. hilara) are designated herein. PMID:26623873

  18. Selection of Valid Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Analysis in Heliconius numata (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Whibley, Annabel; Joron, Mathieu; Llaurens, Violaine

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of adaptive variation is challenging in non-model organisms and quantitative real time PCR. is a useful tool for validating predictions regarding the expression of candidate genes. However, comparing expression levels in different conditions requires rigorous experimental design and statistical analyses. Here, we focused on the neotropical passion-vine butterflies Heliconius, non-model species studied in evolutionary biology for their adaptive variation in wing color patterns involved in mimicry and in the signaling of their toxicity to predators. We aimed at selecting stable reference genes to be used for normalization of gene expression data in RT-qPCR analyses from developing wing discs according to the minimal guidelines described in Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE). To design internal RT-qPCR controls, we studied the stability of expression of nine candidate reference genes (actin, annexin, eF1α, FK506BP, PolyABP, PolyUBQ, RpL3, RPS3A, and tubulin) at two developmental stages (prepupal and pupal) using three widely used programs (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Results showed that, despite differences in statistical methods, genes RpL3, eF1α, polyABP, and annexin were stably expressed in wing discs in late larval and pupal stages of Heliconius numata. This combination of genes may be used as a reference for a reliable study of differential expression in wings for instance for genes involved in important phenotypic variation, such as wing color pattern variation. Through this example, we provide general useful technical recommendations as well as relevant statistical strategies for evolutionary biologists aiming to identify candidate-genes involved adaptive variation in non-model organisms. PMID:27271971

  19. Evidence for the Deflective Function of Eyespots in Wild Junonia evarete Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C E G; Antezana, M A; Machado, L P

    2014-02-01

    Junonia evarete Cramer is a fast-flying butterfly that perches on the ground with wings opened exhibiting four eyespots close to wing borders. These eyespots presumably function either to intimidate predators, like insectivorous birds, or to deflect bird attacks to less vital parts of the body. We assessed the form, frequency, and location of beak marks on the wings of wild butterflies in central Brazil during two not consecutive years. We found that almost 50% of males and 80% of females bore signals of predator attacks (wing tears), most of them consisting of partially or totally V-shaped forms apparently produced by birds. Males were significantly less attacked and showed a lower proportion of attacks on eyespots than females, suggesting they are better to escape bird attacks. In contrast, females were heavily attacked on eyespots. Eyespot tears in females were higher (and significant different) than expected by chance, indicating that birds do attempt to reach the eyespots when striking on these butterflies. Other comparisons involving the proportion of tears directed or not directed to eyespots in males and females are presented and discussed.

  20. Selection of Valid Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Analysis in Heliconius numata (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Piron Prunier, Florence; Chouteau, Mathieu; Whibley, Annabel; Joron, Mathieu; Llaurens, Violaine

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of adaptive variation is challenging in non-model organisms and quantitative real time PCR. is a useful tool for validating predictions regarding the expression of candidate genes. However, comparing expression levels in different conditions requires rigorous experimental design and statistical analyses. Here, we focused on the neotropical passion-vine butterflies Heliconius, non-model species studied in evolutionary biology for their adaptive variation in wing color patterns involved in mimicry and in the signaling of their toxicity to predators. We aimed at selecting stable reference genes to be used for normalization of gene expression data in RT-qPCR analyses from developing wing discs according to the minimal guidelines described in Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE). To design internal RT-qPCR controls, we studied the stability of expression of nine candidate reference genes (actin, annexin, eF1α, FK506BP, PolyABP, PolyUBQ, RpL3, RPS3A, and tubulin) at two developmental stages (prepupal and pupal) using three widely used programs (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Results showed that, despite differences in statistical methods, genes RpL3, eF1α, polyABP, and annexin were stably expressed in wing discs in late larval and pupal stages of Heliconius numata This combination of genes may be used as a reference for a reliable study of differential expression in wings for instance for genes involved in important phenotypic variation, such as wing color pattern variation. Through this example, we provide general useful technical recommendations as well as relevant statistical strategies for evolutionary biologists aiming to identify candidate-genes involved adaptive variation in non-model organisms.

  1. Stereochemical inversion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids byMechanitis polymnia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae): Specificity and evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Trigo, J R; Barata, L E; Brown, K S

    1994-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), acquired by adults or larvae of Danainae and Ithomiinae butterflies and Arctiidae moths from plants, protect these lepidopterans against predators and are biosynthetic precursors of male sex pheromones. The investigation of PAs in many species of wild-caught adults of Ithomiinae showed lycopsamine (1) [(7R)-OH, (2'S)-OH, (3'S)-OH] as the main alkaloid. In incorporation experiments, PA-free (freshly emerged) adults of the ithomiineMechanitis polymnia were fed seven PAs: lycopsamine and four of its known natural stereoisomers-indicine (2) [(7R)-OH, (2'R)-OH, (3'S)-OH], intermedine (3) [(7R)-OH, (2'S)-OH, (3'R)-OH], rinderine (4) [(7S)-OH, (2'S)-OH, (3'R)-OH], and echinatine (5) [(7S)-OH, (2'S)-OH, (3'S)-OH], and two PAs without the 7-OH: supinine (6) [(2'S)-OH, (3'R)-OH] and amabiline (7) [(2'S)-OH, (3'S)-OH]. Males epimerized PAs 3, 4, and 5 mainly to lycopsamine (1). Females fed these same three PAs changed a smaller proportion to lycopsamine; their lesser capacity to modify PAs corresponds to their normal acquisition of already transformed PAs from males during mating rather than through visits of adults to plant sources of PAs. The alkaloids1 and2, both 7R and 3'S, were incorporated without or with minimum change by males and females. Feeding experiments with6 and7 (males only) showed an inversion at the 3' center of6 and no change in7. The inversion from 7S to 7R (probably via oxyreduction) may be closely related to the evolution of acquisition of PAs by butterflies and moths. Two hypotheses are discussed: (1) The ancestral butterflies are probably adapted to tolerate, assimilate, and use (7R)-PAs (most common in plants; all widespread 1,2-unsaturated macrocyclic PA diesters show this configuration). The development of (7R)-PA receptors in the butterflies could lead to a specialization on this configuration in two ways: to help find PA plants and to utilize these components in sexual chemical communication. A later appearance of (7S)-PAs in plants could have selected an enzymatic system for the inversion of this chiral center in order to continue producing (7R)-PA-derived pheromones. (2) The inversion would be due to the evolution of a enzyme system specialized in the transport of (7R)-PAs to the integument; the failure of this system to carry (7S)-PAs led to an enzymatic system to invert them to transportable (7R)-PAs. In this case, the 7R configuration is an effect and not a cause of (7R)-PA-derived pheromones. In both hypotheses, the partial inversion of the 3'-asymmetric center, when the butterfly was fed intermedine (3), rinderine (4), and supinine (6), could be fortuitous due to the conformation of the molecule and/or the enzymatic system.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among the Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) inferred from partial sequences of the wingless gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brower, A V

    2000-01-01

    A cladistic analysis was performed on a 378 bp region of the wingless gene from 103 nymphalid species and three pierid outgroups in order to infer higher level patterns of relationship among nymphalid subfamilies and tribes. Although the data are highly homoplastic, in many instances the most parsimonious cladograms corroborate traditionally recognized groups. The results suggest that this short gene region provides a useful source of data for phylogenetic inference, provided that adequate effort is made to sample a diversity of taxa. PMID:10902686

  3. Species delimitation in the Grayling genus Pseudochazara (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) supported by DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Verovnik, Rudi; Wiemers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Palaearctic Grayling genus Pseudochazara encompasses a number of petrophilous butterfly species, most of which are local endemics especially in their centre of radiation in SW Asia and the Balkans. Due to a lack of consistent morphological characters, coupled with habitat induced variability, their taxonomy is poorly understood and species delimitation is hampered. We employed a DNA barcoding approach to address the question of separate species status for several European taxa and provide first insight into the phylogeny of the genus. Unexpectedly we found conflicting patterns with deep divergences between presumably conspecific taxa and lack of divergence among well-defined species. We propose separate species status for Pseudochazara tisiphone, Pseudochazara amalthea, Pseudochazara amymone, and Pseudochazara kermana all of which have separate well supported clades, with the majority of them becoming local endemics. Lack of resolution in the 'Mamurra' species group with well-defined species (in terms of wing pattern and coloration) such as Pseudochazara geyeri, Pseudochazara daghestana and Pseudochazara alpina should be further explored using nuclear molecular markers with higher genetic resolution.

  4. Selaginella and the Satyr: Euptychia westwoodi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Oviposition Preference and Larval Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Christopher A.; Fordyce, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the plant genus Selaginella (de Beauvois 1805) have few known insect herbivores even though they are considered by some to be ‘living fossils’, with extant taxa virtually indistinguishable from 300 Mya fossils. Butterflies are well-known herbivores, and the satyrs are among the most speciose of them despite having radiated ∼35 Mya ago. Nearly all satyrs feed on grass or sedges, but members of the Neotropical genus Euptychia Hübner 1818 feed on Selaginella; little is known about the degree to which this butterfly favors this ancient plant over those that its close relatives utilize. To advance our knowledge of Euptychia natural history, we conducted a series of experiments to examine oviposition preference and growth rates across a series of potential host plants on a Euptychia westwoodi population in Costa Rica. We found that Euptychia westwoodi Butler 1867 exhibit a strong preference to oviposit on Selaginella eurynota over the sympatric Selaginella arthritica, though they perform equally well as larvae on both plants. We did not observe oviposition on a sympatric grass that is commonly consumed by close relatives of E. westwoodi, and when larvae were offered the grass they refused to eat. These results suggest that E. westwoodi in Costa Rica exhibit a strong preference for Selaginella and may have lost the ability to feed on a locally abundant grass commonly used by other Satyrinae. PMID:27126962

  5. Nomenclatural status of Euptychia mollina Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Lamas, Gerardo; Nakahara, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to clarify the nomenclatural status of Euptychia mollina Hübner, 1818, the type species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818, as there seems to be confusion regarding its year of publication. Due to an unfortunate oversight, Lamas (2004) listed the name as Euptychia mollina (Hübner, [1813]), and this mistake has been repeated in the subsequent literature (e.g. Brévignon 2005; Warren et al. 2014; Neild et al. 2014). PMID:25947712

  6. Species delimitation in the Grayling genus Pseudochazara (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) supported by DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Verovnik, Rudi; Wiemers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Palaearctic Grayling genus Pseudochazara encompasses a number of petrophilous butterfly species, most of which are local endemics especially in their centre of radiation in SW Asia and the Balkans. Due to a lack of consistent morphological characters, coupled with habitat induced variability, their taxonomy is poorly understood and species delimitation is hampered. We employed a DNA barcoding approach to address the question of separate species status for several European taxa and provide first insight into the phylogeny of the genus. Unexpectedly we found conflicting patterns with deep divergences between presumably conspecific taxa and lack of divergence among well-defined species. We propose separate species status for Pseudochazara tisiphone, Pseudochazara amalthea, Pseudochazara amymone, and Pseudochazara kermana all of which have separate well supported clades, with the majority of them becoming local endemics. Lack of resolution in the 'Mamurra' species group with well-defined species (in terms of wing pattern and coloration) such as Pseudochazara geyeri, Pseudochazara daghestana and Pseudochazara alpina should be further explored using nuclear molecular markers with higher genetic resolution. PMID:27408604

  7. Evidence for the Deflective Function of Eyespots in Wild Junonia evarete Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C E G; Antezana, M A; Machado, L P

    2014-02-01

    Junonia evarete Cramer is a fast-flying butterfly that perches on the ground with wings opened exhibiting four eyespots close to wing borders. These eyespots presumably function either to intimidate predators, like insectivorous birds, or to deflect bird attacks to less vital parts of the body. We assessed the form, frequency, and location of beak marks on the wings of wild butterflies in central Brazil during two not consecutive years. We found that almost 50% of males and 80% of females bore signals of predator attacks (wing tears), most of them consisting of partially or totally V-shaped forms apparently produced by birds. Males were significantly less attacked and showed a lower proportion of attacks on eyespots than females, suggesting they are better to escape bird attacks. In contrast, females were heavily attacked on eyespots. Eyespot tears in females were higher (and significant different) than expected by chance, indicating that birds do attempt to reach the eyespots when striking on these butterflies. Other comparisons involving the proportion of tears directed or not directed to eyespots in males and females are presented and discussed. PMID:27193402

  8. Cuban Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), a review based on morphological and DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez; Plasencia, Edelquis Oliva; Maravi, Pavel F. Matos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban species of Calisto are reviewed based on the morphology of adult and immature stages, as well as DNA sequences of six genes (COI, EF1α, wingless, GAPDH, RpS5, CAD). A new species, Calisto occulta sp. n., is described from the northeastern Cuban mountains. Calisto smintheus Bates, 1935 and Calisto bruneri, Michener 1949 are revised and revalidated. A new status, the species level, is proposed for Calisto brochei, Torre 1973, Calisto muripetens, Bates 1939 and Calisto bradleyi, Munroe 1950. The immature stages of Calisto smintheus, Calisto brochei,and Calisto occulta are described for the first time, and those of Calisto herophile, Hübner 1823 are redescribed. Useful morphological characters for adults are the shape and conspicuousness of androconial patch, the number and relative size of white dots on underside of hindwing, the shape of aedeagus, the shape of digitiform projection of genitalia valve, the shape and relative size of tegumen and uncus, the relative size of female genitalia, the height of sterigmal ring dorsal crown of the latter, and the relative size of corpus bursae and ductus bursae. For the immature stages, the most important characters are the color pattern of head capsule, the number and width of longitudinal lines of body, in the larvae; and the color pattern and the absence or presence of dorsal ridges on the abdomen of pupae. The phylogenetic relationships between the Cuban Calisto species are quite robust and well-supported; however, conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear datasets was detected in Calisto brochei, Calisto muripetens and to a lesser degree in Calisto bradleyi. PMID:22328857

  9. [Diversity and distribution of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Coello river basin, Colombia].

    PubMed

    García-Perez, Jack F; Ospina-López, Leonardo A; Villa-Navarro, Francisco A; Reinoso-Flórez, Gladys

    2007-06-01

    We describe the patterns of diversity and distribution of the subfamily Satyrinae in the Coello river basin (4 degrees 17' 08" N - 74 degrees 35' 36" W; 1,899.31 km2) from 433 to 3,600 m. Eleven sampling stations were located, in several ecosystems. The samples were collected during a period of 11 days, in March, May, July and October 2003, in three types of habitat (forest, forest edge and meadow). We collected at random, between 09:00 and 15:00 hr, using entomological nets. A total of 239 individuals (13 genera, 34 species) were collected. The most abundant species were in the genus Pedaliodes (41.4 %). Richness and diversity had high values in mountainous zones and paramo (> 2,000 m). The greater diversity was measured in the forest edge. The similarity analysis produced two groups: species from warm (Euptychia hesione and Hermeuptychia hermes) and middle (Pseudohaetera hypaesia and Taygetis celia) climate zones; and species from mountain and paramo (Lymanopoda obsoleta, Pedaliodes polusca and Eretris calisto).

  10. Selaginella and the Satyr: Euptychia westwoodi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Oviposition Preference and Larval Performance.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Christopher A; Fordyce, James A

    2016-01-01

    Members of the plant genus Selaginella (de Beauvois 1805) have few known insect herbivores even though they are considered by some to be 'living fossils', with extant taxa virtually indistinguishable from 300 Mya fossils. Butterflies are well-known herbivores, and the satyrs are among the most speciose of them despite having radiated ∼ 35 Mya ago. Nearly all satyrs feed on grass or sedges, but members of the Neotropical genus Euptychia Hübner 1818 feed on Selaginella; little is known about the degree to which this butterfly favors this ancient plant over those that its close relatives utilize. To advance our knowledge of Euptychia natural history, we conducted a series of experiments to examine oviposition preference and growth rates across a series of potential host plants on a Euptychia westwoodi population in Costa Rica. We found that Euptychia westwoodi Butler 1867 exhibit a strong preference to oviposit on Selaginella eurynota over the sympatric Selaginella arthritica, though they perform equally well as larvae on both plants. We did not observe oviposition on a sympatric grass that is commonly consumed by close relatives of E. westwoodi, and when larvae were offered the grass they refused to eat. These results suggest that E. westwoodi in Costa Rica exhibit a strong preference for Selaginella and may have lost the ability to feed on a locally abundant grass commonly used by other Satyrinae. PMID:27126962

  11. Selection of Valid Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Analysis in Heliconius numata (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Piron Prunier, Florence; Chouteau, Mathieu; Whibley, Annabel; Joron, Mathieu; Llaurens, Violaine

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of adaptive variation is challenging in non-model organisms and quantitative real time PCR. is a useful tool for validating predictions regarding the expression of candidate genes. However, comparing expression levels in different conditions requires rigorous experimental design and statistical analyses. Here, we focused on the neotropical passion-vine butterflies Heliconius, non-model species studied in evolutionary biology for their adaptive variation in wing color patterns involved in mimicry and in the signaling of their toxicity to predators. We aimed at selecting stable reference genes to be used for normalization of gene expression data in RT-qPCR analyses from developing wing discs according to the minimal guidelines described in Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE). To design internal RT-qPCR controls, we studied the stability of expression of nine candidate reference genes (actin, annexin, eF1α, FK506BP, PolyABP, PolyUBQ, RpL3, RPS3A, and tubulin) at two developmental stages (prepupal and pupal) using three widely used programs (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Results showed that, despite differences in statistical methods, genes RpL3, eF1α, polyABP, and annexin were stably expressed in wing discs in late larval and pupal stages of Heliconius numata This combination of genes may be used as a reference for a reliable study of differential expression in wings for instance for genes involved in important phenotypic variation, such as wing color pattern variation. Through this example, we provide general useful technical recommendations as well as relevant statistical strategies for evolutionary biologists aiming to identify candidate-genes involved adaptive variation in non-model organisms. PMID:27271971

  12. Notes on the geographic variation of Lopinga gerdae Nordström, 1934 Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Si-Yao; Lang, Song-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Lopinga gerdae Nordström, 1934 (Satyrini) is a species geographically restricted to S. Gansu, Northwest China. It was described from four males and one female collected from "Ka-tien-kou" on 18.VII.[1930] and "Kung-tze-tagga im Tsaluk-Tal, Minshan" on 19.VII.[1930] by Dr. David Hummel (Nordström, 1934). Though exact sites could not be located, we were able to confirm that "Ka-tien-kou" and "Kung-tze-tagga" are two small places in a valley of Minshan Mts. in the southwestern part of the Jone [Choni in Nordström (1934)] County. In recent years, specimens of this species were collected from Tewo by Eckweiler (Görgner, 1990), from Xiahe by Bozano (Bozano, 1999), from Daban-shan by Floriani I., Floriani A. and Saldaitis A. (Bozano pers. comm.), and from Liupan-shan by Chinese researchers. Specimens from different localities having been compared and their distribution considered, it is found that this species varies continuously from west to east in its small range (Fig. 16), with the individuals collected around the type locality being the intermediate form. However, after dissecting the male genitalia, the result suggests that the populations from Xiahe and Liupan-shan should still be regarded as extreme forms of the same species. PMID:27615915

  13. Taxonomic status and redescription of Magneuptychianebulosa (Butler, 1867) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) with a lectotype designation.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Shinichi; Marín, Mario Alejandro; Ríos-Málaver, Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    A redescription of Magneuptychianebulosa (Butler, 1867), a poorly known euptychiine butterfly, is given here, and accurate distributional data are provided for the first time. Taxonomic status of this taxon has been discussed by comparing its morphology against its possible congeners. In addition, lectotype designation for Magneuptychianebulosa is provided in order to objectively establish the identity of this taxon and consequently stabilize the nomenclature.

  14. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana.

  15. Evidence of protease in the saliva of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene (L.) (Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Eberhard, S H; Hrassnigg, N; Crailsheim, K; Krenn, H W

    2007-02-01

    Butterflies of the genus Heliconius are well known for their peculiar habits of utilizing pollen as a source of amino acids. Saliva plays a major role in the process of extracting amino acids and proteins from the pollen grains. In this investigation, we obtained samples of saliva from adult Heliconius melpomene by placing pumpkin pollen or fine glass-beads on the proboscis, which stimulates the butterflies to release saliva. Proteolytic activity was determined in the saliva by an insoluble protein-dye that turns blue when cleaved by proteases. Its extinction value was measured with a spectrophotometer at 595 nm. Both the saliva sampled with pollen and the saliva obtained from inert glass-beads exhibit proteolytic activity demonstrating that the saliva contains proteases. The proteolytic activity of the pollen/saliva samples was higher than that of the glass-bead/saliva samples, which we attribute to the stimulating effects of pollen, such as taste, smell, and texture, and not to proteases which might have been liberated from the pollen. This is indicated by the fact that pollen samples without saliva showed only a negligible indication for proteolytic activity. In general, females exhibit higher proteolytic activities than males, presumably due to their greater amino acid investment in reproduction. We present here first evidence for the existence of proteases in the saliva of a butterfly species and suggest that these enzymes are crucial for the use of amino acids and proteins from pollen in Heliconius butterflies.

  16. Immature stages of the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, P L; Oliveira, N P; Barbosa, E P; Okada, Y; Kaminski, L A; Freitas, A V L

    2011-01-01

    We provide the first information on the morphology of the immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa), oviposition and larval behavior, and host plant, for the Brazilian crescent butterfly Ortilia liriope (Cramer), based on material from Santarém Municipality, Pará State, Northern Brazil. Females of O. liriope lay eggs in clusters. After hatching, larvae eat the exochorion and remain gregarious in all but the final instar. The host plant recorded in the study site is Justicia sp. (Acanthaceae). Despite the scarcity of data on the immature stages of Neotropical Melitaeini, we can already say that some morphological and behavioral traits observed in the immature stages of O. liriope are also present in all known genera in this tribe.

  17. Revised species definitions and nomenclature of the rose colored Cithaerias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Penz, Carla M; Alexander, Laura G; Devries, Philip J

    2014-10-20

    This study provides updated species definitions for five rose-colored Cithaerias butterflies, starting with a historical overview of their taxonomy. Given their mostly transparent wings, genitalia morphology yielded the most reliable characters for species definition and identification. Genitalic divergence is more pronounced when multiple species occur in sympatry than between parapatric taxa. Cithaerias aurorina is granted full species status, C. cliftoni is reinstated as a full species, and one new combination is proposed, i.e. C. aurora tambopata. Two new synonyms are proposed, Callitaera phantoma and Callitaera aura = Cithaerias aurora. 

  18. The phylogenetic pattern of speciation and wing pattern change in neotropical Ithomia butterflies (Lepidoptera: nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Jiggins, Chris D; Mallarino, Ricardo; Willmott, Keith R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2006-07-01

    Species level phylogenetic hypotheses can be used to explore patterns of divergence and speciation. In the tropics, speciation is commonly attributed to either vicariance, perhaps within climate-induced forest refugia, or ecological speciation caused by niche adaptation. Mimetic butterflies have been used to identify forest refugia as well as in studies of ecological speciation, so they are ideal for discriminating between these two models. The genus Ithomia contains 24 species of warningly colored mimetic butterflies found in South and Central America, and here we use a phylogenetic hypothesis based on seven genes for 23 species to investigate speciation in this group. The history of wing color pattern evolution in the genus was reconstructed using both parsimony and likelihood. The ancestral pattern for the group was almost certainly a transparent butterfly, and there is strong evidence for convergent evolution due to mimicry. A punctuationist model of pattern evolution was a significantly better fit to the data than a gradualist model, demonstrating that pattern changes above the species level were associated with cladogenesis and supporting a model of ecological speciation driven by mimicry adaptation. However, there was only one case of sister species unambiguously differing in pattern, suggesting that some recent speciation events have occurred without pattern shifts. The pattern of geographic overlap between clades over time shows that closely related species are mostly sympatric or, in one case, parapatric. This is consistent with modes of speciation with ongoing gene flow, although rapid range changes following allopatric speciation could give a similar pattern. Patterns of lineage accumulation through time differed significantly from that expected at random, and show that most of the extant species were present by the beginning of the Pleistocene at the latest. Hence Pleistocene refugia are unlikely to have played a major role in Ithomia diversification.

  19. DNA barcoding of nymphalid butterflies (Nymphalidae: Lepidoptera) from Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, S S; Ghate, H V; Ghaskadbi, S S; Patole, M S; Shouche, Y S

    2012-03-01

    We have checked the utility of DNA barcoding for species identification of nymphalid butterflies from Western Ghats of India by using 650 bp sequence of mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. Distinct DNA barcoding gap (i.e. difference between intraspecies and interspecies nucleotide divergence), exists between species studied here. When our sequences were compared with the sequences of the conspecifics submitted from different geographic regions, nine cases of deep intraspecies nucleotide divergences were observed. In spite of this, NJ (Neighbour Joining) clustering analysis successfully discriminated all species. Observed cases of deep intraspecies nucleotide divergences certainly warrant further study.

  20. Male-killer dynamics in the tropical butterfly, Acraea encedana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sami Saeed M; Idris, Eihab; Majerus, Michael E N

    2013-12-01

    Sex ratio distortion in the tropical butterfly Acraea encedana is caused by infection with a male-killing bacterium of the genus Wolbachia. Previous research on this species has reported extreme female bias, high bacterial prevalences, and full sex role reversal. In this paper, we provide an assessment for the dynamics of the male-killer, based on a survey for sex ratios and Wolbachia prevalences among wild populations of A. encedana in Uganda. The study reveals that Wolbachia infection showed considerable variation over both spatial and temporal scales.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the nerippe fritillary butterfly, Argynnis nerippe (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Kim, Seong Ryeol; Kim, Iksoo

    2011-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the nerippe fritillary butterfly, Argynnis nerippe, which is listed as an endangered species in Korea, is described with an emphasis on the A+T-rich region. The 15,140-bp long circular molecule consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region, known in insect as the A+T-rich region, as found in typical metazoans. The 329-bp long A+T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) possessed the highest A/T content (95.7%) than any other region of the genome. Along with the several conserved sequences found typically in the lepidopteran insects the genome contained one tRNA(Met)-like and tRNA(Leu)(UUR)-like sequence in the A+T-rich region.

  2. The complete mitogenome of the Cydno Longwing Heliconius cydno (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Qian, Zeng-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the Cydno Longwing Heliconius cydno has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The circular genome is 15,367 bp in length, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. PCGs are mostly initiated with the ATN codons (COII, COIII, Cytb, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, ND6, ATP6 & ATP8), except for the ND1 and COI genes with TTG and the unusual CGA as their initiation codons, respectively. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND3) or incomplete termination codon T (COI, COII & ND4), while all the others use TAA as their termination codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.3% A, 42.1% T, 7.6% G, 11.0% C) with an overall GC content of 18.6%.

  3. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas; Weingartner, Elisabet; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Nylin, Sören; Freitas, André V L; Brower, Andrew V Z

    2006-07-01

    We have inferred the first empirically supported hypothesis of relationships for the cosmopolitan butterfly subfamily Satyrinae. We used 3090 base pairs of DNA from the mitochondrial gene COI and the nuclear genes EF-1alpha and wingless for 165 Satyrinae taxa representing 4 tribes and 15 subtribes, and 26 outgroups, in order to test the monophyly of the subfamily and elucidate phylogenetic relationships of its major lineages. In a combined analysis, the three gene regions supported an almost fully resolved topology, which recovered Satyrinae as polyphyletic, and revealed that the current classification of suprageneric taxa within the subfamily is comprised almost completely of unnatural assemblages. The most noteworthy findings are that Manataria is closely related to Melanitini; Palaeonympha belongs to Euptychiina; Oressinoma, Orsotriaena and Coenonympha group with the Hypocystina; Miller's (1968). Parargina is polyphyletic and its components group with multiple distantly related lineages; and the subtribes Elymniina and Zetherina fall outside the Satyrinae. The three gene regions used in a combined analysis prove to be very effective in resolving relationships of Satyrinae at the subtribal and tribal levels. Further sampling of the taxa closely related to Satyrinae, as well as more extensive sampling of genera within the tribes and subtribes for this group will be critical to test the monophyly of the subfamily and establish a stronger basis for future biogeographical and evolutionary studies.

  4. Selaginella and the Satyr: Euptychia westwoodi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Oviposition Preference and Larval Performance.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Christopher A; Fordyce, James A

    2016-01-01

    Members of the plant genus Selaginella (de Beauvois 1805) have few known insect herbivores even though they are considered by some to be 'living fossils', with extant taxa virtually indistinguishable from 300 Mya fossils. Butterflies are well-known herbivores, and the satyrs are among the most speciose of them despite having radiated ∼ 35 Mya ago. Nearly all satyrs feed on grass or sedges, but members of the Neotropical genus Euptychia Hübner 1818 feed on Selaginella; little is known about the degree to which this butterfly favors this ancient plant over those that its close relatives utilize. To advance our knowledge of Euptychia natural history, we conducted a series of experiments to examine oviposition preference and growth rates across a series of potential host plants on a Euptychia westwoodi population in Costa Rica. We found that Euptychia westwoodi Butler 1867 exhibit a strong preference to oviposit on Selaginella eurynota over the sympatric Selaginella arthritica, though they perform equally well as larvae on both plants. We did not observe oviposition on a sympatric grass that is commonly consumed by close relatives of E. westwoodi, and when larvae were offered the grass they refused to eat. These results suggest that E. westwoodi in Costa Rica exhibit a strong preference for Selaginella and may have lost the ability to feed on a locally abundant grass commonly used by other Satyrinae.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of a satyrid butterfly, Ninguta schrenkii (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Fan, Cheng; Xu, Chang; Li, Jialian; Lei, Ying; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of N. schrenkii is 15,261 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (LrRNA and SrRNA) and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition is significantly biased toward A + T (80.2%), similar to the known satyrid species. All PCGs utilize the typical mitochondrial start codon ATN, except for COI, which is initiated with CGA. Seven PCGs use complete stop codon (TAA), whereas ND1 and ND4 use TA as stop codon and COI, COII and ND5 end with single T. The A + T-rich region of N. schrenkii is 403 bp in length, which contains several features common to the other lepidopteran species.

  6. Environmental elements involved in communal roosting in Heliconius butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Several Heliconius L. butterflies species form nocturnal aggregations in sites with a particular architecture. Roosts are usually formed under relatively dense vegetation mats where dry vines or branches provide a perch for the night. These sites may last for months. To understand the importance of factors related to the expression of Heliconius roosting, data on light, temperature, relative humidity, wind, and use of wing color cues were recorded at H. erato and H. sara roost sites in Costa Rica and Panama in 2008 and 2009. The results show that roost sites offer reduced light conditions at dusk, provide a drier environment compared with its vicinity, and offer protection from wind and rain. Moreover, individuals use wing color recognition under reduced light conditions at dusk to successfully assemble aggregations. These findings provide key information for future experiments to study the use of landmarks, hygrosensitivity, and dim-light eye adaptations in Heliconius navigation to find roost sites.

  7. Biology and External Morphology of Immatures of O psiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Neves, D A; Paluch, M

    2016-02-01

    The genus Opsiphanes Doubleday occurs in the Neotropics. Adults belong to the guild of frugivorous butterflies and use as host plants some genera of Arecaceae and Musaceae. The present study provides information on the biology and describes the external morphology of immatures of the species Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger obtained from females collected in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. The development of immatures was monitored and photographed in the laboratory. The larvae were fed with leaves of Dypsis lutescens (Arecaceae), an ornamental plant. The egg stage lasted, on average, 7.2 days. The larval stage had five instars, with an average duration of 48.5 days. The pupal stage lasted 16.5 days. The average growth rate of the head capsule was 1.5 mm.

  8. Taxonomic status and redescription of Magneuptychia nebulosa (Butler, 1867) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) with a lectotype designation

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Shinichi; Marín, Mario Alejandro; Ríos-Málaver, Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A redescription of Magneuptychia nebulosa (Butler, 1867), a poorly known euptychiine butterfly, is given here, and accurate distributional data are provided for the first time. Taxonomic status of this taxon has been discussed by comparing its morphology against its possible congeners. In addition, lectotype designation for Magneuptychia nebulosa is provided in order to objectively establish the identity of this taxon and consequently stabilize the nomenclature. PMID:26019673

  9. Iridoid glycoside sequestration byThessalia leanira (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) feeding onCastilleja integra (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Mead, E W; Foderaro, T A; Gardner, D R; Stermitz, F R

    1993-06-01

    A small population of a polyvoltine checkerspot butterfly,Thessalia leanira fulvia (also known asChlosyne leanira ssp.fulvia), was found to useCastilleja integra as a larval food plant at a localized site (Burnt Mill) southwest of Pueblo, Colorado. Field-captured adult butterflies contained the major iridoid glycosides (catalpol and macfadienoside) of theCastilleja. The content of a third iridoid glycoside, methyl shanzhiside, was also relatively high in the collected butterflies even though most individualCastilleja plants at Burnt Mill contained little or no methyl shanzhiside. Only a few plants, restricted to a small area, did contain appreciable methyl shanzhiside. Most of the plants that lacked the ester methyl shanzhiside contained shanzhiside, the corresponding free carboxylic acid.Thessalia larvae did not normally methylate the acid to produce methyl shanzhiside. Larvae that stopped feeding at an early instar, but yet survived several weeks, did contain major amounts of methyl shanzhiside. It is suggested that only larvae that overwinter or otherwise enter diapause convert shanzhiside to methyl shanzhiside. TheCastilleja food plant also contained iridoids other than catalpol and macfadienoside, sometimes in major amounts, but these were never found in larvae, pupae, or butterflies.

  10. Species delimitation in the Grayling genus Pseudochazara (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) supported by DNA barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Verovnik, Rudi; Wiemers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic Grayling genus Pseudochazara encompasses a number of petrophilous butterfly species, most of which are local endemics especially in their centre of radiation in SW Asia and the Balkans. Due to a lack of consistent morphological characters, coupled with habitat induced variability, their taxonomy is poorly understood and species delimitation is hampered. We employed a DNA barcoding approach to address the question of separate species status for several European taxa and provide first insight into the phylogeny of the genus. Unexpectedly we found conflicting patterns with deep divergences between presumably conspecific taxa and lack of divergence among well-defined species. We propose separate species status for Pseudochazara tisiphone, Pseudochazara amalthea, Pseudochazara amymone, and Pseudochazara kermana all of which have separate well supported clades, with the majority of them becoming local endemics. Lack of resolution in the ‘Mamurra’ species group with well-defined species (in terms of wing pattern and coloration) such as Pseudochazara geyeri, Pseudochazara daghestana and Pseudochazara alpina should be further explored using nuclear molecular markers with higher genetic resolution. PMID:27408604

  11. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  12. Hearing in a diurnal, mute butterfly, Morpho peleides (Papilionoidea, Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Lane, Karla A; Lucas, Kathleen M; Yack, Jayne E

    2008-06-10

    Butterflies use visual and chemical cues when interacting with their environment, but the role of hearing is poorly understood in these insects. Nymphalidae (brush-footed) butterflies occur worldwide in almost all habitats and continents, and comprise more than 6,000 species. In many species a unique forewing structure--Vogel's organ--is thought to function as an ear. At present, however, there is little experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. We studied the functional organization of Vogel's organ in the common blue morpho butterfly, Morpho peleides, which represents the majority of Nymphalidae in that it is diurnal and does not produce sounds. Our results confirm that Vogel's organ possesses the morphological and physiological characteristics of a typical insect tympanal ear. The tympanum has an oval-shaped outer membrane and a convex inner membrane. Associated with the inner surface of the tympanum are three chordotonal organs, each containing 10-20 scolopidia. Extracellular recordings from the auditory nerve show that Vogel's organ is most sensitive to sounds between 2-4 kHz at median thresholds of 58 dB SPL. Most butterfly species that possess Vogel's organ are diurnal, and mute, so bat detection and conspecific communication can be ruled out as roles for hearing. We hypothesize that Vogel's organs in butterflies such as M. peleides have evolved to detect flight sounds of predatory birds. The evolution and taxonomic distribution of butterfly hearing organs are discussed.

  13. Hearing in the crepuscular owl butterfly (Caligo eurilochus, Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Kathleen M; Mongrain, Jennifer K; Windmill, James F C; Robert, Daniel; Yack, Jayne E

    2014-10-01

    Tympanal organs are widespread in Nymphalidae butterflies, with a great deal of variability in the morphology of these ears. How this variation reflects differences in hearing physiology is not currently understood. This study provides the first examination of hearing organs in the crepuscular owl butterfly, Caligo eurilochus. We examined the tuning and sensitivity of the C. eurilochus hearing organ, called Vogel's organ, using laser Doppler vibrometry and extracellular neurophysiology. We show that the C. eurilochus ear responds to sound and is most sensitive to frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz, as confirmed by both the vibration of the tympanal membrane and the physiological response of the associated nerve branches. In comparison to the hearing of its diurnally active relative, Morpho peleides, C. eurilochus has a narrower frequency range with higher auditory thresholds. Hypotheses explaining the function of hearing in this crepuscular butterfly are discussed.

  14. Organization of the olfactory system of nymphalidae butterflies.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Schäpers, Alexander; Nässel, Dick R; Janz, Niklas

    2013-05-01

    Olfaction is in many species the most important sense, essential for food search, mate finding, and predator avoidance. Butterflies have been considered a microsmatic group of insects that mainly rely on vision due to their diurnal lifestyle. However, an emerging number of studies indicate that butterflies indeed use the sense of smell for locating food and oviposition sites. To unravel the neural substrates for olfaction, we performed an anatomical study of 2 related butterfly species that differ in food and host plant preference. We found many of the anatomical structures and pathways, as well as distribution of neuroactive substances, to resemble that of their nocturnal relatives among the Lepidoptera. The 2 species differed in the number of one type of olfactory sensilla, thus indicating a difference in sensitivity to certain compounds. Otherwise no differences could be observed. Our findings suggest that the olfactory system in Lepidoptera is well conserved despite the long evolutionary time since butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor.

  15. The Synthesis of Lepidoptera Pheromones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, Elena D.; Kurts, A. L.; Bundel', Yurii G.

    1986-07-01

    The review surveys the data in numerous publications of the synthesis of the pheromones of scale-winged insects (Lepidoptera). Attention is concentrated on problems of the sterospecific synthesis of pheromones. The bibliography includes 217 references.

  16. Complex Population Patterns of Eunica tatila Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), with Special Emphasis on Sexual Dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Cavanzón-Medrano, L; Pozo, C; Hénaut, Y; Legal, L; Salas-Suárez, N; Machkour-M'Rabet, S

    2016-04-01

    The species Eunica tatila (Herrich-Schäffer) is present in the Neotropical region and comprises three subspecies. In Mexico, only one subspecies is reported: E. t. tatila (Herrich-Schäffer). The Yucatan Peninsula, in southeastern Mexico, is located in a transitional geographical position, between southern Florida, the West Indies and Central America. It is part of a transitional region, important for the dispersion of insects from southern Florida via Cuba and the Yucatan Peninsula. Considering the possibility of the overlapping and delimitation of described subspecies, we sampled different populations in the Yucatan Peninsula to possibly assign a subspecies name and evaluate the magnitude of sexual dimorphism. We collected 591 individuals (♀284, ♂307) in conserved areas. The study of male genitalia led to the identification of Eunica tatila tatilista (Kaye) as a subspecies; however, hypandrium structure and wing pattern analysis suggest a mix of E. t. tatila and E. t. tatilista characteristics. The analysis of sexual dimorphism provided evidence of more complex wing morphs for females, with 12 patterns instead of four as previously described. Our results demonstrate the complexity of characterizing E. tatila and suggest that the Yucatan Peninsula is a transitional zone for subspecies of some butterflies. PMID:26677083

  17. [PLASTICITY OF THE THERMAL REACTION NORMS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN PEACOCK BUTTERLY INACHIS IO (LEPIDOPTERA, NYMPHALIDAE)].

    PubMed

    Ryzhkova, M V; Lopatina, E B

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the plasticity of the thermal reaction norms for development in the European Peacock butterfly Inachis io under the effect of different photoperiodic conditions and group versus individual maintenance. The overwintered imagoes were collected in Old Peterhof (near Saint-Petersburg) in May, 2010 and 2012-2013. 12 experimental regimens were used: 4 temperatures (16, 18, 20 and 22 degrees C) and 3 photoperiods (12, 18 and 22 h of light a day). It was found that under short-day conditions (12 h) the caterpillars developed a little faster than under long-day ones (22 h). The developmental temperature thresholds in these two cases did not differ. A linear regression coefficient characterizing thermal sensitivity of development was significantly higher only in males with their development affected by short-day photoperiod stronger than in females. At 18-h day length, the caterpillar development was less temperature-sensitive and characterized by a lower threshold than in shorter and longer days. The influence of short-day photoperiod on the caterpillar development manifested itself most distinctly in the emerging pupae' weight changes: in all the temperature regimens the pupae were lighter at short than at long days. The pupal weight increased as the temperature rose. The found dependence does not agree with the "temperature-size rule". Individual rearing led to a longer duration and lower thermal sensitivity of caterpillar and pupal development as well as to a reduced weight of the pupae. Individual rearing had a stronger impact on the mineral of females than males. PMID:26281222

  18. Caterpillars of Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) feeding on Succisa pratensis leaves induce large foliar emissions of methanol.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas, Josep; Filella, Iolanda; Stefanescu, Constantí; Llusià, Joan

    2005-09-01

    A major new discovery made in the last decade is that plants commonly emit large amounts and varieties of volatiles after damage inflicted by herbivores, and not merely from the site of injury. However, analytical methods for measuring herbivore-induced volatiles do not usually monitor the whole range of these compounds and are complicated by the transient nature of their formation and by their chemical instability. Here we present the results of using a fast and highly sensitive proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) technique that allows simultaneous on-line monitoring of leaf volatiles in the pptv (pmol mol(-1)) range. The resulting on-line mass scans revealed that Euphydryas aurinia caterpillars feeding on Succisa pratensis leaves induced emissions of huge amounts of methanol--a biogeochemically active compound and a significant component of the volatile organic carbon found in the atmosphere--and other immediate, late and systemic volatile blends (including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and lipoxygenase-derived volatile compounds). In addition to influencing neighboring plants, as well as herbivores and their predators and parasitoids, these large emissions might affect atmospheric chemistry and physics if they are found to be generalized in other plant species.

  19. Diversity and distribution patterns of Pronophilina butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) along an altitudinal transect in north-western Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Wojtusiak, Janusz; Garlacz, Rafaa

    2009-01-01

    Samplings of Pronophilina, a species-rich group of neotropical montane butterflies, were carried out along an elevational transect in Ecuador to assess the effect of altitude on their distribution patterns, diversity and community structure. All diversity indices were significantly correlated with altitude. Maximum diversity expressed in species-richness, Shannon index and Fisher alpha was recorded at 2600 m. Two assemblages of species were identified in the lower (below 2100 m) and upper (above 2300 m) sections of the transect by means of correspondence (CA) and cluster analysis. A comparison of Sørensen similarity coefficients showed lower values, thus higher turnover in the intermediate elevational band. Several closely related morphologically and ecologically species were found to have mutually exclusive altitudinal distribution patterns. A comparison with similar studies in Venezuela, Colombia and Peru revealed far reaching congruency of the patterns of altitudinal diversity of Pronophilina in distant areas of the Andes. In particular, the Shannon index reaches its maximum values at 2600-2850 m, which invariably correspond to ca. 400-500 m below the upper limit of cloud forest. Increase of diversity of Pronophilina with altitude is marginally related to higher limited resource availability. The lower pressure of predators and parasites at higher elevation can contribute with higher abundance, but cannot be directly correlated with higher diversity. Higher diversity is related with intrisic characteristics of the group, such as aggregated diversity by overlapping of elevational faunal assemblages and higher speciation ratio towards high elevations, particularly near timberline.

  20. Selection of perching site background color by Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Costa Rica: implications for industrial melanism.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Hiller, Luis Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Observations of the increased frequency of melanic forms in moths of the genus Biston in Great Britain after the industrial revolution lead to the development of the theory of Industrial Melanism. Nonetheless, arguments against that interpretation of the experimental evidence have polarized acceptance of the concept. New evidence based on diurnal butterflies is more credible because it involves behavior that can be seen in action, during daylight, and because the natural history of the selected species is well known. An experiment was carried out in which three substrate colors (white, black, and gray) were employed to test the landing preferences of Hamadryas feronia. A marked preference was observed for landing on white and gray, and a chi-square (N=644 tests) showed evidence of a preference by males to land on white, and for females to land on gray. Black was rejected perhaps because it provides very little background matching with the butterfly's colors. The butterfly habit of perching selectively on particular color substrates is a genetically fixed behavior, where the males possibly choose white as a tactic to be noticed by females and attract them, whereas females prefer gray to enhance crypsis and avoid attracting predators.

  1. Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 from the upper Amazon basin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Neild, Andrew F E; Nakahara, Shinichi; Zacca, Thamara; Fratello, Steven; Lamas, Gerardo; Le Crom, Jean-François; Dolibaina, Diego R; Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 are described from the upper Amazon basin: Euptychia attenboroughi Neild, Nakahara, Fratello & Le Crom, sp. n. (type locality: Amazonas, Venezuela), and Euptychia sophiae Zacca, Nakahara, Dolibaina & Dias, sp. n. (type locality: Acre, Brazil). Their unusual facies prompted molecular and phylogenetic analyses of one of the species resulting in support for their classification in monophyletic Euptychia. Diagnostic characters for the two species are presented based on wing morphology, wing pattern, presence of androconial patches on the hindwing, and genitalia. Our results indicate that the projection of the tegumen above the uncus, previously considered a synapomorphy for Euptychia, is not shared by all species in the genus. The adults and their genitalia are documented, and distribution data and a map are provided. PMID:26798283

  2. Nutrients in fruit increase fertility in wild-caught females of large and long-lived Euphaedra species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Carey, James R.; Wang, Jane-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Fruit-feeding butterflies can experience a more nutrient rich adult diet than nectar-feeding species, and can be expected to use these nutrients for egg production. Here we compare life span, and reproduction parameters of wild-caught females of large and long-lived species on either a sucrose or a mashed banana diet. With small sample sizes per species, but rich longitudinal data for each individual, we examined the longitudinal reproduction pattern, egg size and hatchability of these butterflies in captivity. Diet significantly affected mortality in captivity in a time-dependent manner. On average, we found that butterflies fed mashed banana laid 1.855 times more eggs than those fed sugar. They laid significantly more eggs when they laid and conserved egg size with age while butterflies fed sucrose showed significantly declining egg sizes. Egg hatchability was not significantly affected by diet. Long pre-oviposition periods, significantly smaller first eggs, and absence of age at capture effects on intensity of reproduction indicate low reproduction rates in the field that are due to low food availability. With our small sample sizes, we did not detect significant differences between the species in their response to the diet treatments. PMID:19186186

  3. Feeding Behaviour on Host Plants May Influence Potential Exposure to Bt Maize Pollen of Aglais Urticae Larvae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Lang, Andreas; Otto, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Non-target butterfly larvae may be harmed by feeding on host plants dusted with Bt maize pollen. Feeding patterns of larvae and their utilization of host plants can affect the adverse Bt impact because the maize pollen is distributed unequally on the plant. In a field study, we investigated the feeding of larvae of the Small Tortoiseshell, Aglais urticae, on nettles, Urtica dioica. Young larvae used smaller host plants than older larvae. In general, the position of the larvae was in the top part of the host plant, but older larvae showed a broader vertical distribution on the nettles. Leaf blades and leaf tips were the plant parts most often consumed. Leaf veins were consumed but midribs were fed on to a lesser extent than other plant veins, particularly by young larvae. The feeding behavior of the larvae may increase possible exposure to Bt maize pollen because pollen densities are expected to be higher on the top parts and along leaf veins of nettles. PMID:26463415

  4. DNA barcoding reveals twelve lineages with properties of phylogenetic and biological species within Melitaea didyma sensu lato (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pazhenkova, Elena A.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The complex of butterfly taxa close to Melitaea didyma includes the traditionally recognized species Melitaea didyma, Melitaea didymoides and Melitaea sutschana, the taxa that were recognized as species only relatively recently (Melitaea latonigena, Melitaea interrupta, Melitaea chitralensis and Melitaea mixta) as well as numerous described subspecies and forms with unclear taxonomic status. Here analysis of mitochondrial DNA barcodes is used to demonstrate that this complex is monophyletic group consisting of at least 12 major haplogroups strongly differentiated with respect to the gene COI. Six of these haplogroups are shown to correspond to six of the above-mentioned species (Melitaea didymoides, Melitaea sutschana, Melitaea latonigena, Melitaea interrupta, Melitaea chitralensis and Melitaea mixta). It is hypothesized that each of the remaining six haplogroups also represents a distinct species (Melitaea mauretanica, Melitaea occidentalis, Melitaea didyma, Melitaea neera, Melitaea liliputana and Melitaea turkestanica), since merging these haplogroups would result in a polyphyletic assemblage and the genetic distances between them are comparable with those found between the other six previously recognized species. PMID:26807035

  5. Taxonomic revision of the "Pierella lamia species group" (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) with descriptions of four new species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Thamara; Siewert, Ricardo R; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H; Paluch, Márlon

    2016-01-01

    Four new species of Pierella Westwood, 1851 from Brazil are described: P. angeloi Zacca, Siewert & Mielke sp. nov. from Maranhão, P. kesselringi Zacca, Siewert & Paluch sp. nov. from Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas and Sergipe, P. nice Zacca, Siewert & Paluch sp. nov. from Bahia and P. keithbrowni Siewert, Zacca & Casagrande sp. nov. from Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina. Additionally, P. chalybaea Godman, 1905 stat. rest. and P. boliviana F.M. Brown, 1948 stat. nov. are recognized as valid species and not as subspecies of P. lamia (Sulzer, 1776), while P. l. colombiana Constantino & Salazar, 2007 syn. nov. is synonymized to the former. Lectotype and paralectotype of Papilio dyndimene Cramer, 1779 (a synonym of Pierella lamia) and Pierella chalybaea Godman, 1905 stat. rest. are designated. Habitus and illustrations of male and female genitalia are provided for all species, as well as a geographical distribution map. PMID:27395987

  6. Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 from the upper Amazon basin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Neild, Andrew F E; Nakahara, Shinichi; Zacca, Thamara; Fratello, Steven; Lamas, Gerardo; Le Crom, Jean-François; Dolibaina, Diego R; Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 are described from the upper Amazon basin: Euptychia attenboroughi Neild, Nakahara, Fratello & Le Crom, sp. n. (type locality: Amazonas, Venezuela), and Euptychia sophiae Zacca, Nakahara, Dolibaina & Dias, sp. n. (type locality: Acre, Brazil). Their unusual facies prompted molecular and phylogenetic analyses of one of the species resulting in support for their classification in monophyletic Euptychia. Diagnostic characters for the two species are presented based on wing morphology, wing pattern, presence of androconial patches on the hindwing, and genitalia. Our results indicate that the projection of the tegumen above the uncus, previously considered a synapomorphy for Euptychia, is not shared by all species in the genus. The adults and their genitalia are documented, and distribution data and a map are provided.

  7. A new species of Eretris Thieme (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) from the Elbow of the Andes region in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Gareca, Yuvinka

    2009-01-01

    A new species of cloud forest butterfly, Eretris julieta n. sp. is described from a region of south-central Bolivia known as the Elbow of the Andes. It is the southernmost known representative of the genus, hitherto known only from a restricted area of interandean valleys in the department of Santa Cruz. Its affinities with other congeners are evaluated.

  8. "Darwin's butterflies"? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Sourakov, Andrei; Zakharov, Evgeny V

    2011-01-01

    The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin's finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA 'barcodes' (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI) from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa Calisto confusa Lathy, 1899 and Calisto confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz & Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824) (including its subspecies Calisto hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n.), and its former subspecies Calisto batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%) and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/Calisto crypta Gali, 1985/Calisto franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%), confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma González, 1987, Calisto grannus amazona González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus micrommata Schwartz & Gali, 1984, stat. n., Calisto grannus dystacta González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus phoinix González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus sommeri Schwartz & Gali, 1984, stat. n., and Calisto grannus micheneri Clench, 1944, stat. n.) should be treated as a single polytypic species, as genetic divergence among sampled populations representing these taxa is low (and stable morphological apomorphies are absent). A widely-distributed pest of sugar cane, Calisto pulchella Lathy, 1899 showed higher diversification among isolated populations (3.5%) than expected, hence supporting former separation of this species into two taxa (pulchella and darlingtoni Clench, 1943), of which the latter might prove to be a separate species rather than subspecies. The taxonomic revisions presented here result in Calisto now containing 34 species and 17 subspecies. Three species endemic to islands other than Hispaniola appear to be derived lineages of various Hispaniolan clades, indicating ancient dispersal events from Hispaniola to Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica. Overall, the degree of intrageneric and intraspecific divergence within Calisto suggests a long and continuous diversification period of 4-8 Myr. The maximum divergence within the genus (ca. 13.3%) is almost equivalent to the maximum divergence of Calisto from the distant pronophiline relative Auca Hayward, 1953 from the southern Andes (14.1%) and from the presumed closest relative Eretris Thieme, 1905 (14.4%), suggesting that the genus began to diversify soon after its split from its continental sister taxon. In general, this 'barcode' divergence corresponds to the high degree of morphological and ecological variation found among major lineages within the genus. PMID:24260629

  9. Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 from the upper Amazon basin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)

    PubMed Central

    Neild, Andrew F. E.; Nakahara, Shinichi; Zacca, Thamara; Fratello, Steven; Lamas, Gerardo; Le Crom, Jean-François; Dolibaina, Diego R.; Dias, Fernando M. S.; Casagrande, Mirna M.; Mielke, Olaf H. H.; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 are described from the upper Amazon basin: Euptychia attenboroughi Neild, Nakahara, Fratello & Le Crom, sp. n. (type locality: Amazonas, Venezuela), and Euptychia sophiae Zacca, Nakahara, Dolibaina & Dias, sp. n. (type locality: Acre, Brazil). Their unusual facies prompted molecular and phylogenetic analyses of one of the species resulting in support for their classification in monophyletic Euptychia. Diagnostic characters for the two species are presented based on wing morphology, wing pattern, presence of androconial patches on the hindwing, and genitalia. Our results indicate that the projection of the tegumen above the uncus, previously considered a synapomorphy for Euptychia, is not shared by all species in the genus. The adults and their genitalia are documented, and distribution data and a map are provided. PMID:26798283

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) parasitoids associated with Melitaeini butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Melitaeini).

    PubMed

    Kankare, Maaria; Shaw, Mark R

    2004-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Cotesia Cameron (Braconidae) species parasitising Melitaeini butterflies were examined using DNA sequence data (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and NADH1 dehydrogenase genes, nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region) as well as 12 microsatellite loci. Molecular data were available from ostensibly six species of Cotesia from 16 host butterfly species in Europe, Asia, and North America. Analysis of the combined sequence data using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood revealed two distinct Cotesia clades. In one clade (C. acuminata (Reinhard); C. bignellii (Marshall)) host ranges are apparently narrow and, although Euphydryas (s. lato) is well-utilised, permeation of Melitaea (s. lato) has been slight. In the other clade (C. melitaearum (Wilkinson); C. lycophron (Nixon); C. cynthiae (Nixon)) host utilization across the Melitaeini as a whole is more extensive and the data are consistent with more recent, or active, speciation processes. Neighbour-joining trees calculated separately for the two main clades based on chord distance (DCE) of microsatellite allele frequencies were consistent with phylogenetic trees obtained from the sequence data. Our analysis strongly suggests the presence of several additional, previously unrecognised, Cotesia species parasitising this group of butterflies.

  11. From the phylogeny of the Satyrinae butterflies to the systematics of Euptychiina (lepidoptera: nymphalidae): history, progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Marín, M A; Peña, C; Freitas, A V L; Wahlberg, N; Uribe, S I

    2011-01-01

    We review the various proposals of evolutionary and classification schemes for Satyrinae and particularly Euptychiina butterflies, assessing progress and prospects of research for the group. Among the highlights is the proposal to include Morphini, Brassolini and Amathusiini as part of Satyrinae. Although it is clear that this hypothesis requires further investigation, phylogenetic studies recently conducted recover this clade as part of Satyrinae with high support. The phylogenetic analyses for Euptychiina carried out to date recover the monophyly of the group and have identified a variety of genera as non-monophyletic. Further work is necessary to resolve the position of the subtribe and the evolutionary relationships of several genera.

  12. A new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Satyrini) from Mount Roraima, Guyana.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Shinichi; Fratello, Steven A; Harvey, Donald J

    2014-11-05

    A new nymphalid species in the subtribe Euptychiina, Euptychia roraima Nakahara, Fratello & Harvey n. sp., is described from Mount Roraima, Guyana. Both internal and external morphology of E. roraima are compared against several Euptychia species and the relationship between E. roraima and congeners is briefly discussed. A strong case is put forth for further and extensive exploration of the Pantepui region concerning its poorly known butterfly fauna.

  13. Euptychia boulleti (Le Cerf) n. comb. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae), a rare and endangered butterfly from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, A V L; Wahlberg, N; Matos-Maravi, P F; Marin, M A; Mielke, O H H

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the systematic position of the rare and endangered satyrine butterfly Caenoptychia boulleti Le Cerf, the only included species in Caenoptychia (type species), based on adult morphology and molecular data. The results showed that Caenoptychia Le Cerf belongs to the Euptychia Hübner clade, and the genus is synonymized with Euptychia, new synonymy. Euptychia boulleti (Le Cerf) is a new combination. The male genitalia of E. boulleti showed at least one important synapomorphy with the other species of Euptychia, which is the presence of a posterior projection of the tegumen above the uncus. Molecular data reinforces the position of Caenoptychia within the genus Euptychia.

  14. [PLASTICITY OF THE THERMAL REACTION NORMS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN PEACOCK BUTTERLY INACHIS IO (LEPIDOPTERA, NYMPHALIDAE)].

    PubMed

    Ryzhkova, M V; Lopatina, E B

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the plasticity of the thermal reaction norms for development in the European Peacock butterfly Inachis io under the effect of different photoperiodic conditions and group versus individual maintenance. The overwintered imagoes were collected in Old Peterhof (near Saint-Petersburg) in May, 2010 and 2012-2013. 12 experimental regimens were used: 4 temperatures (16, 18, 20 and 22 degrees C) and 3 photoperiods (12, 18 and 22 h of light a day). It was found that under short-day conditions (12 h) the caterpillars developed a little faster than under long-day ones (22 h). The developmental temperature thresholds in these two cases did not differ. A linear regression coefficient characterizing thermal sensitivity of development was significantly higher only in males with their development affected by short-day photoperiod stronger than in females. At 18-h day length, the caterpillar development was less temperature-sensitive and characterized by a lower threshold than in shorter and longer days. The influence of short-day photoperiod on the caterpillar development manifested itself most distinctly in the emerging pupae' weight changes: in all the temperature regimens the pupae were lighter at short than at long days. The pupal weight increased as the temperature rose. The found dependence does not agree with the "temperature-size rule". Individual rearing led to a longer duration and lower thermal sensitivity of caterpillar and pupal development as well as to a reduced weight of the pupae. Individual rearing had a stronger impact on the mineral of females than males.

  15. "Darwin's butterflies"? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Sourakov, Andrei; Zakharov, Evgeny V

    2011-01-01

    The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin's finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA 'barcodes' (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI) from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa Calisto confusa Lathy, 1899 and Calisto confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz & Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824) (including its subspecies Calisto hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n.), and its former subspecies Calisto batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%) and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/Calisto crypta Gali, 1985/Calisto franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%), confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma González, 1987, Calisto grannus amazona González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus micrommata Schwartz & Gali, 1984, stat. n., Calisto grannus dystacta González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus phoinix González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus sommeri Schwartz & Gali, 1984, stat. n., and Calisto grannus micheneri Clench, 1944, stat. n.) should be treated as a single polytypic species, as genetic divergence among sampled populations representing these taxa is low (and stable morphological apomorphies are absent). A widely-distributed pest of sugar cane, Calisto pulchella Lathy, 1899 showed higher diversification among isolated populations (3.5%) than expected, hence supporting former separation of this species into two taxa (pulchella and darlingtoni Clench, 1943), of which the latter might prove to be a separate species rather than subspecies. The taxonomic revisions presented here result in Calisto now containing 34 species and 17 subspecies. Three species endemic to islands other than Hispaniola appear to be derived lineages of various Hispaniolan clades, indicating ancient dispersal events from Hispaniola to Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica. Overall, the degree of intrageneric and intraspecific divergence within Calisto suggests a long and continuous diversification period of 4-8 Myr. The maximum divergence within the genus (ca. 13.3%) is almost equivalent to the maximum divergence of Calisto from the distant pronophiline relative Auca Hayward, 1953 from the southern Andes (14.1%) and from the presumed closest relative Eretris Thieme, 1905 (14.4%), suggesting that the genus began to diversify soon after its split from its continental sister taxon. In general, this 'barcode' divergence corresponds to the high degree of morphological and ecological variation found among major lineages within the genus.

  16. Feeding Behaviour on Host Plants May Influence Potential Exposure to Bt Maize Pollen of Aglais Urticae Larvae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Andreas; Otto, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Non-target butterfly larvae may be harmed by feeding on host plants dusted with Bt maize pollen. Feeding patterns of larvae and their utilization of host plants can affect the adverse Bt impact because the maize pollen is distributed unequally on the plant. In a field study, we investigated the feeding of larvae of the Small Tortoiseshell, Aglais urticae, on nettles, Urtica dioica. Young larvae used smaller host plants than older larvae. In general, the position of the larvae was in the top part of the host plant, but older larvae showed a broader vertical distribution on the nettles. Leaf blades and leaf tips were the plant parts most often consumed. Leaf veins were consumed but midribs were fed on to a lesser extent than other plant veins, particularly by young larvae. The feeding behavior of the larvae may increase possible exposure to Bt maize pollen because pollen densities are expected to be higher on the top parts and along leaf veins of nettles. PMID:26463415

  17. Embryogenesis of Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae): a contribution to the anatomical development of an evo-devo model organism.

    PubMed

    Aymone, Ana Carolina Bahi; Lothhammer, Nívia; Valente, Vera Lúcia da Silva; de Araújo, Aldo Mellender

    2014-08-01

    This study reports on the embryogenesis of Heliconius erato phyllis between blastoderm formation and the prehatching larval stage. Syncytial blastoderm formation occurred approximately 2 h after egg laying (AEL) and at about 4 h, the cellular blastoderm was formed. The germ band arose from the entire length of the blastoderm, and rapidly became compacted occupying approximately two-thirds of the egg length. At about 7 h AEL, protocephalon and protocorm differentiation occurred. Continued proliferation of the germ band was followed by penetration into the yolk mass, forming a C-shaped embryo at about 10 h. Approximately 12 h AEL, the gnathal, thoracic and abdominal segments became visible. The primordium of the mouthparts and thoracic legs formed as paired evaginations, while the prolegs formed as paired lobes. At about 30 h, the embryo reversed dorsoventrally. Approximately 32 h AEL, the protocephalon and gnathal segments fused, shifting the relative position of the rudimentary appendages in this region. At about 52 h, the embryo was U-shaped in lateral view and at approximately 56 h, the bristles began evagination from the larval cuticle. Larvae hatched at about 72 h. We found that H. erato phyllis followed an embryonic pattern consistent with long-germ embryogenesis. Thus, we believe that H. erato phyllis should be classified as a long-germ lepidopteran. The study of H. erato phyllis embryogenesis provided a structural glimpse into the morphogenetic events that occur in the Heliconius egg period. This study could help future molecular approaches to understanding the evolution of Heliconius development.

  18. New Calisto species from Cuba, with insights on the relationships of Cuban and Bahamian taxa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Núnez Aguila, Rayner; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Three new species and a new subspecies of Calisto Hübner are described from Cuba, Calisto torrei sp. n. Núñez, Calisto dissimulatum sp. n. Núñez, Calisto aquilum sp. n. Núñez, and Calisto aquilum occidentalis ssp. n. Núñez. The immature stages of C. torrei and C. dissimulatum are also described. Notes on the distribution and biology of the species are given. All Cuban and Bahamian taxa form a monophyletic group which seems to have originated in northeastern Cuba spreading later to the west. DNA sequence data also allowed to recognize both Bahamian taxa, Calisto sibylla and Calisto apollinis stat. n., as distinct species, and to synonymize Calisto herophile parsonsi syn. n. under Calisto herophile.

  19. Description of new mitochondrial genomes (Spodoptera litura, Noctuoidea and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, Pyraloidea) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera with the comment on optimization schemes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-11-01

    We newly sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Spodoptera litura and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis belonging to Lepidoptera to obtain further insight into mitochondrial genome evolution in this group and investigated the influence of optimal strategies on phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera. Estimation of p-distances of each mitochondrial gene for available taxonomic levels has shown the highest value in ND6, whereas the lowest values in COI and COII at the nucleotide level, suggesting different utility of each gene for different hierarchical group when individual genes are utilized for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analyses mainly yielded the relationships (((((Bombycoidea + Geometroidea) + Noctuoidea) + Pyraloidea) + Papilionoidea) + Tortricoidea), evidencing the polyphyly of Macrolepidoptera. The Noctuoidea concordantly recovered the familial relationships (((Arctiidae + Lymantriidae) + Noctuidae) + Notodontidae). The tests of optimality strategies, such as exclusion of third codon positions, inclusion of rRNA and tRNA genes, data partitioning, RY recoding approach, and recoding nucleotides into amino acids suggested that the majority of the strategies did not substantially alter phylogenetic topologies or nodal supports, except for the sister relationship between Lycaenidae and Pieridae only in the amino acid dataset, which was in contrast to the sister relationship between Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae in Papilionoidea in the remaining datasets.

  20. Dynamics of host plant use and species diversity in Polygonia butterflies (Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Weingartner, E; Wahlberg, N; Nylin, S

    2006-03-01

    The ability of insects to utilize different host plants has been suggested to be a dynamic and transient phase. During or after this phase, species can shift to novel host plants or respecialize on ancestral ones. Expanding the range of host plants might also be a factor leading to higher levels of net speciation rates. In this paper, we have studied the possible importance of host plant range for diversification in the genus Polygonia (Nymphalidae, Nymphalini). We have compared species richness between sistergroups in order to find out if there are any differences in number of species between clades including species that utilize only the ancestral host plants ('urticalean rosids') and their sisterclades with a broader (or in some cases potentially broader) host plant repertoire. Four comparisons could be made, and although these are not all phylogenetically or statistically independent, all showed clades including butterfly species using other or additional host plants than the urticalean rosids to be more species-rich than their sisterclade restricted to the ancestral host plants. These results are consistent with the theory that expansions in host plant range are involved in the process of diversification in butterflies and other phytophagous insects, in line with the general theory that plasticity may drive speciation.

  1. Diversity dynamics in Nymphalidae butterflies: effect of phylogenetic uncertainty on diversification rate shift estimates.

    PubMed

    Peña, Carlos; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The species rich butterfly family Nymphalidae has been used to study evolutionary interactions between plants and insects. Theories of insect-hostplant dynamics predict accelerated diversification due to key innovations. In evolutionary biology, analysis of maximum credibility trees in the software MEDUSA (modelling evolutionary diversity using stepwise AIC) is a popular method for estimation of shifts in diversification rates. We investigated whether phylogenetic uncertainty can produce different results by extending the method across a random sample of trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian run. Using the MultiMEDUSA approach, we found that phylogenetic uncertainty greatly affects diversification rate estimates. Different trees produced diversification rates ranging from high values to almost zero for the same clade, and both significant rate increase and decrease in some clades. Only four out of 18 significant shifts found on the maximum clade credibility tree were consistent across most of the sampled trees. Among these, we found accelerated diversification for Ithomiini butterflies. We used the binary speciation and extinction model (BiSSE) and found that a hostplant shift to Solanaceae is correlated with increased net diversification rates in Ithomiini, congruent with the diffuse cospeciation hypothesis. Our results show that taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account when estimating net diversification rate shifts is of great importance, as very different results can be obtained when using the maximum clade credibility tree and other trees from the posterior distribution.

  2. Diversity Dynamics in Nymphalidae Butterflies: Effect of Phylogenetic Uncertainty on Diversification Rate Shift Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Carlos; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The species rich butterfly family Nymphalidae has been used to study evolutionary interactions between plants and insects. Theories of insect-hostplant dynamics predict accelerated diversification due to key innovations. In evolutionary biology, analysis of maximum credibility trees in the software MEDUSA (modelling evolutionary diversity using stepwise AIC) is a popular method for estimation of shifts in diversification rates. We investigated whether phylogenetic uncertainty can produce different results by extending the method across a random sample of trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian run. Using the MultiMEDUSA approach, we found that phylogenetic uncertainty greatly affects diversification rate estimates. Different trees produced diversification rates ranging from high values to almost zero for the same clade, and both significant rate increase and decrease in some clades. Only four out of 18 significant shifts found on the maximum clade credibility tree were consistent across most of the sampled trees. Among these, we found accelerated diversification for Ithomiini butterflies. We used the binary speciation and extinction model (BiSSE) and found that a hostplant shift to Solanaceae is correlated with increased net diversification rates in Ithomiini, congruent with the diffuse cospeciation hypothesis. Our results show that taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account when estimating net diversification rate shifts is of great importance, as very different results can be obtained when using the maximum clade credibility tree and other trees from the posterior distribution. PMID:25830910

  3. Localization of ecdysone receptor protein during colour pattern formation in wings of the butterfly Precis coenia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and co-expression with Distal-less protein.

    PubMed

    Koch, P Bernhardt; Merk, Rosi; Reinhardt, Ralf; Weber, Petra

    2003-01-01

    Butterfly wing colour patterns are determined during late larval and early pupal development, a part of metamorphosis controlled by ecdysteroid hormones via their nuclear hormone receptors. We have sequenced a fragment of the common regions of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) from the butterflies Precis coenia and Bicyclus anynanaand found high identities (83.5% to 100%) to EcR from a moth, Manduca sexta. In P. coenia, we sequenced a putative EcR-B1 isoform with 80.4% identity with the A/B-region of the M. sexta-EcR-B1. Consequently, we used antibodies generated against MsEcR-B1 to localise EcR protein during wing development of P. coenia. Nuclear staining of EcR was observed in different cell types during the course of colour pattern formation. Major observations are as follows: EcR is expressed in cell nuclei corresponding to wing lacunae and prospective veins. EcR is expressed early in pupal wing development in "focal" cells which are thought to release determining signals in a process leading to eyespot formation. Scale forming cells differentiate first and show EcR signal in the eyespot foci and most of the wing sheet, but not in areas corresponding to prospective eyespots. In the eyespots, 20-24 h after pupation, EcR expression seems to play a role in formation of scale rows preceding a later expression (28 h) in scale-forming cells. The results demonstrate that EcR is locally expressed in correlation to all major events of wing development and colour pattern formation. In particular, EcR expression patterns in prospective eyespots show that these are special pattern elements which are specified in concert with other factors of colour pattern formation such as the transcription factor Distal-less. In eyespot foci, Distal-less is expressed simultaneously with EcR, but clearly precedes EcR expression in eyespot scale-forming cells. This indicates a potential interaction between "short-range" signalling systems and "long-range" hormonal systems. PMID:12536321

  4. Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977-2014.

    PubMed

    Swengel, Scott R; Swengel, Ann B

    2016-01-01

    Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) primarily inhabits prairie, a native grassland of central North America, and occurs rarely in nonprairie grasslands further east. This butterfly has experienced widespread decline and marked range contraction. We analyze Regal Fritillary incidence and abundance during 1977-2014 in 4th of July Butterfly Counts, an annual census of butterflies in North America. Volunteers count within the same 24 km diameter circle each year. Only 6% of counts in range reported a Regal, while 18% of counts in core range in the Midwest and Great Plains did. 99.9% of Regal individuals occurred in core range. Only four circles east of core range reported this species, and only during the first half of the study period. All individuals reported west of its main range occurred in two circles in Colorado in the second half of the study. The number of counts per year and survey effort per count increased during the study. During 1991-2014, >31 counts occurred per year in core Regal range, compared to 0-23 during 1975-1990. During 1991-2014, all measures of Regal presence and abundance declined, most significantly. These results agree with other sources that Regal Fritillary has contracted its range and declined in abundance. PMID:27239370

  5. Localization of ecdysone receptor protein during colour pattern formation in wings of the butterfly Precis coenia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and co-expression with Distal-less protein.

    PubMed

    Koch, P Bernhardt; Merk, Rosi; Reinhardt, Ralf; Weber, Petra

    2003-01-01

    Butterfly wing colour patterns are determined during late larval and early pupal development, a part of metamorphosis controlled by ecdysteroid hormones via their nuclear hormone receptors. We have sequenced a fragment of the common regions of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) from the butterflies Precis coenia and Bicyclus anynanaand found high identities (83.5% to 100%) to EcR from a moth, Manduca sexta. In P. coenia, we sequenced a putative EcR-B1 isoform with 80.4% identity with the A/B-region of the M. sexta-EcR-B1. Consequently, we used antibodies generated against MsEcR-B1 to localise EcR protein during wing development of P. coenia. Nuclear staining of EcR was observed in different cell types during the course of colour pattern formation. Major observations are as follows: EcR is expressed in cell nuclei corresponding to wing lacunae and prospective veins. EcR is expressed early in pupal wing development in "focal" cells which are thought to release determining signals in a process leading to eyespot formation. Scale forming cells differentiate first and show EcR signal in the eyespot foci and most of the wing sheet, but not in areas corresponding to prospective eyespots. In the eyespots, 20-24 h after pupation, EcR expression seems to play a role in formation of scale rows preceding a later expression (28 h) in scale-forming cells. The results demonstrate that EcR is locally expressed in correlation to all major events of wing development and colour pattern formation. In particular, EcR expression patterns in prospective eyespots show that these are special pattern elements which are specified in concert with other factors of colour pattern formation such as the transcription factor Distal-less. In eyespot foci, Distal-less is expressed simultaneously with EcR, but clearly precedes EcR expression in eyespot scale-forming cells. This indicates a potential interaction between "short-range" signalling systems and "long-range" hormonal systems.

  6. The presence-absence situation and its impact on the assemblage structure and interspecific relations of Pronophilina butterflies in the Venezuelan Andes (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Pyrcz, T W; Garlacz, R

    2012-06-01

    Assemblage structure and altitudinal patterns of Pronophilina, a species-rich group of Andean butterflies, are compared in El Baho and Monte Zerpa, two closely situated and ecologically similar Andean localities. Their faunas differ only by the absence of Pedaliodes ornata Grose-Smith in El Baho. There are, however, important structural differences between the two Pronophilina assemblages. Whereas there are five co-dominant species in Monte Zerpa, including P. ornata, Pedaliodes minabilis Pyrcz is the only dominant with more than half of all the individuals in the sample in El Baho. The absence of P. ornata in El Baho is investigated from historical, geographic, and ecological perspectives exploring the factors responsible for its possible extinction including climate change, mass dying out of host plants, and competitive exclusion. Although competitive exclusion between P. ornata and P. minabilis is a plausible mechanism, considered that their ecological niches overlap, which suggests a limiting influence on each other's populations, the object of competition was not identified, and the reason of the absence of P. ornata in El Baho could not be established. The role of spatial interference related to imperfect sexual behavioral isolation is evaluated in maintaining the parapatric altitudinal distributions of three pairs of phenotypically similar and related species of Pedaliodes, Corades, and Lymanopoda.

  7. Changes of seasonal morph development induced by surgical operations in pupae of the large map butterfly Araschnia burejana Bermer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kae; Kanzaki, Koji; Hinauchi, Mami; Fujishima, Tetsuro; Islam, Abu Taher Md Fayezul; Kitazawa, Chisato; Endo, Katsuhiko; Yamanaka, Akira

    2014-06-01

    The nymphalid butterfly Araschnia burejana and the papilionid butterfly Papilio xuthus exhibit seasonal diphenism comprising spring-morphs that develop from diapause pupae and summer-morphs that develop from non-diapause pupae. The development of seasonal morphs in A. burejana is regulated by the timing of secretion of ecdysteroids for adult development, whereas that in P. xuthus is regulated by the secretion of summer-morph-producing hormone, which is present in the brains and is under control of the photoperiod. We investigated whether a cerebral factor derived from brains plays a significant role in the regulation of seasonal morph development in A. burejana using surgical operations. Pairs of chilled diapause pupae that had been chilled for more than 3 months at 4°C were joined surgically to each other and then developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults. Chilled diapause pupae that were joined with 1-day-old non-diapause pupae developed into summer-morph or summer-like-morph adults. When the brains of non-diapause pupae were removed surgically 6-8 hr after pupation with and without injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone, a large portion of them developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults, respectively. Furthermore, 90% of non-diapause pupae developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults when the neck was ligated within 5 min after pupation. These results indicated that a cerebral factor showing summer-morph-producing hormone activity, which is secreted from the brain in the early pupal stage, in addition to 20-hydroxyecdysone for adult development, play a significant role in the determination of summer-morph development in non-diapause pupae of A. burejana.

  8. Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977-2014.

    PubMed

    Swengel, Scott R; Swengel, Ann B

    2016-01-01

    Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) primarily inhabits prairie, a native grassland of central North America, and occurs rarely in nonprairie grasslands further east. This butterfly has experienced widespread decline and marked range contraction. We analyze Regal Fritillary incidence and abundance during 1977-2014 in 4th of July Butterfly Counts, an annual census of butterflies in North America. Volunteers count within the same 24 km diameter circle each year. Only 6% of counts in range reported a Regal, while 18% of counts in core range in the Midwest and Great Plains did. 99.9% of Regal individuals occurred in core range. Only four circles east of core range reported this species, and only during the first half of the study period. All individuals reported west of its main range occurred in two circles in Colorado in the second half of the study. The number of counts per year and survey effort per count increased during the study. During 1991-2014, >31 counts occurred per year in core Regal range, compared to 0-23 during 1975-1990. During 1991-2014, all measures of Regal presence and abundance declined, most significantly. These results agree with other sources that Regal Fritillary has contracted its range and declined in abundance.

  9. New species of high elevation cloud forest butterflies of the genus Pedaliodes Butler from the northern Colombian Andes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Prieto, Carlos; Viloria, Angel L; Andrade, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Pedaliodes Butler (i.e., P. adrianae, n. sp., P. haydoni, n. sp., P. philinae, n. sp. and P. rodriguezi, n. sp.) are described from the high elevation cloud forests in the Frontino massif in the Colombian Western Cordillera and the northern part of the Central and Eastern Cordilleras. The affinities of these new species with other congeners are discussed. The total number of described species of Colombian Pronophilina is increased to 208, with a particularly high total number of species (88) and proportion of endemic species (26%) in the Western Cordillera.

  10. Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the wing scales in Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): what silvery/brownish surfaces can tell us about the development of color patterning?

    PubMed

    Aymone, A C B; Valente, V L S; de Araújo, A M

    2013-09-01

    Usually the literature on Heliconius show three types of scales, classified based on the correlation between color and ultrastructure: type I - white and yellow, type II - black, and type III - orange and red. The ultrastructure of the scales located at the silvery/brownish surfaces of males/females is for the first time described in this paper. Besides, we describe the ontogeny of pigmentation, the scale morphogenesis and the maturation timing of scales fated to different colors in Heliconius erato phyllis. The silvery/brownish surfaces showed ultrastructurally similar scales to the type I, II and III. The ontogeny of pigmentation follows the sequence red, black, silvery/brownish and yellow. The maturation of yellow-fated scales, however, occurred simultaneously with the red-fated scales, before the pigmentation becomes visible. In spite of the scales at the silvery/brownish surfaces being ultrastructurally similar to the yellow, red and black scales, they mature after them; this suggests that the maturation timing does not show a relationship with the scale ultrastructure, with the deposition timing of the yellow pigment. The analysis of H. erato phyllis scale morphogenesis, as well as the scales ultrastructure and maturation timing, provided new findings into the developmental architecture of color pattern in Heliconius.

  11. Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977–2014

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) primarily inhabits prairie, a native grassland of central North America, and occurs rarely in nonprairie grasslands further east. This butterfly has experienced widespread decline and marked range contraction. We analyze Regal Fritillary incidence and abundance during 1977–2014 in 4th of July Butterfly Counts, an annual census of butterflies in North America. Volunteers count within the same 24 km diameter circle each year. Only 6% of counts in range reported a Regal, while 18% of counts in core range in the Midwest and Great Plains did. 99.9% of Regal individuals occurred in core range. Only four circles east of core range reported this species, and only during the first half of the study period. All individuals reported west of its main range occurred in two circles in Colorado in the second half of the study. The number of counts per year and survey effort per count increased during the study. During 1991–2014, >31 counts occurred per year in core Regal range, compared to 0–23 during 1975–1990. During 1991–2014, all measures of Regal presence and abundance declined, most significantly. These results agree with other sources that Regal Fritillary has contracted its range and declined in abundance. PMID:27239370

  12. Iridoid glycoside content ofEuphydryas anicia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and its major hostplant,Besseya plantaginea (Scrophulariaceae), at a high plains colorado site.

    PubMed

    L'empereur, K M; Stermitz, F R

    1990-01-01

    The checkerspot butterfly,Euphydryas anicia, utilizes mainlyBesseya plantaginea and only occasionallyCastilleja integra as a larval hostplant at Michigan Hill, a few kilometers from a site whereC. integra is used by over 90% of the butterflies. TheB. plantaginea leaves that are consumed contain 9-22% iridoid glycosides, composed mainly of catalpol and catalpol esters, while larvae from the same plants contain 6-18% iridoids, mainly catalpol and no esters. Field-collected adult butterflies contain 0.5-4.3% iridoids. Laboratory-reared adults secrete iridoids in the meconium upon eclosion and retain similar amounts. The adult and meconium iridoid content is considerably lower than in the larvae, and metabolism in the pupal stage may be occurring.

  13. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  14. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea).

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007-2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  15. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell’Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007–2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  16. Reverse color sequence in the diffraction of white light by the wing of the male butterfly Pierella luna (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla; Aiello, Annette; Bay, Annick; Windsor, Donald M; Colomer, Jean-François; Rassart, Marie

    2010-08-01

    The butterfly Pierella luna (Nymphalidae) shows an intriguing rainbow iridescence effect: the forewings of the male, when illuminated along the axis from the body to the wing tip, decompose a white light beam as a diffraction grating would do. Violet light, however, emerges along a grazing angle, near the wing surface, while the other colors, from blue to red, exit respectively at angles progressively closer to the direction perpendicular to the wing plane. This sequence is the reverse of the usual decomposition of light by a grating with a periodicity parallel to the wing surface. It is shown that this effect is produced by a macroscopic deformation of the entire scale, which curls in such a way that it forms a "vertical" grating, perpendicular to the wing surface, and functions in transmission instead of reflection.

  17. Beyond the Colours: Discovering Hidden Diversity in the Nymphalidae of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico through DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Blanca R.; Pozo, Carmen; Valdez-Moreno, Martha; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of DNA barcoding in the discovery of overlooked species and in the connection of immature and adult stages. In this study, we use DNA barcoding to examine diversity patterns in 121 species of Nymphalidae from the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Our results suggest the presence of cryptic species in 8 of these 121 taxa. As well, the reference database derived from the analysis of adult specimens allowed the identification of nymphalid caterpillars providing new details on host plant use. Methodology/Principal Findings We gathered DNA barcode sequences from 857 adult Nymphalidae representing 121 different species. This total includes four species (Adelpha iphiclus, Adelpha malea, Hamadryas iphtime and Taygetis laches) that were initially overlooked because of their close morphological similarity to other species. The barcode results showed that each of the 121 species possessed a diagnostic array of barcode sequences. In addition, there was evidence of cryptic taxa; seven species included two barcode clusters showing more than 2% sequence divergence while one species included three clusters. All 71 nymphalid caterpillars were identified to a species level by their sequence congruence to adult sequences. These caterpillars represented 16 species, and included Hamadryas julitta, an endemic species from the Yucatan Peninsula whose larval stages and host plant (Dalechampia schottii, also endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula) were previously unknown. Conclusions/Significance This investigation has revealed overlooked species in a well-studied museum collection of nymphalid butterflies and suggests that there is a substantial incidence of cryptic species that await full characterization. The utility of barcoding in the rapid identification of caterpillars also promises to accelerate the assembly of information on life histories, a particularly important advance for hyperdiverse tropical insect assemblages. PMID:22132140

  18. A molecular view of autophagy in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Davide; Casati, Barbara; Franzetti, Eleonora; Tettamanti, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Metamorphosis represents a critical phase in the development of holometabolous insects, during which the larval body is completely reorganized: in fact, most of the larval organs undergo remodeling or completely degenerate before the final structure of the adult insect is rebuilt. In the past, increasing evidence emerged concerning the intervention of autophagy and apoptosis in the cell death processes that occur in larval organs of Lepidoptera during metamorphosis, but a molecular characterization of these pathways was undertaken only in recent years. In addition to developmentally programmed autophagy, there is growing interest in starvation-induced autophagy. Therefore we are now entering a new era of research on autophagy that foreshadows clarification of the role and regulatory mechanisms underlying this self-digesting process in Lepidoptera. Given that some of the most important lepidopteran species of high economic importance, such as the silkworm, Bombyx mori, belong to this insect order, we expect that this information on autophagy will be fully exploited not only in basic research but also for practical applications.

  19. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. PMID:27228010

  20. Ectoparasitic Acugutturid Nematodes of Adult Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, A. M.; Rogers, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    Noctuidonema guyaneme is an interesting ectoparasite of adult Lepidoptera that feeds on hosts from at least five families with its long stylet. Noctuidonema guyanense spends its entire life on the adult moth and is sustained as it is passed from moth to moth during host mating. Overlapping host generations are essential for parasite survival. This nematode occurs throughout tropical and subtropical America and is transported by at least one of its hosts, Spodoptera frugiperda, during migration to northern sites in the United States each spring. Noctuidonema guyanense debilitates its hosts. Research conducted to help determine the biological control importance of this nematode is reviewed. Two additional species, N. daptria and N. dibolia, are now known for Noctuidonema. PMID:19277339

  1. Conservation of silk genes in Trichoptera and Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, Naoyuki; Mita, Kazuei; Tamura, Toshiki; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2009-06-01

    Larvae of the sister orders Trichoptera and Lepidoptera are characterized by silk secretion from a pair of labial glands. In both orders the silk filament consists of heavy (H)- and light (L)-chain fibroins and in Lepidoptera it also includes a P25 glycoprotein. The L-fibroin and H-fibroin genes of Rhyacophila obliterata and Hydropsyche angustipennis caddisflies have exon/intron structuring (seven exons in L-fibroin and two in H-fibroin) similar to that in their counterparts in Lepidoptera. Fibroin cDNAs are also known in Limnephilus decipiens, representing the third caddisfly suborder. Amino acid sequences of deduced L-fibroin proteins and of the terminal H-fibroin regions are about 50% identical among the three caddisfly species but their similarity to lepidopteran fibroins is <25%. Positions of some residues are conserved, including cysteines that were shown to link the L-fibroin and H-fibroin by a disulfide bridge in Lepidoptera. The long internal part of H-fibroins is composed of short motifs arranged in species-specific repeats. They are extremely uniform in R. obliterata. Motifs (SX)(n), GGX, and GPGXX occur in both Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. The trichopteran H-fibroins further contain charged amphiphilic motifs but lack the strings of alanines or alanine-glycine dipeptides that are typical lepidopteran motifs. On the other hand, sequences composed of a motif similar to ERIVAPTVITR surrounded by the (SX)(4-6) strings and modifications of the GRRGWGRRG motif occur in Trichoptera and not in Lepidoptera.

  2. Out-of-Africa origin and dispersal-mediated diversification of the butterfly genus Junonia (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae).

    PubMed

    Kodandaramaiah, U; Wahlberg, N

    2007-11-01

    The relative importance of dispersal and vicariance in the diversification of taxa has been much debated. Within butterflies, a few studies published so far have demonstrated vicariant patterns at the global level. We studied the historical biogeography of the genus Junonia (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae) at the intercontinental level based on a molecular phylogeny. The genus is distributed over all major biogeographical regions of the world except the Palaearctic. We found dispersal to be the dominant process in the diversification of the genus. The genus originated and started diversifying in Africa about 20 Ma and soon after dispersed into Asia possibly through the Arabian Peninsula. From Asia, there were dispersals into Africa and Australasia, all around 5 Ma. The origin of the New World species is ambiguous; the ancestral may have dispersed from Asia via the Beringian Strait or from Africa over the Atlantic, about 3 Ma. We found no evidence for vicariance at the intercontinental scale. We argue that dispersal is as important as vicariance, if not more, in the global diversification of butterflies.

  3. Determining thermotolerance of fifth-instar Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by three different methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermotolerance of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were studied using two water immersion methods and one dry heat method. The two water immersion methods were: 1) directly immersing in hot w...

  4. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed.

  5. A new species of Isopsestis (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae) from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hailing; Owada, Mamoru; Wang, Min

    2015-08-19

    A new species of genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae), Isopsestis poculiformis sp. nov., is described from the locality 2660m elevation in Northeast Yunnan, China, and compared with its closest ally. Male adult and genitalia of the new species are illustrated and a distribution map of the genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 is provided.

  6. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  7. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  8. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): hemostasis implications.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Silviane; Faulhaber, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal. PMID:26248250

  9. Wolbachia infection and Lepidoptera of conservation concern.

    PubMed

    Hamm, C A; Handley, C A; Pike, A; Forister, M L; Fordyce, J A; Nice, C C

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of at-risk species requires multi-faceted and carefully-considered management approaches to be successful. For arthropods, the presence of endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), may complicate management plans and exacerbate the challenges faced by conservation managers. Wolbachia poses a substantial and underappreciated threat to the conservation of arthropods because infection may induce a number of phenotypic effects, most of which are considered deleterious to the host population. In this study, the prevalence of Wolbachia infection in lepidopteran species of conservation concern was examined. Using standard molecular techniques, 22 species of Lepidoptera were screened, of which 19 were infected with Wolbachia. This rate is comparable to that observed in insects as a whole. However, this is likely an underestimate because geographic sampling was not extensive and may not have included infected segments of the species' ranges. Wolbachia infections may be particularly problematic for conservation management plans that incorporate captive propagation or translocation. Inadvertent introduction of Wolbachia into uninfected populations or introduction of a new strain may put these populations at greater risk for extinction. Further sampling to investigate the geographic extent of Wolbachia infections within species of conservation concern and experiments designed to determine the nature of the infection phenotype(s) are necessary to manage the potential threat of infection. PMID:25373153

  10. Wolbachia Infection and Lepidoptera of Conservation Concern

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, C. A.; Handley, C. A.; Pike, A.; Forister, M. L.; Fordyce, J. A.; Nice, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of at-risk species requires multi-faceted and carefully-considered management approaches to be successful. For arthropods, the presence of endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), may complicate management plans and exacerbate the challenges faced by conservation managers. Wolbachia poses a substantial and underappreciated threat to the conservation of arthropods because infection may induce a number of phenotypic effects, most of which are considered deleterious to the host population. In this study, the prevalence of Wolbachia infection in lepidopteran species of conservation concern was examined. Using standard molecular techniques, 22 species of Lepidoptera were screened, of which 19 were infected with Wolbachia. This rate is comparable to that observed in insects as a whole. However, this is likely an underestimate because geographic sampling was not extensive and may not have included infected segments of the species' ranges. Wolbachia infections may be particularly problematic for conservation management plans that incorporate captive propagation or translocation. Inadvertent introduction of Wolbachia into uninfected populations or introduction of a new strain may put these populations at greater risk for extinction. Further sampling to investigate the geographic extent of Wolbachia infections within species of conservation concern and experiments designed to determine the nature of the infection phenotype(s) are necessary to manage the potential threat of infection. PMID:25373153

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of true butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) inferred from COI, 16S rRNA and EF-1α sequences.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man Il; Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Ahn, Neung-Ho; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2010-11-01

    The molecular phylogenetic relationships among true butterfly families (superfamily Papilionoidea) have been a matter of substantial controversy; this debate has led to several competing hypotheses. Two of the most compelling of those hypotheses involve the relationships of (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + (Pieridae + Papilionidae) and (((Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + Pieridae) + Papilionidae). In this study, approximately 3,500 nucleotide sequences from cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) were sequenced from 83 species belonging to four true butterfly families, along with those of three outgroup species belonging to three lepidopteran superfamilies. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic reconstruction via Bayesian Inference (BI), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum Parsimony (MP) algorithms. The monophyletic Pieridae and monophyletic Papilionidae evidenced good recovery in all analyses, but in some analyses, the monophylies of the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae were hampered by the inclusion of single species of the lycaenid subfamily Miletinae and the nymphalid subfamily Danainae. Excluding those singletons, all phylogenetic analyses among the four true butterfly families clearly identified the Nymphalidae as the sister to the Lycaenidae and identified this group as a sister to the Pieridae, with the Papilionidae identified as the most basal linage to the true butterfly, thus supporting the hypothesis: (Papilionidae + (Pieridae + (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae))).

  12. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general.

  13. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  14. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.

  15. Timing Spring Insecticide Applications to Target both Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Almond Orchards.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Kelly A; Nicola, Nicole L; Niederholzer, Franz J A; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-04-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) are key Lepidoptera pests of almonds in California. Spring insecticide applications (early to mid-May) targeting either insect were not usually recommended because of the potential to disrupt natural enemies when broad-spectrum organophosphates and pyrethroids were applied. The registration of reduced risk compounds such as chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram, which have a higher margin of safety for natural enemies, makes spring (early to mid-May) application an acceptable control approach. We examined the efficacy of methoxyfenozide, spinetoram, and chlorantraniliprole at three spring application timings including the optimum spring timing for both A. lineatella and A. transitella in California almonds. Our study also examined the possibility of reducing larval populations of A. lineatella and A. transitella simultaneously with a single spring insecticide application. There were no significant differences in the field efficacy of insecticides targeting either A. lineatella or A. transitella, depending on application timing for the three spring timings examined in this study. In most years (2009-2011), all three timings for each compound resulted in significantly less A. transitella and A. lineatella damage when compared with an untreated control, though there was some variation in efficacy between the two species. Early to mid-May applications of the reduced-risk insecticides chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram can be used to simultaneously target A. transitella and A. lineatella with similar results across the potential timings.

  16. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea).

    PubMed

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  17. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  18. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  19. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  20. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    PubMed

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-08-21

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010.

  1. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    PubMed

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-01-01

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010. PMID:26623765

  2. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W.; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular systematic studies of Lepidoptera, particularly at the intrafamilial level, and our new set of primers now provides a route to generating phylogenomic datasets using traditional methods. PMID:27408580

  3. Alternative techniques to study characters of the genitalia in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2010-01-01

    The present note aims to describe two alternative methods for observing genitalia in Lepidoptera. The first one provides means to examine both male and female genitalia without spoiling the scales of the abdomen, preserving it attached to the thorax and aesthetically similar to an unexamined specimen. The second one provides ways of observing certain characters on the male genitalia in a non-destructive way, and does not depend on time-consuming removing and dissection of the abdomen. It is expected that the presented techniques will help on morphological studies and on identifying similar species which consistently differ in genitalic armatures.

  4. Geraldocossus gen. nov. (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) from Mount Cameroon (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    The cossid or the Carpenter Moths (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) include about 1000 species worldwide (van Nieukerken et al., 2011), of which 750 species belong to five subfamilies that occur in the Old World (Yakovlev 2011). The Cossidae are still relatively poorly known from vast areas of the African continent, despite recent reports on the fauna of Malawi (Yakovlev & Murphey 2014), Zimbabwe (Yakovlev & Lenz 2014), and Zambia (Yakovlev 2014). The first results of an ongoing revision of the South African Cossidae have also been published (Mey 2015). PMID:27395152

  5. Resistance to insecticides in Heliothine Lepidoptera: a global view

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    The status of resistance to organophosphate, carbamate, cyclodiene and pyrethroid insecticides in the heliothine Lepidoptera is reviewed. In particular, resistance in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, from the New World, and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, from the Old World, are considered in detail. Particular emphasis has been placed on resistance to the most widely used of these insecticide groups, the pyrethroids. In each case, the incidence and current status of resistance are considered before a detailed view of the mechanisms of resistance is given. Controversial issues regarding the nature of mechanisms of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides are discussed. The implications for resistance management are considered.

  6. Deleterious activity of natural products on postures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Wagner S; Cruz, Ivan; Fonseca, Felipe G; Gouveia, Natalia L; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2010-01-01

    The control of Lepidoptera pests should be carried out before hatching of their caterpillars to avoid damage to the crops. The aim of this work was to assess the activity of neem (trade name: Natuneem, producer: Base Fértil, Chapadão do Sul, Brazil) and pyroligneous extracts (trade name: Biopirol 7M, producer: Biocarbo, Itabirito, Brazil) at 10 mL/L (1%) and 20 mL/L (2%) contents on egg masses of different ages of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at Embrapa Corn and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The tests took place in an unbiased casualized design with 12 treatments and four replications. The insecticides were diluted in water, and 0.04 mL of the solution was applied to recently laid and one- and two-day-old eggs of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Caterpillars hatching from recently laid egg masses of S. frugiperda was lower with 2% pyroligneous extract [(0.02 +/- 0.00)%]. Recently laid eggs and one- or two-day-old eggs of D. saccharalis presented lower caterpillar hatching with 1% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%, (0.00 +/- 0.00)%, and (1.00 +/- 0.01)%] and 2% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%], compared to 1% pyroligneous extract [(27.30 +/- 3.22)%, (28.40 +/- 3.32)%, and (37.80 +/- 4.14)%] and 2% pyroligneous extract [(42.20 +/- 4.49)%, (48.70 +/- 4.97)%, and (56.60 +/- 5.52)%], respectively. Neem and pyroligneous extracts had impact on hatching of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis caterpillars.

  7. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  8. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  9. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species – not hermes – inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica). Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775)—type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro—and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County). While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other Hermeuptychia species, H. hermybius can usually be recognized by wing patterns, such as the size of eyespots and the shape of brown lines on hindwing. “Intricate Satyr” and “South Texas Satyr” are proposed as the English names for H. intricata and H. hermybius, respectively. PMID:24574857

  10. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species - not hermes - inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V

    2014-01-01

    Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica). Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775)-type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro-and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County). While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other Hermeuptychia species, H. hermybius can usually be recognized by wing patterns, such as the size of eyespots and the shape of brown lines on hindwing. "Intricate Satyr" and "South Texas Satyr" are proposed as the English names for H. intricata and H. hermybius, respectively. PMID:24574857

  11. Host specificity of Lepidoptera in tropical and temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Dyer, L A; Singer, M S; Lill, J T; Stireman, J O; Gentry, G L; Marquis, R J; Ricklefs, R E; Greeney, H F; Wagner, D L; Morais, H C; Diniz, I R; Kursar, T A; Coley, P D

    2007-08-01

    For numerous taxa, species richness is much higher in tropical than in temperate zone habitats. A major challenge in community ecology and evolutionary biogeography is to reveal the mechanisms underlying these differences. For herbivorous insects, one such mechanism leading to an increased number of species in a given locale could be increased ecological specialization, resulting in a greater proportion of insect species occupying narrow niches within a community. We tested this hypothesis by comparing host specialization in larval Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) at eight different New World forest sites ranging in latitude from 15 degrees S to 55 degrees N. Here we show that larval diets of tropical Lepidoptera are more specialized than those of their temperate forest counterparts: tropical species on average feed on fewer plant species, genera and families than do temperate caterpillars. This result holds true whether calculated per lepidopteran family or for a caterpillar assemblage as a whole. As a result, there is greater turnover in caterpillar species composition (greater beta diversity) between tree species in tropical faunas than in temperate faunas. We suggest that greater specialization in tropical faunas is the result of differences in trophic interactions; for example, there are more distinct plant secondary chemical profiles from one tree species to the next in tropical forests than in temperate forests as well as more diverse and chronic pressures from natural enemy communities.

  12. Immature Stages of the Neotropical Cracker Butterfly, Hamadryas epinome

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luis Anderson Ribeiro; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Carneiro, Eduardo; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The external morphology of the immature stages of Hamadryas epinome (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867) (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae : Biblidinae) is described, including drawings, photos and scanning electron micrographs. PMID:23414072

  13. Microencapsulated pear ester enhances insecticide efficacy in walnuts for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Knight, Alan L

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E,4Z) -2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Two types of studies were conducted to compare the use of insecticides with and without PE-MEC. In the first study, PE-MEC in combination with reduced rates of insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, phosmet, methoxyfenozide, and codling moth granulovirus were evaluated in single tree replicates. PE-MEC was tested at one to three rates (0.6, 1.8, and 4.4 g active ingredient ha(-1)) with each insecticide. In the second study, seasonal programs including sprays of esfenvalerate, chlorpyrifos, and ethyl parathion at full rates were evaluated in replicated two ha blocks. Significant reductions in nut injury occurred in the single-tree trial with treatments of PE-MEC plus insecticide compared with the insecticides used alone against both pest species; except with methoxyfenozide for navel orangeworm. Similarly, nut injury in the large plots was significantly reduced with the addition of PE-MEC, except for navel orangeworm in one of the two studies. These results suggest that adding pear ester as a microencapsulated spray can improve the efficacy of a range of insecticides for two key pests and foster the development of integrated pest management tactics with reduced insecticide use in walnut.

  14. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, José Manuel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Vukusic, Pete

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianing; Xu, Chang; Li, Jialian; Lei, Ying; Fan, Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is 15,221 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (LrRNA and SrRNA) and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition is significantly biased toward A + T (80.9%). All PCGs are initiated by classical ATN codon, with the exception of COI, which begins with TTA codon. Nine PCGs harbor the complete stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND4 and ND5 stop with incomplete codons, single T or TA. All tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A + T content of AT-rich region is 95.2%, same to the highest one in the known species in Pieridae.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cupido argiades (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanlan; Huang, Dunyuan; Sun, Xiaoyan; Hao, Jiasheng; Hao, Juanjuan; Peng, Chaomin; Yang, Qun

    2013-10-01

    The complete mitogenome of Cupido argiades (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) was determined in this study. The genome is 15,330 bp long, presenting a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopoteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for cox1, which uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs harbor TAG (nad3) or incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2, nad5), while others use standard canonical TAA as their termination codons. Furthermore, the largest noncoding A+T-rich region with the length of 450 bp contains two microsatellite-like repeats of (TA)9 and a conserved motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Celastrina hersilia (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Lei, Ying; Xu, Chang; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Celastrina hersilia (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is determined in this work. The mitochondrial genome is 15,304 bp in length, which contains typical 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. All PCGs are initiated by ATA or ATT codons, except for COI, which uses CGA as a start codon. Four PCGs (COI, COII, ND5, and ND4) terminate with incomplete termination codons TA or T, while the others use TAA as stop codons. Most of the tRNA genes can be folded into a typical cloverleaf structure. The A + T-rich region is 370 bp in length, which contains several features common to the other lepidopteran species. PMID:24495135

  18. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  19. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207800

  20. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini).

    PubMed

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenariasp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207800

  1. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae).

    PubMed

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia pogueisp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

  2. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

  3. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Leucoptera malifoliella Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Li, Jie; Yu, Fang; Chesters, Douglas; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) was sequenced. The size was 15,646 bp with gene content and order the same as those of other lepidopterans. The nucleotide composition of L. malifoliella mitogenome is highly A+T biased (82.57%), ranked just below Coreana raphaelis (82.66%) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with the typical ATN codon except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initiation codon. Nine PCGs have the common stop codon TAA, four PCGs have the common stop codon T as incomplete stop codons, and nad4l and nad6 have TAG as the stop codon. Cloverleaf secondary structures were inferred for 22 tRNA genes, but trnS1(AGN) was found to lack the DHU stem. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS is generally similar to other lepidopterans but with some minor differences. The A+T-rich region includes the motif ATAGA, but the poly (T) stretch is replaced by a stem-loop structure, which may have a similar function to the poly (T) stretch. Finally, there are three long repeat (154 bp) sequences followed by one short repeat (56 bp) with four (TA)n intervals, and a 10-bp poly-A is present upstream of trnM. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the position of Yponomeutoidea, as represented by L. malifoliella, is the same as traditional classifications. Yponomeutoidea is the sister to the other lepidopteran superfamilies covered in the present study. PMID:22856872

  4. Caterpillars and moths: Part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars are the larval forms of moths and butterflies and belong to the order Lepidoptera. Caterpillars, and occasionally moths, have evolved defense mechanisms, including irritating hairs, spines, venoms, and toxins that may cause human disease. The pathologic mechanisms underlying reactions to Lepidoptera are poorly understood. Lepidoptera are uncommonly recognized causes of localized stings, eczematous or papular dermatitis, and urticaria. Part I of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews Lepidopteran life cycles, terminology, and the epidemiology of caterpillar and moth envenomation. It also reviews the known pathomechanisms of disease caused by Lepidopteran exposures and how they relate to diagnosis and management. Part II discusses the specific clinical patterns caused by Lepidopteran exposures, with particular emphasis on groups of caterpillars and moths that cause a similar pattern of disease. It also discusses current therapeutic options regarding each pattern of disease.

  5. Novel chemistry of abdominal defensive glands of nymphalid butterfly Agraulis vanillae.

    PubMed

    Ross, G N; Fales, H M; Lloyd, H A; Jones, T; Sokoloski, E A; Marshall-Batty, K; Blum, M S

    2001-06-01

    Abdominal defensive glands of both sexes of the Gulf fritillary butterfly, Agraulis vanillae (Linnaeus) (Nymphalidae:Heliconiinae) emit a pronounced odor when disturbed. We have identified 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; oleic, palmitic, and stearic esters of the corresponding alcohol 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol; hexadecyl acetate; 1,16-hexadecanediol diacetate; and 1,15-hexade-canediol diacetate in the glandular exudate. Since we have determined that free-flying birds or birds in a butterfly conservatory discriminate against A. vanillae as prey, we suggest that the constituents in the glands may play a defensive role against potential avian predators.

  6. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  7. Effect of piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of four classes of insecticides to navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a highly polyphagous economic pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut crops in California orchards. Although management of this pest has typically been through a combination of cultural control and insecticide sprays, increas...

  8. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm adults (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) related to age, gender, and wing size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangewor...

  9. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  10. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  11. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Dias, Renata O; Via, Allegra; Brandão, Marcelo M; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-03-01

    Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic L-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  12. A new species of the genus Acria Stephens, 1834 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Shashank, P R; Saravanan, L; Kalidas, P; Phanikumar, T; Ramamurthy, V V; Chandra Bose, N S

    2015-05-14

    A new species, Acria meyricki sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) occurring on oil palm, is described from India. The status and nomenclature of the genus is reviewed and an annotated checklist of species is given. A key to the seven species known so far from the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  13. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  14. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  15. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  16. Effect of Hexaflumuron on feeding response and reproduction of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexaflumuron (Consult® 100 EC, Dow AgroSciences) is an insect growth regulator that inhibits chitin synthesis. The efficacy of hexaflumuron mixed with 2.5 M sucrose (ppm) was evaluated in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for toxicity, proboscis exten...

  17. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  18. A new species of Alveoplectrus Wijesekara & Schauff (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) parasitic on Limacodidae (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alveoplectrus lilli Gates, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from five genera of field-collected slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) in eastern North America. It is compared to closely related New World species. We report on new host records and summarize th...

  19. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  20. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex...

  1. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  2. Electrophysiological responses of the rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to rice plant volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electrophysiological activities of 38 synthetic volatiles that were known to be released from the rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using electroantennogram (EAG) recording technique on male and female antennae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: ...

  3. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  4. Timing and Patterns in the Taxonomic Diversification of Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)

    PubMed Central

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Wheat, Christopher W.; Peña, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The macroevolutionary history of the megadiverse insect order Lepidoptera remains little-known, yet coevolutionary dynamics with their angiospermous host plants are thought to have influenced their diversification significantly. We estimate the divergence times of all higher-level lineages of Lepidoptera, including most extant families. We find that the diversification of major lineages in Lepidoptera are approximately equal in age to the crown group of angiosperms and that there appear to have been three significant increases in diversification rates among Lepidoptera over evolutionary time: 1) at the origin of the crown group of Ditrysia about 150 million years ago (mya), 2) at the origin of the stem group of Apoditrysia about 120 mya and finally 3) a spectacular increase at the origin of the stem group of the quadrifid noctuoids about 70 mya. In addition, there appears to be a significant increase in diversification rate in multiple lineages around 90 mya, which is concordant with the radiation of angiosperms. Almost all extant families appear to have begun diversifying soon after the Cretaceous/Paleogene event 65.51 mya. PMID:24282557

  5. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  6. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis.

  7. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)

    PubMed Central

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI ‘barcode’ region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular ‘barcode’. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics. PMID:24453557

  8. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bauder, J. A.-S.; Warren, A. D.; Krenn, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly’s flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths. PMID:25937673

  9. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    PubMed

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc. PMID:11042964

  10. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    PubMed

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Kong, Weiqing; Yang, Jinhong

    2015-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana Moore (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a species with closest relationship with Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina, and the genetic information of R. menciana is important for understanding the diversity of the Bombycidae. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. menciana was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The mitogenome of R. menciana was determined to be 15,301 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an AT-rich region. The A+T content (78.87%) was lower than that observed for other Bombycidae insects. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons and terminated with the canonical stop codons, except for coxII, which was terminated by a single T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The length of AT-rich region (360 bp) of R. menciana mitogenome is shorter than that of other Bombycidae species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. menciana was clustered on one branch with B. mori and B. mandarina from Bombycidae. PMID:25888706

  12. Semiautomated Identification of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Przybyłowicz, Łukasz; Pniak, Michał; Tofilski, Adam

    2016-02-01

    The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner, 1796) is a serious and widely studied pest of corn. The most common method of its control is by means of insecticides. However, biological control is becoming more and more popular. The hymenopteran parasitoid Trichogramma sp. is the most promising and effective one among the biological agents and is now widely used in North America and Europe. Its application should occur at the time when the European corn borer is at the beginning of the eggs laying period. However, the discrimination between the European corn borer and some other species occurring in agricultural landscapes at the same time can be difficult, especially for farmers which are neither familiar with the morphological nor molecular methods of identification. The scope of this study is to test the ability of the automatic computer equipment to determine the European corn borer and to separate it from the most common Lepidoptera pests found in corn plantations. The experiment showed that the 97.0% of the 247 specimens belonging to four common pestlepidopterans were correctly classified by the use of a personal computer, desktop scanner, and the special software. The obtained results showed that this technique based on wing measurements can be an effective tool for monitoring of the European corn borer. In the future, this method can be used by farmers to identify this pest and apply control measures at optimal time. PMID:26487742

  13. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  14. A comprehensive characterization of the caspase gene family in insects from the order Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cell suicide pathway of apoptosis is a necessary event in the life of multicellular organisms. It is involved in many biological processes ranging from development to the immune response. Evolutionarily conserved proteases, called caspases, play a central role in regulating apoptosis. Reception of death stimuli triggers the activation of initiator caspases, which in turn activate the effector caspases. In Lepidoptera, apoptosis is crucial in processes such as metamorphosis or defending against baculovirus infection. The discovery of p35, a baculovirus protein inhibiting caspase activity, has led to the characterization of the first lepidopteran caspase, Sf-Caspase-1. Studies on Sf-Caspase-1 mode of activation suggested that apoptosis in Lepidoptera requires a cascade of caspase activation, as demonstrated in many other species. Results In order to get insights into this gene family in Lepidoptera, we performed an extensive survey of lepidopteran-derived EST datasets. We identified 66 sequences distributed among 27 species encoding putative caspases. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Lepidoptera possess at least 5 caspases, for which we propose a unified nomenclature. According to homology to their Drosophila counterparts and their primary structure, we determined that Lep-Caspase-1, -2 and -3 are putative effector caspases, whereas Lep-Caspase-5 and -6 are putative initiators. The likely function of Lep-Caspase-4 remains unclear. Lep-Caspase-2 is absent from the silkworm genome and appears to be noctuid-specific, and to have arisen from a tandem duplication of the Caspase-1 gene. In the tobacco hawkmoth, 3 distinct transcripts encoding putative Caspase-4 were identified, suggesting at least 2 duplication events in this species. Conclusions The basic repertoire of five major types of caspases shared among Lepidoptera seems to be smaller than for most other groups studied to date, but gene duplication still plays a role in lineage-specific increases in

  15. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ah Rha; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-04-01

    The mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus, belongs to a lepidopteran family Hesperiidae. The 15,530-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the species has the typical gene content of animals (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one major non-coding A+T-rich region). As typical in lepidopteran mitogenome E. montanus mitogenome also contained a high A/T content in the whole genome (81.7%) and the CGA (arginine) as the start codon for the COI gene. Unlike other lepidopteran species, including two sequenced skippers, the E. montanus mitogenome has a unique arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn), instead of the tRNA(Asn)-tRNA(Ser) found unanimously in other lepidopteran species, providing a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera. Such rearrangement probably was likely caused by duplication of gene block tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn) and subsequent random loss of tRNA(Asn) in the first copy and tRNA(Ser) in the second copy, resulting in the arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn).

  17. [Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) from Mexico State, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mejía, Claudia; Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2008-09-01

    The State of Mexico is a region with great biological diversity, owing to its geographical and ecological features. Regarding Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea, 15% of the Mexican species are recorded in the State of Mexico, 17% of which are endemic to the country. A checklist of the two superfamilies for the State of Mexico was integrated, based on published literature and databases at the Museo de Zoología of the Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. The checklist is composed by six families, 22 subfamilies, 197 genera and 325 species (95 Hesperiidae, 19 Papilionidae, 35 Pieridae, 54 Lycaenidae, 20 Riodinidae, and 102 Nymphalidae). A list of each species is presented, including collecting localities, flight month, and whether data correspond to scientific collection records or literature.

  18. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    PubMed

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  19. Pathology and Epizootiology of Entomophaga maimaiga Infections in Forest Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Ann E.

    1999-01-01

    The insect-pathogenic fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga is endemic to northeastern Asia and was first found in North America in 1989. Due to repeated epizootics and spread within populations of the major forest defoliator in northeastern North America, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), this pathogen has gained much notoriety. Although this pathogen was purposely introduced to North America for biological control of L. dispar in 1910 to 1911, it is questionable whether it became established at the time of release and then remained at innocuous levels until relatively recently. Alternatively, the fungal strain present in North America today could be a more recent accidental introduction. DNA analysis demonstrates that this pathogen differs significantly from North American members of the same species complex (the Lepidoptera-specific Entomophaga aulicae species complex), and, to date, isolates of this introduced pathogen display little heterogeneity in North America. Nonsusceptible lepidopteran larvae have been identified, and either E. maimaiga is unable to penetrate the cuticle or the fungus cannot survive within the hemocoel. In the latter case, although E. maimaiga grows as protoplasts lacking cell walls in the host hemolymph, glycoproteins on plasma membranes of the protoplasts could lead to host recognition. Epizootiological studies demonstrate a clear association between fungal activity and environmental moisture but little association with host density under hypothesized conditions of high fungal density. Prediction of the occurrence of epizootics is not yet possible. E. maimaiga is easily established in new areas by releasing azygospores, but the ability to use this pathogen further for biological control will depend, in large part, on the development of mass production systems. PMID:10585966

  20. Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

    PubMed Central

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Platt, Michael L.; Adams, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed natural images of butterflies and moths as well as images in which the eye-spots of these insects were modified. The eye-spots were modified by removing them, scrambling their colours, or replacing them with elliptical or triangular shapes that had either dark or light centres. Participants were generally more likely to look at, spend more time looking at and be faster to first fixate the eye-spots of butterflies and moths that were natural compared with ones that were modified, including the elliptical eye-spots with dark centres that most resembled eyes as well as the scrambled eye-spots that had the same contrast as the natural eye-spots. Participants were most likely to look at eye-spots that were numerous, had a large surface area and were located close to the insects' heads. Participants' pupils were larger when viewing eye-spots compared with the rest of the insects' body, suggesting a greater arousal when viewing eye-spots. Our results provide some support for the conspicuous signal hypothesis (and minimal support for the eye mimicry hypothesis) and suggest that eye-spots may be effective at deterring predators because they are highly conspicuous signals that draw attention. PMID:26543589

  1. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions. PMID:22217762

  2. A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-06-01

    The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM. PMID:18613577

  3. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  5. Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts

    PubMed Central

    Krenn, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources. PMID:19961330

  6. Caterpillars and moths: Part II. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars and moths (order Lepidoptera) are uncommonly recognized causes of adverse cutaneous reactions, such as localized stings, papular dermatitis, and urticarial wheals. These reactions are typically mild and self-limited; however, in South America, the sting of Lonomia caterpillars can cause a potentially fatal hemorrhagic diathesis related to massive fibrinolysis. In addition, ocular inflammation and prominent arthralgias have been reported to be caused by caterpillar exposures. Therapies for mucocutaneous reactions to Lepidoptera are largely empiric, with the exception of antivenin against Lonomia obliqua envenomation. Part II of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews the varied symptoms caused by Lepidopteran exposures, reviews the differential diagnosis, and discusses appropriate treatment algorithms.

  7. Microstructure and diversity of the bursa copulatrix wall in Tortricidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lincango, Piedad; Fernández, Guillermo; Baixeras, Joaquín

    2013-05-01

    The inner surface and muscle structure of the bursa copulatrix are examined for the first time with Electron Microscopy in some representatives of the family Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). The internal microprotuberances reveal taxon dependent characters unstudied in the Lepidoptera until now. Acanthae occur in almost all taxa studied, whereas ctenidia and papillae are found only in representatives of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae, respectively. Muscles are radially arranged from the signa. Areas of muscle insertion on the bursal wall are not covered by other muscle fibers. Muscle attachments to evaginated areas, e.g. capitulum and diverticulum, suggest an apodeme role for these structures, correlated with long protruding signa. The potential evolutionary and adaptive significance of these new findings are discussed. PMID:23396268

  8. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ghost moths, Thitarodes renzhiensis and Thitarodes yunnanensis: the ancestral gene arrangement in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species that have been classified into 45–48 superfamilies. The previously determined Lepidoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are limited to six superfamilies of the lineage Ditrysia. Compared with the ancestral insect gene order, these mitogenomes all contain a tRNA rearrangement. To gain new insights into Lepidoptera mitogenome evolution, we sequenced the mitogenomes of two ghost moths that belong to the non-ditrysian lineage Hepialoidea and conducted a comparative mitogenomic analysis across Lepidoptera. Results The mitogenomes of Thitarodes renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis are 16,173 bp and 15,816 bp long with an A + T content of 81.28 % and 82.34 %, respectively. Both mitogenomes include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the A + T-rich region. Different tandem repeats in the A + T-rich region mainly account for the size difference between the two mitogenomes. All the protein-coding genes start with typical mitochondrial initiation codons, except for cox1 (CGA) and nad1 (TTG) in both mitogenomes. The anticodon of trnS(AGN) in T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis is UCU instead of the mostly used GCU in other sequenced Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The 1,584-bp sequence from rrnS to nad2 was also determined for an unspecified ghost moth (Thitarodes sp.), which has no repetitive sequence in the A + T-rich region. All three Thitarodes species possess the ancestral gene order with trnI-trnQ-trnM located between the A + T-rich region and nad2, which is different from the gene order trnM-trnI-trnQ in all previously sequenced Lepidoptera species. The formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes (i.e. the motif ‘ATAGA’ and poly-T stretch in the A + T-rich region and the long intergenic spacer upstream of nad2) are absent in the Thitarodes mitogenomes. Conclusion The mitogenomes of T. renzhiensis and T

  9. Sexual differences in weight loss upon eclosion are related to life history strategy in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Javoiš, Juhan; Esperk, Toomas; Teder, Tiit; Davis, Robert B; Tammaru, Toomas

    2011-06-01

    Given that immature and adult insects have different life styles, different target body compositions can be expected. For adults, such targets will also differ depending on life history strategy, and thus vary among the sexes, and in females depend on the degree of capital versus income breeding and ovigeny. Since these targets may in part be approximated by loss of substances upon eclosion, comparing sexual differences in such losses upon eclosion among species that differ in life history would provide insights into insect functional ecology. We studied weight loss in eclosing insects using original data on pupal and adult live weights of 38 species of Lepidoptera (mainly Geometridae) and further literature data on 15 species of Lepidoptera and six representatives of other insect orders, and applied the phylogenetic independent contrasts approach. In addition, data on live and dry weights of pupae of four species of Lepidoptera are presented. We documented that Lepidoptera typically lose a large proportion (20-80%) of their pupal weight upon adult eclosion. Sexual differences in weight loss varied between absent and strongly male biased. Most of the weight loss was water loss, and sexual differences in adult water content correlate strongly with differences in weight loss. Using feeding habits (feeds or does not feed as an adult) and female biased sexual size dimorphism as measures of degree of capital breeding, we found that the difference among the sexes in weight loss tends to be more pronounced in capital breeding species. Additionally, females of more pro-ovigenic species (large proportion of eggs mature upon emergence) tend to have higher water contents. Our results suggests that metamorphosis is generally facilitated by a high water content, while adults excrete water upon eclosion to benefit flight unless water has been allocated to eggs, or is treated as a capital resource for adult survival or future allocation to eggs.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Liao, Fang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Song; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Ming-Gang

    2010-03-29

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was determined. The genome is a circular molecule 15 481 bp long. It presents a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes, but differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of tRNA(Met). The nucleotide composition of the genome is also highly A + T biased, accounting for 80.38%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.010), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in the Noctuoidea species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which is tentatively designated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans. Four of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Ser)(AGN) and ND1 also contains the ATACTAA motif, which is conserved across the Lepidoptera order. The H. cunea A+T-rich region of 357 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)(8) element preceded by the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A present immediately upstream tRNA(Met). The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the H. cunea is closerly related to the Lymantria dispar than Ochrogaster lunifer, and support the hypothesis that Noctuoidea (H. cunea, L. dispar, and O. lunifer) and Geometroidea (Phthonandria atrilineata) are monophyletic. However, in the phylogenetic trees based on mitogenome sequences among the lepidopteran superfamilies, Papillonoidea (Artogeia melete, Acraea issoria, and Coreana raphaelis) joined basally within the monophyly of Lepidoptera, which is different to the traditional classification.

  11. The first records on the genus Acalyptris from the Caribbean (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae).

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Remeikis, Andrius

    2015-12-09

    In this paper we describe three new species of Acalyptris Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): Acalyptris nigrisignum Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. from the Country of Curaçao (formerly the Netherlands Antilles), A. trigonijuxtus Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. from British Virgin Islands, and A. dominicanus Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. from Dominica. A pictorial key is provided for two newly established species complexes: bicornutus and tenuijuxtus. The newly described species are illustrated with photographs of the adults and the genitalia.

  12. Two new and one newly recorded species of Gracillariidae from China (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Haiyan; Xu, Jiasheng; Dai, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents four Chinese species belonging to the genera Metriochroa Busck, Eumetriochroa Kumata, and Gibbovalva Kumata & Kuroko (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), including two new species: Metriochroa alboannulata Bai, sp. n. and Gibbovalva clavata Bai, sp. n. Eumetriochroa hiranoi Kumata, 1998, is newly recorded from China. Photographs of adults and figures of the genital structures are provided, along with keys to the Chinese species of Metriochroa, Eumetriochroa, and Gibbovalva. PMID:27006609

  13. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed.

  14. A new species of Herpetogramma (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) from eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Handfield, Louis; Handfield, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Herpetogramma sphingealissp. n., a new species of Crambidae (Lepidoptera), is described from Québec, Canada. The species is included in the genus Herpetogramma Led., 1863, a genus in the subfamily Spilomelinae. Adults and genitalia of this species are described and illustrated, as well as those of Herpetogramma aeglealis (Walker, 1859) and Herpetogramma thestealis (Walker, 1859), and adults of the semi-melanic form of Herpetogramma aeglealis are illustrated.

  15. Natural hybridization in heliconiine butterflies: the species boundary as a continuum

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, James; Beltrán, Margarita; Neukirchen, Walter; Linares, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    Background To understand speciation and the maintenance of taxa as separate entities, we need information about natural hybridization and gene flow among species. Results Interspecific hybrids occur regularly in Heliconius and Eueides (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the wild: 26–29% of the species of Heliconiina are involved, depending on species concept employed. Hybridization is, however, rare on a per-individual basis. For one well-studied case of species hybridizing in parapatric contact (Heliconius erato and H. himera), phenotypically detectable hybrids form around 10% of the population, but for species in sympatry hybrids usually form less than 0.05% of individuals. There is a roughly exponential decline with genetic distance in the numbers of natural hybrids in collections, both between and within species, suggesting a simple "exponential failure law" of compatibility as found in some prokaryotes. Conclusion Hybridization between species of Heliconius appears to be a natural phenomenon; there is no evidence that it has been enhanced by recent human habitat disturbance. In some well-studied cases, backcrossing occurs in the field and fertile backcrosses have been verified in insectaries, which indicates that introgression is likely, and recent molecular work shows that alleles at some but not all loci are exchanged between pairs of sympatric, hybridizing species. Molecular clock dating suggests that gene exchange may continue for more than 3 million years after speciation. In addition, one species, H. heurippa, appears to have formed as a result of hybrid speciation. Introgression may often contribute to adaptive evolution as well as sometimes to speciation itself, via hybrid speciation. Geographic races and species that coexist in sympatry therefore form part of a continuum in terms of hybridization rates or probability of gene flow. This finding concurs with the view that processes leading to speciation are continuous, rather than sudden, and that they are

  16. Sequential sampling for panicle caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Elliott, N C; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L; Backoulou, G F; McCornack, B P; Pendleton, B B; Royer, T A

    2014-04-01

    Panicle caterpillars comprise an economically important insect pest complex of sorghum throughout the Great Plains of the United States, particularly in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. The sorghum panicle caterpillar complex consists of larvae of two polyphagous lepidopteran species: the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sampling for panicle caterpillars in sorghum fields is usually accomplished by the beat bucket sampling technique with a fixed sample size of 30 beat bucket samples of one sorghum panicle each per 16.2 ha of field. We used Wald's sequential probability ratio test for a negative binomial distribution to develop a sequential sampling plan for panicle caterpillars. In total, 115 sorghum fields were sampled in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas from June to August 2010. Panicle caterpillars had an aggregated distribution of counts confirmed by Pearson's chi-square statistic for lack of fit to the negative binomial distribution for each sampled field. A sequential sampling plan was developed using a high threshold (an economic threshold) of 0.5 caterpillars per sorghum panicle, a low threshold (a safe level) of 0.20 caterpillars per panicle, and fixed error rates (alpha = 0.10 and beta = 0.05). At caterpillar densities > 0.45 and < 0.12 per panicle, the average number of panicles inspected to make a decision was less than the current recommendation of 30. In a 2013 validation test of 25 fields, the expected number of samples taken from average sample number curve was in close agreement with the number of samples required using the sequential plan (r2 = 0.93), and all fields were correctly classified when compared with a fixed sample size result. The plan improved upon current sampling recommendations for panicle caterpillars in sorghum because at known acceptable fixed error rates fewer samples were required when caterpillars are scarce or abundant, whereas more samples were

  17. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that <250 Gy is adequate. There is a lack of large-scale (>10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  18. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    PubMed

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens.

  19. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  20. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    PubMed

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  1. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Terenius, Olle; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Huvenne, Hanneke; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Albrechtsen, Merete; An, Chunju; Aymeric, Jean-Luc; Barthel, Andrea; Bebas, Piotr; Bitra, Kavita; Bravo, Alejandra; Chevalier, François; Collinge, Derek P; Crava, Cristina M; de Maagd, Ruud A; Duvic, Bernard; Erlandson, Martin; Faye, Ingrid; Felföldi, Gabriella; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Futahashi, Ryo; Gandhe, Archana S; Gatehouse, Heather S; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Gómez, Isabel; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Groot, Astrid T; Hauser, Frank; Heckel, David G; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Hrycaj, Steven; Huang, Lihua; Hull, J Joe; Iatrou, Kostas; Iga, Masatoshi; Kanost, Michael R; Kotwica, Joanna; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, Magnus; Matsumoto, Shogo; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Millichap, Peter J; Monteiro, Antónia; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Niimi, Teruyuki; Nowara, Daniela; Ohnishi, Atsushi; Oostra, Vicencio; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Papakonstantinou, Maria; Popadic, Aleksandar; Rajam, Manchikatla V; Saenko, Suzanne; Simpson, Robert M; Soberón, Mario; Strand, Michael R; Tomita, Shuichiro; Toprak, Umut; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, Steven; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Herrero, Salvador; Gordon, Karl; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-02-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 experiments including all to date published and many unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our public database at http://insectacentral.org/RNAi will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments.

  2. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277).

  3. The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in controlling U.K. butterfly population size and phenology

    PubMed Central

    Westgarth-Smith, Angus R; Roy, David B; Scholze, Martin; Tucker, Allan; Sumpter, John P

    2012-01-01

    1. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) exerts considerable control on U.K. weather. This study investigates the impact of the NAO on butterfly abundance and phenology using 34 years of data from the U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). 2. The study uses a multi-species indicator to show that the NAO does not affect overall U.K. butterfly population size. However, the abundance of bivoltine butterfly species, which have longer flight seasons, were found to be more likely to respond positively to the NAO compared with univoltine species, which show little or a negative response. 3. A positive winter NAO index is associated with warmer weather and earlier flight dates for Anthocharis cardamines (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Melanargia galathea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Aphantopus hyperantus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Pyronia tithonus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Lasiommata megera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Polyommatus icarus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). In bivoltine species, the NAO affects the phenology of the first generation, the timing of which indirectly controls the timing of the second generation. 4. The NAO influences the timing of U.K. butterfly flight seasons more strongly than it influences population size. PMID:22879687

  4. Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenases as a Detoxification Mechanism in Insects: New Insights from the Arctiids (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G.; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  5. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and phylogenetic analysis of advanced moths and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Li, Qian; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Here we determined the mitochondrial genome sequence of a notorious pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae). The mitochondrial genome contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. The gene arrangement is identical to that of other ditrysian lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, but different from the ancestral gene arrangement in the non-ditrysian Hepialidae of Lepidoptera. The start codon of the cox1 gene is CGA, which is dissimilar to its homologs in most other insects. In Lepidoptera, cox1 and cox2 have low nucleotide diversities, while the nad6, nad2, and nad3 genes are highly variable. Phylogenetic analyses uncovered the reciprocal monophyly of Ditrysia, Apoditrysia, Obtectomera, and Macrolepidoptera, and the placement of the Hesperiidae within Papilionoidea. Our analyses suggest that the complete mitochondrial genome sequences are a promising marker toward fully resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Lepidoptera.

  6. First report of an egg parasitoid reared from Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Schizaeales: Lygodiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was first released in Florida as a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae), Old World climbing fern, in 2008. The first egg parasitoid, a Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was reared from N. co...

  7. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  8. Behavior of Over-wintering Filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae and Their Control with Steinernema carpocapsae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key insect pest associated with hazelnuts in North America. The effect of nematode rate, water volume, and orchard floor cover on nematode efficacy was determined in field trials in fall and spring (October 2007 and May 200...

  9. Review of parasitic wasps and flies (Hymenoptera, Diptera) attacking Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) in North America, with a key to genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from North America are reviewed and an illustrated key to 17 genera is presented. Limacodid surveys and rearing were conducted by the Lill lab (JTL, SMM, TMS) during the summer months of 2004–2009 as part of their...

  10. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  11. Preliminary list of the leaf-roller moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Virginia with comments on spatial and temporal distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the examination of 3,457 pinned specimens, we document 263 species of leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The vast majority of specimens examined are from five unrelated efforts: a survey of George Washington Memorial Parkway National Park, Fairfa...

  12. Influence of holding temperature and irradiation on field performance of mass-reared Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an integral component to the area-wide integrated management of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was successfully implemented in the Western Cape region of South Africa and subsequently expanded to citrus are...

  13. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  14. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  15. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  16. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  17. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  18. Mobilizing the genome of Lepidoptera through novel sequence gains and end creation by non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integration of transposable elements within gene coding regions can affect expression levels and transcript splicing patterns. The repetitive element, Lep1, is comprised of a conserved 134 base pairs (bp) consensus core region among species of Lepidoptera, and was defined as a short intersperse...

  19. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  20. Discovery of a third species of Lamproptera Gray, 1832 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Zhang, Xin; Cotton, Adam M; Ye, Hui

    2014-04-11

    A newly discovered, third species of the genus Lamproptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is described, 183 years after the second currently recognised species was first named. Lamproptera paracurius Hu, Zhang & Cotton sp. n., from N.E. Yunnan, China, is based on marked differences in external morphology and male genital structure. The species is confirmed as a member of the genus, and detailed comparisons are made with other taxa included in the genus. Keys to Lamproptera species based on external characters and male genitalia are included.

  1. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  2. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  3. Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Fernando A.; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.; Becker, Vitor O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest are described. Larvae of P. fernandesi Moreira & Becker, sp. n., P. rosaemariae Moreira & Becker, sp. n. and P. tavaresi Becker & Moreira, sp. n. induce galls, respectively, on Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham.) Cogn., T. asperior (Cham.) Cogn. and T. fissinervia (Schrank & Mart. ex DC.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae). Adults, immature stages and galls are illustrated, and data on life history and a preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, including related species, are also provided. PMID:25152676

  4. Description of the female of Catocala toropovi Saldaitis et al. 2014 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Volynkin, Anton V; Saldaitis, Aidas; Chen, Liusheng

    2016-01-01

    Catocala toropovi Saldaitis, Kons & Borth, 2014 was recently described from the valleys of the Ili and Charyn rivers in southeast Kazakhstan. This species is similar to C. repudiata Staudinger, 1888 and C. optima Staudinger, 1888, but differs on morphological as well as genetic characters (Saldaitis et al. 2014). Catocala toropovi was described based on male specimens, as females were unknown at the time. During studies of Lepidoptera in Xinjiang Province, China, two females of C. toropovi were collected, and this paper provides a brief description and analysis of the female of this species. PMID:27470813

  5. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) oviposition on macadamia nuts.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, H; Watt, A D; Cosens, D

    2001-06-01

    Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6,939). E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar.

  6. Larval food plants of Australian Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) - a review of available data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia, the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) comprises over 45 genera with about 270 species described so far. However, life histories of the Australian larentiine moths have barely been studied. New information The current paper presents a list of larval food plants of 51 Australian larentiine species based on literature references, data from specimen labels and own observations. Some Australian habitats are shown. Possible relationships among the taxa based on food preference of the larvae are discussed. Additionally, a list of Australasian larentiine species from the genera occurring in Australia and their food plants is presented. PMID:27099558

  7. Two new species of the genus Deltophora Janse, 1950 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Houhun; Wang, Zhibo; Sattler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Two Chinese species of the genus Deltophora Janse (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), both in obligate mutualism with the plant genus Phyllanthus L. (Phyllanthaceae), are newly described: Deltophora phyllanthicella Li et Sattler sp. n., from Hainan, a pollinator of its larval host Phyllanthus rheophyticus Gilbert et Li; Deltophora polliniferens Li et Sattler sp. n., from Guangdong, a pollinator of its larval host Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. The adults and the male and female genital structures of both species are described and illustrated. The presence of a fully developed 1st instar larva in the female abdomen of Deltophora phyllanthicella is recorded as the first such case in Gelechiidae. PMID:27395482

  8. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) oviposition on macadamia nuts.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, H; Watt, A D; Cosens, D

    2001-06-01

    Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6,939). E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar. PMID:11935924

  9. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of an aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) belongs to the subfamily Nymphulinae, nearly all of which are aquatic in their entire larval and pupal stages. The 15,351-bp long complete mitogenome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in the majority of Lepidoptera. One of the unusual features of the E. interruptalis mitogenome is the presence of a tRNA(Phe)-like sequence beyond the A+T-rich region. The sequence is encoded in the minor strand of the genome overlapping with the reversely encoded regular tRNA(Glu) by 65 bp. The sequence divergence of the tRNA(Phe)-like sequence to that of regular E. interruptalis tRNA(Phe) and other within-familial species was as low as 59% ∼ 71%, but has a proper folding structure with well-matched stems and identical anticodon sequences to the regular copy.

  11. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family.

  12. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences. PMID:23452242

  14. Evidence of Male Hair Pencil Pheromone in Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Lucas E.; Silk, P.; Eveleigh, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Male Lepidoptera often possess specialized scales, called hair pencils that emit volatiles that are critical to mating success. Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), males will display hair pencils to females before attempting copulation. The importance of volatiles on these hair pencils is, however, not clear. We compared the proportion of successful copulations in unmanipulated mating pairs to pairs where males had their hair pencils either removed or chemically washed, and to pairs where females were antennectomized. Mean proportions of successful matings were significantly lower in pairs where hair pencils had been manipulated or where females had been antennectomized compared with unmanipulated mating pairs. There was no significant difference in mating success between treatments where hair pencils had been manipulated; however, mating success was significantly lower in hair pencil treatments than in antennectomized treatments. Mean copulation proportions in hair pencil/antennectomized treatments were also significantly less than in respective sham-operated treatments. Our results suggest that volatiles are associated with hair pencils, and they may be required for mating success in C. fumiferana. PMID:26945090

  15. Analysis on the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Andraca theae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-Shi; Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The bombycid moth, Andraca theae (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) is an important pest of tea in southeastern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. theae was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The complete mitogenome of A. theae, encoding 37 genes, was 15,737 bp in length (Genbank no. KX365419), and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region (AT-rich region). The gene order of A. theae mitogenome was typical for Lepidoptera mitogenomes. Except for cox1, which started with CGA, all other 12 PCGs started with ATN. Eleven of the 13 PCGs ended with TAA, expect for cox1 and cox2, which ended with a single T. The maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian method were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationship among 22 representative bombycoid species with a matrix consisting of the 13 PCGs of the mitogenomes of the 22 species. The topological structures of the two phylogenetic trees we constructed were almost identical, with the results indicating that the bombycid species, including A. theae, clustered into a single clade with a bootstrap value of 58% and a posterior probability of 0.98. The phylogenetic relationship among the Bombycoidea species analyzed was Lasiocampidae + (Bombycidae + (Saturniidae + Sphingidae)) which was supported by a high bootstrap value of 100% and a posterior probability of 1.00.

  16. Evolutionary Diversifaction of Aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by Conserved Clade-specific Amino Acid Residues

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. PMID:24675701

  17. Analysis on the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Andraca theae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-Shi; Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The bombycid moth, Andraca theae (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) is an important pest of tea in southeastern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. theae was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The complete mitogenome of A. theae, encoding 37 genes, was 15,737 bp in length (Genbank no. KX365419), and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region (AT-rich region). The gene order of A. theae mitogenome was typical for Lepidoptera mitogenomes. Except for cox1, which started with CGA, all other 12 PCGs started with ATN. Eleven of the 13 PCGs ended with TAA, expect for cox1 and cox2, which ended with a single T. The maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian method were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationship among 22 representative bombycoid species with a matrix consisting of the 13 PCGs of the mitogenomes of the 22 species. The topological structures of the two phylogenetic trees we constructed were almost identical, with the results indicating that the bombycid species, including A. theae, clustered into a single clade with a bootstrap value of 58% and a posterior probability of 0.98. The phylogenetic relationship among the Bombycoidea species analyzed was Lasiocampidae + (Bombycidae + (Saturniidae + Sphingidae)) which was supported by a high bootstrap value of 100% and a posterior probability of 1.00. PMID:27694403

  18. Redescription of Thalassodes antithetica Herbulot, 1962, an endemic moth from Inner Seychelles (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Matyot, Pat; Bippus, Maik; Spitsyn, Vitaly M; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The Seychelles archipelago is characterized by an exceptionally high level of endemism in certain taxa, including at least 275 endemic species of Lepidoptera (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015). Despite the fact that endemics are the main objects of conservation efforts, information regarding endemic Seychelles Lepidoptera is very poor, because the majority of them are known from a single or a few specimens (Legrand 1966; Gerlach and Matyot 2006; Bolotov et al. 2014, 2015). The emerald moth specimens are lacking in extensive samples obtained by earlier collectors (Fletcher 1910; Scott 1910; Fryer 1912). Further, two emerald moth species in the genus Thalassodes Guenée, 1858 have been reported from Seychelles, i.e., the widespread T. quadraria Guenée, 1858 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015) and the endemic T. antithetica Herbulot, 1962. The latter species is known from eight specimens, collected between 1959 and 1963 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006). Herbulot (1962) provided a very short description of this species without any illustration. The protologue consists of a description of some external characters, i.e., antennae, palpi and legs, as well as the pattern of markings, but the male and female genitalia are not described. As the main diagnostic features, Herbulot (1962) noted two specific characters in the male morphology, namely the hind tibia with a single pair of spurs and an exceptional development of the lateral processes (octavals) on the posterior margin of the eighth sternite. PMID:27470792

  19. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations.

  20. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Donald R.; Mendel, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham) is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of Erechthias minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae,new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable in having wing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of Erechthias grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated. PMID:24146595

  1. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. New information As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed. PMID:26929714

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bag-shelter moth Ochrogaster lunifer (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, Paola; Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge of animal mitochondrial genomes is very important to understand their molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and population genetic studies. The Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species and is one of the largest insect orders. To date only nine lepidopteran mitochondrial DNAs have been fully and two others partly sequenced. Furthermore the taxon sampling is very scant. Thus advance of lepidopteran mitogenomics deeply requires new genomes derived from a broad taxon sampling. In present work we describe the mitochondrial genome of the moth Ochrogaster lunifer. Results The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is a circular molecule 15593 bp long. It includes the entire set of 37 genes usually present in animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains also 7 intergenic spacers. The gene order of the newly sequenced genome is that typical for Lepidoptera and differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of trnM. The 77.84% A+T content of its α strand is the lowest among known lepidopteran genomes. The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer exhibits one of the most marked C-skew among available insect Pterygota genomes. The protein-coding genes have typical mitochondrial start codons except for cox1 that present an unusual CGA. The O. lunifer genome exhibits the less biased synonymous codon usage among lepidopterans. Comparative genomics analysis study identified atp6, cox1, cox2 as cox3, cob, nad1, nad2, nad4, and nad5 as potential markers for population genetics/phylogenetics studies. A peculiar feature of O. lunifer mitochondrial genome it that the intergenic spacers are mostly made by repetitive sequences. Conclusion The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is the first representative of superfamily Noctuoidea that account for about 40% of all described Lepidoptera. New genome shares many features with other known lepidopteran genomes. It differs however for its low A+T content and marked C-skew. Compared to other

  3. A Review of the McMorran Diet for Rearing Lepidoptera Species With Addition of a Further 39 Species.

    PubMed

    Hervet, V A D; Laird, R A; Floate, K D

    2016-01-01

    Research on cutworms led us to explore the use of the McMorran diet to rear lepidopteran species, mainly Noctuidae, under laboratory conditions. We documented the development of 103 lepidopteran species, including 39 species not previously reported in the literature, to be reared on this diet. Given its low cost, ease of preparation, and wide species' acceptance, this diet provides a powerful tool for facilitating Lepidoptera and other insects rearing and research in the laboratory. PMID:26851296

  4. Description of four new species of the tiger moth genus Dysschema Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini, Pericopina).

    PubMed

    Moraes, Simeão De Souza; Duarte, Marcelo

    2015-08-25

    Description of four new species of the tiger moth genus Dysschema Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini, Pericopina). Four new species of Pericopina are described, three from southeast of Brazil: Dysschema uriasi Moraes, sp. nov., Dysschema wayneri Moraes, sp. nov., Dysschema amapoarum Moraes & Duarte sp. nov., and one from Mexico: Dysschema tarsoi Moraes sp. nov. Detailed species descriptions are based upon morphological characters. Photographs of habitus, illustrations of genitalia and comments on morphology are provided.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined to be 15,374 bp (GenBank accession No. KF543065), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. The AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive and the nucleotide composition was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (81.03%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by CGA. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The A + T-rich region of the mitogenome was 326 bp in length.

  6. Origin of Ecdysosteroid UDP-glycosyltransferases of Baculoviruses through Horizontal Gene Transfer from Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2014-01-01

    Baculoviruses infecting Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) encodes an enzyme known as ecdysosteroid UDP-glycosyltransferase (EGT), which inactivates insect host ecdysosteroid hormones, thereby preventing molt and pupation and permitting a build-up of the viral population within the host. Baculovirus EGT shows evidence of homology to insect UDP-glycosyltransferases, and a phylogenetic analysis supported the closest relative of baculovirus EGT are the UGT33 and UGT34 families of lepidopteran UDP-glycosyltransferases. The phylogenetic analysis thus supported that baculovirus EGT arose by horizontal gene transfer of a UDP-glycosyltransferase from a lepidopteran host, an event that occurred 70 million years ago at the earliest but possibly much more recently. Three amino acid replacements unique to baculovirus EGTs and conserved in all available baculovirus sequences were identified in the N-terminal region of the molecule. Because of their conservation, these amino acids are candidates for playing an important functional role in baculovirus EGT function. PMID:24834437

  7. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe–Sagua–Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300–400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the “Pico Cristal” National Park in the West and the “Alexander von Humbolt” National Park in the East. PMID:24146561

  8. Behaviorally plastic host-plant use by larval Lepidoptera in tri-trophic food webs.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Plant-insect interactions research emphasizes adaptive plasticity of plants and carnivores, such as parasitoids, implying a relatively passive role of herbivores. Current work is addressing this deficit, with exciting studies of behavioral plasticity of larval Lepidoptera (caterpillars). Here I use select examples to illustrate the diversity of behaviorally plastic host-plant use by caterpillars, including anti-predator tactics, self-medication, and evasion of dynamic plant defenses, as proof of the agency of caterpillar behavior in plant-insect interactions. I emphasize the significance of adaptive behavioral plasticity of caterpillars in the context of tri-trophic interactions. Recent research on trait-mediated indirect interactions places adaptive behavioral plasticity of herbivores at the center of community and food web dynamics, with far-reaching consequences of issues such as community stability. PMID:27436647

  9. Behaviorally plastic host-plant use by larval Lepidoptera in tri-trophic food webs.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Plant-insect interactions research emphasizes adaptive plasticity of plants and carnivores, such as parasitoids, implying a relatively passive role of herbivores. Current work is addressing this deficit, with exciting studies of behavioral plasticity of larval Lepidoptera (caterpillars). Here I use select examples to illustrate the diversity of behaviorally plastic host-plant use by caterpillars, including anti-predator tactics, self-medication, and evasion of dynamic plant defenses, as proof of the agency of caterpillar behavior in plant-insect interactions. I emphasize the significance of adaptive behavioral plasticity of caterpillars in the context of tri-trophic interactions. Recent research on trait-mediated indirect interactions places adaptive behavioral plasticity of herbivores at the center of community and food web dynamics, with far-reaching consequences of issues such as community stability.

  10. Autumn migration of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea in northern China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hong-Qiang; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Wu, Xian-Fu; Wu, Bo; Wu, Kong-Ming; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2008-06-01

    The autumn migration of Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) across the Bohai Sea was observed with a scanning entomological radar and a searchlight trap at Beihuang, an island located in the center of the Bohai Gulf of northern China, in 2003-2006. During the autumn migration, M. separata flew at the altitudes of 50-500 m, with a displacement speed of 4-12 m/s, toward the southwest. Variations of area density of the radar targets and of catches in the searchlight trap through the night indicated that the flight duration of M. separata was approximately 10 h. Based on these observations, M. separata that originated in northeastern China (i.e., Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces and part of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region) could immigrate into eastcentral China and subsequently to southern China (i.e., Fujian, Guangdong, and Guangxi provinces) within a week for overwintering.

  11. The genus Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia: resurrection of two species from synonymy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study of morphological characters and DNA barcode (CO1) data, the present review revealed the existence of at least three species of Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia. Visiana brujata (Guenée) is redescribed, and two species V. incertata (Walker), stat. rev. and V. repentinata (Walker), stat. rev. are resurrected from synonymy with V. brujata. Visiana breviaria (Walker), syn. rev., previously cited as a synonym of V. brujata, is now considered a synonym of V. incertata. Visiana brujata and V. incertata show close affinities with the sordidata group of species, whereas V. repentinata belongs to the vinosa species group. Images of adults and genitalia of all types are illustrated and the presence of the gnathos in the genus Visiana is discussed.

  12. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bawin, Thomas; De Backer, Lara; Dujeu, David; Legrand, Pauline; Caparros Megido, Rudy; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research. PMID:26462946

  13. Ecological and morphological characteristics of parasitoids in Phauda flammans (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Li, Jun; Su, Li; Liu, Jun-Yan; Meng, Ling-Yu; Lin, Min-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae) is one of the notorious defoliators on Ficus spp. trees. In order to avoid environmental pollution, potential biological control agents for P. flammans need to be investigated instead of chemical control. Four species of insect parasitoids were identified from P. flammans, including three hymenopteran species (i.e., Gotra octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Eurytoma verticillata) and one dipteran species (i.e., Exorista yunnanica). Parasitoid ratios of G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp., Eu. verticillata and Ex. yunnanica were 7.2%, 4.2%, 1.6% and 0.9%. The four species were all larval endoparasitoids of P. flammans larvae. Time of cocoon (pupa) to adult, life span, major axis of cocoon and body length of females were all longer compared to males for G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Ex. yunnanica. Based on the parasitoid ratios, the most abundant parasitoid species was G. octocinctus. PMID:26651181

  14. The genus Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia: resurrection of two species from synonymy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study of morphological characters and DNA barcode (CO1) data, the present review revealed the existence of at least three species of Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia. Visiana brujata (Guenée) is redescribed, and two species V. incertata (Walker), stat. rev. and V. repentinata (Walker), stat. rev. are resurrected from synonymy with V. brujata. Visiana breviaria (Walker), syn. rev., previously cited as a synonym of V. brujata, is now considered a synonym of V. incertata. Visiana brujata and V. incertata show close affinities with the sordidata group of species, whereas V. repentinata belongs to the vinosa species group. Images of adults and genitalia of all types are illustrated and the presence of the gnathos in the genus Visiana is discussed. PMID:26624149

  15. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production. PMID:18330135

  16. Identification of the Female Sex Pheromone of the Leafroller Proeulia triquetra Obraztsov (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Bergmann, J; Reyes-Garcia, L; Ballesteros, C; Cuevas, Y; Flores, M F; Curkovic, T

    2016-08-01

    Proeulia triquetra Obraztsov (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an occasional pest in fruit orchards in central-southern Chile. In order to develop species-specific lures for detection and monitoring of this species, we identified the female-produced sex pheromone. (Z)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate (E9-12:OAc), and (E)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc) were identified as biologically active compounds present in female pheromone glands by solvent extraction of the gland and analysis of the extracts by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In field tests, lures baited with synthetic Z11-14:OAc and E9-12:OAc in a 10:1 ratio were highly attractive to males of the species.

  17. Ecological and morphological characteristics of parasitoids in Phauda flammans (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Li, Jun; Su, Li; Liu, Jun-Yan; Meng, Ling-Yu; Lin, Min-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae) is one of the notorious defoliators on Ficus spp. trees. In order to avoid environmental pollution, potential biological control agents for P. flammans need to be investigated instead of chemical control. Four species of insect parasitoids were identified from P. flammans, including three hymenopteran species (i.e., Gotra octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Eurytoma verticillata) and one dipteran species (i.e., Exorista yunnanica). Parasitoid ratios of G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp., Eu. verticillata and Ex. yunnanica were 7.2%, 4.2%, 1.6% and 0.9%. The four species were all larval endoparasitoids of P. flammans larvae. Time of cocoon (pupa) to adult, life span, major axis of cocoon and body length of females were all longer compared to males for G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Ex. yunnanica. Based on the parasitoid ratios, the most abundant parasitoid species was G. octocinctus. PMID:26651181

  18. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers. PMID:26470329

  19. Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism

    PubMed Central

    Van't Hof, A E; Nguyen, P; Dalíková, M; Edmonds, N; Marec, F; Saccheri, I J

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed a linkage map for the peppered moth (Biston betularia), the classical ecological genetics model of industrial melanism, aimed both at localizing the network of loci controlling melanism and making inferences about chromosome dynamics. The linkage map, which is based primarily on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genes, consists of 31 linkage groups (LGs; consistent with the karyotype). Comparison with the evolutionarily distant Bombyx mori suggests that the gene content of chromosomes is highly conserved. Gene order is conserved on the autosomes, but noticeably less so on the Z chromosome, as confirmed by physical mapping using bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH). Synteny mapping identified three pairs of B. betularia LGs (11/29, 23/30 and 24/31) as being orthologous to three B. mori chromosomes (11, 23 and 24, respectively). A similar finding in an outgroup moth (Plutella xylostella) indicates that the B. mori karyotype (n=28) is a phylogenetically derived state resulting from three chromosome fusions. As with other Lepidoptera, the B. betularia W chromosome consists largely of repetitive sequence, but exceptionally we found a W homolog of a Z-linked gene (laminin A), possibly resulting from ectopic recombination between the sex chromosomes. The B. betularia linkage map, featuring the network of known melanization genes, serves as a resource for melanism research in Lepidoptera. Moreover, its close resemblance to the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype (n=31) makes it a useful reference point for reconstructing chromosome dynamic events and ancestral genome architectures. Our study highlights the unusual evolutionary stability of lepidopteran autosomes; in contrast, higher rates of intrachromosomal rearrangements support a special role of the Z chromosome in adaptive evolution and speciation. PMID:23211790

  20. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-01-01

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous

  1. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  2. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J. Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  3. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    PubMed

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  4. The first complete mitochondrial genome for the subfamily Limacodidae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Bian, Dan-Dan; Chai, Xin-Yue; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) provides important information for understanding molecular evolution and phylogeny. To determine the systematic status of the family Limacodidae within Lepidoptera, we infer a phylogenetic hypothesis based on the complete mitogenome of Monema flavescens (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The mitogenome of M. flavescens is 15,396 base pairs (bp), and includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The AT skew of this mitogenome is slightly negative and the nucleotide composition is also biased towards A + T nucleotides (80.5%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which is initiated by CGA. All tRNAs display the typical clover-leaf structure characteristic of mitochondrial tRNAs, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The mitogenome CR is 401 bp and consists of several features common to Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 mitochondrial PCGs indicates that M. flavescens belongs to Zygaenoidea. We obtain a well-supported phylogenetic tree consisting of Yponomeutoidea + (Tortricoidea + Zygaenoidea + (Papilionoidea + (Pyraloidea + (Noctuoidea + (Geometroidea + Bombycoidea))))). PMID:27767191

  5. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  6. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    PubMed

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated. PMID:21367790

  7. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  8. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  9. Secondary structure of chorion proteins of the Lepidoptera Pericallia ricini and Ariadne merione by ATR FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Iconomidou, V A; Chryssikos, G D; Gionis, V; Kumar, K; Hamodrakas, S J

    2011-10-01

    The gross morphological features of the eggs and eggshells (chorions) of two Lepidoptera species, Pericallia ricini and Ariadne merione were revealed for the first time by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These two insect pests are extremely serious threats for many crops, mainly in India, but also in several other regions of the world. Micro-Raman and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy were also applied to study in detail the secondary structure of the eggshell (chorion) proteins of these Lepidoptera species. Both techniques indicate that the two species have nearly identical conformations of their chorion proteins with abundant antiparallel β-pleated sheet. These results are in support of our previous findings that the helicoidal architecture of the proteinaceous chorion of Lepidoptera and fishes is dictated by a common molecular denominator, the antiparallel β-pleated sheet secondary structure. PMID:21620884

  10. Characterisation of the Manduca sexta sperm proteome: Genetic novelty underlying sperm composition in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Emma; Zhao, Qian; Borziak, Kirill; Walters, James R; Dorus, Steve

    2015-07-01

    The application of mass spectrometry based proteomics to sperm biology has greatly accelerated progress in understanding the molecular composition and function of spermatozoa. To date, these approaches have been largely restricted to model organisms, all of which produce a single sperm morph capable of oocyte fertilisation. Here we apply high-throughput mass spectrometry proteomic analysis to characterise sperm composition in Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm moth, which produce heteromorphic sperm, including one fertilisation competent (eupyrene) and one incompetent (apyrene) sperm type. This resulted in the high confidence identification of 896 proteins from a co-mixed sample of both sperm types, of which 167 are encoded by genes with strict one-to-one orthology in Drosophila melanogaster. Importantly, over half (55.1%) of these orthologous proteins have previously been identified in the D. melanogaster sperm proteome and exhibit significant conservation in quantitative protein abundance in sperm between the two species. Despite the complex nature of gene expression across spermatogenic stages, a significant correlation was also observed between sperm protein abundance and testis gene expression. Lepidopteran-specific sperm proteins (e.g., proteins with no homology to proteins in non-Lepidopteran taxa) were present in significantly greater abundance on average than those with homology outside the Lepidoptera. Given the disproportionate production of apyrene sperm (96% of all mature sperm in Manduca) relative to eupyrene sperm, these evolutionarily novel and highly abundant proteins are candidates for possessing apyrene-specific functions. Lastly, comparative genomic analyses of testis-expressed, ovary-expressed and sperm genes identified a concentration of novel sperm proteins shared amongst Lepidoptera of potential relevance to the evolutionary origin of heteromorphic spermatogenesis. As the first published Lepidopteran sperm proteome, this whole

  11. Pheromone binding proteins of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are encoded at a single locus.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, R D; Sirey, T M; Rassam, M; Greenwood, D R

    2002-11-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera) uses a blend of (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate and (E,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate as its sex pheromone. Odorant binding proteins, abundant in the antennae of male and female E. postvittana, were separated by native PAGE to reveal four major proteins with distinct mobilities. Microsequencing of their N-terminal residues showed that two were general odorant binding proteins (GOBPs) while two were pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). Full length cDNAs encoding these proteins were amplified using a combination of PCR and RACE-PCR. Sequence of the GOBPs revealed two genes (EposGOBP1, EposGOBP2), similar to orthologues in other species of Lepidoptera. Eleven cDNAs of the PBP gene were amplified, cloned and sequenced revealing two major phylogenetic clusters of PBP sequences differing by six amino acid substitutions. The position of the six amino acid differences on the protein was predicted by mapping onto the three-dimensional structure of PBP of Bombyx mori. All six substitutions were predicted to fall on the outside of the protein away from the inner pheromone binding pocket. One substitution does fall close to the putative dimerisation region of the protein (Ser63Thr). Expression of three of the cDNAs in a baculovirus expression system revealed that one class encodes an electrophoretically slow form (EposPBP1-12) while the other encodes a fast form (EposPBP1-2, EposPBP1-3). A native Western of these expressed proteins compared with antennal protein extracts demonstrated that PBP is also expressed in female antennae and that PBP may be present as a dimer as well as a monomer in E. postvittana. The fast and slow forms of EposPBP1 are allelic. Westerns on single antennal pair protein extracts and allele-specific PCR from genomic DNA both show a segregating pattern of inheritance in laboratory and wild populations. Radio labelled (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate binds to both fast and slow PBP forms in

  12. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  13. Principles of the highly ordered arrangement of metaphase I bivalents in spermatocytes of Agrodiaetus (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Dantchenko, Alexander V

    2002-01-01

    the above findings, we proposed a model of bivalent distribution in the Lepidoptera. According to the model, during congregation in the prometaphase stage there is a centripetal movement of bivalents made by a force directed to the centre of the metaphase plate transverse to the spindle. This force is proportional to the kinetochore size of a particular bivalent. The Lepidoptera have a special near-holokinetic type of chromosome organisation. Therefore, large bivalents having large kinetochores are situated in the central part of metaphase plate. Another possible factor affecting the bivalent position is the interaction of bivalents with the cisternae of the membrane system compartmentalising the intraspindle space. PMID:11863071

  14. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  15. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided. PMID:26446545

  16. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided.

  17. A review of five species, and descriptions of three new species, in the genus Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexcio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The species of the genus Ogdoconta Butler, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed, and a description of the genus is given. Ogdoconta satana Metzler, Knudson, & Poole, new species, is described from New Mexico and Texas, Ogdoconta rufipen...

  18. First record of soybean as a host plant of a subspecies of the eastern tailed-blue, Cupido comyntas comyntas (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multitude of invertebrate herbivores feeds upon soybean in North America, with many species considered to be pests of soybean in northern U.S. production areas. Cupido comyntas, the eastern tailed-blue (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), is a legume-feeding caterpillar native to North America. One of its...

  19. Acrapex azumai Sugi (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) as a possible biological control agent of the invasive weed Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidopteran larvae were discovered boring in the basal stems of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) in Itoshima city, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Adults reared from these larvae were identified as Acrapex azumai Sugi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequencing of the CO1 (cytochrome oxidase 1...

  20. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  1. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  2. Effect of gossypol and gossypol related compounds on mulberry pyralid (diaphania pyloalis walker, lepidoptera: pyralidae), a pest of the Mulberry Tree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gossypol, gossypurpurin and diaminogossypol were tested for inhibitory effects against feeding mulberry pyralid larvae (Diaphania pyloalis Walker, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The inclusion of very low concentrations of these compounds (10, 50 or 100 µmoles/g) in artificial diets increased the number of...

  3. Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...

  4. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam....

  5. Disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus: effect of blend and placement height, longevity of disruption and emission profile of a new dispenser

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent efforts to disrupt mating of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a global pest of citrus, have focused on the use of SPLAT™ (ISCA Technologies), a flowable wax emulsion intended to serve as a slow-release matrix for pheromones. Early success with this...

  6. Toward reconstructing the hyper-diverse radiation of ditrysian Lepidoptera (Insecta): initial evidence from 123 exemplars and 5 protein-coding nuclear genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 species total), 98% of the species fall in the clade Ditrysia, relationships within which are little understood. As the first step in a long-term study of ditrysian phylogeny, we tested the ability of maximum likelihood ana...

  7. Biological and ecological consequences of Diolcogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and the effects on two Costus (Costaceae) plant species in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Costus spicatus and Costus spiralis var. spiralis (Costaceae) are economically important plants due to their pharmacological and medicinal properties and ornamental value. These plants are natives from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest and are fed upon by Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Thi...

  8. Comparison of reproductive and flight capacity of beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), developing from diapause and non-diapause larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), employs both diapause and migration as life history strategies. To determine the role diapause plays in the population dynamics of L. sticticalis, the reproductive and flight potentials of adults originating from diapause and non-d...

  9. An overlooked sibling of the fruit-piercing moth Eudocima phalonia (Linnaeus, 1763) from Africa (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Calpinae).

    PubMed

    Brou, V A; Zilli, A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have been investigating the tropical calpine genus Eudocima Billberg, 1920 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Calpinae) with the intent of producing a generic revision. There are a number of undescribed species and here we describe as new a closely related species to the widespread and economically important fruit-piercer Eudocima phalonia (Linnaeus, 1763) (= fullonia Clerck, 1764), with which it has long been confused. Study material came from the private collection of Vernon Antoine Brou collection (VAB) and the Natural History Museum, London (NHM). PMID:27394873

  10. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-07-08

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  11. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed. PMID:26462824

  12. Consequences of exotic host use: impacts on Lepidoptera and a test of the ecological trap hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Su'ad; Read, Quentin

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the effects of invasive species on native biodiversity is one of the most pressing challenges in ecology. Our goal in this study was to quantify the effects of invasive plants on butterfly and moth communities. In addition, we sought to elucidate the fitness consequences of non-native hosts on lepidopterans. We conducted a meta-analysis on a total of 76 studies which provided data on larval performance, survival, oviposition preference, abundance, and species richness of Lepidoptera on native and exotic plants. Overwhelmingly, we found that performance and survival were reduced for larvae developing on exotic hosts, relative to native hosts. At the community level, alien plant invasion was associated with a reduction in the overall abundance and richness of lepidopteran communities. We found that lepidopterans did not show strong oviposition preference for native hosts. This result suggests that many invasive plant species may decrease lepidopteran abundance by providing a target for oviposition where larvae have a relatively poor chance of survival. Among studies that tested both survival and preference on exotic hosts, 37.5 % found evidence for novel hosts that could function as ecological traps (the figure was 18 % when considering studies that only assayed larval performance). Thus, although the majority of novel hosts included in our analyses are not likely to act as ecological traps, the potential clearly exists for this effect, and the role of ecological traps should be considered along with other aspects of global change impacting natural communities. PMID:26820566

  13. Host selection behavior and the fecundity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on multiple host plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Shi, Zhanghong; Hou, Youming

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivores often have higher densities on host plants grown in monocultures than those in diverse environments. The underlying mechanisms are thought to be that polyphagous insects have difficulty in selecting food or oviposition sites when multiple host plants exist. However, this hypothesis needs to be extensively investigated. Our field experiments revealed that the population of the diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), significantly decreased in a mixed cropping field compared with a monoculture. To determine the reasons for the reduction in population in the mixed cropping field, the takeoff behavior and fecundity of females in no-choice and free-choice laboratory environments were compared by video recordings of host selection by P. xylostella. Adults displayed a significantly higher takeoff frequency in free-choice environments than those in no-choice treatments and preferred landing on Brassica campestris (L.) or Brassica juncea (Coss) plants in contrast with Brassica oleracea (L.). Female adults in the free-choice environment also laid fewer eggs compared with the monoculture. Olfaction experiments demonstrated orientation by P. xylostella to host volatiles when presented with a choice between plant odors and clean air, but females showed no preference when odors from three Brassicaceae species were presented simultaneously. We conclude that mixed cropping alters the host-finding behavior of P. xylostella resulting in reduced oviposition. PMID:25527573

  14. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  15. Partial Life History of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Summer Hosts.

    PubMed

    Moonga, M N; Davis, J A

    2016-08-01

    The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major defoliating pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in Louisiana. However, other alternate host crops in the agroecosystem have the potential to impact C. includens populations. Life table statistics of C. includens on four host plants were evaluated. C. includens larvae were fed leaves of three cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars 'DP 143 B2RF,' 'DP 174 RF,' and 'PHY 485 WRF'; cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers 'California Blackeye'; three soybean cultivars 'Lyon,' 'PI 227687,' and 'RC 4955'; and sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck 'Evangeline.' All C. includens larvae reared on cotton cultivars DP 143 B2RF and PHY 485 WRF experienced 100% mortality during the first instar. Total developmental period of preadult C. includens was significantly shorter on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye but longer on sweetpotato Evangeline. Sweetpotato Evangeline had the highest amount of leaf tissue consumed and soybean Lyon had the least. Pupal weight was highest when insects fed on cotton DP 174 RF and lowest on soybean PI 227687. Life table statistics showed that the highest intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were attained when insects were reared on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye whilst the lowest were recorded on soybean PI 227687. This study provides valuable information on the role of alternative host crops on the partial life history of C. includens in Louisiana agroecosystems. PMID:27375294

  16. A new gene superfamily of pathogen-response (repat) genes in Lepidoptera: classification and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Cerrillo, G; Hernández-Martínez, P; Vogel, H; Ferré, J; Herrero, S

    2013-01-01

    Repat (REsponse to PAThogens) genes were first identified in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to Bacillus thuringiensis and baculovirus exposure. Since then, additional repat gene homologs have been identified in different studies. In this study the comprehensive larval transcriptome from S. exigua was analyzed for the presence of novel repat-homolog sequences. These analyses revealed the presence of at least 46 repat genes in S. exigua, establishing a new gene superfamily in this species. Phylogenetic analysis and studies of conserved motifs in these hypothetical proteins have allowed their classification in two main classes, αREPAT and βREPAT. Studies on the transcriptional response of repat genes have shown that αREPAT and βREPAT differ in their sequence but also in the pattern of regulation. The αREPAT were mainly regulated in response to the Cry1Ca toxin from B. thuringiensis but not to the increase in the midgut microbiota load. In contrast, βREPAT were neither responding to Cry1Ca toxin nor to midgut microbiota. Differential expression between midgut stem cells and the whole midgut tissue was studied for the different repat genes revealing changes in the gene expression distribution between midgut stem cells and midgut tissue in response to midgut microbiota. This high diversity found in their sequence and in their expression profile suggests that REPAT proteins may be involved in multiple processes that could be of relevance for the understanding of the insect gut physiology.

  17. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a polyphagous armyworm.

    PubMed

    Specht, A; Iltchenco, J; Fronza, E; Roque-Specht, V F; Luz, P C; Montezzano, D G

    2014-02-01

    We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae) at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee). In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal) diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  18. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu-Ling; Cui, Wen-Xia; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined (GenBank accession No. KF163965). The length of this mitochondrial genome is 15,377 bp with an A + T content of 82.5%. There are 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes, that is, 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA gene and an A + T-rich region. The tRNA gene trnM was rearranged to the upstream of the trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Ten protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, whereas three protein-coding gene use incomplete stop codon T. The A + T-region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 332 bp and A + T content of 94.88%.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yunliang; Zuo, Ni; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae) is a circular molecule of 15,266 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other butterfly species. Ten PCGs terminate in the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, whereas the COI, COII and ND4 genes end with single T. Ten intergenic spacers (73 bp in total), and 12 overlapping regions (28 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 405 bp long and contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 12-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)14 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. Additionally, a 11-bp poly-T sequences and a microsatellite-like (AT)7 repeated elements are detected in this region.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Shao, Lili; Cheng, Chunhui; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionodae) is a circular molecule of 15,226 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs initiate with typical ATN codons, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon. Ten PCGs use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the COI, COII and ND5 genes end with single T. Twelve intergenic spacers (82 bp in total), and 11 overlapping regions (30 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 403 bp long and contains some conserved structures characteristic of the butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 13-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)12 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mulberry white caterpillar Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Jun, Jumin; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana, belongs to the lepidopteran family Bombycidae, in which the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori is included. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of R. menciana in terms of general genomic features and characteristic features found in the A+T-rich region. The 15,364 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. Twelve of the 13 PCGs started with typical ATN codons, except for the COI, which began with CGA and twelve of 13 PCGs had complete stop codons, except for the COII, which ended with a single T. The 360 bp long A+T-rich region harbored the conserved sequence blocks typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A+T-rich region of R. menciana contained one tRNA(Met)-like structure, which had a proper anticodon and secondary structure.

  2. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  3. Bird predation on cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in wheat fields and chlorpyrifos effects on brain cholinesterase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, L.C.; DeWeese, L.R.; Schladweiler, P.

    1986-01-01

    Horned larks, Eremophila alpestris (L.), and McCown's longspurs, Calcarius mccownii (Lawrence), were collected at intervals from two winter wheat fields in Montana [USA] after aerial application of chlorpyrifos to control cutworms. Both bird species had a high (95-100%) incidence of Lepidoptera, mostly pale western cutworms, Agrotis orthogonia Morrison, in their stomachs at 3 days postspray. Incidence of cutworms and other insects in stomachs of birds from sprayed fields was lower at 9 and 16 days postspray than in control birds, presumably due to insecticide-caused reduction of insects. Effects of birds on population dynamics of insect pests in wheat are unknown, but birds do contribute to cutworm mortality. Predation is one of the limiting factors to cutworm increase and can supplement insecticidal control. Brain cholinesterase activity in horned larks collected from the sprayed fields at 3 and 9 days postspray was significantly lower than in unexposed larks, but at 16 days the difference was not significant. Although nontarget birds clearly were exposed to chlorpyrifos and manifested a sublethal physiological response, toxic effects were less severe than those resulting from endrin application for cutworm control in wheat. More study is needed of larger chlorpyrifos-treated fields under a variety of conditions to fully assess effects on nontarget life.

  4. Various chemical strategies to deceive ants in three Arhopala species (lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) exploiting Macaranga myrmecophytes.

    PubMed

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the moon moth, Actias aliena (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the Actias aliena belonging to the lepidopteran family Saturniidae in terms of general genomic features and composition. The 15,243 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region. The A. aliena mitogenome harbored the gene order tRNA(Met), tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Gln) between the A+T-rich region and ND2, as shown in most lepidopteran species. The COI gene possessed the CGA initiator, which is found in nearly all lepidopterans lacking a canonical ATN initiator. Twenty-one tRNAs formed the cloverleaf secondary structures but tRNA(Ser)(AGN) formed a simple loop in the DHU arm. The 328 bp long A+T-rich region, which was located between the S rRNA and tRNA(Met) genes, contained several Lepidoptera-specific sequences, such as the ATAGA motif, a poly-T stretch, an AT repeat, and a poly-A stretch, along with an unusual tRNA(Phe)-like structure.

  6. Systematics, phylogeny and biology of a new genus of Lithocolletinae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) associated with Cistaceae.

    PubMed

    De Prins, Jurate; Davis, Donald R; De Coninck, Eliane; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Triberti, Paolo

    2013-10-27

    The gracillariid genus Triberta gen. nov. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Lithocolletinae Stainton, 1854) is described to accommodate two species formerly assigned to the genus Phyllonorycter Hübner, 1822: Triberta helianthemella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1861) comb. nov. and T. cistifoliella (Groschke, 1944) comb. nov. Triberta cistifoliella bona sp. is restored from synonymy based on morphological characters. The new genus is biologically associated with the plant family Cistaceae of the order Malvales and is endemic to the Palaearctics. Our molecular analysis of eleven nuclear genes failed to unambiguously place Triberta in the lithocolletine phylogeny, but revealed that this genus is distinct from either clade Phyllonorycter + Cremastobombycia and Cameraria. The distinctiveness of Triberta is also supported by inferred traits in wing venation, micro morphology of the last instar larva, pupa, genital morphology of the adult and life history. A key to the species of Triberta is provided. The interspecific homogeneity in external morphology, coupled with minor differences in genital traits, an apparent narrow specialization on Cistaceae host plants, restricted geographical range and molecular evidence based on multi-nuclear genes jointly suggest that the generic diversification of Triberta is a relatively old phenomenon and driven strongly by host selection.

  7. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  8. Supercooling Capacity and Cold Tolerance of the Wild Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zheng, Xi-Xi; Ma, Hong-Fang; Xia, Run-Xi; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Rui

    2016-08-01

    While wild silkworms have served humans for several thousand years, little attention on cold hardiness has been paid to these economically important species. In the present study, supercooling capacity and low temperature tolerance of Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), an economic insect reared both for silk production as well as human food, were examined under laboratory conditions. The supercooling points (SCPs) of pupae dropped significantly from a mean of -15.6°C in prediapause to -20.1°C in diapause, and then increased to -17.5°C during postdiapause development. Sex and voltinism influenced body mass but had no significant effect on the SCP. Our data demonstrated that cold tolerance of A. pernyi is tightly linked to life stage. Exposure of eggs to -5°C for up to 8 h had no effect on the hatching rate, whereas silkworm larvae failed to break through the chorion and hatch following a 4-8-h exposure to -10°C. Mean SCPs of intact eggs and naked larvae one day before hatching were similar, -23.3°C and -22.3°C, respectively, indicating that chorion does not significantly affect SCP. Comparison of lower lethal temperature (LLT50) and SCP means suggested that both pupae and eggs of A. pernyi are chill intolerant. These data will improve our understanding of low temperature tolerance in this commercially important species. PMID:27371710

  9. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  10. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on Development and Reproduction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengyu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables throughout the world. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from beetles in the families Meloidae and Oedemeridae, has been reported to be toxic to some pests, including the diamondback moth. However, the effects of cantharidin, especially its sublethal effects on development and reproduction of diamondback moth, are less known. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of cantharidin at LC2 (0.41 mg liter(-1)), LC10 (1.33 mg liter(-1)), LC25 (3.38 mg liter(-1)), and LC50 (9.53 mg liter(-1)) on development and reproduction parameters of two consecutive diamondback moth generations. The results indicated that cantharidin reduced population growth by decreasing its pupation rate, pupal weight, and adult emergence, and by delaying its development. Furthermore, the duration of the female preoviposition period increased, while the oviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and survival rates of the offspring decreased. The peaks of age-specific fecundity in LC10, LC25, and LC50 treatment groups lagged behind the control group. The mean values of the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) were significantly lower than those of the control, and the mean generation time (T) was prolonged. The present study demonstrates that cantharidin exhibits significant adverse effects on the population dynamics of diamondback moth, leading to fitness disadvantages.

  11. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Lacerda, M C; Ferreira, A M R M; Zanuncio, T V; Zanuncio, J C; Bernardino, A S; Espindula, M C

    2004-05-01

    Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, especially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae (T1), compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (T2) and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae (T3) at a temperature of 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C, relative humidity of 70 +/- 2%, and photophase of 12 h. Predators fed on B. mori showed duration of the nymph phase (18.68 +/- 1.02) similar to those fed on T. molitor (18.32 +/- 1.49). Pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and number of egg masses, besides eggs and nymphs per female, were higher with B. mori (5.83 +/- 2.02; 15.00 +/- 7.40; 8.42 +/- 1.84; 296.69 +/- 154.75; and 228.55 +/- 141.04, respectively) while longevity of males and females of P. distinctus was 25.76 +/- 16.15 and 35.00 +/- 16.15 days with T. molitor, and 20.57 +/- 13.60 and 23.46 +/- 12.35 days with B. mori, respectively.

  12. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  13. Molecular Phylogeny of Grassland Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) Endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Wang, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Zhong-Long; Bao, Gen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Gynaephora (Lepidoptera Erebidae: Lymantriinae) is a small genus, consisting of 15 nominated species, of which eight species are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, we employed both mitochondrial and nuclear loci to infer a molecular phylogeny for the eight QTP Gynaephora spp. We used the phylogeny to estimate divergence dates in a molecular dating analysis and to delimit species. This information allowed us to investigate associations between the diversification history of the eight QTP species and geological and climatic events. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the eight QTP species formed a monophyletic group with strong supports in both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The low K2P genetic distances between the eight QTP species suggested that diversification occurred relatively quickly and recently. Out of the eight species, five species were highly supported as monophyletic, which were also recovered by species delimitation analyses. Samples of the remaining three species (G. aureata, G. rouergensis, and G. minora) mixed together, suggesting that further studies using extensive population sampling and comprehensive morphological approaches are necessary to clarify their species status. Divergence time estimation results demonstrated that the diversification and speciation of Gynaephora on the QTP began during the late Miocene/early Pliocene and was potentially affected by the QTP uplift and associated climate changes during this time.

  14. When caterpillars attack: biogeography and life history evolution of the Miletinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Kaliszewska, Zofia A; Lohman, David J; Sommer, Kathrin; Adelson, Glenn; Rand, Douglas B; Mathew, John; Talavera, Gerard; Pierce, Naomi E

    2015-03-01

    Of the four most diverse insect orders, Lepidoptera contains remarkably few predatory and parasitic species. Although species with these habits have evolved multiple times in moths and butterflies, they have rarely been associated with diversification. The wholly aphytophagous subfamily Miletinae (Lycaenidae) is an exception, consisting of nearly 190 species distributed primarily throughout the Old World tropics and subtropics. Most miletines eat Hemiptera, although some consume ant brood or are fed by ant trophallaxis. A well-resolved phylogeny inferred using 4915 bp from seven markers sampled from representatives of all genera and nearly one-third the described species was used to examine the biogeography and evolution of biotic associations in this group. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Miletinae likely diverged from an African ancestor near the start of the Eocene, and four lineages dispersed between Africa and Asia. Phylogenetic constraint in prey selection is apparent at two levels: related miletine species are more likely to feed on related Hemiptera, and related miletines are more likely to associate with related ants, either directly by eating the ants, or indirectly by eating hemipteran prey that are attended by those ants. These results suggest that adaptations for host ant location by ovipositing female miletines may have been retained from phytophagous ancestors that associated with ants mutualistically.

  15. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003–2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40–60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003–2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010–2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of ‘oogenesis-flight syndrome’. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  16. Suitability of Creeping Bentgrass and Bermudagrass Cultivars for Black Cutworms and Fall Armyworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Cheon; Obear, Glen R; Liesch, Patrick J; Held, David W; Williamson, R Chris

    2015-08-01

    The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are common turfgrass pests of golf courses in the southeastern United States. Heat-tolerant bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) cultivars are expanding the range of bentgrass further south, but these cultivars have not been studied for their potential host plant resistance to black cutworm or fall armyworm. The goals of the study were to investigate feeding response of black cutworm and fall armyworm to these newer heat-tolerant creeping bentgrass cultivars, as well as commonly used cultivars of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (Loppers.)]. Choice and no-choice feeding assays and fecundity tests were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate performance and preference of the two insects. When given a choice, neither black cutworm nor fall armyworm showed a preference for the majority of new cultivars tested. There were no differences in leaf area consumption or insect development for either pest in no-choice feeding assays. Black cutworm females preferred laying eggs in bentgrass compared with bermudagrass, but will oviposit onto bermudagrass, suggesting that both turf species are suitable hosts of this pest. The broad host ranges of generalist caterpillar pests of turfgrass hinder the application of host plant resistance in integrated pest management on golf courses. PMID:26470340

  17. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Soto, Francisco; Hilje, Luko; Mora, Gerardo A; Carballo, Manuel

    2011-03-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.) are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae) had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether) of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length) caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata). Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics.

  18. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency.

  19. Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oils against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, S G Eswara; Kirti Dolma, Shudh; Koundal, Rajkesh; Singh, Bikram

    2016-08-01

    Five Himalayan plants namely, Acorus calamus, Cedrus deodara, Aegle marmelos, Tagetes minuta and Murraya koenigii were used for the extraction of essential oils through hydrodistillation and the major volatile constituents as identified by GC and GC-MS techniques were β-asarone (91.1%), β-himachalene (45.8%), limonene (59.5%), Z-ocimene (37.9%) and α-pinene (54.2%), respectively. Essential oils were tested for their insecticidal properties against larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Results showed that A. calamus was most toxic (LC50 = 0.29 mg mL(-1)) to P. xylostella followed by C. deodara (LC50 = 1.08 mg mL(-1)) and M. koenigii (LC50 = 1.93 mg mL(-1)) via residual toxicity bioassay. Per cent feeding deterrence index and growth inhibition was significantly higher in A. calamus (42.20 and 68.55, respectively) followed by C. deodara (35.41 and 52.47). In repellent activity studies, C. deodara showed high repellence (64.76%) followed by A. calamus (55.05%). PMID:26264423

  20. Host Plant Associations and Parasitism of South Ecuadorian Eois Species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Feeding on Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Seifert, Carlo L; Bodner, Florian; Brehm, Gunnar; Fiedler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The very species-rich tropical moth genus Eois Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a promising model group for studying host plant specialization and adaptive radiation. While most Eois species are assumed to be specialized herbivores on Piper L. species, records on other plant taxa such as Peperomia Ruiz & Pavón (Piperaceae) are still relatively scarce. Moreover, little is known about life history traits of most species, and only a few caterpillars have been described so far. We collected caterpillars associated with Peperomia (Piperaceae) host plants from June 2012 to January 2013 in three elevational bands of montane and elfin rainforests on the eastern slopes of the Andes in southern Ecuador. Caterpillars were systematically searched and reared to the adult stage. We were able to delimitate ten species of Eois on Peperomia by comparison of larval and adult morphology and by using 658 bp fragments of the mitochondrial COI gene (barcode sequences). Three of these species, Eois albosignata (Dognin), Eois bolana (Dognin), and Eois chasca (Dognin), are validly described whereas the other seven taxa represent interim morphospecies, recognized unequivocally by their DNA barcodes, and their larval and adult morphology. We provide information about their host plants, degree of parasitism, and describe the larval stages in their last instar. Additionally, caterpillars and moths are illustrated in color plates. This is the first comparative study dealing with Eois moths whose caterpillars feed on Peperomia hosts. PMID:26286230

  1. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  2. Hindwings are unnecessary for flight but essential for execution of normal evasive flight in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Jantzen, Benjamin; Eisner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, forewings and hindwings are mechanically coupled and flap in synchrony. Flight is anteromotoric, being driven primarily by action of the forewings. Here we report that lepidopterans can still fly when their hindwings are cut off, a procedure reducing their total wing surface, on average, by nearly one half. However, as we demonstrate by analysis of three-dimensional flight trajectories of a moth and a butterfly (Lymantria dispar and Pieris rapae), hindwing removal causes lepidopterans to incur a loss in both linear and turning acceleration, so that they are unable to exercise their normal flight maneuverability. Without hindwings they still are able to zigzag aerially (the ablation has no effect on their turning radius in flight) but at lesser speed and therefore less evasively. Consequently, hindwings in the expanded state in which they occur in lepidopterans seem to contribute in an essential way to lepidopteran survival. Moths in today's world, we argue, may rely on their evasive flight primarily to avoid capture by bats, whereas butterflies, which we propose advertise their evasiveness collectively through shared aposematism, may depend upon it primarily for defense against birds. Aerial agility thus may be the chief adaptive asset derived by lepidopterans from possession of oversize hindwings. PMID:18936482

  3. Wedding biodiversity inventory of a large and complex Lepidoptera fauna with DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, Daniel H; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M; Hallwachs, Winnie; Remigio, Ed; Hebert, Paul D.N

    2005-01-01

    By facilitating bioliteracy, DNA barcoding has the potential to improve the way the world relates to wild biodiversity. Here we describe the early stages of the use of cox1 barcoding to supplement and strengthen the taxonomic platform underpinning the inventory of thousands of sympatric species of caterpillars in tropical dry forest, cloud forest and rain forest in northwestern Costa Rica. The results show that barcoding a biologically complex biota unambiguously distinguishes among 97% of more than 1000 species of reared Lepidoptera. Those few species whose barcodes overlap are closely related and not confused with other species. Barcoding also has revealed a substantial number of cryptic species among morphologically defined species, associated sexes, and reinforced identification of species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically. For barcoding to achieve its full potential, (i) ability to rapidly and cheaply barcode older museum specimens is urgent, (ii) museums need to address the opportunity and responsibility for housing large numbers of barcode voucher specimens, (iii) substantial resources need be mustered to support the taxonomic side of the partnership with barcoding, and (iv) hand-held field-friendly barcorder must emerge as a mutualism with the taxasphere and the barcoding initiative, in a manner such that its use generates a resource base for the taxonomic process as well as a tool for the user. PMID:16214742

  4. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree.

  5. Using yellow rocket as a trap crop for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2005-06-01

    Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata, was evaluated as a trap crop for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata, in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae found in field plots of cabbage alone were 5.2-11.3 times higher than those on cabbage plants in plots that included cabbage and several rows of yellow rocket. In an outdoor experiment in screenhouses, P. xylostella oviposition on cabbage was compared among six treatments that varied in the percentage of yellow rocket in relation to cabbage (0, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32% of the plants were yellow rocket). Results indicated that the percentage of eggs laid on cabbage decreased as the percentage of yellow rocket in the treatment increased, but this decrease was not significant beyond 20% of the plants being yellow rocket. In 2004, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae in field plots of cabbage alone were 1.6-2.4 and 1.7-2.8 times higher than numbers in treatments with 10 and 20% trap crop, respectively. Sticky trap and sweep net captures of P. xylostella adults indicated that within-field dispersal was reduced by the presence of yellow rocket and aggregation occurred around yellow rocket plants. Our study suggests that using yellow rocket as a trap crop may reduce P. xylostella infestations in cabbage fields, and this possibility is discussed in the context of general crop and insect pest management practices in crucifers.

  6. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  7. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area. PMID:24331616

  8. Larval Cryptothelea gloverii (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), an arthropod predator and herbivore on Florida citrus.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Raul T; Rodrigues, Jose C V; Childers, Carl C

    2005-01-01

    The orange bagworm (OBW), Cryptothelea gloverii (Packard) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) was previously reported feeding on citrus fruit and foliage and preying upon the camphor scale Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Coccidae). In this study using laboratory assays, OBW preyed upon citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae) and consumed eggs and adults of both P. oleivora and Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), two important pest mites on Florida citrus. OBW was also observed to feed on the purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and on a fungus (Penicillium sp.). OBW fed on orange and grapefruit leaves by starting from the border and eating part of the leaf, by chewing holes, or consuming the outer epithelium of either the axial or abaxial surface of the leaf without penetrating through the leaf. OBW was observed in orange orchards in association with fruit extensively russeted by P. oleivora feeding. Laboratory assays revealed that OBW larvae preferred to feed on oranges infested with P. oleivora rather than on clean fruits that were free of mite feeding damage. Feeding damage to citrus fruit by OBW larvae results in one to several holes being eaten into the rind or albedo, without damage to the fruit sacs. PMID:16082926

  9. Recapture of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males: influence of lure type and pheromone background.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Brunner, Jay F; Jones, Vincent P; Bello, Nora M

    2010-08-01

    Recapture of marked male codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), released four distances from traps was measured in experiments comparing either lure type or mating disruption. Experiment 1 assessed recapture by 0.1, 1, and 10 mg of codlemone lures. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed moth recapture in orchard plots with 0, 500, or 1,000 Isomate C Plus dispensers per ha. Moths were released 1, 3, 10, and 30 m downwind of the trap in experiments 1 and 2, and 3, 10, 30, and 45 m in experiment 3. Lure type did not affect recapture, however, significantly more moths were recaptured at 3 m compared with 10 or 30 m. Most moths recaptured < or = 10 m of the trap were recaptured by day 3, whereas most of the moths recaptured > or = 10 m were recaptured after day 3. Thus, 0.1-, 1-, and 10-mg lures, have an attractive range of between 10 and 30 m in orchards lacking mating disruption. Both mating disruption rates greatly reduced moth recapture, and moths recaptured under a 1,000 dispenser per ha rate were recaptured from < or = 10 m and within the first 2 d after release. Similar results were observed when release points were expanded to 45 m. Thus, results suggest that pheromone dispenser technologies and placement strategies that maximize disruption of males that arise within 10 m of a female are needed to markedly improve mating disruption.

  10. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

  11. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A; Hagen, Snorre B

    2015-09-17

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata.

  12. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region.

  13. Renewable and nonrenewable resources: amino acid turnover and allocation to reproduction in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Diane M; Fogel, Marilyn L; Boggs, Carol L

    2002-04-01

    The allocation of nutritional resources to reproduction in animals is a complex process of great evolutionary significance. We use compound-specific stable isotope analysis of carbon (GC/combustion/isotope ratio MS) to investigate the dietary sources of egg amino acids in a nectar-feeding hawkmoth. Previous work suggests that the nutrients used in egg manufacture fall into two classes: those that are increasingly synthesized from adult dietary sugar over a female's lifetime (renewable resources), and those that remain exclusively larval in origin (nonrenewable resources). We predict that nonessential and essential amino acids correspond to these nutrient classes and test this prediction by analyzing egg amino acids from females fed isotopically distinct diets as larvae and as adults. The results demonstrate that essential egg amino acids originate entirely from the larval diet. In contrast, nonessential egg amino acids were increasingly synthesized from adult dietary sugars, following a turnover pattern across a female's lifetime. This study demonstrates that female Lepidoptera can synthesize a large fraction of egg amino acids from nectar sugars, using endogenous sources of nitrogen. However, essential amino acids derive only from the larval diet, placing an upper limit on the use of adult dietary resources to enhance reproductive success.

  14. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    PubMed

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. PMID:26314013

  15. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  16. Controlled atmosphere and temperature treatment system to disinfest fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) on apples.

    PubMed

    Son, Yerim; Chon, Ikjo; Neven, Lisa; Kim, Yonggyun

    2012-10-01

    Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) is a serious pest of apples and peaches in Korea and Japan. Because of its limited distribution, C. sasakii has been identified as a quarantine pest in several countries. The Controlled Atmosphere/Temperature Treatment System (CATTS) was tested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to control C. sasakii in apples. The fifth instar was the most tolerant immature stage to a heat treatment of 44 degrees C for 20 min. When the apples infested with different stages of C. sasakii were treated under CATTS conditions (heating rate of 16 degrees C/h, chamber temperature of 46 degrees C, final core temperature of 44 degrees C under 1% O2/15% CO2 atmosphere), young larvae (first-fourth instars) did not survive after 40 min exposure, but the fifth instars required an exposure of at least 60 min to attain 100% mortality. A partial heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) was cloned and showed inducible expression in response to heat shock at 44 degrees C. CATTS suppressed transcription of the hsp90 gene. Apples did not show any appreciable loss of quality in relation to fruit firmness, sweetness, and decay after a 60 min CATTS treatment. These results suggest that CATTS can be applicable to control C. sasakii in apples.

  17. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples.

  18. Expansion of the Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) into Rice and Sugarcane in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B E; Hardy, T N; Beuzelin, J M; VanWeelden, M T; Reagan, T E; Miller, R; Meaux, J; Stout, M J; Carlton, C E

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Traps baited with E. loftini female sex pheromones were used to document establishment and distribution of E. loftini near sugarcane, rice, and noncrop hosts in seven southwest Louisiana parishes from 2009 to 2013. Additional field surveys documented larval infestations in commercial sugarcane and rice. After its initial detection in 2008, no E. loftini were detected in Louisiana in 2009 and only two adults were captured in 2010. Trapping documented range expansion into Cameron, Beauregard, and Jefferson Davis parishes in 2011 and Allen, Acadia, and Vermilion parishes in 2013. During the course of this study, E. loftini expanded its range eastward into Louisiana 120 km from the Texas border (≈22 km/yr). Surveys of larval infestations provided the first record of E. loftini attacking rice and sugarcane in Louisiana. Infestations of E. loftini in rice planted without insecticidal seed treatments in Calcasieu Parish reached damaging levels.

  19. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted. PMID:20568610

  20. Host Selection, Growth, and Survival of Melonworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Four Cucurbit Crops Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Panthi, B R; Seal, D R; Capinera, J L; Nuessly, G S; Martin, C G

    2016-08-01

    The melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most serious insect problems affecting cucurbit production. We evaluated the relative preference and suitability of yellow squash, zucchini, cucumber, and watermelon to melonworm by measuring its oviposition, larval feeding preference, survivorship, and developmental responses in the laboratory. Whole plants were used for oviposition study, whereas host leaf discs were used for all the other studies. Watermelon feeding resulted in the longest larval development period (14.3 d), greatest prepupal weights and survivals rates (92%; first instar to adult) among the four crops. However, for watermelon, adult oviposition preference (199.5 eggs/♀), egg survival (70%), and larval feeding (4.1% defoliation) were numerically or statistically lowest, and larval head capsule widths and whole-body lengths were smallest. When differences occurred among these variables, yellow squash, zucchini, and cucumber were each typically higher (or quicker to develop) than watermelon. So why do melonworm adults not prefer watermelon, or at least select it as frequently as squash and cucumber when ovipositing? The answer likely is that there might be some variation in the important chemical components among these cucurbits. We suggest that comparison of kairomones and allomones from watermelon and related cucurbits would be very useful for determining the combination resulting in the lowest risk of damage to the more susceptible cucurbits (assuming the levels can be modified without seriously affecting the crops). PMID:27400704

  1. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae.

  2. Annual Migration of Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Observed on a Small Isolated Island in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianglong; Fu, Xiaowei; Wu, Xiao; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Migration behavior of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is not well known by far. Here, we present the data from an 11-year study on A. segetum by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection on Beihuang (BH) Island, which located in the center of the Bohai Strait in northern China. The data showed a large number of A. segetum flight across the strait each year, which provides direct evidence that A. segetum is a long-distance migrant, migrating at least 40-60 km to reach the trapping site. The migration period during 2003-2013 ranged from 115 to 172 d. Among the catches, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males in each month from May to September. Ovarian dissection showed that the proportion of mated females and the proportion of sexually mature females was significantly higher than that of unmated females and sexually immature females in early summer, respectively, but conversely in autumn. The early summer populations migrate in a south-north direction, which might undertake a long-distance flight on several successive nights. The autumn populations migrate in a north-south direction, which might originate not far from the trapping site. Based on these findings, the migratory physiology of A. segetum was discussed.

  3. Various Chemical Strategies to Deceive Ants in Three Arhopala Species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Exploiting Macaranga Myrmecophytes

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies. PMID:25853675

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and comparison with other Pyraloidea insects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Bian, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome can provide important information for the understanding of phylogenetic relationships. The complete mt genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been sequenced. The circular genome is 15 287 bp in size, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The AT skew of this mt genome is slightly negative, and the nucleotide composition is biased toward A+T nucleotides (80.15%). All PCGs start with the typical ATN (ATA, ATC, ATG, and ATT) codons, except for the cox1 gene which may start with the CGA codon. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon T or TA. All the tRNA genes are folded into the typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, except for trnS1 (AGN) in which the DHU arm fails to form a stable stem-loop structure. The overlapping sequences are 35 bp in total and are found in seven different locations. A total of 240 bp of intergenic spacers are scattered in 16 regions. The control region of the mt genome is 327 bp in length and consisted of several features common to the sequenced lepidopteran insects. Phylogenetic analysis based on 13 PCGs using the Maximum Likelihood method shows that the placement of P. interpunctella was within the Pyralidae.

  5. Potential Toxicity of α-Cypermethrin-Treated Nets on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Biondi, A; Zappalà, L; Desneux, N; Aparo, A; Siscaro, G; Rapisarda, C; Martin, T; Tropea Garzia, G

    2015-06-01

    Insect-proof nets are thought to be effective physical barriers to protect tomato crops against several insect pests, including the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, protected tomato crops are frequently infested by this destructive pest, and there is a higher infestation of plants closer to openings in Mediterranean greenhouses, suggesting that immigrating adults can easily walk on these protective materials and find a way to reach the crop. Laboratory bioassays were carried out to characterize the potential toxicity of α-cypermethrin-treated insect-proof nets (Agronet) against T. absoluta adults. The data showed that the net acts mainly through a variety of chronic sublethal effects rather than acute ones. Reduced longevity and, more markedly, a reduced number of laid eggs were observed after the moths were exposed to the treated net over the duration of their lifetimes. A Y-tube experiment showed that the treated net does not affect the T. absoluta olfaction cues for host location. In contrast, when the moths were given the option to choose either the treated or the untreated net in laboratory cages, they significantly preferred the untreated one. The toxicological significance and the functional implications of these subtle effects for the implementation of integrated T. absoluta management strategies are discussed. PMID:26470245

  6. Host Selection, Growth, and Survival of Melonworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Four Cucurbit Crops Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Panthi, B. R.; Seal, D. R.; Capinera, J. L.; Nuessly, G. S.; Martin, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    The melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most serious insect problems affecting cucurbit production. We evaluated the relative preference and suitability of yellow squash, zucchini, cucumber, and watermelon to melonworm by measuring its oviposition, larval feeding preference, survivorship, and developmental responses in the laboratory. Whole plants were used for oviposition study, whereas host leaf discs were used for all the other studies. Watermelon feeding resulted in the longest larval development period (14.3 d), greatest prepupal weights and survivals rates (92%; first instar to adult) among the four crops. However, for watermelon, adult oviposition preference (199.5 eggs/♀), egg survival (70%), and larval feeding (4.1% defoliation) were numerically or statistically lowest, and larval head capsule widths and whole-body lengths were smallest. When differences occurred among these variables, yellow squash, zucchini, and cucumber were each typically higher (or quicker to develop) than watermelon. So why do melonworm adults not prefer watermelon, or at least select it as frequently as squash and cucumber when ovipositing? The answer likely is that there might be some variation in the important chemical components among these cucurbits. We suggest that comparison of kairomones and allomones from watermelon and related cucurbits would be very useful for determining the combination resulting in the lowest risk of damage to the more susceptible cucurbits (assuming the levels can be modified without seriously affecting the crops). PMID:27400704

  7. Annual Migration of Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Observed on a Small Isolated Island in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianglong; Fu, Xiaowei; Wu, Xiao; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Migration behavior of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is not well known by far. Here, we present the data from an 11-year study on A. segetum by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection on Beihuang (BH) Island, which located in the center of the Bohai Strait in northern China. The data showed a large number of A. segetum flight across the strait each year, which provides direct evidence that A. segetum is a long-distance migrant, migrating at least 40 - 60 km to reach the trapping site. The migration period during 2003-2013 ranged from 115 to 172 d. Among the catches, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males in each month from May to September. Ovarian dissection showed that the proportion of mated females and the proportion of sexually mature females was significantly higher than that of unmated females and sexually immature females in early summer, respectively, but conversely in autumn. The early summer populations migrate in a south-north direction, which might undertake a long-distance flight on several successive nights. The autumn populations migrate in a north-south direction, which might originate not far from the trapping site. Based on these findings, the migratory physiology of A. segetum was discussed. PMID:26114576

  8. [Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male Apamea apameoides (Draudt) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to sex pheromone components].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhou, Zhang-Ting; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Zhou, Zhi-Feng; Shen, Zhi-Lian; Wang, Hao-Jie; Shu, Jin-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The sex pheromone gland extracts collected from calling females of Apamea apameoides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were analyzed with GC-MS, the electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the male adults to serial dilutions of sex pheromone components and their synthetic blends were investigated with Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory and in bamboo forest field. The results indicated that (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol were the functional components in the sex pheromone gland extracts. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings showed that sex pheromone gland extracts, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol and the mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol all could elicit strong EAG responses, and the average EAG values increased with the increasing concentration of the sex pheromone. The blends of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol at the ratio of 57:43 elicited a higher EAG value than each singular component did. The results of behavioral assay by Y-tube olfactometer accorded with those of EAG responses on the whole, and the mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol at the ratio of 57:43 was more attractive than each component alone. In field tests with silicone rubber as pheromone dispensers (concentration = 10(4) ng · uL(-1)), the average number of male adults captured per trap by the mixture was (48.5 ± 6.7). PMID:25796914

  9. Larval biology of anthophagous Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) in the cerrado of central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Neuza A P; Duarte, Marcelo; Araújo, Eliezer B; Morais, Helena C

    2014-01-01

    The biology and morphology of the early stages of 22 species of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) are presented. Observations were collected through the inspection of inflorescences in the field and the rearing of 214 larvae in laboratory. Allosmaitia strophius (Godart) associated with Malpighiaceae species and the polyphagous Strymon mulucha (Hewitson) were the most frequently collected species. Detritivory was observed in two species, Electrostrymon endymion (F.) and Kisutam syllis (Godman & Salvin), and myrmecophily in four other species, A. strophius, Ministrymon azia (Hewitson), Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll), and S. mulucha. Cannibalism was observed in A. strophius; in addition, the pupa of this and of three other species produced audible sounds. Paiwarria aphaca (Hewitson) was highlighted because of the great difference observed between its first and last instars, as well as the marked difference between that species and the larvae of Paiwarria umbratus (Geyer) documented in Costa Rica. Larvae of Calycopis mimas (Godman & Salvin) displayed "bungee jumping" behavior when stimulated. Parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera) attacked 21 larvae of eight species, A. strophius, K. syllis, M. azia, Pai. aphaca, P. polibetes, Rekoa marius (Lucas), S. mulucha, and Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce). Illustrations of immatures and parasitoids are provided. PMID:25368090

  10. Host Plant Associations and Parasitism of South Ecuadorian Eois Species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Feeding on Peperomia (Piperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Carlo L.; Bodner, Florian; Brehm, Gunnar; Fiedler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The very species-rich tropical moth genus Eois Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a promising model group for studying host plant specialization and adaptive radiation. While most Eois species are assumed to be specialized herbivores on Piper L. species, records on other plant taxa such as Peperomia Ruiz & Pavón (Piperaceae) are still relatively scarce. Moreover, little is known about life history traits of most species, and only a few caterpillars have been described so far. We collected caterpillars associated with Peperomia (Piperaceae) host plants from June 2012 to January 2013 in three elevational bands of montane and elfin rainforests on the eastern slopes of the Andes in southern Ecuador. Caterpillars were systematically searched and reared to the adult stage. We were able to delimitate ten species of Eois on Peperomia by comparison of larval and adult morphology and by using 658 bp fragments of the mitochondrial COI gene (barcode sequences). Three of these species, Eois albosignata (Dognin), Eois bolana (Dognin), and Eois chasca (Dognin), are validly described whereas the other seven taxa represent interim morphospecies, recognized unequivocally by their DNA barcodes, and their larval and adult morphology. We provide information about their host plants, degree of parasitism, and describe the larval stages in their last instar. Additionally, caterpillars and moths are illustrated in color plates. This is the first comparative study dealing with Eois moths whose caterpillars feed on Peperomia hosts. PMID:26286230

  11. Molecular Phylogeny of Grassland Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) Endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Zhong-Long; Bao, Gen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Gynaephora (Lepidoptera Erebidae: Lymantriinae) is a small genus, consisting of 15 nominated species, of which eight species are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, we employed both mitochondrial and nuclear loci to infer a molecular phylogeny for the eight QTP Gynaephora spp. We used the phylogeny to estimate divergence dates in a molecular dating analysis and to delimit species. This information allowed us to investigate associations between the diversification history of the eight QTP species and geological and climatic events. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the eight QTP species formed a monophyletic group with strong supports in both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The low K2P genetic distances between the eight QTP species suggested that diversification occurred relatively quickly and recently. Out of the eight species, five species were highly supported as monophyletic, which were also recovered by species delimitation analyses. Samples of the remaining three species (G. aureata, G. rouergensis, and G. minora) mixed together, suggesting that further studies using extensive population sampling and comprehensive morphological approaches are necessary to clarify their species status. Divergence time estimation results demonstrated that the diversification and speciation of Gynaephora on the QTP began during the late Miocene/early Pliocene and was potentially affected by the QTP uplift and associated climate changes during this time. PMID:26053874

  12. Host Plant Associations and Parasitism of South Ecuadorian Eois Species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Feeding on Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Seifert, Carlo L; Bodner, Florian; Brehm, Gunnar; Fiedler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The very species-rich tropical moth genus Eois Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a promising model group for studying host plant specialization and adaptive radiation. While most Eois species are assumed to be specialized herbivores on Piper L. species, records on other plant taxa such as Peperomia Ruiz & Pavón (Piperaceae) are still relatively scarce. Moreover, little is known about life history traits of most species, and only a few caterpillars have been described so far. We collected caterpillars associated with Peperomia (Piperaceae) host plants from June 2012 to January 2013 in three elevational bands of montane and elfin rainforests on the eastern slopes of the Andes in southern Ecuador. Caterpillars were systematically searched and reared to the adult stage. We were able to delimitate ten species of Eois on Peperomia by comparison of larval and adult morphology and by using 658 bp fragments of the mitochondrial COI gene (barcode sequences). Three of these species, Eois albosignata (Dognin), Eois bolana (Dognin), and Eois chasca (Dognin), are validly described whereas the other seven taxa represent interim morphospecies, recognized unequivocally by their DNA barcodes, and their larval and adult morphology. We provide information about their host plants, degree of parasitism, and describe the larval stages in their last instar. Additionally, caterpillars and moths are illustrated in color plates. This is the first comparative study dealing with Eois moths whose caterpillars feed on Peperomia hosts.

  13. Host selection behavior and the fecundity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on multiple host plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Shi, Zhanghong; Hou, Youming

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivores often have higher densities on host plants grown in monocultures than those in diverse environments. The underlying mechanisms are thought to be that polyphagous insects have difficulty in selecting food or oviposition sites when multiple host plants exist. However, this hypothesis needs to be extensively investigated. Our field experiments revealed that the population of the diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), significantly decreased in a mixed cropping field compared with a monoculture. To determine the reasons for the reduction in population in the mixed cropping field, the takeoff behavior and fecundity of females in no-choice and free-choice laboratory environments were compared by video recordings of host selection by P. xylostella. Adults displayed a significantly higher takeoff frequency in free-choice environments than those in no-choice treatments and preferred landing on Brassica campestris (L.) or Brassica juncea (Coss) plants in contrast with Brassica oleracea (L.). Female adults in the free-choice environment also laid fewer eggs compared with the monoculture. Olfaction experiments demonstrated orientation by P. xylostella to host volatiles when presented with a choice between plant odors and clean air, but females showed no preference when odors from three Brassicaceae species were presented simultaneously. We conclude that mixed cropping alters the host-finding behavior of P. xylostella resulting in reduced oviposition.

  14. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    PubMed

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Pathogen-Response Genes (repat) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Machado, Vilmar; Serrano, Jose; Galián, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) is one of the most important crop pests in the Americas, causing significant damage to maize, rice and sorghum. The mechanisms that determine its defences against pathogens are particularly relevant for the development of management and control strategies. We used an in silico approach to identify and characterize pathogen response genes (repat) present in different tissue libraries of S. fugiperda. The analyses revealed complete cDNA for nine repat genes; of these, repat15 and repat39 were found in libraries from a specific tissue--the midgut of larvae fed with xenobiotic substances. High expression levels of some genes were found in different libraries: 39 hits in repat30 in challenged hemocytes, 16 hits in repat31 in fat body, 10 hits in repat32 in fat body and 10 in challenged hemocytes, and 10 hits in repat38 in midgut of non-treated larvae and midgut of larvae fed with natural and xenobiotic substances. The genes corresponded to two ontology categories, stress response and immune response, and their phylogenetic relationships, nucleotide similarity, number of amino acid residues and molecular weights agree with what has been described for repat genes. It is noteworthy that proteins encoded by the repat genes of S. frugiperda have important defence functions in other tissues beyond midgut and that their functional categories are likely diverse, as they are related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, transport and binding. PMID:27172709

  16. Development of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on leaves and fruit of orange trees.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

    2006-08-01

    Development of Epipyas postvittna (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on leaves and fruit of 'Valencia', 'Washington navel', and 'Navelina' orange trees was studied under constant and fluctuating temperatures. E. postvittna was able to complete its life cycle feeding exclusively on leaves or fruit of orange trees. However, larval survival rate was very low (< 20%) on orange tissues compared with that on noncitrus hosts. Among the four types of orange tissues, young orange leaves and fruit afforded larvae higher survival rates than mature orange leaves and fruit. Fruit (young or mature) produced heavier pupae than leaves (young or mature). Larvae developed more slowly on mature orange fruit than on other orange materials and more slowly on orange leaves than on leaves of most noncitrus hosts. Degree-day accumulations based on the fastest developmental rates obtained in this study suggested that E. postvittna is capable of completing 4.4-4.7 generations per year in orange orchards in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Implications of the results in the management of the insect in citrus are discussed.

  17. On the function of cornuti, sclerotized structures of the endophallus of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The genitalia of many male insects include structures whose functions are unknown or poorly understood. The endophallus of many Lepidoptera bears sclerotized structures known as cornuti, which in some species break off during copulation and remain within the female genital tract ("deciduous" cornuti). I describe previous and original hypotheses on the role of cornuti, identify the selective pressures invoked by these hypotheses, propose different ways of testing them and briefly review pertinent evidence. I describe ten functional hypotheses for non-deciduous cornuti and four for deciduous cornuti; six hypotheses invoke natural selection and eight involve sexual selection. In some cases more than one of the proposed functions could be performed by cornuti; evolutionary change from one function to another is also possible. I suggest that the wide morphological variation observed in non-deciduous cornuti across taxa supports hypotheses invoking sexual selection. I propose that the function and evolution of cornuti can be revealed with a combination of descriptive studies, cornuti removal experiments and comparative tests. PMID:19390978

  18. Expansion of the Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) into Rice and Sugarcane in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B E; Hardy, T N; Beuzelin, J M; VanWeelden, M T; Reagan, T E; Miller, R; Meaux, J; Stout, M J; Carlton, C E

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Traps baited with E. loftini female sex pheromones were used to document establishment and distribution of E. loftini near sugarcane, rice, and noncrop hosts in seven southwest Louisiana parishes from 2009 to 2013. Additional field surveys documented larval infestations in commercial sugarcane and rice. After its initial detection in 2008, no E. loftini were detected in Louisiana in 2009 and only two adults were captured in 2010. Trapping documented range expansion into Cameron, Beauregard, and Jefferson Davis parishes in 2011 and Allen, Acadia, and Vermilion parishes in 2013. During the course of this study, E. loftini expanded its range eastward into Louisiana 120 km from the Texas border (≈22 km/yr). Surveys of larval infestations provided the first record of E. loftini attacking rice and sugarcane in Louisiana. Infestations of E. loftini in rice planted without insecticidal seed treatments in Calcasieu Parish reached damaging levels. PMID:26313982

  19. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses. PMID:26453718

  20. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses.

  1. Supercooling Capacity and Cold Tolerance of the Wild Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zheng, Xi-Xi; Ma, Hong-Fang; Xia, Run-Xi; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Rui

    2016-08-01

    While wild silkworms have served humans for several thousand years, little attention on cold hardiness has been paid to these economically important species. In the present study, supercooling capacity and low temperature tolerance of Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), an economic insect reared both for silk production as well as human food, were examined under laboratory conditions. The supercooling points (SCPs) of pupae dropped significantly from a mean of -15.6°C in prediapause to -20.1°C in diapause, and then increased to -17.5°C during postdiapause development. Sex and voltinism influenced body mass but had no significant effect on the SCP. Our data demonstrated that cold tolerance of A. pernyi is tightly linked to life stage. Exposure of eggs to -5°C for up to 8 h had no effect on the hatching rate, whereas silkworm larvae failed to break through the chorion and hatch following a 4-8-h exposure to -10°C. Mean SCPs of intact eggs and naked larvae one day before hatching were similar, -23.3°C and -22.3°C, respectively, indicating that chorion does not significantly affect SCP. Comparison of lower lethal temperature (LLT50) and SCP means suggested that both pupae and eggs of A. pernyi are chill intolerant. These data will improve our understanding of low temperature tolerance in this commercially important species.

  2. Damage to Miconia calvescens and seasonal abundance of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Castillo, Alexander; Johnson, M Tracy

    2014-08-01

    Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered the most serious threat to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The success of M. calvescens as an invasive species is greatly owing to its shade tolerance and the shaded habitat it creates, where many native plant species that are light-demanding cannot survive. Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a neotropical leaf roller attacking M. calvescens, was evaluated for two mechanisms by which it reduces leaf area of its host plant: feeding (defoliation), which removes leaf tissue, and tying leaf rolls, which reduces exposed area of leaves. These impacts were quantified over a 1-yr period at a field site in Costa Rica, where densities of S. lotanalis larvae attacking M. calvescens peaked at the end of the rainy season and declined in the dry season. Up to 47.5% of leaves were attacked by S. lotanalis, with cumulative defoliation by an undetermined number of larvae removing an average of ≍30% (253 cm(2)) of each leaf attacked. Defoliation and leaf rolling were compared in a greenhouse experiment in which individual S. lotanalis larvae defoliated an average of 3.7% (17.8 cm(2)) of each attacked leaf, and reduced exposed leaf area as a result of leaf rolling by an average of 12.8% (66.2 cm(2)). Our results complement the findings of previous studies of S. lotanalis and confirm its potential as a biological control agent of M. calvescens. PMID:25182612

  3. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  4. Potential Toxicity of α-Cypermethrin-Treated Nets on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Biondi, A; Zappalà, L; Desneux, N; Aparo, A; Siscaro, G; Rapisarda, C; Martin, T; Tropea Garzia, G

    2015-06-01

    Insect-proof nets are thought to be effective physical barriers to protect tomato crops against several insect pests, including the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, protected tomato crops are frequently infested by this destructive pest, and there is a higher infestation of plants closer to openings in Mediterranean greenhouses, suggesting that immigrating adults can easily walk on these protective materials and find a way to reach the crop. Laboratory bioassays were carried out to characterize the potential toxicity of α-cypermethrin-treated insect-proof nets (Agronet) against T. absoluta adults. The data showed that the net acts mainly through a variety of chronic sublethal effects rather than acute ones. Reduced longevity and, more markedly, a reduced number of laid eggs were observed after the moths were exposed to the treated net over the duration of their lifetimes. A Y-tube experiment showed that the treated net does not affect the T. absoluta olfaction cues for host location. In contrast, when the moths were given the option to choose either the treated or the untreated net in laboratory cages, they significantly preferred the untreated one. The toxicological significance and the functional implications of these subtle effects for the implementation of integrated T. absoluta management strategies are discussed.

  5. Studies on the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) response to different codlemone release rates.

    PubMed

    Vacas, S; Miñarro, M; Bosch, M D; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-12-01

    The response of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) to different emission values of its main pheromone component, 8E,10E-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), was investigated in three field trials conducted in plots without mating disruption treatments. Moth catches obtained in traps baited with pheromone dispensers were correlated with the corresponding codlemone release rates by multiple regression analysis. In a preliminary trial conducted in Lleida (NE Spain), a decreasing trend of captures was observed based on increasing pheromone levels. After this, the pheromone release profiles of the pheromone dispensers were studied, in parallel with the field trials, by residual codlemone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the trials carried out in Asturias (NW Spain), a correlation between trap catches and emission levels (within the range from 11 to 1,078 μg/d) was found and fitted a logarithmic model. Captures followed a decreasing linear trend in the range of emission rates from 11 to 134 μg/d. Given that release values comprised between 11 and 67 μg/d did not lead to significantly different catches in traps, this emission range could be considered to develop effective formulations for attraction purposes when mating disruption is not acting in the environment.

  6. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area.

  7. Hindwings are unnecessary for flight but essential for execution of normal evasive flight in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Benjamin; Eisner, Thomas

    2008-10-28

    In Lepidoptera, forewings and hindwings are mechanically coupled and flap in synchrony. Flight is anteromotoric, being driven primarily by action of the forewings. Here we report that lepidopterans can still fly when their hindwings are cut off, a procedure reducing their total wing surface, on average, by nearly one half. However, as we demonstrate by analysis of three-dimensional flight trajectories of a moth and a butterfly (Lymantria dispar and Pieris rapae), hindwing removal causes lepidopterans to incur a loss in both linear and turning acceleration, so that they are unable to exercise their normal flight maneuverability. Without hindwings they still are able to zigzag aerially (the ablation has no effect on their turning radius in flight) but at lesser speed and therefore less evasively. Consequently, hindwings in the expanded state in which they occur in lepidopterans seem to contribute in an essential way to lepidopteran survival. Moths in today's world, we argue, may rely on their evasive flight primarily to avoid capture by bats, whereas butterflies, which we propose advertise their evasiveness collectively through shared aposematism, may depend upon it primarily for defense against birds. Aerial agility thus may be the chief adaptive asset derived by lepidopterans from possession of oversize hindwings.

  8. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

    2011-10-01

    Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.

  9. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  10. Renewable and nonrenewable resources: amino acid turnover and allocation to reproduction in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Diane M; Fogel, Marilyn L; Boggs, Carol L

    2002-04-01

    The allocation of nutritional resources to reproduction in animals is a complex process of great evolutionary significance. We use compound-specific stable isotope analysis of carbon (GC/combustion/isotope ratio MS) to investigate the dietary sources of egg amino acids in a nectar-feeding hawkmoth. Previous work suggests that the nutrients used in egg manufacture fall into two classes: those that are increasingly synthesized from adult dietary sugar over a female's lifetime (renewable resources), and those that remain exclusively larval in origin (nonrenewable resources). We predict that nonessential and essential amino acids correspond to these nutrient classes and test this prediction by analyzing egg amino acids from females fed isotopically distinct diets as larvae and as adults. The results demonstrate that essential egg amino acids originate entirely from the larval diet. In contrast, nonessential egg amino acids were increasingly synthesized from adult dietary sugars, following a turnover pattern across a female's lifetime. This study demonstrates that female Lepidoptera can synthesize a large fraction of egg amino acids from nectar sugars, using endogenous sources of nitrogen. However, essential amino acids derive only from the larval diet, placing an upper limit on the use of adult dietary resources to enhance reproductive success. PMID:11930002

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Wang, Lei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) was determined (GenBank accession No. KM023645). The length of this mitogenome is 16,014 bp with 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It presents the typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A + T biased, accounting for 81.48%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.005). All PCGs are initiated by typical ATN codons, except for the gene cox1, which uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs harbor TA (nad5) or incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2, nad2 and nad4), while others use TAA as their termination codons. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 888 bp.

  12. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. PMID:26313955

  13. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers for Hyphantria cunea and implications for other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Cao, L J; Wen, J B; Wei, S J; Liu, J; Yang, F; Chen, M

    2015-06-01

    This is the first report of microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats, SSR) for fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), an important quarantine pest in some European and Asian countries. Here, we developed 48 microsatellite markers for H. cunea from SSR enrichment libraries. Sequences isolated from libraries were sorted into four categories and analyzed. Our results suggest that sequences classified as Grouped should not be used for microsatellite primer design. The genetic diversity of microsatellite loci was assessed in 72 individuals from three populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 3. The observed and expected heterozygosities of loci ranged from 0 to 0.958 and 0 to 0.773, respectively. A total of 18 out of 153 locus/population combinations deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Moreover, significant linkage disequilibrium was detected in one pair of loci (1275 pairs in total). In the neutral test, two loci were grouped into the candidate category for positive selection and the remainder into the neutral category. In addition, a complex mutation pattern was observed for these loci, and F ST performed better than did R ST for the estimation of population differentiation in different mutation patterns. The results of the present study can be used for population genetic studies of H. cunea. PMID:25772405

  14. Effects of lufenuron on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg, larval, and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-de-Cabezón, F J; Pérez-Moreno, I; Zalom, Frank G; Marco, V

    2006-04-01

    The effect of the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron was evaluated against different developmental stages of Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Lufenuron fed to adults at 10 ppm reduced their fecundity and fertility, but it did not affect adult longevity. High activity was observed against L. botrana eggs with greater effect on 1-d-old eggs than on the other age classes and on eggs treated by direct contact rather than those laid on a previously treated surface. Eggs laid by treated adults showed the same effects during development as eggs treated by contact or those laid on a treated surface. Larvae that emerged from treated eggs could not perforate grape berries. Administered into the diet, lufenuron had a larvicidal effect, resulting in similar LC50 values for different instars: 0.07 ppm for first instars, 0.08 ppm for third instars, and 0.11 ppm for fifth instars. None of the larvae treated with sublethal concentrations throughout their life emerged as adults at the highest concentration (0.08 ppm), and only 70% emerged at the lowest concentration (0.0025 ppm). PMID:16686142

  15. The molecular and physiological impact of bisphenol A in Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Kontogiannatos, Dimitris; Swevers, Luc; Zakasis, Giannis; Kourti, Anna

    2015-03-01

    In the present study we investigated the potential relative effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and RH-5992 (tebufenozide) on the development and metamorphosis of the corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A number of morphological and molecular factors were examined in order to identify the toxic and the endocrine-relative action of these two chemicals. We observed that BPA, RH-5992 and the combination of BPA/RH-5992 caused a developmental delay by extending the transition period between larval and pupal instars. These chemicals also reduced adult emergence and caused molting malformations during development and metamorphosis. In the corn stalk borer, BPA exhibits ecdysteroid activities in a fashion similar to that of the ecdysone agonist RH-5992. These results suggest that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA during the early stages of the corn borer's life cycle can result in various disorders that may be a consequence of endocrine disruption. The molecular mechanism by which BPA interferes with the physiological processes was also investigated. A significant induction was observed in the expression levels of the ecdysone-induced genes SnEcR and SnUSP, after injection of BPA and RH-5992. Additionally, we found that BPA acts as a very weak agonist of ecdysteroids in Bombyx mori derived Bm5 cell lines. From these cellular and molecular assays, our results brought evidence that BPA, like RH-5992, interferes with the ecdysteroidal pathways of the lepidopteran insect species. PMID:25492584

  16. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    PubMed

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  17. Developing a systems approach for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on 'Hass' avocado in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Grové, T; De Beer, M S; Joubert, P H

    2010-08-01

    Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is pest of the avocado, Persea americana (Mill.) (Lauraceae), in South Africa and is regarded as a phytosanitary threat. The objective of this study was to develop a systems approach for T. leucotreta on 'Hass' avocado that will mitigate the pest risk. T. leucotreta males were monitored with pheromone traps, and numbers declined during the winter. Field studies indicated that most of eggs were laid during January in the Deerpark area, and during harvest, only 0.029 lesions produced live larvae. Survival of larvae in fruit infested on the tree and left to develop after harvest varied and depended on the time of infestation before harvest. Fruit firmness was measured and fifth instars were only present in soft fruit. Fenpropathrin and a granulovirus were effective in reducing the infestation levels. Bags used to cover fruit also reduced infestation levels. Lesions caused by T. leucotreta were visible from two weeks after infestation and fruit with lesions can be sorted. The mean infestation rate per orchard was 0.003 lesions per fruit which makes T. leucotreta on Hass amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach and maximum pest limit. In the case of T. leucotreta on Hass, poor host status, production, preharvest and postharvest measures were studied and low infestation levels were observed; all these elements would make a systems approach an option. Furthermore, inspection and certification as well as shipping and distribution measures could be added.

  18. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass.

  19. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Yi; Duan, Xiao-Yu; Qiang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. This circular genome is 15 496 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one A + T-rich D-loop or control region. Most PCGs are initiated with the ATN codons, except for COX1 with the unusual CGA as its initiation codon. Four PCGs (COX1, COX2, ND3, and ND4) are terminated with incomplete codon T, ND4L uses TAG as its termination codon, while all the other eight PCGs employ the usual ATN codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (40.1% A, 40.9% T, 7.6% G, and 11.4% C) with an overall A + T content of 81.0%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining (NJ) method suggests that C. dominula is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from other families.

  20. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438

  1. Horizontal and vertical transmission of a Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) from Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Goertz, Dörte; Solter, Leellen F; Linde, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae), a serious defoliator of deciduous trees, is an economically important pest when population densities are high. Outbreaking populations are, however, subject to some moderating influences in the form of entomopathogens, including several species of microsporidia. In this study, we conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the transmission of an unusual Nosema sp. isolated from L. dispar in Schweinfurt, Germany; this isolate infects only the silk glands and, to a lesser extent, Malpighian tubules of the larval host. The latent period ended between 8 and 15 days after oral inoculation and spores were continuously released in the feces of infected larvae until pupation. Exclusion of feces from the rearing cages resulted in a 58% decrease in horizontal transmission. The silk of only 2 of 25 infected larvae contained microsporidian spores. When larvae were exposed to silk that was artificially contaminated with Nosema sp., 5% became infected. No evidence was found for venereal or transovum (including transovarial) transmission of this parasite.

  2. Functional Response of Three Species of Predatory Pirate Bugs Attacking Eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Ramos, Rodrigo S; Gontijo, Lessando M; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2015-04-01

    The functional response and predation parameters of three species of predatory pirate bugs Amphiareus constrictus (Stal), Blaptostethus pallescens Poppius, and Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were evaluated at four different densities of eggs of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing a tomato leaf disk infested with the pest eggs, and maintained inside growth chamber with environmental conditions of 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. A. constrictus and B. pallescens showed a type III functional response where predation increased at a decreasing rate after egg density was higher than 12 per leaf disk, reaching an upper plateau of 18.86 and 25.42 eggs per 24 hours, respectively. By contrast, O. tristicolor showed a type II functional response where the number of eggs preyed upon increased at a decreasing rate as egg density increased, reaching an upper limit of 15.20 eggs per 24 hours. The predator equations used in this study estimated handling time of 1.25, 0.87, 0.96 h for A. constrictus, B. pallescens, and O. tristicolor, respectively. The lower handling time and possible higher attack rate of B. pallescens suggests a higher efficiency and probably greater impact on the pest population. If conservation or classical biological control of T. absoluta is to be implemented, then prioritizing which natural enemy species is the most efficient is an important first step. PMID:26313178

  3. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma).

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: Hyposmocoma ipohapuusp. n. from Big Island, Hyposmocoma makawaosp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Mauiand Hyposmocoma tantalasp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of Hyposmocoma inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, Hyposmocoma auropurpurea Walsingham and Hyposmocoma nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, primer sequences for a 705 bp fragment of CAD, designed for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.

  4. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A; Hagen, Snorre B

    2015-01-01

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. PMID:26393576

  5. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on Development and Reproduction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengyu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables throughout the world. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from beetles in the families Meloidae and Oedemeridae, has been reported to be toxic to some pests, including the diamondback moth. However, the effects of cantharidin, especially its sublethal effects on development and reproduction of diamondback moth, are less known. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of cantharidin at LC2 (0.41 mg liter(-1)), LC10 (1.33 mg liter(-1)), LC25 (3.38 mg liter(-1)), and LC50 (9.53 mg liter(-1)) on development and reproduction parameters of two consecutive diamondback moth generations. The results indicated that cantharidin reduced population growth by decreasing its pupation rate, pupal weight, and adult emergence, and by delaying its development. Furthermore, the duration of the female preoviposition period increased, while the oviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and survival rates of the offspring decreased. The peaks of age-specific fecundity in LC10, LC25, and LC50 treatment groups lagged behind the control group. The mean values of the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) were significantly lower than those of the control, and the mean generation time (T) was prolonged. The present study demonstrates that cantharidin exhibits significant adverse effects on the population dynamics of diamondback moth, leading to fitness disadvantages. PMID:26470229

  6. Seasonal migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hongqiang; Wu, Xianfu; Wu, Bo; Wu, Kongming

    2009-02-01

    The seasonal migration of the Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea was observed with a searchlight trap and an entomological radar located on a small island in the center of the sea, and through a network of light-traps around the Bohai region. The H. armigera moths were observed to migrate over the sea at least as early as May and light trapping through a network suggested migration might start as early as April, as soon as the moths had emerged from overwintering pupae. H. armigera moths migrated toward the north in southerly winds during spring and summer, and returned south on nights with northerly winds, or at altitudes where the wind was northerly, during fall. The passage of a weather front (cold or warm) or trough at approximately 1700 hours provokes migration of H. armigera over the sea. The H. armigera generally flew at altitudes of below 1,500 m above sea level (asl) with layer concentrations at 200-500 m asl, where the wind direction, wind speed, and temperature were optimum. During fall migration, H. armigera tended to orient toward the southwest and was able to compensate for the wind drift by turning clockwise when the downwind direction was < 225 degrees but counterclockwise when it was > 225 degrees. The displacement speed measured with the radar was 24-41 km/h, the duration of flight was 8-11 h and the maximum migration rate was 1,894 moths per km per h.

  7. Effect of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Nyboer, Megan E; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Sollome, James; Colletto, Nick; Antilla, Larry; Dennehy, Timothy J; Staten, Robert T; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2006-06-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to transgenic crops producing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could reduce male response to pheromone traps. Such costs would cause underestimation of resistance frequency if monitoring was based on analysis of males caught in pheromone traps. To develop a DNA-based resistance monitoring program for pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), we compared the response to pheromone traps of males with and without cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). When irradiated males from two hybrid laboratory strains with an intermediate frequency of resistance alleles were released in large field cages, the probability of capture in pheromone traps was not lower for males with resistance alleles than for males without resistance alleles. These results suggest that analysis of trapped males would not underestimate the frequency of resistance. As the time males spent in traps in the field increased from 3 to 15 d, the success of DNA amplification declined from 100 to 30%. Thus, the efficiency of a DNA-based resistance monitoring program would be improved by analyzing males remaining in traps for 3 d or less. PMID:16813335

  8. Thermal Death Kinetics of Fifth-Instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min−1 using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466–592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. PMID:25843578

  9. Is It an Ant or a Butterfly? Convergent Evolution in the Mitochondrial Gene Order of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Babbucci, Massimiliano; Basso, Andrea; Scupola, Antonio; Patarnello, Tomaso; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) are usually double helical and circular molecules containing 37 genes that are encoded on both strands. The arrangement of the genes is not constant for all species, and produces distinct gene orders (GOs) that have proven to be diagnostic in defining clades at different taxonomic levels. In general, it is believed that distinct taxa have a very low chance of sharing identically arranged GOs. However, examples of identical, homoplastic local rearrangements occurring in distinct taxa do exist. In this study, we sequenced the complete mtDNAs of the ants Formica fusca and Myrmica scabrinodis (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) and compared their GOs with those of other Insecta. The GO of F. fusca was found to be identical to the GO of Dytrisia (the largest clade of Lepidoptera). This finding is the first documented case of an identical GO shared by distinct groups of Insecta, and it is the oldest known event of GO convergent evolution in animals. Both Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera acquired this GO early in their evolution. Using a phylogenetic approach combined with new bioinformatic tools, the chronological order of the evolutionary events that produced the diversity of the hymenopteran GOs was determined. Additionally, new local homoplastic rearrangements shared by distinct groups of insects were identified. Our study showed that local and global homoplasies affecting the insect GOs are more widespread than previously thought. Homoplastic GOs can still be useful for characterizing the various clades, provided that they are appropriately considered in a phylogenetic and taxonomic context. PMID:25480682

  10. Effects of ultraviolet-B exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana on herbivory by two crucifer-feeding insects (Lepidoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Grant-Petersson, J.; Renwick, J.A.A.

    1996-02-01

    Larvae of Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Trichoplusia ni (Huebner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were fed foliage from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants that had received a high dose of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) or from control plants. Treatments were compared using the Student independent t-test. P. rapae larvae consumed less of the foliage exposed to UV-B than control foliage. This difference as significant in older but not younger larvae, and the older P. rapae larvae fed foliage exposed to UV-B weighed significantly less. For T. ni, however, consumption and larval weights were approximately equal for UV-exposed and control foliage. No significant differences in growth rates per unit consumption on UV-exposed versus control foliage were found for either species. Chemical analysis showed that flavonoid levels increased in response to UV-B. Results suggested that UV-inducible flavonoids may act as feeding deterrents to P. rapae but not to T. ni. 56 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Ancient expansion of the hox cluster in lepidoptera generated four homeobox genes implicated in extra-embryonic tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Laura; Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Carter, Jean-Michel; Taylor, William R; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J; Holland, Peter W H

    2014-10-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks.

  12. Testing DNA barcode performance in 1000 species of European lepidoptera: large geographic distances have small genetic impacts.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Sefc, Kristina M; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria) that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%), while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good) and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory) had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number) cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections.

  13. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Aragão-Silva, C W; Andrade, M S; Ardisson-Araújo, D M P; Fernandes, J E A; Morgado, F S; Báo, S N; Moraes, R H P; Wolff, J L C; Melo, F L; Ribeiro, B M

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  14. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aragão-Silva, C. W.; Andrade, M. S.; Ardisson-Araújo, D. M. P.; Fernandes, J. E. A.; Morgado, F. S.; Báo, S. N.; Moraes, R. H. P.; Wolff, J. L. C.; Melo, F. L.; Ribeiro, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  15. Ancient Expansion of the Hox Cluster in Lepidoptera Generated Four Homeobox Genes Implicated in Extra-Embryonic Tissue Formation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, William R.; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J.; Holland, Peter W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks. PMID:25340822

  16. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of tea tussock moth, Euproctis pseudoconspersa (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Dong, Si-Yu; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-02-10

    In present work, we described the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the tea tussock moth Euproctis pseudoconspersa (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). The complete mitogenome of E. pseudoconspersa is a circular genome 15,461 bp in size. It contains 37 genes and an A+T-rich region usually presented in lepidopteran mitogenomes, which genes share a lot of features with other known lepidopteran mitogenomes. Nucleotide composition of A+T in this mitogenome is 79.92%, and the AT skew is slightly positive. Both codon distribution and relative synonymous codon usage of the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) are consistent with those published lepidopteran sequences. All tRNA genes have typical cloverleaf secondary structures, except for the tRNA(Ser(AGN)), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is simplified down to a loop. The A+T-rich region of E. pseudoconspersa mitogenome possess the motif 'ATAGA' and poly-T stretch as the formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed by using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods based on nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs of 38 moths. The results were very consistent with the traditional relationships within Noctuoidea from morphological data, and showed that Lymantriidae is more closely related to Erebidae than to Noctuidae.

  17. Wolbachia infection status and genetic structure in natural populations of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weibin; Zhu, Jianqing; Chen, Minghan; Yang, Qichang; Du, Xuan; Chen, Shiyan; Zhang, Lina; Yu, Yiming; Yu, Weidong

    2014-10-01

    The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known for infecting the reproductive tissues of a wide range of arthropods. In this study, we surveyed Wolbachia infections in Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from 14 locations in China by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene with a nested PCR method and revealed the effect of Wolbachia on host mitochondrial DNA. The results show that 31% (21/67) are Wolbachia positive among all specimens and mainly prevails in southern populations in China. No significant difference in the prevalence is found between the sexes. Notably, the nucleotide diversity of Wolbachia infected butterflies is smaller compared to that of uninfected butterflies. The mitochondrial DNA of infected group appear to be not evolving neutrally (Tajima's D value=-2.3303 and Fu's F values=-3.7068). The analysis of molecular variance shows significant differentiation of mitochondrial haplotypes between infected and uninfected specimens (FST=0.6064). The mismatch analysis speculated the different expansion pattern in Wolbachia infected specimens and all P. nascens specimens. These results suggest that the populations of P. nascens may have recently been subjected to a Wolbachia-induced sweep. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis differentiated the mitochondrial haplotypes of P. nascens into three major clades. The clades are in perfect agreement with the pattern of Wolbachia infection. One of the clades grouped with the butterflies infected with Wolbachia. The remaining two clades grouped with uninfected butterflies from the central-west of China populations and Eastern and Southern China populations respectively, which are isolated mainly by the Yangtze River. The analysis of haplotype networks, geographic distribution and population size change shows that Haplotype 1 in central-west of China is the ancestral haplotype and the populations of P. nascens are expanded.

  18. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  19. Resistance of some cultivated Brassicaceae to infestations by Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Sarfraz, M; Dosdall, L M; Keddie, B A

    2007-02-01

    Selecting insect-resistant plant varieties is a key component of integrated management programs of oligophagous pests such as diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), but rigorous research on important life history parameters of P. xylostella in relation to host plant resistance is rare. We evaluated six conventional brassicaceous species, namely, Brassica napus L. 'Q2', B. rapa L., B. juncea (L.) Czern., B. carinata L., B. oleracea L., and Sinapis alba L., and two herbicide-tolerant cultivars, namely, B. napus 'Liberty' and B. napus 'Conquest' for their resistance against P. xylostella. Brassicaceae species and cultivars varied considerably in their susceptibilities as hosts for P. xylostella. Sinapis alba and B. rapa plants were highly preferred by ovipositing females and trichome density on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces had nonsignificant effects on P. xylostella oviposition. Larval survival was similar on the genotypes we tested, but host plants significantly affected larval and pupal developmental time, herbivory, pupal weight, silk weight, adult body weight, forewing area and longevity (without food) of both male and female P. xylostella. Larval and pupal development of females was fastest on B. juncea and S. alba, respectively. Specimens reared on B. napus Liberty and B. oleracea, respectively, produced the lightest female and male pupae. Defoliation by both female and male larvae was highest on B. rapa, whereas least herbivory occurred on S. alba. Females reared on S. alba were heavier and lived longer in the absence of food than their counterparts raised on other tested host plants. Brassica oleracea could not compensate for larval feeding to the level of the other species we evaluated. B. napus Conquest, B. napus Q2, B. carinata, B. rapa, and S. alba produced, respectively, 1.6-, 1.8-, 1.8-, 3.9-, and 5.5-fold heavier root systems when infested than their uninfested counterparts, suggesting that these species were better

  20. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. PMID:26855414

  1. INSECTICIDAL AND OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE MODEL ORGANISM Galleria mellonella L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE).

    PubMed

    Dere, Beyza; Altuntaş, Hülya; Nurullahoğlu, Z Ulya

    2015-07-01

    The insecticidal effects, specifically, changes in hemolymph total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities of azadirachtin (AZA) given to the wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae via force feeding were investigated. Bioassays showed that the LD50 and LD99 (lethal dose) values of AZA were 2.1 and 4.6 μg/larva, respectively. Experimental analyses were performed with five doses of AZA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva). Total protein level in larval hemolymph increased at all AZA doses at 24 h whereas a considerable decrease was observed at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses, and only an increase displayed at 1.5 μg/larva at 72 h. The level of MDA increased at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses at 24 h compared with controls. This trend was also observed at 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h and MDA levels were lower when compared with those of 24 h at all doses except for 1.5 μg/larva dose. Catalase activity decreased at 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/larva doses at 24 h whereas increased at all doses except for 0.5 μg/larva at 72 h compared with controls. AZA led to a decline in superoxide dismutase activity at all experimental doses at 24 and 72 h except for 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h. An increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was evident at all AZA doses at 24 h. AZA displayed 68% decline in GST activity at 72 h post treatments when compared to 24 h. Consequently, We infer that the toxicity of AZA extends beyond its known actions in molting processes to redox homeostasis. PMID:25777183

  2. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    PubMed

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic.

  3. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  4. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Margam, Venu M; Coates, Brad S; Hellmich, Richard L; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F; Covas, Fernando G; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2011-01-01

    We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes.

  5. Ecological Genetics and Host Range Expansion by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Assefa, Y; Conlong, D E; Van Den Berg, J; Martin, L A

    2015-08-01

    The host plant range of pests can have important consequences for its evolution, and plays a critical role in the emergence and spread of a new pest outbreak. This study addresses the ecological genetics of the indigenous African maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in an attempt to investigate the evolutionary forces that may be involved in the recent host range expansion and establishment of this species in Ethiopian and southern African sugarcane. We used populations from Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa to examine whether the host range expansion patterns shared by the Ethiopian and the southern African populations of B. fusca have evolved independently. Base-pair differences in the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were used to characterize haplotype diversity and phylogenetic relationships. There were seven haplotypes among the 30 sequenced individuals collected on four host plant species from 17 localities in the four countries. Of the seven COI haplotypes identified, the two major ones occurred in both sugarcane and maize. Genetic analyses revealed no detectable genetic differentiation between southern African B. fusca populations from maize and sugarcane (FST = 0.019; P = 0.24). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between populations of the pest from different geographic regions (FST = 0.948; P < 0.001). The main implication of these findings is that the B. fusca populations in maize in southern Africa are more likely to shift to sugarcane, suggesting that ecological opportunity is an important factor in host plant range expansion by a pest.

  6. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.

  7. A molecular phylogeny of the hawkmoth genus Hyles (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae, Macroglossinae).

    PubMed

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Kitching, Ian J; Wink, Michael

    2005-05-01

    The hawkmoth genus Hyles is one of 15 genera in the subtribe Choerocampina of the subfamily Macroglossinae. Due to a remarkable uniformity, morphological characters usually used to identify and classify Lepidoptera at the species level cannot be used in this genus. Instead, we used DNA sequences comprising about 2300 bp derived from the mitochondrial genes COX I, COX II, and tRNA-leucine to elucidate the phylogeny of Hyles. The results corroborate the monophyly of Hyles but conflict with previous internal classifications of the genus based on morphology. Hyles seems to have evolved in the Neotropics during the Oligocene/Eocene epochs and the molecular data (which evolved clock-like) confirm the hypothesis that it is a very young genus that radiated on a global scale rather quickly. We hypothesize its sister group to be one of the genera Deilephila, Theretra or Xylophanes. The Nearctic may have been colonized rapidly by Hyles once the land bridge formed during the Pliocene, since within this same Epoch, the invasion of the Palaearctic appears to have proceeded from the East, via the Bering route. The colonization of Australia appears to have occurred rather early in Hyles radiation, although the route is not clear. We propose that the radiation of the Hyles euphorbiae-complex s. str. (HEC) occurred as recently as the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary and that its roots can still be reconstructed in Asia. Hyles dahlii is closely related to the HEC, but a sister group relationship to the HEC s. str. cannot be corroborated unequivocally. HEC population ranges appear to have tracked climate oscillations during the Pleistocene Ice Ages, resulting in hybridization around the Mediterranean Sea as they repeatedly intermingled. Comparison of the phylogeny with food plant affiliations leads us to hypothesize that Euphorbia monophagy evolved at least two times independently within Hyles.

  8. Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) wound dressing for the control of Euzophera pinguis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moraga, E; Yousef, M; Ortiz, A; Ruíz-Torres, M; Garrido-Jurado, I; Estévez, A

    2013-08-01

    Injury to olive tree trunks and branches because of biotic and abiotic factors, such as pruning and mechanical harvesting, attracts the olive pyralid moth Euzophera pinguis Haworth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). This moth has become increasingly important in the Mediterranean region during recent years. The use of an entomopathogenic fungus for wound dressing for pest control is reported for the first time in this study. Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) strain EABb 08/04-Ep was originally obtained from a diseased E. pinguis larva and has shown effective E. pinguis control in an olive crop in Jaén, Andalusia, Spain, under field conditions during the spring and fall of 2008 and 2009 and the spring of 2011. Experimental artificial 30 by 30-mm square wound cages were large enough to allow the E. pinguis females to oviposit. Approximately 80 and 40-60% of the control wounds contained live larvae in the experiments that occurred during the spring and fall, respectively. The B. hassiana wound dressing gave similar results as the chlorpyrifos wound dressing throughout the experiment, with efficacies reaching 80-85% in the spring and 90-95% in the autumn. The B. bassiana fungus was recovered from 60-90% of the wounds at the completion of the experiments and after 60 d of treatment. These data indicate that strain EABb 08/04-Ep applied to the pruning wounds can be an effective tool for the microbial control of E. pinguis in olive crops. Moreover, B. bassiana may be used within integrated pest management strategies to minimize chemicals, depending on the population density of the pyralid moth. PMID:24020271

  9. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and magnesium manipulation on the Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Ge, Lin-Quan; Wan, Don-Ju; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Li-Ben; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2013-02-01

    The rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a rice pest that is prone to outbreaks when high levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizer are applied to rice. The larvae feed by scraping the mesophyll cells of leaves, which are mainly composed of chloroplasts containing significant levels of elemental magnesium (Mg). To determine the cause of N fertilizer-induced rice leaffolder outbreaks and the effects of Mg and Mg uptake on the rice leaffolder, the changes in the life history traits and biochemistry of C. medinalis larvae feeding on rice leaves treated with different Mg and N concentrations were investigated in this study. The results showed that foliar treatment using different Mg concentrations under hydroponic culture conditions significantly decreased the developmental duration (days) (DD) of the larvae and pupae but did not influence the pupation rate or adult emergence rate. The number of eggs laid by adult females and the protein content and total sugar content in the larvae and pupae significantly increased with increasing Mg concentrations. Under soil culture conditions, the DD for the larvae and number of eggs laid by adult females significantly increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels, but the applied fertilizer did not influence the DD in the pupae, pupation rate, or adult emergence rate. In contrast, the DD for adults decreased with increased fertilizer levels. In hydroponic culture, Mg in the culture solution and Mg foliar sprays significantly increased the Mg content in rice leaves. In soil cultures, the use of N fertilizer and Mg foliar spray did not significantly increase the leaf Mg content, except at a concentration of 12.5 g/L, indicating that the leaf Mg content may be related to the root uptake of Mg.

  10. Effects of gibberellic acid on hemocytes of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, H; Kılıç, A Y; Uçkan, F; Ergin, E

    2012-06-01

    The impacts of different doses of the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA(3)) in diet on the number of total and differential hemocytes, frequency of apoptotic, and necrotic hemocytes, mitotic indices, encapsulation, and melanization responses were investigated using the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Total hemocyte counts increased in G. mellonella larvae at all treatment doses whereas GA(3) application had no effect on the number of different hemocyte types. The occurrence of apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic indices in GA(3) treated and untreated last instars were detected by acridine orange or ethidium bromide double staining by fluorescence microscopy. While the ratio of necrotic hemocytes increased at all GA(3) treatments, that of late apoptotic cells was only higher at doses >200 ppm when compared with untreated larvae. The percentage of mitotic index also increased at 5,000 ppm. Positively charged DEAE Sephadex A-25 beads were used for analysis of the levels of encapsulation and melanization in GA(3) treated G. mellonella larvae. At four and 24 h posttreatments with Sephadex A-25 bead injection, insects were dissected under a stereomicroscope. Encapsulation rates of larval hemocytes were dependent on the extent of encapsulation and time but not treatment groups. While the extent of melanization of hemocytes showed differences related to time, in general, a decrease was observed at all doses of GA(3) treated larvae at 24 h. We suggest that GA(3) treatment negatively affects hemocyte physiology and cell immune responses inducing cells to die by necrosis and apoptosis in G. mellonella larvae. PMID:22732628

  11. Host status of commercial mango cultivars to Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Grové, T; De Beer, M S; Joubert, P H

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the host status of commercially cultivated mango fruit, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) to Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa. T. leucotreta was monitored with parapheromone traps in mango orchards in Limpopo and Mpumalanga from 2007 to 2010. Fruit were inspected for the presence of T leucotreta eggs in mango orchards. Mango fruit of the cultivars 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent', 'Keitt', and 'Sensation' were artificially infested with T. leucotreta eggs on the tree to determine if the larvae were able to develop in fruit. Mature fruit of these cultivars were harvested and were then exposed to T leucotreta eggs and the larval development monitored. Before harvest, fruit were inspected for natural infestations and a packhouse survey was conducted during the 2009-2010 season to determine if any infested fruit were present. T. leucotreta was present in all mango orchards where monitoring was done with traps but no eggs were found on the fruit, which suggests the presence of antixenosis. Development occurred in mature harvested fruit of all cultivars that had been exposed to T. leucotreta eggs. Depending on the cultivar, between 0 and 5.05% of immature fruit on the tree supported development and demonstrate antibiosis. No naturally infested fruit were found in the orchards or during the packhouse survey. Mango in South Africa is not a natural host for T. leucotreta. Mature mango fruit is an acceptable host for T. leucotreta larval development under artificial conditions. The latex plays an important role in the resistance mechanism of mango fruit to T. leucotreta.

  12. A molecular phylogeny of the hawkmoth genus Hyles (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae, Macroglossinae).

    PubMed

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Kitching, Ian J; Wink, Michael

    2005-05-01

    The hawkmoth genus Hyles is one of 15 genera in the subtribe Choerocampina of the subfamily Macroglossinae. Due to a remarkable uniformity, morphological characters usually used to identify and classify Lepidoptera at the species level cannot be used in this genus. Instead, we used DNA sequences comprising about 2300 bp derived from the mitochondrial genes COX I, COX II, and tRNA-leucine to elucidate the phylogeny of Hyles. The results corroborate the monophyly of Hyles but conflict with previous internal classifications of the genus based on morphology. Hyles seems to have evolved in the Neotropics during the Oligocene/Eocene epochs and the molecular data (which evolved clock-like) confirm the hypothesis that it is a very young genus that radiated on a global scale rather quickly. We hypothesize its sister group to be one of the genera Deilephila, Theretra or Xylophanes. The Nearctic may have been colonized rapidly by Hyles once the land bridge formed during the Pliocene, since within this same Epoch, the invasion of the Palaearctic appears to have proceeded from the East, via the Bering route. The colonization of Australia appears to have occurred rather early in Hyles radiation, although the route is not clear. We propose that the radiation of the Hyles euphorbiae-complex s. str. (HEC) occurred as recently as the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary and that its roots can still be reconstructed in Asia. Hyles dahlii is closely related to the HEC, but a sister group relationship to the HEC s. str. cannot be corroborated unequivocally. HEC population ranges appear to have tracked climate oscillations during the Pleistocene Ice Ages, resulting in hybridization around the Mediterranean Sea as they repeatedly intermingled. Comparison of the phylogeny with food plant affiliations leads us to hypothesize that Euphorbia monophagy evolved at least two times independently within Hyles. PMID:15804414

  13. Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Kang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Qin-Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3 mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method.

  14. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  15. Bollgard cotton and resistance of tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to conventional insecticides in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Terán-Vargas, A P; Rodríguez, J C; Blanco, C A; Martínez-Carrillo, J L; Cibrián-Tovar, J; Sánchez-Arroyo, H; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, L A; Stanley, D

    2005-12-01

    Insecticide susceptibility in tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined for 8 yr (1991-2001) with larvae sampled from cotton in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Before 1996, when Bollgard cotton expressing the Cry1A(c) delta-endotoxin was introduced into the region, two important patterns were documented. The first was economically significant increases in resistance to certain insecticide groups. The second was occurrence of virtually complete control failures in the field during 1994 and 1995. The largest resistance changes were recorded for the type II pyrethroids cypermethrin and deltamethrin. These products are the most widely used products in the region. Resistance ratios for these products increased up to > 100-fold from 1991 to 1995. After 1996, the resistance levels declined. These findings did not occur with other products of scant use (e.g., permethrin, profenofos, and endosulfan) or low tobacco budworm efficacy coupled to a high use pattern (e.g., methyl parathion). This clear trend toward reversal of resistance to type II pyrethroids can be understood, in part, with respect to two factors: 1) the high adoption rate of transgenic cotton in the region, from 31.2% in the beginning (1996) to approximately 90% in 1998; this has considerably curbed the use of synthetic insecticides, with the attending loss of selection pressure on this pest; and 2) the potential immigration to the region of susceptible tobacco budworms from cultivated and wild suitable hosts as well as from transgenic cotton might have influenced the pest population as a whole. The influence of transgenic cotton on southern Tamaulipas can be more clearly seen by the drastic reduction of insecticide use to control this important pest. Now tobacco budworms in this region are susceptible to type II pyrethroids. Two effective and fundamentally different pest management tools are now available to cotton growers in southern Tamaulipas: transgenic cotton

  16. Phylogeny and Biogeography of Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae): Evidence from Five Nuclear Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Mignault, Andre A.; Regier, Jerome C.; Kitching, Ian J.; Mitter, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background The 1400 species of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) comprise one of most conspicuous and well-studied groups of insects, and provide model systems for diverse biological disciplines. However, a robust phylogenetic framework for the family is currently lacking. Morphology is unable to confidently determine relationships among most groups. As a major step toward understanding relationships of this model group, we have undertaken the first large-scale molecular phylogenetic analysis of hawkmoths representing all subfamilies, tribes and subtribes. Methodology/Principal Findings The data set consisted of 131 sphingid species and 6793 bp of sequence from five protein-coding nuclear genes. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses provided strong support for more than two-thirds of all nodes, including strong signal for or against nearly all of the fifteen current subfamily, tribal and sub-tribal groupings. Monophyly was strongly supported for some of these, including Macroglossinae, Sphinginae, Acherontiini, Ambulycini, Philampelini, Choerocampina, and Hemarina. Other groupings proved para- or polyphyletic, and will need significant redefinition; these include Smerinthinae, Smerinthini, Sphingini, Sphingulini, Dilophonotini, Dilophonotina, Macroglossini, and Macroglossina. The basal divergence, strongly supported, is between Macroglossinae and Smerinthinae+Sphinginae. All genes contribute significantly to the signal from the combined data set, and there is little conflict between genes. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals multiple separate origins of New World and Old World radiations. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of one of the most conspicuous and well-studied insects. The molecular phylogeny challenges current concepts of Sphingidae based on morphology, and provides a foundation for a new classification. While there are multiple independent origins of New World and Old World radiations, we conclude that

  17. Biocontrol of Duponcheria fovealis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with soil-dwelling predators in potted plants.

    PubMed

    Messelink, G; Van Wensveen, W

    2003-01-01

    Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a widespread pest in Dutch greenhouses. Most damage is recorded from potted plants as kalanchoe, cyclamen and begonia. Caterpillars of this pyralid prefer to live in a moist soil layer were they feed on either plant parts or organic matter. Larvae typically seek shelter within plant parts or in soil. This behaviour hampers contact between pesticides and caterpillars. Growers, therefore would welcome an effective method to prevent damage by D. fovealis. This paper describes the effects of the soil-dwelling mites Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) and Hypoaspis aculeifer (Canestrini) (Acari: Laelapidae) and the beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphilinidae) on eggs and larvae of D. fovealis. Both predatory mites and adults of the staphilinid beetle gave excellent control of eggs of D. fovealis in potting soil with kalanchoe. H. miles was slightly (99 percent control), but significantly, better than H. aculeifer (92 percent control). 50 to 87 percent of the eggs were predated by adult beetles of A. coriaria. These beetles also prey on first larval stages of D. fovealis. 87 percent of the H. miles population was present in the upper soil layer, whereas about half of the population of H. aculeifer preferred to stay deeper than 5 cm in soil. This behaviour might explain the slightly better control of D. fovealis by H. miles, since eggs and first larval stages of D. fovealis are mostly present in the upper soil layer. All predators tested may contribute to an integrated or biological system for controlling D. fovealis in potted plants.

  18. Seasonal migration of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Fu, Xiaowei; Feng, Hongqiang; Ali, Abid; Li, Chuanren; Wu, Kongming

    2014-06-01

    Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important polyphagous pest in East Asia. Previous studies showed that C. agnata moths possesses the potential to undertake long-distance migration; however, knowledge of whether or not the migration of C. agnata moths is a regular ecological behavior and what the pattern of seasonal migrations is in case of regular migration is currently lacking. In the current study, systemic monitoring of population dynamics of C. agnata was conducted by a searchlight trap on an island in the center of Bohai gulf in northern China, during 2003-2013. Our results provided strong evidence for the hypothesis that C. agnata is one of the pest species undertaking regular high altitude long-distance migration and we have depicted the seasonal migration pattern over the Bohai Sea. The first capture of C. agnata generally appeared in late April and early May, then the daily number of catches increased to high levels in late July and formed two waves of migration through August and early September, and finally, the moths disappeared in late October. The mean time from the earliest trapping to the latest trapping within a year was 141.0 +/- 3.0 days. The index of ovarian development of female C. agnata showed seasonal variability and suggested that its migratory flight may be independent of the degree of ovarian development and mating status. In addition, strong migration events took place in 2003, 2004, 2008, and 2010 (annual sum of catches > 10,000). The research result from this work is helpful for understanding the occurrence regularity of C. agnata and developing an integrated pest management strategy.

  19. Chemical defense in Elodea nuttallii reduces feeding and growth of aquatic herbivorous Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Daniela; Pohnert, Georg; Gross, Elisabeth M

    2007-08-01

    The submersed macrophyte Elodea nuttallii (Hydrocharitaceae) is invasive in Europe and frequently found in aquatic plant communities. Many invertebrate herbivores, such as larvae of the generalist aquatic moth, Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), avoid feeding on E. nuttallii and preferably consume native species. First instar larvae exhibited a high mortality on E. nuttallii compared to the native macrophyte Potamogeton perfoliatus. Mortality of older larvae was also high when fed E. nuttallii exposed to high light intensities. Growth of older larvae was strongly reduced on E. nuttallii compared to pondweeds (Potamogeton lucens). Neither differences in nitrogen nor phosphorus content explained the different performance on these submerged macrophytes, but plants differed in their flavonoid content. To investigate whether plant-derived allelochemicals from E. nuttallii affect larval performance in the same way as live plants, we developed a functional bioassay, in which Acentria larvae were reared on artificial diets. We offered larvae Potamogeton leaf disks coated with crude Elodea extracts and partially purified flavonoids. Elodea extracts deterred larvae from feeding on otherwise preferred Potamogeton leaves, and yet, unknown compounds in the extracts reduced growth and survival of Acentria. The flavonoid fraction containing luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide, apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide, and chrysoeriol-7-O-diglucuronide strongly reduced feeding of larvae, but did not increase mortality. The concentrations of these compounds in our assays were 0.01-0.09% of plant dry mass, which is in the lower range of concentrations found in the field (0.02-1.2%). Chemical defense in E. nuttallii thus plays an ecologically relevant role in this aquatic plant-herbivore system. PMID:17577598

  20. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  1. Fitness costs limit the development of resistance to indoxacarb and deltamethrin in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Ahmad, Munir; Crickmore, Neil

    2008-12-01

    Insecticide resistance in Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been documented from all over the world and is often associated with reduced fitness. Fitness costs could delay the development of resistance depending upon the prevailing conditions. We were interested in establishing whether a field-collected population from Washington County, MS, was resistant to spinosad, indoxacarb, and deltamethrin and whether any such resistance was associated with fitness costs. Bioassays results showed that the insecticides were equally toxic to the field population. Upon laboratory selection (generations [G]3 to G8), the resistance ratio increased only 2-, 3-, and 1-fold for spinosad, deltamethrin, and indoxacarb, respectively, compared with the field population. In contrast, the resistance ratios increased 213-, 65-, and 55-fold compared with an unselected population at G9. The estimated realized heritability (h2) after six generations of selection was 0.17, 0.03, and 0.12, respectively, and the number of generations required for 10-fold increase in LC50 of Spino-SEL, Indoxa-SEL, and Delta-SEL was estimated to be 14.3, 50, and 14.3. Comparison of life traits between the selected and unselected populations revealed that the selected populations laid a significantly lower number of eggs and that a lower percentage of eggs hatched. This also was reflected in both the net replacement rate and the intrinsic rate of population increase, which were both lower for the selected populations. It also was observed that the mean relative growth rate of the larvae was lower for the selected populations; not only did the larvae take longer to pupate but the mean weight of the prepupae from the selected populations was lower. Our data suggest that due to fitness costs the development of resistance to the insecticides was limited such that after six generations of selection the larvae were no less susceptible to the insecticides than the field population although were

  2. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    PubMed

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic. PMID:17461054

  3. Biocontrol of Duponcheria fovealis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with soil-dwelling predators in potted plants.

    PubMed

    Messelink, G; Van Wensveen, W

    2003-01-01

    Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a widespread pest in Dutch greenhouses. Most damage is recorded from potted plants as kalanchoe, cyclamen and begonia. Caterpillars of this pyralid prefer to live in a moist soil layer were they feed on either plant parts or organic matter. Larvae typically seek shelter within plant parts or in soil. This behaviour hampers contact between pesticides and caterpillars. Growers, therefore would welcome an effective method to prevent damage by D. fovealis. This paper describes the effects of the soil-dwelling mites Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) and Hypoaspis aculeifer (Canestrini) (Acari: Laelapidae) and the beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphilinidae) on eggs and larvae of D. fovealis. Both predatory mites and adults of the staphilinid beetle gave excellent control of eggs of D. fovealis in potting soil with kalanchoe. H. miles was slightly (99 percent control), but significantly, better than H. aculeifer (92 percent control). 50 to 87 percent of the eggs were predated by adult beetles of A. coriaria. These beetles also prey on first larval stages of D. fovealis. 87 percent of the H. miles population was present in the upper soil layer, whereas about half of the population of H. aculeifer preferred to stay deeper than 5 cm in soil. This behaviour might explain the slightly better control of D. fovealis by H. miles, since eggs and first larval stages of D. fovealis are mostly present in the upper soil layer. All predators tested may contribute to an integrated or biological system for controlling D. fovealis in potted plants. PMID:15149106

  4. Temperature thresholds and degree-day model for Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    O'Neal, M J; Headrick, D H; Montez, Gregory H; Grafton-Cardwell, E E

    2011-08-01

    The developmental thresholds for Marmara gulosa Guillén & Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) were investigated in the laboratory by using 17, 21, 25, 29, and 33 degrees C. The lowest mortality occurred in cohorts exposed to 25 and 29 degrees C. Other temperatures caused >10% mortality primarily in egg and first and second instar sap-feeding larvae. Linear regression analysis approximated the lower developmental threshold at 12.2 degrees C. High mortality and slow developmental rate at 33 degrees C indicate the upper developmental threshold is near this temperature. The degree-day (DD) model indicated that a generation requires an accumulation of 322 DD for development from egg to adult emergence. Average daily temperatures in the San Joaquin Valley could produce up to seven generations of M. gulosa per year. Field studies documented two, five, and three overlapping generations of M. gulosa in walnuts (Juglans regia L.; Juglandaceae), pummelos (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.; Rutaceae), and oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; Rutaceae), for a total of seven observed peelminer generations. Degree-day units between generations averaged 375 DD for larvae infesting walnut twigs; however, availability of green wood probably affected timing of infestations. Degree-day units between larval generations averaged 322 for pummelos and 309 for oranges, confirming the laboratory estimation. First infestation of citrus occurred in June in pummelo fruit and August in orange fruit when fruit neared 60 mm in diameter. Fruit size and degree-day units could be used as management tools to more precisely time insecticide treatments to target the egg stage and prevent rind damage to citrus. Degree-day units also could be used to more precisely time natural enemy releases to target larval instars that are preferred for oviposition.

  5. Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

    2010-10-01

    The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives.

  6. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts.

  7. Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) wound dressing for the control of Euzophera pinguis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moraga, E; Yousef, M; Ortiz, A; Ruíz-Torres, M; Garrido-Jurado, I; Estévez, A

    2013-08-01

    Injury to olive tree trunks and branches because of biotic and abiotic factors, such as pruning and mechanical harvesting, attracts the olive pyralid moth Euzophera pinguis Haworth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). This moth has become increasingly important in the Mediterranean region during recent years. The use of an entomopathogenic fungus for wound dressing for pest control is reported for the first time in this study. Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) strain EABb 08/04-Ep was originally obtained from a diseased E. pinguis larva and has shown effective E. pinguis control in an olive crop in Jaén, Andalusia, Spain, under field conditions during the spring and fall of 2008 and 2009 and the spring of 2011. Experimental artificial 30 by 30-mm square wound cages were large enough to allow the E. pinguis females to oviposit. Approximately 80 and 40-60% of the control wounds contained live larvae in the experiments that occurred during the spring and fall, respectively. The B. hassiana wound dressing gave similar results as the chlorpyrifos wound dressing throughout the experiment, with efficacies reaching 80-85% in the spring and 90-95% in the autumn. The B. bassiana fungus was recovered from 60-90% of the wounds at the completion of the experiments and after 60 d of treatment. These data indicate that strain EABb 08/04-Ep applied to the pruning wounds can be an effective tool for the microbial control of E. pinguis in olive crops. Moreover, B. bassiana may be used within integrated pest management strategies to minimize chemicals, depending on the population density of the pyralid moth.

  8. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence and Expression Profiling for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N.; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2011-01-01

    We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21311752

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes. PMID:23726059

  10. Notable plesiomorphies and notable specializations: head structure of the primitive "tongue moth" Acanthopteroctetes unifascia (Lepidoptera: Acanthopteroctetidae).

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Niels P; Rota, Jadranka; Fischer, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    The Acanthopteroctetidae are one of the first-originated family-group lineages within "tongue moths" (Lepidoptera-Glossata). The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account (based on whole mount preparations, serial sections, and Scanning electron microscopy) of the cephalic structure of an adult exemplar of the family, to supplement the sparse available information. Notable plesiomorphies include the retention of frontal retractors of the narrow labrum, a high supraocular index linked to strong development of cranio-mandibular ad- and abductors, and perhaps the unusually short but still coilable (just ca. 1.5 turns) galeal "tongue." Notable specializations (probably mostly family autapomorphies) include a complement of large sensilla placodea on the male antennae, an apical attachment of the long dorsal tentorial arm to the cranium, an extreme reduction of the single-segmented labial palps, a particularly strong subgenal bridge and a surface structure of near-parallel ridges on the ommatidial corneae. The presence of sizable saccular mandibular (type 1) glands opening into the adductor apodeme is unexpected, no counterparts being known from neighboring taxa. The same is true for ventral salivarium dilator muscles originating on the prelabium; and tentatively suggested to be homologues of the extrinsic palp flexors (the insertion shift being related to loss of original function due to palp reduction), rather than to the ventral salivarium muscles of more basal insects. A complete "deutocerebral loop"' may or may not be developed, as is true for a mutual appression of the optic lobe and circumoesophageal connective/suboesophageal ganglion, enclosing the anterior tentorial arm between them; a suboesophageal innervation of the retrocerebral complex was not observed. No characters bearing on the monophyly of the Coelolepida were identified. The scapo-pedicellar articulation with a scapal process and a smooth intercalary sclerite is reminiscent of

  11. Reducing tuber damage by potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with cultural practices and insecticides.

    PubMed

    Clough, G H; Rondon, S i; DeBano, S J; David, N; Hamm, P B

    2010-08-01

    Cultural practices and insecticide treatments and combinations were evaluated for effect on tuber damage by potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Columbia basin of eastern Oregon and Washington. A range of intervals between initial application of several insecticides and vine-kill were tested to determine how early to implement a program to control potato tuberworm tuber damage. Esfenvalerate, methamidophos, and methomyl were applied at recommended intervals, with programs beginning from 28 to 5 d before vine-kill. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced tuber damage compared with the untreated control, but there was no apparent advantage to beginning control efforts earlier than later in the season. Esfenvalerate and indoxacarb at two rates and a combination of the two insecticides were applied weekly beginning 4 wk before and at vine-kill, and indoxacarb was applied at and 1 wk postvine-kill as chemigation treatments. Application of insecticides at and after vine-kill also reduced tuberworm infestation. 'Russet Norkotah' and 'Russet Burbank' plants were allowed to naturally senesce or were chemically defoliated. They received either no irrigation or were irrigated by center-pivot with 0.25 cm water daily from vine-kill until harvest 2 wk later. Daily irrigation after vine-kill reduced tuber damage, and chemical vine-kill tended to reduce tuber damage compared with natural senescence. Covering hills with soil provides good protection but must be done by vine-kill. Data from these trials indicate that the most critical time for initiation of control methods is immediately before and at vine-kill. PMID:20857741

  12. Biological characteristics of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) induced to diapause in laboratory.

    PubMed

    Neto e Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista; Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Garcia, Mauro Silveira

    2014-01-01

    In southern Brazil, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) uses diapause as survival strategy during the winter (May-August). In our study, we evaluated the effect of diapause on biological characteristics of the species for 4 months in laboratory. Newly hatched larvae of G. molesta were induced to diapause changing the photoperiod and temperature (T) (12 ± 1°C), relative humidity (RH) (70 ± 10%), and a photophase of 12 h and, when they started diapause in the prepupal stage, the conditions were kept for 4 months. Afterwards, the insects were induced to finalize the diapause process at T 25 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10%, and a photophase of 16 h. We evaluated the duration and viability of the larval stages and pupae, pupae weight at 24 h and sex ratio (sr), periods of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition; adult life span (males and females); fecundity (daily and total); embryonic period duration and eggs viability, comparing the data with insects nondiapause. The results show that diapause greatly affected the viability of pupal-adult stages of the population (21.8%) when compared with insects' nondiapause (80.0%). Total fecundity (83.0 eggs) and mean life span (12.0 d) of insects diapause was significantly lower compared with insects nondiapause (173.0 and 17.0), respectively. However, these differences were not observed in the sr, which was similar to insects diapause (sr = 0.41) and insects nondiapause (sr = 0.49). The diapause induced for 4 months negatively affects reproduction and life span of adults of G. molesta.

  13. Ecological Genetics and Host Range Expansion by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Assefa, Y; Conlong, D E; Van Den Berg, J; Martin, L A

    2015-08-01

    The host plant range of pests can have important consequences for its evolution, and plays a critical role in the emergence and spread of a new pest outbreak. This study addresses the ecological genetics of the indigenous African maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in an attempt to investigate the evolutionary forces that may be involved in the recent host range expansion and establishment of this species in Ethiopian and southern African sugarcane. We used populations from Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa to examine whether the host range expansion patterns shared by the Ethiopian and the southern African populations of B. fusca have evolved independently. Base-pair differences in the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were used to characterize haplotype diversity and phylogenetic relationships. There were seven haplotypes among the 30 sequenced individuals collected on four host plant species from 17 localities in the four countries. Of the seven COI haplotypes identified, the two major ones occurred in both sugarcane and maize. Genetic analyses revealed no detectable genetic differentiation between southern African B. fusca populations from maize and sugarcane (FST = 0.019; P = 0.24). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between populations of the pest from different geographic regions (FST = 0.948; P < 0.001). The main implication of these findings is that the B. fusca populations in maize in southern Africa are more likely to shift to sugarcane, suggesting that ecological opportunity is an important factor in host plant range expansion by a pest. PMID:26314073

  14. Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Kang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Qin-Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3 mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method. PMID:25183343

  15. Captures of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) With Sex Pheromone Traps in NE China Corn and Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Li, Lian-Bing; Klein, Michael G; Li, Qi-Yun; Li, Peng-Pei; Sheng, Cheng-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), commonly referred to as the Asian corn borer, is the most important corn pest in Asia. Although capturing males with pheromone traps has recently been the main monitoring tool and suppression technique, the best trap designs remain unclear. Commercially available Delta and funnel traps, along with laboratory-made basin and water traps, and modified Delta traps, were evaluated in corn and soybean fields during 2013-2014 in NE China. The water trap was superior for capturing first-generation O. furnacalis (1.37 times the Delta trap). However, the basin (8.3 ± 3.2 moths/trap/3 d), Delta (7.9 ± 2.5), and funnel traps (7.0 ± 2.3) were more effective than water traps (1.4 ± 0.4) during the second generation. Delta traps gave optimal captures when deployed at ca. 1.57 × the highest corn plants, 1.36× that of average soybean plants, and at the field borders. In Delta traps modified by covering 1/3 of their ends, captures increased by ca. 15.7 and 8.1% in the first and second generations, respectively. After 35 d in the field, pheromone lures were still ca. 50% as attractive as fresh lures, and retained this level of attraction for ca. 25 more days. Increased captures (first and second generation: 90.9 ± 9.5%; 78.3 ± 9.3%) were obtained by adding a lure exposed for 5 d to funnel traps baited with a 35-d lure. PMID:26362111

  16. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement. PMID:24914780

  17. Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.

    PubMed

    Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

    2014-06-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ≍2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ≍1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations.

  18. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    PubMed

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas.

  19. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  20. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts. PMID:26453708

  1. Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae) Injury to Corn Containing Single and Pyramided Bt Traits, and Blended or Block Refuge, in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Reisig, D D; Akin, D S; All, J N; Bessin, R T; Brewer, M J; Buntin, D G; Catchot, A L; Cook, D; Flanders, K L; Huang, F-N; Johnson, D W; Leonard, B R; Mcleod, P J; Porter, R P; Reay-Jones, F P F; Tindall, K V; Stewart, S D; Troxclair, N N; Youngman, R R; Rice, M E

    2015-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); and lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are lepidopteran pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Blended refuge for transgenic plants expressing the insecticidal protein derivative from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has recently been approved as an alternative resistance management strategy in the northern United States. We conducted a two-year study with 39 experiments across 12 states in the southern United States to evaluate plant injury from these five species of Lepidoptera to corn expressing Cry1F and Cry1Ab, as both single and pyramided traits, a pyramid of Cry1Ab×Vip3Aa20, and a pyramid of Cry1F×Cry1Ab plus non-Bt in a blended refuge. Leaf injury and kernel damage from corn earworm and fall armyworm, and stalking tunneling by southwestern corn borer, were similar in Cry1F×Cry1Ab plants compared with the Cry1F×Cry1Ab plus non-Bt blended refuge averaged across five-plant clusters. When measured on an individual plant basis, leaf injury, kernel damage, stalk tunneling (southwestern corn borer), and dead or injured plants (lesser cornstalk borer) were greater in the blended non-Bt refuge plants compared to Cry1F×Cry1Ab plants in the non-Bt and pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab blended refuge treatment. When non-Bt blended refuge plants were compared to a structured refuge of non-Bt plants, no significant difference was detected in leaf injury, kernel damage, or stalk tunneling (southwestern corn borer). Plant stands in the non-Bt and pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab blended refuge treatment had more stalk tunneling from sugarcane borer and plant death from lesser cornstalk borer compared to a pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab structured refuge

  2. Isolation of BAC clones containing conserved genes from libraries of three distantly related moths: a useful resource for comparative genomics of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Yuji; Tanaka-Okuyama, Makiko; Kamimura, Manabu; Nakano, Ryo; Naito, Yota; Ishikawa, Yukio; Sahara, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the second largest animal order and includes numerous agricultural pests. To facilitate comparative genomics in Lepidoptera, we isolated BAC clones containing conserved and putative single-copy genes from libraries of three pests, Heliothis virescens, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Plutella xylostella, harboring the haploid chromosome number, n = 31, which are not closely related with each other or with the silkworm, Bombyx mori, (n = 28), the sequenced model lepidopteran. A total of 108-184 clones representing 101-182 conserved genes were isolated for each species. For 79 genes, clones were isolated from more than two species, which will be useful as common markers for analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), as well as for comparison of genome sequence among multiple species. The PCR-based clone isolation method presented here is applicable to species which lack a sequenced genome but have a significant collection of cDNA or EST sequences.

  3. Braconinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) emerged from larvae of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) feeding on Daphne gnidium L.

    PubMed Central

    Loni, Augusto; Samartsev, Konstantin G.; Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bracon admotus Papp, 2000, and three species of the genus Habrobracon Ashmead, 1895, Habrobracon concolorans (Marshall, 1900), Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836) and Habrobracon pillerianae Fischer, 1980, were obtained from the larvae of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) feeding on Daphne gnidium Linnaeus, 1753 (Thymelaeaceae) in the natural reserve of Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli (Pisa-Central Italy). Bracon admotus, Habrobracon concolorans and Habrobracon pillerianae were found for the first time to be associated with Lobesia botrana, while Habrobracon hebetor was reared for the first time from the larvae of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière, 1867) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae) that was found on the same host plant. Bracon admotus and Habrobracon pillerianae are new to the fauna of Italy and Western Europe. A key is proposed for the determination of Habrobracon species reared from Lobesia botrana and related Palaearctic species of this genus. Habrobracon lineatellae Fisher, 1968 is considered as a valid species. PMID:27408529

  4. Braconinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) emerged from larvae of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) feeding on Daphne gnidium L.

    PubMed

    Loni, Augusto; Samartsev, Konstantin G; Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Belokobylskij, Sergey A; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Bracon admotus Papp, 2000, and three species of the genus Habrobracon Ashmead, 1895, Habrobracon concolorans (Marshall, 1900), Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836) and Habrobracon pillerianae Fischer, 1980, were obtained from the larvae of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) feeding on Daphne gnidium Linnaeus, 1753 (Thymelaeaceae) in the natural reserve of Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli (Pisa-Central Italy). Bracon admotus, Habrobracon concolorans and Habrobracon pillerianae were found for the first time to be associated with Lobesia botrana, while Habrobracon hebetor was reared for the first time from the larvae of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière, 1867) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae) that was found on the same host plant. Bracon admotus and Habrobracon pillerianae are new to the fauna of Italy and Western Europe. A key is proposed for the determination of Habrobracon species reared from Lobesia botrana and related Palaearctic species of this genus. Habrobracon lineatellae Fisher, 1968 is considered as a valid species. PMID:27408529

  5. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 10. A remarkable new white species of Chionodes Hübner (Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Metzler, Eric H; Landry, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study, in late 2006, of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Chionodes bustosorum sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2010, during the third year of the study. The male imago and male genitalia are illustrated, and its DNA barcode is compared to that of seven other species of Chionodes from western North America. PMID:27394871

  6. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:22207799

  7. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini).

    PubMed

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:22207799

  8. Astrotischeria neotropicana sp. nov.-a leaf-miner on Sida, Malvaceae, currently with the broadest distribution range in the Neotropics (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae).

    PubMed

    Diškus, Arūnas; Stonis, Jonas R

    2015-11-05

    This paper describes Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae), a new leaf-miner on Sida (Malvaceae) with a broad distribution range in tropical Central & South America. The new species is currently recorded from the Amazon Basin in Peru and Ecuador to tropical lowlands in Guatemala and Belize (including the Caribbean Archipelago). The new species is illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf-mines; distribution map is also provided.

  9. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 10. A remarkable new white species of Chionodes Hübner (Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Metzler, Eric H; Landry, Jean-François

    2016-05-09

    The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study, in late 2006, of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Chionodes bustosorum sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2010, during the third year of the study. The male imago and male genitalia are illustrated, and its DNA barcode is compared to that of seven other species of Chionodes from western North America.

  10. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    PubMed

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  11. Field efficacy and transmission of fast- and slow-killing nucleopolyhedroviruses that are infectious to Adoxophyes honmai (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Maho; Nakai, Madoka; Saito, Yasumasa; Sato, Yasushi; Ishijima, Chikara; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2015-03-18

    The smaller tea tortrix, Adoxophyes honmai (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an economically important pest of tea in Japan. Previous work showed that a fast-killing nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from A. orana (AdorNPV) and a slow-killing NPV isolated from A. honmai (AdhoNPV) are both infectious to A. honmai larvae. Field application of these different NPVs was conducted against an A. honmai larval population in tea plants, and the control efficacy and transmission rate of the two NPVs were compared. The slow-killing AdhoNPV showed lower field efficacy, in terms of preventing damage caused by A. honmai larvae against the tea plants, than the fast-killing AdorNPV. However, AdhoNPV had a significantly higher horizontal transmission rate than AdorNPV. These results show that AdorNPV is suitable as an inundative agent, while AdhoNPV is an appropriate inoculative agent.

  12. Molecular variability of the COI fragment supports the systematic position of Enarmoniini within the subfamily Olethreutinae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Razowski, Józef; Tarcz, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The Tortricidae, a globally distributed family of Lepidoptera, consists of approximately 10,000 described species, of which a large number do not have clearly defined taxonomic positions. In the present paper the systematics of Enarmoniini based on molecular data is compared to systematics based on morphology. Two genera of Enarmoniini were used for analysis: the type-genus Enarmonia (one species examined) and Ancylis (7 species examined). A comparison of a 606 bp homologous fragment of the COI mitochondrial gene revealed that Enarmoniini form a cluster distinct from Olethreutini (3 genera and 7 species examined), Eucosmini (2 genera, 4 species) and Grapholitini (4 genera, 9 species). In our opinion the molecular studies combined with previously obtained morphological data should facilitate a more natural classification system of this relatively poorly explored family of Microlepidoptera. Altogether, 30 species of Tortricidae were examined.

  13. Field Efficacy and Transmission of Fast- and Slow-Killing Nucleopolyhedroviruses that Are Infectious to Adoxophyes honmai (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Maho; Nakai, Madoka; Saito, Yasumasa; Sato, Yasushi; Ishijima, Chikara; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The smaller tea tortrix, Adoxophyes honmai (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an economically important pest of tea in Japan. Previous work showed that a fast-killing nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from A. orana (AdorNPV) and a slow-killing NPV isolated from A. honmai (AdhoNPV) are both infectious to A. honmai larvae. Field application of these different NPVs was conducted against an A. honmai larval population in tea plants, and the control efficacy and transmission rate of the two NPVs were compared. The slow-killing AdhoNPV showed lower field efficacy, in terms of preventing damage caused by A. honmai larvae against the tea plants, than the fast-killing AdorNPV. However, AdhoNPV had a significantly higher horizontal transmission rate than AdorNPV. These results show that AdorNPV is suitable as an inundative agent, while AdhoNPV is an appropriate inoculative agent. PMID:25793940

  14. Female sex pheromone secreted by Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), a biological control agent for an invasive weed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vang, Le Van; Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Ando, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the clearwing moth, Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), bore into the trunk of Mimosa pigra L., which is one of the most invasive weeds in Vietnam. GC-EAD and GC-MS analyses of a pheromone gland extract revealed that the female moths produced (3Z,13Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate. A lure baited with the synthetic acetate alone successfully attracted C. mimosa males in a field test. While the addition of a small amount of the corresponding alcohol did not strongly diminish the number of captured males, a trace of the aldehyde derivative or the (3E,13Z)-isomer markedly inhibited the attractiveness of the acetate. The diurnal males were mainly attracted from 6:00 am to 12:00 am.

  15. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni.

  16. First report and spore ultrastructure of Vairimorpha plodiae (Opisthokonta: Microspora) from Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Mustafa; Pınar Güngör, F; Gonca Güner, Beyza; Radek, Renate; Linde, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the first isolation and characterization of Vairimorpha plodiae, a microsporidian pathogen of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Turkey. We present characteristic light and electron microscopical features of the spores. Fresh binucleate spores are oval and measure 4.48 ± 0.23 (4.01-4.84) µm in length and 2.21 ± 0.15 (1.91-2.48) µm in width. Ultrastructural studies showed that the spore wall measures 150 to 200 nm and consists of a clear endospore (125-150 nm) and an electron-dense, uniform, thin exospore (30-50 nm). The polar filament is isofilar and with 10-12 coils. The well-developed polaroplast consists of two parts with thin lamellae anteriorly and thick, irregularly arranged lamellae posteriorly. The identity of our isolate is discussed.

  17. Sensilla on the Antennae and Ovipositor of the Sea Buckthorn Carpenter Moth, Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua et al (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, R; Zhang, L; Xu, L L; Zong, S X; Luo, Y Q

    2015-02-01

    Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua et al (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) is an important boring pest that damages the sea buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides. Larvae of H. hippophaecolus cause major losses of this shrub in Northern China, with severe economic and ecological consequences. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to investigate the typology, morphology, and distribution of sensilla on the antennae and ovipositor of H. hippophaecolus. In total, seven subtypes of sensilla were found on the antennae, i.e., chaetica, trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica (two subtypes), coeloconica, and Böhm bristles. In addition, three types of sensilla were detected on the ovipositor, i.e., chaetica, trichodea, and basiconica. The identification of these sensilla types could provide morphological evidence to facilitate a better understanding of the host location, mate finding, and oviposition processes of this important species. PMID:26013014

  18. Using haplotypes to monitor the migration of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Texas and Florida.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Meagher, Robert L; Flanders, Kathy; Gore, Jeffrey; Jackson, Ryan; Lopez, Juan; Armstrong, John S; Buntin, G David; Sansone, Chris; Leonard, B Rogers

    2008-06-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infestations in most of North America north of Mexico arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. A comparison of the cytochrome oxidase I haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup that preferentially infests corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), identified significant differences in the proportions of certain haplotypes between the Texas and Florida populations. These proportional differences were preserved as the populations migrated, providing a molecular metric by which the source of a migrant population could be identified. The migratory pattern derived from this method for several southeastern states was shown to be consistent with predictions based on analysis of historical agricultural and fall armyworm infestation data. These results demonstrate the utility of haplotype proportions to monitor fall armyworm migration, and they also introduce a potential method to predict the severity of cotton crop infestations in the short term.

  19. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer. PMID:19161694

  20. Geographic distribution, phylogeny, and genetic diversity of the fruit- and blood-feeding moth Calyptra thalictri Borkhausen (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, Jennifer M; Scott, Clare H; Hill, Sharon R; Ignell, Rickard; Kononenko, Vladimir S; Weller, Susan J

    2014-10-01

    Facultative blood feeding on live animals or carrion is widespread within Lepidoptera. Male moths within the genus Calyptra are known to use their fruit-piercing mouthparts to occasionally feed on mammalian blood. The Palearctic species Calyptra thalictri is known to exhibit differential feeding behaviors that appear to be based on geographic location. This species is known to pierce fruit throughout its range but has recently been reported to also feed on human blood under experimental conditions in the Russian Far East. Here we document the distribution of this widespread species, reconstruct its evolutionary history, and calculate its genetic diversity for the first time. Recently collected samples are combined with museum specimens to model suitable environments for this taxon. Our findings suggest that while the blood-feeding populations are not monophyletic, there is geographical structure. Our analysis of macroclimate variables suggests that altitude and precipitation are the environmental variables most critical to habitat suitability in this lineage. PMID:24779998