Science.gov

Sample records for les reservoirs geologiques

  1. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  2. Les jeux de hasard chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rina; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Même si, au Canada, les mineurs n’ont pas le droit de jouer à des jeux de hasard légalisés, les adolescents participent souvent à des jeux de hasard soit légalisés (produits de loterie, casino, terminaux de jeux vidéo), soit autonomes (jeux de cartes, paris sportifs, dés) à la maison et en milieu scolaire. Chez les adultes, le taux de prévalence de dépendance aux jeux de hasard au cours de la vie se situe entre 1 % et 2 %. D’après les données existantes, la prévalence chez les adolescents serait de deux à quatre fois plus élevée. On ne sait pas grand-chose des facteurs de risque d’apparition et de perpétuation d’une dépendance pathologique aux jeux de hasard. Le présent document de principes vise à informer les pédiatres, les médecins de famille et les autres professionnels de la santé des connaissances émergentes sur les jeux de hasard pendant l’enfance et l’adolescence et du risque de conséquences graves qui s’y rattachent. On y exhorte également les gouvernements fédéral, provinciaux et territoriaux à inclure cette question dans leur programme et à tenir compte des facteurs sociopolitiques associés aux jeux de hasard.

  3. Large eddy simulation of a pumped- storage reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launay, Marina; Leite Ribeiro, Marcelo; Roman, Federico; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The last decades have seen an increasing number of pumped-storage hydropower projects all over the world. Pumped-storage schemes move water between two reservoirs located at different elevations to store energy and to generate electricity following the electricity demand. Thus the reservoirs can be subject to important water level variations occurring at the daily scale. These new cycles leads to changes in the hydraulic behaviour of the reservoirs. Sediment dynamics and sediment budgets are modified, sometimes inducing problems of erosion and deposition within the reservoirs. With the development of computer performances, the use of numerical techniques has become popular for the study of environmental processes. Among numerical techniques, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has arisen as an alternative tool for problems characterized by complex physics and geometries. This work uses the LES-COAST Code, a LES model under development in the framework of the Seditrans Project, for the simulation of an Upper Alpine Reservoir of a pumped-storage scheme. Simulations consider the filling (pump mode) and emptying (turbine mode) of the reservoir. The hydraulic results give a better understanding of the processes occurring within the reservoir. They are considered for an assessment of the sediment transport processes and of their consequences.

  4. Les hommes regardent le ciel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.

    Contents: 1. Le ciel nocturne. 2. Le mouvement du soleil. 3. La lune et ses mouvements. 4. L'orientation des bâtiments. 5. Les étoiles et les constellations. 6. Les planètes. 7. Les comètes, météores et météorites. 8. Les phénomènes météorologico-astronomiques. 9. Les éclipses. 10. Le temps et les calendriers. 11. Astres et destinée humaine - l'astrologie. 12. Les mythes de la création du monde. 13. Les mythes de la fin du monde. 14. Astronomie et société.

  5. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Dolomite reservoirs: Porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.Q.

    1995-02-01

    Systematic analyses of the published record of dolomite reservoirs worldwide reveal that the majority of hydrocarbon-producing dolomite reservoirs occurs in (1) peritidal-dominated carbonate, (2) subtidal carbonate associated with evaporitic tidal flat/lagoon, (3) subtidal carbonate associated with basinal evaporite, and (4) nonevaporitic carbonate sequence associated with topographic high/unconformity, platform-margin buildup or fault/fracture. Reservoir characteristics vary greatly from one dolomite type to another depending upon the original sediment fabric, the mechanism by which dolomite was formed, and the extent to which early formed dolomite was modified by post-dolomitization diagenetic processes (e.g., karstification, fracturing, and burial corrosion). This paper discusses the origin of dolomite porosity and demonstrates the porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics of different dolomite types.

  9. Les urgences infectieuses ORL

    PubMed Central

    Sereme, Moustapha; Tarnagda, Souleymane; Guiguimde, Patrice; Gyebre, Yvette Marie Chantal; Ouedraogo, Bertin; Céline, Bambara; Ouattara, Maimouna; Ouoba, Kampadilemba

    2016-01-01

    Affections gravissimes à pronostic très réservé particulièrement dans notre contexte de sous médicalisation et de pauvreté. Notre but en initiant ce travail est de déterminer les étiologies de ces urgences et discuter de leur prise en charge thérapeutique. Étude de type rétrospective et descriptive sur 05 ans, au total 52 dossiers cliniques ont été inclus. Ces infections ont représenté 0,33% de nos consultations. La moyenne d'âge de nos patients a été 23 ans. Le jeune âge, les traitements inappropriés et certaines affections ORL ont été retrouvés comme facteurs favorisants. Les motifs de consultation ont été variés en fonction du siège de l'infection, cependant deux signes cliniques ont été constants: la douleur et la fièvre. L'adénophlegmon, le phlegmon péri-amygdalien, les cellulites ont été nos principales étiologies avec le streptocoque et le staphylocoque comme principaux germes en cause. L'antibiothérapie probabiliste a été utilisée en première intention notamment l'association céphalosporine de 3ème génération + aminoside + imidazolé. L'évolution clinique de nos patients a été marquée par la survenue de complications locales et générales. Urgence diagnostic et thérapeutique leur évolution reste encore émaillée de complication en raison de la consultation tardive de nos patients. PMID:28154719

  10. Les noyaux actifs de galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenzind, Max; Boucher, A.

    Découverts il y a plus de 30 ans, les quasars et les radiogalaxies sont des galaxies particulières qui manifestent en leur centre une activité intense. Cet ouvrage se consacre aux principales questions de la physique des noyaux actifs en les illustrant par de récentes données. Y sont traités les domaines suivants: les noyaux des galaxies actives, la théorie des trous noirs en rotation et de leurs disques d'accrétion, l'origine des raies d'émission et les jets des galaxies actives. Fournissant une introduction génerale à la terminologie, cet ouvrage s'adresse aussi bien aux étudiants en astronomie qu'aux astrophysiciens.

  11. 95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Reservoir Inflation Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Ponden, Raymond F.

    1991-11-22

    Inflation of the reservoir is to begin on Friday afternoon, November 22 and continue through mid day on Monday, November 25. Inflation of the reservoir shall be accomplished by using only injection pump, HP-2. NOTE: Under no circumstances should injection pump, HP-1 be operated.

  13. Les Abondances Chimiques dans les Galaxies Spirales de Type Precoce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutil, Yvan

    1998-09-01

    Les galaxies spriales presentent une distribution continue de formes et de proprietes physiques. A l'heure actuelle, il existe deux ecoles de pensee au sujet de la nature de ces proprietes morphologiques des galaxies. Pour certains elles sont innees, pour d'autres elles sont acquises. Les gradients d'abondance nebulaires, de par leur sensibilite aux mouvements a grande echelle du gaz et au taux de formation stellaire, offrent une possibilite de trancher dans ce debat. Toutefois, jusqu'ici, on a surtout observe les gradients d'abondance dans les galaxies de type tardif. Le premier objectif de cette these est d'enrichir l'echantillon de galaxies de type precoce observees. Le second objectif est de demontrer qu'il y a deja eu une barre dans les galaxies de type precoce et, si possible, de chercher des traces d'interactions dans ces galaxies. Dans le cadre de cette these, j'ai observe huit galaxies de type precoce. Mes observations indiquent que ces galaxies presentent des profils d'abondance dont les caracteristiques se rapprochent des galaxies barrees, meme si certaines ne presentent pas de barres. Ce resultat renforce l'hypothese selon laquelle les galaxies changent de type morphologique au cours du temps sous l'effet d'instabilites comme les barres.

  14. Geothermal reservoir engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.

  15. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Carl D.

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of the weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.

  16. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  17. Geysers reservoir studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Pruess, K. )

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is conducting several research projects related to issues of interest to The Geysers operators, including those that deal with understanding the nature of vapor-dominated systems, measuring or inferring reservoir processes and parameters, and studying the effects of liquid injection. All of these topics are directly or indirectly relevant to the development of reservoir strategies aimed at stabilizing or increasing production rates of non-corrosive steam, low in non-condensable gases. Three reservoir engineering studies are described in some detail, that is: (a) Modeling studies of heat transfer and phase distribution in two-phase geothermal reservoirs; (b) Numerical modeling studies of Geysers injection experiments; and (c) Development of a dual-porosity model to calculate mass flow between rock matrix blocks and neighboring fractures.

  18. Potential Mammalian Filovirus Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Johnson, Karl M.

    2004-01-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses are maintained in unknown reservoir species; spillover into human populations results in occasional human cases or epidemics. We attempted to narrow the list of possibilities regarding the identity of those reservoir species. We made a series of explicit assumptions about the reservoir: it is a mammal; it supports persistent, largely asymptomatic filovirus infections; its range subsumes that of its associated filovirus; it has coevolved with the virus; it is of small body size; and it is not a species that is commensal with humans. Under these assumptions, we developed priority lists of mammal clades that coincide distributionally with filovirus outbreak distributions and compared these lists with those mammal taxa that have been tested for filovirus infection in previous epidemiologic studies. Studying the remainder of these taxa may be a fruitful avenue for pursuing the identity of natural reservoirs of filoviruses. PMID:15663841

  19. Geothermal reservoir simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. W., Jr.; Faust, C.; Pinder, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The prediction of long-term geothermal reservoir performance and the environmental impact of exploiting this resource are two important problems associated with the utilization of geothermal energy for power production. Our research effort addresses these problems through numerical simulation. Computer codes based on the solution of partial-differential equations using finite-element techniques are being prepared to simulate multiphase energy transport, energy transport in fractured porous reservoirs, well bore phenomena, and subsidence.

  20. Session: Reservoir Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  1. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field`s relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  2. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field's relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  3. Les violences conjugales à Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Issa, Abdoul Wahab; Ndiaye, Mor; Ndoye, El Hadj Oumar; Sow, Mamadou Lamine

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était d’évaluer les aspects épidémiologiques des violences conjugales, identifier les facteurs de risques et les différents types de violences conjugales, évaluer les conséquences des violences conjugales sur la santé des victimes, afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des victimes et la prévention du phénomène. Il s'est agit d'une étude transversale effectuée de décembre 2012 à janvier 2013 à Dakar. Les données ont été recueillies, après consentement, sur fiche d'enquête anonyme soumise à toute personne volontaire vivant en couple et résidant à Dakar. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée avec le logiciel SPSS 13.0. Le nombre de personnes victimes de violences conjugales était de 60 soit 37,30% dont 31 femmes (51,70%) et 29 hommes (48,30%). Le sex-ratio était de 0,93. Parmi les victimes, 53 étaient scolarisées soit 88,30%. Le régime matrimonial était de type monogame dans 39 cas (65%) et polygame dans 21 cas (35%). La vie en couple durait depuis moins de 11 ans dans 60% des cas et durait de 11 ans à 20 ans au plus dans 26,6% des cas. L’étude des types de violences montrait la fréquence des agressions physiques. Les armes utilisées étaient surtout les armes naturelles. Les principaux facteurs de risque de violence conjugale sont les facteurs sociodémographiques, culturels et économiques comme le jeune âge, l'inégalité du genre, les jeunes couples, la précarité, le niveau d'instruction élevé. La prise en charge des victimes et la prévention du phénomène restent insuffisantes dans nos pays. PMID:26918077

  4. Optoelectronic Reservoir Computing

    PubMed Central

    Paquot, Y.; Duport, F.; Smerieri, A.; Dambre, J.; Schrauwen, B.; Haelterman, M.; Massar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced, highly efficient bio-inspired approach for processing time dependent data. The basic scheme of reservoir computing consists of a non linear recurrent dynamical system coupled to a single input layer and a single output layer. Within these constraints many implementations are possible. Here we report an optoelectronic implementation of reservoir computing based on a recently proposed architecture consisting of a single non linear node and a delay line. Our implementation is sufficiently fast for real time information processing. We illustrate its performance on tasks of practical importance such as nonlinear channel equalization and speech recognition, and obtain results comparable to state of the art digital implementations. PMID:22371825

  5. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  6. Une vie active saine pour les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    De mauvais modes de vie, comme une alimentation malsaine et l’inactivité physique, sont d'importants facteurs contributifs à une augmentation de la morbidité et de la mortalité secondaires à des maladies chroniques à l’âge adulte. Depuis dix ans, on remarque une augmentation du mode de vie sédentaire et de l’obésité chez les enfants et les adolescents, tant en Amérique du Nord qu’ailleurs dans le monde. Les médecins doivent être conscients de l’importance du problème, fournir des conseils de prévention aux familles et promouvoir une vie active saine dans leur pratique.

  7. ["Les Impatients": expression through art].

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, Céline; Palardy, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The organization called "Les Impatients" was founded in 1992. Using a unique model, Les Impatients welcomes those with mental health issues who would like to express themselves through art. Les Impatients offers free creative workshops and encourages exchanges with the community through the sharing of its participants' creations. The name Les Impatients reinforces the idea that the organization does not consider those attending its workshops as patients, but rather creators who are eager to heal, develop their craft and find their place in society. The participants contribute to the collective objective of breaking down the stigma that surrounds mental illness.Les Impatients collaborates with various mental health organizations in Quebec, such as the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) affiliated to the Université de Montréal, Douglas Mental Health University Institute (DMHUI), the Centre de santé et services sociaux Drummond (CSSS Drummond) and the Centre de santé et services sociaux Pierre-Boucher (CSSS Pierre-Boucher). Les Impatients offers more than 48 workshops in eight different locations to around 450 participants each week.Dissemination activities, remarkable events, original projects: Les Impatients stands out through its realizations. Examples are exhibitions, collections of love letters, comic books, CD, concerts, and reading nights. The organization's originality resides in the exploration of the links between the work of the participants and that of professional artists. An illustration of this interest is the annual Parle-moi d'amour auction-exhibition, which has been one of Les Impatients' major events since 1999.As part of its mission, Les Impatients conserves the works of art created by the participants during the workshops. Its collection includes more than 15,000 works of art from Les Impatients as well as pieces donated by collectors of unconventional art, commonly known as "art brut" or "outsider art". The

  8. Reservoir stability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-07-01

    The objective of the reservoir stability studies project is to develop stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock caverns, and porous rock structures for air storage in utility applications. Because reservoir stability was deemed crucial to commercialization of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems this project has received major emphasis in the early phases of the overall CAES program. A long term plan, including state-of-the-art assessment, numerical model development and experimental studies culminating in field research, as necessary, was formulated. This plan, initiated in 1977, has been completed during FY-1981 to the stage of specific experimental studies and field research. Activities within this project during FY-1981 have included completion of site specific geotechnical design evaluations using methodologies developed to assess hard rock cavern stability, implementation of in-mine research to evaluate numerical and laboratory study conclusions on the response of domal salt, and preparation of integrated laboratory and field study facilities to assess developed predictive methods and determine in situ response of a porous media reservoir to air injection. The major activity in the project has been the field study component of the porous media studies. Accomplishments there have included completion of exploration, permitting and leasing, operation contractor selection and negotiation, and initiation of procurement and construction for an FY-1982 test initiation. A major program milestone, drilling of the injection withdrawal well for this test, was completed ahead of schedule.

  9. Applying reservoir characterization technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.

    1994-12-31

    While reservoir characterization is an old discipline, only within the last 10 years have engineers and scientists been able to make quantitative descriptions, due mostly to improvements in high-resolution computational power, sophisticated graphics, and geostatistics. This paper summarizes what has been learned during the past decade by using these technologies.

  10. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  11. Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficken, W. H.; Schulien, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device supplies controlled amounts of lubricating oil to ball bearings during operation of the bearings. The dynamic reservoir lubricating device includes a rotating reservoir nut, a hollow cylinder filled with lubricating oil, flow restrictors and a ball bearing retainer.

  12. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  13. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Validating LES for Jet Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    Engineers charged with making jet aircraft quieter have long dreamed of being able to see exactly how turbulent eddies produce sound and this dream is now coming true with the advent of large eddy simulation (LES). Two obvious challenges remain: validating the LES codes at the resolution required to see the fluid-acoustic coupling, and the interpretation of the massive datasets that result in having dreams come true. This paper primarily addresses the former, the use of advanced experimental techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Raman and Rayleigh scattering, to validate the computer codes and procedures used to create LES solutions. It also addresses the latter problem in discussing what are relevant measures critical for aeroacoustics that should be used in validating LES codes. These new diagnostic techniques deliver measurements and flow statistics of increasing sophistication and capability, but what of their accuracy? And what are the measures to be used in validation? This paper argues that the issue of accuracy be addressed by cross-facility and cross-disciplinary examination of modern datasets along with increased reporting of internal quality checks in PIV analysis. Further, it is argued that the appropriate validation metrics for aeroacoustic applications are increasingly complicated statistics that have been shown in aeroacoustic theory to be critical to flow-generated sound.

  15. Validating LES for Jet Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Engineers charged with making jet aircraft quieter have long dreamed of being able to see exactly how turbulent eddies produce sound and this dream is now coming true with the advent of large eddy simulation (LES). Two obvious challenges remain: validating the LES codes at the resolution required to see the fluid-acoustic coupling, and the interpretation of the massive datasets that are produced. This paper addresses the former, the use of advanced experimental techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Raman and Rayleigh scattering, to validate the computer codes and procedures used to create LES solutions. This paper argues that the issue of accuracy of the experimental measurements be addressed by cross-facility and cross-disciplinary examination of modern datasets along with increased reporting of internal quality checks in PIV analysis. Further, it argues that the appropriate validation metrics for aeroacoustic applications are increasingly complicated statistics that have been shown in aeroacoustic theory to be critical to flow-generated sound, such as two-point space-time velocity correlations. A brief review of data sources available is presented along with examples illustrating cross-facility and internal quality checks required of the data before it should be accepted for validation of LES.

  16. Interactive reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Regtien, J.M.M. Por, G.J.A.; Stiphout, M.T. van; Vlugt, F.F. van der

    1995-12-31

    Shell`s new Modular Reservoir Simulator (MoReS) has been equipped with a comprehensive and versatile user interface called FrontEnd. Apart from providing a user-friendly environment for interactive reservoir simulation, FrontEnd serves a software platform for other dynamic simulation and reservoir-engineering applications. It offers to all supported applications a common user interface, enables the re-use of code and reduces overall maintenance and support costs associated with the embedded applications. Because of its features, FrontEnd facilitates the transfer of research results in the form of operational software to end users. When coupled with MoReS, FrontEnd can be used for pre- and post-processing and interactive simulation. The pre-processing options allow data to be inputted by means of various OSF/Motif widgets containing a spreadsheet, text editors, dialogues and graphical input. The display of the input data as well as the post-processing of all simulation results is made possible by a variety of user-defined plot of tabular (e.g. timestep summary) and array (simulation grid) data. During a simulation user-defined plots can be displayed and edited, allowing a close inspection of the results as they are being calculated. FrontEnd has been equipped with a powerful input command language, which gives the batch user as much flexibility and control over the input as the interactive user.

  17. Fractured petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.; Chang, E.; Tang, G.Q.

    2000-01-10

    Total compressibility in a fractured reservoir is estimated using the pressure response due to gravitational potential variations. Both the moon and the sun gravitational potentials are accounted for using the full expression by inclusion of longer-period components. The semi-diurnal and diurnal pressure data show substantial long-term variations. The gravitational potential also contains the same variation trend; the ratio between the potential and pressure has a fairly uniform value over successive cycles. The computed total compressibility is also fairly constant and independent of the cycle. Results show the effects of the time interval over which the pressure measurements are performed as well as the location.

  18. Calderas and magma reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Giordano, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Large caldera-forming eruptions have long been a focus of both petrological and volcanological studies; petrologists have used the eruptive products to probe conditions of magma storage (and thus processes that drive magma evolution), while volcanologists have used them to study the conditions under which large volumes of magma are transported to, and emplaced on, the Earth's surface. Traditionally, both groups have worked on the assumption that eruptible magma is stored within a single long-lived melt body. Over the past decade, however, advances in analytical techniques have provided new views of magma storage regions, many of which provide evidence of multiple melt lenses feeding a single eruption, and/or rapid pre-eruptive assembly of large volumes of melt. These new petrological views of magmatic systems have not yet been fully integrated into volcanological perspectives of caldera-forming eruptions. Here we explore the implications of complex magma reservoir configurations for eruption dynamics and caldera formation. We first examine mafic systems, where stacked-sill models have long been invoked but which rarely produce explosive eruptions. An exception is the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, where seismic and petrologic data show that multiple sills at different depths fed a multi-phase (explosive and effusive) eruption. Extension of this concept to larger mafic caldera-forming systems suggests a mechanism to explain many of their unusual features, including their protracted explosivity, spatially variable compositions and pronounced intra-eruptive pauses. We then review studies of more common intermediate and silicic caldera-forming systems to examine inferred conditions of magma storage, time scales of melt accumulation, eruption triggers, eruption dynamics and caldera collapse. By compiling data from large and small, and crystal-rich and crystal-poor, events, we compare eruptions that are well explained by simple evacuation of a zoned

  19. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  20. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  1. All-optical reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  2. SUSY Les Houches Accord 2

    SciTech Connect

    Allanach, B.; Balazs, C.; Belanger, G.; Bernhardt, M.; Boudjema, F.; Choudhury, D.; Desch, K.; Ellwanger, U.; Gambino, P.; Godbole, R.; Goto, T.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Monash U. /Annecy, LAPTH /Bonn U. /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Orsay, LPT /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona U.

    2007-11-08

    The Supersymmetry Les Houches Accord (SLHA) [1] provides a universal set of conventions for conveying spectral and decay information for supersymmetry analysis problems in high energy physics. Here, we propose extensions of the conventions of the first SLHA to include various generalizations: the minimal supersymmetric standard model with violation of CP, R-parity, and flavor, as well as the simplest next-to-minimal model.

  3. SUSY Les Houches Accord 2

    SciTech Connect

    Allanach, B.; Balazs, C.; Belanger, G.; Bernhardt, M.; Boudjema, F.; Choudhury, D.; Desch, K.; Ellwanger, U.; Gambino, P.; Godbole, R.; Goto, T.; Guasch, J.; Guchait, M.; Hahn, T.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hugonie, C.; Hurth, T.; Kraml, S.; Kreiss, S.; Lykken, J.; Moortgat, F.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Monash U. /Annecy, LAPTH /Bonn U. /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Orsay, LPT /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona U. /Tata Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys. /Montpellier U. /CERN /SLAC /Edinburgh U. /Fermilab /Zurich, ETH /Southampton U.

    2007-11-08

    The Supersymmetry Les Houches Accord (SLHA) provides a universal set of conventions for conveying spectral and decay information for supersymmetry analysis problems in high energy physics. Here, we propose extensions of the conventions of the first SLHA to include various generalizations: the minimal supersymmetric standard model with violation of CP, R-parity, and flavor, as well as the simplest next-to-minimal model.

  4. Appendicite chronique chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, David; Butterworth, Sonia A.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Alors que le diagnostic d’appendicite aigu est relativement simple à poser, celui d’appendicite chronique peut être controversé et souvent mal posé. De quelle manière et à quel moment les cliniciens devraient-ils investiguer l’appendicite chronique comme la cause de douleurs abdominales chroniques et récidivantes dans la population pédiatrique? Réponse L’appendicite chronique est une inflammation ou fibrose de longue date de l’appendice dont le tableau clinique est une douleur abdominale prolongée ou intermittente. Son diagnostic est souvent difficile à poser et elle peut entraîner des complications telles que des infections intra-abdominales, ou l’occlusion ou la perforation de l’intestin. Le tableau clinique, de même que les études d’imagerie, peuvent aider le clinicien à écarter d’autres affections, et chez les patients qui reçoivent un diagnostic, dont de nombreux enfants, l’appendicectomie soulage partiellement ou complètement la douleur.

  5. Les torsions sur testicules cryptorchides

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Amri, Najmeddine; Chambeh, Wahib; Braiek, Salem; Kamel, Rafik El

    2010-01-01

    Résumé But : La cryptorchidie est une pathologie assez fréquente en urologie. Elle est associée à un risque élevé d’infertilité et de dégénérescence. Elle semble aussi être associée à un risque important de torsion. Cette entité est très peu abordée dans la littérature. Nous rapportons tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide observés à notre service dans le but de mieux caractériser cette pathologie et de réduire ainsi le taux d’orchidectomies. Méthodologie : Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide opérés dans notre service d’urologie entre 1999 et 2007. Les patients ont fait l’objet d’une description basée sur le résumé de leurs observations. Résultats : Les patients étaient âgés de 7 mois à 39 ans. La torsion touchait le testicule droit dans 53 % des cas. Le tableau clinique comportait une douleur au niveau de la région inguinale d’apparition soudaine avec une masse sous-cutanée inflammatoire et douloureuse à ce niveau et surtout un hémiscrotum homolatéral vide. Dans 60 % des cas, le diagnostic était tardif et une orchidectomie a été réalisée. Dans les autre cas, un abaissement du testicule a été réalisé avec orchidopexie controlatéral dans le même temps opératoire. Conclusion : Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une pathologie peu courante, la torsion sur testicule cryptorchide doit être étudiée davantage. Le diagnostic précoce permettra de sauver et d’abaisser le testicule et faciliter ainsi le dépistage d’une éventuelle dégénérescence. PMID:21191497

  6. Reservoir Modeling for Production Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.

    1989-03-21

    For both petroleum and geothermal resources, many of the reservoirs are fracture dominated--rather than matrix-permeability controlled. For such reservoirs, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent permeability of the interconnected system of natural joints (i.e., pre-existing fractures) is critical to the efficient exploitation of the resource through proper pressure management. Our experience and that reported by others indicates that a reduction in the reservoir pressure sometimes leads to an overall reduction in production rate due to the ''pinching off'' of the joint network, rather than the anticipated increase in production rate. This effect occurs not just in the vicinity of the wellbore, where proppants are sometimes employed, but throughout much of the reservoir region. This follows from the fact that under certain circumstances, the decline in fracture permeability (or conductivity) with decreasing reservoir pressure exceeds the far-field reservoir ''drainage'' flow rate increase due to the increased pressure gradient. Further, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent joint permeability could aid in designing more appropriate secondary recovery strategies in petroleum reservoirs or reinjection procedures for geothermal reservoirs.

  7. HEC Activities in Reservoir Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    June 1979. Now, HEC-5, "Simulation of Flood Con- trol and Conservation Systems," (9) is our primary reservoir simulation program. Since its June release...are being incorporated into the reservoir simulation model HEC-5. The objective is to provide a computer program and methodology for total water

  8. Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

  9. Stochastic thermodynamics with information reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2014-10-01

    We generalize stochastic thermodynamics to include information reservoirs. Such information reservoirs, which can be modeled as a sequence of bits, modify the second law. For example, work extraction from a system in contact with a single heat bath becomes possible if the system also interacts with an information reservoir. We obtain an inequality, and the corresponding fluctuation theorem, generalizing the standard entropy production of stochastic thermodynamics. From this inequality we can derive an information processing entropy production, which gives the second law in the presence of information reservoirs. We also develop a systematic linear response theory for information processing machines. For a unicyclic machine powered by an information reservoir, the efficiency at maximum power can deviate from the standard value of 1 /2 . For the case where energy is consumed to erase the tape, the efficiency at maximum erasure rate is found to be 1 /2 .

  10. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  11. Meandering stream reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.G.; Sangree, J.B.; Sneider, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Braided stream deposits, described in a previous article in this series, and meandering stream deposits commonly are excellent reservoirs. Meandering high-sinuousity channels are found on flat alluvial plains with slopes less than 1 1/2/sup 0/ (0.026 rad). These rivers have wide ranges of discharges from low-water flow to flood stage. Two main processes are responsible for development of sand bodies. These are point-bar deposits left by channel migration, and oxbow-lake deposits left in loops of the river course abandoned when the stream cuts a new course during flooding. Extremely high floods spill over the banks and deposit sheets of very fine sand, silt, and clay onto the flood plain.

  12. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  13. Collapsible sheath fluid reservoirs for flow cytometers

    DOEpatents

    Mark, Graham A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a container in the form of a single housing for holding fluid, including a first collapsible reservoir having a first valve. The first reservoir initially contains a volume of fluid. The container also includes a second reservoir, initially empty (or substantially empty), expandable to a second volume. The second reservoir has a second valve. As the volume of said first reservoir decreases, the volume of the second reservoir proportionally increases.

  14. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  15. Data requirements and acquisition for reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.; Chang, Ming Ming; Tham, Min.

    1993-03-01

    This report outlines the types of data, data sources and measurement tools required for effective reservoir characterization, the data required for specific enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and a discussion on the determination of the optimum data density for reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling. The two basic sources of data for reservoir characterization are data from the specific reservoir and data from analog reservoirs, outcrops, and modern environments. Reservoir data can be divided into three broad categories: (1) rock properties (the container) and (2) fluid properties (the contents) and (3)interaction between reservoir rock and fluid. Both static and dynamic measurements are required.

  16. Industrial Applications of LES in Mechanical Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013624 TITLE: Industrial Applications of LES in Mechanical Engineering DISTRIBUTION...compilation report: ADP013620 thru ADP013707 UNCLASSIFIED INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF LES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CHISACHI KATO Institute of Industrial...Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan MASAYUKI KAIHO, AKIRA MANABE Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory Hitachi LTD., Ibaraki, Japan Abstract

  17. Cascade Reservoirs Floodwater Resources Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A reasonable floodwater resources utilization method is put forward by dynamic controlling of cascade reservoirs flood control limited level in this paper. According to the probability distribution of the beginning time of the first flood and the ending time of the final flood from July to September, the Fuzzy Statistic Analysis was used to divide the main flood season. By fitting the flood season membership functions of each period, the cascade reservoirs flood control limited water level for each period were computed according to the characteristic data of reservoirs. In terms of the benefit maximization and risk minimum principle, the reasonable combination of flood control limited water level of cascade reservoirs was put forward.

  18. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-03

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  19. Reservoir evaporation in Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Ayala, Rolando A.

    2014-03-01

    The role of reservoir surface evaporation in river/reservoir water budgets and water management is explored using a modeling system that combines historical natural hydrology with current conditions of water resources development and management. The long-term mean evaporation from the 3415 reservoirs in the Texas water rights permit system is estimated to be 7.53 billion m3/year, which is equivalent to 61% of total agricultural or 126% of total municipal water use in the state during the year 2010. Evaporation varies with the hydrologic conditions governing reservoir surface areas and evaporation rates. Annual statewide total evaporation volumes associated with exceedance probabilities of 75%, 50%, and 25% are 7.07, 7.47, and 7.95 billion m3/year, respectively. Impacts of evaporation are greatest during extended severe droughts that govern water supply capabilities.

  20. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  1. Functional wettability in carbonate reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Patrick V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2016-10-11

    Oil adsorbs to carbonate reservoirs indirectly through a relatively thick separating water layer, and directly to the surface through a relatively thin intervening water layer. Whereas directly sorbed oil desorbs slowly and incompletely in response to changes in reservoir conditions, indirectly sorbed oil can be rapidly desorbed by changing the chemistry of the separating water layer. The additional recovery might be as much as 30% original oil in place (OOIP) above the ~30% OOIP recovered from carbonates through reservoir depressurization (primary production) and viscous displacement (waterflooding). Electrostatic adhesive forces are the dominant control over carbonate reservoir wettability. A surface complexationmore » model that quantifies electrostatic adhesion accurately predicts oil recovery trends for carbonates. Furthermore, the approach should therefore be useful for estimating initial wettability and designing fluids that improve oil recovery.« less

  2. Functional wettability in carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2016-10-11

    Oil adsorbs to carbonate reservoirs indirectly through a relatively thick separating water layer, and directly to the surface through a relatively thin intervening water layer. Whereas directly sorbed oil desorbs slowly and incompletely in response to changes in reservoir conditions, indirectly sorbed oil can be rapidly desorbed by changing the chemistry of the separating water layer. The additional recovery might be as much as 30% original oil in place (OOIP) above the ~30% OOIP recovered from carbonates through reservoir depressurization (primary production) and viscous displacement (waterflooding). Electrostatic adhesive forces are the dominant control over carbonate reservoir wettability. A surface complexation model that quantifies electrostatic adhesion accurately predicts oil recovery trends for carbonates. Furthermore, the approach should therefore be useful for estimating initial wettability and designing fluids that improve oil recovery.

  3. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  4. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  5. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  6. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  7. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoirs required. 393.50 Section 393.50... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.50 Reservoirs required. (a) Reservoir capacity for air-braked... trailers manufactured on or after January 1, 1975, must meet the reservoir requirements of FMVSS No....

  8. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  9. SMALL, GEOLOGICALLY COMPLEX RESERVOIRS CAN BENEFIT FROM RESERVOIR SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Bennett

    2002-06-24

    The Cascade Sand zone of the Mission-Visco Lease in the Cascade Oil field of Los Angeles County, California, has been under water flood since 1970. Increasing water injection to increase oil production rates was being considered as an opportunity to improve oil recovery. However, a secondary gas cap had formed in the up-dip portion of the reservoir with very low gas cap pressures, creating concern that oil could be displaced into the gas cap resulting in the loss of recoverable oil. Therefore, injecting gas into the gas cap to keep the gas cap pressurized and restrict the influx of oil during water injection was also being considered. Further, it was recognized that the reservoir geology in the gas cap area is very complex with numerous folding and faulting and thus there are potential pressure barriers in several locations throughout the reservoir. With these conditions in mind, there were concerns regarding well to well continuity in the gas cap, which could interfere with the intended repressurization impact. Concerns about the pattern of gas flow from well to well, the possibilities of cycling gas without the desired increased pressure, and the possible loss of oil displaced into the gas cap resulted in the decision to conduct a gas tracer survey in an attempt to better define inter-well communication. Following the gas tracer survey, a reservoir model would be developed to integrate the findings of the gas tracer survey, known geologic and reservoir data, and historic production data. The reservoir model would be used to better define the reservoir characteristics and provide information that could help optimize the waterflood-gas injection project under consideration for efficient water and gas injection management to increase oil production. However, due to inadequate gas sampling procedures in the field and insufficiently developed laboratory analytical techniques, the laboratory was unable to detect the tracer in the gas samples taken. At that point, focus

  10. Anisotropic grid adaptation in LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toosi, Siavash; Larsson, Johan

    2016-11-01

    The modeling errors depend directly on the grid (or filter) spacing in turbulence-resolving simulations (LES, DNS, DES, etc), and are typically at least as significant as the numerical errors. This makes adaptive grid-refinement complicated, since it prevents the estimation of the local error sources through numerical analysis. The present work attempts to address this difficulty with a physics-based error-source indicator that accounts for the anisotropy in the smallest resolved scales, which can thus be used to drive an anisotropic grid-adaptation process. The proposed error indicator is assessed on a sequence of problems, including turbulent channel flow and flows in more complex geometries. The formulation is geometrically general and applicable to complex geometries.

  11. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  12. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  13. Regard sur les lazarets en terre canadienne

    PubMed Central

    Milot, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Puisant dans les nombreuses références qu’offrent les publications médicales canadiennes du milieu du XIXe siècle à nos jours, l’auteur fait découvrir l’existence de lazarets en terre canadienne, décrit l’impact de la maladie sur les conditions vie des lépreux qui y étaient confinés et en souligne les contrecoups tant sur le plan physique et psychologique que social. Il présente un bref aperçu de la maladie, ses symptômes, ses signes ainsi que ses complications oculaires et rappelle les premiers moyens thérapeutiques à base d’huile de chaulmoogra introduits dans la colonie de Tracadie vers 1901. Il illustre son propos en évoquant la vie dans les lazarets de l’île de Sheldrake (1844–1848) et de Tracadie (1848–1965) au Nouveau-Brunswick, puis dans ceux des îles D’Arcy (1891–1924) et de Bentinck (1924–1957) en Colombie-Britannique. PMID:19352451

  14. The Ogden Valley artesian reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1945-01-01

    Ogden Valley, in Weber County, Utah, contains an artesian reservoir from which the city of Ogden obtains all except a small part of its municipal water supply. A detailed investigation of the ground-water resources of Ogden Valley, and particularly of this artesian reservoir, was made by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with the city of Ogden between 1932 and 1934, and the results of this investigation have been reported by Leggette and Taylor.1 The present paper, which might be termed a sequel to that report, is based on data collected during those years, augmented by records that have been obtained (1935-1940) by the Geological Survey as part of a State-wide project in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer. The conclusions drawn from the study of these records and presented in detail in the following pages are as follows: (1) The artesian reservoir is filled to capacity nearly every year during the spring run-off from melting snow; (2) after the annual freshet, the recharge to the reservoir is insufficient to balance the discharge from artesian wells, which ordinarily is at a maximum during the summer; the reservoir is depleted and is not filled again until the following spring; (3) during the periods when the artesian reservoir is not full the rate of recharge is more or less proportional to the inflow to the valley by streams, except that rain on the recharge area may be of sufficient intensity to contribute some water by infiltration and deep penetration; and (4) the artesian reservoir thus serves to store water that would otherwise be lost to Great Salt Lake in the excess spring overflow, and available records indicate that water used by increased draft from wells would be replenished in normal years by increased recharge during the spring freshet.

  15. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  16. Application of Integrated Reservoir management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame

    1997-08-31

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  17. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-12

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  18. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  19. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  20. LES versus DNS: A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtilman, L.; Chasnov, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced isotropic turbulence at moderate Reynolds numbers. The subgrid scale model used in the LES is based on an eddy viscosity which adjusts instantaneously the energy spectrum of the LES to that of the DNS. The statistics of the large scales of the DNS (filtered DNS field or fDNS) are compared to that of the LES. We present results for the transfer spectra, the skewness and flatness factors of the velocity components, the PDF's of the angle between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the rate of strain, and that between the vorticity and the vorticity stretching tensor. The above LES statistics are found to be in good agreement with those measured in the fDNS field. We further observe that in all the numerical measurements, the trend was for the LES field to be more gaussian than the fDNS field. Future research on this point is planned.

  1. Les Elements Legers: Diffusion dans les Enveloppes Stellaires et Implications Cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Jacques

    1992-01-01

    Les observations des abondances des elements legers (Z <= 5) sont utilisees pour estimer la quantitie de lithium qui a ete produite lors du Big -Bang, et obtenir simultanement des contraintes sur la nature des inhomogeneites qui ont pu exister durant la nucleosynthese primordiale. Nous utilisons un modele simple capable de simuler approximativement la diffusion et la retro-diffusion des neutrons a travers la matiere inhomogene durant les premieres minutes de l'expansion de l'Univers. Nous tenons compte de la difference possible entre l'abondance primordiale de Li et les abondances observees dans les plus vieilles etoiles. Cette difference (un facteur 2, environ) est estimee en construisant des modeles evolutifs d'etoiles peu massives de Population II, incluant la sedimentation gravitationnelle du lithium et de l'helium. Ces modeles montrent egalement que les ages des vieux amas stellaires sont grandement surestimes lorsqu'ils sont determines a partir de modeles stellaires n'incluant pas l'effet de la diffusion de He. Nous calculons ensuite comment evoluent les abondances de Li et Be dans des etoiles plus massives et plus jeunes, de la pre-sequence principale ou de la ZAMS, jusqu'a l'epuisement de leur hydrogene central. Les modeles incluent la sedimentation simultanee de l'helium a travers l'enveloppe. Une approche hierarchique (evolution du coeur--evolution de l'enveloppe --tri des elements traces) est utilisee pour simuler efficacement le grand nombre d'etoiles necessaire pour la construction d'isochrones. Une attention particuliere est portee aux consequences de la sedimentation de He sur l'etendue des zones convectives, et sur la diffusion de Li et Be. Les forces radiatives agissant sur ces deux elements sont calculees en detail a partir des donnees atomiques. Les etoiles simulees correspondent approximativement aux types spectraux A, F, et AmFm. Les abondances de Li et Be observees dans les etoiles jeunes de ces types sont comparees a nos predictions dans le

  2. Quantification of geologic descriptions for reservoir characterization in carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.; Vander Stoep, G.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Recognition that a large volume of oil remains in carbonate reservoirs at the end of primary depletion and waterflooding has prompted the reevaluation of the reserve-growth potential of many existing carbonate reservoirs. Types of numerical data required include porosity, absolute permeability, relative permeability, fluid saturation, and capillary pressure, all of which are related to the size and distribution of pore space. Rock fabrics control the size and distribution of pore space and define facies that best characterize carbonate reservoirs. Thus, the link between facies descriptions and numerical engineering data is the relationship between pore-size distribution and present carbonate rock fabric. The most effective way to convert facies descriptions into engineering parameters is by considering three basic rock-fabric categories. The first category is interparticle pore space (both intergranular and intercrystalline pore types) with pore-size distribution controlled primarily by the size and shape of grains or crystals. Grain or crystal size is the key geologic measurement and, along with porosity, provides the basis for converting geologic descriptions into values for permeability, saturation, and capillarity. The second category is separate-vug pore space, such as moldic or intraparticle pore space. Separate-vug pore space adds porosity but little permeability to the reservoir rock. The contribution to saturation and capillarity depends upon the size of the separate-vug pore space. For example, moldic separate vugs will be saturated with oil, whereas microporous grains will be saturated with water. The third category is touching-vug pore space, which is vuggy pore space that is interconnected on a reservoir scale. The engineering parameters for this category are related to three diagenetic and tectonic factors.

  3. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  4. Prevention of Reservoir Interior Discoloration

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.F.

    2001-04-03

    Contamination is anathema in reservoir production. Some of the contamination is a result of welding and some appears after welding but existed before. Oxygen was documented to be a major contributor to discoloration in welding. This study demonstrates that it can be controlled and that some of the informal cleaning processes contribute to contamination.

  5. ERTS-1 study of reservoirs in Kansas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Coiner, J. C.; Mccauley, J. R.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Single pass coverage over Cedar Bluff, Webster, Tuttle Creek, Milford, and Council Groves reservoirs is analyzed. The long-range goal of the study is to test the feasibility of monitoring reservoirs by satellite. It is hoped that results may eventually help to optimize reservoir management for use in flood control, agriculture, urban areas, and recreation. ERTS-1 imagery promises to be a very useful tool for studying reservoir turbidity patterns. Initial coverage indicates a strong qualitative correlation between film density and turbidity.

  6. Reservoir System Analysis for Water Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    reservoirs on flows and damages in the system. The program should also be useful In selecting the 2 PHASE Z- 1979 SINGLE RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER...TEMPERATURE PHASE H- 1980 TWO RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE AND SEVEN CONSTITUENTS 1981 FIELD TESTING AND MINOR MODIFICATIONS PHASE M- 1982...TEN RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE AND . TAB SEVEN CONSTITUENTS 1P.IX Ot1Oun4 ___ ___ __ __ ___ __ ___ __ ___ _ .zt ltl@a’tlo@ . 113

  7. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B. E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com; Susilowati E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  8. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  9. Reservoir System Regulation for Water Quality Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Davis, California 95616. [PHASE I!- 1979 SINGLE RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE PHASE 31- 1980 TWO RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE...AND SEVEN CONSTITUENTS 1981 FIELD TESTING AND MINOR MODIFICATIONS ’IFI PHASE 3nm- 1982 TEN RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE AND SEVEN

  10. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  11. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  12. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  13. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  14. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  15. Ekofisk reservoir voidage and seabed subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Field data describing the time lag between Ekofisk subsidence and reservoir voidage are given. A method to discriminate between real subsidence variations and random-data errors and a procedure to derive a contemporary relationship between reservoir voidage and seabed subsidence are presented. At Ekofisk, most subsidence lags reservoir voidage by 2 to 3 months.

  16. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  17. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  18. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  19. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  20. Prise en charge de l’infection gonococcique chez les adultes et les jeunes

    PubMed Central

    Pogany, Lisa; Romanowski, Barbara; Robinson, Joan; Gale-Rowe, Margaret; Latham-Carmanico, Cathy; Weir, Christine; Wong, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter des recommandations sur la prise en charge de l’infection gonococcique chez les adultes et les jeunes. Qualité des données Les recommandations thérapeutiques des lignes directrices canadiennes sur les infections transmissibles sexuellement reposent sur une recherche documentaire de même que sur des catégories de recommandations et des niveaux de qualité de données déterminés par au moins 2 évaluateurs. Les recommandations ont été revues par des pairs et sont en instance d’approbation par le groupe de travail d’experts. Message principal Les nouvelles recommandations portant sur la prise en charge de l’infection gonococcique chez les adultes et les jeunes préconisent les cultures à titre d’outil diagnostique lorsqu’elles sont pratiques, le traitement par antibiothérapie combinée (ceftriaxone associée à l’azithromycine) et le signalement sans délai de tous les cas dont le traitement a échoué aux autorités de santé publique. Conclusion Si elles sont suivies, ces nouvelles recommandations pourraient réduire l’échec thérapeutique, contribuer à une surveillance plus étroite des tendances à la résistance de Neisseria gonorrhoeae aux antibiotiques et contribuer à prévenir la transmission de gonorrhée résistante à plusieurs médicaments.

  1. Different pressure grids for reservoir simulation in heterogeneous reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Guerillot, D.R.; Verdiere, S.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum reservoirs are made of highly heterogeneous rocks. These reservoirs could be described by geostatistical models composed of millions of cells. Currently, fluid flow simulations performed within these media need upscaling (or averaging) techniques. Hence, their results are given by averaging on cells which are much larger than the geological model cells. To overcome this problem, the Dual Mesh Method is proposed here, whose purpose is to solve the pressure equation on a low resolution grid, and then to interpolate pressure over the fine mesh by taking into account small scale heterogeneities of the mediums. The aim of this paper is the interpolation step; its implementation is presented and illustrated in a five-spot pattern for three different rock characteristics.

  2. Aborder les soins préventifs chez les aînés

    PubMed Central

    Tazkarji, Bachir; Lam, Robert; Lee, Shawn; Meiyappan, Soumia

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Guider les médecins de famille dans l’élaboration de plans de dépistage et de traitements préventifs à l’intention de leurs patients âgés. Sources de l’information Une recension a été effectuée dans la base de données MEDLINE pour trouver des lignes directrices canadiennes sur les soins de santé primaires et les personnes âgées; des lignes directrices, des méta-analyses, des guides de pratique clinique ou des révisions systématiques portant sur le dépistage de masse chez les 80 ans et plus et les aînés fragiles, se limitant à ceux publiés entre 2006 et juillet 2016; et des articles sur les services de santé préventifs à l’intention des aînés et présentant un intérêt pour la pratique familiale ou les médecins de famille, limités à ceux publiés en anglais entre 2012 et juillet 2016. Message principal L’estimation de l’espérance de vie n’est pas une science facile ou précise, mais la fragilité est un concept émergent susceptible d’être utile à cet égard. Le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs propose des lignes directrices sur le dépistage du cancer, mais elles sont moins précises en ce qui concerne les patients de plus de 74 ans et il faut donc individualiser les plans de prise en charge. L’estimation des années de vie qui restent aide à orienter vos recommandations concernant les plans de dépistage et de traitements préventifs. Les risques augmentent souvent proportionnellement avec la fragilité et la comorbidité. D’autre part, les bienfaits diminuent souvent à mesure que l’espérance de vie raccourcit. Les plans de prise en charge préventive devraient tenir compte des points de vue du patient et être convenus d’un commun accord. Un moyen mnémonique pour se rappeler des principaux domaines de prévention en soins primaires – CCMF, abréviation pour cancer, cardiovasculaire, mauvais équilibre, chute et ostéoporose, fiche de vaccinations pr

  3. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  4. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  5. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  6. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  7. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  8. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  9. Reservoir microseismicity at the Ekofisk Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Albright, J.N.; Boade, R.R.; Dangerfield, J.; Landa, G.H.

    1994-07-01

    A triaxial, downhole geophone was deployed within the Ekofisk oil reservoir for monitoring ambient microseismicity as a test to determine if microearthquake signals generated from discrete shear failure of the reservoir rock could be detected. The results of the test were positive. During 104 hours of monitoring, 572 discrete events were recorded which have been identified as shear-failure microearthquakes. Reservoir microseismicity was detected at large distances (1000 m) from the monitor borehole and at rates (> 5 events per hour) which may allow practical characterization of the reservoir rock and overburden deformation induced by reservoir pressure changes.

  10. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, M.L.; Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P.

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  11. Trophic status evaluation of TVA reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Placke, J.F.

    1983-10-01

    TVA tributary and mainstem reservoirs show generalized differences in morphometry, hydraulics, nutrient loads, and response to nutrient concentrations. Neither type of reservoir is strictly comparable to the natural lakes on which classical eutrophication studies have been based. The majority of published trophic state indices and standards (e.g., hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen depletion, Secchi depth, areas nutrient loading rates, in-reservoir phosphorus concentrations) are inappropriate for evaluation of some or all TVA reservoirs. No single trophic potential or trophic response variable summarizes the mechanisms and manifestations of eutrophication sufficiently to be used as a sole criterion for judging or regulating TVA reservoir water quality. Relative multivariate trophic state indices were developed for mainstem and tributary reservoirs. Ranking of the mainstem reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, macrophyte coverage, hydraulic retention time, reservoir area less than five feet deep, annual pool elevation drawdown, and Secchi depth. Based on available data, the rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Pickwick, Kentucky, Chickamauga, Nickajack, Wilson, Fort Loudoun, Watts Bar, Wheeler, and Guntersville Reservoirs. Ranking of the tributary reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, total phosphorus and total nitrogen weighted by the N:P ratio, and bio-available inorganic carbon levels. The rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Hiwassee, Blue Ridge, Chatuge, Norris and Fontana, Watauga, South Holston, Tims Ford, Cherokee, Douglas, and Boone Reservoirs. 130 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  12. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Geostatistics applied to gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, G.; Coulomb, C.; Laille, J.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The spatial distribution of many of the physical parameters connected with a gas reservoir is of primary interest to both engineers and geologists throughout the study, development, and operation of a field. It is therefore desirable for the distribution to be capable of statistical interpretation, to have a simple graphical representation, and to allow data to be entered from either two- or three-dimensional grids. To satisfy these needs while dealing with the geographical variables, new methods have been developed under the name geostatistics. This paper describes briefly the theory of geostatistics and its most recent improvements for the specific problem of subsurface description. The external-drift technique has been emphasized in particular, and in addition, four case studies related to gas reservoirs are presented.

  14. Les modèles de calcul de dose en radiothérapie clinique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenwald, J. C.

    1998-04-01

    In radiation therapy, it is important to know precisely the dose distribution in the target volume and in the critical organs. To be clinically applicable, the dose calculation models must account for the actual characteristics of the beams and for the tissue densities. An accuracy of 2% in low dose gradient regions and 2mm in high dose gradient is expected, while keeping the computation time consistent with an interactive approach. We describe and discuss briefly the dose calculation models currently used. En radiothérapie, il est indispensable d'avoir une connaissance précise de la dose délivrée dans le volume cible et dans les organes critiques avoisinants. Pour être utilisables cliniquement, les modèles de calcul doivent tenir compte des caractéristiques exactes des faisceaux utilisés et des densités des tissus. Une précision de l'ordre de 2% dans les régions à faible gradient de dose, et de 2mm dans les régions à fort gradient est nécessaire tout en conservant un temps de calcul compatible avec une approche interactive. Les modèles de calcul utilisés sont ici succintement décrits et commentés.

  15. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  16. Merging RANS & LES approaches in submesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fock, B. H.; Schluenzen, K. H.

    2010-09-01

    Merging LES and RANS simulation is important for extending the application range of mesoscale models to the sub-mesoscale. Hence many traditional mesoscale modeling groups are currently working on adding LES capabilities to their models. To investigate the differences, which occur by switching from RANS to LES approaches, simulations with the METRAS and METRAS-LES (Fock, 2007) are presented. These differences are investigated in terms of effects caused by the choice of the computational grid and the sub-grid scale closures. Simulations of convective boundary layers on two different grids are compared to investigate the influence of vertical grid spacing and extension. One simulation is carried out on a high-resolution vertical homogeneous grid and the other with a vertical stretched grid, which has coarser resolution in higher altitudes. The stretched grid is vertical defined, as it would be done in the standard setup for the mesoscale model. Hence, this investigation shows to what amount the eddy resolving capabilities of a LES model is effected by the transition of the grid to a grid, which is vertically the same as typically used in mesoscale modeling. The differences, which occur by using different approaches for subgrid scale turbulence, are quantified and compared with the effects caused by the computational grid. Additional some details of the used LES SGS closure (Deardorff, 1980) are investigated. These details deal on evaluating the importance of the reduced characteristic filter length scale for stable stratification. But the main focus is on comparing RANS and LES and discussion of combination in a mixed turbulence scheme, which applies a the LES closure in the atmospheric boundary layer and a RANS based turbulence model in the stable atmosphere above. References: Deardorff J. W. (1980): Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three-dimensional model. Boundary-Layer Meteorology. 18. (4). 495-527. DOI:10.1007/BF00119502 Fock B. H. (2007): METRAS

  17. Modern Reservoir Sedimentation Management Techniques with Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annandale, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of reservoir sedimentation management approaches results in a win-win scenario, it assists in enhancing the environment by preserving river function downstream of dams while concurrently providing opportunities to sustainably manage water resource infrastructure. This paper summarizes the most often used reservoir sedimentation management techniques with examples of where they have been implemented. Three categories can be used to classify these technologies, i.e. catchment management, sediment routing and sediment removal. The objective of catchment management techniques is to minimize the amount of sediment that may discharge into a reservoir, thereby reducing the loss of storage space due to sedimentation. Reservoir routing is a set of techniques that aim at minimizing the amount of sediment that may deposit in a reservoir, thereby maximizing the amount of sediment that may be passed downstream. The third group consists of techniques that may be used to remove previously deposited sediment from reservoirs. The selection of reservoir sedimentation management approaches is site specific and depends on various factors, including dam height, reservoir volume, reservoir length, valley shape, valley slope, sediment type and hydrology. Description of the different reservoir sedimentation management techniques that are used in practice will be accompanied by case studies, including video, illustrating criteria that may be used to determine the potential success of implementing the techniques.

  18. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  19. Longitudinal gradients along a reservoir cascade

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Habrat, M.D.; Miyazono, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoirs have traditionally been regarded as spatially independent entities rather than as longitudinal segments of a river system that are connected upstream and downstream to the river and other reservoirs. This view has frustrated advancement in reservoir science by impeding adequate organization of available information and by hindering interchanges with allied disciplines that often consider impounded rivers at the basin scale. We analyzed reservoir morphology, water quality, and fish assemblage data collected in 24 reservoirs of the Tennessee River; we wanted to describe longitudinal changes occurring at the scale of the entire reservoir series (i.e., cascade) and to test the hypothesis that fish communities and environmental factors display predictable gradients like those recognized for unimpounded rivers. We used a data set collected over a 7-year period; over 3 million fish representing 94 species were included in the data set. Characteristics such as reservoir mean depth, relative size of the limnetic zone, water retention time, oxygen stratification, thermal stratification, substrate size, and water level fluctuations increased in upstream reservoirs. Conversely, reservoir area, extent of riverine and littoral zones, access to floodplains and associated wetlands, habitat diversity, and nutrient and sediment inputs increased in downstream reservoirs. Upstream reservoirs included few, largely lacustrine, ubiquitous fish taxa that were characteristic of the lentic upper reaches of the basin. Fish species richness increased in a downstream direction from 12 to 67 species/ reservoir as riverine species became more common. Considering impoundments at a basin scale by viewing them as sections in a river or links in a chain may generate insight that is not always available when the impoundments are viewed as isolated entities. Basin-scale variables are rarely controllable but constrain the expression of processes at smaller scales and can facilitate the

  20. Uncertainty analysis for water supply reservoir yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuria, Faith; Vogel, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the variability of water supply reservoir yields is central for planning purposes. The basis of this study is an empirical global relationship between reservoir storage capacity, water supply yield and reliability based on a global database of 729 rivers. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the coefficient of variation of estimates of water supply reservoir yields depend only on the length of streamflows record and the coefficient of variation of the streamflows used to estimate the yield. We compare the results of those Monte Carlo experiments with an analytical uncertainty method First Order Variance Approximation (FOVA). FOVA is shown to produce a general, accurate and useful expression for estimating the coefficient of variation of water supply reservoir yield estimates. We also document how the FOVA analytical model can be used to determine the minimum length of streamflow record required during the design of water supply reservoirs so as to ensure that the yield delivered from reservoir falls within a prespecified margin of error.

  1. Skimming' a reservoir for trash

    SciTech Connect

    Shenman, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Several hydropower facilities are using a new technology for removing floating trash in reservoirs. Representatives from the facilities say the boat, called a trashskimmer, is efficient, easy to maneuver, and transportable. Designed by United Marine International, Inc., the pontoon boat features an operators cab that straddles an open hull between the skis of the pontoon, and uses dual propellers to maneuver through the water. The Marineskimmer allows the operator to approach the trash from the water side upstream of the plant. The Tennessee Valley Authority has used the boat since 1990.

  2. A virtual company concept for reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes how reservoir management problems were pursued with a virtual company concept via the Internet and World Wide Web. The focus of the paper is on the implementation of virtual asset management teams that were assembled with small independent oil companies. The paper highlights the mechanics of how the virtual team transferred data and interpretations, evaluated geological models of complex reservoirs, and used results of simulation studies to analyze various reservoir management strategies.

  3. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  4. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  5. Flow Characterization in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alajmi, A.; Gharbi, R.

    2008-12-01

    Most hydrocarbon reservoirs are fractured in nature with various degrees of fracture intensities. With the current oil prices and growing demand for oil, a great interest is built in the petroleum industry to characterize partially fractured reservoirs and to develop an increased understanding of the physics of fluid flow in these types of reservoirs. This is due to the fact that fractured reservoirs have different performance behavior and high potential for oil recovery than conventional reservoirs. Therefore, prediction and understanding of fluid displacement in these reservoirs is very much critical in the decision on the applicability of oil recovery methods. Using a finite difference numerical simulator, this study investigated the effect of reservoir fracture intensities on the displacement behavior. Several heterogeneous permeable media, each with different probability of fracture intensity, were generated stochastically. The fracture intensity covers reservoirs with no fracture (zero fracture intensity) to fully fractured reservoirs (fracture intensity of 1). In order to better describe and model fractured reservoirs, a dual porosity-dual permeability model was built. Extensive simulations of water displacing oil were then performed in each of the generated fractured models for different well configurations. The objective was to determine the functional relationships between the displacement performance, fracture intensities, and well configurations. The study has resulted in significant new insights into the flow characterization in naturally fractured reservoirs. Results show that the reservoir fracture intensity has considerable effects on the efficiency of fluid displacement in naturally fractured reservoirs. A critical value of reservoir fracture intensity appears to sort favorable from unfavorable displacement, causing the displacement to be either fracture-dominated or matrix-dominated. The conditions under which fluid displacement may yield better

  6. Les avantages et les risques d’exiger que les chercheurs partagent leurs données

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Vivian C.; Harvey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Le Comité international des rédacteurs de revues médicales a rendu possibles de nombreuses avancées dans la communication des résultats de recherche médicale qui ont amélioré la qualité de la recherche. Sa proposition de demander aux chercheurs une déclaration sur l’accessibilité de données sousjacentes à partager pourrait faire grandement progresser les connaissances médicales. Le Journal canadien de chirurgie appuie l’initiative et élaborera des mécanismes visant à aider les auteurs à respecter cette nouvelle exigence. PMID:28234611

  7. Military Communications with Special Focus on Tactical Communications for Network Centric Operations (Les communications militaires, et plus particulierement les communications tactiques pour les operations reseaux-centrees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    six groupes apparentés : Radio logicielle (SDR), Gestion de réseaux et de ressources , Performances, Communications urbaines, Sécurité, et Futurs...MP-IST-083 Military Communications with Special Focus on Tactical Communications for Network Centric Operations (Les communications militaires...et plus particulièrement les communications tactiques pour les opérations réseaux-centrées) Papers presented at the RTO Information Systems

  8. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  9. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  10. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  11. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  12. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  13. Le point sur les amas de galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, M.

    Clusters of galaxies: a review After having briefly described the 3 main components of clusters of galaxies (dark matter, gas and galaxies) we shall present clusters from a theoretical viewpoint: they are the largest entities known in the universe. Consequently, clusters of galaxies play a key role in any cosmological study and thus, are essential for our global understanding of the universe. In the general introduction, we shall outline this fundamental aspect, showing how the study of clusters can help to constrain the various cosmological scenarios. Once this cosmological framework is set, the next chapters will present a detailed analysis of cluster properties and of their cosmic evolution as observed in different wavebands mainly in the optical (galaxies), X-ray (gas) and radio (gas and particles) ranges. We shall see that the detailed study of a cluster is conditioned by the study of the interactions between its different components; this is the necessary step to ultimately derive the fundamental quantity which is the cluster mass. This will be the occasion to undertake an excursion into extremely varied physical processes such as the multi-phase nature of the intra-cluster medium, lensing phenomena, starbursts and morphology evolution in cluster galaxies or the interaction between the intra-cluster plasma and relativistic particles which are accelerated during cluster merging. For each waveband, we shall outline simply the dedicated observing and analysis techniques, which are of special interest in the case of space observations. Finally, we present several ambitious projects for the next observatory generation as well as their expected impact on the study of clusters of galaxies. Après avoir brièvement décrit les 3 constituants fondamentaux des amas de galaxies (matière noire, gaz et galaxies) nous présenterons les amas d'un point de vue plus théorique : ce sont les entités les plus massives à l'équilibre connues dans l'univers. Les amas de

  14. Photonic Metamaterials for Defence and Security Applications (Les meta-materiaux photoniques pour les applications de defense et de securite)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    exceptionnelles qui ne sont pas facilement observables dans les matériaux naturels . La plupart des recherches sur les méta-matériaux ont été consacrées à...matériaux naturels ) est une des principales raisons qui a poussé les chercheurs à approfondir leurs études sur les méta-matériaux. Avec un index...rapports signal/bruit plus importants, une vitesse plus élevée, une taille réduite, et une gamme plus large pour les systèmes de capteurs optiques

  15. Insensitive Munitions (Les Munitions a Risque Attenue)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    rencontrees. eat largement utilisee pour caracteriser la vulnerabilite des nouveaux explosifa dana des est naturellement 1lincendie. susceptible d𔄀tre...seconde) permettent de vi- tes, tlu thrie en la pos~se globale (par capteurs de sualiser des instants caractdfistiques de- l’incendie. La du- force...34volume dmettetiur" concernent Ia pression (par capteur ), Ia tempdraturc (par thermocouple), la vi- pour les calculs d’impact de jets; (tempdrature

  16. Radiolocation Techniques (Les Techniques de Radiolocalisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    importants sont occasionnds par Ia rifraction atmosphdnque. Sur route la bande de fr~quences radio. Ic bruit, aussi bien naturel qu’artificieljoue souvent...rdscau, techniques multi- capteurs ; aspects brouillage. - Uimpact de la propagation sur la gomornidmie et la tdlddetection: Les grandesi ondes, HF, VHF...par 36 Capteur At Analyse Sliquentielle en Balayage Rapide par D.Josset Radio Location through High Resolution Eigenstructure Processing Techniques 37

  17. Les Troubles Respiratoires Chez Le Brule

    PubMed Central

    Fassi Fihri, J.; Ezzoubi, M.; Boukind, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A travers une revue de la littérature, cet article se propose d'exposer les particularités des troubles respiratoires chez le brûlé. Ces troubles sont liés à un mécanisme direct, lorsque l'arbre respiratoire est lésé par le transfert d'énergie thermique du à la brûlure et/ou par un mécanisme indirect, lorsque la fonction respiratoire et ventilatoire du poumon est perturbée par les phénomènes loco-régionaux ou généraux du brûlé. Ces troubles respiratoires sont aggravés par l'inhalation des gaz contenus dans la fumée d'incendie. Le diagnostic de ces troubles est clinique et paraclinique. Il doit être précoce et continu. Les patients nécessitent de différents moyens thérapeutiques tels que l'oxygénothérapie, la libération des voies respiratoires, l'amélioration de la mécanique ventilatoire et de la fonction respiratoire, l'antibiothérapie ou la chirurgie des séquelles. Cette prise en charge doit nécessairement être multidisciplinaire. PMID:21991224

  18. Temperature and oxygen in Missouri reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John R.; Knowlton, Matthew F.; Obrecht, Daniel V.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical profiles of water temperature (n = 7193) and dissolved oxygen (n = 6516) were collected from 235 Missouri reservoirs during 1989–2007; most data were collected during May–August and provide a regional summary of summer conditions. Collectively, surface water temperature ranged from a mean of ~22 C in May to 28 C in July, and individual summer maxima typically were 28–32 C. Most (~95%) reservoirs stably stratify by mid-May, but few are deep enough to have hypolimnia with near-uniform temperatures. Among stratified reservoirs, maximum effective length and maximum depth accounted for 75% of the variation in mixed depth and thermocline depth. Ephemeral, near-surface thermoclines occurred in 39% of summer profiles and were most frequent in small, turbid reservoirs. Isotherms below the mixed layer deepen during stratification, and the water column is >20 C by August in all but the deepest reservoirs. Most reservoirs showed incipient dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion by mid-May, and by August, 80% of profiles had DO minima of 50% of variation in DO below the mixed layer during summer. Warm summer temperatures and widespread low DO often limit available fish habitat in Missouri reservoirs and compress warm-water fish communities into subsurface layers that exceed their thermal preferences. This study provides a regional baseline of reservoir temperature and oxygen conditions useful for future evaluations of eutrophication and the effects of a warming climate.

  19. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  20. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-01-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii. PMID:25988670

  2. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs.

  3. Mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M V

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. Many developed nations have long-standing programmes to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. As disease prevalence in cattle decreases these efforts are sometimes impeded by passage of M. bovis from wildlife to cattle. In epidemiological terms, disease can persist in some wildlife species, creating disease reservoirs, if the basic reproduction rate (R0) and critical community size (CCS) thresholds are achieved. Recognized wildlife reservoir hosts of M. bovis include the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, European badger (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa, wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Iberian Peninsula and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA. The epidemiological concepts of R0 and CCS are related to more tangible disease/pathogen characteristics such as prevalence, pathogen-induced pathology, host behaviour and ecology. An understanding of both epidemiological and disease/pathogen characteristics is necessary to identify wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis. In some cases, there is a single wildlife reservoir host involved in transmission of M. bovis to cattle. Complexity increases, however, in multihost systems where multiple potential reservoir hosts exist. Bovine tuberculosis eradication efforts require elimination of M. bovis transmission between wildlife reservoirs and cattle. For successful eradication identification of true wildlife reservoirs is critical, as disease control efforts are most effective when directed towards true reservoirs.

  4. Prestack seismic inversion and reservoir property prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xingang

    In this dissertation, I have applied the method of prestack seismic inversion with uncertainty analysis. Also, I have developed the methods of the rock physics template analysis, the fluid modulus inversion and the reservoir property inversion from AVO attributes with and without constraint to improve the technique of reservoir characterization. I use the prestack seismic inversion to invert the elastic properties and use the statistical method to derive the posterior probability of the inverted elastic properties for the uncertainty analysis. I use the rock physics template drawn in the cross-plot of the inverted elastic properties to analyze the lithology and fluid property in the target reservoir. I develop the fluid modulus inversion method based on the simplified Gassmann's equation and the empirical rock physics relationship. Using the inverted fluid modulus, I estimate the gas saturation of the target reservoir before drilling. The reservoir property inversion is to predict the porosity, shale volume and water saturation of the reservoir from AVO attributes to enhance the reservoir interpretation and characterization. I apply this method with the statistical analysis together to execute the uncertainty analysis for the inversion results. Two methods of reservoir property inversion from AVO attributes are attempted in this dissertation: one is performed without constraint and the other is performed with the constrained relationship of the porosity and shale volume.

  5. Carbon content of sediments of small reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Carbon content was measured in sediments deposited in 58 small reservoirs across the US. Reservoirs varied from 0.2 to 4,000 km{sup 2} in surface area. The carbon content of sediment ranged from 0.3 to 5.6 percent, with a mean of 1.9 {plus minus} 1.1 percent. No significant differences between the soil and sediment carbon content were found using a paired t-test or ANOVA. The carbon content of sediments in reservoirs was similar to the carbon content of surface soils in the watershed, except in watersheds with shrub or steppe (desert) vegetation. Based on the sediment accumulation rates measured in each reservoir, the calculated organic carbon accumulation rates among reservoirs ranged from 26 to 3,700 gC m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}, with a mean of 675 {plus minus} 739 gC m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}. The carbon content and accumulation rates were highest in sediments from grassland watersheds. High variability was found in carbon content, carbon accumulation, and sediment accumulation rates due to individual watershed and reservoir characteristics rather than to any broad physiographic patterns. The carbon accumulation rates in these reservoir sediments indicate that reservoir sediments could be a significant sink of organic carbon.

  6. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  7. Climate variations, soil conservation and reservoir sedimentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integrated effects of soil conservation and a wetter climate on reservoir sedimentation were investigated for the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in west-central Oklahoma. A 12% wetter climate since the mid-1980s led to an increase in soil erosion and downstream sediment yield that offset the redu...

  8. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  9. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, A.; Kumar, M.; Knapp, R.B.

    2000-05-01

    The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations.

  10. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2003-02-11

    This research was directed toward developing a systematic reservoir characterization methodology which can be used by the petroleum industry to implement infill drilling programs and/or enhanced oil recovery projects in naturally fractured reservoir systems in an environmentally safe and cost effective manner. It was anticipated that the results of this research program will provide geoscientists and engineers with a systematic procedure for properly characterizing a fractured reservoir system and a reservoir/horizontal wellbore simulator model which can be used to select well locations and an effective EOR process to optimize the recovery of the oil and gas reserves from such complex reservoir systems.

  11. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this cooperative research project is to characterize Alaskan petroleum reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration in relation to lithofacies and structure, and development potential. The project has two tasks: Task 1 is a geological description of the reservoirs including petrophysical properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, permeability variation, formation depth, temperature, and net pay, facies changes and reservoir structures as drawn from cores, well logs, and other geological data. Task 2 is reservoir fluid characterization-determination of physical properties of reservoir fluids including density, viscosity, phase distributions and composition as well as petrogenesis-source rock identification; and the study of asphaltene precipitation for Alaskan crude oils. Results are discussed.

  12. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this cooperative research project is to characterize Alaskan petroleum reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration in relation to lithofacies and structure, and development potential. The project has two tasks: Task 1 is a geological description of the reservoirs including petrophysical properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, permeability variation, formation depth, temperature, and net pay, facies changes and reservoir structures as drawn from cores, well logs, and other geological data. Task 2 is reservoir fluid characterization -- determination of physical properties of reservoir fluids including density, viscosity, phase distributions and composition as well as petrogenesis -- source rock identification; and the study of asphaltene precipitation for Alaskan crude oils.

  13. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Barbara A; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E; Drake, John M

    2015-06-02

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States.

  14. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate oojective of this cooperative research project is to characterize Alaskan petroleum reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration in relation to lithofacies and structure, and development potential. The project has two tasks: Task 1 is a geological description of the reservoirs including petrophysical properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, permeability variation, formation depth, temperature, and net pay, facies changes and reservoir structures as drawn from cores, well logs, and other geological data. Task 2 is reservoir fluid characterization--determination of physical properties of reservoir fluids including density, viscosity, phase distributions and composition as well as petrogenesis--source rock identification; and the study of asphaltene precipitation for Alaskan crude oils. This report presents a summary of technical progress of the well log analysis of Kuparuk Field, Northslope, Alaska.

  15. Next generation oil reservoir simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, W.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a collaborative effort between Amoco Production Company, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Cray Research Inc. to develop a next-generation massively parallel oil reservoir simulation code. The simulator, code-named Falcon, enables highly detailed simulations to be performed on a range of platforms such as the Cray T3D and T3E. The code is currently being used by Amoco to perform a sophisticated field study using multiple geostatistical realizations on a scale of 2-5 million grid blocks and 1000-2000 wells. In this paper we discuss the nature of this collaborative effort, the software design and engineering aspects of the code, parallelization experiences, and performance studies. The code will be marketed to the oil industry by a third-party independent software vendor in mid-1996.

  16. 13. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING EAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING EAST FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF RESERVOIR. POST OF ORIGINAL FENCE IS IN FOREGROUND - Portland Reservoir No. 2, 6007 Southeast Division Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 9. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CHAIN-LINK FENCE IN FOREGROUND AND FOUNDATION STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE OF RESERVOIR BASIN - Portland Reservoir No. 2, 6007 Southeast Division Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 10. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM PICACHO RESERVOIR INLET CHANNEL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  19. The Obtaining of Oil from an Oil Reservoir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the mechanics of how an actual oil reservoir works and provides some technical background in physics. An experiment which simulates an oil reservoir and demonstrates quantitatively all the basic concepts of oil reservoir rock properties is also presented. (HM)

  20. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the VW1 and the CCS1 wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. Intention was for two million tons per annum (MTPA) of CO2 to be injected for 20 years. In the preceding, the 2010 Potosi heterogeneous model (referred to as the "Potosi Dynamic Model 2010" in this topical report) was re-run using a new injection scenario; 3.2 MTPA for 30 years. The extent of the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010, however, appeared too small for the new injection target. It was not sufficiently large enough to accommodate the evolution of the plume. The new model, Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a, was built by extending the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010 grid to 30 miles x 30 miles (48.3km x48.3km), while preserving all property modeling workflows and layering. This model was retained as the base case of Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a. The Potosi reservoir model was updated to take into account the new data from the verification well VW2 which was drilled in 2012. The new porosity and permeability modeling was

  1. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  2. An experimental unification of reservoir computing methods.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; D'Haene, M; Stroobandt, D

    2007-04-01

    Three different uses of a recurrent neural network (RNN) as a reservoir that is not trained but instead read out by a simple external classification layer have been described in the literature: Liquid State Machines (LSMs), Echo State Networks (ESNs) and the Backpropagation Decorrelation (BPDC) learning rule. Individual descriptions of these techniques exist, but a overview is still lacking. Here, we present a series of experimental results that compares all three implementations, and draw conclusions about the relation between a broad range of reservoir parameters and network dynamics, memory, node complexity and performance on a variety of benchmark tests with different characteristics. Next, we introduce a new measure for the reservoir dynamics based on Lyapunov exponents. Unlike previous measures in the literature, this measure is dependent on the dynamics of the reservoir in response to the inputs, and in the cases we tried, it indicates an optimal value for the global scaling of the weight matrix, irrespective of the standard measures. We also describe the Reservoir Computing Toolbox that was used for these experiments, which implements all the types of Reservoir Computing and allows the easy simulation of a wide range of reservoir topologies for a number of benchmarks.

  3. LES Modeling of Aerosol and Drizzle Effects in Marine Stratocumulus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    research is based on the CIMMS LES model of boundary layer stratocumulus clouds with explicit formulation of aerosol and drop size-resolving...rates calculated from the CIMMS explicit microphysics LES model. The errors of parameterized expressions are an order of magnitude less than...framework of the CIMMS LES model where the errors of the parameterization can be assessed in a more realistic setting. The performance of the

  4. Basic gas storage reservoir operations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nowaczewski, S.F. )

    1994-08-01

    Operation and performance analysis of gas storage reservoirs is described in very basic and general terms. Reservoir selection criteria (capacity, deliverability, location, field type, trap type) are reviewed. Well construction considerations and practices (casing sizing, placement, and cementing) are highlighted with regard to the need for long-lived safe operation. Deliverability estimation and prediction and gas inventory methodologies are described. The benefits of high density, high quality data on gas pressure and composition, production rates and volumes, and geologic information to reservoir performance evaluation and prediction are demonstrated.

  5. Production-induced changes in reservoir geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoyedo, Sunday O.

    Sand production remains a source of concern in both conventional and heavy oil production. Porosity increase and changes in local stress magnitude, which often enhance permeability, have been associated with severe sanding. On the other hand, sand production has been linked to a large number of field incidences involving loss of well integrity, casing collapse and corrosion of down-hole systems. It also poses problems for separators and transport facilities. Numerous factors such as reservoir consolidation, well deviation angle through the reservoir, perforation size, grain size, capillary forces associated with water cut, flow rate and most importantly reservoir strain resulting from pore pressure depletion contribute to reservoir sanding. Understanding field-specific sand production patterns in mature fields and poorly consolidated reservoirs is vital in identifying sand-prone wells and guiding remedial activities. Reservoir strain analysis of Forties Field, located in the UK sector of the North Sea, shows that the magnitude of the production-induced strain, part of which is propagated to the base of the reservoir, is of the order of 0.2 %, which is significant enough to impact the geomechanical properties of the reservoir. Sand production analysis in the field shows that in addition to poor reservoir consolidation, a combined effect of repeated perforation, high well deviation, reservoir strain and high fluid flow rate have contributed significantly to reservoir sanding. Knowledge of reservoir saturation variation is vital for in-fill well drilling, while information on reservoir stress variation provides a useful guide for sand production management, casing design, injector placement and production management. Interpreting time-lapse difference is enhanced by decomposing time-lapse difference into saturation, pressure effects and changes in rock properties (e.g. porosity) especially in highly compacting reservoirs. Analyzing the stress and saturation

  6. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  7. Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

    1989-12-01

    The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  9. Atlas of major Texas gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kosters, E.C.; Bebout, D.G.; Seni, S.J.; Garret, C.M.; Brown, L.F.; Hamlin, H.S.; Dutton, S.P.; Ruppel, S.C.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains information on more than 1,828 reservoirs, with emphasis on 868 reservoirs that have cumulative gas production of greater than 30 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Texas gas reservoirs are classified into 73 plays, each of which is described in terms of its principal geologic and engineering production characteristics. This assessment of the similarities of gas occurrence within each play will assist in defining controls on gas accumulation, in identifying resources affected by new technology, and in expanding technology to maximize recovery through improved field development and production practices.

  10. Outer boundary effects in a petroleum reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Rhodri; Crowdy, Darren; Kropf, Everett; Zuo, Lihua; Weijermars, Ruud

    2016-11-01

    A new toolkit for potential theory based on the Schottky-Klein prime function is first introduced. This potential theory toolkit is then applied to study the fluid flow structures in bounded 2D petroleum reservoirs. In the model, reservoirs are assumed to be heterogeneous and isotropic porous medium and can thus be modelled using Darcy's equation. First, computations of flow contours are carried out on some 'test' domains and benchmarked against results from the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator. Following this, a case study of the Quitman oil field in Texas is presented.

  11. Criteria for Modeling in LES of Multicomponent Fuel Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Selle, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    A report presents a study addressing the question of which large-eddy simulation (LES) equations are appropriate for modeling the flow of evaporating drops of a multicomponent liquid in a gas (e.g., a spray of kerosene or diesel fuel in air). The LES equations are obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) equations in which the solution is computed at all flow length scales, by applying a spatial low-pass filter. Thus, in LES the small scales are removed and replaced by terms that cannot be computed from the LES solution and instead must be modeled to retain the effect of the small scales into the equations. The mathematical form of these models is a subject of contemporary research. For a single-component liquid, there is only one LES formulation, but this study revealed that for a multicomponent liquid, there are two non-equivalent LES formulations for the conservation equations describing the composition of the vapor. Criteria were proposed for selecting the multicomponent LES formulation that gives the best accuracy and increased computational efficiency. These criteria were applied in examination of filtered DNS databases to compute the terms in the LES equations. The DNS databases are from mixing layers of diesel and kerosene fuels. The comparisons resulted in the selection of one of the multicomponent LES formulations as the most promising with respect to all criteria.

  12. Les enjuex éthiques entourant la recherche en santé sur les enfants

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La recherche en santé est un devoir moral parce qu’elle est la base des soins probants prodigués par tous les dispensateurs de soins. Des politiques et des règlements précis régissent la tenue des recherches sur des humains. Il faut procéder à une évaluation éthique d’un projet de recherche donné avant de pouvoir l’entreprendre. La recherche sur les enfants pose d’énormes défis en matière de consentement éclairé et d’assentiment, de vulnérabilité et de potentiel de conflit d’intérêts (CDI). Les chercheurs en santé pédiatrique devraient prôner la participation des enfants à la recherche, tout en se montrant attentifs à en limiter les risques.

  13. Optomechanical entanglement via reservoir engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingdan

    2014-03-01

    A mechanical resonator could serve as an ideal system for transferring quantum states and mediating interactions between very different kinds of photons. To this end, recent experiments have realized three-mode optomechanical systems, where a single mechanical resonator simultaneously interacts with both an optical and a microwave cavity. In this talk I will discuss different strategies which use reservoir engineering in such a system as a powerful tool to generate robust, stationary entanglement between the two cavity fields. By manipulating the mechanical resonator to effectively cool delocalized Bogoliubov modes, we find that large intracavity entanglement can be achieved, at a level which is well above the maximum achievable via a coherent two-mode interaction. We have also analyzed the entanglement of the output fields of the two cavities. While there are significant differences from the intra-cavity fields, we again find that with proper parameter choices, large amounts of entanglement can be achieved. While the emphasis is on optomechanics, our results can also be applied directly to other 3-mode bosonic systems (e.g., as could be realized with superconducting microwave circuits).

  14. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-07-01

    In fully-saturated rock and at ultrasonic frequencies, the microscopic squirt flow induced between the stiff and soft parts of the pore space by an elastic wave is responsible for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation. In the seismic frequency range, it is the macroscopic cross-flow between the stiffer and softer parts of the rock. We use the latter hypothesis to introduce simple approximate equations for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation in a fully water saturated reservoir. The equations are based on the assumption that in heterogeneous rock and at a very low frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the fully-saturated rock can be estimated by applying a fluid substitution procedure to the averaged (upscaled) dry frame whose effective porosity is the mean porosity and the effective elastic modulus is the Backus-average (geometric mean) of the individual dry-frame elastic moduli of parts of the rock. At a higher frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the saturated rock is the Backus-average of the individual fully-saturated-rock elastic moduli of parts of the rock. The difference between the effective elastic modulus calculated separately by these two methods determines the velocity-frequency dispersion. The corresponding attenuation is calculated from this dispersion by using (e.g.) the standard linear solid attenuation model.

  15. Volume 4: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- Gulf of Mexico field, U-8 reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Koperna, G.J. Jr.; Johnson, H.R.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Sawyer, W.K.; Kimbrell, W.C.; Schenewerk, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    A reservoir study was performed using a publicly available black oil simulator to history match and predict the performance of a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. The first objective of this simulation study was to validate the Black Oil Applied Simulation Tool version three for personal computers (BOAST3-PC) model to ensure the integrity of the simulation runs. Once validation was completed, a field history match for the Gulf of Mexico U-8 oil reservoir was attempted. A verbal agreement was reached with the operator of this reservoir to blindcode the name and location of the reservoir. In return, the operator supplied data and assistance in regards to the technical aspects of the research. On the basis of the best history match, different secondary recovery techniques were simulated as a predictive study for enhancing the reservoir productivity.

  16. Overview of the Hijiori shallow reservoir circulation tests and reservoir fluid storage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Takahiro Shiga; Masami Hyodo; Shinji Takasugi; Wright, C.A.; Conant, R.A.

    1996-01-24

    Since 1985, NEDO has advanced a]Hot Dry Rock project in Hijiori, Japan. Circulation tests have been performed in FY1991 (in a shallow reservoir), and in FY1995 (in both shallow and deep reservoirs). In 1991 circulation test, the result was that 78% fluid recovery at an injection rate of 60 tons/hour and production temperatures of 150 °C - 190 °C . However no detailed analysis of flow conditions was given. Therefore, a simplified HDR model has been proposed to understand the Hijion HDR reservoir. We have analyzed the 1991 circulation test using the model. This study is very important for analyzing the circulation test in both of shallow and deep reservoir which was conducted in 1995. This paper summarizes the 1991 circulation test at the Hijiori HDR test site, and estimation of the reservoir fluid storage by using "unrecovered" flow from the new conceptual idea of HDR reservoir model.

  17. Destratification of an impounding reservoir using compressed air??case of Mudi reservoir, Blantyre, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipofya, V. H.; Matapa, E. J.

    This paper reviews the operational and cost effectiveness of a compressed air destratification system that was installed in the Mudi reservoir for destratifying the reservoir. Mudi reservoir is a raw water source for the Blantyre Water Board. It has a capacity of 1,400,000 cubic metres. The reservoir is 15.3 m deep at top water level. In the absence of any artificial circulation of air, the reservoir stratifies into two layers. There is a warm epilimnion in the top 3 m of the reservoir, with temperatures ranging from 23 to 26 °C. There is prolific algal growth in this layer. The bottom layer has much lower temperatures, and is oxygen deficient. Under such anaerobic conditions, ammonia, sulphides, iron and manganese are released from the sediments of the reservoir. As a result of nutrient inflow from the catchments, coupled with tropical ambient temperatures, the reservoir is most times infested with blue-green algae. This results into water treatment problems in respect of taste and odour and iron and manganese soluble salts. To abate such problems, air is artificially circulated in the reservoir, near the intake tower, through a perforated pipe that is connected to an electrically driven compressor. This causes artificial circulation of water in the hypolimnion region of the reservoir. As a result of this circulation, a hostile environment that inhibits the propagation of algae is created. Dissolved oxygen and temperature profiles are practically uniform from top to bottom of reservoir. Concentrations of iron and manganese soluble salts are much reduced at any of the draw-off points available for the water treatment process. The paper concludes by highlighting the significant cost savings in water treatment that are accrued from the use of compressed air destratification in impounding water storage reservoirs for the control of algae and other chemical pollutants.

  18. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  19. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  20. Analyzing a hydrocarbon reservoir by determining the response of that reservoir to tidal forces

    SciTech Connect

    Graebner, P.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a method for determining a component of the response of a hydrocarbons reservoir to tidal forces. It comprises measuring a variable responsive to tidal forces within the reservoir over a measurement time period; determining a theoretical earth-tide for the reservoir over the measurement time period; and determining the component of the response to tidal forces by comparing the variable measurements and the theoretical earth-tide determinations.

  1. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  2. Development of heavy-oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, P.J.; Baron, R.P.; Fulleylove, R.J.; Wright, M.S.

    1988-02-01

    Although complex categorizations are in vogue, ''heavy oils'' can be defined simply in terms of their flow properties in the reservoir-e.g., a 100-cp (100-mPa.s) or greater viscosity. Such heavy oils are major world hydrocarbon resource that is exploited where indigenous demand exists. Efficient methods of production require enthalpy input to the reservoir by hot-fluid injection or by creation of heat in the reservoir. Heat losses must be minimized to achieve maximum production efficiency. The widely used cyclic-steam-injection process is examined analytically to indicate which parameters govern successful exploitation. Steamflood and in-situ combustion techniques are discussed with reference to recent developments. Heavy-oil recovery from the more difficult carbonate reservoirs, such as those of the Middle East, is reviewed and potential production mechanism are examined. Production techniques are described together with export handling schemes.

  3. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection.

    PubMed

    Viana, Mafalda; Mancy, Rebecca; Biek, Roman; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cross, Paul C; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Haydon, Daniel T

    2014-05-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems.

  4. Improved energy recovery from geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedvarsson, G. S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.; Bjoernsson, S.

    1981-06-01

    Numerical simulation methods are used to study how the exploitation of different horizons affects the behavior of a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir. The reservoir model is a schematic representation of the Olkaria field in Kenya. The model consists of a two phase vapor dominated zone overlying the main liquid dominated reservoir. Four different cases were studied, with fluid produced from: (1) the vapor zone only, (2) the liquid zone only, (3) both zones and (4) both zones, but assuming lower values for vertical permeability and porosity. The results indicate that production from the shallow two phase zone, although resulting in higher enthalpy fluids, may not be advantageous in the long run. Shallow production gives rise to a rather localized depletion of the reservoir, whereas production from deeper horizons may yield a more uniform depletion process, if vertical permeability is sufficiently large.

  5. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. Modeling the Entrepeñas Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Bernd U; Palancar, María C; Aragón, José M; Sánchez, Fernando; Gil, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The Entrepeñas Reservoir is a monomictic reservoir located in River Tagus (Spain). The aim of this work is to establish a feasible model to predict the depth of the thermocline that is developed in the reservoir during the period of natural thermal stratification. Entrainment, eddy diffusion, inflow of external energy, and other factors are considered to calibrate the parameters of the model. The methodology involves the measure of actual temperature and electrical conductivity profiles, use of meteorological data and reservoir parameters, and selection and application of several models from the literature. The calculations and predictions are integrated to a software packet that is able to predict thermocline depth and water temperature profile during a 1-year period on a day-by-day basis. In the thermocline depth, the prediction error, on the basis of real data, is less than 6% and, in the water temperature, it is 2 degrees C.

  11. Heat deliverability of homogeneous geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Moya, Sara L.

    1991-01-01

    For the last two decades, the petroleum industry has been successfully using simple inflow performance relationships (IPR's) to predict oil deliverability. In contrast, the geothermal industry lacked a simple and reliable method to estimate geothermal wells' heat deliverability. To address this gap in the standard geothermal-reservoir-assessment arsenal, we developed generalized dimensionless geothermal inflow performance relationships (GIPR's). These ''reference curves'' may be regarded as an approximate general solution of the equations describing the practically important case of radial 2-phase inflow. Based on this approximate solution, we outline a straightforward approach to estimate the reservoir contribution to geothermal wells heat and mass deliverability for 2-phase reservoirs. This approach is far less costly and in most cases as reliable as numerically modeling the reservoir, which is the alternative for 2-phase inflow.

  12. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zinchenko, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  13. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Mafalda; Mancy, Rebecca; Biek, Roman; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cross, Paul C.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems. PMID:24726345

  14. Reservoir response to tidal and barometric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J.M.

    1980-05-29

    Solid earth tidal strain and surface loading due to fluctuations in barometric pressure have the effect, although extremely minute, of dilating or contracting the effective pore volume in a porous reservoir. If a well intersects the formation, the change in pore pressure can be measured with sensitive quartz pressure gauges. Mathematical models of the relevant fluid dynamics of the well-reservoir system have been generated and tested against conventional well pumping results or core data at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), California and at the Raft River, Geothermal Field (RRGF), Idaho. Porosity-total compressibility product evaluation based on tidal strain response compares favorably with results based on conventional pumping techniques. Analysis of reservoir response to barometric loading using Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) stochastic modeling appears also to have potential use for the evaluation of reservoir parameters.

  15. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmen...

  16. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mafalda, Viana; Rebecca, Mancy; Roman, Biek; Sarah, Cleaveland; Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Daniel T, Haydon

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems.

  17. Models for naturally fractured, carbonate reservoir simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay, K.; Park, A.; Ozkan, G.; Zhan, X.; Ortoleva, P.; Hoak, T.; Sundberg, K.

    1998-12-31

    This report outlines the need for new tools for the simulation of fractured carbonate reservoirs. Several problems are identified that call for the development of new reservoir simulation physical models and numerical techniques. These include: karst and vuggy media wherein Darcy`s and traditional multi-phase flow laws do not apply; the need for predicting the preproduction state of fracturing and stress so that the later response of effective stress-dependent reservoirs can be predicted; and methods for predicting the fracturing and collapse of vuggy and karst reservoirs in response to draw-down pressure created during production. Specific research directions for addressing each problem are outlined and preliminary results are noted.

  18. Integration of reservoir simulation and geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nan

    Fluid production from tight and shale gas formations has increased significantly, and this unconventional portfolio of low-permeability reservoirs accounts for more than half of the gas produced in the United States. Stimulation and hydraulic fracturing are critical in making these systems productive, and hence it is important to understand the mechanics of the reservoir. When modeling fractured reservoirs using discrete-fracture network representation, the geomechanical effects are expected to have a significant impact on important reservoir characteristics. It has become more accepted that fracture growth, particularly in naturally fractured reservoirs with extremely low permeability, cannot be reliably represented by conventional planar representations. Characterizing the evolution of multiple, nonplanar, interconnected and possibly nonvertical hydraulic fractures requires hydraulic and mechanical characterization of the matrix, as well as existing latent or healed fracture networks. To solve these challenging problems, a reservoir simulator (Advanced Reactive Transport Simulator (ARTS)) capable of performing unconventional reservoir simulation is developed in this research work. A geomechanical model has been incorporated into the simulation framework with various coupling schemes and this model is used to understand the geomechanical effects in unconventional oil and gas recovery. This development allows ARTS to accept geomechanical information from external geomechanical simulators (soft coupling) or the solution of the geomechanical coupled problem (hard coupling). An iterative solution method of the flow and geomechanical equations has been used in implementing the hard coupling scheme. The hard coupling schemes were verified using one-dimensional and two-dimensional analytical solutions. The new reservoir simulator is applied to learn the influence of geomechanical impact on unconventional oil and gas production in a number of practical recovery scenarios

  19. Oil reservoir properties estimation using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Toomarian, N.B.; Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Aminzadeh, F.

    1997-02-01

    This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. This approach relies on JPL`s adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. The authors believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

  20. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  1. Results of the geothermal reservoir insurance study

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.M.

    1982-10-01

    On June 30, 1980, Public Law 96-294, referred to as the Energy Security Act, was enacted by the Congress of the United States. Subtitle B of Title VI (Geothermal Energy) of the Act required that a reservoir insurance program study be conducted. The objective of the study was to provide an analysis of the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. In conjunction with the analysis, the appropriate level of federal support, if any, was to be determined.

  2. Origins of acid fluids in geothermal reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, Alfred

    1991-01-01

    Acid fluids in geothermal reservoirs are rare. Their occurrence in geothermal systems associated with recent volcanism (Tatun, Sumikawa, Miravalles) probably indicates that the geothermal reservoir fluid was derived from volcanic fluid incompletely neutralized by reaction with feldspars and micas. Superheated steam containing HCl (Larderello, The Geysers) forms acid where it condenses or mixes with liquid at moderate temperatures (325??C). Cryptoacidity occurs at Los Humeros where HCl acidity is formed and neutralized without reaching the surface.

  3. Reservoir engineering of Wairakei geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Malcom A.

    1988-01-01

    Wairakei was the first liquid dominated geothermal field exploited for major power production. As such many decisions were taken on an ad-hoc or experimental basis. In retrospect the choice of Wairakei was fortunate : with extensive shallow high permeability and major recharge it is an easy field to exploit. This lecture describes the history of the field and the contribution of reservoir engineering to field management, and describes the reservoir as it is now understood.

  4. Integrated management of multiple reservoir field developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, S.L.; Chan, H.M.; Harper, J.L.; Boyett, B.A.; Dowson, P.R.; Bette, S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper consists of two sections. The authors first describe the coupling of a pipeline network model to a reservoir simulator and then the application of this new simulator to optimize the production strategy of two Mobil field developments. Mobil`s PEGASUS simulator is an integrated all purpose reservoir simulator that handles black-oil, compositional, faulted and naturally fractured reservoirs. The authors have extended the simulator to simultaneously model multiple reservoirs coupled with surface pipeline networks and processes. This allows them to account for the effects of geology, well placement, and surface production facilities on well deliverability in a fully integrated fashion. They have also developed a gas contract allocation system that takes the user-specified constraints, target rates and swing factors and automatically assigns rates to the individual wells of each reservoir. This algorithm calculates the overall deliverability and automatically reduces the user-specified target rates to meet the deliverability constraints. The algorithm and solution technique are described. This enhanced simulator has been applied to model a Mobil field development in the Southern Gas Basin, offshore United Kingdom, which consists of three separate gas reservoirs connected via a pipeline network. The simulator allowed the authors to accurately determine the impact on individual reservoir and total field performance by varying the development timing of these reservoirs. Several development scenarios are shown to illustrate the capabilities of PEGASUS. Another application of this technology is in the field developments in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Here the objective is to economically optimize the development of multiple fields to feed the PT Arun LNG facility. Consideration of a range of gas compositions, well productivity`s, and facilities constraints in an integrated fashion results in improved management of these assets. Model specifics are discussed.

  5. 13. Symposium on reservoir simulation: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This is a conference proceedings which deals with the latest developments and trends in reservoir simulation techniques and modeling. It includes papers dealing with multiphase flow in oil and gas wells; flow calculation methods in deviated and horizontal wells; fluid flow in fractured reservoirs; and simulation techniques for enhanced recovery and well stimulation processes. Most papers provide case studies using the various computer models or computer systems, including numerous studies on parallel processing equipment.

  6. Horizontal sidetrack taps reservoir sweet spots''

    SciTech Connect

    Wible, J.R. )

    1994-02-21

    Cutting a window at 85[degree] deviation allowed a sidetrack to pass through the high-resistivity sections in a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. Results from logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools indicated the original horizontal bore dropped too low in the reservoir, possibly leading to a low productivity well. The subsequent sidetrack successfully delivered the desired well bore, and the increased productivity justified the efforts in cutting a window in the horizontal section.

  7. Inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons pour les nourrissons irritables

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine H.; Israel, David M.; Schreiber, Richard; Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Question Les pleurs sont communs chez les nourrissons; par ailleurs, prendre soin d'un nourrisson dont les pleurs sont inconsolables et qu'on surnommait aussi auparavant des coliques ou un reflux, peut souvent causer une détresse extrême aux parents. Le recours à un agent de suppression de l'acide gastrique (p. ex. les inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons [IPP]) est-il bénéfique chez ces nourrissons? Réponse On utilise de plus en plus les IPP chez les nourrissons et les enfants depuis quelques années. L'efficacité des inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons n'a pas été démontrée dans le traitement de l'irritabilité et des pleurs excessifs chez des enfants autrement en santé de moins de 3 mois. D'autre part, si les IPP sont généralement bien tolérés, il existe certaines données probantes reliant l'utilisation des IPP avec une susceptibilité accrue aux gastroentérites aiguës, à la pneumonie acquise dans la communauté et à des troubles de l'utilisation et de l'absorption des nutriments. Indépendamment des traitements, les pleurs et l'irritabilité durant la tendre enfance s'améliorent généralement avec le temps. Entre-temps, les inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons n'améliorent pas les symptômes.

  8. Analysis of discretization errors in LES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosal, Sandip

    1995-01-01

    All numerical simulations of turbulence (DNS or LES) involve some discretization errors. The integrity of such simulations therefore depend on our ability to quantify and control such errors. In the classical literature on analysis of errors in partial differential equations, one typically studies simple linear equations (such as the wave equation or Laplace's equation). The qualitative insight gained from studying such simple situations is then used to design numerical methods for more complex problems such as the Navier-Stokes equations. Though such an approach may seem reasonable as a first approximation, it should be recognized that strongly nonlinear problems, such as turbulence, have a feature that is absent in linear problems. This feature is the simultaneous presence of a continuum of space and time scales. Thus, in an analysis of errors in the one dimensional wave equation, one may, without loss of generality, rescale the equations so that the dependent variable is always of order unity. This is not possible in the turbulence problem since the amplitudes of the Fourier modes of the velocity field have a continuous distribution. The objective of the present research is to provide some quantitative measures of numerical errors in such situations. Though the focus of this work is LES, the methods introduced here can be just as easily applied to DNS. Errors due to discretization of the time-variable are neglected for the purpose of this analysis.

  9. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  10. Massachusetts reservoir simulation tool—User’s manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey developed the Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool to examine the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflows in Massachusetts by simulating the daily water balance of reservoirs. The simulation tool was developed to assist environmental managers to better manage water withdrawals in reservoirs and to preserve downstream aquatic habitats.

  11. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  15. Parallel reservoir computing using optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Reservoir computing (RC), a computational paradigm inspired on neural systems, has become increasingly popular in recent years for solving a variety of complex recognition and classification problems. Thus far, most implementations have been software-based, limiting their speed and power efficiency. Integrated photonics offers the potential for a fast, power efficient and massively parallel hardware implementation. We have previously proposed a network of coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers as an interesting test case for such a hardware implementation. In this paper, we investigate the important design parameters and the consequences of process variations through simulations. We use an isolated word recognition task with babble noise to evaluate the performance of the photonic reservoirs with respect to traditional software reservoir implementations, which are based on leaky hyperbolic tangent functions. Our results show that the use of coherent light in a well-tuned reservoir architecture offers significant performance benefits. The most important design parameters are the delay and the phase shift in the system's physical connections. With optimized values for these parameters, coherent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) reservoirs can achieve better results than traditional simulated reservoirs. We also show that process variations hardly degrade the performance, but amplifier noise can be detrimental. This effect must therefore be taken into account when designing SOA-based RC implementations.

  16. Reservoir assessment of The Geysers Geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Dykstra, H.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid in the field reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably respresent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resistivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. At the current generating capacity of 930 MWe, the estimated life of The Geysers Geothermal field reservoir is 129 years. The estimated reservoir life is 60 years for the anticipated maximum generating capacity of 2000 MWe as of 1990. Wells at The Geysers are drilled with conventional drilling fluid (mud) until the top of the steam reservoir is reached; then, they are drilled with air. Usually, mud, temperature, caliper, dual induction, and cement bond logs are run on the wells.

  17. Assessment of reservoir system variable forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenmacher, Martin; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2015-05-01

    Forecast ensembles are a convenient means to model water resources uncertainties and to inform planning and management processes. For multipurpose reservoir systems, forecast types include (i) forecasts of upcoming inflows and (ii) forecasts of system variables and outputs such as reservoir levels, releases, flood damage risks, hydropower production, water supply withdrawals, water quality conditions, navigation opportunities, and environmental flows, among others. Forecasts of system variables and outputs are conditional on forecasted inflows as well as on specific management policies and can provide useful information for decision-making processes. Unlike inflow forecasts (in ensemble or other forms), which have been the subject of many previous studies, reservoir system variable and output forecasts are not formally assessed in water resources management theory or practice. This article addresses this gap and develops methods to rectify potential reservoir system forecast inconsistencies and improve the quality of management-relevant information provided to stakeholders and managers. The overarching conclusion is that system variable and output forecast consistency is critical for robust reservoir management and needs to be routinely assessed for any management model used to inform planning and management processes. The above are demonstrated through an application from the Sacramento-American-San Joaquin reservoir system in northern California.

  18. Bathymetric contours of Breckenridge Reservoir, Quantico, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, S.M.; Lotspeich, R.R.; Banks, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Breckenridge Reservoir, built in 1938, is fed by Chopawamsic Creek and South Branch Chopawamsic Creek. The Reservoir is a main source of drinking water for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Base in Quantico, Virginia. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USMC, conducted a bathymetric survey of Breckenridge Reservoir in March 2009. The survey was conducted to provide the USMC Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs (NREA) with information regarding reservoir storage capacity and general bathymetric properties. The bathymetric survey can provide a baseline for future work on sediment loads and deposition rates for the reservoir. Bathymetric data were collected using a boat-mounted Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) differential global positioning system (DGPS), echo depth-sounding equipment, and computer software. Data were exported into a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping and calculating area and volume. Reservoir storage volume at the time of the survey was about 22,500,000 cubic feet (517 acre-feet) with a surface area of about 1,820,000 square feet (41.9 acres).

  19. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  20. Le sumatriptan intranasal pour la migraine chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.; Meckler, Garth D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Je vois de plus en plus d’enfants et d’adolescents qui souffrent de céphalées pouvant se classer dans la catégorie des migraines. J’ai fait des lectures sur le sumatriptan par voie intranasale comme thérapie abortive. Est-ce un traitement efficace? Réponse La migraine aiguë chez les enfants et les adolescents est fréquente et difficile à traiter. Le sumatriptan intranasal est une option sûre et généralement efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents. La dose actuellement recommandée est de 20 mg pour les enfants qui pèsent plus de 40 kg et de 10 mg pour ceux dont le poids se situe entre 20 et 39 kg. Il faudrait faire des études de plus grande envergure pour contrecarrer les limitations des échantillons de petite taille et mieux comprendre la faible concentration plasmique et les effets placebo observés dans les études jusqu’à présent.

  1. La Terre - les eaux - l'atmosphère.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bec-Borsenberger, A.; Catoire, M.; Kovalevsky, J.; Guinot, B.; Cazenave, A.; Levallois, J. J.; Lecolazet, R.; Jobert, G.; Francheteau, J.; Le Mouël, J.-L.; Goguel, J.; Serpolay, R.; Berroir, A.; Mégie, G.; Crépon, M.; Saint-Guily, B.; Eyriès, M.-M.; Ramamonjiarisoa, A.; Buat-Menard, P.; Lalou, C.; Serra, L.; Lliboutry, L.; Lorius, C.

    Contents: Repères et forces de gravité (J. Kovalevsky). La rotation de la Terre (B. Guinot). La géodésie (J. Kovalevsky, A. Cazenave, J. J. Levallois). Les marées terrestres (R. Lecolazet). La sismologie (G. Jobert). Lithosphère et tectonique des plaques (J. Francheteau). Le champ magnétique terrestre (J.-L. Le Mouël). Modèles de la constitution physique de la Terre (G. Jobert). La géothermie (J. Goguel). Le rayonnement énergétique (R. Serpolay). Les fluides géophysiques (A. Berroir). L'atmosphère (A. Berroir, R. Serpolay). L'ozonosphère (G. Mégie). Les océans en mouvement (M. Crépon, B. Saint-Guily). La marée océanique (M.-M. Eyriès). La houle et les vagues (A. Ramamonjiarisoa). Les cycles géochimiques dans l'océan (P. Buat-Menard, C. Lalou). La circulation des eaux (L. Serra). Les glaces naturelles et leur dynamique (L. Lliboutry). L'évolution des climats, les données du passé (C. Lorius).

  2. LES: A General Expert System And Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, W. A.; Laffey, T. J.

    1984-06-01

    The Lockheed Expert System (LES) has been designed to help knowledge engineers quickly solve problems in diagnosing, monitoring, planning, designing, checking, guiding, and interpreting. In its first application, LES was used to guide less-experienced maintenance personnel in the fault diagnosis of a large signal-switching network containing Built-In Test Equipment (BITE). LES used not only the knowledge of the expert diagnostician (captured in the familiar form of "IF-THEN" rules), but also knowledge about the structure, function, and causal relations of the device under study to perform rapid isolation of the module causing the failure. In addition to aiding the engineer in troubleshooting an electronic device, LES can also explain its reasoning and actions to the user, and can provide extensive database retrieval and graphics capabilities. In this paper we show how both the structure of the device and the troubleshooting rules of the expert are conveniently represented using LES's case grammar format. Also, an actual troubleshooting session between a user and LES is presented. By adding goals, rules, database information, and a few special procedures to the general LES framework, we were able to have a working system in a much shorter time (four man-months) than would have been possible starting afresh. The current status of the system is that it has been fielded and is under evaluation. LES is now being applied in other domains which include design checking and photo-interpretation.

  3. Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Final Report Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS Office of Naval Research Contract number: N00014-07-1-0401 Program...COVERED (From - To) 12/11/2006-12/31/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  4. Les superpolynomes symetriques dans les problemes a plusieurs corps de la mecanique quantique supersymetrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Patrick

    S'inspirant de la supersymetrie, on construit dans cette these une nouvelle generalisation de la theorie des fonctions symetriques. Une theorie physique est supersymetrique si: (1) elle contient des bosons (particules de spin entier) et des fermions (particules de spin demi-entier); (2) elle reste inchangee suite a une transformation des bosons en fermions et vice versa. Les fonctions symetriques dans le superespace (superfonctions symetriques) incorporent a la fois des variables commutatives (bosoniques) et anticommutatives (fermioniques). Ces dernieres engendrent une algebre de Grassmann. Une superfonction symetrique est invariante sous l'echange simultane des variables bosoniques et fermioniques (action diagonale du groupe symetrique); elle se caracterise par une superpartition, i.e., une juxtaposition appropriee de partitions usuelles d'entiers non negatifs. On utilise deux approches dans l'elaboration de la theorie des superfonctions symetriques: l'une provient de la combinatoire et l'autre, de la physique. Suivant la premiere approche, on obtient l'extension des elements standards de la theorie des fonctions symetriques fonctions monomiales, fonctions symetriques elementaires, fonctions completement symetriques, series de puissances, fonctions generatrices et formules de Cauchy. On demontre egalement qu'il existe une extension naturelle, a un parametre, du produit scalaire combinatoire defini par l'orthogonalite des series de puissances dans le superespace. La seconde approche consiste a resoudre des problemes a N corps de la mecanique quantique supersymetrique. On etudie les extensions supersymetriques des modeles Calogero-Moser-Sutherland (CMS), lesquels decrivent l'evolution de particules dont le potentiel d'inter action est proportionnel a l'inverse du carre de la distance separant les particules. Deux modeles supersymetriques CMS sont resolus: trigonometrique (sur un cercle) et rationnel (sur une ligne) avec confinement harmonique. Leurs fonctions d

  5. Online interactive U.S. Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.B.; Bernard, J.M.; Schwarz, G.E.; Stewart, D.W.; Ray, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (prior to 1994, the Soil Conservation Service) created the Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Database (RESSED) and Web site, the most comprehensive compilation of data from reservoir bathymetric and dry basin surveys in the United States. RESSED data can be useful for a number of purposes, including calculating changes in reservoir storage characteristics, quantifying rates of sediment delivery to reservoirs, and estimating erosion rates in a reservoir's watershed.

  6. Geologic aspects of horizontal drilling in self-sourcing reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Illich, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Horizontal drilling techniques provide a way to exploit hydrocarbon reserves that are either noneconomic or only marginally economic using vertical drilling techniques. A significant fraction of these reserves is contained in reservoirs that are self-sourcing or in reservoirs that are closely associated with their resources. Most formations drilled as horizontal targets are self-sourcing. The Austin Chalk, Niobrara, Mesaverde, and Bakken are examples of horizontally drilled, self-sourcing reservoir systems. In formations like the Bakken or Austin Chalk, the close relationship between reservoir and source makes risks associated with migration and accumulation less important. Reservoirs of this kind can contain oil or gas and often have little or no associated water. They can be matrix-dominated reservoirs, dual-porosity reservoirs (Mesaverde), or fractured reservoirs (Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara). Fractured, self-sourcing reservoirs also can possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess highly heterogeneous reservoir systems. Characterization of the style of reservoir heterogeneity in self-sourcing systems is important if the favorable properties of horizontally oriented bore holes are to be realized. Production data and rock mechanics considerations are important in horizontal drilling ventures. Examples of the use of these data for the purpose of defining reservoir characteristics are discussed. Knowledge of lateral changes in reservoir properties is essential if we are to recover known reserves efficiently.

  7. Architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G. ); Mescher, P. )

    1996-01-01

    It is important to investigate the architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs at interwell scales in outcrops because reservoir heterogeneities cannot be adequately characterized by cores and log correlation sections. A 3000-foot long quarry wall of Ellenburger strata in central Texas displays the lithologic and pore network heterogeneities at typical well spacings (1300 to 2600 feet). The quarry wall exposes the transition from stratified host rock into a complex collapsed-paleocave system showing several developmental episodes. This paleocave system has over 2600 feet of laterally continuous chaotic breccias. The dimensions of these breccias are similar as to what is imaged by 3-D seismic over paleocave reservoirs. Collapsed-paleocave reservoirs are not single collapsed passages of tens of feet across, but are homogenized collapsed-cave systems hundreds to several thousand feet across. This concept of scale is very important because collapsed-paleocave systems offer larger exploration targets than individual cave passages. Collapsed-paleocave systems are complex because they are the homogenization of chaotic breccias and cave-sediment fill from passages, chambers, and shafts and of crackle breccias from roof- and wall-rock and pillars. Pore networks are associated with chaotic breakdown breccias, cave roof- and wall-crackle breccias, and/or clastic sediment fill. Strong heterogeneity within a collapsed paleocave system should be expected. Lateral and vertical changes in collapsed-paleocave-related facies have the strongest effect on reservoir heterogeneity and quality. Within individual facies there can be distinct reservoir quality variation, such as between the cave-sediment fill and associated blocks. Tectonic fractures, however, can interconnect the highly variable pore networks within a collapsed-paleocave reservoir.

  8. Architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Mescher, P.

    1996-12-31

    It is important to investigate the architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs at interwell scales in outcrops because reservoir heterogeneities cannot be adequately characterized by cores and log correlation sections. A 3000-foot long quarry wall of Ellenburger strata in central Texas displays the lithologic and pore network heterogeneities at typical well spacings (1300 to 2600 feet). The quarry wall exposes the transition from stratified host rock into a complex collapsed-paleocave system showing several developmental episodes. This paleocave system has over 2600 feet of laterally continuous chaotic breccias. The dimensions of these breccias are similar as to what is imaged by 3-D seismic over paleocave reservoirs. Collapsed-paleocave reservoirs are not single collapsed passages of tens of feet across, but are homogenized collapsed-cave systems hundreds to several thousand feet across. This concept of scale is very important because collapsed-paleocave systems offer larger exploration targets than individual cave passages. Collapsed-paleocave systems are complex because they are the homogenization of chaotic breccias and cave-sediment fill from passages, chambers, and shafts and of crackle breccias from roof- and wall-rock and pillars. Pore networks are associated with chaotic breakdown breccias, cave roof- and wall-crackle breccias, and/or clastic sediment fill. Strong heterogeneity within a collapsed paleocave system should be expected. Lateral and vertical changes in collapsed-paleocave-related facies have the strongest effect on reservoir heterogeneity and quality. Within individual facies there can be distinct reservoir quality variation, such as between the cave-sediment fill and associated blocks. Tectonic fractures, however, can interconnect the highly variable pore networks within a collapsed-paleocave reservoir.

  9. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, V.; Asael, D.; Baland, R. M.; Baludikay, B. K.; Beghin, J.; Belza, J.; Beuthe, M.; Breuer, D.; Chernonozhkin, S.; Claeys, Ph.; Cornet, Y.; Cornet, L.; Coyette, A.; Debaille, V.; Delvigne, C.; Deproost, M. H.; De WInter, N.; Duchemin, C.; El Atrassi, F.; François, C.; De Keyser, J.; Gillmann, C.; Gloesener, E.; Goderis, S.; Hidaka, Y.; Höning, D.; Huber, M.; Hublet, G.; Javaux, E. J.; Karatekin, Ö.; Kodolanyi, J.; Revilla, L. Lobo; Maes, L.; Maggiolo, R.; Mattielli, N.; Maurice, M.; McKibbin, S.; Morschhauser, A.; Neumann, W.; Noack, L.; Pham, L. B. S.; Pittarello, L.; Plesa, A. C.; Rivoldini, A.; Robert, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Spohn, T.; Storme, J.-Y.; Tosi, N.; Trinh, A.; Valdes, M.; Vandaele, A. C.; Vanhaecke, F.; Van Hoolst, T.; Van Roosbroek, N.; Wilquet, V.; Yseboodt, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP) `PLANET TOPERS' (Planets: Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their Reservoirs) addresses the fundamental understanding of the thermal and compositional evolution of the different reservoirs of planetary bodies (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and space) considering interactions and feedback mechanisms. Here we present the first results after 2 years of project work.

  10. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  11. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  12. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS.

    PubMed

    Dehant, V; Asael, D; Baland, R M; Baludikay, B K; Beghin, J; Belza, J; Beuthe, M; Breuer, D; Chernonozhkin, S; Claeys, Ph; Cornet, Y; Cornet, L; Coyette, A; Debaille, V; Delvigne, C; Deproost, M H; De WInter, N; Duchemin, C; El Atrassi, F; François, C; De Keyser, J; Gillmann, C; Gloesener, E; Goderis, S; Hidaka, Y; Höning, D; Huber, M; Hublet, G; Javaux, E J; Karatekin, Ö; Kodolanyi, J; Revilla, L Lobo; Maes, L; Maggiolo, R; Mattielli, N; Maurice, M; McKibbin, S; Morschhauser, A; Neumann, W; Noack, L; Pham, L B S; Pittarello, L; Plesa, A C; Rivoldini, A; Robert, S; Rosenblatt, P; Spohn, T; Storme, J -Y; Tosi, N; Trinh, A; Valdes, M; Vandaele, A C; Vanhaecke, F; Van Hoolst, T; Van Roosbroek, N; Wilquet, V; Yseboodt, M

    2016-11-01

    The Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP) 'PLANET TOPERS' (Planets: Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their Reservoirs) addresses the fundamental understanding of the thermal and compositional evolution of the different reservoirs of planetary bodies (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and space) considering interactions and feedback mechanisms. Here we present the first results after 2 years of project work.

  13. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly progress report, June 13, 1995--September 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, P.K.

    1995-09-12

    At this stage of the reservoir characterization research, the main emphasis is on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Progress is reported on geological analysis, reservoir simulation, and reservoir management.

  14. Les nouveaux résultats Chandra et XMM-Newton concernant les Noyaux Actifs de Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porquet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Il s'agit ici d'un apercu des résultats sur les Noyaux Actifs de Galaxies (AGNs) obtenus grace `a la nouvelle génération de satellites X: Chandra & XMM-Newton. Pour la première fois, grace `a leurs caractéristiques instrumentales (sensibilité, résolutions angulaire et spectrale) des images et des spectres de qualité sans précédent sont obtenus dans le domaine des rayons X pour les objets extragalactiques comme les Noyaux Actifs de Galaxies. Notamment une étude spectroscopique fine est dorénavant possible ce qui permet d'appliquer de puissants diagnostics de plasmas comme notamment ceux basés sur les raies des ions héliumoides qui donnent une estimation précise de la densité, de la température, ainsi que la mise en évidence des processus d'ionisation (photoionisation et/ou ionisation collisionnelle) qui dominent dans les plasmas chauds (e.g. "Warm Absorber") des AGNs. La sensibilité de XMM-Newton permet d'étudier les AGNs à très grands redshifts et/ou très fortement absorbés. La résolution angulaire (0.5") de Chandra permet d'étudier séparément les différentes composantes de ces objets: le noyau, le milieu chaud environnant ("Warm Absorber"), les jets, ainsi que le milieu interstellaire et les objets ponctuelles (binaires X, candidats trous noirs, restes de Supernovae,...) de la galaxie hôte. Cette nouvelle ère dans le domaine des rayons X va permettre de fortement contraindre les paramètres physiques, géométriques, dynamiques ainsi que la localisation de la matière accrétante autour des trous noirs supermassifs, dans les différents types d'AGNs (Seyfert, quasars Radio-Loud et Radio-Quiet, noyaux actifs dans les amas de galaxies), en relation avec les autres composantes observées dans les autres domaines de longueurs d'onde (radio, optique, UV, etc...). Ceci s'inscrit dans un objectif plus vaste de compréhension de l'évolution de l'ensemble des galaxies qui pour la plupart semblent contenir un trou noir supermassif en leur

  15. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  16. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk

    2006-11-27

    Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.

  17. Wavelet based Simulation of Reservoir Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, A. H.; Verma, A. K.; Noor-E-Zahra, Noor-E.-Zahra; Chandiok, Ashish; Hasan, A.

    2009-07-01

    Petroleum reservoirs consist of hydrocarbons and other chemicals trapped in the pores of a rock. The exploration and production of hydrocarbon reservoirs is still the most important technology to develop natural energy resources. Therefore, fluid flow simulators play a key role in order to help oil companies. In fact, simulation is the most important tool to model changes in a reservoir over the time. The main problem in petroleum reservoir simulation is to model the displacement of one fluid by another within a porous medium. A typical problem is characterized by the injection of a wetting fluid, for example water into the reservoir at a particular location displacing to the non wetting fluid, for example oil, which is extracted or produced at another location. Buckley-Leverett equation [1] models this process and its numerical simulation and visualization is of paramount importance. There are several numerical methods applied for numerical solution of partial differential equations modeling real world problems. We review in this paper the numerical solution of Buckley-Leverett equation for flat and non flat structures with special focus on wavelet method. We also indicate a few new avenues for further research.

  18. Integrated reservoir management doubles Nigerian field reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Akinlawon, Y.; Nwosu, T.; Satter, A.; Jespersen, R.

    1996-10-01

    An integrated alliance across disciplines, companies and countries enabled Texaco to conduct a comprehensive reservoir analysis of the North Apoi/Funiwa field in Nigeria. Recommendations implemented in 3 months doubled the book reserves of this mature field. The paper discusses the objectives, the integration of organizations, reservoir analysis, and conclusions. The conclusions made from the integrated study are: (1) 3-D seismic data dramatically improved reservoir description. (2) OOIP is considerably more than the booked values and reserves additions are substantial. (3) Significant value has been added to TOPCON`s assets as a result of teamwork and a multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the reservoirs and optimizing the scenarios for reservoir management. (4) Teamwork and integration of professionals, data, technology and tools was critical to the projects success. (5) The study set an example for effective and expeditious technology transfer and applications. (6) Partnering of TOPCON, DPR, NAPIMS, EPTD and SSI resulted in a quick cycle time and set an excellent example of integration and alliance.

  19. Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.

  20. Experience in operating the Bratsk Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, A.V.

    1984-04-01

    The Bratsk reservoir is the largest in the USSR and second largest in the world. Initially, the reservoir was expected to be filled by the end of 1966. However, the actual filling was not completed until September of 1967. During filling and in the first years of operation it was constantly necessary to deal with floating timber in order to ensure normal operation of the hydrostation, navigation safety, conditions for fishery, and fulfillment of the sanitary requirements. During seasonal variations of the reservoir level about 160 sq km of the shore zone was subjected to variable flooding and waterlogging. Maximum erosion occurred on expanded stretches, and within their limits on slopes composed of loam and sand deposits. Within the narrows, where the banks are composed mainly of hard and soft rocks and wave action is weak, erosion is negligible. Wind setup and setdown cause maximum denivellation of the water surface. The maximum increase of the level during setup reaches 232 cm and the maximum decrease during setdown is 24 cm. Seiche oscillations with various amplitudes and periods are observed on the reservoir surface. The main uses of the complex are hydropower, water transport, timber floating, water supply, and fishery. For the successful development of the shores of reservoirs it is necessary to select the construction sites with consideration of possible occurrence of karstic and landslide processes; the construction of heavy structures requires special karst-control measures. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Fracturing high-permeability reservoirs increases productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Dusterhoft, R.G. ); Chapman, B.J. )

    1994-06-20

    Hydraulic fracturing of high-permeability reservoirs has increased long-term hydrocarbon production and reduced sand production in many areas of the world. A key element is the reduction of near well bore drawdown during production. Drawdown, the difference between reservoir and production pressures, is the driving force for flow into the well bore. As drawdown increases because of higher production rates or depletion, formation instability may cause fines and sand to migrate into the well bore region. A greater well bore radius reduces both radial velocity and drawdown. Fracturing beyond the well bore region effectively bypasses the damaged zone, increasing the effective radius of the well bore and enabling higher flow rates with lower drawdown pressures. In essence, the reservoir energy is used more efficiently because the conductive proppant bed bypasses the near well bore restrictions. The paper discusses candidate well selection; proppant selection; sand control; minifrac procedures; spurt losses; fracture design; equipment; case histories in West Africa and offshore Louisiana.

  2. CNS reservoirs for HIV: implications for eradication.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Joanna; Valcour, Victor; Spudich, Serena

    2015-04-01

    Controversy exists as to whether the central nervous system (CNS) serves as a reservoir site for HIV, in part reflecting the varying perspectives on what constitutes a 'reservoir' versus a mere site of latent viral integration. However, if the CNS proves to be a site of HIV persistence capable of replicating and reseeding the periphery, leading to failure of virological control, this privileged anatomical site would need dedicated consideration during the development of HIV cure strategies. In this review we discuss the current literature focused on the question of the CNS as a reservoir for HIV, covering the clinical evidence for continued CNS involvement despite suppressive therapy, the theorised dynamics of HIV integration into the CNS, as well as studies indicating that HIV can replicate independently and compartmentalise in the CNS. The unique cellular and anatomical sites of HIV integration in the CNS are also reviewed, as are the potential implications for HIV cure strategies.

  3. An integrated data model for reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Aydelotte, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the capability of the Epicenter data model to manage reservoir-simulation information, including the spatial model used to describe the properties of the earth and the product-flow network mode used to describe production performance. In addition to data values, the data model describes data creation and quality and provides a reliable means of understanding the source. To use the data model, reservoir-simulation applications need to be rewritten to conform to the data-model nomenclature and conventions. While this is a significant task, the benefit to reservoir simulation practitioners and vendors includes integration of technical applications (such as mapping, well logging, and geophysical interpretation systems), data portability (allowing Vendor A's simulator to use data prepared by Vendor B's preprocessor), and interpretability such as using a third-party optimization package to conduct a series of simulations.

  4. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  5. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  6. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  7. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  8. Sediment transport capacity as an objective of reservoir operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.; ,

    1998-01-01

    A sediment transport capacity index was developed as a part of a program to develop methods of flushing flow analysis. The index can be used to develop reservoir operation strategies that consider the movement of sediment as one of the reservoir management goals. The sedimentation transport capacity index determines the instream flow for the maintenance of the substrate below a reservoir in a condition needed by a desirable ecosystem. It can also be used in investigating the impacts of reservoir on the river channel downstream of the reservoir. The method allows a reservoir operator the flexibility of meeting the streamflow needs with a mix of streamflows.

  9. Mid-Infrared Fiber Lasers (Les fibres laser infrarouge moyen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    à fibres sont intrinsèquement mieux adaptés à ces applications que les lasers à l’état solide conventionnels, offrant un confinement optique , une...Sep 2010 Mid-Infrared Fiber Lasers (Les fibres laser infrarouge moyen) Research and Technology Organisation (NATO) BP 25, F-92201 Neuilly-sur-Seine...SET-171)TP/370 www.rto.nato.int RTO MEETING PROCEEDINGS MP-SET-171 Mid-Infrared Fiber Lasers (Les fibres laser infrarouge moyen) Papers presented

  10. Pesticide use in Kentucky reservoir watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes information on the types, uses, and amounts of pesticides applied to Kentucky Reservoir and its immediate watershed. Estimates for the quantities and types of the various pesticides used are based primarily on the land uses in the watershed. A listing of commonly used pesticides is included describing their uses, mode of action, and potential toxicological effects. This report will inform the the public and the Kentucky Reservoir Water Resources Task Force of the general extent of pesticide usage and is not an assessment of pesticide impacts. 10 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE THERMAL SHALLOW RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, G.D.

    1985-01-22

    The Geysers was discovered in 1847, and its therapeutic mineral baths were widely recognized by 1880. It was not until 1921, however, that the first steam well at The Geysers was drilled. Between 1922 and 1925, eight additional wells were drilled and tested as reported by Allen and Day. Development activity ceased until 1955 when Magma Power Company drilled the first ''commercial'' well. This success led to additional drilling in the Thermal Shallow Reservoir and the commissioning of a 12 MW power plant in September 1960, followed by a 14 MW power plant in February, 1963. This completed the commercial development of the Thermal shallow Reservoir.

  12. Petroleum reservoir simulation in a virtual environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Bethel, E.W.; Datta-Gupta, A.; Holland, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the authors describe an approach to combining a reservoir simulation with 3-D visualization and virtual reality technology. Their prototype VR/visualization system minimizes human-machine interface barriers and provides enhanced control over the simulation, thereby maximizing scientific judgment and use of intuition. They illustrate the practical advantage of using the VR/visualization prototype system in reservoir engineering by visualizing the results of a waterflood in an oil field with a three-dimensional, spatially correlated heterogeneous permeability field.

  13. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  14. Integrated reservoir studies enhance well completions

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.S.; Aud, W.W.; Burns, R.

    1998-03-16

    Integrated reservoir studies, together with modern completion and stimulation techniques, enhance well productivity while lowering completion costs. Results from different areas show that this approach increased productivity from 40% to 100% over previous applied methods. These approaches incorporate detailed production response characterization with a technical examination of past completion and stimulation practices to: Quantify the effectiveness of prior completion methods; Customize completions by specifically tailoring stimulation procedures to match the individual reservoir with its specific producing and fracturing idiosyncrasies. Two case histories, the Deep Red Fork (oil) formation of Oklahoma and the Haynesville (natural gas) formation of Louisiana, are used to illustrate the method.

  15. The aging of America's reservoirs: In-reservoir and downstream physical changes and habitat implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are important for various purposes including flood control, water supply, power generation, and recreation. The aging of America's reservoirs and progressive loss of water storage capacity resulting from ongoing sedimentation, coupled with increasing societal needs, will cause the social, economic, environmental, and political importance of reservoirs to continually increase. The short- and medium-term (<50 years) environmental consequences of reservoir construction and operation are well known and include an altered flow regime, lost connectivity (longitudinal, floodplain), an altered sediment regime, substrate compositional change, and downstream channel degradation. In general, reservoir-related changes have had adverse consequences for the natural ecosystem. Longer term (>50 years) environmental changes as reservoirs enter “old” age are less understood. Additional research is needed to help guide the future management of aging reservoir systems and support the difficult decisions that will have to be made. Important research directions include assessment of climate change effects on aging and determination of ecosystem response to ongoing aging and various management actions that may be taken with the intent of minimizing or reversing the physical effects of aging.

  16. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Bradley B.

    1984-07-01

    The first six months of the fishery investigations in Libby Reservoir were aimed at developing suitable methodology for sampling physical-chemical limnology, fish food availability, fish food habits, and seasonal distribution and abundance of fish populations. Appropriate methods have been developed for all aspects with minor modification of original proposed methodologies. Purse seining has yet to be tested. Physical-chemical limnologic sampling could be reduced or subcontracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to allow for more intensive sampling of fish food or fish distribution portions of the investigation. Final sample design will be determined during 1983-84. Future directions of the study revolve around two central issues, the potential for flexibility in reservoir operation and determination of how reservoir operation affects fish populations. Simulated maximum drawdown levels during a 40-year period were controlled by power in seven out of eight years. Drawdowns were generally within 10 feet of the flood control rule curve, however. There may be more flexibility with regards to timing of refill and evacuation. This aspect needs to be evaluated further. Production and availability of fish food, suitability of reservoir habitat, and accessibility of off-reservoir spawning and rearing habitat were identified as components of fish ecology which reservoir operation could potentially impact. Two models based on trophic dynamics and habitat suitabilities were suggested as a framework for exploring the relationship of reservoir operation on the fish community.

  17. Reservoir Modeling and Prediction at Pleasant Bayou Geopressured-Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, Mike

    1992-03-24

    Modeling and prediction of geopressured-geothermal reservoirs is an excellent example of an engineering problem that can be solved through many different means. The problem may be approached from a purely numerical viewpoint, where a successful history match ''demonstrates'' the validity of the reservoir model, or from an analytical point of view. Each method has its own inherent limitations and weaknesses. Such limitations can be minimized by using some combination of both numerical and analytical methods, taking advantage of the strengths of each without the attendant weaknesses. This paper describes a combined numerical/analytical approach to reservoir engineering at the Pleasant Bayou geopressured-geothermal reservoir. A reservoir description had previously been developed, through which a successful history match was performed. Certain details of the reservoir can also be obtained through analysis of pressure and flow transients; these can then be used to constrain the numerical model. Methods for extracting such reservoir data are discussed, and the manner in which they can be used as constraints in the numerical models are presented.

  18. Wall-resolved LES of high Reynolds number airfoil flow near stall condition for wall modeling in LES: LESFOIL revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, Kengo; Kawai, Soshi

    2016-11-01

    Wall-resolved large-eddy simulation (LES) of an airfoil flow involving a turbulent transition and separations near stall condition at a high Reynolds number 2.1 x 106 (based on the freestream velocity and the airfoil chord length) is conducted by using K computer. This study aims to provide the wall-resolved LES database including detailed turbulence statistics for near-wall modeling in LES and also to investigate the flow physics of the high Reynolds number airfoil flow near stall condition. The LES well predicts the laminar separation bubble, turbulent reattachment and turbulent separation. The LES also clarified unsteady flow features associated with shear-layer instabilities: high frequency unsteadiness at St = 130 at the laminar separation bubble near the leading edge and low frequency unsteadiness at St = 1.5 at the separated turbulent shear-layer near the trailing edge. Regarding the near-wall modeling in LES, the database indicates that the pressure term in the mean streamwise-momentum equation is not negligible at the laminar and turbulent separated regions. This fact suggests that widely used equilibrium wall model is not sufficient and the inclusion of the pressure term is necessary for wall modeling in LES of such flow. This research used computational resources of the K computer provided by the RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science through the HPCI System Research project (Project ID: hp140028). This work was supported by KAKENHI (Grant Number: 16K18309).

  19. Transit losses and traveltimes of reservoir releases along the Arkansas River from Pueblo Reservoir to John Martin Reservoir, southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livingston, Russell K.

    1978-01-01

    The volumes of reservoir releases are decreased or delayed during transit by bank storage, channel storage, and evaporation. Results from a computer model, calibrated by a controlled test release from Pueblo Reservoir, Colo., indicate that transit losses are greatest for small releases of a short duration when made during periods of low Antecedent streamflow. For equivalent releases, transit losses during the winter are about 7 percent less than losses during the summer. Based on available streamflow records, the velocity of reservoir releases ranges from about 0.6 miles per hour at the downstream end of the study reach, when antecedent streamflow is 10 cubic feet per second, to about 6.8 miles per hour at the upstream end of the study reach, when antecedent streamflow is 3,000 cubic feet per second. Consequently, the traveltime of a release increases as antecedent streamflow diminishes. Management practices that may be used to benefit water users in the study area include selection of the optimum time, rate, and duration of a reservoir release to minimize the transit losses, determination of an accurate traveltime, and diversion at several incremental rates. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K.; Doublet, L.E.

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  1. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  2. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, Appendices, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Bradley B.

    1985-06-01

    The appendices include: (1) stream habitat inventory procedures; (2) lengths and volumes across hydroacoustic transects in Libby Reservoir; (3) temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity profiles in Libby Reservoir; (4) habitat survey information by reach; (5) gill net catches by species; (6) annual catches of fish in floating gill nets; (7) vertical distributions of fish and zooplankton; (8) timing of juvenile and adult movement through traps; (9) food habits information for collected fish; (10) estimated densities and composition of zooplankton by genera; (11) seasonal catch of macroinvertebrates; and (12) initial modeling effort on the Libby Reservoir fishery. (ACR)

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  4. Fractal distributions of reservoir properties and their use in reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, D.; Hardy, H.H.; Beier, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Geostatistics has become a popular way to distribute reservoir properties between wells. One of the geostatistical methods being used is fractal geostatistics. Most porosity well logs have been found to have a fractal character. An analysis of vertical and horizontal logs, core photos, and outcrop photos has led to a rather simple model to describe porosity and permeability distributions. This representation has been tested in reservoir simulation of a mature waterflood and found to match production history with very little history matching. Fractal distributions were found to require much less history matching than classical layer cake models. Conoco is now actively applying this new technology to a number of its reservoirs.

  5. Ressources pour les personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Feldman, Sid; Schulz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les services offerts par la Société Alzheimer et discuter des autres sources de soutien et d’information à la disposition des personnes atteintes de démence. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans Ovid MEDLINE à l’aide des expressions dementia, Alzheimer disease, community health services utilization et caregiver stress. Message principal Il a été démontré qu’il est bénéfique aux patients et aux aidants si le diagnostic de la démence est posé tôt dans la maladie. Une consultation auprès de la Société Alzheimer peut aider dans la prise en charge non pharmacologique de la démence au moment du diagnostic et en tout temps durant l’évolution de la maladie. Parmi les services offerts, on peut mentionner des renseignements au sujet de la démence, le soutien aux aidants, la coordination des services communautaires et une grande diversité de ressources écrites à l’intention des patients et des aidants. Là où il est offert, le programme Premier lien peut aider avec l’orientation vers des services en minimisant la nécessité pour les patients ou les aidants de communiquer eux-mêmes avec les filiales locales de la Société. On discute aussi d’autres ressources, y compris les soins de répit et les approches technologiques pour prendre en charge l’errance. Conclusion La Société Alzheimer joue un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la démence et les médecins de famille devraient toujours envisager d’y référer leurs patients au moment du diagnostic, quelle que soit la gravité de l’état. Premier lien, quand il est accessible, peut faciliter le contact avec les services. Des ressources comme les soins de répit et les programmes de jour devraient toujours être considérés lorsqu’ils sont disponibles.

  6. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform of our in-house incompressible flow solver EllipSys3D. The flow solution is first obtained from the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), the acoustic part is then carried out based on the instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure and velocity field. To obtain the time history data of sound pressure, the flow quantities are integrated around the airfoil surface through the FWH approach. For all the simulations, the chord based Reynolds number is around 1.5x106. In the test matrix, the effects from angle of attack, the TE flap angle, the length/width of the TES are investigated. Even though the airfoil under investigation is already optimized for low noise emission, most numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments show that the noise level is further decreased by adding the TES device.

  7. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  8. Incorporating routing into reservoir planning optimization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijewski, Nicholas; Wörman, Anders; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    To achieve the best overall operation result in a reservoir network, optimization models are used. For larger reservoir networks the computational cost increases, making simplification of the hydrodynamic description necessary. In-accuracy in flow prediction can be related to an incurred sub-optimality in production planning. Flow behavior in a management optimization model is often described using a constant time-lag model. A simplified hydraulic model was used, describing the stream flow in a reservoir network for short term production planning of a case-study reservoir network (Dalälven River). In this study, the importance of incorporating hydrodynamic wave diffusion for optimized hydropower production planning in a regulated water system was examined, comparing the kinematic-wave model to the constant time-lag. The receding horizon optimization procedure was applied, emulating the data-assimilation procedure present in modern operations. Power production was shown to deviate from the planned production while considering a single time-lag, as a function of the stream description. The simplification of using a constant time-lag could be considered acceptable for streams characterized by high Peclet number. Examining the effect of the effect of the length of the decision time-step demonstrated the importance of high frequency data assimilation for streams characterized by low Peclet numbers. Further, it was shown that the variability in flow becomes more ordered as a result of management and that the Peclet number contributes to that goal.

  9. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  10. Using surface deformation to image reservoir dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Karasaki, K.; Doughty, C.

    2000-02-01

    The inversion of surface deformation data such as tilt, displacement, or strain provides a noninvasive method for monitoring subsurface volume change. Reservoir volume change is related directly to processes such as pressure variations induced by injection and withdrawal. The inversion procedure is illustrated by an application to tiltmeter data from the Hijiori test site in Japan. An inversion of surface tilt data allows one to image flow processes in a fractured granodiorite. Approximately 650 barrels of water, injected 2 km below the surface, produces a peak surface tilt of the order of 0.8 microradians. The authors find that the pattern of volume change in the granodiorite is very asymmetrical, elongated in a north-northwesterly direction, and the maximum volume change is offset by more than 0.7 km to the east of the pumping well. The inversion of a suite of leveling data from the Wilmington oil field in Long Beach, California, images large-scale reservoir volume changes in 12 one- to two-year increments from 1976 to 1996. The influence of various production strategies is seen in the reservoir volume changes. In particular, a steam flood in fault block 2 in the northwest portion of the field produced a sudden decrease in reservoir volume.

  11. Phosphorous control in a eutrophied reservoir.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Pacheco, H; Hansen, A M; Falcón-Rojas, A

    2013-12-01

    Water in lakes and reservoirs accumulate phosphorous (P) from both internal and external loads. The external P load (EPL) coming from the watershed is considered to be the main cause of eutrophication of water bodies, and control strategies therefore focus on its reduction. However, algae blooms and anoxic conditions often continue even after EPL have been controlled, being the internal P load (IPL) originating from the sediment the main sources of P. To assess the efficiency of the adsorbent Phoslock (a modified bentonite) in controlling P concentrations in water and immobilize releasable P in sediments, mesocosm trials were carried out in a eutrophied reservoir and a model was described and applied that determines the amount of adsorbent and the application frequency necessary to control P concentrations in a eutrophied reservoir. The mesocosm trials confirm that Phoslock reduced P concentrations to or below the limits that define water in mesotrophic state, in approximately 2 weeks. The modeling results suggest that periodic reapplications of the adsorbent are required, unless EPL is reduced by 36 %, which allows the P concentrations in the water column to be constant. Such reduction in EPL would allow future applications of the adsorbent to be required only for control of IPL. The developed model allows planning remediation actions by determining quantities and frequencies for application of adsorbents for P control in eutrophied lakes and reservoirs.

  12. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  13. Geothermal Reservoirs: Products of Cooling Plutons

    SciTech Connect

    Denis L. Norton

    2002-09-24

    The goals of this project were to develop an in depth understanding of how geothermal reservoirs form and elucidate those features that could potentially be useful in exploration and development of additional energy reserves. Collaboration with Jeff Hulen, EGI helped closely coordinate theoretical concepts and computational experiments with geologic reality in fulfillment of the tasks for this project. Initial reconnaissance computations with Tom Brikowski, University of Texas were critical in realizing the final products of this project. The products of this work contribute basic understanding of the dynamical conditions attendant to the formation of reservoirs in general and the Geysers reservoir in particular. The most exciting of the discoveries were a combination of mineralogical, computational, and geothermometric data sets that revealed a chaotic-like behavior of the processes is critical in the formation of reservoirs near cooling plutions. This discovery provides a fundamental basis for improving resource assessment and exploration methods for geothermal energy associated with very young magmas. Some of the main results are documented in scientific publications, and DOE progress reports. An additional publication is in preparation on the overall significance of fracture propagation and microseismic activity around young magmas.

  14. Seismic imaging of fractures in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoez, N.M.; Li, Y.; Lee, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The fracture systems that act as conduits for fluids play an important role in the extraction of geothermal energy in both liquid- and vapor-dominated fields. Hydraulic fracturing is a common engineering practice used to enhance fluid production from reservoirs with low permeability. In hot dry rock (HDR) and in vapor-dominated reservoirs that are being depleted, it is necessary to inject water to produce steam. This process generally requires hydraulic fracturing in advance to enhance the recovery. Therefore, fracture imaging and characterization are important in obtaining a better understanding of geothermal reservoirs. In this paper the authors present two new techniques for seismic characterization of fracture systems. The first technique involves the detection and characterization of existing fractures with a seismic source at the surface and a hydrophone array in a borehole, i.e., the hydrophone vertical seismic profiling (VSP). P- and S-waves impinging on an open fracture induce fluid flow from the fracture into the borehole and generate tube waves in the borehole. Orientations of fractures can be determined by using the ratios of an S-wave generated tube wave to a P-wave generated tube wave. The second technique is the high-precision location of induced earthquakes during hydrofracturing for imaging the fracture. These approaches provide the means to obtain much more detailed information about fracture systems within geothermal reservoirs.

  15. Evolution of analyzing reservoir simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, R.E.; Huang, A.Y.

    1994-12-31

    Numerical Reservoir Simulation is routinely used by the petroleum producing companies world-wide as an engineering tool to efficiently manage their hydrocarbon reservoirs. The task of building models with a large number of grid-blocks is not easy, and to analyze the voluminous results produced by such models is even more difficult. This paper discusses the historical evolution of techniques used to analyze reservoir simulation data over the past decade. It outlines how the advancement of workstation technology and the introduction of X-Window System opened up an entirely new way of utilizing mainframe computing power and workstation graphical display capabilities, simultaneously. The paper also discusses Saudi Aramco`s experience in the development of sophisticated reservoir simulation post-processing packages. The need for direct communication between the programmer and end-users to facilitate a user-friendly package is emphasized. A practical example illustrating the benefit of these post-processing packages in the construction and history matching of a large model with approximately 52,000 cells is presented. Savings in manpower and computer resources using current technology are estimated.

  16. Evolution of analyzing reservoir simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, R.E.; Huang, A.Y.

    1995-12-01

    Petroleum-producing companies world-wide routinely use numerical reservoir simulation as an engineering tool to manage their hydrocarbon reservoirs efficiently. The task of building models with a large number of gridblocks is not easy, and analyzing the voluminous results produced by such models is even more difficult. This paper discusses the historical evolution of techniques used to analyze reservoir simulation data over the past decade. It outlines how the advancement of workstation technology and the introduction of an X-Window system opened up an entirely new way of using mainframe computing power and workstation graphical display capabilities simultaneously. The paper also discusses Saudi Aramco`s experience in the development of sophisticated reservoir simulation postprocessing packages. The authors emphasize the need for direct communication between the programmer and end users to facilitate a user-friendly package. They present a practical example illustrating the benefit of these postprocessing packages in the construction and history matching of a large model with approximately 52,000 cells. They estimate savings in manpower and computer resources using current technology.

  17. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzman, D.O.; stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  18. Geodetic imaging: Reservoir monitoring using satellite interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vasco, D.W.; Wicks, C.; Karasaki, K.; Marques, O.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid fluxes within subsurface reservoirs give rise to surface displacements, particularly over periods of a year or more. Observations of such deformation provide a powerful tool for mapping fluid migration within the Earth, providing new insights into reservoir dynamics. In this paper we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) range changes to infer subsurface fluid volume strain at the Coso geothermal field. Furthermore, we conduct a complete model assessment, using an iterative approach to compute model parameter resolution and covariance matrices. The method is a generalization of a Lanczos-based technique which allows us to include fairly general regularization, such as roughness penalties. We find that we can resolve quite detailed lateral variations in volume strain both within the reservoir depth range (0.4-2.5 km) and below the geothermal production zone (2.5-5.0 km). The fractional volume change in all three layers of the model exceeds the estimated model parameter uncertainly by a factor of two or more. In the reservoir depth interval (0.4-2.5 km), the predominant volume change is associated with northerly and westerly oriented faults and their intersections. However, below the geothermal production zone proper [the depth range 2.5-5.0 km], there is the suggestion that both north- and northeast-trending faults may act as conduits for fluid flow.

  19. Reconnaissance Report on Papillion Creek Reservoirs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    reservoirs. Preimpoundment limnological investigations should include stream water quality, algal assays of the eutrophication potential of the water, and...provisional algal assay procedures established by the Joint Industry/Government Task Force on Eutrophication 3 could be used to evaluate the eutrophication... Kjeldahl nitrogen and conductivity. Phosphorus was used as a criterion because it is generally considered to be the most important nutrient

  20. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  1. Case Study of Reservoir Operation with SSSLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    by Charles D. D. Howard, Member AGU Senior Advisor, CddHoward Consulting Ltd Victoria, BC, Canada. For a continuous period of eight years a conceptual hydrologic model was coupled with a stochastic optimization model during operation of two hydroelectric reservoirs in mountain watersheds of coastal British Columbia. The results in terms of increased actual energy generation may provide insight into a simple methodology suitable for other similar situations. The optimization model was updated each week with current reservoir levels, operating criteria (such as unit outages) and stochastic inflow forecasts covering a 52 week time horizon. The weekly operating decisions were based on a stochastic linear programming model of the time horizon but recommended the optimal releases in only the first week. Implementation and management of the method was expedited by not considering the full multi-stage decision tree. This method is called SSLP, Single Stage Stochastic Linear Programming. The paper provides two comparisons for how well this methodology can perform. The first shows comparisons of actual energy generation, generation that could have been achieved if the model recommendations had been more strictly adopted, and generation that would have occurred if the previous rule curve had been followed. The second is an academic study that explored how much detail is actually needed in reservoir operations optimization. For this a single stage stochastic linear programming model of a hypothetical reservoir was compared with a stochastic dynamic programming application that modeled the full decision tree.

  2. Predicting reservoir wettability via well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Cheng; Fu, Jinhua; Shi, Yujiang; Li, Gaoren; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Wettability is an important factor in controlling the distribution of oil and water. However, its evaluation has so far been a difficult problem because no log data can directly indicate it. In this paper, a new method is proposed for quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability via well log analysis. Specifically, based on the J function, diagenetic facies classification and the piecewise power functions, capillary pressure curves are constructed from conventional logs and a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log respectively. Under the influence of wettability, the latter is distorted while the former remains unaffected. Therefore, the ratio of the median radius obtained from the two kinds of capillary pressure curve is calculated to reflect wettability, a quantitative relationship between the ratio and reservoir wettability is then established. According to the low-permeability core sample capillary pressure curve, NMR {{T}2} spectrum and contact angle experimental data from the bottom of the Upper Triassic reservoirs in western Ordos Basin, China, two kinds of constructing capillary pressure curve models and a predictive wettability model are calibrated. The wettability model is verified through the Amott wettability index and saturation exponent from resistivity measurement and their determined wettability levels are comparable, indicating that the proposed model is quite reliable. In addition, the model’s good application effect is exhibited in the field study. Thus, the quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability model proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for formation evaluation, field development and the improvement of oil recovery.

  3. VIEW OF SEGMENT OF DIKE CREATING UPPER TUMALO RESERVOIR FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SEGMENT OF DIKE CREATING UPPER TUMALO RESERVOIR FROM TUMALO RESERVOIR. LOOKING EAST/SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  4. 2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM IN MIDDLE GROUND, WEST DAM IN DISTANCE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  5. 78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO SHOWING POOL ARRANGEMENT FOR TEMPORARILY UTILIZING WATER WITHOUT FILLING THE RESERVOIR, Print No. 232, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  6. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR FLOW MEASUREMENTS FROM MARIOTTE RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, Jim; Murphy, Fred

    1987-01-01

    The mariotte reservoir supplies water at a constant hydraulic pressure by self-regulation of its internal gas pressure. Automated outflow measurements from mariotte reservoirs are generally difficult because of the reservoir's self-regulation mechanism. This paper describes an automated flow meter specifically designed for use with mariotte reservoirs. The flow meter monitors changes in the mariotte reservoir's gas pressure during outflow to determine changes in the reservoir's water level. The flow measurement is performed by attaching a pressure transducer to the top of a mariotte reservoir and monitoring gas pressure changes during outflow with a programmable data logger. The advantages of the new automated flow measurement techniques include: (i) the ability to rapidly record a large range of fluxes without restricting outflow, and (ii) the ability to accurately average the pulsing flow, which commonly occurs during outflow from the mariotte reservoir.

  7. South side of reservoir with buildings 20 and 21 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side of reservoir with buildings 20 and 21 in background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Water Reservoir, West Bushnell Avenue, South side, 150 feet West of intersection of West Bushnell Avenue & South First Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. 40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Roof of reservoir from southeast corner with buildings 20 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof of reservoir from southeast corner with buildings 20 and 21 in background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Water Reservoir, West Bushnell Avenue, South side, 150 feet West of intersection of West Bushnell Avenue & South First Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. 11. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM MAIN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  12. 14. VIEW OF AREA TO BE INUNDATED FOR EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF AREA TO BE INUNDATED FOR EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM OBSERVATORY HILL AT NORTH END OF WEST DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  13. The Spatial Dimension: A New Reservoir and Recreational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecock, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    An initial effort to estimate the nature and extent of a new reservoir's impact upon the recreational behavior of a sample population living in the surrounding area (Keystone Reservoir, Oklahoma) is described. (NQ)

  14. 2. VIEW OF MAIN STORAGE RESERVOIR, SHOWING UPSTREAM SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF MAIN STORAGE RESERVOIR, SHOWING UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND DISCHARGE GATE (LEFT), LOOKING SOUTHWEST (October 1991) - Bonanza Hydraulic Mining Site, Main Storage Reservoir, Swamp Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

  15. Coupling Turbulence in Hybrid LES-RANS Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    A formulation is proposed for hybrid LES-RANS computations that permits accurate computations during resolution changes, so that resolution may be changed at will in order to employ only as much resolution in each subdomain as is required by the physics. The two components of this formulation, establishing the accuracy of a hybrid model at constant resolutions throughout the RANS-to-LES range and maintaining that accuracy when resolution is varied, are demonstrated for decaying, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence.

  16. Numerical Simulation for Natural State of Two-Phase Liquid Dominated Geothermal Reservoir with Steam Cap Underlying Brine Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, Heru Berian; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny

    2016-09-01

    Hydrothermal reservoir which liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoir is a type of geothermal reservoir that most widely used for power plant. The exploitation of mass and heat from the geothermal fluid will decrease the pressure in the reservoir over time. Therefore the pressure drop in the reservoir will have an impact on the formation of boiling zones or boiling will increase. The impacts are an increase in the fraction of steam, dryness, in the reservoir and with good vertical permeability will form a steam cap underlying the brine reservoir. The two- phase liquid dominated reservoir is sensitive to the porosity and difficult to assign average properties of the entire reservoir when there is boiling zone in some area of the reservoir. These paper showed successful development of two-phase liquid dominated geothermal reservoir and discussed the formation of steam cap above brine reservoir through numerical simulation for state natural conditions. The natural state modeling in steam cap shows a match with the conceptual model of the vapor-dominated developed. These paper also proofed the presence of transition zone, boiling zone, between steam cap and brine reservoir.

  17. Reservoir management -- as conceived and applied on the Palinpinon reservoir, Phillipines

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Zosimo F.; Amistoso, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The present exploitation of Palinpinon reservoir has revealed valuable information on the subsurface characteristics of the reservoir under large scale production. The initial behavior of the field has given signals that there is a need to implement appropriate strategies to optimise its capacity without jeopardizing the supply of adequate steam to the power plant. Some of the problems encountered such as reinjection returns, mineral deposition, ingress of acid fluid and other phenomena indicated the need to pursue an aggressive monitoring capability and timely appraisal of the field response to design an approach which will best suit the optimum management of the reservoir. The results of reservoir monitoring are discussed as well as the policies applied in operating the field.

  18. Seismic Determination of Reservoir Heterogeneity: Application to the Characterization of Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Imhof, Matthias G.; Castle, James W.

    2003-03-12

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data could be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study was performed at West Coalinga Field in California.

  19. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum reservoir fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Oleksandr P.; Potter, David K.

    A knowledge of the magnetic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids may provide new techniques for improved reservoir characterisation, petroleum exploration and production. However, magnetic information is currently scarce for the vast majority of reservoir fluids. For instance, there is little in the literature concerning basic magnetic susceptibility values of crude oils or formation waters. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility ( χm) of several crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters from local and world-wide sites. All the fluids measured were diamagnetic, however there were distinct differences in magnitude between the different fluid types. In particular, χm for the crude oils was more negative than for the formation waters of the same locality. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties. The results correlated with the density, residue content, API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity, viscosity, sulphur content and metal concentration of the fluids. Light fractions of crude oil were the most diamagnetic. The magnetic measurements potentially allow physical and chemical differences between the fluids to be rapidly characterised. The results suggest other possible applications, such as passive in situ magnetic susceptibility sensors for fluid monitoring (for example, the onset of water breakthrough, or the detection of migrating fines) in reservoirs, which would provide an environmentally friendly alternative to radioactive tracers. The mass magnetic susceptibilities of the fluids in relation to typical reservoir minerals may also play a role in fluid-rock interactions, such as studies of wettability. The χm of crude oil from the various world-wide oil provinces that were tested also showed some differences, possibly reflecting broad physical and chemical features of the geological history of each province.

  20. Biological souring and mitigation in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gieg, Lisa M; Jack, Tom R; Foght, Julia M

    2011-10-01

    Souring in oil field systems is most commonly due to the action of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes, a diverse group of anaerobic microorganisms that respire sulfate and produce sulfide (the key souring agent) while oxidizing diverse electron donors. Such biological sulfide production is a detrimental, widespread phenomenon in the petroleum industry, occurring within oil reservoirs or in topside processing facilities, under low- and high-temperature conditions, and in onshore or offshore operations. Sulfate reducers can exist either indigenously in deep subsurface reservoirs or can be "inoculated" into a reservoir system during oil field development (e.g., via drilling operations) or during the oil production phase. In the latter, souring most commonly occurs during water flooding, a secondary recovery strategy wherein water is injected to re-pressurize the reservoir and sweep the oil towards production wells to extend the production life of an oil field. The water source and type of production operation can provide multiple components such as sulfate, labile carbon sources, and sulfate-reducing communities that influence whether oil field souring occurs. Souring can be controlled by biocides, which can non-specifically suppress microbial populations, and by the addition of nitrate (and/or nitrite) that directly impacts the sulfate-reducing population by numerous competitive or inhibitory mechanisms. In this review, we report on the diversity of sulfate reducers associated with oil reservoirs, approaches for determining their presence and effects, the factors that control souring, and the approaches (along with the current understanding of their underlying mechanisms) that may be used to successfully mitigate souring in low-temperature and high-temperature oil field operations.

  1. Authorized and Operating Purposes of Corps of Engineers Reservoirs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Puerto Rico CERRILLOS DAM AND RESERVOIR Jacksonville E-9O PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Jacksonville E-92 South Carolina HARTWELL DAM AND LAKE Savannah E...LAKE Missouri Kansas City E-12 POMONA LAKE Kansas Kansas City E-12 PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Puerto Rico Jacksonville E-92 PRADO DAM (SANTA ANA...PROJECT Florida Jacksonville E-92 PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Puerto Rico Jacksonville E-92 RODMAN LOCK AND DAM (CROSS FLORIDA BARGE CANAL Florida

  2. Incorporating reservoir heterogeneity with geostatistics to investigate waterflood recoveries

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, D.S. ); Chopra, A.K. )

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents an investigation of infill drilling performance and reservoir continuity with geostatistics and a reservoir simulator. The geostatistical technique provides many possible realizations and realistic descriptions of reservoir heterogeneity. Correlation between recovery efficiency and thickness of individual sand subunits is shown. Additional recovery from infill drilling results from thin, discontinuous subunits. The technique may be applied to variations in continuity for other sandstone reservoirs.

  3. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO(2) Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, David

    1996-12-01

    Progress has been made in the area of laboratory analysis of Spraberry oil/brine/rock interactions during this quarter. Water imbibition experiments were conducted under ambient conditions, using cleaned Spraberry cores, synthetic Spraberry reservoir brine, and Spraberry oil. It has been concluded that the Spraberry reservoir cores are weakly water-wet. The average Amott wettability index to water is about 0.55. The average oil recovery due to spontaneous water imbibition is about 50% of original oil in place.

  4. Reservoir simulation of a high viscous crude and strong water drive reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, A.

    1995-10-01

    The Bokor field is located offshore Sarawak, Malaysia and is one of the largest fields in the Baram Delta Province. The A3/6 group of reservoirs is the largest among the Bokor reservoir groups. The reservoir comprises a series of multiple, stacked, well-developed, fluviomarine sandstones connected to a large aquifer. Production from this reservoir started in 1983 and since then some 15 MMstb of oil have been produced. To better understand the production performance, displacement mechanism and further development opportunities in this high viscous crude (10 cP) and strong water drive reservoir, a 3D sector reservoir simulation has been carried out. The model comprises 8640 active grid blocks, with 14 strings completed on four reservoir units with separate fluid contacts. The layering system and grid dimensions were found to be critical in the history matching process, which was supported by a X-sectional study carried out prior to embarking on the 3D model. Based on the history match, remaining oil was identified on the eastern flank, at the top of each sand unit (due to water under-running) and in the downdip area due to the existing crestal oriented development. The history matched model was subsequently used to aid further development planning and to formulate a cost-effective reservoir management strategy. Various development scenarios were tested in this 3D model, which include infill drilling, horizontal wells and pressure maintenance by water injection. This paper describes the various steps taken to obtain a good history match over the 10 years of production history and discusses the findings of the prediction runs.

  5. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d

  6. Les bons conseils de la naissance à la maternelle

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Constantin, Evelyn; Carsley, Sarah; Rourke, James; Li, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Donner un aperçu de la version 2011 du Relevé postnatal Rourke (RPR), qui comporte aussi des nouveautés dans son site web et de nouvelles initiatives connexes et qui intègre les données des ouvrages scientifiques récents sur les soins de santé préventifs à l’intention des enfants de 0 à 5 ans. Qualité des données À l’instar des versions antérieures du RPR, la nouvelle édition présente des recommandations identifiées comme se fondant sur des preuves suffisantes, acceptables ou consensuelles, selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs en 2011. Message principal De nouveaux renseignements et des recommandations sont présentés concernant la surveillance de la croissance, la nutrition et la vaccination contre la varicelle, les pneumocoques, les méningocoques et le rotavirus. Il y a maintenant de bonnes données probantes en faveur de l’adaptation canadienne des courbes de croissance de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé, du dépistage universel des problèmes d’audition chez le nouveau-né et du recours à des stratégies de réduction de la douleur liée à la vaccination. On a mis à jour les conseils anticipatoires concernant la sécurité durant le sommeil, la supervision de la santé des enfants en foyer d’accueil, le trouble du spectre de l’alcoolisation fœtale, les facteurs de risque nécessitant le dépistage du plomb et de l’anémie, les soins dentaires et la santé buccale. Parmi les nouvelles rubriques dans le site web du RPR, on peut mentionner une section présentant des ressources pour les parents, des modifications à l’intention de populations particulières, comme les personnes vivant au Nunavut, une version du RPR qui met en évidence en un coup d’œil les modifications à la version de 2009 et une expansion de la fonction d’exploration du RPR accompagnée des hyperliens connexes menant aux renseignements pertinents. On peut

  7. Activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria under simulated reservoir conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosnes, J.T.; Graue, A.; Lien, T. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that have been isolated from hot oilfield waters from subsea oil reservoirs in the North Sea. Experiments with these bacteria in a reservoir simulator indicate that SRB may maintain their activity in the conditions found in most North Sea reservoirs and, if precautions are not taken, may contribute to souring of the oil and gas.

  8. Enhanced gas recovery from a moderately strong water drive reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Chesney, T.P.; Lewis, R.C.; Trice, M.L. Jr.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Blowdown performance of several South Texas water drive gas reservoirs indicated a substantial quantity of gas was trapped in water invaded regions. Depressuring of the reservoir by withdrawing large volumes of water in order to recover trapped gas was evaluated. The evaluation, implementation, and results of this enhanced gas recovery technique are discussed for one of these reservoirs.

  9. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  10. Developing and Managing a Comprehensive Reservoir Analysis Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    a flood control only, single event reservoir simulation model to a generalized hydrologic and economic reservoir simulation model with capabilities...The first release of HEC-5, May 1973, gave the Corps of Engineers a mainframe based, reservoir simulation model which automated the traditional manual

  11. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  12. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  13. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  14. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  15. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  16. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE NORTH WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE NORTH WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS AT THE LEFT. THE BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE IS SEEN AT THE UPPER LEFT AND SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 4 IS SEEN BEYOND THE EAST WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  17. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE SOUTH END OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE SOUTH END OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 AND JONES STREET ARE AT THE LEFT. SETTLING RESERVOIRS NO. 1 AND NO. 2 ARE AT THE FAR CENTER. THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS AT THE BOTTOM. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  18. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a...

  19. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a...

  20. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.72 Testing main reservoirs. (a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except...

  1. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a...

  2. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.72 Testing main reservoirs. (a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except...

  3. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a...

  4. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.72 Testing main reservoirs. (a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except...

  5. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a...

  6. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.72 Testing main reservoirs. (a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except...

  7. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.72 Testing main reservoirs. (a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except...

  8. Sudden Water Pollution Accidents and Reservoir Emergency Operations: Impact Analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hezhen; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Lei, Xiaohui; Kong, Lingzhong; Wang, Hao

    2017-03-29

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha Dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha Dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  9. Les Johnson Views Interstellar Sail Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Interstellar Propulsion Research department are proposing different solutions to combustion propellants for future space travel. One alternative being tested is the solar sail. The idea is, once deployed, the sail will allow solar winds to propel a spacecraft away from Earth and towards its destination. This would allow a spacecraft to travel indefinitely without the need to refuel during its ong journey. Thin reflective sails could be propelled through space by sunlight, microwave beams, or laser beams, just as the wind pushes sailboats on Earth. The sail will be the largest spacecraft ever built, sparning 440 yards, twice the diameter of the Louisiana Super Dome. Construction materials are being tested in a simulated space environment, where they are exposed to harsh conditions to test their performance and durability in extremely hot and cold temperatures. A leading candidate for the construction material is a carbon fiber material whose density is less than 1/10 ounce per square yard, the equivalent of flattening one raisin to the point that it covers a square yard. In space, the material would unfurl like a fan when it is deployed from an expendable rocket. This photo shows Les Johnson, manager of MSFC's Interstellar Propulsion Research Center holding the rigid, lightweight carbon fiber. An artist's concept of the sail is on the right. Mankind's first venture outside of our solar system is proposed for launch in a 2010 timeframe. An interstellar probe, powered by the fastest spacecraft ever flown, will zoom toward the stars at 58 miles per second. It will cover the distance from New York to Los Angeles in less than a minute and will travel over 23 billion miles beyond the edge of the solar system.

  10. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.

    2011-12-01

    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications - dakota.sandia.gov), is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  11. Fate of Organic Carbon Deposited in Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, T. G.; Rhoton, F. E.; Bennett, S. J.; Hudnall, W. H.

    2002-05-01

    Sedimentation of soil organic carbon (SOC) eroded from uplands and deposited in reservoirs could be an important mechanism for carbon sequestration provided that it is conserved during transport and burial and that uplands are not experiencing net loss. There are uncertainties in both these assumptions and gaining a better understanding of these processes is a key objective of ongoing carbon-cycle investigations. The U.S. Geological Survey, the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and Louisiana State University Agricultural Center are collaborating on an investigation of soils and sediments in the Yalobusha River Basin in Mississippi. Sediment cores were collected from upland soils and from Grenada Lake, a flood control reservoir, in the basin. Suspended sediments have been collected from the Yalobusha River and one of its tributaries upstream of the lake. We are measuring carbon mineralization potential in conjunction with carbon and nitrogen concentrations, 13C, mineralogy, and texture on sediments and upland soils to determine whether eroding SOC is conserved or oxidized during transport and burial. Differences in mineralization potential and other chemical and physical properties are used to infer net changes in the original eroding SOC. Autochthonous production of SOC within reservoirs could replace labile SOC oxidized during transport and burial thereby masking losses due to oxidation. Autochthonous sources can be evaluated by chemical and physical characterization of the sediments. Stable carbon isotope (13C) geochemistry provides a tool for distinguishing the two primary sources of organic carbon incorporated in lake sediments because allochthonous SOC from the surrounding watershed is, in general, less depleted in stable 13C than autochthonous SOC produced in the lake by aquatic organisms such as macrophytes and phytoplankton. The integration of the 13C signature recorded in the organic fraction of the lake sediments with total organic carbon, C/N ratio

  12. Reservoir technology research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stiger, S.G.; Renner, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been conducting geothermal reservoir research and testing sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1983. The INEL research program is primarily aimed at the development of reservoir engineering techniques for fractured geothermal reservoirs. Numerical methods have been developed which allow the simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex fractured reservoirs. Sensitivity studies have illustrated the importance of incorporating the influence of fractures in reservoir simulations. Related efforts include fracture characterization, geochemical reaction kinetics and field testing.

  13. Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this research is to develop an advanced, innovative technique for the description of reservoir heterogeneity. This proposed method consists of using tracers in single-well backflow tests. The general idea is to make use of fluid drift in the reservoir either due to naturally occurring pressure gradients in the reservoir, or by deliberately imposed pressure gradients using adjacent injection and production wells in the same reservoir. The analytical tool that will be used to design and interpret these tests is a compositional reservoir simulator with special features added and tested specifically for this purpose. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Method of extracting heat from dry geothermal reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Potter, R.M.; Robinson, E.S.; Smith, M.C.

    1974-01-22

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to interconnect two or more holes that penetrate a previously dry geothermal reservoir, and to produce within the reservoir a sufficiently large heat-transfer surface so that heat can be extracted from the reservoir at a usefully high rate by a fluid entering it through one hole and leaving it through another. Introduction of a fluid into the reservoir to remove heat from it and establishment of natural (unpumped) convective circulation through the reservoir to accomplish continuous heat removal are important and novel features of the method. (auth)

  15. The Risk Analysis of Reservoir Water Supply under High Turbidity- Case Study of the Shihmen Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.; Chang, L.; Ko, S.; Ho, C.; Chen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Due to the unstable geological condition of the Shihmen reservoir basin, the high turbidity of the outflow of water from the basin to the reservoir during typhoons causes rapid increase of turbidity in reservoir water. Because high water turbidity reduces the capacity of water treatment plants, water shortages could occur more frequently during typhoons and flood seasons. Based on the scenario described above, this study used the Monte Carlo analysis to evaluate shortage of water in the Taoyuan area when the Shihmen reservoir water was under conditions of high turbidity. The risk analysis process consisted of four sub-models: sub-model of rainfall synthesis, sub-model of rainfall runoff, sub-model of prediction of turbidity, and sub-model of management of water allocation under conditions of high turbidity. Two methods of prediction of turbidity, the artificial neural network (ANN) method and the unit characteristic hydrograph method, were developed and compared. The unit characteristic hydrograph method was modified from the unit hydrograph method and represented the relationship of reservoir inflow or outflow to the turbidity of reservoir water according to the function of unit response. Results of comparison of the two-methods indicated that the unit characteristic hydrograph method was more stable than the ANN method and included physical concepts that were easily understandable. Risk analysis showed a 57% possibility of water shortage during typhoons. Risk of water shortage decreased to 34% when tolerance of water shortage increased by 5%. Results of the case study demonstrated the reliability of the proposed procedure for risk assessment and method of prediction of turbidity prediction method. These methods could be extended to other reservoirs that have problems of high turbidity problem to assess risk of water shortage.

  16. Analysis of production decline in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Zais, Elliot J.; Bodvarsson, Gunnar

    1980-09-01

    The major objectives of the Decline Curve project were to: (1) test the decline analysis methods used in the petroleum industry on geothermal production data; (2) examine and/or develop new analysis methods; and (3) develop a standard operating procedure for analyzing geothermal production data. Various analysis methods have long been available but they have not been tested on geothermal data because of the lack of publicly available data. The recent release to publication of substantial data sets from Wairakei, New Zealand, Cerro Prieto, Mexico and The Geysers, USA has made this study possible. Geothermal reservoirs are quite different from petroleum reservoirs in many ways so the analysis methods must be tested using geothermal data.

  17. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzo, A.; de Girolamo, P.; di Risio, M.; Maistri, A.; Petaccia, A.

    2005-09-01

    The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe), are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy), generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.

  18. Reservoir property grids improve with geostatistics

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J. . E and P Technology Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    Visualization software, reservoir simulators and many other E and P software applications need reservoir property grids as input. Using geostatistics, as compared to other gridding methods, to produce these grids leads to the best output from the software programs. For the purpose stated herein, geostatistics is simply two types of gridding methods. Mathematically, these methods are based on minimizing or duplicating certain statistical properties of the input data. One geostatical method, called kriging, is used when the highest possible point-by-point accuracy is desired. The other method, called conditional simulation, is used when one wants statistics and texture of the resulting grid to be the same as for the input data. In the following discussion, each method is explained, compared to other gridding methods, and illustrated through example applications. Proper use of geostatistical data in flow simulations, use of geostatistical data for history matching, and situations where geostatistics has no significant advantage over other methods, also will be covered.

  19. Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Optimized reservoir management: Mixed linear programming

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, J.C.; Novotnak, J.F.; Aasboee, B.T.; Kennedy, C.J.

    1997-12-01

    The Ekofisk field and surrounding Phillips Norway Group fields, also referred to as the greater Ekofisk area fields, are in the southern part of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Oil and gas separation and transportation facilities are centrally located on the Ekofisk complex at Ekofisk field. The Ekofisk 2 redevelopment project is designed to replace the oil-/gas-production and -processing capabilities of the existing Ekofisk complex. This requirement grew out of the high operating and maintenance expenses associated with the existing facilities. Other factors of significance were the effects of seafloor subsidence and changing safety regulations. A significant aspect of the Ekofisk field has been reservoir compaction that has resulted in seabed subsidence over the areal extent of the reservoir. After 25 years of production, the cumulative subsidence in the center of the field is more than 21 ft. The redevelopment project addresses the economic, maintenance, and safety factors and maintains the economic viability of Ekofisk and surrounding fields.

  1. Are wetlands the reservoir for avian cholera?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands have long been suspected to be an important reservoir for Pasteurella multocida and therefore the likely source of avian cholera outbreaks. During the fall of 1995a??98 we collected sediment and water samples from 44 wetlands where avian cholera epizootics occurred the previous winter or spring. We attempted to isolate P. multocida in sediment and surface water samples from 10 locations distributed throughout each wetland. We were not able to isolate P. multocida from any of the 440 water and 440 sediment samples collected from these wetlands. In contrast, during other investigations of avian cholera we isolated P. multocida from 20 of 44 wetlands, including 7% of the water and 4.5% of the sediment samples collected during or shortly following epizootic events. Our results indicate that wetlands are an unlikely reservoir for the bacteria that causes avian cholera.

  2. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

    2003-03-31

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

  3. Determining water reservoir characteristics with global elevation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmelen, C. W. T.; Mann, M.; Ridder, M. P.; Rutten, M. M.; Giesen, N. C.

    2016-11-01

    Quantification of human impact on water, sediment, and nutrient fluxes at the global scale demands characterization of reservoirs with an accuracy that is presently unavailable. This letter presents a new method, based on virtual dam placement, to make accurate estimations of area-volume relationships of large reservoirs, using solely readily available elevation data. The new method is based on regional similarity of area-volume relationships. The essence of the method is that virtual reservoirs are created in the vicinity of an existing reservoir to derive area-volume relationships for the existing reservoir. The derived area-volume relationships reproduced in situ bathymetric data well. An intercomparison for twelve reservoirs resulted in an average R2 = 0.93. This is a significant improvement on estimates using the best existing global regression model, which gives R2 = 0.54 for the same set of reservoirs.

  4. Toward optical signal processing using photonic reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dierckx, Wouter; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Verstraeten, David; Baets, Roel; Bienstman, Peter; Van Campenhout, Jan

    2008-07-21

    We propose photonic reservoir computing as a new approach to optical signal processing in the context of large scale pattern recognition problems. Photonic reservoir computing is a photonic implementation of the recently proposed reservoir computing concept, where the dynamics of a network of nonlinear elements are exploited to perform general signal processing tasks. In our proposed photonic implementation, we employ a network of coupled Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) as the basic building blocks for the reservoir. Although they differ in many key respects from traditional software-based hyperbolic tangent reservoirs, we show using simulations that such a photonic reservoir can outperform traditional reservoirs on a benchmark classification task. Moreover, a photonic implementation offers the promise of massively parallel information processing with low power and high speed.

  5. Application of multitracer technology to petroleum reservoir studies

    SciTech Connect

    Senum, G.I.

    1992-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: (1) improve the assessment of the character of petroleum reservoirs using tracer technology for the monitoring and improvement of EOR techniques, specifically, (a) To apply the presently available multitracer perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology to the study of petroleum reservoirs in characterizing reservoir bulk subsurface flow transport and dispersion rates; and (b) to demonstrate that PFTs with differing physical properties will interact with differing rates of absorption and dispersion within such reservoirs, from which may be inferred difference in the character and/or extent of petroleum in those reservoirs. (2) To develop a data base of petroleum transport and dispersion properties from tracer experiments for use by modellers for developing, validating and extending petroleum reservoirs models used for characterizing petroleum reservoirs.

  6. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs which contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range and are susceptible to recovery by in situ combustion and steam drive. The reservoirs for steam recovery are less than 2500 feet deep to comply with state-of-the-art technology. In cases where one reservoir would be a target for in situ combustion or steam drive, that reservoir is reported in both sections. Data were collectd from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

  7. Transient analysis of the 1991 Hijiori Shallow Reservoir Circulation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S.; Wright, C.A.; Conant, R..

    1996-01-24

    Like any dynamic system, HDR reservoirs cannot be fully characterized by their steady-state behavior. Circulation tests analysis should be performed on both the steady-state response and the transient response of HDR systems. Transient analysis allows not only estimation of critical reservoir parameters and how these parameters change with operating conditions / history, but transient analysis also aids in evaluating the feasibility of various modes of HDR system operation (base load, load following, etc.). This paper details the transient analysis of NEDO's FY 1991 Shallow Reservoir Circulation Test at the Hijiori HDR site in Japan. Reservoir fluid storage is carefully bounded through the employment of two distinct methods for calculation of the fluid storage from the observed transient response. A brief discussion is also included of the distribution of reservoir fluid storage; the relationship between pressure, reservoir stress, and apparent reservoir capacitance; and appropriate circulation test design to facilitate transient analysis.

  8. Foam front propagation in anisotropic oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Grassia, P; Torres-Ulloa, C; Berres, S; Mas-Hernández, E; Shokri, N

    2016-04-01

    The pressure-driven growth model is considered, describing the motion of a foam front through an oil reservoir during foam improved oil recovery, foam being formed as gas advances into an initially liquid-filled reservoir. In the model, the foam front is represented by a set of so-called "material points" that track the advance of gas into the liquid-filled region. According to the model, the shape of the foam front is prone to develop concave sharply curved concavities, where the orientation of the front changes rapidly over a small spatial distance: these are referred to as "concave corners". These concave corners need to be propagated differently from the material points on the foam front itself. Typically the corner must move faster than those material points, otherwise spurious numerical artifacts develop in the computed shape of the front. A propagation rule or "speed up" rule is derived for the concave corners, which is shown to be sensitive to the level of anisotropy in the permeability of the reservoir and also sensitive to the orientation of the corners themselves. In particular if a corner in an anisotropic reservoir were to be propagated according to an isotropic speed up rule, this might not be sufficient to suppress spurious numerical artifacts, at least for certain orientations of the corner. On the other hand, systems that are both heterogeneous and anisotropic tend to be well behaved numerically, regardless of whether one uses the isotropic or anisotropic speed up rule for corners. This comes about because, in the heterogeneous and anisotropic case, the orientation of the corner is such that the "correct" anisotropic speed is just very slightly less than the "incorrect" isotropic one. The anisotropic rule does however manage to keep the corner very slightly sharper than the isotropic rule does.

  9. Reservoir studies with geostatistics to forecast performance

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, R.W.; Behrens, R.A.; Emanuel, A.S. )

    1991-05-01

    In this paper example geostatistics and streamtube applications are presented for waterflood and CO{sub 2} flood in two low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. Thy hybrid approach of combining fine vertical resolution in cross-sectional models with streamtubes resulted in models that showed water channeling and provided realistic performance estimates. Results indicate that the combination of detailed geostatistical cross sections and fine-grid streamtube models offers a systematic approach for realistic performance forecasts.

  10. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  11. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  12. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, D.

    1995-05-01

    Exploration strategies are needed to identify subtle basement features critical to locating fractured regions in advance of drilling in tight gas reservoirs. The Piceance Basin served as a demonstration site for an analysis utilizing aeromagnetic surveys, remote sensing, Landsat Thematic Mapper, and Side Looking Airborne Radar imagery for the basin and surrounding areas. Spatially detailed aeromagnetic maps were used to to interpret zones of basement structure.

  13. Optimal Hedging Rule for Reservoir Refill Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, W.; Zhao, J.; Lund, J. R.; Zhao, T.; Lei, X.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops an optimal reservoir Refill Hedging Rule (RHR) for combined water supply and flood operation using mathematical analysis. A two-stage model is developed to formulate the trade-off between operations for conservation benefit and flood damage in the reservoir refill season. Based on the probability distribution of the maximum refill water availability at the end of the second stage, three zones are characterized according to the relationship among storage capacity, expected storage buffer (ESB), and maximum safety excess discharge (MSED). The Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions of the model show that the optimality of the refill operation involves making the expected marginal loss of conservation benefit from unfilling (i.e., ending storage of refill period less than storage capacity) as nearly equal to the expected marginal flood damage from levee overtopping downstream as possible while maintaining all constraints. This principle follows and combines the hedging rules for water supply and flood management. A RHR curve is drawn analogously to water supply hedging and flood hedging rules, showing the trade-off between the two objectives. The release decision result has a linear relationship with the current water availability, implying the linearity of RHR for a wide range of water conservation functions (linear, concave, or convex). A demonstration case shows the impacts of factors. Larger downstream flood conveyance capacity and empty reservoir capacity allow a smaller current release and more water can be conserved. Economic indicators of conservation benefit and flood damage compete with each other on release, the greater economic importance of flood damage is, the more water should be released in the current stage, and vice versa. Below a critical value, improving forecasts yields less water release, but an opposing effect occurs beyond this critical value. Finally, the Danjiangkou Reservoir case study shows that the RHR together with a rolling

  14. ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRIDGEPORT AND CYPRESS RESERVOIRS OF THE LAWRENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Ron Damm; Bev Seyler

    2003-03-01

    Feasibility of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood for the Lawrence Field in Lawrence County, Illinois is being studied. Two injected formulations are being designed; one for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs and one for Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. Fluid-fluid and coreflood evaluations have developed a chemical solution that produces incremental oil in the laboratory from the Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. A chemical formulation for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs is being developed. A reservoir characterization study is being done on the Bridgeport A, B, & D sandstones, and on the Cypress sandstone. The study covers the pilot flood area and the Lawrence Field.

  15. ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRIDGEPORT AND CYPRESS RESERVOIRS OF THE LAWRENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Ron Damm; Bev Seyler

    2003-04-01

    Feasibility of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood for the Lawrence Field in Lawrence County, Illinois is being studied. Two injected formulations are being designed; one for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs and one for Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. Fluid-fluid and coreflood evaluations have developed a chemical solution that produces incremental oil in the laboratory from the Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. A chemical formulation for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs is being developed. A reservoir characterization study is being done on the Bridgeport A, B, & D sandstones, and on the Cypress sandstone. The study covers the pilot flood area and the Lawrence Field.

  16. Les aspergillomes pulmonaires: à propos de 37 cas à Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoson, Joëlson Lovaniaina; Razafindramaro, Notahiana; Rakotomizao, Jocelyn Robert; Vololontiana, Hanta Marie Danielle; Andrianasolo, Radonirina Lazasoa; Ravahatra, Kiady; Tiaray, Michel; Rajaoarifetra, Jobeline; Rakotoharivelo, Hendriniaina; Andrianarisoa, Ange Christophe Félix

    2011-01-01

    L'aspergillome pulmonaire est une colonisation par Aspergillus d'une cavité pulmonaire préformée. Nos objectifs étaient de définir le profil épidémio-clinique et thérapeutique des aspergillomes pulmonaires et essayer de dégager les facteurs favorisants de cette affection à Madagascar. Nous avons réalisés une étude prospective, descriptive, analytique durant 59 mois sur les aspergillomes pulmonaires à Antananarivo Madagascar. Etaient inclus dans cette étude les malades ayant un diagnostic d'aspergillome pulmonaire. Trente-sept (37) cas d'aspergillome pulmonaire étaient recensés parmi les 8 392 patients hospitalisés dans le service de Pneumologie (0,44%). Il s'agit de 29 hommes (78,38%) et 8 femmes (21,61%), d’âge moyen de 43 ans. Les facteurs prédisposant étaient dominés par la tuberculose pulmonaire (89,19%). Le délai moyen d'apparition de l'aspergillome chez les malades ayant un antécédent de tuberculose pulmonaire à bacilloscopie positive (TPM+) était de 8 ans et 6 mois avec un délai extrême de un mois à 23 ans. L'hémoptysie était le mode de révélation le plus fréquent (91,89%). Le traitement était médical chez 27 patients (72,97%) et médico-chirurgical chez 10 patients (27,03%). Vingt sept patients étaient perdus de vue (72,97%), et pour les 10 patients suivis (27,02%), 70% avaient une évolution favorable avec disparition des signes, et 30% présentaient des hémoptysies récidivantes. Le taux de mortalité postopératoire était de 4% et 50% des patients avaient des complications postopératoires. La surveillance des lésions séquellaires de tuberculose pulmonaire qui constituent les facteurs favorisants prédominant d'aspergillome pulmonaire à Madagascar nécessite une attention particulière. La prise en charge de la tuberculose doit être précoce et adaptée surtout dans les pays à forte prévalence tuberculeuse. PMID:22187586

  17. Les inconvénients de perdre du poids

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Explorer les raisons pour lesquelles la perte de poids à long terme échoue la plupart du temps et évaluer les conséquences de diverses trajectoires pondérales, y compris la stabilité, la perte et le gain. Source des données Les études qui évaluent les paramètres pondéraux dans la population sont en majorité observationnelles. Des données probantes de niveau I ont été publiées pour évaluer l’influence des interventions relatives au poids sur la mortalité et la qualité de vie. Message principal Seulement un petit pourcentage des personnes qui désirent perdre du poids réussissent à le faire de manière durable. La mortalité est la plus faible chez les personnes se situant dans la catégorie de poids élevé-normal et surpoids. La trajectoire pondérale la plus sécuritaire est la stabilité du poids avec une optimisation de la condition physique et métabolique. Il est démontré que la mortalité est plus faible chez les personnes ayant des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité si elles perdent du poids. Il est aussi établi que la qualité de vie sur le plan de la santé est meilleure chez les personnes obèses qui perdent du poids. Par contre, la perte de poids chez une personne obèse autrement en santé est associée à une mortalité accrue. Conclusion La perte de poids est recommandable seulement chez les personnes qui ont des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité. Les personnes obèses en santé qui veulent perdre du poids devraient être informées qu’il peut y avoir des risques à le faire. Une stratégie qui se traduit par un indice de masse corporelle stable avec une condition physique et métabolique optimisée, peu importe le poids, est l’option d’intervention la plus sécuritaire en ce qui concerne le poids.

  18. Tracer study of San Vicente reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    The City of San Diego remains on the cutting edge of water conservation. With an unwavering commitment to maintain an adequate water supply for the future, water repurification is now being considered. The City of San Diego and San Diego Water Authority (CWA) have proposed to recycle repurified water through San Vicente Reservoir. A key component of assessing the feasibility of such a project is to calculate the retention time of repurified water in the reservoir. Working with engineering consultant team (Montgomery-Watson Engineers and Flow Science, Incorporated) two tracer studies were conducted to model the circulation and mixing of repurified water introduced into the reservoir. The goal was to determine whether repurified water recycled through San Vicente will meet the retention time criteria established by the Department of Health Services. This presentation however, will not attempt to interpret the results of the study, that aspect will be evaluated by the Flow Scientist. The objective here is to explain how the project was carried out and to focus mostly on the analytical work performed on the samples by the chemist in the City of San Diego Water Quality Laboratory.

  19. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1993-04-09

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems - an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSPI) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium-based system where polyacrylamide and xanthan are crosslinked by CR(III) and an organic crosslinked system. Development of the KUSPI system and evaluation and identification of a suitable organic crosslinked system will be done. The laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: development and selection of gelled polymer systems, physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; and mathematical modeling of gel systems.

  20. Robust stochastic optimization for reservoir operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Limeng; Housh, Mashor; Liu, Pan; Cai, Ximing; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Optimal reservoir operation under uncertainty is a challenging engineering problem. Application of classic stochastic optimization methods to large-scale problems is limited due to computational difficulty. Moreover, classic stochastic methods assume that the estimated distribution function or the sample inflow data accurately represents the true probability distribution, which may be invalid and the performance of the algorithms may be undermined. In this study, we introduce a robust optimization (RO) approach, Iterative Linear Decision Rule (ILDR), so as to provide a tractable approximation for a multiperiod hydropower generation problem. The proposed approach extends the existing LDR method by accommodating nonlinear objective functions. It also provides users with the flexibility of choosing the accuracy of ILDR approximations by assigning a desired number of piecewise linear segments to each uncertainty. The performance of the ILDR is compared with benchmark policies including the sampling stochastic dynamic programming (SSDP) policy derived from historical data. The ILDR solves both the single and multireservoir systems efficiently. The single reservoir case study results show that the RO method is as good as SSDP when implemented on the original historical inflows and it outperforms SSDP policy when tested on generated inflows with the same mean and covariance matrix as those in history. For the multireservoir case study, which considers water supply in addition to power generation, numerical results show that the proposed approach performs as well as in the single reservoir case study in terms of optimal value and distributional robustness.

  1. Mercury and methylmercury in reservoirs in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Fredericksen, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury (reported as Hg) in fish-tissue samples collected for the State fish consumption advisory program was used to describe MeHg food-web accumulation and magnification in the reservoirs. The highest percentages of fish-tissue samples with Hg concentrations that exceeded the criterion of 0.30 milligram per kilogram for protection of human health were from Monroe Lake (38 percent) and Patoka Lake (33 percent). A review of the number and size of fish species caught from these two reservoirs resulted in two implications for fish consumption by humans. First, the highest numbers of fish harvested for potential human consumption were species more likely to have MeHg concentrations lower than the human-health criterion (crappie, bluegill, and catfish). Second, although largemouth bass were likely to have MeHg concentrations higher than the human-health criterion, they were caught and released more often than they were harvested. However, the average size largemouth bass (in both reservoirs) and above-average size walleye (in Monroe Lake) that were harvested for potential human consumption were likely to have MeHg concentrations higher than the human-health criterion.

  2. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, P.G.

    1992-12-25

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium-based system where polyacrylamide and xanthan are crosslinked by Cr(III) and an organic crosslinked system. Development of the KUSP1 system and evaluation and, identification of the organic crosslinked system will be conducted. The laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Progress report are presented for the following tasks: Development and selection of gelled polymer systems; physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; and mathematical modelling of gel systems.

  3. Les nerfs à fleur de peau.

    PubMed

    Misery, L

    2002-04-01

    Skin innervation is extremely dense and reaches the most superficial layers of the epidermis (but not into the stratum corneum). The relationship between skin and the nervous system was neglected for a long time. Nowadays, this represents one of the most widely investigated fields of skin biology. Associations between nerve fibres and skin are so close that these can be observed at the cellular level. They are anatomical and physiological. Neurotransmitters are naturally synthesized by nerve endings, but cells from the skin and the immune system are also able to produce them. They are mediators for transmission of information between skin and the nervous system. All cutaneous and immune cells express specific receptors for these neuromediators, and enzymes for degrading them. Binding of the neurotransmitter to its receptor induces modulation of cell properties and skin functions (immunity, cell differentiation and proliferation, pigmentation, etc.). Hence, keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, melanocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and the other cells of the skin or the immune system are modulated and controlled by the nerves. Reciprocally, skin is able to modulate neuronal activity and growth. All these data suggest that skin, nervous and immune systems are integrated in a unique system that we could name the neuro-immuno-cutaneous system (NICS). Hence, we can understand how the nervous system, and further the psychism, are involved in the maintenance of cutaneous homeostasis. In dermatological diseases or in cosmetological disorders, this equilibrium is broken. New fields of research are open: neuro-dermatology and of course neuro-cosmetics. Neuro-cosmetic products are supposed to modulate NICS functioning at the epidermal level. The French expression 'avoir les nerfs à fleur de peau' means that nervosity is so tense that one feels his nerves closely under or within skin, ready to explode. In fact, nerves are always 'à fleur de peau'. Skin is an organ whose

  4. Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in the Military (Strategies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidelisation dans les armees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Oct 2009 Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in the Military (Stratégies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de...les questions de recrutement et de fidélisation dans les armées) The material in this publication was assembled to support a Special Course under...HFM-180 Stratégies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidélisation dans les armées (RTO-EN-HFM-180) Synthèse L’objectif des

  5. Optimizing withdrawal from drinking water reservoirs to reduce downstream temperature pollution and reservoir hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Weber, M; Rinke, K; Hipsey, M R; Boehrer, B

    2017-03-20

    Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires balancing the demands of water supply whilst minimizing environmental impact. This study numerically simulates the effect of an improved withdrawal scheme designed to alleviate the temperature pollution downstream of a reservoir. The aim was to identify an optimal withdrawal strategy such that water of a desirable discharge temperature can be supplied downstream without leading to unacceptably low oxygen concentrations within the reservoir. First, we calibrated a one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamics and oxygen dynamics (GLM-AED2), verifying that the model reproduced water temperatures and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations accurately over a 5 year period. Second, the model was extended to include an adaptive withdrawal functionality, allowing for a prescribed withdrawal temperature to be found, with the potential constraint of hypolimnetic oxygen concentration. Scenario simulations on epi-/metalimnetic withdrawal demonstrate that the model is able to autonomously determine the best withdrawal height depending on the thermal structure and the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration thereby optimizing the ability to supply a desirable discharge temperature to the downstream river during summer. This new withdrawal strategy also increased the hypolimnetic raw water volume to be used for drinking water supply, but reduced the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the deep and cold water layers (hypolimnion). Implications of the results for reservoir management are discussed and the numerical model is provided for operators as a simple and efficient tool for optimizing the withdrawal strategy within different reservoir contexts.

  6. Multimodal reservoir porosity simulation: An application to a tight oil reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvageau, Mathieu; Gloaguen, Erwan; Claprood, Maxime; Lefebvre, René; Bêche, Martin

    2014-08-01

    At appraisal stage of a reservoir characterization, a key step is the inference of the reservoir static properties, such as porosity. In this study, we present a new nested workflow that optimally integrates 3D acoustic impedance and geophysical log data for the estimation of the spatial distribution of reservoir porosity, which is applied to a tight sandstone oil reservoir located in Quebec, Canada. In this workflow, 3D seismic is the main source of spatial information. First, the statistical petrophysical relationship between acoustic impedance and reservoir porosity is established using collocated geophysical log data. Second, a conventional least-squares post-stack inversion of the impedance is computed on the seismic grid. The fit between well log data and numerically computed traces was found to be inaccurate. This leads to the third step, involving a post-stack stochastic impedance inversion using the same seismic traces not only to improve well and trace fit but also to estimate the uncertainty on the inverted impedances. Finally, a Bayesian simulation algorithm adapted to the estimation of a multi-modal porosity distribution is used to simulate realizations of porosity over the entire seismic grid. Results show that the over-smoothing effect of least-squares inversion has a major impact on resource evaluation, especially by not reproducing the high-valued tail of the porosity distribution. The adapted Bayesian algorithm combined with stochastic impedance inversion thus allows a better reproduction of the porosity distribution and improves estimation of the geophysical and geological uncertainty.

  7. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1987 Methods and Data Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Ian

    1989-12-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin. The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power, flood control, and navigation and other benefits. Research began in May 1983 to determine how operations of Libby dam impact the reservoir fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these impacts. This study is unique in that it was designed to accomplish its goal through detailed information gathering on every trophic level in the reservoir system and integration of this information into a quantitative computer model. The specific study objectives are to: quantify available reservoir habitat, determine abundance, growth and distribution of fish within the reservoir and potential recruitment of salmonids from Libby Reservoir tributaries within the United States, determine abundance and availability of food organisms for fish in the reservoir, quantify fish use of available food items, develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat for fish and fish food organisms, and estimate impacts of reservoir operation on the reservoir fishery. 115 refs., 22 figs., 51 tabs.

  8. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  9. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. We learned, however, that this strategy was impractical. The different data and tools need to be integrated from the beginning because they are all interrelated. This report describes a new approach to geostatistical modeling and presents an integration of geology and geophysics to explain the formation of the complex Coalinga reservoir.

  10. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. Throughout the project, however, we learned that this strategy was impractical because the different data and model are complementary instead of competitive. For the complex Coalinga field, we found that a thorough understanding of the reservoir evolution through geologic times provides the necessary framework which ultimately allows integration of the different data and techniques.

  11. Functional age as an indicator of reservoir senescence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been conjectured that reservoirs differ in the rate at which they manifest senescence, but no attempt has been made to find an indicator of senescence that performs better than chronological age. We assembled an indicator of functional age by creating a multimetric scale consisting of 10 metrics descriptive of reservoir environments that were expected to change directionally with reservoir senescence. In a sample of 1,022 U.S. reservoirs, chronological age was not correlated with functional age. Functional age was directly related to percentage of cultivated land in the catchment and inversely related to reservoir depth. Moreover, aspects of reservoir fishing quality and fish population characteristics were related to functional age. A multimetric scale to indicate reservoir functional age presents the possibility for management intervention from multiple angles. If a reservoir is functionally aging at an accelerated rate, action may be taken to remedy the conditions contributing most to functional age. Intervention to reduce scores of selected metrics in the scale can potentially reduce the rate of senescence and increase the life expectancy of the reservoir. This leads to the intriguing implication that steps can be taken to reduce functional age and actually make the reservoir grow younger.

  12. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Ian

    1985-01-01

    The goal was to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery in Libby. This report summarizes data collected from July 1984 through July 1985, and, where appropriate, presents data collected since 1983. The Canada, Rexford, and Tenmile areas of the reservoir are differentially affected by drawdown. Relative changes in water volume and surface area are greatest in the Canada area and smallest in the Tenmile area. Reservoir morphology and hydraulics probably play a major role in fish distribution through their influence on water temperature. Greatest areas of habitat with optimum water temperature for Salmo spp. and kokanee occurred during the spring and fall months. Dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity levels were not limiting during any sampling period. Habitat enhancement work was largely unsuccessful. Littoral zone vegetation plantings did not survive well, primarily the result of extreme water level fluctuations. Relative abundances of fish species varied seasonally within and between the three areas. Water temperature is thought to be the major influence in fish distribution patterns. Other factors, such as food availability and turbidity, may mitigate its influence. Sampling since 1975 illustrates a continued increase in kokanee numbers and a dramatic decline in redside shiners. Salmo spp., bull trout, and burbot abundances are relatively low while peamouth and coarsescale sucker numbers remain high. A thermal dynamics model and a trophic level components model will be used to quantify the impact of reservoir operation on the reservoir habitat, primary production, secondary production and fish populations. Particulate carbon will be used to track energy flow through trophic levels. A growth-driven population dynamics simulation model that will estimate the impacts of reservoir operation on fish population dynamics is also being considered.

  13. Building more realistic reservoir optimization models using data mining - A case study of Shelbyville Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Cai, Ximing

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we promote a novel approach to develop reservoir operation routines by learning from historical hydrologic information and reservoir operations. The proposed framework involves a knowledge discovery step to learn the real drivers of reservoir decision making and to subsequently build a more realistic (enhanced) model formulation using stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). The enhanced SDP model is compared to two classic SDP formulations using Lake Shelbyville, a reservoir on the Kaskaskia River in Illinois, as a case study. From a data mining procedure with monthly data, the past month's inflow ( Qt-1 ), current month's inflow ( Qt), past month's release ( Rt-1 ), and past month's Palmer drought severity index ( PDSIt-1 ) are identified as important state variables in the enhanced SDP model for Shelbyville Reservoir. When compared to a weekly enhanced SDP model of the same case study, a different set of state variables and constraints are extracted. Thus different time scales for the model require different information. We demonstrate that adding additional state variables improves the solution by shifting the Pareto front as expected while using new constraints and the correct objective function can significantly reduce the difference between derived policies and historical practices. The study indicates that the monthly enhanced SDP model resembles historical records more closely and yet provides lower expected average annual costs than either of the two classic formulations (25.4% and 4.5% reductions, respectively). The weekly enhanced SDP model is compared to the monthly enhanced SDP, and it shows that acquiring the correct temporal scale is crucial to model reservoir operation for particular objectives.

  14. Biogeochemical mercury methylation influenced by reservoir eutrophication, Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.E.; Hines, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir (SFCR) in southern Idaho has been under a mercury (Hg) advisory since 2001 as fish in this reservoir contain elevated concentrations of Hg. Concentrations of total Hg (HgT) and methyl-Hg (MeHg) were measured in reservoir water, bottom sediment, and porewater to examine processes of Hg methylation at the sediment/water interface in this reservoir. Rates of Hg methylation and MeHg demethylation were also measured in reservoir bottom sediment using isotopic tracer techniques to further evaluate methylation of Hg in SFCR. The highest concentrations for HgT and MeHg in sediment were generally found at the sediment/water interface, and HgT and MeHg concentrations declined with depth. Porewater extracted from bottom sediment contained highly elevated concentrations of HgT ranging from 11-230??ng/L and MeHg ranging from 0.68-8.5??ng/L. Mercury methylation was active at all sites studied. Methylation rate experiments carried out on sediment from the sediment/water interface show high rates of Hg methylation ranging from 2.3-17%/day, which is significantly higher than those reported in other Hg contaminant studies. Using porewater MeHg concentrations, we calculated an upward diffusive MeHg flux of 197??g/year for the entire reservoir. This sediment derived MeHg is delivered to the overlying SFCR water column, and eventually transferred to biota, such as fish. This study indicates that methylation of Hg is highly influenced by the hypolimnetic and eutrophic conditions in SFCR.

  15. [Research progress on phosphorus budgets and regulations in reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Xu; Zhang, Wang-shou

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is an important limiting factor of water eutrophication. A clear understanding of its budget and regulated method is fundamental for reservoir ecological health. In order to pro- mote systematic research further and improve phosphorus regulation system, the budget balance of reservoir phosphorus and its influencing factors were concluded, as well as conventional regulation and control measures. In general, the main phosphorus sources of reservoirs include upstream input, overland runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater, aquaculture, atmospheric deposition and sediment release. Upstream input is the largest phosphorus source among them. The principal output path of phosphorus is the flood discharge, the emission load of which is mainly influenced by drainage patterns. In addition, biological harvest also can export a fraction of phosphorus. There are some factors affecting the reservoir phosphorus balance, including reservoirs' function, hydrological conditions, physical and chemical properties of water, etc. Therefore, the phosphorus budgets of different reservoirs vary greatly, according to different seasons and regions. In order to reduce the phosphorus loading in reservoirs, some methods are carried out, including constructed wetlands, prefix reservoir, sediment dredging, biomanipulation, etc. Different methods need to be chosen and combined according to different reservoirs' characteristics and water quality management goals. Thus, in the future research, it is reasonable to highlight reservoir ecological characteristics and proceed to a complete and systematic analysis of the inherent complexity of phosphorus budget and its impact factors for the reservoirs' management. Besides, the interaction between phosphorus budget and other nutrients in reservoirs also needs to be conducted. It is fundamental to reduce the reservoirs' phosphorus loading to establish a scientific and improved management system based on those researches.

  16. Mid-continent natural gas reservoirs and plays

    SciTech Connect

    Bebout, D.G. )

    1993-09-01

    Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-continent states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic age, lithology, and depositional environment. The Atlas of Major Midcontinent Gas Reservoirs, published in 1993, provides the documentation for these plays. This atlas was a collaborative effort of the Gas Research Institute; Bureau of Economic Geology. The University of Texas at Austin; Arkansas Geological Commission; Kansas Geological survey; and Oklahoma Geological Survey. Total cumulative production for 530 major reservoirs is 66 tcf associated and nonassociated gas. Oklahoma has the highest production with 39 tcf from 390 major reservoirs, followed by Kansas with 26 tcf from 105 major reservoirs. Most of the mid-continent production is from Pennsylvanian (46%) and Permian (41%) reservoirs; Mississippian reservoirs account for 10% production, and lower Paleozoic reservoirs, 3%. The largest play by far is the Wolfcampian Shallow Shelf Carbonate-Hugoton Embayment play with 25 tcf cumulative production, most of which is from the Hugoton and Panoma fields in Kansas and Guymon-Hugoton gas area in Oklahoma. A total of 53% of the mid-continent gas production is from dolostone and limestone reservoirs; 39% is from sandstone reservoirs. The remaining 8% is from chert conglomerate and granite-wash reservoirs. Geologically based plays established from the distribution of major gas reservoirs provide important support for the extension of productive trends, application of new resource technology to more efficient field development, and further exploration in the mid-continent region.

  17. On integrating LES and laboratory turbulent flow experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, Fernando Franklin

    2008-01-01

    Critical issues involved in large eddy simulation (LES) experiments relate to the treatment of unresolved subgrid scale flow features and required initial and boundary condition supergrid scale modelling. The inherently intrusive nature of both LES and laboratory experiments is noted in this context. Flow characterization issues becomes very challenging ones in validation and computational laboratory studies, where potential sources of discrepancies between predictions and measurements need to be clearly evaluated and controlled. A special focus of the discussion is devoted to turbulent initial condition issues.

  18. Les Hemorragies Gastroduodenales de Stress Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Ihrai, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs rapportent trois observations d'hémorragies gastroduodénales de stress chez le brûlé grave. Ils rappellent l'importance des mesures thérapeutiques qui doivent être prises chez le brûlé grave, comme le traitement du choc, du sepsis, des plaies et de la douleur, la nutrition entérale précoce et l'oxygénothérapie. Tout cela permet de réduire les facteurs de risque de survenue d'une hémorragie gastroduodénale de stress. PMID:21991137

  19. Water-Balance Simulations of Runoff and Reservoir Storage for the Upper Helmand Watershed and Kajakai Reservoir, Central Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2007-01-01

    A study was performed to provide information on monthly historical and hypothetical future runoff for the Upper Helmand watershed and reservoir storage in Kajakai Reservoir that could be used by Afghanistan authorities to make economic and demographic decisions concerning reservoir design and operation, reservoir sedimentation, and development along the Helmand River. Estimated reservoir volume at the current spillway elevation of 1,033.5 meters decreased by about 365 million cubic meters from 1968 to 2006 because of sedimentation. Water-balance simulations indicated a good fit between modeled and recorded monthly runoff at the two gaging stations in the watershed for water years 1956-79 and indicated an excellent fit between modeled and recorded monthly changes in Kajakai Reservoir storage for water years 1956-79. Future simulations, which included low starting reservoir water levels and a spillway raised to an elevation of 1,045 meters, indicated that the reservoir is likely to fill within 2 years. Although Kajakai Reservoir is likely to fill quickly, multiyear deficits may still occur. If future downstream irrigation demand doubles but future precipitation, temperature, and reservoir sedimentation remain similar to historical conditions, the reservoir would have more than a 50-percent chance of being full during April or May of a typical year. Future simulations with a 10-percent reduction in precipitation indicated that supply deficits would occur more than 1 in 4 years, on average, during August, September, or October. The reservoir would be full during April or May fewer than 1 in 2 years, on average, and multiyear supply deficits could occur. Increased sedimentation had little effect on reservoir levels during April through July, but the frequency of deficits increased substantially during September and October.

  20. Gypsy Field Project in Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Castagna; William J. Lamb; Carlos Moreno; Roger Young; Lynn Soreghan

    2000-09-19

    The objective of the Gypsy Project was to properly calculate seismic attributes and integrate these into a reservoir characterization project. Significant progress was made on the project in four areas. (1) Attenuation: In order for seismic inversion for rock properties or calculation of seismic attributes used to estimate rock properties to be performed validly, it is necessary to deal with seismic data that has had true amplitude and frequency content restored to account for earth filtering effects that are generally not included in seismic reservoir characterization methodologies. This requires the accurate measurement of seismic attenuation, something that is rarely achieved in practice. It is hoped that such measurements may also provide additional independent seismic attributes for use in reservoir characterization studies. In 2000, we were concerned with the ground truthing of attenuation measurements in the vicinity of wells. Our approach to the problem is one of extracting as time varying wavelet and relating temporal variations in the wavelet to an attenuation model of the earth. This method has the advantage of correcting for temporal variations in the reflectivity spectrum of the earth which confound the spectral ratio methodology which is the most commonly applied means of measuring attenuation from surface seismic data. Part I of the report describes our efforts in seismic attenuation as applied to the Gypsy data. (2) Optimal Attributes: A bewildering array of seismic attributes is available to the reservoir geoscientist to try to establish correlations to rock properties. Ultimately, the use of such a large number of degrees of freedom in the search for correlations with limited well control leads to common misapplication of statistically insignificant results which yields invalid predictions. Cross-validation against unused wells can be used to recognize such problems, but does not offer a solution to the question of which attributes should be used

  1. Dams, reservoirs, and withdrawals for water supply; historic trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from time to time has published an inventory of major reservoirs and controlled natural lakes. The latest available USGS report indicated that as of 1963, usable capacity in major reservoirs (those having 5 ,000 acre-ft of usable capacity) totaled 359 million acre-ft. The growth rate for total capacity averaged about 80%/decade until the early 1960's. Since then, reservoir capacity has increased at a markedly slower rate, the effects of approaching an asymptotic limit on capacity in some areas, compounded, by increasing public aversion toward reservoir construction. The trend toward non-structural measures places greater dependence on management skill and on better forecasts. At some point, the potentials of conservation and better management will become less effective than reservoirs and there will again be an upward trend in reservoir capacity. (Lantz-PTT)

  2. De Wijk gas field: Reservoir mapping with amplitude anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruijn, B. )

    1993-09-01

    De Wijk field, discovered in 1949, is located in the northeastern part of Netherlands. The main gas accumulation is contained in cretaceous and Triassic sandstone reservoirs trapped in a broad salt-induced structure of around 80 km[sup 2] areal extent. The field contains gas in the tertiary, Chalk, Zechstein 2 Carbonate, and Carboniferous reservoirs as well. De Wijk field is unique in the Netherlands as most gas-producing reservoirs in the Cretaceous/Triassic are of no commercial interest. Post-depositional leaching has positively affected the reservoir properties of the Triassic formations subcropping below the Cretaceous unconformity. Optimum, interpretation of 3-D seismic data acquired in 1989 resulted in spectacular displays highlighting the uniqueness of the field. Most gas-bearing reservoirs are expressed on seismic by amplitude anomalies. Various attribute-measurement techniques show the effect of gas fill, leaching, and sand distribution in the various reservoirs.

  3. Fluvial reservoir architecture in the Malay Basin: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, M.R.; Dharmarajan, K. )

    1994-07-01

    Miocene fluvial sandstones are significant hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs in the Malay Basin. These include high energy, braided stream deposits of group K, associated with late development of extensional half grabens and relatively lower energy, meandering, and anastomosing channel deposits of group I formed during the subsequent basin sag phase. Group K reservoirs are typically massive, commonly tens of meters thick, and cover an extensive part of the Malay Basin. These reservoirs have good porosity and permeability at shallow burial depths. However, reservoir quality deteriorates rapidly with increasing depth. Lateral and vertical reservoir continuity is generally good within a field, commonly forming a single system. Good water drive enhances recovery. Seismic modeling to determine fluid type and the extent of interfluvial shales is possible due to reservoir homogeneity.

  4. Reservoir monitoring of enhanced oil recovery using marine CSEM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, N.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Effective reservoir management requires time-lapse reservoir information throughout the interwell volume. The use of seismic data for monitoring is very challenging because of the small variation of seismic velocities over time, and of the difficulty of survey repeatability. At the same time, significant differences in the resistivities of oil and the water filling the reservoir during production allows for the possibility to monitor the flooding front by electromagnetic (EM) methods. In this paper, we perform a recoverability analysis of reservoir properties using marine controlled-source electromagnetic (MCSEM) methods. We compute the EM fields for models of partially depleted reservoirs representing different positions of the oil-water contact over time. The oil-water contact can be clearly seen in several field components, even with the presence of bathymetry. Our analysis demonstrates that MCSEM data can provide an accurate position of the oil-water contact inside the reservoir over time.

  5. Application of a delumping procedure to compositional reservoir simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stenby, E.H.; Christensen, J.R.; Knudsen, K.; Leibovici, C.

    1996-12-31

    Characterization and lumping are always performed when dealing with reservoir fluids. The number of pseudocomponents in a compositional reservoir simulation is normally between three and eight. In order to optimize the reservoir performance, it is necessary to know a detailed composition of the product stream from the reservoir. This paper deals with the problems of how to come from the lumped system (for which the reservoir simulation was performed) to a description of the full system (which is important in order to optimize the down-stream facilities). The equations of the delumping procedure are shown and the application of the method is illustrated through examples, including a constant volume depletion experiment and the fifth SPE Comparative example with a fluid description from a North Sea reservoir (with the calculated composition after a lumping, an experiment and a delumping).

  6. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Uwins, P.J.R.; Baker, J.C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R. . Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis)

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoir, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programs. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  7. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks.

    PubMed

    Uwins, P J; Baker, J C; Mackinnon, I D

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoirs, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programmes. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  8. Biofouling on Reservoir in Sea Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H.; Eom, C.; Kong, M.; Park, Y.; Chung, K.; Kim, B.

    2011-12-01

    The organisms which take part in marine biofouling are primarily the attached or sessile forms occurring naturally in the shallower water along the coast [1]. This is mainly because only those organisms with the ability to adapt to the new situations created by man can adhere firmly enough to avoid being washed off. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the fouling biofilms developed on various surfaces in contact with the seawater were made. The microbial compositions of the biofilm communities formed on the reservoir polymer surfaces were tested for. The quantities of the diverse microorganisms in the biofilm samples developed on the prohibiting polymer reservoir surface were larger when there was no concern about materials for special selection for fouling. To confirm microbial and formation of biofilm on adsorbents was done CLSM (Multi-photon Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope system) analysis. Microbial identified using 16S rRNA. Experiment results, five species which are Vibrio sp., Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Sulfitobacter, and Alteromonas discovered to reservoir formed biofouling. There are some microorganism cause fouling and there are the others control fouling. The experimental results offered new specific information, concerning the problems in the application of new material as well as surface coating such as anti-fouling coatings. They showed the important role microbial activity in fouling and corrosion of the surfaces in contact with the any seawater. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the national research project titled "The Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Seawater" of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs. References [1] M. Y. Diego, K. Soren, and D. J. Kim. Prog. Org. Coat. 50, (2004) p.75-104.

  9. Diagenetic capping of carbonate reservoir facies

    SciTech Connect

    Lighty, R.G.

    1984-04-01

    The diagenetic model proposed involves the effect of submarine cementation on previously lithified carbonates, such as submerged relict shelf-margin buildups (e.g., drowned reefs, ooid shoals) or previously subaerially exposed formations (e.g., dune ridges) that were submerged by later sea level rise. These deposits generally have pronounced topographic relief (visible on seismic), good reservoir geometries, and high internal porosity of either primary or secondary origin. Petrologic studies on examples of both of these situations, a submerged early Holocene barrier reef off Florida and a 175-km (110-m) long submerged Pleistocene eolian ridge in the Bahamas, show that their exposed surface and uppermost facies (0.1 m, or 0.3 ft, below top) are further infilled and cemented, creating an extensively lithified, low porosity/low permeability zone or diagenetic cap rock. Quantitative mineralogic studies of occluding cements reveal an exponential reduction in porosity while moving upward into the seal zone. Submarine cements effectively infill and form a surficial permeability barrier that acts to impede further diagenesis and porosity reduction within underlying potential reservoir facies. To form this diagenetic seal only requires that the original carbonate buildup be resubmerged for some brief period of time prior to subsequent burial by sediments. If buildup accumulation later resumes without intermediate sediment burial, a common stratigraphic situation, the diagenetic seal would represent a disconformity separating two similar facies. The early formation of a diagenetic cap rock lends support to models of early hydrocarbon migration and emplacement. Prediction and recognition of submarine diagenetic seals will aid in exploration and development of obvious buildup reservoirs as well as subtle intraformational traps.

  10. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  11. Perchlorate reduction by microbes inhabiting oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebensteiner, Martin; Stams, Alfons; Lomans, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Microbial perchlorate and chlorate reduction is a unique type of anaerobic respiration as during reduction of (per)chlorate chlorite is formed, which is then split into chloride and molecular oxygen. In recent years it was demonstrated that (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria may employ oxygenase-dependent pathways for the degradation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. These findings suggested that (per)chlorate may be used as oxygen-releasing compound in anoxic environments that contain hydrocarbons, such as polluted soil sites and oil reservoirs. We started to study perchlorate reduction by microbes possibly inhabiting oil reservoirs. One of the organisms studied was Archaeoglobus fulgidus. This extremely thermophilic archaeon is known as a major contributor to souring in hot oil reservoirs. A. fulgidus turned out to be able to use perchlorate as terminal electron acceptor for growth with lactate (Liebensteiner et al 2013). Genome based physiological experiments indicated that A. fulgidus possesses a novel perchlorate reduction pathway. Perchlorate is first reduced to chlorite, but chlorite is not split into chloride and molecular oxygen as occurs in bacteria. Rather, chlorite reacts chemically with sulfide, forming oxidized sulfur compounds, which are reduced to sulfide in the electron transport chain by the archaeon. The dependence of perchlorate reduction on sulfur compounds could be shown. The implications of our findings as novel strategy for microbiological enhanced oil recovery and for souring mitigation are discussed. Liebensteiner MG, Pinkse MWH, Schaap PJ, Stams AJM and Lomans BP (2013) Archaeal (per)chlorate reduction at high temperature, a matter of abiotic-biotic reactions. Science 340: 85-87

  12. Detailed characteristics of drop-laden mixing layers: LES predictions compared to DNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okong'o, N.; Leboissetier, A.; Bellan, J.

    2004-01-01

    Results have been compared from Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of a temporal mixing layer laden with evaporating drops, to assess the ability of LES to reproduce detailed characteristics of DNS.

  13. Secure information transfer based on computing reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmoski, R. M.; Ferrari, F. A. S.; de S. Pinto, S. E.; Baptista, M. S.; Viana, R. L.

    2013-04-01

    There is a broad area of research to ensure that information is transmitted securely. Within this scope, chaos-based cryptography takes a prominent role due to its nonlinear properties. Using these properties, we propose a secure mechanism for transmitting data that relies on chaotic networks. We use a nonlinear on-off device to cipher the message, and the transfer entropy to retrieve it. We analyze the system capability for sending messages, and we obtain expressions for the operating time. We demonstrate the system efficiency for a wide range of parameters. We find similarities between our method and the reservoir computing.

  14. Cowpox: reservoir hosts and geographic range.

    PubMed Central

    Chantrey, J.; Meyer, H.; Baxby, D.; Begon, M.; Bown, K. J.; Hazel, S. M.; Jones, T.; Montgomery, W. I.; Bennett, M.

    1999-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus are wild rodents, although direct evidence for this is lacking for much of the virus's geographic range. Here, through a combination of serology and PCR, we demonstrate conclusively that the main hosts in Great Britain are bank voles, wood mice and short-tailed field voles. However, we also suggest that wood mice may not be able to maintain infection alone, explaining the absence of cowpox from Ireland where voles are generally not found. Infection in wild rodents varies seasonally, and this variation probably underlies the marked seasonal incidence of infection in accidental hosts such as humans and domestic cats. PMID:10459650

  15. Reservoir-Engineered Entanglement in Optomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Dan; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2013-06-01

    We show how strong steady-state entanglement can be achieved in a three-mode optomechanical system (or other parametrically coupled bosonic system) by effectively laser cooling a delocalized Bogoliubov mode. This approach allows one to surpass the bound on the maximum stationary intracavity entanglement possible with a coherent two-mode squeezing interaction. In particular, we find that optimizing the relative ratio of optomechanical couplings, rather than simply increasing their magnitudes, is essential for achieving strong entanglement. Unlike typical dissipative entanglement schemes, our results cannot be described by treating the effects of the entangling reservoir via a Linblad master equation.

  16. Monitoring gas reservoirs by seismic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Sens-Schoenfelder, Christoph; Priolo, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Ambient seismic noise can be used to image spatial anomalies in the subsurface, without the need of recordings from seismic sources, such as earthquakes or explosions. Furthermore, the temporal variation of ambient seismic noise's can be used to infer temporal changes of the seismic velocities in the investigated medium. Such temporal variations can reflect changes of several physical properties/conditions in the medium. For example, they may be consequence of stress changes, variation of hydrogeological parameters, pore pressure and saturation changes due to fluid injection or extraction. Passive image interferometry allows to continuously monitor small temporal changes of seismic velocities in the subsurface, making it a suitable tool to monitor time-variant systems such as oil and gas reservoirs or volcanic environments. The technique does not require recordings from seismic sources in the classical sense, but is based on the processing of noise records. Moreover, it requires only data from one or two seismic stations, their locations constraining the sampled target area. Here we apply passive image interferometry to monitor a gas storage reservoir in northern Italy. The Collalto field (Northern Italy) is a depleted gas reservoir located at 1500 m depth, now used as a gas storage facility. The reservoir experience a significant temporal variation in the amount of stored gas: the injection phases mainly occur in the summer, while the extraction take place mostly in winter. In order to monitor induced seismicity related to gas storage operations, a seismic network (the Collalto Seismic Network) has been deployed in 2011. The Collalto Seismic Network is composed by 10 broadband stations, deployed within an area of about 20 km x 20 km, and provides high-quality continuous data since January 1st, 2012. In this work we present preliminary results from ambient noise interferometry using a two-months sample of continuous seismic data, i.e. from October 1st, 2012, to the

  17. Transient pressure analysis in composite reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, R.W.K.; Brigham, W.E.

    1982-08-01

    The problem of fluid flow in a radially composite reservoir is discussed. Recently published was the most general analytic solution available thus far. That analytic solution is analyzed, and the results are presented. The solution is dependent upon the following dimensionless parameters (if well-bore storage and skin effect are neglected): (1) dimensionless time based on the discontinuity radius, (2) the dimensionless discontinuity radius, (3) the mobility ratio, and (4) the diffusivity ratio. The range of parameters used in generating the results include dimensionless radius time of 0.01 t

  18. Compositional reservoir simulation in parallel supercomputing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Briens, F.J.L. ); Wu, C.H. ); Gazdag, J.; Wang, H.H. )

    1991-09-01

    A large-scale compositional reservoir simulation ({gt}1,000 cells) is not often run on a conventional mainframe computer owing to excessive turnaround times. This paper presents programming and computational techniques that fully exploit the capabilities of parallel supercomputers for a large-scale compositional simulation. A novel algorithm called sequential staging of tasks (SST) that can take full advantage of parallel-vector processing to speed up the solution of a large linear system is introduced. The effectiveness of SST is illustrated with results from computer experiments conducted on an IBM 3090-600E.

  19. Reservoirs of Non-baumannii Acinetobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years. PMID:26870013

  20. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  1. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    A literature search on reservoir and/or well stimulation techniques suitable for application in geothermal fields is presented. The literature on stimulation techniques in oil and gas field applications was also searched and evaluated as to its relevancy to geothermal operations. The equivalent low-temperature work documented in the open literature is cited, and an attempt is made to evaluate the relevance of this information as far as high-temperature stimulation work is concerned. Clays play an important role in any stimulation work. Therefore, special emphasis has been placed on clay behavior anticipated in geothermal operations. (MHR)

  2. Les reconstructions acétabulaires dans les prothèses totales de hanche

    PubMed Central

    Zejjari, Hassane; Louaste, Jamal; Cherrad, Taoufik; Bousbae, Hicham; Kasmaoui, Housseine; Amhajji, Larbi; Rachid, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La chirurgie de reconstruction acétabulaire est une technique qui consiste à combler les pertes de substance osseuse siégeant au niveau du cotyle. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 15 patients (16 cotyles), sur une période de 6 ans (2006- 2012). Dans douze cas il s'agissait de prothèse totales de la hanche de première intention et dans quatre cas il s'agissait de reprise cotyloïdienne de PTH. L’évaluation clinique préopératoire et postopératoire de tous nos patients a été effectuée par le score de Postel et Merle d'Aubigné. L’évaluation des pertes de substances osseuse du cotyle a été classée selon la classification de Paprosky. L’âge moyen de nos patients au moment de l'intervention a été de 57 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans à 76 ans. La greffe osseuse a été utilisée chez 12 de nos patients. La reconstruction prothétique a été utilisée chez 8 patients (anneau de Kerboul dans six cas et anneau de Burch-Schneider dans deux cas). Recul post opératoire moyen a été de 56 mois. L’évaluation radiologique a été basée sur les clichés radiologiques du bassin de face strict ainsi que des radiographies de la hanche opérée de face prenant la totalité de la prothèse. Nos résultats cliniques et radiologiques ont été jugé bon à très bon dans la majorité des cas. Pour nous, nous optant pour le recentrage-reconstruction car c'est lui qui s'approche le plus de l'anatomie et de la biomécanique normale de la hanche. PMID:26955415

  3. Work producing reservoirs: Stochastic thermodynamics with generalized Gibbs ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2016-08-01

    We develop a consistent stochastic thermodynamics for environments composed of thermodynamic reservoirs in an external conservative force field, that is, environments described by the generalized or Gibbs canonical ensemble. We demonstrate that small systems weakly coupled to such reservoirs exchange both heat and work by verifying a local detailed balance relation for the induced stochastic dynamics. Based on this analysis, we help to rationalize the observation that nonthermal reservoirs can increase the efficiency of thermodynamic heat engines.

  4. Prescriptive Reservoir System Analysis Model - Missouri River System Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    identical to those used with the reservoir simulation model in use by the Corps Missouri River l)ivision (MRI)), applied to the same period. Composite...8217l’o test the reasonableness of’ the rusults, IIE(-PI{M results were compared with those ofthe MRI) reservoir simulation model. This comparison is...34Multi- reservoir simulation and optimization model SIM-V," UM-38, Texas Department of Water Resources, Austin, TX. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  5. Geothermal Reservoir Technology Research Program: Abstracts of selected research projects

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.J.

    1993-03-01

    Research projects are described in the following areas: geothermal exploration, mapping reservoir properties and reservoir monitoring, and well testing, simulation, and predicting reservoir performance. The objectives, technical approach, and project status of each project are presented. The background, research results, and future plans for each project are discussed. The names, addresses, and telephone and telefax numbers are given for the DOE program manager and the principal investigators. (MHR)

  6. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3. THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 1 IS AT THE FAR LEFT. THE BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE IS SEEN AT THE RIGHT. THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD RESERVOIR IS SEEN ON THE HORIZON AT LEFT. JONES STREET IS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  7. VIEW LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE SOUTH END OF SETTLING RESERVOIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE SOUTH END OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 1 (LEFT) AND REMNANT OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 2 (RIGHT). THE NONHISTORIC CHEMICAL BUILDING IS SEEN IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND. THE SOUTH WALL AND SOUTH BERM OF RESERVOIR NO. 2 WERE REMOVED CIRCA 1944. JONES STREET IS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  8. A Method to Recover Useful Geothermal-Reservoir Parameters from Production Characteristic Curves (1) Steam Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, E.; Arellano, V.; Garfias, A.; Miranda, C.; Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez, J.

    1983-12-15

    In this paper we develop and demonstrate a method to estimate the reservoir pressure and a productivity index for vertical steam wells, from its production characteristic (also called output) curves. In addition, the method allows to estimate the radius of influence of the well, provided that a value of the reservoir transmisivity is available. The basic structure of the present method is: first, the measured well head mass flowrates and pressures are transformed to downhole conditions by means of a numerical simulator; then, the computed downhole variables are fitted to a simple radial model that predicts the sandface flowrate in terms of the flowing pressure. For demonstration, the method was applied to several steam wells from the Los Azufres Geothermal field. We found excellent agreement of the model with this ample set of field data. As a bonus, the processed data allowed several inferences about the steam producing zone of the reservoir: that the wells considered produce from relatively isolated pockets of steam, which are probably fed by near-by inmobile water; and that these feed zones are in poor hydraulic communication with the field surface waters. our method are that it provides a way to retrieve important reservoir information from usually available production characteristic curves, and that the method works from easily and accurately taken wellhead measurements.

  9. Phytoplankton and water quality in a Mediterranean drinking-water reservoir (Marathonas Reservoir, Greece).

    PubMed

    Katsiapi, Matina; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Michaloudi, Evangelia; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

    2011-10-01

    Phytoplankton and water quality of Marathonas drinking-water Reservoir were examined for the first time. During the study period (July-September 2007), phytoplankton composition was indicative of eutrophic conditions although phytoplankton biovolume was low (max. 2.7 mm³ l⁻¹). Phytoplankton was dominated by cyanobacteria and diatoms, whereas desmids and dinoflagellates contributed with lower biovolume values. Changing flushing rate in the reservoir (up to 0.7% of reservoir's water volume per day) driven by water withdrawal and occurring in pulses for a period of 15-25 days was associated with phytoplankton dynamics. Under flushing pulses: (1) biovolume was low and (2) both 'good' quality species and the tolerant to flushing 'nuisance' cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa dominated. According to the Water Framework Directive, the metrics of phytoplankton biovolume and cyanobacterial percentage (%) contribution indicated a moderate ecological water quality. In addition, the total biovolume of cyanobacteria as well as the dominance of the known toxin-producing M. aeruginosa in the reservoir's phytoplankton indicated a potential hazard for human health according to the World Health Organization.

  10. Reservoir simulation in a North Sea reservoir experiencing significant compaction drive

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.C.; Jewell, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Valhall field in the Norwegian North Sea is a high porosity chalk reservoir undergoing primary pressure depletion. Over the last ten years there have been a number of computer modeling studies of the field which have all assumed an original oil-in-place of approximately 2,000 MMSTB (318.0{times}10{sup 6}m{sup 3}) to the present due to the addition of wells and the optimization of completion techniques. However, the single most important and unique feature influencing Valhall long term production performance is reservoir rock compaction. This paper describes the mathematical model used to simulate reservoir performance in a compacting reservoir with specific discussion regarding the proportion of oil produced by each physical recovery process. An understanding of the recovery mechanisms and their relative importance is critical for the successful management of the field. This paper also presents an alternative method for evaluating the various recovery processes using a simple solution to the material balance equation. This is used to substantiate the magnitude of the various recovery mechanisms identified in the simulation model.

  11. CE-QUAL-W2 Modeling of Head-of-Reservoir Conditions at Shasta Reservoir, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancey, K. M.; Saito, L.; Svoboda, C.; Bender, M. D.; Hannon, J.

    2014-12-01

    Restoration of Chinook salmon and steelhead is a priority in the Sacramento River Basin since they were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1989 and 1998, respectively. Construction of Shasta Dam and Reservoir obstructed fish migration, resulting in severe population declines. Efforts have been undertaken to restore the fisheries, including evaluation of opportunities for reintroducing Chinook salmon upstream of the dam and providing juvenile fish passage downstream past Shasta Dam. Shasta Reservoir and the Sacramento River and McCloud River tributaries have been modeled with CE-QUAL-W2 (W2) to assess hydrodynamic and temperature conditions with and without surface curtains to be deployed in the tributaries. Expected head-of-reservoir tributary conditions of temperature and water depth are being simulated under dry, median and wet year conditions. Model output is analyzed during months of downstream migration of fish from upstream Sacramento and McCloud River tributaries. W2 will be used to determine presence of favorable conditions for juvenile rearing with proposed surface temperature curtains. Evaluation of favorable conditions for fish includes assessment of water temperature, velocities, and depth. Preliminary results for head-of-reservoir conditions and the influence of temperature curtains modeled with W2 will be presented. Study findings may assist in formulation of juvenile fish passage alternatives for Shasta Lake.

  12. Primary production of the Ust'-Ilim reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhova, O.M.; Pautova, V.N.; Romanenko, T.I.

    1986-03-01

    In this article, the authors compare the available data on the Ust'-Ilim reservoir to obtain a generalized characteristic of the reservoir, which can serve as the background when conducting further investigations including monitoring. A diagram is presented showing sections along the reservoir. The phytoplankton biomass in each region studied is examined. The vertical distribution of algae and chlorophyll a in all regions and in all seasons corresponds to the regularities known for water bodies of such type. Eutrophication of the reservoir can be judged from the maximum values of the chlorophyll a concentration.

  13. Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1995-01-01

    Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

  14. Microbial enhancement of oil production from carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, R.S.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Udegbunam, E.O.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the potential for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) in carbonate reservoirs. Specific objectives include: review of the literature pertinent to MEOR in carbonate reservoirs, a study of the microbial ecology of carbonate reservoirs, isolation of microorganisms and their end-products of metabolism on carbonate pore structure, the recovery of residual oil from carbonates in model core systems, and development of models to examine and predict MEOR processes in carbonate reservoirs. 1 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. When and how to activate large new hydropower reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geressu, Robel; Harou, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Water resources system planners are increasingly required to address multiple long and short-term management objectives and the trade-offs these imply. Expansion planning in hydropower reservoir systems, where assets either temporarily or permanently reduce each other's performance, is a complex and potentially conflictual task requiring attention to multiple impacts. This paper proposes a multi-criteria scheduling approach considering many objectives and their associated uncertainties. The method considers the coordination and flexibility of reservoir operation in different expansion stages. The impact of abstraction (i.e., during filling of new reservoirs) and regulation of inflows by upstream reservoirs, is represented by simultaneously optimizing the storage size of reservoirs. Sensitivity analysis of performance given financial uncertainty and hydrological variability reveals which expansion schedules are robust to a wide range of future conditions. This informs how alternative designs compare in multiple performance dimensions and can serve stakeholders with differing attitudes towards risk and opportunity. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile hydropower reservoirs to find efficient new dam activation schedules considering energy revenues, downstream release requirements, and energy generation during reservoir filling periods. Results take the form of Pareto-optimal trade-offs where each point on the curve or surface represents asset choices, size, activation date, and filling period reservoir operating rules. The results help explore the complex planning and management issues involved in the Blue Nile and demonstrate a possible approach to negotiate the design, filling and coordinated use of hydropower reservoirs.

  16. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  17. Conowingo Reservoir Sedimentation and Chesapeake Bay: State of the Science.

    PubMed

    Cerco, Carl F

    2016-05-01

    The Conowingo Reservoir is situated on the Susquehanna River, immediately upstream of Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States. Sedimentation in the reservoir provides an unintended benefit to the bay by preventing sediments, organic matter, and nutrients from entering the bay. The sediment storage capacity of the reservoir is nearly exhausted, however, and the resulting increase in loading of sediments and associated materials is a potential threat to Chesapeake Bay water quality. In response to this threat, the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed Assessment was conducted. The assessment indicates the reservoir is in a state of "dynamic equilibrium" in which sediment loads from the upstream watershed to the reservoir are balanced by sediments leaving the reservoir. Increased sediment loads are not a threat to bay water quality. Increased loads of associated organic matter and nutrients are, however, detrimental. Bottom-water dissolved oxygen declines of 0.1 to 0.2 g m are projected as a result of organic matter oxidation and enhanced eutrophication. The decline is small relative to normal variations but results in violations of standards enforced in a recently enacted total maximum daily load. Enhanced reductions in nutrient loads from the watershed are recommended to offset the decline in water quality caused by diminished retention in the reservoir. The assessment exposed several knowledge gaps that require additional investigation, including the potential for increased loading at flows below the threshold for reservoir scour and the nature and reactivity of organic matter and nutrients scoured from the reservoir bottom.

  18. Fully coupled analysis of reservoir compaction and subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, M.; Hansteen, H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the differences between fully-coupled and uncoupled formulations of models of production and subsidence. For highly compacting hydrocarbon reservoirs, production can cause compaction of the reservoir and subsidence of the overburden, and in turn, compaction and subsidence can affect the productivity of the reservoir by increasing the reservoir pressure. Intuitively, analyses of production and subsidence should be done in a fully-coupled fashion. However, most, if not all, of the analyses done so far on compacting reservoirs are uncoupled where production and subsidence are calculated in a staggered manner. The results of the numerical analyses using an uncoupled reservoir simulation, and a fully-coupled finite element simulation based on Biot`s formulation of a typical compacting reservoir are presented and compared. Different pore pressure response were obtained depending on whether an uncoupled or a fully-coupled analysis was performed, and also depending on whether there is arching of the overburden or not. The results of fully-coupled analyses of compaction and subsidence showed that the generation of additional pore pressure due to compaction cannot be correctly analyzed by simply adjusting the rock compressibilities in reservoir simulation. The most pronounced effect of coupling, obtained from the numerical simulations, is on the possibility of pore pressure increase close to the reservoir flanks even during production. The implications of the differences in the results of fully-coupled and uncoupled simulations are discussed.

  19. [The Les Morts de la Rue collective, strong social commitment].

    PubMed

    Rocca, Cécile

    2016-02-01

    The problems faced by homeless people are varied and complex. They require numerous qualities on the part of professionals. Living on the streets often means dying on the streets. Professionals are thereby confronted with practical and ethical questions. They have a key role both in listening and providing support. This article shows the example of the Les Morts de la Rue collective.

  20. Application of Wall-modeled LES to Turbulent Separated Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Prahladh S.; Park, George I.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    2016-11-01

    Resolved Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are unaffordable for very high Reynolds number (Re) wall-bounded flows. While the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based methods predict high Re attached flows accurately with little cost, their fidelity is degraded significantly in flows involving separation. A popular compromise between cost and accuracy is to use a Wall-modeled LES (WMLES) approach. In WMLES, the outer portion of the boundary layer is resolved with LES while the inner portion is modeled. In order to assess the performance of the widely used wall-stress models in separated flows, we perform WMLES simulations using an unstructured, compressible finite volume LES solver. The equilibrium and non-equilibrium wall models that require the solution of the simplified/full RANS on a separate near-wall domain are employed. Two configurations are studied: the shock-induced separation in a transonic flow over an axisymmetric bump placed on a cylinder, and a low-Mach flow past a NACA 4412 airfoil at a near-stall condition. Detailed comparisons will be made with available experimental data to comment on the applicability of WMLES in predicting complex turbulent flows involving separation.

  1. STS-47 Pilot Brown dons LES for JSC bailout training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr adjusts his watch during pre-training launch and entry suit (LES) donning in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Brown is preparing for bailout (launch emergency egress) exercises to be conducted in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  2. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SANANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-01-15

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; (7) Mobility control agents.

  3. DNS and LES of a Shear-Free Mixing Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knaepen, B.; Debliquy, O.; Carati, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is twofold. First, given the computational resources available today, it is possible to reach, using DNS, higher Reynolds numbers than in Briggs et al.. In the present study, the microscale Reynolds numbers reached in the low- and high-energy homogeneous regions are, respectively, 32 and 69. The results reported earlier can thus be complemented and their robustness in the presence of increased turbulence studied. The second aim of this work is to perform a detailed and documented LES of the shear-free mixing layer. In that respect, the creation of a DNS database at higher Reynolds number is necessary in order to make meaningful LES assessments. From the point of view of LES, the shear-free mixing-layer is interesting since it allows one to test how traditional LES models perform in the presence of an inhomogeneity without having to deal with difficult numerical issues. Indeed, as argued in Briggs et al., it is possible to use a spectral code to study the shear-free mixing layer and one can thus focus on the accuracy of the modelling while avoiding contamination of the results by commutation errors etc. This paper is organized as follows. First we detail the initialization procedure used in the simulation. Since the flow is not statistically stationary, this initialization procedure has a fairly strong influence on the evolution. Although we will focus here on the shear-free mixing layer, the method proposed in the present work can easily be used for other flows with one inhomogeneous direction. The next section of the article is devoted to the description of the DNS. All the relevant parameters are listed and comparison with the Veeravalli & Warhaft experiment is performed. The section on the LES of the shear-free mixing layer follows. A detailed comparison between the filtered DNS data and the LES predictions is presented. It is shown that simple eddy viscosity models perform very well for the present test case, most probably because the

  4. Stochasticity of convection in Giga-LES data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Chevrotière, Michèle; Khouider, Boualem; Majda, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The poor representation of tropical convection in general circulation models (GCMs) is believed to be responsible for much of the uncertainty in the predictions of weather and climate in the tropics. The stochastic multicloud model (SMCM) was recently developed by Khouider et al. (Commun Math Sci 8(1):187-216, 2010) to represent the missing variability in GCMs due to unresolved features of organized tropical convection. The SMCM is based on three cloud types (congestus, deep and stratiform), and transitions between these cloud types are formalized in terms of probability rules that are functions of the large-scale environment convective state and a set of seven arbitrary cloud timescale parameters. Here, a statistical inference method based on the Bayesian paradigm is applied to estimate these key cloud timescales from the Giga-LES dataset, a 24-h large-eddy simulation (LES) of deep tropical convection (Khairoutdinov et al. in J Adv Model Earth Syst 1(12), 2009) over a domain comparable to a GCM gridbox. A sequential learning strategy is used where the Giga-LES domain is partitioned into a few subdomains, and atmospheric time series obtained on each subdomain are used to train the Bayesian procedure incrementally. Convergence of the marginal posterior densities for all seven parameters is demonstrated for two different grid partitions, and sensitivity tests to other model parameters are also presented. A single column model simulation using the SMCM parameterization with the Giga-LES inferred parameters reproduces many important statistical features of the Giga-LES run, without any further tuning. In particular it exhibits intermittent dynamical behavior in both the stochastic cloud fractions and the large scale dynamics, with periods of dry phases followed by a coherent sequence of congestus, deep, and stratiform convection, varying on timescales of a few hours consistent with the Giga-LES time series. The chaotic variations of the cloud area fractions were

  5. Les Habitats: Culture Capsules in English for Use in Beginning French Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofts, Jan; And Others

    Eight culture capsules describing various aspects of French housing are presented. Each capsule includes a French-American contrast and gives ideas for classroom presentation and student activities. The capsules deal with: le logement, les immeubles, les exterieurs, la minuterie, les portes, la salle de bain, le refrigerateur, and culture grains…

  6. Methodes de calcul des forces aerodynamiques pour les etudes des interactions aeroservoelastiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskri, Djallel Eddine

    L'aeroservoelasticite est un domaine ou interagissent la structure flexible d'un avion, l'aerodynamique et la commande de vol. De son cote, la commande du vol considere l'avion comme une structure rigide et etudie l'influence du systeme de commande sur la dynamique de vol. Dans cette these, nous avons code trois nouvelles methodes d'approximation de forces aerodynamiques: Moindres carres corriges, Etat minimal corrige et Etats combines. Dans les deux premieres methodes, les erreurs d'approximation entre les forces aerodynamiques approximees par les methodes classiques et celles obtenues par les nouvelles methodes ont les memes formes analytiques que celles des forces aerodynamiques calculees par LS ou MS. Quant a la troisieme methode, celle-ci combine les formulations des forces approximees avec les methodes standards LS et MS. Les vitesses et frequences de battement et les temps d'executions calcules par les nouvelles methodes versus ceux calcules par les methodes classiques ont ete analyses.

  7. Formation des etoiles massives dans les galaxies spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelievre, Mario

    Le but de cette thèse est de décrire la formation des étoiles massives dans les galaxies spirales appartenant à divers types morphologiques. L'imagerie Hα profonde combinée à une robuste méthode d'identification des régions HII ont permis de détecter et de mesurer les propriétés (position, taille, luminosité, taux de formation d'étoiles) de plusieurs régions HII situées dans le disque interne (R < R25) de dix galaxies mais aussi à leur périphérie (R ≥ R 25). De façon générale, la répartition des régions HII ne montre aucune évidence de structure morphologique à R < R25 (bras spiraux, anneau, barre) à moins de limiter l'analyse aux régions HII les plus grosses ou les plus lumineuses. La répartition des régions HII, de même que leur taille et leur luminosité, sont toutefois sujettes à de forts effets de sélection qui dépendent de la distance des galaxies et qu'il faut corriger en ramenant l'échantillon à une résolution spatiale commune. Les fonctions de luminosité montrent que les régions HII les plus brillantes ont tendance à se former dans la portion interne du disque. De plus, l'analyse des pentes révèle une forte corrélation linéaire par rapport au type morphologique. Aucun pic n'est observé dans les fonctions de luminosité à log L-37 qui révèlerait la transition entre les régions HII bornées par l'ionisation et par la densité. Une relation cubique est obtenue entre la taille et la luminosité des régions HII, cette relation variant toutefois de façon significative entre le disque interne et la périphérie d'une même galaxie. La densité et la dynamique du gaz et des étoiles pourraient influencer de façon significative la stabilité des nuages moléculaires face à l'effondrement gravitationnel. D'une part, l'étendue du disque de régions HII pour cinq galaxies de l'échantillon coïncide avec celle de l'hydrogène atomique. D'autre part, en analysant la stabilité des disques galactiques, on conclue

  8. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.

    1996-12-31

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  9. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  10. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  11. Reservoir visualization for geosteering of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, I.D.; Baygun, B.; Frass, M.; Casco, R.

    1996-08-01

    Horizontal infill wells in the Lower Lagunillas reservoir of Bloque IV, Lake Maracaibo are being drilled in thin, oil-bearing zones that have been bypassed by gas. Steering the horizontal sections of these wells requires high resolution reservoir models that can be updated during drilling. An example from well VLD-1152 serves to illustrate how these models are generated and used. Resistivity images collected by wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools in the pilot well formed the basis of prejob, high resolution modeling of the formation properties. 3-D seismic data and data from an offset vertical seismic profile collected in the pilot well provided the structural model. During drilling information from cuttings and LWD tools was used to continuously update these models. After the well had been drilled, analysis of LWD resistivity images provided a detailed model of the relationship between the well trajectory and the dip of the formation. This information is used to improve interpretation of the LWD logs to provide a petrophysical evaluation of the well.

  12. Anticipated soil selenium concentrations at Kesterson Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.; Tokunaga, T.K.; Zawislanski, P.

    1992-10-01

    Temporal trends from soil monitoring data collected at Kesterson Reservoir have been reviewed to shed light on anticipated concentrations of total and water-extractable selenium in surface and subsurface soils. Based on these data, a mass balance model for selenium has been developed and employed to evaluate the rate of leaching, remobilization and volatilization that has occurred since the Reservoir was dried out in 1987. Results from a series of calibration runs were then extrapolated 25 years in the future to forecast the evolution and redistribution of selenium within the soil profile. Projected water-extractable selenium concentrations within the 0.15 to 1 m depth interval were then used to drive a food-chain based risk-assessment model described in a separate report (CH2M Hill, 1992). Inventories of water-extractable selenium in the root zone increased in 4 of the 5 scenarios investigated. However, predicted values for the average concentration of water-extractable selenium in the root zone fall within the range of values observed at Kesterson today. Consequences of these projected increases on wildlife residing in and around Kesterson are addressed in CH2M Hill (1992).

  13. Twentieth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-26

    PREFACE The Twentieth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, dedicated to the memory of Professor Hank Ramey, was held at Stanford University on January 24-26, 1995. There were ninety-five registered participants. Participants came from six foreign countries: Japan, Mexico, England, Italy, New Zealand and Iceland. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Thirty-two papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into eleven sessions concerning: field development, modeling, well tesubore, injection, geoscience, geochemistry and field operations. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bob Fournier, Mark Walters, John Counsil, Marcelo Lippmann, Keshav Goyal, Joel Renner and Mike Shook. In addition to the technical sessions, a panel discussion was held on ''What have we learned in 20 years?'' Panel speakers included Patrick Muffler, George Frye, Alfred Truesdell and John Pritchett. The subject was further discussed by Subir Sanyal, who gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager

  14. Reservoir permeability from seismic attribute analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Dmitriy; Goloshubin, G.; Silin, D.; Vingalov, V.; Takkand, G.; Latfullin, M.

    2008-02-15

    In case of porous fluid-saturated medium the Biot's poroelasticity theory predicts a movement of the pore fluid relative to the skeleton on seismic wave propagation through the medium. This phenomenon opens an opportunity for investigation of the flow properties of the hydrocarbon-saturated reservoirs. It is well known that relative fluid movement becomes negligible at seismic frequencies if porous material is homogeneous and well cemented. In this case the theory predicts an underestimated seismic wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Based on Biot's theory, Helle et al. (2003) have numerically demonstrated the substantial effects on both velocity and attenuation by heterogeneous permeability and saturation in the rocks. Besides fluid flow effect, the effects of scattering (Gurevich, et al., 1997) play very important role in case of finely layered porous rocks and heterogeneous fluid saturation. We have used both fluid flow and scattering effects to derive a frequency-dependent seismic attribute which is proportional to fluid mobility and applied it for analysis of reservoir permeability.

  15. Pollination Reservoirs in Lowbush Blueberry (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Venturini, E M; Drummond, F A; Hoshide, A K; Dibble, A C; Stack, L B

    2017-01-09

    Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator-the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter "PRs") may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast bee visitation rates and use of three types of PR. We consider the effects of PRs on wild bee diversity and the composition of bumble bee pollen loads. We contrast field-level crop pollination services between PRs and controls four years postestablishment. Last, we calculate the time to pay for PR investment. Social bees preferentially used clover plantings; solitary bees preferentially used wildflower plantings. On average, bumble bee pollen loads in treatment fields contained 37% PR pollen. PRs significantly increased visitation rates to the crop in year 4, and exerted a marginally significant positive influence on fruit set. The annualized costs of PRs were covered by the fourth year using the measured increase in pollination services. Our findings provide evidence of the positive impact of PRs on crop pollination services.

  16. Rabi multi-sector reservoir simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Bruijnzeels, C.; O`Halloran, C.

    1995-12-31

    To ensure optimum ultimate recovery of the 46 meter thick oil rim of the Rabi Field in Gabon, a full field simulation model was required. Due to it`s size and complexity, with local cusping, coning and geological circumstances dominating individual well behavior, a single full field model would be too large for existing hardware. A method was developed to simulate the full field with 5 separate sector models, whilst allowing the development in one sector model to have an effect on the boundary conditions of another sector. In this manner, the 13 x 4.5 km field could be simulated with a horizontal well spacing down to 175 meter. This paper focuses on the method used to attach single 3-phase tank cells to a sector simulation grid in order to represent non-simulated parts of the field. It also describes the history matching methodology and how to run a multisector model in forecasting mode. This method can be used for any reservoir, where size and complexity require large reservoir simulation models that normally could not be modeled within the constraints of available computer facilities. Detailed studies can be conducted on specific parts of a field, whilst allowing for dynamic flow and pressure effects caused by the rest of the field.

  17. Multigrid methods with applications to reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Shengyou

    1994-05-01

    Multigrid methods are studied for solving elliptic partial differential equations. Focus is on parallel multigrid methods and their use for reservoir simulation. Multicolor Fourier analysis is used to analyze the behavior of standard multigrid methods for problems in one and two dimensions. Relation between multicolor and standard Fourier analysis is established. Multiple coarse grid methods for solving model problems in 1 and 2 dimensions are considered; at each coarse grid level we use more than one coarse grid to improve convergence. For a given Dirichlet problem, a related extended problem is first constructed; a purification procedure can be used to obtain Moore-Penrose solutions of the singular systems encountered. For solving anisotropic equations, semicoarsening and line smoothing techniques are used with multiple coarse grid methods to improve convergence. Two-level convergence factors are estimated using multicolor. In the case where each operator has the same stencil on each grid point on one level, exact multilevel convergence factors can be obtained. For solving partial differential equations with discontinuous coefficients, interpolation and restriction operators should include information about the equation coefficients. Matrix-dependent interpolation and restriction operators based on the Schur complement can be used in nonsymmetric cases. A semicoarsening multigrid solver with these operators is used in UTCOMP, a 3-D, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional reservoir simulator. The numerical experiments are carried out on different computing systems. Results indicate that the multigrid methods are promising.

  18. Landslide study at Sacele reservoir in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Christian; Spataro, Alessio; Martin, James; Olgun, Guney

    2010-05-01

    Sacele reservoir is locate on the river Tàrlung, about 3 Km upstream from Sacele and about 12 Km from Brasov (Romania). It represents the main drinking water source for Brasov. The Sacele reservoir is recognized as a dam of exceptional importance and therefore it requires special surveillance. In the East side of the basin, in proximity of the barrage, the slope shows evidences of instability; for this reason stabilization works, mainly consisting in re-profiling the slope, and drainage installation, has been conducted without success. This study, financed by the World Bank, aims to provide important information for the estabilishment of an authomatic monitoring system able to reduce the existing risk. Conducted studies includes: - analysis of existing informations - data acquisition by mean of field survey (geodetical and gelogical) and in situ investigation (boreholes, geophisical, sample test) - developement of GIS based geological model - developement of landslide models based on FLAC and FLAC3D Finally the model results leading to the identification of the triggering factors are discussed. The conducted work is a comprehensive study (from data to models) that highligth some interesting conclusions showing how the "stabilization" works increased total displacements and shear strain, and produced a new deeper cinematic.

  19. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-29

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  20. Water-quality monitoring of Sweetwater Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Sweetwater Authority is concerned with the quality of water it provides to its customers. Results from the water-quality monitoring study that the USGS is conducting in the Sweetwater watershed show that the contaminant concentrations in bed sediments, water, and air are reflected in increased urbanization. The bed sediments show the most dramatic evidence of this impact with a sharp increase of persistent organic chemical concentrations over the past 65 years. Water quality is also affected by urbanization in the form of chemicals in the runoff water and deposition of airborne chemicals. The concentrations of the detected organic chemicals in Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs are all well below the guidance limits set by State and Federal agencies to protect human health. Many of these compounds are detected only because of the sensitive analytical methods used. This monitoring program provides the Sweetwater Authority with information on what monitored chemicals are present in the reservoirs, and at what concentrations. With this information, the Authority can assess the associated risks, and consider future water treatment and remediation. These results also help focus and support future efforts by Sweetwater Authority to protect the watershed.

  1. Monterey fractured reservoir, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    SciTech Connect

    Belfield, W.C.; Helwig, J.; La Pointe, P.R.; Dahleen, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    The South Elwood field in the Santa Barbara Channel is a faulted anticline with cumulative production of 14.5 million bbl from the Monterey Formation as of September 1, 1982. The distributions of pressure, flow rates, and oil-water contacts and the low average matrix permeability of 0.2 md require a fractured reservoir. Core and outcrop studies show a dominant fracture set characterized by vertical, lithologically controlled fractures oriented across strike, and breccias controlled by lithology and structure. Generally, the fracture intensity is unaffected by structural position or bed curvature but is controlled by lithology and bed thickness. Other varieties of fracturing in the Monterey are related to a protracted history of diagenesis, deformation, and fluid injection. Three types of tar-bearing breccias occur in the Monterey Formation: stratigraphic breccia, coalescent-fracture breccia, and fault-related breccia. Formation of breccias probably involves high pore pressures. Because of their polygenetic origin, breccia masses have diverse orientations paralleling bedding or fracture/fault systems. In conclusions, fracturing and brecciation of the Monterey Formation reflect the interplay between processes of diagenesis, deformation, and fluid dynamics. The most important features of the reservoir in the area of the present study are: (1) vertical fractures oriented normal to the structural trends and inferred to be favorably oriented (to remain open) with respect to the regional minimum horizontal stress; and (2) breccias that are both stratigraphically and structurally controlled and inferred to be related to the interaction of rock stress and fluid dynamics.

  2. Nutrition: a reservoir for integrative science.

    PubMed

    Zeisel, S H; Allen, L H; Coburn, S P; Erdman, J W; Failla, M L; Freake, H C; King, J C; Storch, J

    2001-04-01

    In the last twenty years, powerful new molecular techniques were introduced that made it possible to advance knowledge in human biology using a reductionist approach. Now, the need for scientists to deal with complexity should drive a movement toward an integrationist approach to science. We propose that nutritional science is one of the best reservoirs for this approach. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences can play an important role by developing and delivering a cogent message that convinces the scientific establishment that nutrition fills this valuable niche. The society must develop a comprehensive strategy to develop our image as the reservoir for life sciences integration. Our efforts can start with our national meeting and publications, with the research initiatives for which we advocate, with our graduate training programs and with the public relations image we project for ourselves. Defining the image and future directions of nutrition as the discipline that can integrate scientific knowledge from the cell and molecule to the whole body and beyond to populations can be the most important task that our society undertakes. If we do not effectively meet this challenge, a golden opportunity will pass to others and nutritional scientists will be left to follow them.

  3. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of innovative techniques and concepts, and the emergence of new plays in carbonate rocks are creating a resurgence of oil and gas discoveries worldwide. The maturity of a basin and the application of exploration concepts have a fundamental influence on exploration strategies. Exploration success often occurs in underexplored basins by applying existing established geological concepts. This approach is commonly undertaken when new basins ‘open up’ owing to previous political upheavals. The strategy of using new techniques in a proven mature area is particularly appropriate when dealing with unconventional resources (heavy oil, bitumen, stranded gas), while the application of new play concepts (such as lacustrine carbonates) to new areas (i.e. ultra-deep South Atlantic basins) epitomizes frontier exploration. Many low-matrix-porosity hydrocarbon reservoirs are productive because permeability is controlled by fractures and faults. Understanding basic fracture properties is critical in reducing geological risk and therefore reducing well costs and increasing well recovery. The advent of resource plays in carbonate rocks, and the long-standing recognition of naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs means that new fracture and fault analysis and prediction techniques and concepts are essential.

  4. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    SciTech Connect

    D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

    2003-09-01

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

  5. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    SciTech Connect

    D.O. Hitzman; S.A. Bailey

    2000-01-01

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery.This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery. Research has begun on the program and experimental laboratory work is underway. Polymer-producing cultures have been isolated from produced water samples and initially characterized. Concurrently, a microcosm scale sand-packed column has been designed and developed for testing cultures of interest, including polymer-producing strains. In research that is planned to begin in future work, comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents will be conducted in sand pack and cores with synthetic and natural field waters at concentrations, flooding rates, and with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs.

  6. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.

  7. Protéger les nourrissons contre la coqueluche

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Meghan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Compte tenu du taux à la hausse de la coqueluche chez les enfants, plusieurs familles m’ont demandé quels moyens prendre pour protéger leurs tout-petits de cette infection. Quelles devraient être mes recommandations à ces familles? Réponse La coqueluche est une maladie évitable qui est endémique dans le monde entier. Chez les adultes, la coqueluche cause une maladie bénigne semblable à un rhume, suivie d’une toux persistante. Chez les nourrissons, elle peut causer de l’apnée, des convulsions, une encéphalopathie, une bronchopneumonie et la mort. Les décès dus à la coqueluche se produisent dans 86 % des cas chez des nourrissons de moins de 4 mois. La stratégie du cocooning, c’est-à-dire la vaccination des adultes en étroit contact avec des nourrissons, est recommandée par de nombreuses agences mondiales et nationales, mais elle ne prévient probablement que 20 % des cas de coqueluche chez les nourrissons. La vaccination durant la grossesse est plus efficace, mais elle n’est pas encore approuvée au Canada. Il n’a pas été démontré que la vaccination à la naissance soit uniformément efficace et elle n’est donc pas recommandée à l’heure actuelle.

  8. Seismicity near Bhatsa reservoir, Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, B. K.; Chadha, R. K.; Raju, I. P.

    1986-10-01

    Bhatsa dam has been under construction since 1977 on the west coast of Maharashtra, India and is about 90 km northeast of Bombay. The dam is about 200 km north of Koyna with a similar geological setting. The maximum height of the Bhatsa dam, when completed, will be 88.5 m and have a capacity of 957 × 10 6 m 3. The seismic activity at Bhatsa began in May 1983. Subsequent bursts of seismicity in August and September 1983 closely followed a rapid 18 m rise in water level to a height of 57.5 m with a storage of 356 × 10 6 m 3. The three earthquakes of magnitude ML 4.4, 4.9 and 3.9 on August 17, September 15, 1983 and January 7, 1984, respectively, caused damage in nearby villages. The number of tremors recorded and felt have decreased considerably after the spurt of activity in August/September 1983, and now is at a relatively low level with occasionally felt earthquakes. One microseismic station near the Dam began in July 1983 and a network of eight seismic stations was established by October 1983. More than 400 well recorded earthquakes of magnitude of about - 1.2 and greater have been located with HYPO 71 computer program. More than 13 000 microearthquakes have been recorded of which 342 were felt. Epicentres are mainly confined in a zone of 5 × 7 km area in between Khardi and Bhatsa and cover most of the portions of the reservoir. The epicentres are related to the major NW-SE running faults as well as smaller faults/fractures in the area. Composite fault plane solution indicate normal faulting along north-northwest nodal plane with the western block going down relative to the eastern block in conformity with the local tectonics. The velocity anomalies are noted for felt earthquakes in January, February, May, June and July 1984. Radon measurements also showed some increase during March-April 1984, when the seismicity was comparatively high. The background level of radon in the Bhatsa area is established to be about 40 tracks week -1 mm -2. The b-value is found to

  9. 30 CFR 550.1154 - How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive... Requirements. Classifying Reservoirs § 550.1154 How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive? (a) You must determine whether each reservoir is sensitive. You must classify the reservoir as sensitive if: (1)...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1154 - How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive... Requirements Classifying Reservoirs § 250.1154 How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive? (a) You must determine whether each reservoir is sensitive. You must classify the reservoir as sensitive if: (1)...

  11. 30 CFR 550.1154 - How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive... Requirements. Classifying Reservoirs § 550.1154 How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive? (a) You must determine whether each reservoir is sensitive. You must classify the reservoir as sensitive if: (1)...

  12. 30 CFR 550.1154 - How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive... Requirements. Classifying Reservoirs § 550.1154 How do I determine if my reservoir is sensitive? (a) You must determine whether each reservoir is sensitive. You must classify the reservoir as sensitive if: (1)...

  13. Potosi Reservoir Modeling; History and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO₂) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from two projects: the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois, as well as data from the Illinois – Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (IL-ICCS) project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the Verification Well 1 (VW1) and the Injection Well (CCS1), structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for the Potosi Formation. The intention was for two million tonnes per annum (MTPA) of CO₂ to be injected for 20 years into the Potosi Formation. In 2013, updated reservoir models for the Cambrian Potosi Formation were evaluated. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the CCS1, VW1, and Verification Well 2 (VW2) wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from a larger 3D seismic survey, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. The objective is to simulate the injection of CO₂ at a rate 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 million tonnes per annum [MTPA]) for 30 years 106 million tons (96 MT total) into the Potosi Formation. The Potosi geomodeling efforts have evolved

  14. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Annual report, June 13, 1994--June 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, P.K.

    1996-11-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period have consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities are being identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program will be implemented using the results of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  15. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Bruce; Weaver, Tom

    1987-06-01

    The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May 1983 and is scheduled for completion in 1988. This report contains a summary of the limnological, food habits, fish abundance and fish distribution data collected primarily in 1986. A thorough statistical analysis of the data will be presented in the completion report in 1988. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal game fish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objectives are: (1) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major game fish species; (2) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat use by fish and fish food organisms; (3) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (4) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery areas; (5) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (6) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; and (7) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species.

  16. Reservoir technology - geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford. Fifth annual report, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.

    1985-09-01

    The objective is to carry out research on geothermal reservoir engineering techniques useful to the geothermal industry. A parallel objective is the training of geothermal engineers and scientists. The research is focused toward accelerated development of hydrothermal resources through the evaluation of fluid reserves, and the forecasting of field behavior with time. Injection technology is a research area receiving special attention. The program is divided into reservoir definition research, modeling of heat extraction from fractured reservoirs, application and testing of new and proven reservoir engineering technology, and technology transfer. (ACR)

  17. ‘A reservoir within a reservoir’ – An unusual complication associated with a defunctioned inflatable penile prosthesis reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Abboudi, Hamid; Bolgeri, Marco; Nair, Rajesh; Chetwood, Andrew; Symes, Andrew; Thomas, Philip

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inflatable penile prostheses (IPP) have been a successful method of treating men with erectile dysfunction since the early 1970s. IPP are comprised of two intracorporal cylinders, a scrotal pump and a fluid reservoir. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of a retained reservoir in a sixty eight year old gentlemen presenting with a cystic abdominal mass and bothersome LUTS, 15 years after the removal of the penile components of a three-piece penile prosthesis. Percutaneous drainage of the cyst was performed, with four litres of purulent fluid evacuated. A midline laparotomy was required to remove the reservoir and drain the collection completely. DISCUSSION Inflammatory reaction and subsequent erosion of an IPP reservoir is an infrequent but severe complication of IPP insertion, replacement or infection. Infection remains the primary indication for penile prosthesis removal and in this setting removal of the reservoir is routine. A thorough literature search has identified that in the non-infective setting, the routine removal of the original reservoir is not standard practice during three-component IPP replacement. In patients with a history of IPP presenting with new LUTS, reservoir erosion should be considered in the differential diagnosis and investigation with cystoscopy and computed tomography included early in the investigatory armament of the urologist. CONCLUSION It is our belief that a defunctionalized reservoir serves no purpose; rather it can only cause trouble in the future. Consequently, at our institution we do not leave defunctionalized reservoirs in situ. PMID:25247874

  18. Modelling of Reservoir Operations using Fuzzy Logic and ANNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Coerver, B.; Rutten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Today, almost 40.000 large reservoirs, containing approximately 6.000 km3 of water and inundating an area of almost 400.000 km2, can be found on earth. Since these reservoirs have a storage capacity of almost one-sixth of the global annual river discharge they have a large impact on the timing, volume and peaks of river discharges. Global Hydrological Models (GHM) are thus significantly influenced by these anthropogenic changes in river flows. We developed a parametrically parsimonious method to extract operational rules based on historical reservoir storage and inflow time-series. Managing a reservoir is an imprecise and vague undertaking. Operators always face uncertainties about inflows, evaporation, seepage losses and various water demands to be met. They often base their decisions on experience and on available information, like reservoir storage and the previous periods inflow. We modeled this decision-making process through a combination of fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks in an Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). In a sensitivity analysis, we compared results for reservoirs in Vietnam, Central Asia and the USA. ANFIS can indeed capture reservoirs operations adequately when fed with a historical monthly time-series of inflows and storage. It was shown that using ANFIS, operational rules of existing reservoirs can be derived without much prior knowledge about the reservoirs. Their validity was tested by comparing actual and simulated releases with each other. For the eleven reservoirs modelled, the normalised outflow, <0,1>, was predicted with a MSE of 0.002 to 0.044. The rules can be incorporated into GHMs. After a network for a specific reservoir has been trained, the inflow calculated by the hydrological model can be combined with the release and initial storage to calculate the storage for the next time-step using a mass balance. Subsequently, the release can be predicted one time-step ahead using the inflow and storage.

  19. Environmental flows in the context of small reservoirs in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Kirshen, P.; Vogel, R.; Walker, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modification of rivers by dams reduces the magnitude and frequency of floods, and impacts the entire flow regime. In many cases, these modifications have adversely affected the ecological and hydrological integrity of the watershed as well as impacting food security and livelihood choices of the local community. There is now an increasing consensus that modification to river flows needs to be balanced with maintenance of essential water-dependent ecological services. Many small multi-purpose reservoirs have been built in West Africa, where rainfall is highly variable, and droughts and flash floods are frequent. These small reservoirs are an important source of water for domestic use, livestock watering, small-scale irrigation and other beneficial uses in rural communities. The small reservoirs are hydrologically linked by their associated stream network. The reservoirs alter the hydrology of the streams and the groundwater resources within the region. When an individual reservoir is considered, alteration to the entire watershed is usually not significant. However, when considered as a system, together the small reservoirs store a significant quantity of water and influence downstream flows. The small reservoirs have rarely been considered as a system, thus little consideration has been given to their collective impact on the natural environment and livelihoods of the local population in the long term. Furthermore, the impact is difficult to quantify given the diffuse nature of the small reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive environmental flow assessment is needed to investigate the effect of the small reservoirs as a system on the watershed, and appropriate water policy should be formulated to implement the finding from the assessment. Our project is specifically aimed at addressing this topic. We will present a case study conducted in the Upper East Region of Ghana and will discuss the findings on the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic implications of

  20. Controls on reservoir development in Devonian Chert: Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C.; Hovorka, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    Chert reservoirs of the Lower Devonian Thirtyone Formation contain a significant portion of the hydrocarbon resource in the Permian basin. More than 700 million bbl of oil have been produced from these rocks, and an equivalent amount of mobile oil remains. Effective exploitation of this sizable remaining resource, however, demands a comprehensive appreciation of the complex factors that have contributed to reservoir development. Analysis of Thirtyone Formation chert deposits in Three Bar field and elsewhere in the Permian basin indicates that reservoirs display substantial heterogeneity resulting from depositional, diagenetic, and structural processes. Large-scale reservoir geometries and finer scale, intra-reservoir heterogeneity are primarily attributable to original depositional processes. Despite facies variations, porosity development in these cherts is principally a result of variations in rates and products of early silica diagenesis. Because this diagenesis was in part a function of depositional facies architecture, porosity development follows original depositional patterns. In reservoirs such as Three Bar field, where the Thirtyone Formation has been unroofed by Pennsylvanian deformation, meteoric diagenesis has created additional heterogeneity by causing dissolution of chert and carbonate, especially in areas of higher density fracturing and faulting and along truncated reservoir margins. Structural deformation also has exerted direct controls on heterogeneity that are particularly noteworthy in reservoirs under waterflood. High-density fracture zones create preferred flow paths that result in nonuniform sweep through the reservoir. Faulting locally creates compartments by offsetting reservoir flow units. As such, the processes and models defined here improve understanding of the causes of heterogeneity in all Thirtyone chert reservoirs in the Permian basin and aid recovery of the sizable hydrocarbon resource remaining in these rocks.

  1. Les astronomes européens auscultent les cieux avec le plus grand télescope du monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, F.

    2008-09-01

    À l'heure des projets de télescopes extrêmement grands, l'Europe a déjà une longueur d'avance. Le télescope européen (VLT), en mode interférométrique avec l'instrument AMBER devient le plus grand télescope jamais utilisé dans le domaine optique aussi bien en surface de miroir (plus de 150 m2) qúen finesse de résolution qui atteint celle d'un télescope de 130 m de diamètre. Le journal professionnel Astronomy & Astrophysics a publié en 2007 un numéro spécial qui rapporte les premiers résultats obtenus avec l'instrument AMBER (Astronomical MultiBEam Recombiner) par le très grand télescope européen. Ces articles couvrent pratiquement tous les stades de l'évolution stellaire depuis la formation des étoiles et des planètes jusqu'a l'observation de l'explosion de type nova dans un système stellaire évolué. Ces résultats inédits ont été obtenus en utilisant simultanément 3 des 4 télescopes du VLT basés à l'Observatoire européen austral du mont Paranal au Chili. L'instrument AMBER équipant le VLTI (mode interférométrique du VLT) permet dâatteindre une résolution angulaire inégalée de l'ordre du millième de seconde d'angle autorisant l'observation des astres dans différentes longueurs d'onde, dans l'infrarouge proche. Les astronomes obtiennent donc des observations avec une finesse 13 fois plus importante que celle d'un télescope seul. Il devient alors possible de sonder les régions de formation de planètes, d'observer les vents des étoiles en rotation très rapide, d'étudier les différents types de matières éjectées par une étoile massive, de séparer les deux composantes d'une étoile double serrée et de voir en direct l'évolution d'une nova quelques jours seulement après son explosion.

  2. Les maladies chroniques non transmissibles chez les militaires sénégalais: étude transversale en 2013

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Ndiaye Abdoul; Mohamed, Seck Sidy; Badara, Tall Alioune; Boubacar, Gueye; Gallo, Sow Papa; Awa, Gaye; Anta, Tal-Dia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les maladies chroniques non transmissibles (MCNT) constituent un problème de santé publique. La transition épidémiologique coexiste avec les maladies infectieuses. En Afrique subsaharienne, leur ampleur est peu connue et l'OMS recommande aux pays à faible et moyen revenu de réaliser des enquêtes STEPS portant sur les comportements, des mesures physiques et biochimiques. L'absence de données au niveau national justifie cette étude auprès d'un groupe spécifique. L'objectif de l’étude était de déterminer la prévalence des MCNT et de leurs facteurs de risque chez les militaires Sénégalais. Méthodes Une enquête transversale a été réalisée incluant les militaires âgés de 25 à 60 ans. La participation était volontaire et l'accord des autorités hiérarchiques a préalablement été obtenu. Un sondage stratifié à deux niveaux a été utilisé permettant d'avoir un échantillon ajusté de 1513 individus. Les données ont été saisies avec le logiciel EPI Info 6 et analysées à l'aide de R. Un score de risque a été déterminé sur la base de cinq facteurs. Résultats Les résultats préliminaires concernent 1125 personnes. L’âge moyen était de 39,7 ±9,1 ans et le sex-ratio de 28,6. La prévalence du tabagisme actif était de 17,3% et ne variait pas significativement entre les différentes catégories d’âge. L’âge moyen auquel ils ont commencé à fumer était de 20,8 ±4,05 ans. La consommation médiane de fruits et légumes était de l'ordre de 4 par jour et seulement 5,7% des enquêtés prenaient au moins 5 portions par jour. Environs 72% des enquêtés avaient une activité physique intense ou modérée. Les prévalences de la surcharge pondérale, de l'HTA et du diabète étaient de 30,5%, 28,4% et 3,0% respectivement alors que la maladie rénale chronique était retrouvée chez un seul cas. Le calcul du score de risque cardiovasculaire a montré que 39,1% des militaires étaient à risque élevé (≥3 facteurs

  3. Feasibility study of sedimentary enhanced geothermal systems using reservoir simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae Kyoung

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the preliminary feasibility of commercial geothermal projects, from a sedimentary reservoir with low permeability that requires productivity enhancement, using numerical reservoir simulation. The performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir is investigated in terms of reservoir hydraulics and thermal evolution. To build a reliable benchmark for simulation study, validation of the numerical reservoir model with respect to an analytical model is presented, and the process to achieve an acceptable match between the numerical and analytical solutions is described. The analytical model used in this study is based on the work of Gringarten (1978), which consists of a conceptual geothermal reservoir, considering an injection and production well doublet in a homogeneous porous media. A commercial thermal reservoir simulator (STARS from Computer Modeling Group, CMG) is used in this work for numerical modeling. In order to reproduce the analytical model results, the numerical simulation model is modified to include the same assumptions of the analytical model. Simulation model parameters that make the numerical results deviate from the analytical solution, such as the grid block size, time step and no-flow boundary are identified and investigated. An analytical tracer test model proposed by Shook (2000) is numerically modeled. This model allows us to predict the time when the temperature of the produced water decreases by capturing a tracer component at production well. Reservoir simulation models with different porosity and permeability distribution are tested to see the effects of reservoir inhomogeneity and anisotropy. In particular, premature thermal breakthrough due to the presence of high permeability streak in a reservoir model is simulated. In an effort to apply the knowledge we obtained from the analytical solutions, the effects of reservoir rock and water properties, as a function of pressure and temperature, are

  4. Ninth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

    1983-12-15

    The attendance at the Workshop was similar to last year's with 123 registered participants of which 22 represented 8 foreign countries. A record number of technical papers (about 60) were submitted for presentation at the Workshop. The Program Committee, therefore, decided to have several parallel sessions to accommodate most of the papers. This format proved unpopular and will not be repeated. Many of the participants felt that the Workshop lost some of its unique qualities by having parallel sessions. The Workshop has always been held near the middle of December during examination week at Stanford. This timing was reviewed in an open discussion at the Workshop. The Program Committee subsequently decided to move the Workshop to January. The Tenth Workshop will be held on January 22-24, 1985. The theme of the Workshop this year was ''field developments worldwide''. The Program Committee addressed this theme by encouraging participants to submit field development papers, and by inviting several international authorities to give presentations at the Workshop. Field developments in at least twelve countries were reported: China, El Salvador, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the United States. There were 58 technical presentations at the Workshop, of which 4 were not made available for publication. Several authors submitted papers not presented at the Workshop. However, these are included in the 60 papers of these Proceedings. The introductory address was given by Ron Toms of the U.S. Department of Energy, and the banquet speaker was A1 Cooper of Chevron Resources Company. An important contribution was made to the Workshop by the chairmen of the technical sessions. Other than Stanford Geothermal Program faculty members, they included: Don White (Field Developments), Bill D'Olier (Hydrothermal Systems), Herman Dykstra (Well Testing), Karsten Pruess (Well Testing), John Counsil (Reservoir Chemistry), Malcolm Mossman

  5. Mapping of Photosynthetic Pigments in Spanish Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Martinez, R.; Domínguez-Gómez, J.-A.; de Hoyos, C.; Ruiz-Verdú, A.

    2004-05-01

    We present the preliminary results of the first stage of the project AO-594, which comprises the development and calibration of algorithms for photosynthetic pigment mapping in Spanish reservoirs. In the years 2001-2002, an extensive field campaign was made in 36 reservoirs and lakes in order to obtain a database of Rrs spectra (400-1000 nm), photosynthetic pigments concentration and phytoplankton composition. The sampled water bodies cover a wide range of environmental conditions, trophic levels and phytoplankton communities. As a first approach in algorithm development, we have explored the relationships between ratios of MERIS bands and pigment concentrations through simple linear regression analysis. The bands have been selected based on the spectral properties of each pigment and a peak analysis of the Rrs spectra. For chlorophyll a, we have found a very good linear relationship (R2 =0.919) using the ratio between bands 9 and 7. Similar results are found using band 8 instead of 7. In any case, the model derived for the whole range of concentrations (0-500 mg m3 ) fails for low values (<15 mg m-3 ). Possible solutions include the use of - non-linear models or the use of two different models depending on the ratio values. For cyanobacteria detection, the ratio between bands 9 and 6 (the later centred at 620 nm) shows a good correlation (R2 =0.723) with phycocyanin concentration measured fluorometrically, and better (R2 =0.945) with zeaxanthin measured using HPLC. The correlation of other indicator pigments with MERIS band ratios is less strong, but is still possible to develop algorithms accurate enough for bloom monitoring. We also discuss the problems found with the L2 MERIS reflectance imagery that we have tried to use for model calibration. We present the results of the study carried on six reservoirs in northeastern Spain. In a date coincident with a MERIS image (June 19th, 2003) we have collected pigment concentration and reflectance data measured from a

  6. HIGH METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A MID-LATITUDE AGRICULTURAL RESERVOIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the magnitude of methane (CH4) emissions from reservoirs in agricultural regions, we measured CH4 emission rates from William H. Harsha Lake, located in southwestern Ohio, USA, over a thirteen month period. The reservoir was a strong source of CH4¬ throughout the year,...

  7. Reservoir and injection technology and Heat Extraction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, R.N.; Ramey, H.H. Jr.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Kruger, P.

    1989-12-31

    For the Stanford Geothermal Program in the fiscal year 1989, the task areas include predictive modeling of reservoir behavior and tracer test interpretation and testing. Major emphasis is in reservoir technology, reinjection technology, and heat extraction. Predictive modeling of reservoir behavior consists of a multi-pronged approach to well test analysis under a variety of conditions. The efforts have been directed to designing and analyzing well tests in (1) naturally fractured reservoirs; (2) fractured wells; (3) complex reservoir geometries; and, (4) gas reservoirs including inertial and other effects. The analytical solutions for naturally fractured reservoirs are determined using fracture size distribution. In the study of fractured wells, an elliptical coordinate system is used to obtain semi-analytical solutions to finite conductivity fractures. Effort has also been directed to the modeling and creation of a user friendly computer program for steam/gas reservoirs including wellbore storage, skin and non-Darcy flow effects. This work has a complementary effort on modeling high flow rate wells including inertial effects in the wellbore and fractures. In addition, work on gravity drainage systems is being continued.

  8. VIEW LOOKING NORTH ALONG THE EAST SIDE OF SETTLING RESERVOIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH ALONG THE EAST SIDE OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3. THE BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE IS SEEN AT THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF THE RESERVOIR. THE CONCRETE COLUMNS (LEFT) AND THE CEMENT-ASBESTOS TROUGH (RIGHT) WERE ADDED CIRCA 1944. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  9. Resolution of reservoir scale electrical anisotropy from marine CSEM data

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, V.; Hoversten, G.M.; Key, K.; Chen, J.

    2011-10-01

    A combination of 1D and 3D forward and inverse solutions is used to quantify the sensitivity and resolution of conventional controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data collected using a horizontal electric dipole source to transverse electrical anisotropy located in a deep-water exploration reservoir target. Since strongly anisotropic shale layers have a vertical resistivity that can be comparable to many reservoirs, we examine how CSEM can discriminate confounding shale layers through their characteristically lower horizontal resistivity. Forward modeling demonstrates that the sensitivity to reservoir level anisotropy is very low compared to the sensitivity to isotropic reservoirs, especially when the reservoir is deeper than about 2 km below the seabed. However, for 1D models where the number of inversion parameters can be fixed to be only a few layers, both vertical and horizontal resistivity of the reservoir can be well resolved using a stochastic inversion. We find that the resolution of horizontal resistivity increases as the horizontal resistivity decreases. We show that this effect is explained by the presence of strong horizontal current density in anisotropic layers with low horizontal resistivity. Conversely, when the reservoir has a vertical to horizontal resistivity ratio of about 10 or less, the current density is vertically polarized and hence has little sensitivity to the horizontal resistivity. Resistivity anisotropy estimates from 3D inversion for 3D targets suggest that resolution of reservoir level anisotropy for 3D targets will require good a priori knowledge of the background sediment conductivity and structural boundaries.

  10. GLOBAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM RESERVOIRS: A MATTER OF METHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than a decade ago, St. Louis et al. demonstrated that, collectively, manmade reservoirs play an important role in the global balance of greenhouse gases (GHGs). To update and build upon this important seminal work, we compiled reservoir CO2, CH4, and N2O flux estimates from...

  11. Genomovar assignment of Pseudomonas stutzeri populations inhabiting produced oil reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Banat, Ibrahim M; Chai, Lu-Jun; Huang, Liu-Qin; Yi, Shao-Jin; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Dong, Hai-Liang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Oil reservoirs are specific habitats for the survival and growth of microorganisms in general. Pseudomonas stutzeri which is believed to be an exogenous organism inoculated into oil reservoirs during the process of oil production was detected frequently in samples from oil reservoirs. Very little is known, however, about the distribution and genetic structure of P. stutzeri in the special environment of oil reservoirs. In this study, we collected 59 P. stutzeri 16S rRNA gene sequences that were identified in 42 samples from 25 different oil reservoirs and we isolated 11 cultured strains from two representative oil reservoirs aiming to analyze the diversity and genomovar assignment of the species in oil reservoirs. High diversity of P. stutzeri was observed, which was exemplified in the detection of sequences assigned to four known genomovars 1, 2, 3, 20 and eight unknown genomic groups of P. stutzeri. The frequent detection and predominance of strains belonging to genomovar 1 in most of the oil reservoirs under study indicated an association of genomovars of P. stutzeri with the oil field environments. PMID:24890829

  12. Norphlet reservoir in Mobile Bay: Origins of deep porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, B.E.; Broussard, S.W. )

    1989-09-01

    The authors have applied thin section and SEM petrographic techniques in an attempt to understand better the erratic distribution of highly porous, reservoir quality sands (reservoir zone), and overlying tight, thoroughly cemented sands (tight zone) that together constitute the Norphlet Formation of Mary Ann field. Their conclusions are summarized.

  13. ECHETA DAM RIPRAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ECHETA DAM RIP-RAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT BREACH. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Echeta Dam & Reservoir, 2.9 miles east of Echeta Road at Echeta Railroad Siding at County Road 293, Echeta, Campbell County, WY

  14. 69. VIEW OF FOREBAY AND RESERVOIR, SHOWING FLUME ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. VIEW OF FOREBAY AND RESERVOIR, SHOWING FLUME ENTRANCE TO RESERVOIR ON THE RIGHT OF FOREBAY IN THE BACKGROUND (SHOWN BY THE WHITE X ON THE PHOTOGRAPHS), Print No. 191, December 1903 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  15. 3D scientific visualization of reservoir simulation post-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, M.C.; Miranda-Filho, D.N.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a 3D visualization software designed at PETROBRAS and TecGraf/PUC-RJ in Brazil for the analysis of reservoir engineering post-processing data. It offers an advanced functional environment on graphical workstations with intuitive and ergonomic interface. Applications to real reservoir models show the enriching features of the software.

  16. Multi-Purpose, Multi-Reservoir Simulation on a PC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    The methodology and difficulties in converting a large, general purpose, mainframe, batch oriented computer program (for reservoir simulation ) to...work effectively in the PC environment are described in this paper. A brief overview of the present capabilities of the general purpose reservoir ... simulation program (HEC-5), that works on mainframe and MS DOS compatible computers, is also presented. Keywords: Simulation, Personal computer, Reservior

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Replacement of Water Reservoirs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-25

    Maximum 200 words ) This submittal provides the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Replacement of Water ...Final Environmental Assessment for the Replacement of Water Reservoirs...IMPACT (FONSI) ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF WATER RESERVOIRS TRAVIS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA Introduction This Finding of No

  18. 21. Photographic copy of 1915 linen drawing of reservoir and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photographic copy of 1915 linen drawing of reservoir and hydroelectric power plant. Approximately seven feet by three and one half feet. Delineator unknown, original currently located in the Sangre de Cristo Water Company drawing files. - Two Mile Reservoir, Santa Fe River, intersection of Canyon & Cerro Gordo Roads, Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, NM

  19. 22. Photographic copy of 1889 linen drawing of reservoir. Approximately ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of 1889 linen drawing of reservoir. Approximately two and a half feet by four feet. Delineator unknown, original currently located in the Sangre de Cristo Water Company files. - Two Mile Reservoir, Santa Fe River, intersection of Canyon & Cerro Gordo Roads, Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, NM

  20. SPRR WATER SETTLING RESERVOIR. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE ELEVATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPRR WATER SETTLING RESERVOIR. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE ELEVATED PLATFORM OF A BOOM TRUCK. THE SMALL BRIDGE (CENTER) CROSSES THE YUMA MAIN CANAL AT THE OUTLET OF THE COLORADO RIVER SIPHON. - Southern Pacific Railroad Water Settling Reservoir, Yuma Crossing, south bank of Colorado River at foot of Madison Avenue, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  1. VIEW LOOKING WEST TOWARD RESERVOIR HILL. THE SPRR HOTEL WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST TOWARD RESERVOIR HILL. THE SPRR HOTEL WAS LOCATED IN THE STRIPED AREA AT THE BOTTOM OF THE IMAGE, AND THE TRACK RAN BETWEEN THE HILL AND THE HOTEL. - Southern Pacific Railroad Water Settling Reservoir, Yuma Crossing, south bank of Colorado River at foot of Madison Avenue, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  2. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INTO THE NORTH PORTION OF SETTLING RESERVOIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INTO THE NORTH PORTION OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 2. SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 1 IS SEEN AT THE UPPER RIGHT. THE CONCRETE COLUMNS WERE ADDED IN 1944 TO SUPPORT FLOCCULATING EQUIPMENT. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  3. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS AT THE FAR LEFT. THE CONCRETE COLUMNS WERE ADDED CIRCA 1944 AND SUPPORTED SPRAY EQUIPMENT. SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 2 (MODIFIED TO ACCOMODATE FLOCCULATION EQUIPMENT) IS AT THE FAR RIGHT. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  4. SPRR WATER SETTLING RESERVOIR. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE THREE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPRR WATER SETTLING RESERVOIR. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE THREE ORIGINAL COMPARTMENTS ARE AT THE RIGHT. THE RAILROAD TRACK RAN ALONG THE BASE OF THE HILL ON MADISON AVENUE. THE FOURTH AVENUE BRIDGE IS SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. - Southern Pacific Railroad Water Settling Reservoir, Yuma Crossing, south bank of Colorado River at foot of Madison Avenue, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  5. Interpreting isotopic analyses of microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Li, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Coates, J. D.; Conrad, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs is often associated with secondary production of oil where seawater (28 mM sulfate) is commonly injected to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. The hydrogen sulfide produced can cause a suite of operating problems including corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks and additional processing costs. We propose that monitoring of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate can be used as early indicators that microbial sulfate reduction is occurring, as this process is well known to cause substantial isotopic fractionation. This approach relies on the idea that reactions with reservoir (iron) minerals can remove dissolved sulfide, thereby delaying the transport of the sulfide through the reservoir relative to the sulfate in the injected water. Changes in the sulfate isotopes due to microbial sulfate reduction may therefore be measurable in the produced water before sulfide is detected. However, turning this approach into a predictive tool requires (i) an understanding of appropriate fractionation factors for oil reservoirs, (ii) incorporation of isotopic data into reservoir flow and reactive transport models. We present here the results of preliminary batch experiments aimed at determining fractionation factors using relevant electron donors (e.g. crude oil and volatile fatty acids), reservoir microbial communities and reservoir environmental conditions (pressure, temperature). We further explore modeling options for integrating isotope data and discuss whether single fractionation factors are appropriate to model complex environments with dynamic hydrology, geochemistry, temperature and microbiology gradients.

  6. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Raquel; Kosten, Sarian; Sobek, Sebastian; Jaqueline Cardoso, Simone; Figueiredo-Barros, Marcos Paulo; Henrique Duque Estrada, Carlos; Roland, Fábio

    2016-06-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e., the ratio between buried and deposited OC) in reservoirs are limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large subtropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9-17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a spatially resolved mean OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first assessment of OCBE with such a high spatial resolution in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  7. Cooperative Learning in Reservoir Simulation Classes: Overcoming Disparate Entry Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Mariyamni

    2006-01-01

    Reservoir simulation is one of the core courses in the petroleum engineering curriculum and it requires knowledge and skills in three major disciplines, namely programming, numerical methods and reservoir engineering. However, there were often gaps in the students' readiness to undertake the course, even after completing the necessary…

  8. Effect of trans-reservoir water supply on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition in hydrologically connected reservoirs in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huajun; Peng, Liang; Gu, Binhe; Han, Bo-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Dajingshan, Fenghuangshan and Meixi reservoirs are located in Zhuhai, a coastal city in southern China, and they function to supply drinking water to Zhuhai and Macau. For effectively supplying waster, they are hydrologically connected and Dajingshan Reservoir first receives the water pumped from the river at Guangchang Pumping Station, and then feeds Fenghuangshan Reservoir, and the two well-connected reservoirs are mesotrophic. Meixi Reservoir is a small and oligotrophic water body and feeds Dajingshan Reservoir only in wet seasons when overflow occurs. Particulate organic matter (POM) was collected from three hydrologically connected water supply reservoirs, and seasonal variations of POM were ascertained from stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in wet and dry seasons, and the effects of pumping water and reservoir connectivity on POM variations and composition were demonstrated by the relationships of the stable isotope ratios of POM. Seasonality and similarity of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of POM varied with hydrodynamics, connectivity and trophic states of the four studied water bodies. The two well-connected reservoirs displayed more similar seasonality for δ13CPOM than those between the river station and the two reservoirs. However, the opposite seasonality appeared for δ15NPOM between the above waters and indicates different processes affecting the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of POM. δ13CPOM and δ15NPOM changed little between wet and dry seasons in Meixi Reservoir-a low productive and rain-driven system, suggesting little POM response to environmental changes in that water system. As expected, connectivity enhanced the similarity of the stable isotope ratios of POM between the water bodies.

  9. Adsorption de gaz sur les materiaux microporeux modelisation, thermodynamique et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Marc-Andre

    2009-12-01

    'energie interne, nous avons evalue l'entropie, l'energie differentielle d'adsorption et la chaleur isosterique d'adsorption. Nous avons etudie la performance d'un systeme de stockage d'hydrogene par adsorption pour les vehicules. La capacite de stockage d'hydrogene et les performances thermiques d'un reservoir de 150 L contenant du charbon actif Maxsorb MSC-30(TM) (surface specifique ˜ 3000 m2/g) ont ete etudiees sur une plage de temperatures de 60 a 298 K et a des pressions allant jusqu'a 35 MPa. Le systeme a ete considere de facon globale, sans nous attarder a un design particulier. Il est possible de stocker 5 kg d'hydrogene a des pressions de 7.8, 15.2 et 29 MPa pour des temperatures respectivement de 80, 114 et 172 K, lorsqu'on recupere l'hydrogene residuel a 2.5 bars en le chauffant. La simulation des phenomenes thermiques nous a permis d'analyser le refroidissement necessaire lors du remplissage, le chauffage lors de la decharge et le temps de dormance. Nous avons developpe un cycle de liquefaction de l'hydrogene base sur l'adsorption avec compression mecanique (ACM) et avons evalue sa faisabilite. L'objectif etait d'augmenter sensiblement l'efficacite des systemes de liquefaction de l'hydrogene a petite echelle (moins d'une tonne/jour) et ce, sans en augmenter le cout en capital. Nous avons adapte le cycle de refrigeration par ACM afin qu'il puisse par la suite etre ajoute a un cycle de liquefaction de l'hydrogene. Nous avons ensuite simule des cycles idealises de refrigeration par ACM. Meme dans ces conditions ideales, la refrigeration specifique est faible. De plus, l'efficacite theorique maximale de ces cycles de refrigeration est d'environ 20 a 30% de l'ideal. Nous avons realise experimentalement un cycle de refrigeration par ACM avec le couple azote/charbon actif. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. Bathymetry and capacity of Shawnee Reservoir, Oklahoma, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Smith, Kevin A.

    2017-02-13

    Shawnee Reservoir (locally known as Shawnee Twin Lakes) is a man-made reservoir on South Deer Creek with a drainage area of 32.7 square miles in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma. The reservoir consists of two lakes connected by an equilibrium channel. The southern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 1) was impounded in 1935, and the northern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 2) was impounded in 1960. Shawnee Reservoir serves as a municipal water supply, and water is transferred about 9 miles by gravity to a water treatment plant in Shawnee, Oklahoma. Secondary uses of the reservoir are for recreation, fish and wildlife habitat, and flood control. Shawnee Reservoir has a normal-pool elevation of 1,069.0 feet (ft) above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The auxiliary spillway, which defines the flood-pool elevation, is at an elevation of 1,075.0 ft.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Shawnee, has operated a real-time stage (water-surface elevation) gage (USGS station 07241600) at Shawnee Reservoir since 2006. For the period of record ending in 2016, this gage recorded a maximum stage of 1,078.1 ft on May 24, 2015, and a minimum stage of 1,059.1 ft on April 10–11, 2007. This gage did not report reservoir storage prior to this report (2016) because a sufficiently detailed and thoroughly documented bathymetric (reservoir-bottom elevation) survey and corresponding stage-storage relation had not been published. A 2011 bathymetric survey with contours delineated at 5-foot intervals was published in Oklahoma Water Resources Board (2016), but that publication did not include a stage-storage relation table. The USGS, in cooperation with the City of Shawnee, performed a bathymetric survey of Shawnee Reservoir in 2016 and released the bathymetric-survey data in 2017. The purposes of the bathymetric survey were to (1) develop a detailed bathymetric map of the reservoir and (2) determine the relations between stage and reservoir storage

  11. Bathymetry and capacity of Shawnee Reservoir, Oklahoma, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Ashworth, Chad; Smith, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Shawnee, performed a detailed bathymetric survey of Shawnee Reservoir in 2016. Shawnee Reservoir (locally known as Shawnee Twin Lakes) is a man-made reservoir on South Deer Creek in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma. The reservoir consists of two lakes connected by an equilibrium channel. The southern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 1) was impounded in 1935 and the northern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 2) was impounded in 1960. Shawnee Reservoir has a normal pool elevation of 1,069.0 feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The auxiliary spillway, which defines the flood pool, is at an elevation of 1,075.0 feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988.

  12. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  13. Heat Extraction Project, geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the SGP Heat Extraction Project is to provide a means for estimating the thermal behavior of geothermal fluids produced from fractured hydrothermal resources. The methods are based on estimated thermal properties of the reservoir components, reservoir management planning of production and reinjection, and the mixing of reservoir fluids: geothermal, resource fluid cooled by drawdown and infiltrating groundwater, and reinjected recharge heated by sweep flow through the reservoir formation. Several reports and publications, listed in Appendix A, describe the development of the analytical methods which were part of five Engineer and PhD dissertations, and the results from many applications of the methods to achieve the project objectives. The Heat Extraction Project is to evaluate the thermal properties of fractured geothermal resource and forecasted effects of reinjection recharge into operating reservoirs.

  14. Quantitatively evaluating the CBM reservoir using logging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhidi; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2016-02-01

    In order to evaluate coal bed methane (CBM) reservoirs, this paper select five parameters: porosity, permeability, CBM content, the coal structure index and effective thickness of the coal seam. Making full use of logging and the laboratory analysis data of a coal core, the logging evaluation methods of the five parameters were discussed in detail, and the comprehensive evaluation model of the CBM reservoir was established. The #5 coal seam of the Hancheng mine on the eastern edge of the Ordos Basin in China was quantitatively evaluated using this method. The results show that the CBM reservoir in the study area is better than in the central and northern regions. The actual development of CBM shows that the region with a good reservoir has high gas production—indicating that the method introduced in this paper can evaluate the CBM reservoir more effectively.

  15. Suitable Conditions of Reservoir Simulation for Searching Rule Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangrang, Anongrit; Chaleeraktrakoon, Chavalit

    The objective of this study is to carry out a suitable length of inflow record using in the simulation model. The second objective is to find an effect of initial reservoir capacity of reservoir simulation for searching the optimal rule curves. The reservoir simulation model was connected with genetic algorithms to search the optimal rule curves quickly. The model has been applied to determine the optimal rule curves of the Bhumibol and Sirikit Reservoirs (the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand). The optimal rule curves of each condition were used to assess by a Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the shortest period of dry inflow record using in the simulation model in order to search the optimal rule curves is 10 year. Furthermore, the minimum initial capacity of reservoir for searching optimal rule curves is 10% of full capacity.

  16. Chickamauga Reservoir 1992 fisheries monitoring cove rotenone results

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, B.L.

    1993-06-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) to conduct and report annually a nonradiological operational monitoring program to evaluate potential effects of SQN on Chickamauga Reservoir. This monitoring program was initially designed to identify potential changes in water quality and biological communities in Chickamauga Reservoir resulting from operation of SQU. Chickamauga Reservoir cove rotenone sampling has also been conducted as part of the preoperational monitoring program for Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) to evaluate the combined effects of operating two nuclear facilities on one reservoir once WBU becomes operational. The purpose of this report is to present results of cove rotenone sampling conducted on Chickamauga Reservoir in 1992.

  17. Transient well testing in two-phase geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Aydelotte, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    A study of well test analysis techniques in two-phase geothermal reservoirs has been conducted using a three-dimensional, two-phase, wellbore and reservoir simulation model. Well tests from Cerro Prieto and the Hawaiian Geothermal project have been history matched. Using these well tests as a base, the influence of reservoir permeability, porosity, thickness, and heat capacity, along with flow rate and fracturing were studied. Single and two-phase transient well test equations were used to analyze these tests with poor results due to rapidly changing fluid properties and inability to calculate the flowing steam saturation in the reservoir. The injection of cold water into the reservoir does give good data from which formation properties can be calculated.

  18. Inflow forecasting using Artificial Neural Networks for reservoir operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiamsathit, Chuthamat; Adeloye, Adebayo J.; Bankaru-Swamy, Soundharajan

    2016-05-01

    In this study, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural networks have been applied to forecast one-month-ahead inflow for the Ubonratana reservoir, Thailand. To assess how well the forecast inflows have performed in the operation of the reservoir, simulations were carried out guided by the systems rule curves. As basis of comparison, four inflow situations were considered: (1) inflow known and assumed to be the historic (Type A); (2) inflow known and assumed to be the forecast (Type F); (3) inflow known and assumed to be the historic mean for month (Type M); and (4) inflow is unknown with release decision only conditioned on the starting reservoir storage (Type N). Reservoir performance was summarised in terms of reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability. It was found that Type F inflow situation produced the best performance while Type N was the worst performing. This clearly demonstrates the importance of good inflow information for effective reservoir operation.

  19. Reservoir-Based Drug Delivery Systems Utilizing Microtechnology

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Cynthia L.; Santini, John T.; Langer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This review covers reservoir-based drug delivery systems that incorporate microtechnology, with an emphasis on oral, dermal, and implantable systems. Key features of each technology are highlighted such as working principles, fabrication methods, dimensional constraints, and performance criteria. Reservoir-based systems include a subset of microfabricated drug delivery systems and provide unique advantages. Reservoirs, whether external to the body or implanted, provide a well-controlled environment for a drug formulation, allowing increased drug stability and prolonged delivery times. Reservoir systems have the flexibility to accommodate various delivery schemes, including zero order, pulsatile, and on demand dosing, as opposed to a standard sustained release profile. Furthermore, the development of reservoir-based systems for targeted delivery for difficult to treat applications (e.g., ocular) has resulted in potential platforms for patient therapy. PMID:22465783

  20. HIV reservoirs: what, where and how to target them.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Melissa J; Deeks, Steven G; Margolis, David M; Siliciano, Robert F; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    One of the main challenges in the fight against HIV infection is to develop strategies that are able to eliminate the persistent viral reservoir that harbours integrated, replication-competent provirus within host cellular DNA. This reservoir is resistant to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to clearance by the immune system of the host; viruses originating from this reservoir lead to rebound viraemia once treatment is stopped, giving rise to new rounds of infection. Several studies have focused on elucidating the cells and tissues that harbour persistent virus, the true size of the reservoir and how best to target it, but these topics are the subject of ongoing debate. In this Viewpoint article, several experts in the field discuss the constitution of the viral reservoir, how best to measure it and the best ways to target this source of persistent infection.